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The Passion Vine

The Passion Vine – August 2016

21 Turramurra Road, Tarragindi, QLD 4121

Passionfruit Strategic Investment Advisory Panel meets for the First Time

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August 2016 Your panel members are:  Brian Westwood from North Queensland  Ross Brindley from the Widebay region  Melissa Smith and Keith Paxton from the Sunshine Coast region  Sue Granger and Tim Johnson from Northern NSW, and  Tina McPherson and Jim Gordon who are representing Passionfruit Australia, plus  Astrid Hughes from HIA. Appointments to the panel are for a minimum of 3 years. They will meet twice a year face to face.

Pictured above are Jim Gordon, Tina McPherson, Keith Paxton, Astrid Hughes, Sue Granger, Monique Emmi, Brian Westwood, Melissa Smith, Ross Brindley, Tim Archibald, Andy Harvey The 26th July 2016 was the date for the first meeting of the Passionfruit Strategic Investment Advisory Panel (SIAP), held in Brisbane. As reported in the May Passion Vine each industry SIAP will help Horticulture Innovation Australia (HIA) in its charter to “bolster industry output and returns”.

have “an ear to the ground” and be able to represent the sentiment of their industry while executing their responsibilities as Panel members. Panel members are also selected to cover the many regions of the industry, and two are selected to represent their industry association and a HIA Relationship Manager.

Panel members of the Passionfruit SIAP have been appointed based on their expertise and experience. Panel members are expected to

Newsletter of Passionfruit Australia Incorporated

Growers are encouraged to contact panel members if they have any ideas for the industry that they would like to see included in the industry levy program. HIA also asks growers to go “on-line” and input ideas into the concept form on the Hort Innovation website or to contact the HIA Passionfruit Industry Relationship Manager, Astrid Hughes on 07 3198 6751, 0405 306 334 or . HIA has developed a specific information page on their website that you can look at to keep up to date with Passionfruit SIAP

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Passionfruit Australia Incorporated Executive Committee and Sub-Committees President

Vice President

Tina McPherson

Tom Carey

15 Zinks Road Bundaberg QLD 4670 P: 07 4159 3001 M: 0428 415 930 E:

“Wilgra” Terania Creek Road The Channon NSW 2484 P: 02 6688 6510 M: 0407 710 009 E:



Jim Gordon

Sean Russell (JE Tippers)

PO Box 119 Yandina QLD 4561 P: 07 5446 7536 M: 0403 185 961 E:

PO Box 27, Brisbane Markets QLD 4006 P: 07 3379 1041 M: 0418 158 331 F: 07 3379 4817 E:



Peter Griffiths

Nick Hornery N & N Hornery 73 Watsons Lane Newrybar NSW 2479 P: 02 6687 1405 F: 02 6687 1830 M: 0432 183 085 E:

408 Dahl's Road Calavos QLD 4670 T/F: 07 4159 7394 M: 0429 656 922 E:


Industry Services Manager

Dr Cameron McConchie

Margie Milgate

Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries GPO Box 3000 Darwin NT 0801 P: 08 8999 2310 M: 0419 884 037 E:

21 Turramurra Road Tarragindi QLD 4121 M: 0439 596 174 E:

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Breeding and Vine Trial Committee

Communications Sub-committee

Jim Gordon—Chair Ross Brindley Peter Griffiths John McLeod David Peasley Brian Westwood Keith Paxton

Tom Carey—Chair Nick Hornery Jane Richter This sub-committee gives oversight to the levy funded Communications Project which runs until June 2017. This includes the magazine and website.

Strategic Agricultural Review Process (SARP) Sub-Committee Keith Paxton—Chair Steve Grey Ross Brindley Ian Constable

