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VELSEN N A R R AT I V E O F A C I T Y Jasmijn Ponssen 29 october 2019 Tutor: Marco Lub


READING GUIDE This atlas and portrait were created for the first course of the MSc track Urbanism at the faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment at Delft University of Technology. The purpose of the atlas is to create an image and narrative of a city through a combination of techniques: maps, photographs, illustrations and text. In order to give some direction to the research, three topics were analysed. In the course of the analysis, both the physical form and the invisible, social layers of the city were studied. Throughout the process, a narrative for the city started to emerge. This narrative is what gives the structure to the Atlas that was synthesised at the end. Interestingly, many students produce an atlas for the same city, but the narratives they create are different. Every narrative only reflects a part of the complexity of the subject. The emerging storylines enable both students and designers, as well as inhabitants of a city, to understand their city and its possible (designed) futures. As sociologist Damiaan Denys explains in Tegenlicht in 2019, people need a sense of direction. Creating a sense of direction is increasingly difficult in the 21st century, where contradicting themes as globalisation and individualisation result in a chaotic image of life and the city. As urban planners and designers, I think it is good to visualise a direction through the chaos. The emerging storyline can function as the foundation of further design. To conclude, it is important to acknowledge that the image created in this Atlas is a reflection of a part of its complexity. Nevertheless, the guiding theme offers a welcome structure to the research and storyline. The analysis is an important part of the design process and the narrative can be the foundation for future designs for the city.

Cover: photograph of Velsen Noord with TATA Steel in the background (ANP, 2019)

2


INDEX 2

Reading Guide

3

Index

4

Introduction

6

Approach

8

Urbanised Landscape

8

Conditions for Productivity

10

Relationship Amsterdam

12

Timeline Velsen

14

Resulting Landscape Types

16 16 20

Urban Typomorphology Plans for the Area Urban Types & Openness

20

Urban Types

26

Approaches for the Future

29

Conclusion & Portrait

30

Reflection

31

References

3


INTRODUCTION As we cycled through Velsen, it struck us all as city of contrasts. The taste of the salty air; smell of fishing boats; sounds of the harbour; and the ever present silhouettes of the steel factory. And after crossing the canal, the dike, the road: a different world. The silhouettes of the trees and castles; the sounds of birds chirping; the smell of many species of plants and the taste of fish at a restaurant on the beach. We exchanged words with hard working, honest and proud people. This atlas reflects the city as it is now, by relating its growth to different socio-economic contexts through history. It is a story of how the area went from an unimportant place, to the vital and productive artery it is now. This is analysed by looking at three main themes: the urbanised landscape, the urban typomorphology and the open city. These three themes are all related to the guiding theme of the analysis: the productive city. First, the method and theme are explained. Then the first chapter will explain how the landscape was the foundation for the urban growth. Next, the motivations are linked to the sexpansion plans for the area and their resulting typomorphologies. A chapter describing the mutli-nucleated area and their present characteristics follows. Next, the region’s different urban typologies and their relationship with the productive layer of the city are explored. The story concludes with the possibilities for the future of the different city types and their productivity. Finally, a reflective essay was written to describe and reflect on the learning process.

Top: the municipality of Velsen indicated on the map of the Netherlands (own illustration) Bottom: the mouth of the Noordzeekanaal, which cuts the area in two (Dane, 2018) Right: map of the area indicating the different types of landuse (own illustration)

4


Water body Industrial area Urbanised area Unbuilt area

5


Industry

VELSEN: A PRODUCTIVE AREA

BEVERWIJK

VELSEN

81,1

81,3

As the images on the previous pages already unveil, the area of Velsen is a heavily industrial area. The chimneys of the steel factory tower on the horizon already since the conception of the urbanisation of the area. What used to be a dune landscape with a few country houses, now became the landscape of a productive city.

life expectancy years The spark for the urbanisation has been the Noordzeekanaal, which connects

BLOEMENDA

Amsterdam to the North Sea. Nowadays, the harbour of Amsterdam (including the harbours at the mouth of the canal) have a turnover of 90 million tonnes a year. This makes the harbour area along the canal of (inter)national economic and social importance.

2.238

Nevertheless, deindustrialisation is causing many big private industries to shrink in Western Europe. The costs of labour are lower abroad, and automisation simply allows for a smaller amount of employees. For the industrial cities in the67.738 people total: 41.039 people total: Netherlands, and specifically, the area of Velsen, this poses a big threat. A city that has grown in order to support a big industry like TATA Steel in Velsen is at the same time supporting the industry with employees and dependent on the industry for economic and social prosperity.

322

667

jobs

/1000 (age 15-75) In October 2019,people the news leaked out that TATA Steel will shrink its workforce in the Netherlands. At least 2.000 jobs will be relocated to lowerwage countries, which is 30% of the existing workforce in Velsen (NRC, 2019). In order to understand the impact of such a big industry on the city, a theorectical Jobs per sector - Beverwijk approach is needed. In order to supply a theoretical framework, the page to the right explains the way Karl Marx envisioned the relationship betwee the socioeconomic system and the physical embodiement of a city.

Agriculture

Trade

Collective services

Business services

Other

Industry

Agriculture

PERCENTAGE OF JOBS PER SECTOR

life exp years

98 million tonnes

1.512

density people/km2

82,8

life expectancy years

466 million tonnes

380

208 million tonnes

/1000 people (age 15-75)

Collective services

density people/k

total: 23.159 people

jobs

jobs

/1000 peo

Velsen is part of the industrial harbour area of the per sector - Bloemendaal city of Amsterdam. This harbour is ofJobs international, national and regional relevance (numbers from Port of Amsterdam, 2018)

Jobs per sector - Velsen

Trade

588

density people/km2

Business services

Industry

Other

Agriculture

Trade

Collec�ve services

Business services

15

10

The Netherlands

5

Bloemendaal

0

Velsen

Bloemendaal -5

Velsen

Beverwijk 0% Industry

6

10%

Agriculture

20%

30%

40%

Collec�ve services

50%

60%

70%

Business services

80% Trade

90%

100%

Other

This diagram shows the percentages of jobs per sector for different areas. It stands out that the area of Velsen produces many jobs in the industrial sector compared to its surrounding municipalities. (LISA, 2018)

-10

Beverwijk Social cohesion

Safety

Public Space

DUTCH


THEORETICAL APPROACH FOR THE PRODUCTIVE CITY Karl Marx’ theory about the systematic relationship between economy and the superstructure is very relevant to this study. Marx regards economy as the basis for everything in our civilisation, it is the reason for the productivity of our societies. This economy also establishes inequality between the two main classes in society: the proletariat and the bourgeois. In his opinion, it would take society many revolutions before this inequality would be erased and an equal, balanced civilisation would occur (The School of Life, 2019). When regarding economy as the main stimulus for all man activity, Marx says that all spatial and non-productivity related elements of society are also all shaped by economy. Correspondingly, society maintains the base in order to maintain itself. This viscious circle is also illustrated in the diagram below. As this atlas focusses on Velsen, a highly industrialised area, it is interesting to analyse the relationship between productivity (the base) and society (the super-structure). This will be analysed in the following chapter. First, the research focuses on the soil and geomorphology, which can be regarded as the ‘foundation’ for the base. Next, the varying relationships between the base and super-structure through history will be analysed. The relationship between base and super-structure forms the background to the following story about Velsen, which focuses on the resulting city and its possible futures.

