Page 1


Contents

A. Acknowledgements

vii

B. Abstract

xi

C.

ii

List of Abbreviation & Acronym

xiii

1. Introduction 1.1 Thesis Project Background 1.2 Research Question 1.3 Theoretical Framework 1.4 Methodology 1.5 Research Strategies 1.6 Stakeholder

1 3 4 6 8 10 12

2.

16 20 24 26

Thematic Development 2.1 Elements of The Project 2.2 Project Objectives 2.3 Literature Studies 2.4 Precedents

MA in Urban Design 2013/2014 | Design Thesis Project


3.

Site Analysis 3.1 Context | Surabaya, Indonesia 3.2 Kampung Peneleh 3.3 Existing Fabric Analysis 3.4 Existing Activities Analysis | Photographic Analysis 3.5 Site Characteristic 3.6 Issues and Challanges

4.

Design Proposition 4.1 Design Strategies Development 4.2 Design Implementation 4.3 Approaches

78 80 90 121

5.

Post-Thesis Project (Future work plan)

124

6.

Conclusion & Reflection

126

36 38 40 46 48 56 64

7. Bibliography

128

8. Appendecies

130

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Gratitude can transform common days into thanksgivings, turn routine jobs into joy, and change ordinary opportunities into blessings. – William Arthur Ward –

Ward, William A. Fountains of Faith: The Words of William Arthur Ward. Atlanta: Droke House, 1970. Print.


A

Acknowledgements

Foremost, I want to express by biggest gratefulness to Jesus Christ, Who has blessed and guided me in a very unexpected way from the start of this course until accomplishing my thesis project, as a partial fullfilment of the requirements for the master degree of urban design at Sheffield School of Architecture (SSoA), University of Sheffield, UK. I also want to express my deeepest gratitude to my parents, siblings, fiancée, and other family member for their love, prayer, support, and encouragement from the preparation of my postgraduate study to the end of my study in UK, it has been a great and unforgettable experience. I want to thank my thesis supervisor, Dr. Florian Kossak, who has guided me until I finished my thesis and shared his knowledge in a very humble attitude, Without his guidance and persistence help, my thesis project wouldn’t progressing in a right direction. I thank Prue Chiles, MA in urban design course leader, who has been supportive and encouraging towards students and their work. I thank all the lecturer, tutor, and staff from Department of Architecture for their help and support. I also thank my fellow urban design students and Studio Support System for their friendship and encouragement, especially for Mhd Aghiad Baranbo, Ninad Katdare, and Sun Ziwen (Simon). Last but not least, I want to thank Ms. Rully Damayanti and family for their help and advice. and thank Max William, who help me gather data in Surabaya since I’m working remotely from UK.

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In the desire to be collaborative, don’t forget leadership. Don’t be embarrassed to lead. There are too many efforts where it’s all about ‘getting everyone to the table.’ Everyone goes away feeling good, but no one’s doing anything. – Frank H. Beal –

http://quotes.fourthenvironment.com/sources/32


Main street Peneleh activities on the morning. Photograph by ground agent.

B

Keywords: Urban kampung, outdoor space, social activities, flexibility, temporary spaces, neighbourhood, community.

Abstract

Urban is a general word to describe a city and every elements in it, one of the most sensitive element is called ‘kampung’ or village. In Indonesia, most of the city were formed because of the expansion or development of an existing kampung. There are two types of kampung, it can be distinguished from the location. Kampung in suburban or countryside and the other one which located in the city. In this design based thesis project, we will look into kampung located in urban area specifically in Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia. Many people interpreted kampung as a slum area, kampung is unequal with slum area, even though kampung have a similar issues, such as lacking of basic service, infrastructure and health problem. Nowadays, in Surabaya there have been a real evidence of development from government in kampung improvement project. This thesis project will study about the outdoor space in specific kampung, intervention to make social space for everyone from any generation with any different circumstances (time, purpose of space, climate, uses, user, etc.). The concept will be describe as a flexible social space. The method which will be applied in this design based thesis is a qualitative descriptive study on the literature and data collection by working remotely from Sheffield, UK. The aim of this thesis is to generate the uses of outdoor space for social interaction and activities by working collaboratively with local residents, and other stakeholders, to understand their needs and proposing new ideas for quality of space.

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C List of Abbreviations and Acronyms

KIP

Kampung Improvement Program

KIP is one of the approach to develop the built environment of kampung

(Urban village) from the infrastructure to the housing structure.

Gg. Gang

Alleyway, usually it is only for pedestrian or two wheelers vehicle, the wide

is various from 2.00 m - 4.00 m.

OHS

Orange House Studio

Urban research studio in Surabaya, Indonesia.

RT

Rukun Tetangga (Community)

The term which is use by Indonesian to divided a neighbourhood into

smaller group of household which can be called community, RT is

coordinate by appointed leader or community leader (Ketua RT).

RW

Rukun Warga (Neighbourhood)

It is a a bigger group community which consist of numbers of RT

(Community) and it formed a neighbourhood. It is also coordinate by

appointed leader or neighbourhood leader (Ketua RW).

SSoA

Sheffield School of Architecture

Department of Architecture

University of Sheffield, UK

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1

1

Dhakal, Dr.Shobhakar, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (2002). Comprehensive Kampung Improvement Program in Surabaya as a Model of Community Participation. 2 Mayor of Surabaya, Ir. Tri Rismaharini, M.T., Source: http://www.citymayors.com/mayors/ surabayamayor-tri-rismaharini.html

Introduction

In many area in Indonesia there has been a lot of effort and movement to develop condition of kampung. The effort to improve the quality of life and the environment in this urban settlements are often hampered by financial resources issue, land ownership legality, ineffective and outdated planning, top-down policy, and political agenda (Dhakal, 2002)1. It has been initiated in Indonesia specially in Jakarta and Surabaya since 1968. On the contrary, in Surabaya there have been a significant development in KIP (Kampung Improvement Program) for the last 4 years, It is one of the main agenda from the recent mayor of Surabaya Ir. Tri Rismaharini, M.T.2 Surabaya has successfully tackled KIP with a significant action both from government and people, the biggest challenge is to maintain and create a sustainable development. Creative participative activities that managed by communities is one of the key strategies to keep KIP sustain despite the low budget in Surabaya (Dhakal, 2002)1. There are so few discussion and research about the outdoor space in the kampung, how it worked, used, and treated. This thesis will identify the social value of the outdoor space in specific kampung with aim to stimulate the use of outdoor space and to make people understand the importance to build a collaborative working mentality in the neighbourhood.

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TH ES I S PROJECT B ACKG RO U N D


1.1 “Neighborhoods built up all at once change little physically over the years as a rule...[Residents] regret that the neighborhood has changed. Yet the fact is, physically it has changed remarkably little. People’s feelings about it, rather, have changed. The neighborhood shows a strange inability to update itself, enliven itself, repair itself, or to be sought after, out of choice, by a new generation. It is dead. Actually it was dead from birth, but nobody noticed this much until the corpse began to smell.” – Jane Jacobs –

The Death and Life of Great American Cities3 3

Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Modern Library, 1961. Print.

In indonesia, kampung always stigmatised as a slum area and give a negative influence to city. This matters is really concerning, clearly kampung is not a negative environment, instead it can give you a certain feeling or experience which new neighbourhood development could not give. There is so much uniqueness and richness in kampung. You can still see and hear kids playing on the alleyway or any open spaces near the neighbourhood, housewives gather outside on their porch to talk with neighbour or even gossiping around, pedicab drivers talked with barber while both of them are waiting for customer. The ‘life’ of one neighbourhood is not only define by the activities inside their houses or buildings, however, it is also about outdoor activities or social interaction between the buildings. Building a resilient community is one of the important factor to counteract the massive development which mostly happened in developing country. However, to build it, first important thing is to understand how the community work and develop a collaborative community. If there isn’t any network or connection between the people, the neighbourhood can easily be obstructed by either internal or external force such as eviction, land dispute, cultural degradation, and lost of identity. This project is one of those many approaches that can be done or might has been done by others in other places in order to showcase the importance of kampung as one of the most crucial city fabrics. It will focus more into the outdoor spaces quality to bring more vibrant social life condition and accommodate social activities in the neighbourhood. This approach will strengthen community network and steadily build a resilient community.

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“What kind of social space intervention (insertion) which can be develop in order to generate more community and social activities into kampung fabric with a correct manner towards the existing fabric ?�

?


1.2

RESEARCH QUESTION

From this research question many sub-aspect questions arise to support the research and it will be useful to develop the proposition and strategies to answer the questions. The research question also has been developed into more detail and specific focus from several questions such as: •

What kind of approach you take to support the design to facilitate the activity?

Where do you put yourself in this project? What is your position?

How do you describe the scale of your project?

What design or urban theory that relevant and support your research?

What is the key strategies you will propose to support your project?

What are the best and relevant precedents to support and help your study or research for your project?

Who will be involve in this project both remotely and on-site future work?

What is the main issues or challenges for this project?

Which kampung has you chosen as your specific site for this project? Why you pick those particular site?

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1.3 Theoritical framework or research framework for this project which is shows in

Theoretical Framework

the diagram, it has been specified for this thesis project. The diagram describes the information or data connection from one to another specific research, such as existing activities are define after doing research about existing elements in the neighbourhood. By creating this framework, it is easier to understand about the project outline because it is clearly define before going more detail into the project. Each colour in the diagram represents the connection line between the research which will be conducted, it is defining the relationship between one scope of research with the other.

