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A 120pt thesis submitted to Victoria University of Wellington in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture (Professional).

James Worley


Cover image


Boat Building Architecture: A Living Museum


Fig. 01.   Previous Page: Cover Image (Author’s image).


Firstly, thank you to Dr Peter Wood. Your encouragement and support throughout this process has been incredible. Thank you to Sam for your patience, guidance, ongoing support and friendship which means so much. Thank you to my family for your support, guidance and perpetual belief in me. Lastly, thank you to all the tutors and other staff members who have gone out of their way to help over the last few years.


Concept: Experimental Drawings ........................................................................78

Introduction ............................................................................................................10

Design: The Living Museum ..................................................................................92

Design: Site Introduction ...............................................................................12 Maritime History of Wellington ....................................................................14 History of Queens Wharf ..............................................................................20

Navigation Instruments .......................................................................................24

Introduction ...................................................................................................26 Compass ........................................................................................................28 Chronometer .................................................................................................30 Sextant ...........................................................................................................32

Design Purpose .................................................................................................94 Site and Context ...............................................................................................94 Museum Introduction .......................................................................................94 Te Waka Huia - ‘The Feather Box’ ..................................................................96 Design Inspiration ............................................................................................96 Site Analysis ......................................................................................................98 Design Images .................................................................................................100

Conclusion ................................................................................................................133 Table of Figures .......................................................................................................134

Boat-Building Materials .......................................................................................34 Timber ...........................................................................................................36 The Cuba .........................................................................................38 Concrete ........................................................................................................40 Hartley Coastal 30 ............................................................................42 Metal ..............................................................................................................44 The Wahine ......................................................................................46 Composite ......................................................................................................48 Team New Zealand AC72 ................................................................50 Case Studies - Maritime Museums ...................................................................54

Voyager New Zealand Maritime Museum ....................................................56 Musuem of Wellington City and Sea ............................................................58 Edwin Fox Maritime Museum ......................................................................59 Australian National Maritime Museum ........................................................60 Cockatoo Island .............................................................................................61 International Maritime Museums .................................................................62

Process and Development - Experiemental Models .....................................64

Bibliography .............................................................................................................138

Contents

Abstract ......................................................................................................................9


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Abstract

This research is grounded in understanding the significance of maritime architecture and the boat building history of New Zealand. The aim is to create an architecture that uses the built form to reflect a maritime identity. This will be in the form of a living museum which incorporates and preserves the techniques of traditional timber boat construction while creating an interactive experience for the public and users of the space. Existing maritime museums are often static structures that focus on showing the past. The architecture has little to do with the contents of the museum beyond being an oversized shed. The architecture of the buildings does not always reflect their purpose or significance. The objective is therefore to involve the user of the space in the development of the New Zealand maritime identity and boat construction through the architecture. Wellington has an extensive harbour, waterfront and boat building history that hasn’t been utilized in a historical and architectural sense around the city. This research will also look at the urban context of the site and it’s early development around the port. The site is on the Wellington waterfront because this relates it to the city, sea and local area. It also provides a key nodal point on the waterfront complimentary to Te Papa and the city Museum, marking the edge of the city and the public walkway around the harbour. The site becomes a bridge between factory, industry and end destination. The project takes the form of 4 connected structures, each representing a different stage of development and use of materials in New Zealand boat building history. These structures will also be seen as a representation of the production of timber boats, which will be built in stages through the museum. This arrangement will form an archipelago of buildings in the harbour, linking it to the New Zealand coast, and expressing the unique identity of the Pacific region.

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This research is an investigation into the maritime identity of New Zealand. The case study presented aims to showcase the development of this identity, from the discovery and settlement of Wellington through to the present day. Four distinct buildings represent key stages of this development, while together forming a living National Maritime Museum, enabling people to identify with New Zealand’s unique maritime history. Although New Zealand has a significant maritime history, there is no architecture that consciously brings all the artefacts and culture of our nautical history together in one coherent place. This thesis is grounded in the context of historicism; who we are, and where we come from. The aim is to create an iconic institution in Wellington’s waterfront precinct that celebrates our unique national identity.

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The museum is located at Queen’s Wharf in central Wellington, a city developed with a rich maritime history around its harbour. Queen’s Wharf is an important maritime location in Wellington’s history. This used to be the main dock for large cargo boats. However, the site was outgrown, being too small and too shallow for newer ocean going ships. The prime central location is now a topic of discussion for the city council. This project will act as a case study about this particular point in time of New Zealand’s history and culture. The site history defines the context for design, and the maritime history establishes the scope of the research, from pacific migration to present day high-tech innovations. Historical maritime research, navigational instruments, boat-building materials, examples of significant boats, and maritime museum case studies inform the design. Together these relevant resources will define the structure of the thesis and the design of the building. Chapter one provides a summary of the history of Wellington’s harbour and Queen’s Wharf. It covers key moments, from the discovery and settlement of Wellington through


Chapter two covers a variety of existing maritime museums to help establish a range of design criteria suitable for the Wellington site. These case studies sourced from both local and international examples, are analysed in how they deal with preserving the maritime history of that region. Chapter three focuses on conceptual development. Using the compass, chronometer and sextant for form derivation by creating a series of experimental drawings and models based on these devices. These drawings and models are then used to influence the design, layout and structure of the building. Chapter four introduces the design, site, client, and brief. It focuses on the function of the museum, why it’s a key building for Wellington and New Zealand, who its target markets are and its purpose being located at Queens Wharf. These factors give an overview of why the building is a necessary addition to the Wellington cityscape. Chapter five discusses the museum and how it will take the form of four intersecting boxes, each design influenced by one of the classic boat building materials; timber, concrete, steel, and carbon. The forms also give reference to traditional Maori treasure boxes, Te Waka Huia. These were used to store precious items held by leaders of the tribes, and gifted to respected or distinguished guests. The interior will provide exhibition space for

the historic boats and information. It will also include live boat restoration, allowing visitors to view sustainable practices while enjoying an interactive experience. Boats can also moor around the exterior of the building, or enter the internal dry dock for repairs. The architecture showcases the development of boat construction and materials, creating a new living museum. The building is designed to have an interaction with its external public and environmental surroundings. Whether it be weathering from the elements or from its impact on the waterfront. By swallowing a section of Queen’s Wharf, the public are encouraged into the building as they walk around the harbour, as it is to be a key nodal point between Te Papa and Parliament.

Introduction

to the present day. This provides the context for this research. It analyses traditional forms of navigation, looking specifically at the development and use of the compass, chronometer, and sextant. Lastly, it focuses on boat building by looking at four key types of materials used for hulls over time. Four significant boats were selected to represent these different materials, practices and events in New Zealand’s maritime history; the Cuba, a Hartley Coastal 30, the Wahine, and the NZ AC72 America’s Cup racing yacht. Each of these will be used to influence the architectural design.

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Design: Site Introduction Fig. 02.   Photograph of the site on Queen’s Wharf with the old tripod crane. (Author’s photograph).


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Fig. 03.   Te Aro Flat and Mt Cook, Wellington, 1840. - Watercolour by C. Heaphy.

Fig. 04.   Map of Port Nicholson and Wellington Harbour with Maori place names.


1939). From that point on, much reclamation has been made, but they were the first and most significant for the waterfront and the early stages of Queen’s wharf.

Te Whanga-nui-a-tara was named around 1200AD after Tara, the eldest son of Whatonga, the great Maori navigator. Tara became the eponymous ancestor of the Ngai-Tara tribe, the first people to permanently occupy the Wellington harbour area. In 1826 James Herd, Captain of the first known European ship to enter Wellington, Rosanna, named the harbour ‘Port Nicholson’ after Captain John Nicholson. Nicholson was the harbour master of Sydney at that time (Adkin, 1959).

Wellington’s port grew in size with the settlement. In 1886, the railway line between Whanganui and Wellington was completed, making Wellington the cheapest option for shipping wool and meat products from the surrounding regions. This had a huge impact on the growth of the port (McLauchlan, 2012). The run on effect of the large port meant that when it came to the First World War, Wellington was the port of departure for nearly all of the hundred thousand New Zealand soldiers deployed (Mulgan, 1939). It was used as a central hub for its easy access to both the east and west coast plus its rail access from the North and access to the South Island. Unfortunately with the decline in exports of manufactured goods from Wellington, and its slowed population growth, the port has reduced in size in recent years (Mclauchlan, 2012).

The first wharf (landing stage) was built in January 1840 on Petone Beach. The first settlers landed here on what has come to be known as ‘the first ships’. These were the Adelaide, Aurora, Bengal Merchant, Merchant, Bolton, Cuba, Duke of Roxburgh, Glenbervie and Oriental. The Adelaide being the largest at 640 tonnes (Rhodes, 1938). With the influx of immigrants, all kinds of stores and industry began to develop. Henry Meech and John Oxenham established the first boat building business in 1840 on the left bank of the Hutt River, preparing to build “any description of yacht, boat or barge” (Meech and Oxenham, 1840). New Zealand ferry steam ship services were established in 1854 between Auckland (Onehunga) and Dunedin via New Plymouth, Wellington, Nelson, and Lyttelton, with the 330 tonne steamer Nelson (Rhodes, 1938). This contributed to the growth and strength of Wellington’s development, as it was a central sheltered location. Wellington’s gradual planning was conditioned by the steepness of the hills and the narrowness of the waterfront. Much of Wellington’s commercial and public space has been won from the sea, but for a long while, reclamation proceeded with no particular plan (see fig. 07). The first reclamation located at lower Willis Street was made in 1852 by the New Munster Government. In 1857-63 the Provincial Government reclaimed seven acres adjoining lower Willis Street, it ran to between Grey and Panama Streets (Mulgan,

The reduction in size of the commercial port around the central business district has left a number of prime sites in need of rejuvenation. Most notably, Queen’s Wharf, where the city council has been investigating potential uses for the wharf. This is the proposed location for the living museum.

Maritime History of Wellington

The Wellington harbour, Te Whanga-nui-a-tara, or the harbour of Tara has been given many names, but is most commonly known today as Port Nicholson.