SUPERSTRUCTURE: base shapes superstructure

everything not directly to do with production: media, politics, religion, family, culture, education

superstructure maintains base

BASE: ECONOMY relations of production:

proletariat - bourgoisie private property - capital - commodities

means of production:

A photograph of Karl Marx in 1875, he created his theory at the same time the first urbanisation happened in Velsen (Institue for Socialist History, 1875)

machines, factories, land, raw materials

Diagram illustrating Marx’ theory about the relationship between the economy and the superstructure (adapted from the Narratologist)

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CONDITIONS FOR A PRODUCTIVE FUTURE The section below shows the different soil types in the area. In this section, you can recognise the two main types of landscapes that are present at this point in the Dutch coastal line. As the map on the right also shows, the first landscape type is the barrier area that contains mostly sandy soil. This barrier came into existence due to deposits from the delta that were piled up due to forces of the wind and water. Behind this barrier, one can find the back-barrier area. This was an area less touched by hard forces, but it was very wet due to the low levels and big amounts of flooding. This resulted in a semi-salty

swamp area, where many years of building up disposition has resulted in a rich peat layer. The first settlements and villages, like Wijk aan Zee and Beverwijk, were established on the old dunes or in the protection of the taller young dunes. It was only in the 19th century that settlements occured on the wetter lands and peaty soils. The reasons for settling in these areas and their spatial implications is related to the growth of the capital city Amsterdam. This history will be explored in the following pages. NORTH SEA

BARRIER AREA

BACK-BARRIER AREA

Top: map illustrating the soil types in Velsen, around 1500 AD, showing the first places people settled.

WIJK AAN ZEE (1482)

IJMUIDEN (1920)

BEVERWIJK (1276)

Right: The Dutch delta in around 1200 AD (adapted from www.geologievannederland.nl)

(m) 30 20

Wijkerbroekpolder (1608)

IJpolders (1872)

10 NAP 0 -10 -20 -30

8

Barrier area

This section shows the different soil types in the area of Velsen and the current programmatic functions are projected above them (own illustration, adapted from Keijer, 2015)

Back-barrier area

Prograding barrier sequence

Tidal deposits

Young dunes

Lagoonal clays

Old dunes

Peat

Clay

Pleistocene deposits


THE DUTCH DELTA IN 1200 A.D.

Landscape types in 1200 AD Water body/river Swamps Tidal flood area Dunes Dryer grounds

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HARBOUR EXTENSION OF AMSTERDAM AMSTERDAM

VELSEN

Amsterdam and the harbour have always been in close It is striking that Velsen as a densely urbanised area only connection from the start of the city in the 13th century. came into existence many years after cities like Beverwijk The city manifested itself at the mouth of the river and Amsterdam were built. This can of course be explained Amstel and was immediately an important trade town. by the fact that there was simply no reason yet for a city to In the first years the harbour was situated inside the city, be situated in the empty, unconnected dune landscape. but from the 16th century onwards it started expanding So why did Velsen all of a sudden become the new hotspot around the existing centre. In the 16th century there was for industrial growth in North Holland? As the storyline on an expansion to the east, followed by an expansion in the the left and the map on the right already unveil: Velsen was 17th century on islands that closed the existing harbour simply the most direct place on the coastline to connect off from the river IJ. Amsterdam with the North HIGH FURNACES NOORDHOLLANDS KANAAL ZUIDERZEE 1300 1920 1825 Sea. Initially, the sailing route to Amsterdam was via the As the timeline on the next pages will also illustrate, Zuiderzee. In order to create a more direct connection the combination of the new infrastructural connections NORTHKanaal was dug with the North Sea, the Noordhollands in 1825. However, this canal was still quite long and soon 1876 and the firm sandy soil were the foundation for Velsen’s industrial bloom. After sketching the historical context, we did not live up to the standardsSOUTH of the growing ships. NOORDZEEKANAAL will look more closely into how the productive landscape This caused a stagnation in the growth of the Amsterdam IJMUIDEN 1876 came into being and the resulting landscape typologies. AMSTERDAMtrade economy. 1952 RIJNKANAAL Finally, we will lookA’DAM at the relationship Velsen will have HIGH FURNACES 1920 Only in 1876 a new canal was realised: Het with Amsterdam and industrial productivity in general Noordzeekanaal. This direct connection gave a new in the future. Will Velsen become the main harbour to impulse to the Amsterdam harbour, which started NORTH Amsterdam? Or will the deindustrialisation trend continue expanding rapidly on the new polders along the canal. and dissolve the harbours and productive areas altogether? AMSTEL 1300 The city also expanded its harbours along the now closed This will be discussed in the final chapter. off river IJ, towards the east and north of the city center. SOUTH Furthermore, the former harbour area at the islands north of the city center was dismanteled. The former IJMUIDEN 1876 harbour area made place for the Central Railway station, connecting the city even better. The Second World War brought a halt to the expansions of the harbour and damaged it greatly. The Germans sank a ship to block the Noordzeekanaal and demolished many buildings, both in Amsterdam and IJmuiden. After the Second World War, a plan for 1876 1825 the future of Amsterdam was made. The Algemeen Uitbreidings Plan (AUP) of 1930 located the harbour and industry expansions towards the west, along the canal. Lastly, Amsterdam was connected with the ‘hinterland’ in Germany through the Amsterdam-Rijnkanaal in 1952, which runs east of the city to the rivers in the east of the country. 98 million tonnes A’DAM The harbours and industry are still expanding, and so is the city. Derelict 466 million tonnesharbour areas are being transformed into new parts of the city, as Amsterdam has reached its city limits towards the north and south. As this happens, the harbours also move away further from the city center. 208 million tonnes It is only the question for how long the harbours will stay a part of the Amsterdam economy, as their future visions propose a contradictory storyline. On the one hand they value the indusrial and harbour character, on the other hand they state that they wish to transform big The different sailing routes connecting Amsterdam with the North Sea. The original route was via the parts of the western harbours into housing (Gemeente Zuiderzee. This route was shortened in 1825 through the construction of the Noordhollandskanaal. Amsterdam, 2018). The problem now is mostly that they Finally in 1876 the Noordzeekanaal made Amsterdam accessible very directly. put these ambitions into words, but not into drawings.

10 98 million tonnes


BEVERWIJK STEEL HARBOUR

1920 1920

IJMUIDEN LOCKS

1876

ZIJKANAAL A

IJMUIDEN ZAADAM 2019

1960

1920

1876

NOORDZEEKANAAL

1876

AFRIKAHAVENS

1825 1850

2015

WESTELIJK HAVENGEBIED

1987 2005

1987

HOUTHAVENS

2015

1980

1880

1300

NOORDHOLLANDS KANAAL

NDSM

1876 1945

1820 1850

AMSTERDAM NOORD

1300 1700

1650 1990

OOSTELIJKE EILANDEN

AMSTERDAM

1952

AMSTERDAM RIJNKANAAL

Amsterdam’s productive areas were developing along its harbours. The harbours moved as new waterworks developed. Only in 1876 the canal to the west was dug, hence this wasthe direction in which the industrial expansions took place.

