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The Passion Vine

The Passion Vine – June 2014

Post Office Box 321 Pomona QLD 4568

Executive Report

Membership renewal forms will be in the package you receive with this edition of The Passion Vine. Remember, if you haven’t renewed your membership to PAI, you don’t have the option to vote at the AGM or nominate your favoured Executive. The Horticulture Review has been a very important issue for all horticulture industries, but particularly small industries such as the passionfruit industry. Keith and I have been to a number of meetings and at this stage can only tell you that HAL have called an Extraordinary General Meeting in Cairns on June 20th (The Passion Vine will be at the printers). The outcomes and the on-going process of this Review will be made available on the revised PAI web site.

June 2014

A Note from the President

By Jann Bonsall The past three months have flown by, as have the 9 previous, so here we are reminding everyone it’s time to renew memberships, nominate for positions on the Executive and make sure you book your place at the PAI Annual General Meeting and the Annual Levy Payers’ Meeting on August 30th on the Sunshine Coast. More details on page 11.

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And speaking of the revised web site, the passionfruit industry can only applaud the hard work of Graeme Forsythe and his partners in what I believe is a vast improvement on our previous “page” on the internet. It has become a far more interactive site for growers and researchers to access technical information, or “outsiders” looking for the latest gastronomic recipe where passionfruit is the hero! We look forward to any comments, positive or constructively critical. We have also listened to your comments relayed to us by the Independent Survey of the Passionfruit Industry by Scott Williams. Over this and the following two editions of The Passion Vine, you will have an overview of all the research and development projects that have been undertaken by the passionfruit industry as far back as 1995! This history starts on page 6 but if you want more

(Continued on page 17) Newsletter of Passionfruit Australia Incorporated

By Keith Paxton

I would like to make growers aware that there will be vacancies on the Executive Committee this year. Growers need to fill these positions to keep our industry moving forward. Our industry body is in an excellent financial position and also levies are increasing each year and they need to be directed to projects that are going to take our industry forward. It is growers’ money and if they want results they need to become involved in the process. In recent years we have struggled to get new executive members as have other industries. Some of the Executive members have put in quite a few years now and it would be good to get some young growers with fresh ideas to put their hands up.

The Passion Vine – June 2014 Association Address PO Box 321 Pomona QLD 4568. Mobile 0418 883 753 Email

Executive Committee President Keith Paxton 38 Atkinsons Road, Woombye, QLD 4559 Phone (07) 5445 9387 Fax (07) 5445 9323 Email

Executive Officer (Secretary/Treasurer) Jann Bonsall PO Box 321 Pomona QLD 4568 Phone 07 5485 4402 Email

Vice President Ian Constable “Nunderry” 260 Boyds Lane Dulguigan via Murwillumbah NSW 2484 Phone / Fax (02) 6672 6826 Mobile 0428 181 246 Email

PAI FEES New Grower or Processor Membership fee : $187 incl GST, joining fee and lobby fees Grower or Processor Membership renewal : $143 incl GST and lobby fees. Other classes (Nurseryman, seller, agent or associate) : $187 incl GST and lobby fees. Memberships run with the Fiscal year from July 1st to June 30th each year irrespective of date joined. Membership lapses if not renewed within three months of end of the fiscal year. Plant Royalties are due on propagation or purchase of all PAI varieties - Fees are payable to PAI executive officer : $0.35 per plant for PAI members, otherwise $0.70 for all non-members.