BL UE

Main Elements

Existing Elements + Social Space

The blue colour shows relation between kampung main element, social space and existing element, the research is effected by understanding existing social spaces and elements within it.

G r een

Temporary space

Precedents, Literature Studies, S.W.O.T. Analysis, Social Spaces, Existing Elements, Existing Activities.

Green colour indicates about ‘temporary spaces’, there are several precedents (See section 2.4.) and literature studies (See section 2.3), it will be explain in more detail in the next section. Temporary space need to be analyse both the precedents and initial proposition with social life, existing element and activities in the neighbourhood as parameters.

Orange

ExistinG Elements

Neighbourhood Characteristic, Social Space, Existing Activities

Analysing existing elements help to understand characteristic of the neighbourhood and how the social space works. It also define what kind of activities occur from the existing elements.

Red

Neighbourhood Characteristic

Urban Form Analysis, Key Activities, Precedents, Existing Activities, Existing Elements, Historical Urban Development Data

To support the effort to define characteristic of the neighbourhood (See section 3.5) analysing urban form and historical urban development data are very useful. Besides those, studying other kampung as precedents (Kampung Lemah Putro & Tambak Bayan, see section 3.6.) will help to gain more insight about what happened in kampung and understand the issues and challenges. The characteristic also can be shown from existing activities and elements which maybe had been preserved from generation to generation in the neighbourhood.

Black

Existing Activities

Key activities, Exisiting Elements, Social Space

Black colour shows to understand the activities has to be reinforced by the knowledge of understanding exsisting elements and how people use the space and how the space work or evolve, these analysis will resulted in defining key activities in the neighbourhood.

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1.4

Hierarchy Showing the main methodology Supporting Analysis or Method Particular product or analysis which supported other method Product Producing certain product such as diagram or drawing Resulted product from particular method

Proceeding to the next step after justifying project’s framework, this section will explain the working process of the project. This diagram help to keep in track and

METHODOLOGY

understanding step-by-step process and its relation from start to final result of this thesis project. In every project the methodology has its hierarchy or main method which will be supported by sub-method, it is very essential to attached to research question in order to specify the sub-method are relevant to the project. In conclusion, an active participative method is the key method from starting this project, gathering data or information is not only about question and answer, however, in this typical project it is the most important to built their (local resident) trust. Building network and social connection with the people will make the project become easier in many term such as gathering deep and detail information, research process, propositional process until post-production process.

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1.5

This mapping shows more detail into research strategies of this project, it is quite similar with the mapping on the previous pages, however, the different is this map shows more detail in the strategies both by working remotely and future work.

RESEARCH STRATEGIES

In remote working, the strategies focus in analysing existing conditon mainly in the existing elements and activities by using photographic analysis method. To support this method the proposition will also focus in small intervention by conducting research by design in 4 different points in the site which be called 4 catalyst. For the future work, it will work through testing the idea and result of the thesis project by conducting participation event and collaboratively continuing the project and come up with new proposition.

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1.6

Stakeholder Map

Working remotely for this project require a good connection or network with the ground agents to gather as many information and data as possible. It is very useful and give a lot of advantages doing research with a lot of stakeholders in order to get feedback and more information. This map shows two different condition of stakeholder in term of time and location, on the top (Green) shows the stakeholder when working remotely from Sheffield, UK. The blue colour shows the future stakeholder when this project will be continue further after going back to Indonesia. The diagram shows the network with stakeholder will be maintain eventhough this thesis project is finished, it will be conducted in professional manners after going back to Surabaya by collaborating with other researchers and architect as it is mention in the diagram. Range of stakeholder will be expanding in time this project continue to be develop on site in Surabaya, besides it will give more information it will give different point of view towards this project especially understanding local residents thoughts. In working remotely with a limited resources, it is crucial to maximising ground agents support, therefore, this project can be develop through certain degree and will be reviewed together with future stakeholders.

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2

TH EMAT I C Devel opment


View looking to one of kampung area in Surabaya.

Kampung

Temporary Spaces

Image source: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-nDeh1qUR5H0/T6-sJQM-0_I/ AAAAAAAAAKs/QidHvhXBPvU/s1600/2012-05-11+12.19.00.jpg

Preparation for ‘Refugees of Future Cities’ by OHS Image source: http://orangehousestudio.tumblr.com/image/5418132304

Pop-up space by Raumlabor Berlin

Temporary Spaces

Kitchen Monument at Berlinische Galerie

Participation

Image source: http://raumlabor.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/ KueMo-2014_1_web-craumlaborberlin-965x643.jpg


2.1 ELE MENTS OF THE PROJECT

Kampung Cities in Indonesia was started developing in a form of kampung, it is one of the most crucial element in city fabric. There has been a significant influence in the colonial era, kampung used as a zoning area to gentrified people based on their ethnicity. Therefore, each kampung holds a unique characteristic which has to be preserve and maintain by new generation, many kampung lost their identity even was totally disappear from the city fabric because of uncontrolled development and top-down policy as the city develop. Temporary Spaces (Interim Uses) Temporary spaces can be called an interim uses, it is tend to accomodate certain activities in some limited span of time or spatial quality. In this project, it is clear that some of the intervention purpose is to facilitate a temporary activities such as cultural or seasonal events, independence day celebration, chinese new year festival, eid festival, etc. Participation The democratic principle of participation in urban planning risks being abused as ‘governing through the community’.4 - Klaus Ronneberger The term participation here is to engage people to collaboratively work together by exchanging ideas, understanding main issues, extracting key objectives of the project for their neighbourhood. This project approach is participatory planning process, it is intended to gain a specific and precise result based from the ground work without conducting any top-down planning process or approach. The concept of ‘ governing through the community’ is a possible concept in order to develop the social life quality, built environment, and sustainable community. This idea is to counteract the slow and unfocused beuracratic process from the government with their top-down policy, most of the time it is not relevant with the context and give disadvantages for people. Mixed Uses In this type of project more than one programme will occur in one space, the programmes will automatically divide the space into several new spaces based from the uses. It will decided base on the ‘existing activities research’ for this thesis project result. For the future work of this project in Indonesia, the programme will be discuss and decide with concept of ‘musyawarah-mufakat’, it is a collective discussion between local residents to achieve a mutual agreement.

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2.1 Guerrilla The interim user bears a structural similarity to the figure of the guerrilla fighter,

ELEMENTS OF THE PROJECT

especially in terms of his or her tactical approach. ‘In this respect (leaving aside questions of hostility and war) the analogy between the guerrilla and the interim user is very appropriate: the guerrilla operates locally and is thoroughly familiar with the area in which he operates - like the interim user, who is not looking for just any old vacant buildingm but a particular one in a specific area with a good atmosphere. The guerrilla not only has a good knowledge of the area in which he operates, but also recieves considerable support from the local population, for whom he fights like a latterday Robin Hood. [...] An essential point in both cases is the ideal for which are fighting: unlike a normal soldier, the guerrilla rarely has problems with motivation.’ 4 - Peter Arlt ‘ The term is compatible with concept of ‘Gotong-royong’ and participation, as it is mention about support from local residents. It is considerably not only about morale support but also a physical (manpower) and collective idea support. Play Space Space for leisure or play, regarding age, it is a space for everyone, there will be a special designated spaces for children to play. It is obvious they can play on the alleyway because it is safe but not on the main road. By creating a new facility to accomodate their needs, it is possible to preserve traditional games by introducing it to kids and it might be a place with a concept of education in every game. Besides play space for children, it is relevant to create a space for adults to play, such as playing chess just infront of the alleyway entrance.

4

Hayden, Florian & Temel, Robert. Temporary Urban Spaces: Concepts for the Use of City Spaces. Switzerland: Birkhauser, 2006. Print.

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Pop-up space by Raumlabor Berlin EMMAS HOFTOUR

Mixed Use

Image source: http://raumlabor.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/ EMMA1_Garten_01.jpg

Reclaiming urban space and create different activities

Guerrilla

Image source: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-GYkutxlkTdE/UCsRXi3DoTI/ AAAAAAAAAko/krBsfXDsQgo/s1600/stay-cation-park-942.jpg

Pop-up space by Raumlabor Berlin EMMAS HOFTOUR

Play Space

Image source: http://raumlabor.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/ EMMA5_XY_12.jpg


2.2

Proposing a small-scale intervention (insertion) in kampung as the catalyst to generate more community and social activities into the fabric with a correct manners toward the existing by stimulating a participatory planning process.

Project Objectives

Kampung is a very wide and diverse context to be explore and research, with many different unique characteristics and issues. It is very impossible to solve or try proposing an idea for every aspect in kampung, even in one specific area it will not be an effective way or research and design. To comply this statement and working process, this project will consistently focus on the main issues with certain objectives. The main objectives for this project is to enhance more social activities in the neighbourhood by not intervene the fabric or the existing activities, the proposition aims will not take anything away from the existing fabrics and will not proposing a heavy intervention into kampung fabrics or city organism. Furthermore, it will propose a flexible social space which can be use by everyone at anytime with any different activities. The proposal is a framework or a base to facilitate the people to utilise the open space as their communal area. The planning process will be an open process between the designers, community, and other stakeholders to discuss and develop it together. The positive outcome from the creative participative process will create more opportunities for diverse social activities in outdoor space. The proposition from this project will not become the final design, it will just be an initial idea to create more interactive discussion and feedback from local residents, fellow researcher, and other stakeholders. The design can be develop or revise after testing it with several parameters (See 4.2. Approaches, page 120).