Sub-committees are important to the operations of the industry as they concentrate their energies on specific topics and then provide advice and recommendations back to the Executive. Their wonderful and volunteer work is greatly appreciated and shows commitment to the development of this passionate industry. For information regarding administration issues for Passionfruit Australia Incorporated please contact: Margie Milgate, 21 Turramurra Road, Tarragindi, QLD 4121 Mobile: 0439 596 174 Email: For varieties and plantings issues please contact your local Executive Member as listed on page 2. Other enquiries can be made through Queensland Department of Agriculture & Fisheries on their call centre number 132523. All contributions concerning the passionfruit industry are most welcome. Thank you to growers Brian Westwood, Peter Griffiths, Jim Gordon, Nick Hornery and Tina McPherson for their contributions. Also thank you to Monique Emmi and Astrid Hughes from Hort Innovation, Brooke Fraser from Top Class and Peter Rigden from DAP This publication of The Passion Vine is edited by Margie Milgate and Jenny Drew. R&D and marketing projects reported in this newsletter have been funded by Hort Innovation Australia Ltd. The advice and opinions in the articles published in The Passion Vine are essentially those of contributors and do not necessarily reflect the views of Passionfruit Australian Incorporated or the Editor. The advice is at the reader’s own risk, and no responsibility is accepted for the accuracy of the material presented. Inclusion of an advertisement in this publication does not necessarily imply endorsement of the product, company or service by Passionfruit Australia Incorporated or the Editor.

The Passion Vine – August 2016 (Continued from page 1)

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into projects that will see greater productivity and returns for all growers.

The Passionfruit SIAP will also be tasked with having input into the new industry Strategic Investment Plan. The current plan has run from 2012 and is to conclude next year. This new Strategic Investment Plan will be the industry’s road map into the future and the more growers that provide their input the better chance Hort Innovation will have of investing

General ideas are welcome through the above channels or if anyone would like to sit down personally with Hort Innovation please let them know and arrangements will be made. Additionally, there will be an opportunity to discuss the new Strategic Investment Plan face to face with Hort Innovation at the Passionfruit Australia

Incorporated Annual General Meeting in September. As well as the R & D component of the levy, the Passionfruit SIAP members will also provide comments on the Australian Passionfruit Marketing Program. This program is managed by Monique Emmi from Hort Innovation. You will find an update on recent marketing activities later in the Passion Vine.

PASSIONFRUIT AUSTRALIA FEES Don’t forget the benefits of membership include :

   

Showing support and being involved in the Australian Passionfruit industry Accessing industry contacts and information Discounted cost of royalties on the purchases of Passionfruit Australia plant varieties Up-to-date information through industry publications, field days and meetings

New Grower Membership Fee $253 incl GST, joining fee and lobby fees Renewal Grower Membership Fee $198 incl GST and lobby fees New Associate/Supply Chain Partner $297 incl GST, joining fee and lobby fee Renewal Associate/Supply Chain Partner $242 incl. GST and lobby fee

Bank account details Passionfruit Australia Incorporated BSB: 124-001 Acc No.: 21655088

Memberships run with the fiscal year from July 1st to June 30th each year irrespective of the date joined. Membership lapses if not renewed within three months of end of the fiscal year. Plant Royalties are due on propagation or purchase of all PAI varieties. Fees are payable to Passionfruit Australia Incorporated using a Tax Invoice/Plant Order form available through PAI. These fees are $0.35 per plant for PAI members, otherwise $0.70 per plant for all non-members.

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Members and supporters of Passionfruit Australia Incorporated are invited to

the Annual General Meeting, Industry Update and Field Day on 24th September 2016 Being held at Moorland Produce 145 Quinns Rd Moorland QLD 4670 Start time is 10am and will include a lunch before the Field Day.

Speakers will include Tina McPherson, President of Passionfruit Australia. Astrid Hughes, Passionfruit Relationship Manager, Hort Innovation. Stacey Watson, AustSafe Super Graham King and Peter Bundock from Southern Cross University.

Directions to Moorland Produce :

The Field Day will be led by Ross Brindley and assisted by Eddie Dunn from Hortus. Passionfruit Australia wants to thank the following Sponsors  J E Tippers,  AustSafe Super,  Permalog Timbers and  Hort Innovation for providing support for the running of the day. Please RSVP your attendance for catering purposes to Margie Milgate at Passionfruit Australia on 0439 596 174 or au.

Please advise any dietary requirements. There are a wide number of accommodation options in Bundaberg and surrounding area. In Bundaberg you could call Comfort Inn Sugar Country, 220 Bourbong Street, Bundaberg, on 07 4153 1166, or Burnett Riverside, 7 Quay Street, Central Bundaberg on 07 4155 8777 You could also search further

options through,, or rd On On Friday Friday night night 23 23rd the the Passionfruit Passionfruit AGM AGM will will be be preceded by by aa gathering gathering at at The preceded Brewhouse, No 10 Tantitha Street, Bundaberg. Please join us for a relaxing evening starting from 6.30pm

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Regional Roundup From the growers...