Page 2 Committee Members President Vine Committee

Steve Gray Vixies Road, Wonga Beach, QLD 4873 Phone / Fax (07) 4098 7202 Email


Peter Griffiths 408 Dahl’s Road, Calavos, QLD 4670 Phone/Fax (07) 4159 7394 Mobile 0429 656 922 Email Member Sean Russell (JE Tippers) PO Box 27, Brisbane Markets, QLD 4006 Phone (07) 3379 1041 Fax (07) 3379 4817 Mobile 0418 158 331 Email Member William Wise 131 Cranneys Road, North Tumbulgum, NSW 2490 Phone (02) 6676 6099 Email Member Tina McPherson 15 Zinks Road, Bundaberg, QLD 4670 Phone (07) 4159 3001 Fax (07) 4155 6744 Mobile 0428 415 930 Email


Jim Gordon PO Box 119, Yandina, QLD 4561 Phone (07) 5446 7536 Fax (07) 5446 7524 Mobile 0403 185 961 Email

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Passionfruit Australia Incorporated Industry Advisory Committee PH: 07 3374 0453 Mob: 0413 101 646 Email:

Dianne Fullelove

Chairperson PO Box 913, Kenmore, QLD 4069

Jane Wightman

HAL Suite 2, Level 5, 87 Wickham Terrace Spring Hill, QLD 4000

Peter Rigden

QLD Government DAFF, Maroochy Research Station, PO Box 5083, SCMC, QLD 4560

Cherie Gambley

QLD Government DAFF, Eco Science Precinct 2C West, GPO Box 267, Brisbane, QLD 4001

Ian Constable

PAI Executive “Nunderry” 260 Boyds Lane, Dulguigan via Murwillumbah, NSW 2484

PH/FAX: (02) 6672 6826 MOBILE: 0428 181 246 Email:

Steve Gray

PAI Executive Vixies Road, Wonga Beach, QLD 4873

PH: (07) 4098 7202 Fax: (07) 4098 7202 Email:

Keith Paxton

PAI Executive 38 Atkinsons Road, Woombye, QLD 4559

PH: (07) 5445 9387 FAX: (07) 5445 9323 MOB: 0427 625 946 Email:

Tina McPherson

PAI Executive 15 Zinks Road, Bundaberg, QLD 4670

PH: (07) 4159 3001 FAX: (07) 4155 6744 MOBILE : 0428 415 930 Email:

Sean Russell

Marketing PO Box 27, Brisbane Markets, QLD 4106

This newsletter has been jointly funded by PAI and HAL using the passionfruit levy and matched funds from the Australian Government.

Mob: 0404 309 877 Email: PH: 07 5453 5927 FAX: 07 5493 5901 Email: PH: 07 3255 4340 Mob: 0423 200 211 Email:

PH: (07) 3379 1041 FAX: (07) 3379 4817 Mob : 0418 158 331 Email:

Bank account details Passionfruit Australia Incorporated BSB: 124-101 Acc No.: 21655088 If direct debiting please ensure to quote your name or membership number

The Passion Vine – June 2014

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Regional Roundup From the growers...

Far North Queensland By Steve Gray

Hi All, Wet, wet, wet, even the ducks have had enough. 3180mm to mid -June and it’s still raining. We all know how much passionfruit love wet and overcast conditions. Most flowers are falling off and any fruit that has set is all marked so at this stage I can’t see us sending any fruit to market until September. To look on the bright side it will give us a lot of extra time to wet a line. We hooked the camper trailer up and escaped to the Northern Territory and dry weather for a couple of weeks, enjoying the sunshine and great fishing only to arrive home to steady rain. Until dryer times, Steve.

NNSW Area By Ian Constable

Hello everyone The dry spell just keeps on going on The Tweed. While the grass is green, the soil is very dry just below the surface. Luckily we haven’t had any cold weather yet so everything is still growing. Our vines look a picture but most are setting fruit now, which is late for us and they may not amount to much if it does cool right down. We didn’t have a crop till now and we are well below our production from last year. The vines flowered well but the flowers all fell off after turning yellow. Our young vines from last

year’s plant have a big crop on so we will be hoping things improve on the older vines after winter. Most growers in our area are easing back and picking every second day. We have even had weekends off which is almost unheard off and almost like having a normal job for a change.

fruit dropping now is a much better quality size and shape. Obviously there is a lot of fruit in the markets as prices have gone down to a level that makes receiving a decent profit from your product difficult.