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Fig. 05.   Reclamation and Queen’s Wharf, 1870’s. 16|

Fig. 06.   View of part of Lambton Harbour, 1841. Photo by E. T. Robson.

Fig. 07.   Aerial view of Wellington Harbour, 1930’s.


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Fig. 08.   Plan showing land reclaimed from Lambton Harbour, early 1900’s - Total reclaimed area shown in orange.


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Fig. 09.   Map of the Port of Wellington and Berthage Plan, 1895.


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Fig. 10.   Map of the Port of Wellington and Berthage Plan, 1955.


Fig. 11.   Image of the site location and Queen’s Wharf (Author’s photograph).

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Fig. 12.   Image of the site location and Queen’s Wharf (Author’s photograph).

Fig. 13.   Image of the site location and Queen’s Wharf (Author’s photograph).


History of Queen’s Wharf

The era of private wharves around Wellington began to end in 1858 when a general feeling developed that the structures had outlived their general usefulness. Most at this stage had fallen into disrepair and were unusable. The wharves that were still functioning could only handle coastal boats and shallow water vessels. The locals were not willing to spend money on small out of date structures but could not afford the expense of a much larger communal wharf. As a result, in 1861, the Provincial Council passed an ordinance authorising the Superintendent to take the necessary steps to have a ‘deep-water’ wharf erected at the foot of Grey Street (Rhodes, 1938), towards which the rapidly extending provincial reclamation schemes were creeping. “The piles were to be of heart Totara and the decking of heart Rimu” (Rhodes, 1938, P.60). Mr. J. T. Stewart, the provincial engineer, prepared plans for the structure. It was to project 550ft into the Sea, from “The Provincial Council’s Reclamation” (Buick, 1930, P.35). This reclamation ran along the eastern edge of what is now Custom House Quay. The shaft of the wharf was to be 35 feet wide with an inner and an outer ‘T’, each projecting 75 feet. The inner ‘T’ was to be situated 300 feet from the reclamation (Buick, 1930). The first pile of the structure, which was to become Queen’s Wharf, Wellington, was driven on April 27, 1862. It was made of Totara. With the advent of shipping mail directly from New Zealand to Britain (via Panama), extensions were made to Queen’s Wharf to increase the depth of water at low tide (to 26 feet) so that ships could use it at any time (Buick, 1930). This first extension to Queen’s Wharf was completed in June 1867. On March 27 1927, 65 years later, a casket made from one of the retired original piles was presented to the then Duke and Duchess of York, who became Their Majesties King George VI and Queen Elizabeth (Rhodes, 1938). This casket was built from the retired piles as a symbol of strength and robustness. It also had links to Te Waka Huia, a Maori box held by people of importance, which contains precious possessions. By the 1950s, cargo handling was changing rapidly. Shipping companies and harbour authorities knew that ships were getting much bigger, and cargo was to come on pallets or in ‘boxes’, necessitating a more mechanised approach to loading and unloading. Queen’s wharf again became too small for the bulk of shipping (McLauchlan, 2012). From this period onwards, the bulk of shipping was shifted to a dedicated port further from the CBD, leaving Queen’s Wharf as a symbol of a period that saw the development of Wellington into the city it is today.

Fig. 14.   Plan view of Queen’s Wharf showing extensions and construction stages, early 1900’s.

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Fig. 15.   Early Wharves, Te Aro, about 1850.

Fig. 16.   Early Wharves, Lambton Quay, 1858.

Fig. 17.   Queen’s Wharf, 1862-63.

Fig. 18.   Queen’s Wharf, about 1870.

Fig. 19.   Post Office Waterfront, about 1885.

Fig. 20.   Queen’s Wharf and entrance, about 1893.

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Fig. 21.   Photograph of Queen’s Wharf, 1956.

Fig. 22.   Entrance to Queen’s Wharf, 1950’s.

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Fig. 23.   Intercolonial and Coastal Steamers at Queen’s Wharf, 1950’s.

Fig. 24.   A Northern view of Queen’s Wharf in the foreground and the busy Wellington port with numerous ships in the background, 1950’s.


Fig. 25.   Opposite page: Image of a sextant (Author’s photograph).

Navigation Instruments

Three traditional tools used in navigation have been selected as development and layout generators of the museum. These are the compass, sextant, and chronometer. These instruments were chosen because they form a significant cross-section of the history of navigational tools.


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Fig. 26.   The Prime Meridian Building marks the location of the meridian line at longitude 0 degrees, that passes through the Greenwich Observatory in London.

Fig. 27.   An isoginic chart of the Atlantic - Edmond Halley, 1701. The curved lines mark degrees of magentic varitation, which cross the lines of latitude. These two coordinates were required to determine the location of a ship at sea. However, it was later discovered that the Earth’s magnetic fields change over time, and attempts to predict the variation were unsuccessful.


Introduction The development of the tools and techniques of navigation was vital to the exploration and discovery of the world. Since 160 A.D., when Ptolemy (Ifland, 1998) developed a grid system of north-to-south and east-to-west coordinates to plot a point on a map, longitude and latitude have been used for finding any position on earth. However, navigating along the lines of latitude and longitude came centuries apart. It was discovered by many different cultures, from Scandinavia to Polynesia, that navigation could be made in relation to the stars. In early Asia, it was discovered that the star Polaris could be seen at a reliable height above the horizon at a sailor’s home port; all the sailor would need to do, is travel north or south to where Polaris met the same height as it was at their home port. They could then head directly east or west depending on which direction their port was located (Ifland, 1998). This method of ‘sailing down the latitude’ was the preferred method of navigation well into the eighteenth century by both Eastern and Western sailors. Ships grew faster and more expensive while their cargoes grew more profitable, so, there became an increasing need for better, more accurate navigation to safely get from port to port. The problem with using Polaris as a reference point was, that it is only visible in the Northern hemisphere. Once a ship dropped below the equator, Polaris would go out of sight. So, rules were developed by 1480 for measuring the position of the sun throughout the seasons (Ifland, 1998). Tools were developed to accurately determine, in degrees, the height of Polaris or the sun. This could give an accurate position on the earth’s surface (in latitude).

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Fig. 28.   The azimuth or variation compass, was invented in the sixteenth century to determine the difference between true north (found by observing the position of the sun or stars), and magnetic north (indicated by the compass needle). - This example was made in London by Edward Nairne.

Fig. 29.   The earliest Western refernces to the compass date back to the twelth century and took the form of magnetised needles floating directly on water. This image shows an early fifthteeth century French manuscript depicting a mariner adjusting the index of a dry-pivoted compass.


Compass The compass was invented in the twelfth century and became standard equipment on all ships by the end of the 1600s. Early compasses were magnetized needles that were floated on water, development led to compasses with pivots, and later they were mounted on gimbals so that they always remained upright no matter what angle the ship lay at (Andrewes & Sobel, 1996). The compass was (and still is) used for navigation when the sky was overcast. It allowed sailor’s to get a bearing to help with dead reckoning. The compass was originally thought to be able to help determine longitude when combined with celestial measurements of a clear sky. A sailor would need to split his distance between the magnetic and true north poles. This was possible because the compass needle points to the magnetic North Pole while the North Star hovers roughly over the actual North Pole. The advantage of this method was that one didn’t need to know the time in different places to get a measurement (Andrewes & Sobel, 1996). However, the problem with this form of navigation is that compasses weren’t completely accurate, the amount of magnetism in the atmosphere varies in different parts of the ocean, and the earth’s magnetic fields vary over time. This meant that it was not a completely reliable system, and could result in ships being lost at sea.

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Fig. 30.   This is Harrison’s prize-winning longitude watch, completed in 1759. With its very stable and high frequency balance, it proved to be a very sucessful design.

Fig. 31.   Exquisite piercing and engraving of the backplate for the H-4. One of the most famous watches of all time.


Chronometer The chronometer is a highly accurate sea clock and a vital piece of equipment used in the early navigation. It has aided in the discovery of much of the world, including New Zealand, when Capt. James Cook took many chronometers for his navigation and explorations of the Pacific (Orchiston, 1998).

With reliable sea-going clocks being developed in the 1700s, it became possible to very accurately determine both longitude and latitude by measuring the altitude of various stars and comparing the time differences between the current location and reference location when the same altitude of stars would appear.

Developed with the purpose of being able to determine longitude. Its roots come from the Greek astronomer Hipparchus, around 160 B.C., who proposed using Lunar eclipses to determine east and west distances. In short, this theory proved to determine that fifteen degrees of the earth’s rotation (or longitude) is equal to one hour in time. Stated differently, the point on the earth’s surface directly below the sun moves west fifteen nautical miles at the equator in one minute in time (Ifland, 1998). Using Greenwich as the prime meridian reference, longitude can be calculated by Greenwich time plus local celestial time. As Ifland (1998) states, there are two methods for determining time when calculating longitude at sea: the celestial method, and the mechanical method.

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The celestial method requires being able to accurately predict celestial events, such as an eclipse, at a specific location (Ifland, 1998). The specific time of particular celestial events is given in journals or a chart. From there, one can determine their specific longitude. For example, the predicted time of the eclipse at the reference location, Greenwich, is compared with the celestial time at the observer’s location when the eclipse occurs. The difference in time between the reference location and the observer’s actual location is equal to the observer’s longitude east or west of the reference point. The mechanical method requires an accurate time keeping device such as a sea-clock (chronometer) that will keep the exact time of the reference location over long periods. Longitude is found by comparing the local time of a celestial event with the predicted time of that same event at a reference location (Ifland, 1998), this again is found using set charts and tables.

Fig. 32.   Drawing of an internal chronometer mechanism - John Harrison’s H-4 version, 1755.


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Fig. 33.   Photograph of a sextant (Author’s images).

Fig. 34.   Photograph of a sextant (Author’s images).