NSW Area

By Nick Hornery Hello Everyone. On our farm this winter we have experienced one of the better winter crops from memory. Its probably due to a warm May and not a spectacular Autumn crop. Fruit quality has been overall pretty good. As usual excellent fruit out of the new vines with lesser quality out of the older vines. Fruit size has been great the majority of fruit in the 90 to 120 sizes. We had a dry end to July with the ground drying out but since then have had some nice rain. It’s always nice to start spring with a full dam. This year we will be planting sweethearts only. The Tweed variety that we had given plenty of chances hasn’t performed as well as the sweetheart. Bye for now .

SE Queensland By Jim Gordon

Hello everyone. This must be one of the mildest winters we've had in years. We started the season with heaps of fruit in early June and continued to have a reasonable amount until the end of July. We are winding down now we are in August and the fruit we have is quite small. There has been a lot of variation in production times even within the region from Gympie down to Glasshouse. The next month will be spent renovating the blocks we are replanting - lots of posts to replace and wires to strain. Personally we are planting a few less this year

but I believe there are a few new growers joining our ranks. I wish them good luck. Hopefully Jill and I will see most of you at the AGM in Bundaberg.

Bundaberg Area By Peter Griffiths

Hello everyone. In the Bundaberg region there is very little to report weather wise except for the 150mm of rain in June and very little since. The winter crop of both Mistys and Pandora aren’t breaking any records, just steady. Bring on summer. I am not a big fan of picking on these cold, damp winter mornings. The nursery season is in full swing so if you need December plantings please contact your nursery of choice to confirm your order. Its Bundy’s turn to hold the AGM this year and even though it is a pain to access (flight wise) I hope to see a good turn out at this year’s event as always. That’s all until next time. Thanks.

North Queensland By Brian Westwood

Hi everyone, North Queensland weather continues to be warmer and drier than usual. Winter has been mild with the morning temperature not dipping below five degrees. In the May edition of the Passion Vine I wrote this year may be the making of a good season due to the warmer weather; so far the crop has proved different. Vine

growth has been extremely fast, budding up fruit set was minimal and disappointing. Its early August and bud initiation is taking shape. Hopefully there will be a fair fruit set from now on. Our vines are on a twelve month turn around period. The chances of a reasonable season may still be achieved as time for replanting narrows. Further north, a Lakeland Downs grower described his season, so far, as the best he has experienced. A Cooktown grower has informed me their harvest had started and they were happy with the way their season is progressing.

Passionfruit Australia Licensed Nurseries Birdwood Nursery 71 Blackall Range Road Woombye QLD 4559 P: 07 5442 1611 J & V McLeod Campbell’s Road Dungay NSW 2484 P: 02 6672 3503 Widebay Passionvine Nursery 408 Dahls Road Calavos via Bundaberg Q 4670 P: 07 4159 7394

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The Passion Vine – August 2016

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Managing Passionfruit Diseases By Peter Rigden (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Queensland)

Passionfruit growers face a relentless battle to keep a number of fungal diseases at bay in their plantations. Many of these diseases are readily spread by any air movement and this, together with the thick vegetative vine growth essential for high crop production, makes them very difficult to control. Heat, high humidity and wet weather in passionfruit growing areas provide an ideal environment for diseases to take hold and unfortunately these conditions also present significant challenges regarding the application of fungicides. This article outlines the strategies growers can use to manage disease problems. Disease management revolves around the regular use of preventative (sometimes called protective) fungicides and the strategic use of clean-up fungicides: Preventative fungicides Preventative fungicides can prevent the build-up of diseases on leaves and fruit. These fungicides do not kill or control existing infections, however minor, that may be present on the surface of a fruit or leaf before the fungicide is applied. It is therefore essential to apply preventative fungicides frequently to form a protective layer, provide protection to new growth and to replace any fungicide washed off by rain. DO NOT stop using them during dry weather. Maintaining your