Our local Landmark store closed down last week in Murwillumbah. It’s sad for the team that worked there as they were a good mob of blokes. Being a self-employed farmer has a few benefits, at least! We now only have two supply shops in town. Times are tough!

Our vines are looking good and for the first time in a long time we will probably ratoon for three years. Having pandora as a root stock appears to be keeping the vines more vigorous. We have lost a few vines but in all they look good. We had a small outbreak of scale and mite this year which we have not had for quite some time. Using bio-pest and releasing some predatory beetles appears to have fixed the problems. Cheers till next time, Keith.

Not much happening so that is all from me, bye. Ian

Bundaberg Area

The Sunshine Coast By Keith and Judy Paxton

Well it never rains but it pours. We have not had a lot of rain since our last report but a lot of wet days. Unfortunately the weather has created disease problems in our orchard but at least we do not have to irrigate. A lot of the fruit we have had lately is fruit that set during the rainy period after the dry spell. This created a problem with the shape and size of the fruit. Tear drop shapes and a lot of small fruit resulted. The

By Peter Griffiths

Hello everyone. In the Bundaberg region, since the beginning of April we have only received about 70mm of rain resulting in a lot of irrigating and not much disease pressure. We have been experiencing a good crop of Misty Gems ad a good crop of Pandoras are about to start. If you can find some herbicide Basta®, grab it. It seems the Macadamia guys have again bought all the stock in our region. The generic brand Biffo is available but apparently not as effective. That’s all until next time. Thanks.

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Don’t forget * PASSIONFRUIT GROWERS AND SUPPLIERS OF * GRAFTED PASSIONFRUIT Misty Gems DPI - Approved rootstocks * SEEDLINGS Pandora Red Panama

Hand pollinated Pandora rootstock available.

FOR ORDERS / ENQUIRIES Please ph/fax 07 4159 7394

Peter Griffiths 0429 656 922 Sally Griffiths 0401 656 922

408 Dahls Rd, Calavos, Bundaberg Q 4670 Email –

membership and plant orders are due

The Passion Vine – June 2014

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The last twenty years of passionfruit research, development and extension projects By Peter Rigden (Development Horticulturalist) and Dr Cherie Gambley (Senior Plant Pathologist), Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry Queensland. During the January 2014 Industry Advisory Committee meeting it was suggested that more could be done to make growers aware of the contribution research, development and extension projects funded by levies have

made to the industry. This article and two more that will appear in following editions of The Passion Vine, summarise the projects that have been conducted over the last 20 years,

Letters to the Editor

giving both their aims and outcomes. Full details of each project are available in the Project Final Reports which can be obtained through Passionfruit Australia.

Don’t forget to send your letters to the Editor to or post to PO Box 321, Pomona, Qld 4568

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Passionvine mite control By Peter Rigden (Development Horticulturalist), Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry Queensland. Passionvine mites (Brevipalpus phoenicis) are a significant pest of passionfruit, and although severe infestations tend to be sporadic in Australian passionfruit plantations, when outbreaks do occur they can be devastating if left untreated. This article is intended to outline some key characteristics of this pest and briefly outline what chemical control options are expected to become available in the near future. Passionvine mite populations are mainly female (males do occur but are very rare) and their reproduction is parthenogenetic, that is mating is not required. This is important because it means that genetic variation amongst populations is minimal and natural selection leading to miticide resistance is reduced. Another important aspect of the life cycle is that the duration of different life stages varies with temperature and humidity. Development from newly laid egg to mature adult requires up to 49