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2.2 In the process of research and literature studies, there is one concept or theory which is relevant for this project. This theory was originally coined by Spanish architect

Urban Acupun c t u r e

and urbanist, Manuel de Sola Morales, recently, the term has been developed further by Finnish architect and social theorist, Marco Casagrande5. The theory is ‘Urban acupuncture’. Urban acupuncture is an urban environmentalism theory which combines urban design with traditional Chinese medical theory of acupuncture6. The process look into micro-scale interventions or propositions to become a bigger effects for larger urban context. The development put a great focus in community participation by creating a frequent dialogue between designers and the community, allowing the citizen to take part and contribute in the creative participatory planning process. It is also focuses on local resources rather than capital-intensive municipal programs by prioritising small-scale intervention rather than top-down and mega-interventions which requiring massive investments of municipal funds. In simple statement “Urban acupuncture” means focusing on small, subtle, bottom-up interventions or propositions that harness and direct community energy in positive ways to heal urban blight and improve the cityscape.3

“A cross-over architectural manipulation of the collective sensuous intellect of a city. City is viewed as multi-dimensional sensitive energy-organism, a living environment. Urban acupuncture aims into a touch with this nature and sensitivity to understand the energy flows of the collective chi beneath the visual city and reacting on the hotspots of this chi. Architecture is in the position to produce the acupuncture needles for the urban chi and a weed will root into the smallest crack in the asphalt and eventually break the city. Urban acupuncture is the weed and the acupuncture point is the crack. The possibility of the impact is total, connecting human nature as part of nature.”7 - Marco Casagrande -

Besides the term ‘urban acupuncture’, urban catalyst8, a similar theory which focus on a small scale intervention in the city fabric and designed as a catalyst to stimulate

Urban Cat a l y s t

people and their environment. It is also aim to create a positive ripple effect from the catalyst into bigger scale impact. Urban catalyst didn’t adopted or combined Chinese medical theory of acupuncture. This term was initialised by group of multidisciplinary professionals from Germany called Urban Catalyst Studio8(See section 1.3. Theoritical Framework).

5

Marco Casagrande. Source: http://www.clab.fi/information/architect/ Urban Acupuncture: Marco Casagrande – Adam Parsons, University of Portsmouth 12/2010 7 Urban Acupuncture. Online. Source: http://helsinkiacupuncture.blogspot.co.uk/ 8 Urban Catalyst Studio. Online. Source: http://www.urbancatalyst-studio.de/en/welcome_page/building_projects.html 6

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2.3 In the process this project look into several literatures and theories by particular

Literature Studies

theorist, architect, or thinkers. besides it help supporting the idea or design it is also help to look the project in several different point of view from different peoples. All the theories or approaches from these literature are relevant or coherent to the project methodology, approaches, and strategies.

This literature is studied from internet based documents (See appendix X.X. Urban

Urban Acupun c t u r e

Acupuncture) and journals from the sources. Urban acupuncture is another theory of urban intervention with its own characteristic which based their theory in Chinese medical theory of acupuncture. Acupuncture is technique to fix ‘chi’ flow inside your body in order to relieves stress in body which can heal sickness.

small scale intervention with objectives to create a positive ripple effect and peoples active participation.

It is applicable to the project because this project look into small subtle intervention into the fabric to generate a better environment, living quality, or more social activities. In simple statement “Urban acupuncture” means focusing on small, subtle, bottom-up interventions or propositions that harness and direct community energy in positive ways to heal urban blight and improve the cityscape.7

Jan Gehl wrote about the ground level activities which really relevant to this thesis

Li fe Bet ween B ui ld i ngs

project. This book define what is the life between buildings by extracting it into three

Ja n G e h l

types of outdoor spaces. Jan try to make the reader to understand the essence or the

using public space, how to study and analyse about people behaviour in public space, and how it generate more social activities.

importance of the activities in outdoor space or around the buildings, how it makes such a big impact to a neighbourhood or even in city scale.

5 7

Marco Casagrande. Source: http://www.clab.fi/information/architect/ Urban Acupuncture. Online. Source: http://helsinkiacupuncture.blogspot.co.uk/

8

Hou, Jeffrey. Insurgent Public Space: Guerrilla Urbanism and the Remaking of Contemporary Cities. New York: Routledge, 2010. Print.

9

Gehl, Jan. Life Between Buildings: Using Public Space. Washington: Island Express, 2011. Print.

10

Oswalt, Philipp & Overmeyer, Klaus. Urban Catalyst: The Power of Temporary Use. Berlin: DOM publishers, 2013. Print.

11

Whyte, William H. The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces. New York: Project for Public Space, 1980. Print.

12

Bow-Wow, Atelier. Behaviorology. New York: Rizzoli. 2010. Print.

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Marco Casagrande Urban Acupuncture5

Jeffrey Hau Insurgent Public Space8

Jan Gehl Life Between Buildings9

Philipp Oswalt, Klaus Overmeyer Urban Catalyst10

William H. Whyte The Social Space of Small Urban Spaces11

Atelier Bow-Wow Behaviourology12


2.4

Precedents

Three projects has been chosen as a relevant precedents for this thesis project, it has been analysed in order to learn about the similarity and relevant points can be taken for this thesis project. Gathering and studying precedents will help us to get more knowledge from similar project, because what we are doing is not a new thing, someone else might has done it before. Looking at several precedents both in Surabaya and worldwide as a comparison create a good insight towards the project. Therefore, there are five precedents, three of them will be explain in this section and the rest two are different kampung in Surabaya. These three precedents which will be explain in this section are three different projects with a various scale in a different location and similar approaches in term of project methodology. This section will explain each of these three projects and describe key points from each. Lastly, it will conclude this section by illustrate what has been learned from all three precedents.

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2.4 Project Details Project :

Niwa-Roju

Takahashi House Pocket Park13

Year :

2003

Scale

:

Small-scale project

Type

:

Participatory Public Space Design

Location :

Niwa-Roju Mr.Takahashi House

Kogane, District of Matsudo City

Japan Initiator :

Prof. Isami Kinoshita

Chiba University

“With tree branches, leaves, and fruits hanging over the fences, this greenery has qualities and functions that contribute to the improvement of the streetscapes and townscaper.” 14

Niwa-Roju is a wordplay on the concept of gai-roju (Trees lining a street). Niwa-roju is a concept of private gardens uses to complement public street in place of planting street trees in a public right of way. The project focuses on the building an active communication and discussion between designers and the peoples in the neighbourhood by applying creative participatory process. The process involve many stakeholders from the initiator (Prof. Isami Kinoshita), students, local community, residents, and land owner. The land owner give their land or for example their carport (Mr.Takahashi Pocket Park) to the community which then will be transform into small park. However the land is still own by the owner, like Mr. Takahashi, he even paid for the materials and the students built the park together. 13

Isami Kinoshita (2010.4) Niwa-Roju, (Jeffrey Hou ed. “Insurgent Public Space” ), Routledge, page 159. Isami Kinoshita (2010.4) Niwa-Roju, (Jeffrey Hou ed. “Insurgent Public Space” ), Routledge, page 160. 15 Before and After the Takahashi House Pocketpark. Image source: http://www.h.chiba-u.jp/tcp/ Projects/NiwaRojyu.html#4 14

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Project Details Project :

Refugees of Future Cities16

Year :

2011

Scale

:

Urban scale (Cross ‘kampung’)

Type

:

Participatory events , kampung tours & exhibitions

Location :

Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia

Initiator :

OHS (Orange House Studio)1

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2.4

Refugees of Future Cities is a series of events organise by OHS (Orange House Orange House Studio Studio) which based on their research about kampung in collaboration with many Refugees of Future Cities stakeholders from different communities, local residents, professionals, and local 16

universities. This event is caled cross-kampung urban exhibition, it was located in three different kampung within Surabaya urban area. Each site presenting different activities or events such as open discussion with locals and experts, art installation exhibition, mural exhibition, movie screening, and kampung tour with ‘bemo’ (public transportation). All of these events has been through a lot of thinking process and discussion from their research about each area or kampung17.

16

Orange House Studio official website. Source: http://orangehousestudio.org/ Blog source: http://orangehousestudio.tumblr.com/ 17 Kishi, Kenta. (2014). Ruang: Kreativitas Tanpa Batas e-Magazine, Preservasi Volume 02: Aksi. Page 0613. PDF source:http://akudanruang.files.wordpress.com/2014/03/ruang_8_preservasi_aksi.pdf

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2.4

Project Details Project :

Young Energies - Pontonia, Republic of Pontown19

Year :

2012

Scale

:

Small scale

Type

:

Co-production with young peoples and collaboration

with professional and local authorities

Location :

Berlin, Germany

Initiator :

Urban Catalyst Studio18

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Urban Catalyst Studio Pon tonia

MA in Urban Design 2013/2014 | Design Thesis Project


Young Energies, Pontonia Republic of Pontown19 is a unique research project which is conducted in collaboration with young people from various communities around Berlin and Ministry of Transport, Construction and Urban Development. The aim is to identify their visions for futurecities. 30 young people from South Africa, Haiti and Europe have built a model of their city of the future on a pontoon. The overall coordination and the planning of the project is with Urban Catalyst studio.19 18

Urban Catalyst Studio official website. Source: http://www.urbancatalyst-studio.de/de/aktuell.html Young Energies - Pontonia, Republic of Pontown. Urban Catlyst Studio project in Berlin. 2012. Source:http://www.urbancatalyst-studio.de/en/projects/project-site/young-energies.html 19

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2.4

Precedents Conclusion

Precedents conclusion. This diagram shows three precedents and the result of the study, There are projects in three different location, scale, approaches, etc. However with some similarity from all of three projects. The intersection between two projects show similarity in those projects and the intersection between all projects show references taken from all projects which can be implemented or inspired my work besides illustrate about the similarity. On the other hand, this diagram also shows what kind of knowledge or learning point can be taken from each precedents which are relevant for my project.