Photo above : Early symptoms of Alternata spot on fruit

protective fungicide spray program in dry weather will minimise disease outbreaks during and after wet weather. These types of fungicides are not systemic and their effectiveness relies on a complete layer of chemical being applied to entire leaf and fruit surfaces to prevent diseases becoming established. They need to be applied in high volume applications to achieve good coverage (1.5 to 2.0 litres per vine is a general guideline for mature vines), low volume applications will give only an inadequate, partial coverage of the vine. Clean – up fungicides Clean-up fungicides are most effective when applied prior to the onset of wet weather. Sometimes applications can be made in advance on the basis of

weather forecasts. Fortunately, these chemicals assist with control of disease outbreaks even when applied after wet weather, especially where protective sprays have been used regularly beforehand. Clean-up fungicides (unlike preventative fungicides) have very specific modes of action and as a result resistant strains of diseases will develop if they are not used correctly. Their labels detail resistance management strategy guidelines that limit the number of applications per crop and stipulate their use in combination with protective fungicides. The following table on page 9 outlines which chemicals are recommended and currently registered for use to control diseases which are likely to occur.

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Disease controlled (as shown on the label)

Chemical (active Activity ingredient)

Application and timing

Anthracnose, Brown spot (alternaria passiflorae), Septoria leaf spot


Preventative/ protective

Every 10 to 14 days from October to May and every 21 – 28 days for the remainder of the year.

Alternaria, Cladosporium


Preventative/ protective

Apply 2 to 3 applications at no less than 14 day intervals over flowering. Apply a further 1 to 2 applications finishing 1 day prior to harvest (Follow resistance management strategy on label).

Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gleosporioides), Septoria spot (Septoria passiflorae)

Pyraclostrobin* (Permit 12781)

Preventative/ protective

Apply when symptoms first appear. Do not apply more than three applications of strobilurin fungicides per crop per season. Applications should be alternated with other registered protectant fungicides.

Brown spot (alternaria passiflorae), Septoria spot (Septoria passiflorae)

Copper oxychloride

Preventative/ protective

Apply every 2 weeks (4 weeks in NSW) from October to May and 3 to 4 weeks (2 months in NSW) during winter.

Alternata spot, (brown spot), (alternaria spp., alternaria passiflorae)



Maintain a protective cover with a protectant fungicide and apply 10 -14 day intervals before, during and after wet periods. No more than 4 sprays per season (Follow resistance management strategy on label).

Phytophthora blight

Phosphorous acid Clean-up (Permit 14552)

Preventative: apply every 5 - 6 weeks Curative: apply every 3 weeks until disease is under control.

* Both of these fungicides belong to the strobilurin group. To prevent the build-up of disease resistance do not apply more than three applications combined per crop per season. Check the label for application rate, mixing recommendations, with-holding period, resistance management strategies etc. and to confirm the product is registered for use in your State. Make sure your spray equipment is properly calibrated and worn nozzles are replaced; this is essential to ensure the best possible coverage of the vine. Growers have reported some copper fungicides have caused burn to fruit and leaves and that others are less problematic in this respect. Therefore, before spraying

the whole plantation, trial copper fungicides on a few vines and monitor them for the development of any burn symptoms.

and their mycelium (feeding structures in the leaf tissue). However, because it is only locally systemic, good coverage is essential to obtain good results;.

After extended periods of wet weather, the incorporation of azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin or iprodione fungicides into the preventative spray program may assist in control of disease ‘outbreaks’.

Passionfruit are very susceptible to Phytophthora root rot which thrives in saturated, cool soils. In addition, wet conditions favour the development of Phytophthora blight on stems, foliage and fruit. Phosphorous acid is effective against all Phytophthora infections, it is highly systemic and after application as a foliar spray it will be translocated

Iprodione is ‘locally systemic’ it is not translocated throughout the plant. It will kill both the spores

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throughout the whole plant, including the roots. DO NOT apply phosphorous acid to the soil or through the irrigation system; the chemical becomes unavailable to the plant on contact with the soil. Base rot caused by the fungus Fusarium solani does not attack sound tissue or vigorous vines. Plants subjected to stress as a result of other diseases, wounding, old age, poor growing conditions, and insect attack are susceptible. In particular Phytophthora infections provide an ideal entry point for Fusarium solani so control of Phytophthora will help minimise the development of base rot. Planting vines too deep can cause a high incidence of base rot because the soil against the soft green base of the stem creates a suitable environment for infection. There is no chemical control for base rot. There are a number of management practices which growers can adopt to help prevent and reduce the impact of diseases:  Avoid missing scheduled sprays of protectant fungicides, even when there are no visible disease symptoms on vines. Millions of spores can be produced on one infected leaf or fruit and by the time you see disease symptoms it is too late for preventative fungicides to stop them spreading. Where possible remove diseased fruit and leaves in the canopy.