11


TIMELINE | LANDSCAPE, ECONOMY, PRODUCTIVITY

MAIN PRODUCTIVITY IN VELSEN

scattered

scattered

Fishermen and farmers settled in the dune landscape, painting from 1650 (unknown artist)

12

scattered

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 2

Aerial photo of Hoogovens just after opening in 1924, situated on the most suitable soil type: sandy grounds (Driven by Steel)

DUTCH INFRASTRUCTURE

V.O.C. & COLONIES

PLANS MADE FOR VELSEN BY EXTERNAL PARTIES ECONOMIC IMPULSES RELATIONSHIP BASE AND SUPERSTRUCTURE

1600

This postcard llustates how the dune landscape in Velsen would be permanently divided by the canal (Noord Hollands Archief, 1872)

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1

Drawing of the first steam train connecting Haarlem and Amsterdam: running through Velsen following the direction of the landscape (Stadsarchief, 1839)

A VOC ship heading East, trade became an important part of the Dutch economy (J. van der Linde, 1864-1945)

1820

1876

1920

trade

tradescattered

Peat being harvested by farmers. Peat was used for fuel to serve the growing demand for energy in the Golden Age (H. W. Schweickhardt, 1783)

trade

scattered

infratrade

infra

infra

PRODUCTIVE IN CITY infra

trade PRODUCTIVE IN CITY

PRODUCTIVE IN CITY infra PRODUCTIVE ISLANDS

PRODUCTIVE ISLANDS PRODUCTIVE IN CITY

commuting

PRODUCTIVE ISLANDS commuting

PRODUCTIVE ISLANDSlocation inde

Painting of the works in the HoogMany hands were needed for digging The fishing harbor in IJmuiden, fisthe Noordzeekanaal (unknown artist, hers started using the inlet of the sea ovens in 1920 (Heijenbrock, 1919) for shelter, which eventually resulted 1874) in the harbor (NHA, 1939)


INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 3

As work becomes increasingly location independent due to internet, landscape makes a reintroduction in the human attention (NHA, 2014)

NATIONAL GROWTH

1945

The VINEX neighborhood Velsenbroek follows the patterns of the polder landscape to keep it legible (Noord Hollands Archief, 1993).

RECONSTRUCTION

Landscape disappears to the background and makes place for the expanding steel industry (Beeldbank Noord-Hollands Archief, 1968)

WAR

IJmuiden was a strategic war location being part of the Atlantik Wall and the inlet for goods to the country, it was bombed by the Allied forces in 1944 (Driven by Steel)

1945 1960

1990

2000

PRODUCTIVE CITY PRODUCTIVE ISLANDS commuting location independent location work independent work no work nEW work no work PRODUCTIVE ISLANDS IN CITY PRODUCTIVEPRODUCTIVE commutingISLANDS location commuting independent work no work nEW work PRODUCTIVE IN CITY INPRODUCTIVE ISLANDS commuting location independent work no work

PRODUCTIVE IN CITY

PRODUCTIVE ISLANDS

The work in the factories became less dangerous and more efficient as more advanced machinery was installed, Papierfabriek van Gelder (Rutte, 1930)

commuting

Due to technological advancements, less employees were needed for the actual steel production and better quality products could be produced (Gemeentearchief, 1970)

location independent work

no work

Work in the Dutch factories mainly consists of checking and controlling the machines. There are hardly any man powered steps left in the manufacturing process. (Eenvandaag, 2017)

nEW work

The main role of the Dutch factory now is to invent a more sustainable steel manufacturing method. Dutch policy is increasingly strict about CO2 emissions (TATA Steel Nederland, 2017)

nEW work

nEW work

Like many other industries, TATA Steel announces in 2019 to leave the Netherlands for economic reasons. The end of industrial productivity in the Netherlands? (NRC, 2019)

13


LANDSCAPE | TYPES & THEIR MORPHOLOGY The maps on the left page illustrate the different types of landscapes through time. The Dutch gladly controlled the landscape in order to construct safer places to live, which would also guarantee better places to farm and support the developing cities. The biggest intervention in this area of the Netherlands was the canal that connected Amsterdam to the North Sea. The diagrams next to the map show that this meant an absolute distruption of the natural landscape. Signalling the start of the industrial revolution in the Netherlands, the natural landscape disappeared increasingly to the background. Eventually

sub-urbanisation after WWII meant that the whole of the Amsterdam Metropole Region (including Velsen) was filled up with urbanised areas. Only special national protected areas have remained unbuilt, such as the Nation al park of the Kennemerduinen and the Schipol flight zone. These different types of landscapes that are currently present are illustrated in the map below. Their characteristic elements will be described in the following two pages. At a smaller scale these different areas of Velsen will also be discussed in the next chapter.

1300-1876: Three landscape types running next to each other.

1876-1945: Disruption of two landscapes by human intervention.

Resulting landscape types (above)

Urbanisation of the landscape (right page)

Infrastructure landscape

Water body

Productive landscape

Swamp/peat

City landscape

Young dunes

Dune landscape

Old dunes

Polder landscape

Sandy soil dug away Urbanised area

14

1945-2020: Landscape disappears to the background of urban growth.


BEVERWIJK

1300-1876 MAN AND LANDSCAPE

VELSEN

AMSTERDAM

1876-1945 MAN-MADE LANDSCAPE

TATA STEEL

BEVERWIJK

IJMUIDEN

AMSTERDAM

1945-2020 MAN

TATA STEEL

BEVERWIJK

IJMUIDEN

WEST HARBOURS

AMSTERDAM

15


PLANS | START & WAR-TIME The first plans made for the region were of course sparked by the introduction of the canal by the national government. The Regional Plan and Plan for Velsen however, were developed by the province and municipalities. The plans were very ambitious and envisioned a new, industrial metropole at the IJmond.

However, the plans did not all get approved quickly. Before Beverwijk could start expanding, The German occupation in WWII meant a pause in all development. The Germans made the IJmond area part of their Atlantik Wall. Furthermore, they demolished parts of the factory and city and blocked the canal.

Finally, after WWII, the Dutch national government gave priority to reconstructing the IJmond area. With Marshall Aid, the steel factory was quickly back on the track and the first new and reconstruction neighborhoods south of the canal were built. More expansions followed, but happened mostly north of the canal.