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3

S it e An al y s i s

Site analysis for this thesis project is more focus in analysing activities and the fabrics, there are only several macro-site analysis in this project which are need to be improve at the time this project will be take forward in the future. Besides macro site analysis, it will need also to analyse demographic of the area, social condition, housing problem, social space, temporary space, and many more aspect. For now this project will focus more in analysing the existing elements (fabrics) and activities by applying simple method of photographic analysis while working remotely. From this analysis it is expected to give an initial look into the site.

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3.1 Surabaya

(formerly Soerabaja, Soerabaia or Surabaja) is Indonesia’s second-

largest city with a population of over 3.1 million (5.6 million in the metropolitan area), and the capital of the province of East Java. It is located on the northern shore

Context Surabaya Indonesia

of eastern Java at the mouth of the Mas River and along the edge of the Madura Strait. To some Indonesians, it is known as “the city of heroes” due to the importance of the Battle of Surabaya in galvanizing Indonesian and international support for Indonesian independence during the Indonesian National Revolution.20 Surabaya is also known as the birthplace of Indonesia first president, Sukarno. He grew up in Kampung Peneleh which is the project site for this design thesis project, therefore the project site has very significant and unique characteristic as a heritage site. Surabaya is also well known as a pluralist city, there are many different races and religions with very condusive environment and they are blending one to another without any segregation or discrimination.

City Profile20 Coordinates

:

7°15’55”S 112°44’33”E

Country

:

Indonesia

Province

:

East Java

Settled

:

May 31, 1293

• Mayor

:

Tri Rismaharini21

• Vice Mayor

:

Wisnu Sakti Buana

• City

:

374.78 km2 (144.70 sq mi)

• Metro

:

1,805.08 km2 (696.95 sq mi)

:

5 m (16 ft)

Government

Area

Elevation

Population (2012 ) 1

• City

:

3,114,700

• Density

:

8,300/km2 (22,000/sq mi)

• Metro

:

5,622,259

• Metro density :

3,100/km2 (8,100/sq mi)

Time zone

:

WIB (UTC+7)

Area code(s)

:

+62 31

Website

:

surabaya.go.id

20

Surabaya, Indonesia profile. Online. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surabaya 21 Mayor of Surabaya, Ir. Tri Rismaharini, M.T., Source: http://www.citymayors.com/mayors/ surabayamayor-tri-rismaharini.html

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Republic of Indonesia Capital

:

Jakarta

Government

:

Unitary Presidential Constitutional Republic

Area

:

Land

: 1,904,569 km2

Water : 4.85 % from the land area

Population

:

237,424,363 (2011 Cencus)

Density

:

124.66/km2

Capital

:

Surabaya

Government

:

Autonomous Province

Area

:

47,922 km2

Population

:

38,529,481 (2014 Cencus)

Density

:

800/km2

6°10.5’S 106°49.7’E

Province East Java

7°16’S 112°45’E

City of Surabaya

7°15’55”S 112°44’33”E


3.2 Surabaya

Surabaya well-known of its port before it is famous as a city of heroes, it has one of the biggest port in Java island to accomodate all the trading activities for East Java area. Many merchants come from different part of the world such as from China, Middle-east countries, and european countries. It is one of the main concentration for Dutch colonial government after Batavia (now Jakarta), Dutch built a wall and divided the area into districts to control the population and for security matters which is known as Wijkenstensel regulation. This map shows the site or project location and the present condition of city centre in Surabaya. The area around the site mostly are commercial use besides housing, the commercial area consist of shops and markets which are already there for decades as a family businesses from generation to generation. Most of the people who live in the area is from Chinese ethnicity, however these days there are very mix and plural social life condition and it is very condusive between the people from different background.

Kampung Pen eleh

Located in the middle of crowded, dense and hectic city, mostly in this area are houses and shops. In the entire Peneleh there are a lot of small neighbourhood or you can call it kampung within kampung, in kampung Peneleh there are a lot of small kampung such as, kampung Plampitan, kampung Pandean, and many more. Kampung Peneleh is very famous for two things, the first one is as a heritage site of one important building before independence era, it is our first president, Soekarno house where he spent his youth there, the house belongs to one of the aristocrats in colonial era, H.O.S. Tjokroaminoto. The other thing that make this area famous is one of the biggest colonial cemetery in its era, Peneleh Cemetery (Makam Peneleh). In this cemetery a lot of important Dutch aristocrats buried there and until today it can still be found their tombstones. In this area the demographic is very plural even though characteristic of chinatown is very vibrant and tangible, majority is Chinese and there are also Arab and Inlander (Native Indonesian).

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Peneleh Road

Undaan Road

Makam Peneleh Road


3.2

Traffic Mapping

This map shows the traffic condition of the area, there are two different types of road, they are road which can be access by both two and four wheeler, and alleyway which only can be access by walking, bicycle, and motorcycle. Even though it is accessible for motorcycle and bicycle, the driver must get off their bike and turn off the engine then push their vehicle along the alleyway. It is one of the culture in the area because the alleyway is narrow and distance between houses is very near, so in order to respect the neighbour and not making any noises. The main road along the project site, Peneleh road (Jalan Peneleh) is one way road with two lane, it is the same with Makam Peneleh road, connector road from Peneleh road to Undaan road. The project site consist of 9 alleyways which can not be access by car.

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3.2

Landmark Mapping

Project site located in a very historical area and the origin of the city centre, therefore a lot of historical buildings, landmarks, and important structures around the site. Besides the heritage or old buildings, in this area, there are also a lot of important new buildings such as hospital, shopping centre, government office, cultural centre, and many more different landmarks. This makes the area become a centre point of all these important structures, the strategic location create a big oppourtunity for this area to be develop in two ways, to become a heritage site which preserve their cultural and identity or become a modern top-down development which prioritise in developing new structure by demolishing old structures.

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3.3

EXISTING FABRIC ANALYSIS

To understand the characteristic of one area, first, we have to distinguished the elements and activities of the site. The intention is to get a clear understanding or perspective of the specific site, therefore, the main issues and challanges in the area can clearly stated. Existing fabrics or elements in one area can generate any kind of different activities depend on spatial quality, time, uses, user, location. For this reason defining key elements is important before explaining about the key activities . Mostly, in every kampung they has a similar existing fabrics or elements, however, there must be one elements which make the area become unique and couldn’t be found in any other kampung. In kampung Peneleh there are several elements which make this kampung unique, first is there is a massive old colonial cemetary in the middle of the neighbourhood, then there are two buildings in the area which are pointed as heritage buildings, one of them was the house where our first president spent his youth time and lastly, there is a mosque which is built in the middle of the alleyway which divided the alley into two paths. This analysis and diagram will help to identify what are we dealing with in site and shows main elements in this project which will be use to analyse and define key existing activities in the next section.

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3.4

This section is the continuation to analyse key activities to define characteristic of the area. After analysing existing fabrics or elements, the next step is extrateing those elements into activities happened within it, analysing how the elements create activity or how people treat the elements and resulted a different activities.

Existing Activities Analysis

The analysis will use ‘photographic analysis’ technique as the tool, because working remotely and unable to conduct a site visit. The result is useful to propose an experimental design which try to accommodate the activities, the design result will be tested on site with local residents to see is it going to work in the neighbourhood or the opposite. On the next page, it will show six from nine alleyway entrances photographic analysis, it will look into elements and activities then describe the space quality which will be shown in the diagram. This is useful to help designing intervention for the alleyway entrances in the future.

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Existing Activities

Photographic Analysis


The photogaraph shows the entrance condition for Pandean alleyway number

Pandean Gg.I

1 (Pandean Gg.1), this entrance has the widest span and more activities compare to the other alleyway entrances. However half of the entrance enclosed by small structures which consist of small shop and security post, from the observation this entrance with more vibrant and various activities makes it the busiest and most lively entrance even without the gateway which can be found around Lawang Seketeng alleyways entrances.

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Pandean Gg.II

Compare to the entrance before (Pandean GG.I) this one is more formal with a detailed and well finished material gateway alongside with the security post. This entrance has a narrow distance between the gateway and the edge of the main street, this makes the pedicab driver or motorcyclist has a difficulty to park their vehicles in front of the gate. However, pedicab driver took place in the alleyway to park and take a nap. It is really different with the previous entrance which we can see peoples hanging around because there are benches and small shops in the entrance area.

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In Pandean alleyway number three the alleyway is quite narrow with small

Pandean Gg.III

structures on one side of the entrance which is use both as a security post and barber shop. In the morning until evening it is open for the barber shop and it will turned into security post around nine in the evening (9.00PM). Buildings on the both sides are old colonial houses which one use as a shop and one is vacant, both condition are deteriorating. Similar with Pandean GG.II the distance between the structure and the street is narrow, however the car and pedicab still park infront of the building which will extend to the street.