Sextant While sailors have long been able to determine their latitude based on Polaris or the sun, determining one’s longitude (position East or West) proved elusive for a very long time. Various tools and instruments have been developed and used throughout history to measure the height of celestial bodies above the horizon (for calculating longitude), from knotted string, through to octants, then finally sextants. Sextants are so-named because their frames measure one sixth of a circle and were developed from the octant for the specific purpose of making lunar distance measurements (Andrewes & Sobel, 1996). The Octant measures 90 degrees, which is ideal for measuring celestial bodies above the horizon. However, things would become more difficult when it came to measuring angles between the sun and moon, which could get higher than 90 degrees. In 1759, the modern sextant was born (Iflund, 1998), with an arc at one sixth of a circle it could measure up to a potential of 120 degrees. |33

The sextant uses mirrors and an eyepiece to allow the user to match a celestial body, such as the sun, to the horizon, which in turn gives the angle of that body above the horizon. The second this angle is taken, one needs to note the time and then consult the relevant charts to compare to the same angle at the same time at a different location. One’s longitude can then be worked out.

Fig. 35.   A schematic drawing of the optics for the back-sight system proposed by George Wright, 1775.


Fig. 36.   Image of interior of the Edwin Fox’s hull. (Author’s photograph).

Boat Building Materials

The materiality of each of the four buildings follows four of the most common materials used in the history of boat building. These materials are presented in order of their inception in the marine industry: wood, concrete, metal, and composite.


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Fig. 37.   Hand built wooden canoe. (Author’s photo).


Timber Wood has been used as a material for boat building for thousands of years, with almost every civilisation developed around water using it for this purpose. The earliest known example is the canoe of Pesse, a hollowed out log, which dates back to 8000 BC (Archeo Forum, 2001). As with architecture, boat building with wood is always evolving. Currently there are many different types of wooden boat, materials, techniques, tools and shapes around the world. There are three primary hull shapes, flat-bottomed, round-bottomed, and V-bottomed in smaller vessels (Steward, 2011). While techniques or methods change, and new laminates, composites, or combinations with other materials get introduced, the general construction of timber vessels has remained relatively unchanged for over a hundred years with systems of lofting and framing being the predominant methods in construction of a timber vessel. (Hartley, 1967). The earliest ships that charted the world and discovered New Zealand were all timber, from the Maori Waka to the European barques that colonised the nation.

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Fig. 38.   Drawing of the Cuba at anchor at Port Nicholson Heads, 1840. 38|

Fig. 39.   Drawing of the Cuba by Charles Heaphy, 1840.


The Cuba The Cuba, a 270 tonne timber barque with 11 guns, was brought to New Zealand as a surveying ship. Leaving London on the First of August 1839, she arrived in Port Nicholson on the fourth of January 1840 carrying 27 passengers (Ward, 1912). She was the third ship of the New Zealand Company to arrive in Port Nicholson, carrying the surveying staff whose role was to map the area and plan out the settlement for Wellington. Captain Mein Smith, who was responsible for planning out the settlement, led this task. The original plan remains the core of Wellington’s layout (Mulgan, 1939), from Tinakore Road to Oriental Bay and back to the town belt (excluding waterfront reclamations). From New Zealand, the Cuba moved on to the United States where it was used as a cargo ship. It became stricken on 16th February 1860 off James Island, South Carolina when the captain mistook where the port was located. The barque sank, but no crew were lost (New York Times, 1860). |39


Concrete Various mixtures of mortar and concrete have been used for thousands of years throughout Europe. With the Dark Ages it became a forgotten material and only resurfaced in the early nineteenth century. Joseph Aspdin, a stonemason from Britain, is credited with the invention of ‘Portland Cement’ in 1824 (Portland Cement Association, 2012). Aspdin heated a mixture of ground limestone and clay in his kitchen, this mixture hardened with the addition of water, forming concrete. Portland Cement gets its name from a similar looking stone that was quarried on the Isle of Portland at the time. Ferro-cement has been used in boat building for over a century. Originally called Ferciment by the French, the name has evolved from the Italians calling it Ferro-cemento, through to it being named Ferro-cement by the pioneering New Zealand builders (Hartley & Reid, 1978). Fig. 40.   Construction of a concrete hull showing steel reinforcing. 40|

The first known ferro-cement boat was built in 1848 by Joseph Louis Lambot in France (Concrete Ships.org, 2011) (fig. 35). It featured steel reinforcement, and floated for over 100 years (Pullan, 2013). It still exists and can be seen in the Brignoles Museum, in southern France. Lambot’s design preceded the invention of reinforced concrete, which is largely credited to Joseph Monier (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2013). Monier made reinforced cement pots for gardening and patented the idea in 1867. Francois Hennebique, a French engineer, saw Monier’s pots at the Paris Exposition in 1867 and consequently worked to utilise the material in building construction. During World War I there was a huge shortage of steel in both the United Kingdom and United States. It was suggested that not only barges and medium sized vessels could be built with concrete, but also ships. In the United States, research was undertaken into higher strength, lightweight aggregate and cement. Twenty-four ships were commissioned, twelve of which were built, but not all finished before the war ended. The most famous example of the twelve ships was the 125m, 7,500-ton Selma (fig. 36), launched in

Fig. 41.   Concrete hull plastered by the Sayer method where plaster is first applied to the outside, allowed to cure, and then the inside of the hull is plastered.


1919 to transport oil between refinery ports (Concrete Ships.org, 2011). Unfortunately the Selma was decommissioned after running aground. Nobody was skilled enough to reliably fix her and so she was sunk. With the development of the Selma came new research and techniques for the world of concrete construction (Pullan, 2013). These most notably being the development and use of vibration to get concrete into finer areas and to remove air bubbles, a better understanding of the effects different ratios of water and cement made to the final product, development of the ‘slump test’ to measure the consistency of the concrete, and a greater understanding of the relationship between strength and how fine the cement used is. World War II came, and again there was a shortage of steel. In 1942, 24 more concrete ships in the United States were commissioned with one being built per month, (Concrete Ships.org, 2011) many of which are still afloat, used as breakwaters. While Ferro-cement’s early development was in Europe, the major period of development for recreational boating occurred in Australia and New Zealand with enthusiast or do-ityourself amateur boat builders leading the refinement of war year techniques. It was a craze at the time; people would build them and then go travelling around the pacific for six months (A. McQuarters, personal communication, February 21, 2013). Ferro-cement boats could be built in one’s backyard (Tucker, 1977). The materials used in building one of these boats are cheap compared to other boat building materials, meaning that almost anyone who has the space and spare time could build a strong, sturdy boat. With the popularity of the enthusiast concrete boat, professional building eventually picked up, and with it came the need to ensure the quality of one’s design. With professional building came greater awareness of the need for quality control of the materials and the manufacturing process. As a material, Ferro-cement has many advantages. It’s

cheap, has great longevity, can require little to no maintenance, is not affected by changes in temperature and humidity once it is fully cured, is fireproof, and not affected by rot or other bacterial deterioration. These properties made it a great material for both the amateur and professional to build with. As long as the boats were built well, they would last. By the 1960s the decline in popularity of Ferro-cement boats came down to two key disadvantages. Firstly, is that they were seen as very heavy. This is a common misconception; a Ferro-cement boat is actually five percent lighter than a wooden boat when the length of the boat is greater than thirty feet (Whitener, 1971). They also have about twelve percent more interior space because of the construction not needing as much heavy framing. Though under thirty feet, a concrete boat does get much heavier than it’s wooden counterpart. The second disadvantage was the poor workmanship involved in enthusiast builds. They were so cheap to build that many were built by poorly skilled amateurs to an unsatisfactory level of finish and encountered problems in the water because of it (McQuarters, 2013). Water would rust exposed framing and get into the hull, making the boats sink. This led to the material gaining a reputation for being unreliable and problematic for boat building. So, a few badly built boats gave the industry a bad name. A properly finished Ferro-cement boat will potentially last over a hundred years.

Fig. 42.   J.L. Lambot’s 1848 ferro-cement boat.

Fig. 43.   The Selma under construction.

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Fig. 45.   Photograph of a Hartley Coastal 30 boat for sale in Tauranga, 2013. 42|

Fig. 44.   Diagram of internal structural layout of a ferro-cement boat.

Fig. 46.   Photograph of a Hartley Coastal 30 boat for sale in Tauranga, 2013.


Hartley Coastal 30 The ‘Coastal 30’ is an example of Ferro-cement boat that could be built in one’s backyard. The Hartley designed ‘Coastal 30’ is as the name suggests, thirty feet long and weighs 8.5 tonnes (McQuarters, 2013). Being a 30ft design, this hull is designed to be about the same weight as a timber hull of the same length. So, while appearing very heavy, it is similar to timber built vessels of the same size.

need lofting knowledge as Hartley’s plans could be bought at full size, meaning that people could lay the structure on top of the plans to make sure it was accurate (Endean, 1992). A very good boat could be built for the cost of plans and the material in one’s spare time.

Frames for Ferro-cement boats are set up in exactly the same way as that for a boat made from steel or wood, the change comes from the application of the material. The hull strength is determined by the amount of steel used, while the elasticity is controlled by how the steel is distributed across the hull. A hull with many layers of fine wire is much stronger than one with fewer layers but thicker wire (Hartley & Reid, 1978). This is the reason that frames can be further apart in a Ferro-cement hull than its wooden counterpart.

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The plans are re-drawn full size on the floor in a process called lofting. This is where the skilled boat builders are separated from amateurs, with the accuracy of the laying down the lines being crucial for best performance of the hull (Endean, 1992). One of the most famous names in Ferro-cement boat building is the New Zealander, Richard Hartley. Hartley made his name by supplying the full size floor plans for the amateur boat builder to work off, eliminating the chance of inaccuracies in the lofting process. Richard Hartley was born in the Isles of Scilly but immigrated to New Zealand as a child. He learnt the elements of yacht design at what is now the Auckland University of Technology. From those beginnings, designs by Hartley became incredibly popular and allowed huge numbers of people in Australasia access to boating. Hartley’s success is based on his designs being easy to build. Do-it-yourself back yard boat builders didn’t

Fig. 47.   Plan view of a typical Hartley Coastal 30 interior layout.


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Fig. 48.   Anish Kapoor, Memory Sculpture (Author’s photo).