 Control root diseases and insect pests, also maintain the best nutrition and irrigation practice you can. Strong vigorous vines are less susceptible to disease infection than weak

Photo above : A vine planted too deep that has developed base rot, after planting the top of the potting mix was well below the level of the surrounding soil. The photo shows the swollen stem base with bright red spores typical of Fusarium solani. The stem has been painted with white paint in an unsuccessful attempt to limit the infection.


 Protect the vines from wind. Wind exposure limits vine vigour, and increases the susceptibility of vines to infection. Establish shelter belts to reduce the exposure of vines to wind. 

Replant older vines. Diseases may build up undetected in older vines with thick canopies not penetrated by fungicide sprays. During and

after wet weather periods, the health of these vines may rapidly and uncontrollably deteriorate. Many experienced growers preemptively replant older vines, even when they appear healthy, to avoid the high crop losses that occur in old vines when this happens. Replant intervals can vary from 12 to 36 months, depending on climate and vine growth.

 Varietal resistance. Varieties vary in their susceptibility to

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diseases. One of the selection criteria in breeding programs is for tolerance to diseases. However disease pressure can vary significantly between different sites so trial new varieties on a small scale to assess how a variety performs on your farm.  If you use copper fungicides then try alternating them with mancozeb sprays. There is some evidence in other crops that this provides improved control compared to using just one of the chemicals repeatedly. Other sources of information The Passionfruit Growing Guide and the Passionfruit Problem Solver Field Guide by Peter Rigden and Simon Newett. Both can be ordered from the PAI website.

Photo above : The black spots in the centre of the dead leaf tissues as fruiting bodies of Septoria, each can produce large numbers of spores that spread the infection.


New Strategic Business Plan Adopted by PAI Executive By Margie Milgate In contrast to the Strategic Investment Plan being developed by HIA for levy investments, the Executive Committee of Passionfruit Australia have been working on their own business plan. This plan was adopted by the committee at its last meeting held on the 12th July, 2016. The focus of the plan is to look at ways to effectively “lead the industry and to facilitate growth and profitability of Passionfruit Australia members and the broader passionfruit industry”. The reasons this has become a priority are the recent changes in the management of R & D and

marketing levies with the new HIA arrangement, and the subsequent reduction in support that has previously been available to Passionfruit Australia to undertake industry consultation and other activities on behalf of industry. Components of the new plan are:: Purpose : To lead the Australian passionfruit industry and represent the interests of Passionfruit Australia members in matters affecting the viability and profitability of the industry. Mission :

To provide the opportunity for Passionfruit Australia members to realise business growth and increase profitability. Aspiration : To have all Australian commercial passionfruit growers as members of Passionfruit Australia. Core objectives of the new plan are:  Build demand for Australian passionfruit  Enhance competitiveness, sustainability and profitability of Australian passionfruit growers (Continued on page 12)

The Passion Vine – August 2016 (Continued from page 11)  Ensure that the governance, direction and priority of research and development and marketing activities delivered by HIA and service providers on behalf of industry is meeting the industry’s needs and are effective  Facilitate the exchange of information between Passionfruit Australia members, other growers, supply chain partners, industry service providers and other industry stakeholders  Engage with government, supply chain partners and other stakeholders to achieve policy and other outcomes that are favourable for passionfruit production businesses  Provide appropriate support services to the industry, such as industry development, communications and market development services  Ensure that Passionfruit Australia is in a strong financial position to deliver again the above objectives. In looking at supporting the work of Passionfruit Australia an analysis was undertaken of available resources and the need to also look further afield. Two funding streams that were examined were memberships and royalty payments. The Passionfruit Australia Executive agreed that an increase in annual membership fees of $50 a year was reasonable – and was also competitive to

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Photo above : Picture of Jenny Margetts of P2P Business Solutions facilitating the Passionfruit Australia Strategic Planning Workshop, hosted by J E Tipper at Acacia Ridge other industry association member fees that were examined. Members will see this reflected in the invoices they receive this year. Other initiatives being investigated are sponsorships and project funding options. Passionfruit Australia are also committed to streamlining internal costs and processes and to working with other similar organisations to identify areas where potential costs sharing opportunities may be available. An action list including these and other items has been developed

and will be worked on. The Passionfruit Australia Executive would love to hear from members and supporters about any initiatives that may contribute to meeting these goals. Other feedback on the new business plan is also warmly welcomed. Passionfruit Australia thanks Jenny Margetts from P2P Business Solutions for assisting in developing this new plan, and providing her insights from other industry associations on potential ways to move our industry forward.