days at 20ºC but only 19 days at 30ºC. In addition, the passionvine mite cannot complete its life cycle at a relative humidity of less than 30%, or when average temperatures are above 30oC or below 20oC. Knowing this life cycle information is important because some miticides kill the nymphs and adult mites but not the eggs. As a result, one application of these miticides will not be sufficient to give control and a strategically timed follow up application is essential to kill the mite nymphs that have emerged from hatched eggs before they can become adults and lay their eggs. Failure to apply a second follow up application probably explains why in the past many growers found that miticide sprays did not give adequate control. In the past two chemicals dicofol (Kelthane®) and propagite (Omite®) were registered to

control this pest:  The permit for dicofol expired in 2006 and was not renewed. The APVMA considered it unsuitable for renewal primarily because it is an organochlorine that contains a number of undesirable DDT analogues as manufacturing impurities and is persistent in the environment for up to 4 years.  Propargite is still registered, but has a 7 day with-holding period and has some phytotoxicity problems, so it is of little use in practice. In 2005/6 as part of an industry funded project ‘Developing an integrated pest and disease management spray schedule for passionfruit’, Geoff Waite a DAFF entomologist, conducted some trials to assess the efficacy of several chemicals that were considered suitable for the control of passionvine mite. The chemicals tested and the results are shown in the following table.

Pre- and post-treatment mite populations. Treatment

Pre-treat means

4-day post-treat means

Bifenazate (Acramite®)

1470 ab

14 a

Dicofol (Kelthane®)

2249 ab

49 a

Fenbutatin-oxide (Torque®)

2244 ab

13 a

Spirodiclofen (Envidor®)

2116 ab

13 a

Avermectin (Abamectin®, Vertimec ®)

2469 b

19 a

Paraffinic oil (Biopest®)

1062 a

26 a


1874 ab

1155 b



LSD (0.05)*

*Within the same column figures followed by the same letter are not significantly different (5%)

The Passion Vine – June 2014 The results showed that all of these chemicals gave virtually 100% control with very few live mites recorded 4 days after treatment. Based on these results permit applications for three of these chemicals are currently being prepared (see March 2014 Passion Vine article page 12 -13), these chemicals are avermectin (also known as abamectin), fenbutatinoxide and paraffinic oil. These three chemicals are considered the ones that are most likely to meet the requirements for a one day withholding period and also have the least impact on beneficial insects. Currently there are no commercially available predators that control passionvine mite, but there may be naturally occurring predators of this mite and other beneficial insects present in your plantation. Both avermectin and fenbutatinoxide are only active against the adults and nymphs, so after the permits have been issued if you decide to use these chemicals a

follow up spray will be essential to give effective control. In the hotter months, in passionfruit growing areas, eggs hatch after 8 days at 30ºC, and it is essential that a second miticide spray is applied after about 10 to 14 days after the first application in warmer months. This timing should allow time for all the eggs that were unaffected by the first spray to have hatched out, if no second application is made or it is applied too late then some of the hatched mites will become mature enough to lay eggs and the mite population will continue to thrive. In cooler months the eggs will take longer to hatch and the hatched nymphs will also take longer to mature, so the second spray can be applied around 20 to 24 days after the first. Paraffinic oil acts by suffocating target pests so good spray coverage is essential and repeat applications are also usually necessary. Avoid using oils when temperatures are around or above

Page 13 32° C because of the likelihood of phytotoxicity to plants causing leaf and fruit burn. Remember that plant feeding mites of all kinds are renowned for their ability to develop resistance to miticides and under certain circumstances the passionvine mite, despite its reproductive process of parthenogenesis, is one of these. It is therefore always wise to minimise the chances that resistance can develop by limiting the number of sprays of any one particular miticide applied to a specific mite population. Regulatory authorities and the manufacturers of miticides automatically place specific instructions on permits and labels advising users not to apply them more than twice per year. Once the permits have been approved the availability of avermectin, fenbutatin-oxide and paraffinic oil should make it possible for passionfruit growers to achieve control of outbreaks of passionvine mite without breaking this guideline.