Regional Plan North

The Regional Plan of 1941 for the area of IJmond, the emphasis was largely on the northern side of the canal. (Driven by Steel, 2018)

Festung IJmuiden

‘Festung IJmuiden’ the port of IJmuiden was an important link during the German occupation of the Netherlands in WWII (Driven by Steel, 2018)

Reconstruct Velsen

The reconstruction plan for Velsen by van Tijen, Dudok and Maaskant in 1947. It would support the growing factory (Driven by Steel, 2018)

Year of Construction

16

Sea/canal

Built between 1920-1940

Built before 1880

Extension Plan Velsen 1924

Built between 1880-1920

Regional Plan 1941


1941

Plan North & Plan Velsen The first factories in the area were built in 1924. As the works in the factories relied greatly on man power, Hoogovens played a big part in the construction of the first neighbourhoods for they employees. They were built in the Garden City style.

1956

The Hoogovens were assigned a big piece of land already in the first plans for the future metropole of IJmond. Both the national park as existing country estates had to make way for the future industry.

1938 1924

Aerial photo of Hoogovens just after opening in 1924 (Driven by Steel)

De Lethstraat in Velsen Noord constructed in 1920s (Piet Korpershoek, 1999)

Festung IJmuiden The productivity of the area disappeared entirely during WWII, the canal was blocked by a sunken ship and many homes were demolished for defensive reasons. The scars from this time are still visible in the structure of IJmuiden. The German occupation damaged mostly the area south of the canal. For this reason, after the war IJmuiden would first focus on reconstruction, where Beverwijk could immediately start expanding.

Panorama Oud-Ijmuiden after the Second World War, looking East (Municipality of Velsen, 1949)

Reconstruct Velsen

Aerial photo of Hoogovens just after the war (Driven by Steel)

v

nte s mee n e ge

te een m e

Van Poptaplantsoen, rebuilt quickly after the German occupation according to the plan by Dudok (Google Maps)

New technological inventions meant that the steel industry relied less on man force but more on machines. This made the work safer and more efficient. The scale of the buildings in the industrial area also increased for this reason.

VESTORS

NVESTORS

After the war, the national government played a big part in reconstructing both the factory and the city. They improved the infrastructure and assigned a bigger piece of land to Hoogovens to expand and support the entire country with the steel it needed for reconstruction.

17


PLANS | POST-RECONSTRUCTION As IJmond south had already expanded largely before WWII, IJmond north had not yet grown that much. After 1956, their expansion plan got approved and from there on the cities of Beverwijk and Heemskerk grew exponentially. This would first have been to support Hoogovens but now it served mostly to support the growing population. As can be seen on the map to the right, the sub-urbanisation happened for the biggest part in the north of IJmond. Whilst Velsen would have liked to grow more, its was blocked between the National Park, the sea and the wet polder soil, on which building would be very expensive. The sub-urbs grew radially around the historical city centers of Beverwijk and Heemskerk. The last expansions happened on the wet polder soil that runs next to the sandy areas. Both IJmond north and south had reached their city limits on the sandy soils, and due to a diversion of the main road, two new VINEX neighbourhoods were made possible.

Extension Plan North

The Extension Plan for IJmond North in 1956, the new tunnel and diverted main road also visible (Driven by Steel, 2018)

Sub-urbanisation

After the extension plans that came quickly after WWII, the sub-urbanisation happened mostly in the IJmond North region (Driven by Steel, 2018)

The Regional Plan

The zoning plan made by a collaboraitioof the municipalities and TATA steel in 1979 (Driven by Steel, 2018)

Year of Construction

18

Sea/canal

Built between 1940-1960

Extension Plan 1956

Built before 1880

Built between 1960-1980

Extension Plan 1979

Built between 1880-1920

Built between 1980-2000

The Regional Plan 1979

Built between 1920-1940

Built between 2000-2019


Extension Plan North As the national government wanted the Netherlands to become independent in their steel industry, they opened up many possibilities to the factories. Improved infrastructure connections, financial investments and space was provided to stimulte its growth.

With the help of Marshall Aid, the ‘Breedband’ Press was built in 1950 (Ab de Bruin)

De Gilde was part of the plan for expansion of Ijmond North by Van Tijen and Maaskant (http://fotos. serc.nl/noord-holland)

The first neighbourhoods that were constructed after the war, were first drawn in the 1920’s. Therefore they were still situated next to the factory. The factory also financially supported these developments.

Sub-urbanisation The steel industry in IJmuiden was booming in the 1980’s. Many new and large buildings were constructed. Even a part of the National Park was given up north of the factory, in order to build new furnaces.

The construction of the ‘Warmband Rapid sub-urbanisation in Beverwijk Walserij’ number 2, or Hot Strip Mill 2, in order to keep up with the growing 1982 (Noord-Hollands Archief) population (Google Maps, 2019)

Beverwijk was finally able to respond to the demand for employee housing. However, the car made it possible for workers to commute to work in stead of having to live next to their job. Despite this fact, many neighbourhoods were built in a low density.

The Regional Plan

Old and new buildings co-exist on the TATA Steel premises (Siebe Swart, 2018)

Velserbroek VINEX expansion in the Polder. Plenty of space for the cars (Google Maps, 2019)

At long last in the 1990’s the municipalities of IJmond north and south collaborated to make the VINEX plan for the area. The goverment had assigned this region two expansion locations, both to be built in the polder. These neighbourhoods were well connected to the high speed roads. Therefore, they were probably not anymore constructed to support the automising factory, but to support the metropole region of Amsterdam/the Randstad with more housing for its growing population.

19


AREAS FOR PRODUCTIVITY & CITY As the historical desciption about IJmond concludes, the developments of the urbanised area was very focused on (industrial) productivity. The map on this page illustrates where these areas manifest themselves exactly and where cores for public city life are situated. On the next page the characteristics of the different cores and their related networks are elaborated.

B

C

In this map, multiple ways of integrating or separating industrial productivity and city life are visible. These can be related back to the era in which they were planned and the paradigms that existed at the time. From an initial factory worker’s neighborhood at the entrance of Hoogovens from the beginning of the 20th century, to mono-functional 60’s suburbs at a big distance from the factory fumes.

B A

A

C

Productive buildings Main roads Secondary roads Industry Farming Commercial

20

C


1.512 2.238 588 588 1.512 A B C 667 380 667 322 380 density density people/km2 people/km2 INDUSTRIAL CITY WORKER’S CITY

people total:total: 67.73867.738 people IJmuiden

RWIJK

VELSEN

1

81,3 jobsjobs

life expectancy years

238

9 people

2

Heemskerk

total: 67.738 peo

Driehuis BEVERWIJK BLOEMENDAAL BEVERWIJK VELSEN VELSEN BLOEMENDAAL BLOEMENDAAL Santpoort Velsen is a very multinucleated life expectancy life expectancy life expectancy life expectancy life expectancy life expectancy life expectancy area, with small villages that each years years years years years years years have their own characteristics. They can be divided into three main density density density density density density density categories. Their history, connection people/km2 people/km2 people/km2 people/km2 people/km2 people/km2 people/km2 total: 41.039 total: people 23.159 people total: 41.039 people total: 67.738 people total: 67.738 people total: 23.159 people total: 23.159 people to the networks below and underlying jobs jobs jobs jobs jobs jobs jobs landscape have played a role in /1000 people /1000(age people 15-75) (age 15-75) /1000 people (age 15-75)/1000 people (age 15-75) /1000 people (age 15-75) /1000 people (age 15-75) /1000 people (age 15-75) determining their present functions. The characteristics of each type will be per- sector - Bloemendaal elaborated in the following pages. Jobs perJobs sector Bloemendaal Jobs per sector - Beverwijk