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Pandean Gg.IV

Pandean number fourare one of the most known alleyway because in this alleyway located one of the heritage building. The building is a house which the first president of Indonesia, Soekarno, grown up as a teenager. It is shown in the big poster on the left before walk past into the gate, it says historic Pandean, place of birth of Soekarno, Soekarno’s kampung. This alleyway entrance also has a lot of various activities such as small shop right at the entrance and on the right side there is a mural on the wall shows the history of the area.

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It is very different from Pandean area, Lawang Seketeng entrances has fences which will be close on the evening as their security

Lawang Seketeng Gg. I

reason. This elements are there because there was several crime happened in those area. However, these days the condition is much safer than before. This alleyway’s entrance is narow with small structures on the side which is use as a barber shop on the front and neighbourhood office on the back side. There are no gateway and the signage is really small, this make peoples really hard to recognise this as one of the alleyways in this neighbourhood.

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Lawang Seketeng Gg. V

This entrance quite similar with Lawang Seketeng GG.I, however the small building is looks newer and properly maintain and the buildings on both sides is occupied and use as a shop. The structure use as the security post with built in bench in front of it. In this alleyway the fence is put after the security post and not before it, this create quite a space for activity. The distance from the building to the main street is quite narrow but still possible for pedicab driver to park his vehichle and wait for the customer or have a rest.

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‘Wijken stensel’ DISTRICTS OF SURABAYA


3.5 This mapping has been drawn base on the historical archive from map of Surabaya in 1866 which shows the city is divided into several cluster or district after the Dutch colonial announce Wijkenstensel regulation.

Site Characteristic

This map shows the divided area in Surabaya after the Dutch colonial announced the Wijkenstensel and Passenstensel regulation, they divided the city inside the fortress or wall into 4 areas or districts base on their ethnicity which are European area, Chinatown, Native (Inlander), and Arabic Village. This regulation was made because the Dutch want to control the population and crime level and it help them to observe the people, it is not because some ethnic tried to be exclusive and seperate themselves from other. Wijkenstensel is a regulation to divide them base on ethnic into the district and Passenstensel is a regulation to control the people to travel outside their district, they have to get a permission to acess other district or to travel outside the wall. Around 1900 or late 19th century the population increase drastically makes the city spread and develop towards south area with most of the development is a housing settlements. While the Arabic village developing towards north and north east area, Chinese area spreading towards south and south east, they started to occupied land close to the river and built their houses.

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3.5 Before identifying issues and challenges in the area, it is sequential to analyse the characteristic of the site. Some place has unique elements or activities which make the area special. Analysing historical urban development, existing elements, and

Site Characteristic

existing activities will resulted in understanding and defining the characteristic. By analysing historical maps of Surabaya and identify the development of urban area with supporting stories, it is possible to propose a hypothesis about its development with strong arguments and supporting documents. Furthermore, by working remotely, existing elements and activities can be analyse by conducting ‘Photographic analysis’, this approach is possible with support from ground agent to take the photograph. Historical urban development analysis will show how the neighbourhood formed and develop through decades, also how the neighbourhood impact the city fabrics by its unique character. In addition, studying current condition of kampung fabrics (Elements) and activities can resulted as a supportive result towards historical analysis or instead become an argument with the current state.

This drawing shows evolution

The evolution of houses in the middle of neighbourhood

of building form in the site, it

with small alleyway will cause denser area in term of

change from one storey houses

building volume, which can cause issues in quality of

to two storeyes houses.

life, hygiene, natural light, and safety.

1st Generation Before 1950’s Javanese Style

1st Generation Before 1950’s Colonial Style

2nd Generation Around 1960’s & 1970’s


3.5 Historical Urban Development Analysis Project site area used to be an area outside the city wall (See appendix 02. Historical Map 1866), Dutch built the city wall around 1860’s to seperate city with small villages and plantation. City centre used to be at Jembatan Merah area which surrounded with kampung or they called it ‘Kamp’. The Dutch divided the city centre into several section based on ethnicity, they were Chinese kamp around Kembang Jepun, Arab kamp at Ampel, Malaeische (Malayu) kamp at Pabean, and European kamp on the other side of this three camps. The purpose is to control the grew, trading activities, and most important is for security matters. As the city develop, the expansion begun toward south side outside the city wall, it was around Alun-alun contong, Tambak Bayan, Penelen, and Undaan areas until 1900. Project site, Peneleh, was also developed rapidly in 1900’s, in 1940’s the area was already packed with settlements. In colonial area, Dutch occupied houses along main road with their massive and luxurious houses, however, native and comers (Chinese and Arab) lived on ‘The second layers’ or at the back of main road. They built their houses on the alleyways. The housing settlements was expanding because the huge development of trading which required them to move to the area around their bussiness. Peneleh area was an expansion of Chinese kamp, where their trading activities started to spread around Jagalan and Undaan, there were a lot of bussiness enterprise there until today. When the commerce area developing, it automatically create new housign settlement such as area around Tambak Bayan, Peneleh, and Undaan. In this area, oriental characteristic was very vibrant. In present day it can still be found Chinese festival celebration, however, the culture and identity of the area is deteriorating. It is so sad yet challenging to preserve this as the part of pluralism in urban fabrics, this is apply to other areas with cultural uniqueness.

3rd Generation Around 1990’s

4th Generation After 2000’s

Possible Development After 2020


Urban Form Development


3.5


For the full map see Appendix 01. Page 132.

For the full map see Appendix 04. Page 135.

Pen eleh Historical Urban Development


3.5

For the full map see Appendix 03. Page 134.

For the full map see Appendix 02. Page 133.

For the full map see Appendix 06. Page 137.

For the full map see Appendix 05. Page 136.


3.6

Every kampung has its own main issues which must be recognise and understand, this will be the main purpose from this research to identify the main issues in specific site. By taking two different areas will help to understand more for project site.

Issues & Challenges

This diagram shows the general issues or challanges which are usually occur in a kampung, it is also will shows two specific kampung which are Kampung Lemah Putro (Blue line) and Kampung Tambak Bayan (Green line) as precedents with its own issues and challanges. Hence, this will shows the similarity of what kampung is facing between one kampung with another. Finally, it will shows Pandean & Lawang Seketeng issues in Kampung Peneleh (Orange line) according to fifteen main issues which already mention as general issues in kampung.

The two other kampung (Kampung Lemah Putro & Tambak Bayan) are describe here to help understand the issues that happen in kampung in general and use as precedents to study how these two kampung solve the problems or even suffer from the problems. Project site in Pandean and Lawang Seketeng issues and challanges are resulted from previous analysis and research, such as photographic analysis, activities and kampung elements analysis, and urban form analysis. In more detail it will be explain in the next sheets about these three kampung.

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I s s u es & Ch alla nges in K a m p un g L e mah Putr o

This map shows issues in Kampung Lemah Putro as one of the precedents related with 15 general issues occur in kampung.


3.6


Kampung Lemah Putro in the middle of office buildings.

Image source: http://38.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_ll2x1vFNVu1qipndoo1_500.jpg

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Aerial view of Kampung Lemah Putro (Colour). Image source: Google Earth

MA in Urban Design 2013/2014 | Design Thesis Project


3.6

Kampung Lemah Putro Precedents

One of the authentic kampung in Surabaya, this kampung is well known for their enthusiast and effort to preserve ludruk and wayang, a traditional dance and performing art, also gobak sodor and pate lele a traditional games. It was announced as one of heritage life with two other kampung (Tambak Bayan and Plampitan) by the government after years of research through kampung in Surabaya. Kampung Lemah Putro used to be bigger compare with present condition. Because of the strategic location in the middle of bussiness area, private developer started to bought the land and built massive office buildings around the kampung. Even though this kampung is protected as a heritage kampung, local residents still aware that someday they might be evicted by the private developer because of massive development and strategic location for investment. Main issues in Kampung Tambak Bayan: - Eviction - Culture degradation - Deteriorating characteristic/lost of identity - Lack of open space

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I s s u es & Ch alla nges in K a m p un g Tambak Bayan

This map shows issues in Kampung Tambak Bayan as one of the precedents related with 15 general issues occur in kampung.


3.6


Banner which installed by the residents with intention of insinuating the private developer or hotel owner. It said “Congratulations you have been enjoying a nasty hotel�. Image source: http://surabayastory.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/100_3364.jpg

Aerial view of Kampung Lemah Putro (Colour). Image source: Google Earth

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Kampung Tambak Bayan with hotel on the background.

Image source: http://surabayastory.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/100_3365.jpg

MA in Urban Design 2013/2014 | Design Thesis Project


3.6

Kampung Tambak Bayan Precedents

Kampung Tambak Bayan is one of Chinese village near the Chinatown, the residents are third generation of Chinese immigrant whose came from Guangdong (Canton). This village has a very strong Chinese characteristic which can be seen especially in Chinese new year celebration or any other Chinese festival. However, the authentic characteristic is deteriorating because of massive 3 stars hotel development in the area. The building is used to be private university until the developer bought it and turned it into a hotel. It has become a big issue about the land dispute, the hotel management claim they already bought the land and paid the land owner, however , the land owner said they never recieved the payment. The hotel is also known and trademarked as a nasty hotel where they accommodate prostitution. The main issue is not only about the deteriorating culture in Tambak Bayan, local residents are threatened to be evicted from their place without a reasonable compensation. Main issues in Kampung Tambak Bayan: - Eviction - Land dispute (Between residents and private developers) - Culture degradation - Deteriorating characteristic/lost of identity - Building regulation or policy

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I s s u es & Ch alla nges in Gg. Pan de an & L a wan g Se k e teng

This map shows issues in project site (Gg. Pandean & Lawang Seketeng) as one of the precedents related with 15 general issues occur in kampung.