Metal Modern mass-produced recreational boats are generally made from either aluminium or fibreglass. Wood is still used, but much more conservatively and often for custom or enthusiast uses. Fibreglass boats are essentially made the same way, by layering the materials inside a mould, or plug. Their differences being in the fibres or resins used. Aluminium boats, on the other hand, offer quite different manufacturing techniques. The alloy extrusions are fastened together by four different methods: welding, riveting, bonding and mechanical interlocking. Bonding and mechanical interlocking are not very common in boat building but bonding (gluing) is often used as a method in building aircraft (Buls, 1990). Boats today are built with either rivets or welds and often a combination of the two, with neither having any real advantages over the other.

laid out flat to be cut to the right size before being bent back into the right shape when fixing the panels. Many modern super yachts are built from aluminium these days, using CAD/CAM technologies. It is not a size-restricted material, but bigger ships are built from steel, due to lower material cost.

Alloy boats are built from aluminium panels that are cut from rolls. These panels are each cut into a specific shape, which is then fixed to its adjoining panels to form the hull. Riveting aluminium boats is still done by hand, despite technological advancements (Buls, 1990). This is because of how quickly experienced builders can work and make adjustments as they go. The hull plates are assembled then strengthened with frames that run across the inside of the hull for the length of the boat.

By the 1960s, glass-reinforced plastic boats began to dominate the world professional boat building industry with their lighter weight, and high standard of finish. Alloy boats still feature heavily in the industry though, and in some markets are more common than their glass-fibre counterparts. There is little price difference between boats made out of the two materials and choice of hull comes down to personal preferences of the customer.

Welding is seen by some to have advantages over riveting for its potentially cleaner look and the ability to more easily bend or curve panels to create a specific form (Buls, 1990). Of course, the skills required to efficiently weld a hull require much more training and time than simply riveting two panels together. The intense heat involved in welding can also potentially bend and buckle the alloy sheets. Most larger steel boats today, such as barges or ships, use computer aided design (CAD) and machines to loft and cut out the designs. The advantage of CAD is that quick adjustments can be made, different views are easily accessible and designs can be manufactured to very high levels of accuracy by a machine. Of course, having machines cut your panels and parts out means that all the smaller details like joints and flanges need to be added before fabrication (Barry, 1996). Bent parts need to be ‘unfolded’ on the computer and

Early steel ships were hand built with big steel sheets, large rivets and welds. An early example of a steel vessel is the 1874 three-masted barque, the James Craig (Sydney Heritage Fleet, 2013), which spent much of its life in New Zealand waters as a trans-Tasman cargo ship, before the advent of steam powered ships, and is now restored as part of the Sydney Heritage Fleet.

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Fig. 49.   Image of the Wahine in Wellington Harbour, 1966 - Union Steamship Co. Ltd. 46|

Fig. 50.   Salvaged remains of the Wahine - Sections of the bow were cut up for scrap on Queen’s Wharf, 1970.


The Wahine The Wahine was the ferry involved in New Zealand’s worst maritime disaster. The Wahine first arrived from Lyttleton in October 1966 and was purposed as a ship for the Wellington-Lyttleton Ferry service. She was made from steel, was 488 feet long and weighed 8948 Tons (Young, 1999). She was named after the first Wahine, another ferry used for transportation between the North and South Islands (Hartley & Lambert, 1969). This original Wahine was lost on a reef in the Arafura Sea while transporting New Zealand troops to Korea in 1951. In April 1968, a cyclone forced the Wahine onto Barretts Reef, where she became stricken and later that day capsized off the end of Seatoun beach (Young, 1999). When the Wahine hit the reef, she listed to one side, leaving only half of the lifeboats available for use. Many of the passengers were forced to jump into the Sea. Many of which were picked up by people on all kinds of craft in the rescue effort, some died of exhaustion and exposure, many drowned. Of the 735 passengers, 51 died in the tragedy (Hartley & Lambert, 1969).

Fig. 51.   Photograph of the sinking and abandoned Wahine as seen from Seatoun Beach, 1966.

In a disastrous day for Wellington, many acts of heroism and bravery surfaced as people rescued and helped others.

Fig. 52.   The capsized Wahine with rail ferry ‘Aromoana’ in the background.

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Composite Fig. 53.   Stacking layout example of carbon sheets.

Fig. 54.   Carbon Plain Weave Each fibre passes alternatively over and under the next. Very difficult to drape and shape to complex parts.

Fig. 55.   Carbon Twill Weave One or more warp fibres wraps over two or more weft fibres. Much easier to drape than plain weave with a small reduction in stability.

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Fig. 56.   Carbon Satin Weave Satin weaves are basically modified twill weaves. They have fewer intersections, making them a very tight weave. However they are asymmetric so need to be placed carefully.

Fig. 57.   Carbon Basket Weave The same as a plain weave except with double overlaps. It is flatter and stronger than a plain weave, but less stable.

Fig. 58.   Carbon Leno Weave Used to improve stability of other fibre types. The fibres are wound around each other, locking them in place. Cannot be used by itself as too many large gaps.

Fig. 59.   Carbon Mock Leno Weave A version of the plain weave where occasional fibres have double overlaps. This gives the fabric an increased thickness, rougher surface, and additional porosity which make it easy to seal effectively.

Composite materials have been used in manufacturing for thousands of years. For example, the Phoenicians used glass fibres around 3,500BC to reinforce pottery. However, it wasn’t until the late nineteenth century that the development of glass fibres as a material for non-decorative purposes gained traction. In 1870, John Player used a steam-jet process to mechanise glass strand making. Player’s goal was to produce an insulation material for pipes and furnaces; this was the beginning of the glass-fibre insulation industry. In 1880, Herman Hammesfahr patented a fibreglass cloth where he wove silk and glass fibre (known as mineral wool at the time). This was used for garments and, in the 1930s, fireproof curtains (Crane, 1996). In 1930, a milk bottle company, Owens-Illinois Glass Company, started manufacturing mineral wool to use up its excess and wasted glass. This happened by chance when cleaning the rafters. Owens discovered that the wool made excellent insulation. Corning’s glass and Owens-Illinois started a joint venture in 1938 forming a spin-off company Owens-Corning Fiberglass Corporation (OCF), trademarking the term “fiberglas” (Crane, 1996). They sold this product to the US navy as insulation for boats. While these advances were being made in glass fibres and insulation, Ray Greene produced a thesis in 1937 entitled ‘Choosing Plastic for Building with Large Objects’. Greene was very interested in the potentials of plastics, and paid his tuition by building and selling small boats. He built these boats out of a Melamine resin and linen composite. In 1941, Greene bought half of OCF’s product and began experimenting with mixing the glass and resin. This resulted in a product that was far too brittle to be used effectively. Greene found that the problem lay in the resin, so in 1942 purchased a new, tougher resin from American Cyanamid and built the world’s first polyester/fibreglass boat (Crane, 1996). Greene and OCF’s composite was picked up by the US navy and air force as an alternative to metal. Explorations and developments were made for its use in aircraft, cars and boats (Crane, 1996). It was some years before release agents and gel-coats were developed. Once these products came to market, mass production with moulds and plugs using fibre-reinforced plastics (FRCs) became viable.


Fibreglass boats were the first mass-produced affordable boats in the world. While wood, steel and aluminium were available for boat building, and used during the wars, the market didn’t pick up for pleasure boats until fibreglass was being developed. It became the material of choice for factories as the boats were moulded in a plug, meaning identical boats could be produced quickly. The modern fibre reinforced plastics consist of two main components. They’re typically made of 80% resin (generally polyester but occasionally epoxy), and 20% fibres (Du Plessis, 2006). Other materials are still used for boat building, but fibreglass remains the most popular material for new privately owned vessels. Fibre reinforced plastics are now used in the most high-end racing yachts and boats. This is usually using carbon fibre or Kevlar composites rather than the cheaper and heavier glass fibre used in pleasure craft. Carbon fibre is used where higher performance is required or where budgets allow. Carbon fibres are generally 5-6 times stiffer than glass fibres (Du Plessis, 2006). The advantage of carbon and Kevlar over glass is that their greater stiffness means that high performance mouldings can be thinner and require much less resin or epoxy, resulting in huge weight savings. There are many kinds of carbon fibre reinforcements, each having different properties and strengths. These properties are derived from the process of manufacture of the material, but also the starting compounds. There are two ways to make carbon fibre (Lazarus, 1999). One is extraction of carbon from material called Pitch. The other is a method of refinement from a material called poly-acrylonitrile (PAN). Pitch, or Tar, is essentially the thick residue left in oil distillation. It’s what was used to waterproof wooden boats and is still sometimes used in traditional methods of timber boat construction (Lazarus, 1999). Pitch is used for its high carbon content, with the fibres being drawn from the molten material and then processed to increase the purity levels. Pitch sourced fibres often have a higher modulus (stiffness) and lower strength than fibres made from other processes. Pitch fibres tend to be used in applications where stiffness is necessary but strength secondary, such as in satellites.

Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) refinement starts as a textile and goes through a number of steps of oxidisation and carbonisation to become the desired fibres (Lazarus, 1999). Variation in the manufacturing process produces either high strength fibres, high modulus fibres or a combination/compromise between the strength and modulus. The graphitisation process of carbon from PAN occurs at ~2600˚C (high strength) to ~3000˚C (high modulus). PAN based fibres are generally used for boat building. High strength and modulus carbon is valued in boat building. Today, the most specialised carbon fibre for aerospace or elite sport is interwoven with boron and set in epoxy that gives it twice the strength and lighter weight than the highest grades of carbon alone (Gurit, 2013). As the market for carbon fibre has grown, its cost has plummeted, making it a more viable option for general boat building. In the 1960’s, when carbon fibre was invented in the United Kingdom, costs were around £200 per kilogram for high strength fibre (approximately £3,500 today, accounting for inflation); now the cost is around £15 per kilogram (Du Plessis, 2006). The material is starting to be used for various parts of consumer vessels where weight is an issue, such as masts. While suitable for the most high performance sports equipment and vehicles, carbon fibre is less ideal as a building material. It has an extremely high conductivity of electricity, making it a poor choice as a building material beyond it’s high cost and potentially unnecessary weight savings. Without a proper lightning conductor to the ground, carbon fibre has the potential to explode in extremely high temperatures that could set fire to the structures around it (Du Plessis, 2006). Racing yachts with carbon masts combat this by having thick wires running down the mast to the hull where the electricity can be dispersed.