81,1 82,8 81,1

life expectancy years

81,3

jobs

81,3 82,8

667

667

667

82,8 jobs jobs

people 15-75) /1000 people 15-75) /1000 people (age 15-75) /1000 people (age(age 15-75) 1.512/1000 2.238 588 (age 2.238 1.512 people 1.512 (age 588 15-75) 588 /1000

density people/km2

total: 67.738 people

667

jobs

/1000 people (age 15-75)

- Beverwijk

density people/km2

jobs

/1000 people (age 15-75)

322380

322

Jobs per sector - Beverwijk

Jobs per sector - Beverwijk

Jobs per sector - Bloemendaal

Jobs per sector - Velsen

Jobs per sector - Velsen Jobs per sector - Velsen

Jobs per sector - Velsen

380

380

Jobs per sector - Bloemendaal

Jobs per sector - Velsen

jo

/1

Jobs per sector - Bloemendaal

Jobs per sector - Ve

Jobs per sector (LISA, 2018)

ve services

Business services

Other

Industry

Agriculture

PERCENTAGE OF JOBS PER SECTOR

Trade

Collective services

Business services

Industry

Other

Agriculture

Trade servicesTrade Business services Other Industry Agriculture IndustryCollective Agriculture Collec�ve services Business services OtherTrade

10

The Netherlands

5

daal

-5

10%

20%

dustry

30%

40%

Collec�ve services

50%

60%

70%

Business services

80% Trade

90%

100%

-10

Trade

Collective services

Business services

OtherIndustry

Agriculture

Trade

Agriculture Collective servicesIndustry Business services

Trade Other

Velsen

Beverwijk Social cohesion

Other

OtherIndustry

Agriculture

Trade

Collec�ve services

Business services

Other

Industry Agriculture

10

10

5

5

0

0 Bloemendaal

Trade

-5

Velsen

DUTCH AVERAGE

Bloemendaal

Velsen

DUTCH AVERAGE

Collective services

Beverwijk 0%

Safety

Industry

Business services

15

-5

Velsen

Collec�ve services

10%

20%

Public Space

Agriculture

30%

40%

50%

60% 0% 70% 10% 80% 20% 90% 30% 100% 40%

Collec�ve services Industry Business services AgricultureTrade Collec�ve Other services

50%

60%

70%

Business services

-10

80%

Trade

90%

-10

Beverwijk

100%

Social cohesion

Safety

Beverwijk Public Space

Social cohesion

Safety

Other

Public Space

Business services Other

Industry Agriculture Tradejobs, Collec�ve services services BusinessOther services Industry Trade based Collec�ve services Half ofservices all jobsBusiness are inservices A reflection of theservices average andBusiness Industry Agriculture Trade Collective services Business servicesAgriculture Other Industry Trade Collective Business servicesAgriculture Other Service Agriculture Trade Collective Other

the industrial field

ECTOR OR

Dutch job distribution

15

1

THE PRODUCTIVE NETORK

5

-5

90% 100% 100% The productive areas that are situa-

Trade Other Other ted along the main infrastructures

15

2

10

0

80% 90%

Agriculture

DUTCH AVERAGE

Bloemendaal

Beverwijk

Agriculture

Other Industry

Bloemendaal

Velsen

wijk 0%

Business services

The Netherlands

Bloemendaal

0

lsen

Collective services

15 PERCENTAGE OF JOBS PER PERCENTAGE SECTOR OF JOBS PER SECTOR

15

ands

try

23.159 people total:total: 23.159 people Wijk aan Zee

Beverwijk people total: 41.039

Velsen North

1.512 3 TYPES

density density density people/km2 people/km2 people/km2 COMMUTER TOWN

-10

10

many commuters

Other

Industry

Agriculture

Trade

Collective ser

PERCENTAGE OF JOBS PER SECTOR THE CITY LIFE NETWORK

The Netherlands

3

THE RECREATIONAL NETWORK

3 NETWORKS

All the villages are all linked in different ways to the three different Bloemendaal layers of using the infrastructure in the area. Where the industrial city 0 DUTCH AVERAGE DUTCH AVERAGE is closer to the heavy infrastructure Bloemendaal Bloemendaal connections, the commuter town will Velsen be more likely to be integrated in the recreational network and the roads -5 Velsen Velsen linking the area to the bigger cities. The networks are displayed on the left, Beverwijk in which the area’s multi-nucleated -10 Beverwijk Beverwijk character comes forward. While some layers of use may other100% cores 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 80%rely on 90% Social cohesion Public Space in the70% Social cohesion Safety Safety Public Space area of IJmond, others will be Residential areas with each Recreation heat map and more independent. The elements that their own Industry commercial center main services hotspots Agriculture Collec�ve Businessdivide services Trade Other and connect the area will also be explored in the next pages.

5

21


TYPE A: INDUSTRIAL CITY | IJmuiden In IJmuiden, the development of the city and productivity have gone hand in hand. As a small harbour came into being due to the newly dug canal, the first settlements were created. Also the reconstruction of the city after WWII maintained the cities orientation towards the harbour.

neighbourhoods used to be very mixed with informally grown neighborhoods for sailors. The mix of functions has faded, but its diversity in functions and inhabitants remains visible. IJmuiden’s fabric is not interwoven with (harbour) industry, but its network is in strong connection with it. Next to IJmuiden’s own harbour and fishing industry,VELSEN the city is of course also BLOEMENDAAL oriented towards the Hoogovens. These life expectancy life expectancy can be reached byyears crossing the canal. years

The city knows a formal structure of streets introduced by Dudok. There are BEVERWIJK clear city borders: two roads running life expectancy along the dunes and along theyearscanal. Also, there is a clear central road that connects the different neighborhoods, density people/km2 with one another and with the harbour total: 41.039 people and the beach. IJmuiden’s residential

81,1

IJmuiden: harbour (left), old city (middle) and new Ijmuiden (right)

81,3

82,8

2.238

1.512

322

BEVERWIJK 667 /1000 people (age 15-75)

total: 67.738 people

jobs

588

density people/km2

380VELSEN

jobs

/1000 people (age 15-75)

STATISTICS POPULATION

jobs

/1000 people (age 1

81,1 21.200

life expectancy

Jobs per sector - Beverwijk

Agriculture

Trade

Collective services

Business services

Other

Industry

Agriculture

Trade

Collective services

Business services

Industry

Other

81,3 22.533

life e years

Jobs per sector - Bloemendaal

Jobs per sector - Velsen

years The average inhabitant of IJmuiden yearly income is statistically below the Dutch average: euro’s the life expectancy is lower by 0,5 year IJMUIDEN Averages population of IJmuiden (CBS, 2018) and the average salary is €10.000 less. CONNECTION TO NETWORK The Social Economic Status map also OF JOBS PERCENTAGE PER SECTOR evaluates as lower than its surrounding villages. Industry

density people/km2

total: 23.159 people

Agriculture

Trade

Collec�ve services

Business services

Other

15

10

The Netherlands

5

Bloemendaal

NETWORK

IJMUIDEN

0

Velsen

Bloemendaal -5

Beverwijk

The city is well connected to the main infrastructure of the area. Nevertheless, the city functions like a pier: the further away you go from the starting point, the longer you have to walk back. Along the main formal axes you can find many shops and public spaces. 0%