3.6


One of the alleyway situation in the morning, as it seen in this picture the architecture style is very various from the 1st generation style to 4 generation style. In the middle of the alleyway there are two tombs which they also use it as a landmark for their area. Photograph by Wang, ground agent.

Existing condition of the buildings not responsive to the surroundings, 3 storeys houses. Photograph by Wang, ground agent.

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In deteriorating condition, one of the old house with mixed style between colonial and Javanese style. Photograph by Wang, ground agent.

MA in Urban Design 2013/2014 | Design Thesis Project


3.6

Pandean & Lawang Seketeng

In project site they had their own characteristic (See section 3.5. Site Characteristic),

Project Site

area from Chinatown (Kembang Jepun) which are the main trading area, because

similar to Kampung Tambak Bayan, this kampung was occupied by Chinese people. In present day, most of the residents are the third generation Chinese family, they live there because most of their bussiness or work place are near. It was an expansion the bussiness area grew very fast, housing area also started to developed around it. Similar issues with kampung lemah putro, cultural degradation undermined the society and it cause deterioration of local identity. Younger generation barely understand about their root or their culture. Some of them decided to left the area and live in the other area. Main issues in Kampung Peneleh (Specific Gang Pandean dan Lawang Seketeng): - Culture degradation - Deteriorating characteristic/lost of identity - Building regulation or policy - Lack of open space

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4

Design Proposition


4.1 This section wil explain about the process of strategies and approaches will be implemented in the proposition, the process is the next step after identifying projects issues and challanges. Understanding issues and challanges will make clear what kind of strategies and approaches are the most appropriate and relevant to answer

Design Strategies Development

the project before visualising them in the proposal. This diagram shows step-by-step process from research and mapping section into different kind of strategies will be implemented in the process to achive desirable result. It is divided into two working condition in time and location, which are remote working and future work on site (Green line) and it explains what the next step after finishing the thesis. It is not going to be conducted in Sheffield, UK, it will be proceed once going back to Surabaya. However, it is important to mention it in this report. The strategies for the project to answer the research question is proposing a small or micro scale intervention or insertion into kampung fabric without damaging local identiy. The strategies come up with four catalysts which are designed with a purpose to create more impact to the area or creating a possitive ripple effect for other area. This can be achieve by conducting a participatory events on site in the future. Those four catalysts are micro interventions in four different areas around the site such as in alleyway entrances, abandon buildings, open space around mosques, and small shops. The proposition result must be tested to conclude is it relevant or not going to work for the neighbourhood. This can be achieve by implementing collaborative approach which will be describe with two approaches, first is collaborative activities (See section 4.3. Approaches) and the other is collaborative research. In simple term is creating a participatory event as a bottom-up strategies for this project.

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4 Catalysts Strategy Micro intervention to stimulate a positive effect for other area

Alleyway entrances This diagram shows step-by-step process from research and mapping section into different kind of strategies will be implemented in the process to achive desirable result.

Abandon buildings This diagram shows step-by-step process from research and mapping section into different kind of strategies will be implemented in the process to achive desirable result.

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4.1

Micro intervention formed as 4 catalysts. The map shows possible location as first scheme project, the location are decided from exisiting elements and activities analysis.

Open space around mosque This diagram shows step-by-step process from research and mapping section into different kind of strategies will be implemented in the process to achive desirable result.

Small shops This diagram shows step-by-step process from research and mapping section into different kind of strategies will be implemented in the process to achive desirable result.

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All eyways Intervention Relation between alleyways and the catalysts (small projects)

Open space around mosque Using an existing open spaces around the mosque and support it with new insertion of ‘public structure’ or a simple canopy as a shelter to accomodate any kind of activities from religious, education, cultural, and many more diverse activities in the neighbourhood.

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4.1

4 catalysts possible location as first scheme project

Re-using abandon buildings Re-using several abandoned buildings in the site, it is located just in the midle of the settlement which become a strategic space to create a project to act as the catalyst to generate more social activities in this kampung. The insertion or intervention in the building can be by restoring and preserving the existing buildings and inserting new activities or uses for the buildings. The uses can be discuss with the residents and the neighbourhods officer (Ketua RT) in the open meeting.

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Connecting All eyways Possible relation between main street, entrance/ gateways and the catalysts (small projects)

Alleyway entrances insertion

Small shops

Proposing an elevated gateway, putting the existing

Inserting new structure above the existing shop as a

activities above ground such as security post, meeting

multi use space such as for neighbourhood meetings,

room, and neighbourhod office. Allowing the ground

or children library. The insertion can be by putting new

level to be use as a social space by transforming it into

structure above the existing or replacing the existing

bigger and more open space.

structure.

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4.1

4 catalysts possible location as first scheme project

Pedestrian on main street Facilitating the area with the pedestrian will be really helpful for the pedestrian safety and linking between the alleyway entrances.

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Mai n Street Street Carnival New activities with local productivity support

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4.1

4 catalysts possible location as first scheme project

The main proposition is to transform Peneleh Street into street festival on Sunday as a regular events everyweek by applying ‘Car Free Day’ method which is very successful in several area in Surabaya to engage peoples to do their activity in public spaces. There will be a temporary stall structures use as the counter for different kind of activities which will be zone and seperated in different spot along the street. The counters will be prioritise for the residents to sell their products such as foods, handcrafted, souvenirs, etc.

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ch r a e s Re

Strategi es


4.2

Design Implementation

The previous page shows the the diagram explaining about process of strategies from working remotely to the future practice of this project, furthermore in order to complete it this page will explain in detail about the strategies and approaches which will be implemented in this particular project. Firstly, the diagram shows characteristic of the intervention which is temporary structure with a flexible and adaptable feature in a certain manners toward the existing fabric in the kampung. Moreover, the aim is to create a positive ripple effect for the entire area beside become a useful space for residents to create more vibrant activities. Small intervention strategies will be proposed in four different areas in the site which are mention as the four catalysts to become the generator for the entire area. Those areas or catalysts are alleyway entrance, abandon building, mosque with open space around it, and lastly small shop. These four catalysts will not be an easy task to be accomplished in a single proposition, it need a gradual approach and proposal. Likewise, the proposition for this project will not detailed all four catalysts however it will only detailed one or two the most feasible catalyst such as alleyway entrance and mosque with its open space. On the other hand, to support the strategies there is specific approach which is relevant to be applied. Participatory technique is the main approach which will involve many stakeholder in the process in order to achieved the aim of collective planning process between every stakeholder. In more detail there are two collaborative approaches, they are collaborative activities and collaborative research.

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4.2

9 Alleyway Entrances

9

Different Characteristic

Existing Analysis

Small intervention to alleyway entrances One of the strategies is to intervene or inserting a new structure in alleyway entrances along the site. This intervention will preserve the existing activities without harming the essence of those activities, it is also design to enhance new social activities

9 Design

Alleyway Entrances intervention (insertion)

around it to create more vibrant kampung environment. There are 9 alleyways in this site which each alleyway has its own characteristic, this leads to different treatment towards the intervention design however with the same approach. Exisitng elements and activities analysis are the parameters to start designing what kind of intervention is appropriate for each alleyway, in this proposition only one pilot design will be shown as an example of the proposition. It is the design for Pandean Gg. I, the design will become the testing product to see how it works in the real condition, how the people or residents reaction towards the intervention, and it is also to generate people interest and idea.

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Alleyway entrance intervention shows in the map in a red triangles symbol.

Pandean Gg. I existing condition with small shop selling food and security post at the back of the shop


Multi-use room for any community activities. Such as meeting room or workshop room.

Alleyway entrance

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Rain water catchment tools

Water pond to store rain water

Urban playground

Integrated playground

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Green wall

Urban farming

Initial sketch for Pandean number I (Pandean Gg.I), it shows what kind of programme can be inserted in this light structure.

This initial sketch shows the big idea for alleyway entrance intervention (insertion), the big idea is to generate more activities and to facilitate existing activities.

Existing activities or elements

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Green roof utilise as small pocket urban farming

Playground for children Multi-use structure

Alleyway entrance design implementation visualisation for Pandean Gg.I Sitting spaces infront of the entrance preserving existing activities

This idea will become the parameter and starting point for other alleyway entrances design. Even though each alleyway has its own characteristic, it share some same character which can be extract to bring all the small intervention become one big strategy for the area or neighbourhood.


2 storeys light structure Accomodating any activities e.g. neighbourhood meeting

Existing small shop & security office can be preserved

Mural on the entrance wall Can become the trademark of the area

This drawing shows the proposition for alleyway entrance, this particular drawing is designed for Pandean alleyway number I (Pandean Gg.I)


Multi-use spaces for residents or community

Roof top urban farming Collective Activities

Alleyway entrance

This proposition which shown in this drawing is just a conceptual design or initial design, therefore the programme is flexible depends on what the community or neighbourhood need. It can be decided from community meeting or collective agreement.