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Fig. 60.   Photograph of Team New Zealand’s AC72 racing yacht in action. 50|

Fig. 61.   Photograph of Team New Zealand’s AC72 racing yacht in action.


New Zealand AC72 The AC72 is the most advanced marine multi-hull racing technology at this time. The purpose of these designs is to compete in the 2013 America’s Cup, so are all built to a given set of rules and specifications. First designed and built in 2011, Emirates Team New Zealand launched their first of two boats in July 2012, built by Cookson Boats and Southern Spars. The team designs and builds their own hulls, sails and other parts within the confines of the rules of the 2013 America’s Cup regatta (CupInfo, 2011). The catamaran measures 72 feet long and has a 46 foot wide beam. The wing (sail) is 260 square meters with a height of 40 meters from the water line. The Gennaker has a minimum width only, but is approximately 320 square meters. With a crew of 11, the total sailing weight is required to sit between 5.7 and 5.9 tonnes. The projected top speed of the AC72 is 32 knots (approximately 60Km/h) (CupInfo, 2011) but Team NZ has exceeded that speed, so far peaking 44.15 knots. The boats operate with racing foils (wings on the undersides of the hulls), these allow the boat to rise out of the water under high wind load to minimise friction within the water, thus making the boat much faster with a strong breeze (CupInfo, 2011). This is negated by the large drag the hydro-foils cause when the boat is not raised on them in slower winds. So, the number and size of the hydro-foils is a trade-off in performance under high and low wind loads (J. Sutherland, personal communication, June 2, 2013).

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These four materials have had a significant impact on New Zealand’s maritime history. Impacts range from necessity in the form of transportation, to recreational uses, or sport. Each material has been selected to represent a part of the boating culture of New Zealand, from our roots, through to where we are today. Thus, the buildings are arranged to showcase each material as part of New Zealand’s boating culture and maritime history. These materials have been used as a palette for façade treatments across the structures.

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Fig. 62.   Cockatooo Island machine shop, Sydney.

Case Studies - Maritime Museums

Several case studies have been made into facilities that offer similar functions or services to the living museum. These studies are of both local and international examples of maritime museums and facilities.


Voyager New Zealand Maritime Museum - Auckland The Auckland maritime museum was first proposed in 1980 by the Auckland Harbour Board and United Steamship Company members to house New Zealand’s maritime history collection and provide an exhibition facility. The ‘Auckland Maritime Museum Hobson Wharf ’ opened in 1993. It was originally intended as the first and only museum to cover New Zealand’s complete maritime history, and therefore in 1996 the name was changed to the New Zealand National Maritime Museum. However, in 2009 the museum was again renamed as the Voyager New Zealand Maritime Museum to reflect the focus on voyages, exploration, and discovery that have shaped the nation (Voyager New Zealand Maritime Museum, 2012).

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In 2009 an extension designed by Bossley Architects was completed. The ‘Blue Water Black Magic’ exhibition is a tribute to Sir Peter Blake and features the NZL32, the first boat from New Zealand to win the America’s Cup. The extension continues the museum’s layout of chronological circulation through rooms featuring stories of arrival and primarily Auckland’s maritime history. This extension proved divisive, with many seeing it as focussing a significant portion of the museum on one small part of a large history (G. Lilly, Director, personal communication, December 3, 2012). The extension cantilevers out across the water. Large sheets of polycarbonate cladding reflect the traditional form of boat sheds (Bossley Architects, 2012). The extension is designed to offer glimpses out to the harbour and from the exterior back inside. In practise, there is very little to see either way and in the author’s opinion, a lost opportunity considering the location. In the last year there were a total; of 555,818 visitors to the museum, which is a 17% increase on the previous year, and 14,011 people participated in heritage vessel trips (Voyager New Zealand Maritime Museum, 2012).

The biggest challenge faced by the museum is that it has very little street frontage, many people walk past without noticing it’s there. This is something the museum is looking to change to attract more visitors. Secondly, as with all museums at this time, positioning itself between being a traditional museum and a more interactive tourist attraction is a challenge. The museum is based on research, archiving and maintaining maritime history but needs to cater to the broader interests of 90% of the visitors (Lilly, 2012). The museum used to have its workshops located on site, where boats could get restored or repaired. Of course, rates and land values meant that this side of the museum has been shifted away. They also have issues with archives. There are enormous assortments of books, drawings, maps and diagrams that are stored away in boxes. This is information that needs to be made accessible in the future and the museum is exploring options in dealing with it. ‘Voyager Maritime Museum is a place of stories, ambition, courage and exploration. A place of amazing journeys. Discover how our nation’s relationship with the sea has shaped the New Zealand identity; from stories of the Polynesian people’s epic migration to Aotearoa, early European exploration then settlement, to modern-day yachting success.’ (Voyager New Zealand Maritime Museum, 2012)


Fig. 63.   Voyager Maritime Museum (Author’s photo).

Fig. 64.   Voyager Maritime Museum.

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Fig. 66.   Voyager Maritime Museum.

Fig. 67.   Voyager Maritime Museum (Author’s photo).

Fig. 68.   Voyager Maritime Museum (Author’s photo).

Fig. 69.   Voyager Maritime Museum visitor map.


Museum of Wellington City and Sea The Wellington Museum of City and Sea celebrates the city’s social, cultural, and maritime history. Reopened in 1999, it was previously focussed as a local maritime museum. It’s located in the old Bond Store; a 1892 heritage building designed by architect Frederick de Jersey Clere. The museum is divided into three floors covering Wellington’ early history, maritime history, and the 20th century (Museums Wellington, 2012). The museum features over a hundred stories about twentieth century Wellington life, a Maori myths and legends show, and films about early Wellington. It also contains an exhibit documenting the tragedy of the Wahine disaster.

Fig. 71.   Wellington Museum of City and Sea visitor’s map.

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Fig. 70.   Wellington Museum of City and Sea (Author’s photo).

Fig. 72.   Wellington Museum of City and Sea (Author’s photo).

Fig. 73.   Wellington Museum of City and Sea (Author’s photo).

Fig. 74.   Wellington Museum of City and Sea (Author’s photo).

Fig. 75.   Wellington Museum of City and Sea (Author’s photo).


Edwin Fox Maritime Museum - Picton Picton’s Edwin Fox Maritime Museum features the preserved Edwin Fox. Having been built on the Ganges Delta, India in 1853, as a Moulmein Trader, it is now the 9th oldest ship in the world and the world’s oldest surviving merchant ship. Constructed of Saul and Indian Teak, one of the world’s most durable timbers, which doesn’t decay, warp, or crack. A copper skin was laid on the planking of the hull to protect against ship-worms. The Edwin Fox has had a colourful life, beginning with transporting troops and reportedly Florence Nightingale for the Crimean War in 1854, to transporting convicts to Australia in 1858, and bringing immigrants to New Zealand in 1973 for all of which she is the last surviving ship. In 1897 she went on to become part of the early frozen meat industry in Picton and continued as a refrigeration and storage hulk (coal) until the 1950s. She was beached in Shakespeare Bay in 1967, re-floated in 1986, and was finally dry docked in 1999. She has been around the world 34 times, carrying up to 1000 tonnes of cargo and 300 hundred people aboard. The interior of the museum exhibits relics form the Edwin Fox and tells of the vast history of the ship and her many voyages. There is also a screening area to watch a film featuring more information and showing the restoration and transportation of the ship to its current exhibition space. Visitors can walk onto the ship to view the interior cargo space and also a partial replica of the cabin space. A ramp also leads down to view the underside of the ships hull.

Fig. 77.   Edwin Fox Maritime Museum (Author’s photo).

Fig. 78.   Edwin Fox Maritime Museum (Author’s photo).

Fig. 79.   Edwin Fox Maritime Museum (Author’s photo).

Fig. 80.   Edwin Fox Maritime Museum (Author’s photo).

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Fig. 81.   Edwin Fox Maritime Museum (Author’s photo).

Fig. 76.   Edwin Fox Maritime Museum (Author’s photo).

Fig. 83.   Edwin Fox Maritime Museum (Author’s photo).

Fig. 82.   Edwin Fox Maritime Museum (Author’s photo).


Australian National Maritime Museum - Sydney Opened 1991, Australia’s National Maritime Museum is located in Darling Harbour, Sydney and features a number of interactive vessels including a replica of the ‘Endeavour’, the 1968 ‘Onslow’ submarine, and the 1956 ‘Vampire’ Destroyer. Being able to board these very different vessels offers an interactive and diverse maritime experience when visiting the museum. The museum has one of the largest fleets of any museum in the world, with fourteen vessels in the harbour, including the historic 1874 Barque James Craig, a 1968 patrol boat, 1888 cutter racing yacht, and a 1917 lightship. The extensive range of boats creates a stronger connection to the water, and a greater significance of maritime identity in the city. The museum is designed to look like a wave or sail, a vague similarity to the Opera house, creating another nodal point around the Sydney waterfront. The interior of the museum contains exhibits exploring Australia’s maritime history.

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A range of historic wooden vessels, run by the Sydney Heritage Fleet, is also on display in the separate Wharf 7 building. The Sydney Heritage Fleet (originally the Sydney Maritime Museum) is a non-profit organisation run by staff, a membership of over a thousand, and six hundred volunteers dedicated to the preservation and restoration of significant vessels in Australia’s history (Sydney Heritage Fleet, 2012). Their goal is to increase awareness of the significance of the country’s history, develop traditional skills and maintain a world-class fleet.

Fig. 87.   Australian National Maritime Museum (Author’s photos).

Fig. 85.   Endeavour Replica (Author’s photos).

Fig. 84.   Australian National Maritime Museum visitor’s map.

Fig. 86.   ‘Vampire’ Destroyer and Submarine ‘Onslow’ (Author’s photos).