Industry

CONNECTION TO NETWORK

10%

20%

Agriculture

30%

The harbours are easy to reach, many roads lead to them. Nevertheless, without the use of a car, other industrial/ working areas are more difficult to access due to the positioning in the network. Also, the industrial functions are all very private, so you do not feel extremely welcome as a stranger. Building functions and openness

40%

Collec�ve services

OPENNESS PRODUCTIVITY

50%

60%

70%

80%

Business services

Trade

90%

100%

Safety

BEVERWIJK CONNECTION TO NETWORK

Diagram illustrating the fade of public space along the pier of IJmuiden harbour.

Private: housing Private: industrial

Social cohesion

Diagram explaining IJmuiden’s lineair city network.

Unknown

22

Beverwijk

OPENNESS OF PRODUCTIVITY

Quasi-public interior

A slice of IJmuiden: the bordering roads clearly visible.

-10

Other

Public interior space

IJmuiden’s harbour with almost only private functions.

Velsen

DRIEHUIS CONNECTION TO NETWORK

Public Space

DUTCH AVERAGE


Beverwijk | TYPE B: WORKER’S CITY

IJMUIDEN CONNECTION TO NETWORK

Beverwijk: TATA Steel (left), Beverwijk (middle) and de Pijp (right)

Beverwijk is the only real cityIJMUIDEN that the time the paradigm about urban existed already before the introduction planning were less dense and more open TOcompared NETWORK to the plans that were made of the Noordzee Kanaal in the CONNECTION area of Velsen. Despite being only a small for IJmuiden. This results in a city with a historical core, surrounded radially village at the time, its older, organic city structure is visible in the map of the by post-war residential neighborhoods. city texture on the right. This part of Despite being in close proximity to the TATA Steel factories, the urban fabric is the city still functions as the social and commercial heart of the city. not at all orientated towards it, partially due to its BEVERWIJK longer history but also due to VELSEN When the canal was finally introduced the paradigm changes in planning. life expectancy life expec in Velsen, both IJmuiden and Beverwijk responded with expansion plans. However, as can be seen in the past pages, Beverwijk only started to expand many years after IJmuiden did. Its primary growth happened after WWII, and at

81,1

2.238 total: 41.039 people

total: 67.738 people

jobs

81,3 22.533

life expectancy years

82,8 33.400

life expe years

Jobs per sector - Velsen

The average inhabitant of Beverwijk yearly income yearly income is also statistically below the Dutch euro’s euro’s BEVERWIJK average: the average salary is €8.500 Averages population of Beverwijk (CBS, 2018) less. The Social Economic Status map PERCENTAGE OF JOBS PER SECTOR CONNECTION TO NETWORK however, evaluates the socio-economic status of Beverwijk and Heemskerk to be slightly higher than IJmuiden.

21.200

Industry

Agriculture

Trade

Collective services

Business services

Other

Industry

Agriculture

Trade

Collective services

The Netherlands Bloemendaal

Velsen

NETWORK

BEVERWIJK CONNECTION TO NETWORK

Beverwijk

The center is close to the main road and railway. The road was constructed in the past to connect Beverwijk for trade, and has continued to exist.The city has radial roads, of which one reaches to the gates of the TATA Steel factory. Many commercial and public buildings are situated along the main arteries

OPENNESS PRODUCTIVITY

0% Industry

10%

Agriculture

20%

30%

40%

Collec�ve services

50%

60%

70%

Business services

80% Trade

90%

100%

Other

Diagram explaining Beverwijk’s centralised city OPENNESS OF PRODUCTIVITY network.

DRIEHUIS

In the map to the right the immense scale of the factory buildings becomes CONNECTION TO NETWORK visible. The private industrial area creates a barrier between the city and the sea. When the factory used to have 50.000 workers, it could be seen as a public space. Building functions and openness Public interior space Quasi-public interior

Diagram illustrating the squeeze of public space in the private TATA steel factory grounds next to Beverwijk.

Unknown

TATA Steel in IJmuiden, only one public road in the area.

Beverwijk, along the axis DRIEHUIS from center to sub-urbs.

CONNECTION TO NETWORK

densit people

BLOEMENDA 667 /1000 peopl

jobs

/1000 people (age 15-75)

Jobs per sector - Beverwijk

years

1.512

density people/km2

VELSEN 322

BEVERWIJK

STATISTICS POPULATION 81,1 lifeyearsexpectancy

81,3

OPENNESS OFyears PRODUCTIVITY

Private: housing Private: industrial

OPENNESS OF PRODUCTIVITY

23

Business services


BEVERWIJK CONNECTION TO NETWORK

TYPE C: COMMUTER TOWN | Driehuis IJMUIDEN

areas surrounding them, the commuter OPENNESS OF contrast. PRODUCTIVITY towns produce a big As people we spoke with on the field-trip would say: “You simply don’t go there”. The villages feel like islands in the nowadays heavily urbanised areas.

Driehuis is one of the types of is characteristic for the first settlements in the landscape of the Kennemerduinen. Already in the 16th century, rich people would have a summer home in the dunes in order to enjoy nature and the healthy air.

CONNECTION TOcities NETWORK that

Despite being islands, the small towns Nowadays, the population of Driehuis do all remain well connected by the railline and their proximity to the main has increased and diversified. The area roads. Excellent accessibility for typical provides a lot less jobs, andVELSEN as the maps BEVERWIJK BLOEMENDAAL to the left reveil, the village has mostly life expectancy life expectancy commuter towns.life expectancy years years localyears facilities and residential buildings. The mosly (semi-)detached homes stand DRIEHUIS in a park-like neighbourhood withdensity a density density people/km2 people/km2 people/km2 high total: 41.039 peoplelevel of aesthetics. total: 67.738 people total: 23.159 people CONNECTION TO NETWORK Compared to the more productive jobs jobs jobs

81,1

81,3

82,8

2.238

1.512

588

667 /1000 people (age 15-75) VELSEN STATISTICS POPULATIONlife expectancy life expectancy

380 /1000 people (age 15-75) BLOEMENDAAL

322

/1000 people (age 15-75) Driehuis: a small village between the polder and the Kennemerduinen.BEVERWIJK

81,1 The average inhabitant81,3 of Driehuis resembles the Dutch averages more 21.200 € of22.533 than the other parts the area. The Jobs per sector - Beverwijk

BEVERWIJK

years

yearly income CONNECTION TO NETWORK Agriculture

Trade

Collective services

life expectancy years

Jobs per sector - Bloemendaal

Business services

yearly income euro’s

euro’s

Industry

82,8 33.400

Jobs per sector - Velsen

years

Other

commuter towns are also assigned to PER SECTOR have PERCENTAGE a ‘high’OF JOBS social-economic status according to the SES. Industry