Rain water catchment Stored in the small pond on the ground floor


Water tank to store water for farming and other activities which require it

Urban playground, space for children to play besides the alleyway. The playground blend with the alleyway, it has connection both visually and physically

Slides as one part of playground

Inner courtyard, open space in the middle of the structure

Perspective section of the structure to show what kind of activities can occur in this one of the small intervention.


Axonometric drawing shows many proposition programme for the intervention in the light structure.


Water tank to store water for farming and other activities which require it.

Roof top urban farming Collective Activities

Rain water catchment stored in the small pond on the ground floor

This axonometric drawing shows the different programme can happen in this structure and the structure shape or form doesn’t have to be exactly like in this drawing, it is

Slides as one part of playground

Green wall as part of urban farming

Multi-use spaces for residents or community

Inner courtyard, open space in the middle of the structure

Alleyway entrance

flexible and depends on the need of the people or what kind of activities need to be facilitate.


Using open space to facilitate activities This proposition looking into the space around mosque, how it can be use to facilitate residents activities in a very flexible manners. Flexible means it can facilitate any kind of activities depends on the user, time, activity, purpose, event, etc. This structure also

Open Space Around Mosque Multi-use light structure

will facilitate a very important event or activities such as cultural event or religious activities e.g. Eid Mubarak, there is always people selling foo& beverages and it also can become the meeting point for residents to meet and communicate each other. The design proposing to apply small and light structure which can be easily assemble by residents or community when they need this structure to be erected. It is one storey high with modular system in order to be easily multiply if it is needed more space.

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4.2

Intervention in open spaces around mosque, shown in red circle. There are three mosques around this neighbourhood which are located in the middle of the site and between houses. Blending together with the neighbourhood create a vibrant and plural social life in this area.

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Multi-use space for any community activities, cultural activites, and religious events.

Water cathment storage tank

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Greeneries manage by community

Applying renewable energy system

Multi use activities

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Initial sketch for open spaces around mosque intervention, it shows how two structures relate and interact.

This initial sketch shows the big idea for open spaces around mosque, this sketch shows two storeys structure, however, in the context the space only can fit half of this structure. But the programme and the purpose is same and not change.

Existing Mosque

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Transparant roof Natural sunlight

Simple and flexible structure easy to assemble

Market activities is one of the activities can be accomodate in this space Wood pallette Modular structure

Alternative design for the intervention in open space around mosque. Small scale intervention with a flexible programme to accomodate any kind of activities for residents.


Simple and flexible structure easy to assemble Light sturdy material to keep the structure steady and rigid

Wood panel as a seperator for back to back stall for the market

Stall for the seller to put their goods

Wood pallette Modular structure

Small structure with less components or elements to help resident easily assemble the structure, it is flexible and doesn’t have to be look like in this drawing. If it needed to become a different uses of space such as urban farming, it doesn’t have to installed the roof or separator panel.


Existing condition of one of the open space around mosque

Around the space there has been a lot of activities and this structure is one of the effort trying to accomodate the existing activities. Also the important is to facilitate mosque activities with their seasonal event and special festival or ceremony.


Possible Design 01 . Use for morning market.

One of two possible activities from this proposition which possibly occur in the site, the site shown in the graphic is one of the particular site in Kampung Peneleh, it is a mosque which is built in the middle of alleyway


Possible Design 02 . Use for small pocket urban farm

Besides to accomodate market, this space can also accomodate small pocket community urban farm, it is also can become a meeting point or social space for the residents.


Planter box, easy to mobilise modular system Light sturdy material to keep the structure steady and rigid

Wood pallette Modular structure

Second possible activities which can be accomodate in this space is urban farming or any kind of collective community activities which can generate more participation from residents. In this programme, besides urban farming, they can use the space for community informal meeting or discussion.


Initial sketch for intervention in abandon building, this proposal focus in more permanen use such as meeting space for community or playground for children.

4.2

Semi-permanent use intervention in the fabric there are quite a lot of abandon buildings in the middle of the neighbourhood and one several of them are occupied by pedicab driver, they squat in those buildings. The quality of the building is terrible and it is deteriorating, it is dangerous and not safe

Abandon Buildings intervention (insertion)

for them to stay there. The other abandon buildings was left empty and deteriorating, it can be a potential to re-use this spaces as public spaces or community space. This intervention can be either semi-permanent structure or temporary structure, it will focus more to build community and children education. The programme shows in the drawing is clear and detail, there are meeting room in the front side of the building and children playground at the back. The playground also focus more in traditional games and cultural education for the children, it is one of the issue in the area which is culture deterioration.

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4.2

Eight from nine alleyways which become the site for this project are connected with one alleyway which is Pandean alleyway number five (Pandean Gg.V), it is not the main entrance for the residents, they usually parked their car outside the alleyway just on the road side of Peneleh street and walk into the alleyway. At the end of Pandean I-IV and Lawang Seketeng I-IV there are gate which the security officer will

Back Alleyway & House Wall Re-activate the leftover space

open it in the morning around 6.00 AM and close it at evening after 10.00 PM. It is like a seperated neighbourhood and there are no access to the houses along the alleyway. Therefore, this proposition intended to take this alleyway to become part of the neighbourhood by turned it into more vibrant open spaces with oppourtunity for the residents to to their daily activities there. The proposition will look into the relocation of the gate from eight alleyways to just one gate at the alleyway entrance of Pandean number five (Pandean Gg.V). There is a existing small shop selling food will also become a good starting point to merge it into the main gate and create a space with more various activities.

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Proposing to intervene this area (Red dashed line) with small approach which depending on collective effort of the residents to make it successful or the opposite. This proposition has a big infulence in the future because it connecting one neighbourhood with another. If the strategies to intervene the kampung in the site is working, there is a chance to replicate it in other area starting from the neighbourhood around the site as it mention for project objectives is to create a positive ripple effect.

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Small Activities Insertion in the Back Alley

The proposition shows that the pavement is change into more clean and proper pattern, it is one of the proposition in the future if the improvement or fixes needed for the groundcover. It is not the attempt to look like western country or approach but in Indonesia we also oftenly use this pavement or sometimes we also use grass block.

Existing small shop located in front of Pandean Gg.5.

Existing condition of Pandean Gg.5, bollards to prevent car to enter the alleyway.


Small activities insertion into kampung existing fabric, this small insertion will not intervene any existing activities in this area. The concept is to activate this alleyway as one of local activities spot for residents by providing medium to conduct small urban farming, also by creating a vibrant atmosphere in order to make this alleyway not as a leftover area by both residents and visitors. It can be main access from Jl. Makam Peneleh (Makam Peneleh Street).

Proposition for Pandean Gg.5, new activities can generate more different activities and it is focusing on collective activities between residents.


Implementation in the Alleyway Existing condition of Pandean Gg.1. Connected to Pandean Gg.5.

Inter vention

Alleyway

Participatory or Collective Process

Local Residents


Proposition for Pandean Gg.I, Small intervention to create more oppourtunity for the residents to interact with others or thei neighbour in outdoor space.

This insertion into kampung existing fabric might also happen in every alleyways just like it is shown in the picture above. The intervention is light and will not changing any stuctural form but only playing with small structure and visual modification, it is very possible for residents to do it their own or base on community agreement to decide what kind of design they want to apply in the area.


4.3 Approaches

The previous page shows the the diagram explaining about process of strategies from working remotely to the future practice of this project, furthermore, this page will explain in detail about the strategies and approaches which will be implemented in this particular project. Firstly, the diagram shows characteristic of the intervention which is temporary structure with a flexible and adaptable feature in a certain manner toward the existing fabric in the kampung. Moreover, the aim is to create a positive ripple effect for the entire area beside become a useful space for residents to create more vibrant activities. Small intervention strategies will be proposed in four different areas on the site which are mention as four catalysts to become the generator for entire area. Those areas or catalysts are alleyway entrance, abandon building, mosque with open space around it, and lastly small shop. These four catalysts will not be an easy task to be accomplished in a single proposition, it will need a gradual approach and proposal. Likewise, the proposition for this project will not detailed all four catalysts however it will only detailed one or two the most feasible catalyst such as alleyway entrance and mosque with its open space. On the other hand, to support the strategies there are specific approaches which are relevant to be applied. Participatory technique is the main approach which will involve many stakeholder in the process in order to achieved the aim of collective planning process between stakeholder. In more detail there are two collaborative approaches, they are collaborative activities and collaborative research.

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Open discussion in informal way in exchanging info, idea, and give suggestion, the initiator will moderate the discussion and become the ‘bridge’ in this ‘network’. This activities is part of OHS (Orange House Studio) ‘Refugees of Future Cities’ event. Image source, online: http://orangehousestudio.tumblr.com/image/5418908956

Collaborative activities is an attempt to approach or engage the local residents with participatory technique in order to stimulate them to be actively involve in any activities. Furthermore is to generate their interest to be inisiatively giving their idea,

C olla b or a ti ve A c t ivi ti es

time, energy, thought for their neighbourhood. The objective is to get more idea, feedback, and effective manpower to become active citizen in creating a public or social activities such as community discussion, workshop, and many more different type of activities. The main root in Indonesian society is ‘gotong royong’ or mutual aid, it is very essential especially in kampung society, therefore, every plan for future activity is expected build their motivation on this way of ‘gotong royong’ because it is obvious this concept is main fondation to create a sustainable community.