MT10049 - A Multi Target Approach to Fruitspotting Bug Management Project Update The project team is more than halfway through delivery of this 5 year project. As is a requirement for large HAL projects, the project underwent a mid-term review in the 2nd half of 2013. This review is an important activity for all HAL projects, as it provides an independent assessment of project achievements to date and helps

focus the project team on actions and issues to ensure the project delivers the maximum benefit to investors by project completion. As a result of the review the Steering Committee has endorsed some changes to the project. This update is to inform you of the achievements of the project to date and outline the changes to project activities for

the remaining 2 years of the project. Project achievements to date The project has achieved a number of outcomes for investors. These include:  A. lutescens pheromone fully optimized Continued on page 14

The Passion Vine – June 2014  Steps towards commercialization of a lure and trap for A. lutescens are currently underway

 A literature review on Amblypelta spp. has been published as part of a PhD project.

 New pheromone compounds for an A. nitida lure are currently being tested in Qld and NSW.

Project work plan going forward The review provided a number of recommendations to focus project activities for the remaining two years of the project. The project Steering Committee considered the review recommendations and provided some guidance to the project leaders (NSW DPI), who have now prepared a revised work plan. This was presented to the Steering Committee on 30th October 2013. The following presents a summary of the key changes and activities for the project moving forward.

 One new insecticide is progressing towards commercial registration.  A second new insecticide also looks promising and discussions with chemical industry are underway to work towards commercial registration.  A range of new chemistries have been sourced and will be screened in the near future.  Mass-rearing of egg parasitoid Anastatus has progressed and produced semi-commercial quantities  Trap hedges from selected farms give indication of monitoring potential and will be integrated into a FSB management systems in the second half of the project  A series of articles have been published in industry journals keeping the industries involved up to date with project progress  One spray application workshop has been conducted in the Northern Rivers and there is a plan to deliver additional workshops to industries over the next two years.  A Youtube video covering general information on the pest and project has been released

 The review highlighted that the project should, in order to deliver against its objective, narrow its scope and focus on the delivery of two central outcomes – developing effective insect thresholds and developing suitable chemical control options for FSB. Improved collaboration and coordination of activities  The project team, which comprises a number of researchers conducting specific activities, will be brought together more often to foster a greater level of collaboration and ensure activities are complimentary and research outcomes are fully integrated. Chemical control  The project will continue to scan internationally for suitable pesticide options and will increase chemical screening activities to try and

Page 14 identify chemistry that will compliment an IPM approach to the management of FSB. Pest ecology and thresholds  Develop a pest ecology model for FSB to assist in determining FSB population development throughout the season. In line with the development of monitoring tools, identify FSB thresholds for each crop. Pheromones and trap development  Continue work on developing the pheromone for A. nitida.  Identify a commercial partner and finalise design of the A. lutescens trap and lure. Biological control After just over a year of mass releases of Anastatus indications were that this wasp was able to make a useful contribution to FSB control at some sites. However, due to technical difficulties encountered in the Anastatus mass rearing process, a large quantity of the egg parasitoid Anastatus can no longer be supplied in the short term. As a result of the significant reduction and reliability of supply of Anastatus for use in field evaluations, BioResources determined that the most appropriate course of action was to cease field investigations within the Project until the mass rearing issues can be resolved. The Steering Committee concurs with this decision being the most appropriate course of action, given the circumstances. It is likely to take another 12 months to determine if the larger scale mass rearing issues can be resolved. If so, BioResources will resume its larger scale field evaluations in conjunction with crop consultants

The Passion Vine – June 2014 and growers. In the meantime, BioResources will continue to conduct its own small scale studies into Anastatus behavior in the insectary and on farm. Taking account of the technical constraints of accessing Anastatus, the recommendations from the project review and the commitment to having a biological control element of the project, it was agreed that the pathway forward would involve NSW DPI continuing to investigate potential biological control options for FSB. Much of this work will be laboratory based. Depending on availability of Anastatus and other biocontrols of interest (reared through the NSW DPI laboratory), some limited field investigations will also continue. This will be assessed as the season progresses. The Steering committee also