Cockatoo Island - Sydney In the middle of Sydney’s harbour is the historic site of Cockatoo Island. It contains many remnants of Sydney’s extensive maritime and ship building history. Cockatoo Island is undergoing a redevelopment by the Sydney Harbour Board. The island’s ship building industry dried up years ago and it has been sitting unused for a number of years. The rejuvenation plans for Cockatoo Island include a working maritime precinct designed for enthusiast boat building, restoration, and repair. So far, it has been ‘spectacularly’ unsuccessful due to a number of factors. The primary one being access. Any good maritime facility needs to be accessible by water, road and potentially rail depending on the scale. Cockatoo Island only has one of those. While the uptake of the facilities has been slow, there are a number of people using the sheds for restoration purposes.

Fig. 89.   Cockatoo Island (Author’s photo).

Cockatoo Island has more recently been successful with tourism. Developing transport to the island through the Sydney Ferries, and having a rolling event program such as art exhibitions, concerts, balls and festivals, have encouraged this success (N. Hollo, Deputy Executive Director, personal communication, October 23, 2012). The island provides a backdrop to these events with scenery like historic machinery, dry stacks, old factories and views of Sydney harbour.

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Fig. 92.   Cockatoo Island.

Fig. 90.   Cockatoo Island.

Fig. 91.   Cockatoo Island.

Fig. 95.   Cockatoo Island (Author’s photo).

Fig. 88.   Cockatoo Island visitor’s map.

Fig. 93.   Cockatoo Island (Author’s photo).

Fig. 94.   Cockatoo Island (Author’s photo).

Fig. 96.   Cockatoo Island visitor’s map.


International Maritime Museums

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Starting with a pocket watch, conceptual models were built as inspiration. The pocket watches were taken apart to gain an understanding of how they worked. Test models were then built in an experiment of developing hierarchy of the parts in a rearranged form. Several models were constructed, some with moving parts, some with fixed.

Fig. 97.   Pocket watch model (Author’s photo).

Process and Development - Experimental Models

This section contains a series of experimental models exploring form. These models were used to inform design decisions of the building layout.


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Fig. 98.   Pocket watch model One (Author’s model and photographs).


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Fig. 99.   Pocket watch model Two (Author’s model and photographs).


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Fig. 100.   Pocket watch model Three (Author’s model and photograph).


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Fig. 101.   Pocket watch model Three (Author’s model and photograph).


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Fig. 102.   Pocket watch model Four (Author’s model and photograph).


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Fig. 103.   Pocket watch models combined (Author’s models and photograph).


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Fig. 104.   Wire frame for block model (Author’s photograph and model).

Fig. 105.   Wire frame for block model (Author’s photograph and model).


Driftwood sourced from the wellington coast was milled into small cubes to experiment with the layout and arrangement of the four buildings. Experimentations were made, like with the pocket watch models, into finding form for the buildings. A regular cube-type geometric shape was decided upon for each building.

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Once the regular geometric shape of each building had been chosen, brass cages were made to house the blocks. These were then experimented with by looking at the relationship of the four buildings with each other, their distance and angles to one another.

Fig. 106.   Wooden block model with brass wire frame (Author’s photograph and model).


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Fig. 107.   Block models - Development of Form (Author’s Photographs and models).


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Fig. 108.   Experimental block models - Composition (Author’s images).


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Fig. 109.   Experimental block models - Rotation (Author’s images).


Concept - Experimental Drawings Fig. 110.   Disassembled pocketwatch (chronograph) drawings (Author’s drawing).


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Fig. 111.   Drawings of Internal Pocket Watch Mechanism (Author’s drawing).


Conceptual drawings have been made of a disassembled pocket watch. These drawings are used to derive the floor plans for each of the buildings in the museum. A pocket watch was taken apart, rearranged and each part drawn to scale. The result is a drawing that would function as a time keeping device if built, but no longer resembles its original form (see fig. 110). Next, a series of drawings along various tangents and axial points were made. The first drawing (fig. 111) is linking the centre of each cog with the centres of all the other cogs, forming an enclosed geometric net. The second drawing (fig. 112) focuses on tangential lines between the edges of each cog. These lines form a concentric image due to their concentration at the circumferences. The next drawing (fig. 113) links all the centre points with the edges of each cog. Each line forms a tangent along the specific point it hits on the outer edge of each cog, creating a relationship between the centres and exteriors across the drawing. The fourth drawing is based on the centre-to-edge drawing (fig 114). Lines that were visibly more dominant from overlapping others along similar axis were extracted and highlighted to where the met other significant lines. The irregular quadrilaterals formed in this experiment showed signs of three-dimensions possibly being drawn from the image. Next, curves were used in a form of lofting similar to how one would draw boat plans (fig. 115). These curves again were worked around the cogs and overlapping lines begin to dominate the eye line through the image. Finally, all the line drawings were combined (Fig. 116). This resulted in an extremely dense image where the largest concentration of lines became easily apparent. The four key images were then expanded and key lines through each drawing were highlighted. These ‘averages’ or stand-out points of each drawing began to form the basis of the floor plans (Fig. 117). The ‘averaged’ lines were again reduced to simple axial points, thus forming the general layout for the floor plans of the maritime museum (Fig. 118).

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Fig. 112.   Drawing linking cog centres with straight lines (Author’s drawing).


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Fig. 113.   Drawing linking all cog edges with straight lines (Author’s drawing).


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Fig. 114.   Drawing linking cog centres with cog edges with straight lines (Author’s drawing).


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Fig. 115.   Drawing extracting significant lines to create spatial form (Author’s drawing).


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Fig. 116.   Drawing joining cog edges and centres with curves (Author’s drawing).


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Fig. 117.   Combination of all line drawings with mechanism (Author’s drawing).


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Fig. 118.   Significant reference lines produced from each drawing for floor plans layout. (Author’s drawings).


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Fig. 119.   Axial points and arrangement of plans (Author’s drawings).


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Fig. 120.   Developmental drawings of building structure and layout.


Design: The Living Museum Fig. 121.   Nautical style map showing the Maritime Museum location in Queen’s Wharf and surrounding site (Author’s image).


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Design Purpose

Museum Introduction

The primary purpose of the design is to provide a maritime museum which focuses on Wellnigton and New Zealand’s maritime history, complimentary to Te Papa and the waterfront. Secondly, it provides a facility where historic and significant vessels can be restored or repaired in appropriate and sheltered conditions. This also provides an interactive quality to the museum where the public can see and learn about the processes and techniques involved in boat building.

Each building represents a Waka Huia, or treasure box, containing precious artefacts from New Zealand’s maritime history. This also symbolizes the box given to Their Majesties King George VI and Queen Elizabeth made from the Totara piles of the original Queen’s wharf on their visit in 1927. The architecture follows the development in materials used in boat building with each building representing four significant boats from New Zealand’s maritime history, the Cuba, the Hartley Coastal 30, the Wahine, and the NZ AC72.

Site and Context

The buildings are laid out following the development of drawings derived from the navigational instruments. with the plan from the chronometer, and section influenced by the sextant.

The building is to be located at the southern ‘T’ of Queen’s Wharf, Wellington. This site has been selected for a number of reasons. The site’s history goes back to Wellington’s foundations, being a key structure for the development of the city. Due to the required port facilities outgrowing the wharf, it is no longer fit for its original purpose and is in a state of transition. Until now, a new use for the structure has not been found.

The wooden (first) building, is the entrance to the musuem. It has a glazed entrance facing the wharf, making it more visually accessible to the public. The next three buildings are accessed through the first and can only be viewed at a distance from the waterfront or harbour, their facade treatments leave the structures with view paths into and through the buildings, in turn allowing a greater relationship of the interior exhibits with the public and city.

The site is ideal for access to the museum from both the water and the city. Trucks can get to the structure if needed, and rail access is located at the new port down the road. So, restoration vessels and materials can be delivered to the site quite easily.

The buildings overlap and surround one of the original waterfront cranes. This historic crane is in working order and is available to load or unload materials and stock into the museum. This aspect of the design helps to bring to life this design as a living maritime museum.

The site is located on the edge of the central business district with easy access for the public. It is easily seen from around the harbour and forms a natural start or end point to the waterfront walkway.

The fourth building is both visually and physically separated from the first three. Connected by an underwater tunnel, it appears as an island. This allows views through to the harbour and beyond between the buildings and breaks up the structure.

Fig. 122.   Exterior perspective of the Living Museum.

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Fig. 123.   Examples of typical Waka Huia (Feather box) designs.


Te Waka Huia / The Feather Box

Design Inspiration

Taonga, items of personal value, were important to Maori due to their connections with historical events, people, places, or beliefs. Taonga have a significant connection to their owners. Their details can also represent significant stories or traditions.

Sextant

Waka huia, or Papa Hou, are examples of Taonga. They are individually significant items as well as being treasure containers used to hold their owners most precious or personal items (Hakiwai & Smith, 2008). These treasure containers were often suspended from the rafters in a Chief ’s house. They were seen as being tapu (sacred), as they belonged to the chief who was also considered tapu. Waka Huia and Papa Hou often have very elaborate carving with spiral designs or figures that were important to the individual or tribe covering their exterior. Te Waka huia is a combination of te waka and te huia, meaning a ‘wooden box holding bird feathers’. ‘Waka’ in this instance, referring to ‘box’, is an extension of ‘vessel’ or ‘canoe’ to any carved wood container. The Huia (heterolocha acutirostris), last seen in 1907, was a bird hunted to extinction for its prized feathers (Orio, 1996). The feathers were highly valued among Maori as ornaments for the hair on special occasions, the local Maori of Petone also used to use the feathers for prestigious gifts.

Taken from the sextant, sections of 15˚ up to 120˚ are the working basis for the arrangement and layout of the buildings and their juxtaposition. This extends from the size of the buildings and spaces to the detail of the material treatments. Compass The compass is recognised in the architecture where each building has a void running in the North-South direction across the length of the structure. The building itself is oriented along this axis as a reference point to the city. Chronometer The chronometer influenced the layout and hierarchy of the floor plans. The models and drawings developed from the chronometer became the structure of the floor plans. Thus, the chronometer (time) is represented by the plan where people move across the building. The sextant (vertical relationships) is represented across the architecture, from the section to the link between each rivet and its corresponding fixtures. The compass (direction) is shown through the layout of the museum.