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Workshop as one of agenda for the project of Mellowpark Campus: From Youth Club to Urban Developer. Online Image source: http://www.urbancatalyst-studio.de/en/projects/project-site/mellowparkberlin.html

Collaborativ e Research

Collaborative research emphasize the aim to the process of collaboration with stakeholders, such as academic institutions (school and universities), professionals, fellow researchers, and other communities. This oppourtunity help to see the project from different point of view and get the feedback from different discipline to develop the project to certain extend. Involving expert into the project will grow this project into more detail and precise process to create a very useful data or result for developing the proposition. The proposition result fron this thesis project will be use by residents as their starting point gathering idea and proposing their thought in their community to develop new proposition.

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5

Post-Thesis Project (Future Work)

This thesis project will be taking forward to more detail and throughout research after going back to Surabaya, Indonesia. Outcome from this thesis will become the starting point to test rather this proposition will work or not, the testing process will be conducted together with any stakeholder which already agree to help and involve in this project both from practitioner and academia. First plan to continuing this project is by forming the team to conduct every related activities to push this project forward, further step is to design a participation event and get the authorisation to conduct it both from local authorities or government and local residents. After finalise the event and conduct it in particular time, the result of the event will be taken to the team meeting to evaluate the proposition and come up with a new idea. It will be appropriate to also involve local community or residents in this stage in order to keep the idea and process of participatory planning process in track.

Future Work Plan: •

Building network with fellow researcher and form a research & design team.

Meet the stakeholder especially local residents and authorities and build a communication and connection.

Testing the thesis project result with S.W.O.T analysis.

Gathering more data and information for the advance research.

Designing participation event in the site.

Conducting participatory event in the site and communicate with residents to understand the real situation.

Testing the idea based on participatory result.

Continuing working with the residents or local community and involving them in the process.

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This project has been developed until a stage which is relevant for it as a remote project. Even though with a lot of challanges by working remotely, it has required a significant and relevant data from the ground agent whose

Project COnclusion

help to gather the information and for the documentation of the existing site. As it is mention before that the proposition is not a designed with top-down policy and it is assured it will become a successful proposal. It is too soon to say that the result is final and one hundred percent will work in the context, there must be a lot of gap need to be filled for this thesis project. It can be clearly stated after testing the proposition in the future and analyse it how is it working. This thesis project research is obviously lack of site analysis and deep information for the site, surroundings, and peoples. However it is also need to be stated that those analysis will be useful for the design or not, it will be useful and done in more effective way when this project will be continue in Surabaya. The result from this thesis project is very engaging and provocative in some way. By taking this project to the context, there will be a lot of questions from the local residents and skeptic attitude from them. In this way participatory technique is really important and hold a crucial role to make this project works in the future. Strategies for this project is simple and applicable for both professionals and local residents, it is the objectives to create a collective socio environment in the neighbourhood. DIY and collective approach is one of the key to achieve the main objectives in order to create positive ripple effect to other area around the site. In conclusion, what have been done in this project will be treated as a starting point for future work with many stakeholder who already agree to work in this topic. This project intention is to know more about kampung, its activities, and social life in order to create a more vibrant and not treated or stigmatised as leftover space in the city fabric.

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6 Reflection of The Result

Looking back at this project process and result, there are a lot of things has been done and learned through the process. In some way getting a new knowledge about urban design approaches, theories, strategies, and many more. Moreover, getting to know more about city of Surabaya which has many more stories and data to be found out. Urban is not a simple element or entity, it is very complex, diverse, vibrant, and yet so exotic, from this course and this thesis project I learned one very important point of urbanism or urban design, it is not about the building, design, or city, it is about human who dwell in it, who interact within it. Urban is about human well-being or livelihood, this is similar with urban design course in SSoA approach. What I have learned in this course is very applicable in my country, some student come here and they said it is not possible to apply this approach in their country regarding policy and political condition, however, in Indonesia this approach is very welcome and relevant. Related to this thesis project, it is not a new thing to look at outdoor space in kampung and its activities as a topic or site, however it is quite rare to found a case study or research about it. As it is mention by Jan Gehl that the life is not only in the buildings but it is important to look at the life which happen in between the building, at the street, alleyway, plaza, park, roadside, and many more. This thesis project is rich with theories and literature studies, however, it is better if there is more time to work on this thesis to understand more about the context of the theories and how it reflect on this project, in short is understanding each detail of the theory or thinking even though this is a design based thesis. I think this project can be stretch more and be more detail or specific, there is a lack in site analysis and context area (Surabaya), hence about the activities analysis which can be more detail if there is a small interview conducted remotely with local residents with the help from ground agents. This approach will help to get more understanding and create a rich data collection which can be really helpful for the design strategies and approaches.

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7 P r i n te d Book s

Bibliography

Hayden, Florian & Temel, Robert. Temporary Urban Spaces: Concepts for the Use of City Spaces. Switzerland: Birkhauser, 2006. Print. Hou, Jeffrey. Insurgent Public Space: Guerrilla Urbanism and the Remaking of Contemporary Cities. New York: Routledge, 2010. Print. Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Modern Library, 1961. Print. Lefebvre, Henri. Production of Space. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 1991. Print. Tonkiss, Fran. Space, the City and Social Theory: Social Relations and Urban Forms. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2005. Print. Whyte, William H. The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces. New York: Project for Public Space, 1980. Print.

Jour n al s & Web So u rces Bertaud, Alain & Bertaud, Marie-Agnes. Note on Surabaya mobility and housing issues. 2012. Online. http://alainbertaud.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/AB_Note-onSurabaya-land-use-and-transport_Aug_23_back_up.pdf Casagrande, Marco. Third Generation City. 2010. Online. http://www.researchgate.net Casagrande, Marco. Urban Acupuncture. 23rd November 2010. Online http://thirdgenerationcity.pbworks.com/f/urban%20acupuncture.pdf

Casagrande, Marco. Urban Acupuncture. 2013. Online. http://helsinkiacupuncture.blogspot.co.uk/ Damayanti, Rully & Handinoto. Kawasan “Pusat Kota’ Dalam Perkembangan Sejarah Perkotaan di Jawa. 2005. Online. http://puslit2.petra.ac.id/ejournal/index.php/ars/article/view/16274/16266

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Damayanti, Rully. Planning Issue and Problem in Surabaya, Indonesia. 2006. Online. http://puslit2.petra.ac.id/ejournal/index.php/ars/article/view/16455/16447

Dhakal, Shobhakar. Comprehensive Kampung Improvement Program in Surabaya as a Model of Community Participation. 2002. Online Ernawati, Rita. Facing Urban Vulnerability Through Kampung Development, Case Study of Kampungs in Surabaya, Indonesia. 2013. Online. http://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.hss.20130101.11. pdf

Kinoshita, Isami. The New Public Realm Shaping Street Landscape. 2007. Online. http://courses.washington.edu/quanzhou/pacrim/papers/ KinoshitaPaper070531-changes%20accepted.pdf

Silas, Johan & Ernawati, Rita. Liveability of Settlements by People in the Kampung of Surabaya. 2013. Online Silas, Johan. Perkembangan Program Perumahan dan Perbaikan Kampung di Surabaya. 1983. Online Silas, Johan. The Kampung Improvement Programme, Surabaya.1992. Online. http://worldhabitatawards.org/winners-and-finalists/projectdetails. cfm?lang=00&theProjectID=117 Surabaya City Development Board. Green Impact and Clean Report, Surabaya Municipatily. 2012. Online.

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8

Appendecies

This section consist of every datas, documents, and drawings which are colelcted, drew, or studied to help the project develop further until this point. The appendix consist both referenced documents and sketch drawings has made for the analysis and proposition.

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Surabaya Historical Map

Appendix 01. Surabaya Historical Map 1825 Image source: http://dewey.petra.ac.id/repository/jiunkpe/jiunkpe/mmedia/pust/1866/jiunkpe-nsmmedia-1866-na00404395-24700-soerabaja_1866-resource1.jpg

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Appendix 02. Surabaya Historical Map 1866 Image source: http://dewey.petra.ac.id/repository/jiunkpe/jiunkpe/mmedia/pust/1866/jiunkpe-nsmmedia-1866-na00404395-24700-soerabaja_1866-resource1.jpg Flexible Social Space in The Middle of Density of Urban Kampung in Surabaya, Indonesia

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Surabaya Historical Map

Appendix 03. Surabaya Historical Map 1900 Image source: http://dewey.petra.ac.id/repository/jiunkpe/jiunkpe/mmedia/pust/1900/jiunkpe-nsmmedia-1900-na00404395-24681-soerabaja_1900-resource1.jpg

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Appendix 04. Surabaya Historical Map 1914 Image source: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/baedeker_indien_1914/txu-pclmapssoerabaja_1914.jpg Flexible Social Space in The Middle of Density of Urban Kampung in Surabaya, Indonesia

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Surabaya Historical Map

Appendix 05. Surabaya Historical Map 1935 Image source: http://dewey.petra.ac.id/repository/jiunkpe/jiunkpe/mmedia/pust/1935/jiunkpe-nsmmedia-1935-na00404395-23562-soerabaja_1935-resource1.jpg

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Appendix 06. Surabaya Historical Map 1940 Image source: http://dewey.petra.ac.id/repository/jiunkpe/jiunkpe/mmedia/pust/1940/jiunkpe-nsmmedia-1940-na00404395-24796-tunjungan-resource1.jpg Flexible Social Space in The Middle of Density of Urban Kampung in Surabaya, Indonesia

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Design thesis project  

MA in Urban Design 13/14 | Sheffield School of Architecture

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