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recommended that a PhD project to continue the study of the parasitoid Anastatus and FSB would be appropriate. An outline for a PhD proposal is currently being developed. Trap crops  Focus on trap crop monitoring for A. nitida to research the relationship between pest presence in trap hedges and crop damage.  Fewer trap crop sites (4 maximum) will be monitored more intensively. Area wide management  Engagement with the PestWeb network on the NSW Northern Rivers to pilot online monitoring data collection.  Close collaboration with

consultants to establish pest thresholds to assist with management decisions. Industry adoption  Collate FSB extension material and develop into a FSB management manual. For further information, please contact project leaders Dr Ruth Huwer or Mark Hickey on 02 6626 1196. This project has been funded by HAL using the Avocado, Macadamia, Lychee, Papaya, Passionfruit and Custard Apple industries levy, with additional funding via the across industry program and matched funds from the Australian Government.

Above : Fruit spotting Bug damage on passion fruit Left : Fruit spotting Bug and egg close up

Remember to email your ads to the secretary

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Vine Trials By Steve Gray

Evaluations of trial plants from last year have been done with 3 crosses showing good potential. One of these has been rated very high by all trialists. All three crosses will be multiplied out and

planted into larger plots for further evaluation over the next 12 months to gauge their potential as a commercial variety.

There have been 13 crosses done this year with seed from all being propagated. These will be available for distribution to trialists September to October.

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Moraitis Group Pty Ltd

(Continued from page 1) information, please don’t hesitate to contact me by phone 07 5485 4402 or email The Passionfruit Marketing Campaign was ”interrupted” by the departure of Shanka Dharmaratne to greener pastures but we welcome the arrival of Elisa King to the HAL Marketing Team. We look forward to meeting Elisa at the Annual Levy Payers’ Meeting in August. So, let me reiterate: 1. Don’t forget your membership renewal; and 2. Don’t forget to book you place at the dining table and bed at Passionfruit Australia’s AGM and ALPM! See you at the Oaks Oasis!

Executive Nominations The PAI Executive requires representation from a diverse range of growers. There is no necessity for prior Committee experience. The requirement for attendance at meetings is minimal but vital for the health of our industry. The obligations for the year 2014-15 will be 3 meetings only at the following locations. December April August

Brisbane Murwillumbah Bundaberg

Travel and expenses are arranged and paid for by the Executive Officer plus you are entitled to a sitting fee. The meetings generally run for around five hours. Obligations between meetings are, limited to occasional email and telephone responses. If you require any further information please contact Jann on 07 5485 4402 or any one of our Executive, contact details on page 3.

Leaders in fresh produce Moraitis core products include :

* Passionfruit * Melons * Pumpkin * Cherries * Onions * Strawberries

* Potatoes *Tomatoes * Bananas * Citrus * Garlic * Avocadoes

Moraitis is a national company in the leading position as a fully integrated supplier of fresh fruits and vegetables in Australia. Moraitis have a dedicated team focused on satisfying Grower and Customer needs, who are devoted to providing flawless 24/7 supply and service solutions,to the retail supermarket chains and independent fruit markets all around Australia. The Moraitis base is unique because of the wide range of customers’ serviced, and our ability to supply consistent quality and service 12 months of the year. Australia’s leaders in the fresh produce industry – Moraitis has National distribution capabilities and is located Australia wide.