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Fig. 124.   Site analysis of the immediate site - shown in red (Author’s image).

Fig. 125.   Analysis showing the waterfront surrounding the site (Author’s image).


Site Analysis |99

Fig. 126.   Analysis in relation to the surrounding context of city and harbour (Author’s image).

Fig. 127.   Analysis showing the sites relationship to wider Wellington (Author’s image).


Launching Ramp

Plant Room

100| Sunken Workspace

Archives

Dry Dock

Boat / Material Storage

General Storage

Underwater Tunnels

Floor Plan - Below Ground 1:500

Fig. 128.   Floor Plan - Below Ground.


Lecture Space / Lookout Specialty Exhibition Space

Exhibition Space Launching Ramp

WC

Gallery Exhibition Space

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Offices Sunken / Dry Workspace

Kitchen Cafe

WC Dry Dock / Auditorium Exhibition Space

Machine Shop / Parts Storage

Exhibition Space Staff Room Entrance

WC

Exhibition Space / Wet Workspace

Information

Floor Plan - Ground Level 1:500

Fig. 129.   Floor Plan - Ground Level.


Research Facilities

Offices

WC Library

102|

Storage Exhibition Space

Staff Rooms

Floor Plan - Level 1 1:500

Fig. 130.   Floor Plan - Level 1.


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Offices Library

Gallery Archives

Sunken Workspace Boat / Material Storage

Exhibition Space / Wet Workspace

Dry Dock / Auditorium

North-South Section 1:500

Fig. 131.   Logitudinal Section - North to South.


Ground Level High Tide Low Tide

North Elevation 1:500

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Ground Level High Tide Low Tide

South Elevation 1:500 Fig. 132.   North and South Elevations.


Queen’s Wharf

East Elevation 1:500

Queen’s Wharf

West Elevation 1:500 Fig. 133.   East and West Elevations.

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Fig. 134.   Materiality of exterior facade - Building 1 - Wood. (Author’s image).


Building 1 - Wood - Facade The wood façade treatment is influenced by the interior of a boat hull. There are many old wharves around New Zealand that are in the process of being replaced. Many of these are built with Totara, which is an incredibly resilient wood. Although not the strongest wood for building, Totara has proven itself as a durable wood in coastal environments. It’s relatively easy to carve and has also been used for canoes and buildings since Maori first discovered its use (New Zealand Farm Forestry Association, 2012). Today, Totara is commonly used in the finish of buildings for joinery, panels or beams. It’s also used in contemporary boat building for joinery or finishing. As a sustainably farmed material that has a strong relationship with the history of the site, Totara is an ideal material for finishing the façade. The columns and beams are glue laminated with a Totara veneer. The ribs and panels are built with Totara able to be sourced from old sites such as wharves, bridge piles and buildings, along with farmed Totara. These mixed sources give the building a textured, pre-aged and varied surface consistent with wood in a maritime application. The facade is assembled from the outside-in. This means there is no visible joinery on the exterior of the building, making it look sealed and well finished.

Fig. 135.   Exploded view of exterior facade - Building 1 - Wood. (Author’s image).

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Fig. 136.   Materiality of Exterior Facade - Building 2 - Concrete. (Author’s image).


Building 2 - Concrete - Facade The second building utilizes parallel concrete slabs to make up the façade. There are two reasons why the façade uses these slabs in this orientation. Firstly, this provides a relationship to the construction of a ferro-cement boat. The boats are built around a series of ribs that form the shape of the hull. Therefore, the slabs are a representation of these ribs, thus forming the ‘hull’ of building two. The second reason these ribs have been used is to create sharp narrow and high views into and out of the building. This has a relationship to the sextant and celestial navigation whereby occupiers of the space see the sky, the landscape or city, and the harbour whenever they look towards the edge of the building. The concrete is roughly cut with an exposed aggregate on the edges of the ribs. This will be weathered by the sea over time where the sea-facing side of the building may potentially end up much smoother than the city facing façade.

Fig. 137.   Exploded view of exterior facade - Building 2 - Concrete. (Author’s image).

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Fig. 138.   Materiality of Exterior Facade - Building 3 - Steel. (Author’s image).


Building 3 - Steel - Facade The third building’s façade is constructed with the steel and alloy boats as inspiration. It has allusions to container ships. The riveting processes involved in constructing these boats informed the design decisions with the façade treatments. The panels are disjointed and attached by rods to the surrounding frames, casting a net over the building. The façade consists of a grid of ‘boxes’, each constructed with corten steel. These boxes are attached with aesthetic ‘rivets’ to a framing structure with stainless steel rods, these add texture to the facade. The rod’s have two effects, the first in making the structure more visually porous, the second in adding sharp and clean contrast to the panels that will weather at a much faster rate. The form construction represents the working 120˚ of the sextant. Corten steel has been chosen for the ‘boxes’ because it shows any form of weathering. The depth of these panels allows different parts to be sheltered from different conditions, making the building a reflection and a reaction to its environment over time.

Fig. 139.   Exploded view of exterior facade - Building 3 - Steel. (Author’s image).

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Fig. 140.   Materiality of Exterior Facade - Building 4 - Composite. (Author’s image).


Building 4 - Composite - Facade The final building uses fibre reinforced composites as a basis for its design. The building uses layers of formed steel columns running at a range of angles across the building, this is supplemented with glass to add a polish to the exterior. The shape of the rods is evocative of the foils used on an AC72. The layers run at set angles, vertical (0˚), horizontal (90˚), at +/-45˚, +/-30˚ and +/-60˚. Running these members at the given angles gives the facade a large depth where it doesn’t look like one solid wall and has an irregular pattern of voids from any given angle of view. Each layer only runs in one direction, but when combined, the façade has a woven appearance. Its structural strength is formed in the same way a carbon fibre boat is, with different members (fibres) running in different directions, each providing resistance to forces running along that axis.

Fig. 141.   Exploded view of exterior facade - Building 4 - Composite. (Author’s image).

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Fig. 142.   Building 1 - Wood - Entrance and interior exhibition space.


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Fig. 143.   Building 2 - Concrete - Exhibition space.


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Fig. 144.   (Above Left) Building 3 - Steel - Enderwater walkway. Fig. 145.   ( Above) Building3 - Steel - Interior with dry dock and doors open. Fig. 146.   ( Right) Building 3 - Steel - Interior with dry dock and doors closed.


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Fig. 147.   ( Above) Building 4 - Composite - Interior entrance ramp. Fig. 148.   ( Right) Building 4 - Composite - Exhibition space.


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Fig. 149.   (Right) Exterior view of Timber and Corten Steel buildings from Queen’s Wharf (Author’s image).


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Fig. 150.   (Right) Exterior view of Maritime Museum from waterfront near Frank Kitts Park (Author’s image).


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Fig. 151.   (Right) Exterior view of ‘Composite’ and Concrete buildings from the water (Author’s image).


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Fig. 152.   (Right) Entrance to the Maritime Museum through timber building and showing cafe. (Author’s image)


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Fig. 153.   Impression of Wellington harbour with Maritime Musuem (Author’s image).


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The architecture is informed by the development and use of boat building materials over time. The building layout is drawn from the traditional navigational instruments which played a vital role in our maritime history. Importantly the buildings symbolize Waka Huia, significant Maori boxes filled with precious items. The buildings bring together our historic past with resemblance to Waka Hourua, a Maori voyaging canoe with two Waka strapped together and our most advanced maritime technology represented in AC72, the Team New Zealand America’s cup racing catamaran. Against the pattern of literal interpretation as a trend for current maritime museums, the buildings are constructed to represent the four common hull materials used throughout history. These being wood, concrete, metal, and composite. Each building has taken an element of the design and processes involved with that particular material and featured it in the façade. The wood uses recycled Totara to produce a structure reminiscent of the framing inside a timber hull. The concrete building focuses on the construction of a boat and laying out the plans. The steel building focuses on the connections and joint details which seal a vessel. Lastly, the composite building is a representation of the required layering for strength within the composite materials.

While the material treatments of the museum are representations of the materiality of the boats themselves. The layout of the building has been defined by the navigation instruments. From the chronometer for plans, the sextant for angles, sizes and ratios across the structure, and the compass as a divisive element to give direction.

Conclusion

In spite of a rich maritime heritage, Wellington lacks a living maritime museum. Te Whanga-nui-a-tara and Queens Wharf offer an appropriate and historic site for the location of the Museum. Queens Wharf is at a point of transition, no longer fit for its original purpose and without an established new use. Locating the Museum here will provide links to Wellington’s maritime heritage and revive the wharf.

The museum forms a nodal point around the waterfront linking it to Te Papa with views between the two buildings and cultural links in their exhibits. The building is also situated near the end of the Wellington waterfront walkway that leads up to Parliament, forming a destination point between the key landmarks at either end of the central business district with excellent public access. Thus, significance of the site, the navigation instruments, and materials, a living maritime museum has been produced that encompasses in the architecture, where we have come from as a nation. A living maritime museum has been designed which together with the impact of the site, the use of navigational instruments and boat building materials, encompasses in the architecture our maritime identity.

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Fig. 01.

Previous Page: Cover Image (Author’s image).

Fig. 02.

Photograph of the site on Queen’s Wharf with the old tripod crane. (Author’s photograph).

Fig. 03.

Te Aro Flat and Mt Cook, Wellington, 1840. - Watercolour by C. Heaphy. Mulgan, A., (1939). The city of the straight: Wellington and its province, a centennial history. Wellington, N.Z.: A.H. & A.W. Reed.

Fig. 04.

Map of Port Nicholson and Wellington Harbour with Maori place names. Mulgan, A., (1939). The city of the straight: Wellington and its province, a centennial history. Wellington, N.Z.: A.H. & A.W. Reed.

Fig. 05.

Reclamation and Queen’s Wharf, 1870’s. Ward, L., (1912). Early Wellington. Wellington, N.Z.: Whitcombe & Combs Ltd.

Fig. 06.