Agriculture

Trade

Collective services

Business services

The Netherlands

yearly income OPENNESS OF PRODUCTIVITY euro’s

Averages population of Driehuis (CBS, 2018) Industry

Other

Agriculture

Trade

Collec�ve services

Business services

Other

15

10

5

Bloemendaal

NETWORK

0

Velsen

Bloemendaal

Driehuis is a small town with a simple structure. Whilst being well-connected to the main infrastructure, there are no main roads running through the village. These characteristics, and the difference in prosperity to its surroundings give the village the feeling of being in an island

-5

DUTCH AVERAGE

Velsen

Beverwijk

0%

Industry

DRIEHUIS

10%

Agriculture

20%

30%

40%

Collec�ve services

50%

60%

70%

Business services

80%

Trade

90%

100%

-10

Beverwijk Social cohesion

Safety

Public Space

Other

OPENNESS PRODUCTIVITY

CONNECTION TO NETWORK

The commuter towns are less oriented to the local services and productive areas. In stead, they are more focussed on the bigger cities in the area. Both Amsterdam and Haarlem are easily accessed by car and public transport.

OPENNESS OF PRODUCTIVITY

This diagram shows that Driehuis has a collective atmosphere due to its structure

Building functions and openness Public interior space Quasi-public interior Unknown

24

Driehuis: detached homes in a collective atmosphere.

Driehuis is well connected to the roads for commuting.

Private: housing Private: industrial

Driehuis itself does not have productive functions, but is part of the Metropole Region of Amsterdam. Many inhabitants of the town commute to Amsterdam for work.


MAKING THE DIFFERENCE From this morphological and open city analysis, it can be concluded that the area of Velsen can not be regarded as one city. Despite the proximity and density of the area, it has grown around different cores with their own functions and identities. At the present, this results in a collage city with multiple types of villages that all have their own relationship with productivity. On the one hand, you could see this as a disadvantage of the area: its popuations do not feel connected, and there is an inequal distribution of wealth. On the other hand, it can be seen as a strength of the area. By having a neighbouring town that is very different from who you are, you will know that you are not them, so you are you. What this means is that every nucleus establishes its own recognisable identity and community. At the same time, it makes the villages more resilient for the future. As deindustrialisation is happening rapidly in Europe, this means loss of jobs in specific industrial sectors. As a region, the diversity in workforce and types of jobs results in an urban area that won’t fall apart when one link in the chain breaks. The western society is transitioning into a new relationship with industrial production in the global economy. At the same time is is faced with environmental challenges such as a changing climate, resource depletion as well as continuous urbanisation. These themes will play a big role in the future of the different nuclei in Velsen. In order to visualise the possible future for the different nuclei, three scenario’s are projected on the villages in the following pages.

Abstract visualisation of the network of public and productive spaces in the area of Velsen. The canal running in the middle from the metropolis Amsterdam to the sea, along which different industries manifest themselves. The main infranstructure running in the direction of the landscape, connecting different types of villages. Each village has its own level of openness, related to its position in the network.

25


FUTURE | City of making For the industrial city, deindustrialisation and centralisation of industrial productivity means that the working city is being drained from its productivity. According to the Cities of Making theory, trying to maintain manufacturing and small scale industries is important for strengthening its social and economic resilience.

“[urban manufacturing] still has an important role to play in their economic and social fabrics. Perhaps even more so in a future which promises new opportunities from technological developments, such as distributed manufacturing and automation, and one in which cities must address significant environmental challenges, including climate change and resource depletion.”

(Cities of Making, 2019)

A strategy for reanimating the city’s identity would therefore be to stimulate small-scale businesses, like urban manufacturing and fishing, throughout the city’s fabric. This will supply the city with both an open atmosphere and jobs for the local population. The concept drawing below illustrated how the small-scale integration of productivity will make the city more resilient in times of deindustrialisation.

26

Concept drawing visualising how small-scale productivity could be re-integrated into the urban fabric of IJmuiden (own illustration, based on the photograph from the municipality of Velsen, 1945).


Drosscape | FUTURE “Deindustrialisation has many meanings, which often refer to topics other than loss of manufacturing jobs. In relation to urbanization, for instance, it reveals how industrial evolution alters the landscape of the city. Its broadest meanings are derived from the history of capitalism and evolving patterns of investment and disinvestment.”

(Alan Berger, 2006)

As TATA Steel is slowly moving its productivity elsewhere, it leaves a big scar in the regional tissue. The industrial island used to supply many jobs for its surrounding cities, but will now seize to do so. For a worker’s city like Beverwijk, this will result in a turbulent time. The TATA Steel area however, can not be converted into a thriving (productive) landscape overnight. The grounds are polluted and heavily determined by the existing structures. Trying to force it into a newly productive area will be pointless and very expensive. According to Berger, the area will need to go through a period of disinvestment, before it can be revived. Hence, the stategy for the drosscape of the former industry territory might be to wait for a new period of economic interest. Due to its bigger scale, this area needs a more long-term approach than small-scale IJmuiden.

Concept drawing visualising the industrial island of TATA Steel. The city has grown because of it, but at the same time it has grown around it. The red line represents the fluctuating economic interest in the area, and predicts that after the present decline, there will be an increase again in the future.

27


FUTURE | Metropole Region Amsterdam The last image for the future of Velsen is the illustration below that shows how productivity is ‘canal-hopping’ along the Noordzeekanaal towards Velsen. As the metropolis of Amsterdam is continuously reaching its city boundaries, it expands itself towards in former industrial areas. Accordingly, its industrial territories also move away further along the canal.

“It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is most adaptable to change.” Charles Darwin (quoted by Havenbedrijf Amsterdam in 2015)

This ongoing process gives hope for the area of Velsen, as it is an essential part of Amsterdam’s harbour. As an area, Velsen will now probably see a period of decline, but as Amsterdam keeps expanding and the demand for new types of industries keeps rising, eventually Velsen will be a productive and thriving city again.

28

Concept drawing showing how productivity, has been ‘canal-hopping’ east. The city expands in the former harbour areas and the industry moves further away. Eventually it can be expected that Velsen will also become part of this proces (own illustration, based on the map by Jan Willemsen, 1876).


(IN)DEPENDENCY | CONCLUSION As the past pages have illustrated, Velsen is a multi-nucleated area, where each nucleus had its own role and relationship with productivity. The diagram on the left illustrates the dependency between the different nuclei, both for city life and productivity. The area’s urbanisation happened on the basis of economic interest in the area, which resulted in the different types of nuclei coming into existence. Currently, the area is faced with the challenge of deindustrialisation. Strategies for creating a resilient future for every nucleus should correspond to the grain size of both the (former) industry and housing. By diversifying every nucleus’ individual productie character, the area maintains its resilience through diversification of its economic structure. By giving each nucleus an individual approach, the area will eventually thrive again.

Diagram illustrating the dependency of the different villages to production or city facilities at a higher scale level.