For passionfruit enquiries please contact Debra Scarfe : Exotic Fruit Category Mobile: 0416088615 Email: Peter Kallinis : Category Manager Mobile: 0412 141 536 Email: Matthew McInerney: National Sales Manager Mobile: 0417 468 828 Email: Moraitis Wholesale NSW Stand 52, A Shed Sydney Markets NSW 2129 P.O. Box 75 Sydney Markets NSW 2129 T: +61 2 9764 2370 F: +61 2 9764 2218

Contact Moraitis for more information on our website For general enquiries regarding our business or products please send an email to or call our customer service number 1 800 657 010

The Passion Vine – June 2014

Page 18 For information regarding administration issues for Passionfruit Australia Incorporated please contact:

Jann Bonsall PO Box 321 Pomona QLD 4568 Ph: 07 5485 4402 Email: admin@ For variety and plantings issues please contact your local Executive Member as listed on page 2. Other enquiries can be made through Queensland DPIF on their call centre number 132523

Diary Note Friday 29th August Buffet Dinner Saturday 30th August AGM & Annual Levy Payers’ Meeting followed by lunch and Field Walk At Oakes Oasis Caloundra Sunshine Coast

PAI Licensed Nurseries Birdwood Nursery

71 Blackall Range Road Nambour QLD 4560

07 5442 1611

J & V McLeod

Campbell’s Road Dungay NSW 2484

02 6672 3503

Widebay 408 Dahls Road Calavos Passionvine Nursery via Bundaberg QLD 4670

07 4159 7394

All contributions concerning the industry are most welcome.

The Passion Vine is edited by Jann Bonsall and Jenny Drew The advice and opinions in the articles published in The Passion Vine are essentially those of contributors and do not necessarily reflect the views of Passionfruit Australia Incorporated or the Editor. The advice given is at the readers own risk, and no responsibility is accepted for the accuracy of the material presented. Inclusion of an advertisement in this publication does not necessarily imply endorsement of the product, company or service by Passionfruit Australia Incorporated or the Editor.

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New Season Recipe Twice Cooked Pork Belly with Passionfruit Carrots

Serves 4


Pork, 1st cook: 

1/2 cup non-iodised table salt

2 litres water

• 1/2 onion

2 bay leaves

• 2 sprigs thyme

1/2 tbsp. peppercorns

800g boneless pork belly in one piece

Pork, 2nd cook 

1/3 cup olive oil

Carrots: 

2 bunches baby carrots

2 1/2 tbsp. sugar

1 heaped tsp cumin seeds, or 1 tsp ground cumin

3 tbsp. butter

Salt & pepper

2 tbsp. flat leaf parsley, chopped

• 50ml white wine

• 4 passionfruit

To serve: 

Mashed potato

Method   

 

Preheat oven to 160C For the 1st stage of the pork, place water in a pot and bring to boil along with salt, stirring until dissolved. Find a baking dish that is deep enough to fit the pork belly plus and inch or so, and not too broad so the pork fits well. Slice the onion, and place on bottom of dish along with bay leaves, thyme and peppercorns. Place pork belly on top, skin side up, then pour over the salt water. If the pork belly is not covered, simply top up with some more plain water. Also do not overfill the dish. Cover with a sheet of baking paper, then tightly with a sheet of aluminium foil. Bake for 3 hours. Remove from oven and drain out most of the liquid, then weigh the whole dish down with a heavy chopping board on top of the paper/foil (adding something else on top if needed). Place in the fridge to set overnight. For the 2nd stage of the pork, pre-heat oven to 22C. Remove pork belly from the fridge and discard all the remaining liquid and aromats, petting dry with paper towel. Use a sharp knife to score the skin in a small diamond crisscross pattern. Cut the pork into 4 even portions. Take a metal baking tray, cover the base with baking paper and olive oil, and place it on the stove top on very high. Once hot, place pork, skin side down in oil and allow to cook and crackle for 5 minutes. Flip the pork over and place the tray in the over for 20 minutes. In the meantime, prepare the carrots. Steam or boil carrots until al dente. Take a nonstick fry pan and heat on medium. Add sugar and cook until dissolved and golden, then deglaze with white wine and add butter, cumin and passionfruit. Season to taste and add carrots to coat. To serve, place carrots and sauce next to the pork, sprinkle over parsley. Serve mashed potatoes on the side.

Recipes found on

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