Letters and adverts to the Editor Don’t forget to send your letters or your adverts to the Editor

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Market Report

By Brooke Fraser from Top Class Fruit Passionfruit supplies have been heavy over the past few weeks since the last full moon in July. Only now slowing down a bit. Prices were down below $26 sale price but are now moving back into the $30-$35 range. There have been plenty of purples and panamas. Brooke also noted that there has been some better uptake in the pre-pack netted bag as well. Many retailers like the taste and fullness found in the Misty Gems and Sweethearts and some of the newer varieties Tango and Flemenco are also liked for their sweetness. It was also noted that

the panama varieties are supported by Asian buyers as they like the larger size.

Picture above : Brooke Fraser and Tony Chiefari from Top Class Fruit, Sydney Markets


In-Store Sampling and Merchandising Campaign Information provided by Monique Emmi, Hort Innovation

The Australian Passionfruit program known as “There’s No Substitute for Passionfruit” ran in 113 stores through Eastern Australia from 11th July to 12th August. Each store covered a 4hour timeframe with the main

concentration being on providing a spoon of passionfruit for consumers to taste, and also including time with store staff in better education about passionfruit, storage advice and the provision

of back of store posters. In total 419 staff were provided with this information, with 92% saying that they appreciated these sessions. (Continued on page 14)

The Passion Vine – August 2016

The age bracket stats for this information is captured in the chart to the right Consumers also appreciated the sampling with a good percentage going on to purchase passionfruit before leaving the store. The Brand Ambassadors who conduct these in-store promotions recorded over 16,000 people who came and tried the product and/or took the merchandising information. On average the ambassadors left about 50 leaflets in stores with most positioned near the fruit display. In talking with consumers the Brand Ambassadors also reported that the majority of consumers ate their passionfruit with yoghurt, with breakfast, as an icing for cake or in a cheesecake On the campaign the results and recommendations include:  The taste of sampled fruit influenced shopper feedback and sales results strongly. Stores reported higher sales when sampled fruit tasted sweet.  Timing of the campaign was perfect regarding stock.  Merchandising could be undertaken during the week, while sampling could be scheduled for weekends to achieve best results for both activities.

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Passion Vine Cook Book Lattice Cheese Slice Ingredients: 250g cream cheese*, softened 250g unsalted butter, softened 3/4 cup vanilla-infused caster sugar pulp and juice of 3 large passionfruit 1 dessertspoon gelatine 1/2 cup of boiling water up to 300g (about a packet and a half) Arnott’s Lattice biscuits For the icing 1 cup pure icing sugar, sifted 1 tablespoon unsalted butter, softened pulp and juice of 1-2 passionfruit Method: 1. 2. 3. 4.


First, mix the gelatine with the boiling water and stir to combine. Set this mixture aside. Grease a lamington or slice tin, and line the base and sides with baking parchment (allowing some overhang). Next, combine the cream cheese, butter and caster sugar in the bowl of a stand mixer. Mix until creamy. Add the gelatine/water mixture and the passionfruit pulp and juice, and mix until combined. Place a layer of biscuits, glazed side down, across the base of the prepared tin. Pour in the filling and top with another layer of biscuits, this time with the glazed side up. Gently press the biscuits down. Place the slice into the refrigerator to set. Meanwhile, combine the sifted icing sugar with butter and the pulp and juice of one passionfruit in a mixing bowl. Mix until the mixture has reached a thick (but not too gluggy) consistency. If it is too thick, add a little more passionfruit juice and pulp. Using a spatula, gently spread the icing over top of the slice. Refrigerate the slice for another hour or so, and allow it to set before serving. Serve sliced. Preparation time is around 15 minutes, plus setting time.. Serves 8.

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Passion Vine August 2016  
Passion Vine August 2016