PORTRAIT

The Portrait of the city also reflects the area’s different relationships with industrial productivity. It has two layers that can stand without one another, but will both have holes in them when you remove one of them. The red layer represents the city life, and how it grew parallel to the expansions of the industry. Also the different types of relationships with industry are represented. Accordingly, the metallic layer is a heart of industrial productivity. It is situated at the crossroads of the canal and railroad, and expanded through time. The two layers are leaning on one another, showing that they simultaneously maintain and need each other. Velsen is, and will always be an area in close connection with productivity.

29


REFLECTION Creating this atlas was part of the first year of the MSc of Urbanism at Delft University of Technology. As a first year student in urbanism, analysing a city like Velsen and trying to visualise its narrative, was a good way to start learning how to read and understand a city. In this reflection, I will finally look back on the learning process of this first quarter. To begin, we started off with workshops and an excursion to get a first feeling for the city we were analysing. This helped to get the thought process started, and soon a first idea about what the city was, was conceived. Nevertheless, when we started looking into a different topic, the vision about the city changed again. In the process, this was something I needed to learn to accept. The analysis process is in fact not lineair but also consists of reflection and and feedback-loops. Next, as we studied different aspects of the city, we also started to need to produce different types of maps and drawings. In order to shape my thoughts and test my hypothesis, I experimented with different ways of drawing and gathering data. I found that using multiple methods helped me a lot in getting the right feeling of the city. Using sketches, reading books, looking at old photographs and filtering data in QGIS resulted in a broad feeling for the city. After analysing, the structure of the course demanded me to synthesise my ideas into presentation drawings. By doing so, I tried to draw so that my peers would understand my ideas as well. It was very helpful to see the analysis of my groupmates during these presentations. Interestingly enough, we all eventually focussed on different aspects of the city, which led to somewhat diverting conclusions. The discussions with the team and tutor Marco were really good, as it helped to stay critical towards my own thoughts. Furthermore I think it is very valuable that we started this year with a project that does not focus on design, but on understanding the story of a city. In the end, in order to create both convincing and feasible ideas and

30

designs, you need to first understand the city in all of its complexity. By experimenting with methods of creating a city narrative, I think I have layed a good foundation for the design courses that are yet to come. In the atlas, I have told a story narrative that is not about the complexity of the city, but about an aspact of this complexity. On the one hand, I realise that this theme does not cover the entire truth about the city. On the other hand, I do think it is an effective way of creating clarity in a story and design. It helps to use this theme as a structure, to which I can connect different storylines of the city. Nevertheless, I should in the future not try to explain everything of socio-economic complexity through only one lense as it might result in a distorted image. In conclusion, creating a city narrative and synthesising it into an atlas and portrait has been a very good way to start learning about cities. I must say that I have felt slightly overwhelmed by the complexity of cities and their many layers and truths. Luckily, the structure offered by the course and tutoring sessions helped to guide me in the proces. At the same time, it is good to feel small and be aware of my not-knowing. This makes me eager to learn more about cities, ways to study them, methods to visualise them, and finally, how to operate as a designer in them.


REFERENCES ANP. (2019). TATA Steel in IJmuiden [Foto]. Geraadpleegd van https://nos.nl/artikel/2307232onzekerheid-bij-tata-steel-hoe-groot-is-de-kans-op-veel-nederlandse-ontslagen.html Dane, J. (2018). Pier of Ijmuiden [Foto]. Geraadpleegd van https://www.flickr.com/photos/ jbdodane/41167861515 de Boer, P. (1993). Luchtfoto van Velserbroek ziende naar het zuidoosten [Foto]. Geraadpleegd van https://noord-hollandsarchief.nl/beelden/beeldbank/ detail/83f4791e-f072-e47e-6ae6-c1c3013d9426 De eerste trein van de Hollandsche IJzeren Spoorweg-Maatschappij. (1839). [Schilderij]. Geraadpleegd van https://www.parool.nl/nederland/al-180-jaar-tuft-de-trein-tussen-amsterdamen-haarlem~b954c1bd/?referer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2F Eenvandaag. (2017). Hebben de hoogovens van vandaag nog toekomst? [Foto]. Geraadpleegd van https://eenvandaag.avrotros.nl/item/hebben-de-hoogovens-van-ijmuiden-nog-toekomst/ Feith, J. (1872). Binnenfront van de Zuidersluis van het Noordzeekanaal [Foto]. Geraadpleegd van https://onh.nl/verhaal/met-jan-feith-door-de-haven-van-ijmuiden-1933 Gemeentearchief Schiedam. (1970). Hoogoven VII [Foto]. Geraadpleegd van https://werf-gusto. com/?page_id=14409 Geologie van Nederland. (z.d.). Kennemerduinen. Geraadpleegd op 24 oktober 2019, van http:// www.geologievannederland.nl/landschap/geologische-locaties/kennemerduinen Holland op z’n smalst. (1874). [Foto]. Geraadpleegd van https://museumtijdschrift.nl/ tentoonstellingen/droom-holland-op-zn-smalst/ Keijer, H. (2015). 1-2-3 Geologie voor ingenieurs [Illustratie]. Geraadpleegd van https:// docplayer.nl/67885707-Herman-keijer-holoceen-formatie-van-boxtel-1e-en-2e-zandlaag-eemkleigrens-van-saale-gletsjer-formatie-van-drente.html LISA. (2018). Werkgelegenheid. Geraadpleegd van https://www.waarstaatjegemeente.nl/Jive/ ViewerReportContents.ashx?report=lisa&inp_geo=gemeente_{regiocode} Port of Amsterdam. (z.d.). Visie 2030, Port of Amsterdam. Geraadpleegd van https://www. portofamsterdam.com/sites/poa/files/media/projecten/strategie/ha-visie-2030-juni_2015_los. pdf Rutte, J. (1930). Papierfabriek van Gelder [Foto]. Geraadpleegd van https://www. nationaalarchief.nl/onderzoeken/fotocollectie/detail?limitstart=78&q_searchfield=Velsen Schweickhardt, H. W. (1783). Landschap met vissers en turfstekende boeren in het laagveen [Schilderij]. Geraadpleegd van https://www.rijksmuseum.nl/ Strand met vissers. (1630). [Schilderij]. Geraadpleegd van https://www.rijksmuseum.nl/ TATA Steel Nederland. (2017). Hisarna [Foto]. Geraadpleegd van https://www.tatasteel.nl/nl/ duurzaamheid/innovatie/HIsarna/tijdlijn van der Linde, J. (1884). A VOC-ship, bound for the East Indies [Schilderij]. Geraadpleegd van https://www.invaluable.com/ auction-lot/a-voc-ship-bound-for-the-east-indies-painted-by-35-c-dff454784b

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Profile for Jasmijn Ponssen

Velsen - The Productive City  

The narrative for the productive urban area of Velsen is illustrated in this atlas, which is the result of the first quarter of the MSc Urba...

Velsen - The Productive City  

The narrative for the productive urban area of Velsen is illustrated in this atlas, which is the result of the first quarter of the MSc Urba...

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