View of part of Lambton Harbour, 1841. Photo by E. T. Robson. Ward, L., (1912). Early Wellington. Welling ton, N.Z.: Whitcombe & Combs Ltd.

Fig. 07.

Aerial view of Wellington Harbour, 1930’s - W. Hall Raine. Mulgan, A., (1939). The city of the straight: Wellington and its province, a centennial history. Wellington, N.Z.: A.H. & A.W. Reed.

Fig. 08.

Plan showing land reclaimed from Lambton Harbour, early 1900’s - Total reclaimed area shown in orange. Buick, L. (1930). Jubilee of the port of Wellington: 1880-1930. Wellington, N.Z.: Wellington Harbour Board.

Fig. 09.

Map of the Port of Wellington and Berthage Plan, 1895. Victoria University of Wellington. (2012). Map of Wellington Harbour 1895. Retrieved from http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz

Fig. 10.

Map of the Port of Wellington and Berthage Plan, 1955. Wellington Harbour Board. (1956). The port of Wel lington New Zealand. Wellington, N.Z.: Wellington Harbour Board.

Fig. 11.

Image of the site location and Queen’s Wharf (Author’s photograph).

Fig. 12.

Image of the site location and Queen’s Wharf (Author’s photograph).

Fig. 13.

Image of the site location and Queen’s Wharf (Author’s photograph).

Fig. 14.

Plan view of Queen’s Wharf showing extensions and construction stages, early 1900’s. Buick, L. (1930). Jubilee of the port of Wellington: 1880-1930. Wellington, N.Z.: Wellington Harbour Board.

Fig. 15.

Early Wharves, Te Aro, about 1850. Buick, L. (1930). Jubilee of the port of Wellington: 1880-1930. Wellington, N.Z.: Wellington Harbour Board.

Fig. 16.

Early Wharves, Lambton Quay, 1858. Buick, L. (1930). Jubilee of the port of Wellington: 1880-1930. Wellington, N.Z.: Wellington Harbour Board.

Fig.17.

Queen’s Wharf, 1862-63. Buick, L. (1930). Jubilee of the port of Wellington: 1880-1930. Wellington, N.Z.: Welling ton Harbour Board.

Fig. 18.

Queen’s Wharf, about 1870. Buick, L. (1930). Jubilee of the port of Wellington: 1880-1930. Wellington, N.Z.: Wellington Harbour Board.

Fig. 19.

Post Office Waterfront, about 1885. Buick, L. (1930). Jubilee of the port of Wellington: 1880-1930. Wellington, N.Z.: Wellington Harbour Board.

Fig. 20.

Queen’s Wharf and entrance, about 1893. Buick, L. (1930). Jubilee of the port of Wellington: 1880-1930. Wel lington, N.Z.: Wellington Harbour Board.

Fig. 21.

Photograph of Queen’s Wharf, 1956. Young, V. (1999). Ships of Wellington: The past 50 years. Hong Kong: IPL Publishing Services Wellington.

Fig. 22.

Entrance to Queen’s Wharf, 1950’s. Wellington Harbour Board. (1956). The port of Wellington New Zealand. Wellington, N.Z.: Wellington Harbour Board.

Fig. 23.

Intercolonial and Coastal Steamers at Queen’s Wharf, 1950’s. Wellington Harbour Board. (1956). The port of Wellington New Zealand. Wellington, N.Z.: Wellington Harbour Board.

Fig. 24.

A Northern view of Queen’s Wharf in the foreground and the busy Wellington port with numerous ships in the background, 1950’s. Wellington Harbour Board. (1956). The port of Wellington New Zealand. Wellington, N.Z.: Wellington Harbour Board.

Fig. 25.

Image of a sextant (Author’s photograph).

Fig. 26.

The Prime Meridian Building marks the location of the meridian line at longitude 0 degrees, that passes through the Greenwich Observatory in London. Sobel, D., & Andrewes, W. (1996). Longitude: The true story of a lone genius who solved the greatest scientific problem of his time. London: Fourth Estate Limited.

Fig. 27.

An isoginic chart of the Atlantic - Edmond Halley, 1701. The curved lines mark degrees of magentic vari tation, which cross the lines of latitude. These two coordinates were required to determine the location of a ship at sea. However, it was later discovered that the Earth’s magnetic fields change over time, and attempts to predict the variation were unsuccessful. Sobel, D., & Andrewes, W. (1996). Longitude: The true story of a lone genius who solved the greatest scientific problem of his time. London: Fourth Estate Limited.

Fig. 28.

The azimuth or variation compass, was invented in the sixteenth century to determine the difference between true north (found by observing the position of the sun or stars), and magnetic north (indicated by the compass needle). - This example was made in London by Edward Nairne. Sobel, D., & Andrewes, W. (1996). Longitude: The true story of a lone genius who solved the greatest scientific problem of his time. London: Fourth Estate Limited.

Fig. 29.

The earliest Western refernces to the compass date back to the twelth century and took the form of mag netised needles floating directly on water. This image shows an early fifthteeth century French manuscript depicting a mariner adjusting the index of a dry-pivoted compass. Sobel, D., & Andrewes, W. (1996). Longi tude: The true story of a lone genius who solved the greatest scientific problem of his time. London: Fourth Estate Limited.

Fig. 30.

This is Harrison’s prize-winning longitude watch, completed in 1759. With its very stable and high frequency balance, it proved to be a very successful design. Royal Museums Greenwich. (2013). Marine Timekeeper: H4. Retrieved from http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections/objects/79142.html

Fig. 31.

Exquisite piercing and engraving of the backplate for the H-4. One of the most famous watches of all time. Royal Museums Greenwich. (2013). Marine Timekeeper: H4. Retrieved from http://collections.rmg.co.uk/col lections/objects/79142.html


Drawings of an internal pocket watch mechanism - John Harrison’s H-4 version, 1755. Sobel, D., & Andrew es, W. (1996). Longitude: The true story of a lone genius who solved the greatest scientific problem of his time. London: Fourth Estate Limited.

Fig. 33.

Photograph of a sextant (Author’s image).

Fig. 34.

Photograph of a sextant (Author’s image).

Fig. 35. A schematic drawing of the optics for the back-sight system proposed by George Wright, 1775. Ifland, P. (1998). Taking the stars: Celestial navigation from argonauts to astronauts. Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing. Fig. 36.

Image of interior of the Edwin Fox’s hull. (Author’s photograph).

Fig. 37.

Hand built wooden canoe. (Author’s photo).

Fig. 49.

Image of the Wahine in Wellington Harbour, 1966 - Union Steamship Co. Ltd. Young, V. (1999). Ships of Wellington: The past 50 years. Hong Kong: IPL Publishing Services Wellington.

Fig. 50.

Salvaged remains of the Wahine - Sections of the bow were cut up for scrap on Queen’s Wharf, 1970. Young, V. (1999). Ships of Wellington: The past 50 years. Hong Kong: IPL Publishing Services Wellington.

Fig. 51.

Photograph of the sinking and abandoned Wahine as seen from Seatoun Beach, 1966. Lambert, M., & Hart ley, J. (1969). The Wahine disaster. Wellington, N.Z.: A.H. & A. W. Reed.

Fig. 52.

The capsized Wahine with rail ferry ‘Aromoana’ in the background. Lambert, M., & Hartley, J. (1969). The Wahine disaster. Wellington, N.Z.: A.H. & A. W. Reed.

Fig. 53.

Stacking layout example of carbon sheets. Gurit. (2012). Guide to Composites. Retrieved from http://www.gurit. com/files/documents/guide-to-composites

Fig. 38. Drawing of the Cuba at anchor at Port Nicholson Heads, 1840. An original drawing by Charles Heaphy. National Library of New Zealand. (2007). Wellington Harbour Board Berthage Plan. Retrieved from http:// nlnzcat.natlib.govt.nz

Fig. 54. Carbon Plain Weave: Each fibre passes alternatively over and under the next. Very difficult to drape and shape to complex parts. Gurit. (2012). Guide to Composites. Retrieved from http://www.gurit.com/files/docu ments/guide-to-composites

Fig. 39.

Drawing of the Cuba by Charles Heaphy. Meeting of the New Zealand Company’s ships Tory and Cuba in the Cook Strait.

Fig. 55.

Carbon Twill Weave: One or more warp fibres wraps over two or more weft fibres. Much easier to drape than plain weave with a small reduction in stability. Gurit. (2012). Guide to Composites. Retrieved from http:// www.gurit.com/files/documents/guide-to-composites

Fig. 40.

Construction of a concrete hull showing steel reinforcing. Hartley, R., & Reid, A. (1973). Hartley’s ferro-cement boat building (2nd ed.). Auckland, N.Z.: Boughtwood Printing House.

Fig. 41.

Concrete hull being plastered by Sayer method where plaster is first applied to the outside, allowed to cure, and then the inside of the hull is plastered. Hartley, R., & Reid, A. (1973). Hartley’s ferro-cement boat building (2nd ed.). Auckland, N.Z.: Boughtwood Printing House.

Fig. 56.

Carbon Satin Weave: Satin weaves are basically modified twill weaves. They have fewer intersections, making them a very tight weave. However they are asymmetric so need to be placed carefully. Gurit. (2012). Guide to Composites. Retrieved from http://www.gurit.com/files/documents/guide-to-composites

Fig. 42.

J.L. Lambot’s 1848 ferro-cement boat. Hartley & Brookes Associates. (2012). The World of Ferro-Cement Boats. Retrieved from http://www.ferroboats.com

Fig. 43. The Selma under construction. Bender, R. (2011). Concrete Ships: An Experiment in Ship Building. Retrieved from http://www.concreteships.org/ships Fig. 44.

Diagram of internal structural layout of a ferro-cement boat. Hartley, R., & Reid, A. (1973). Hartley’s ferro-ce ment boat building (2nd ed.). Auckland, N.Z.: Boughtwood Printing House.

Fig. 45.

Photograph of a Hartley Coastal 30 boat for sale in Tauranga. (Courtesy of Alan McQuarters, owner).

Fig. 46.

Photograph of a Hartley Coastal 30 boat for sale in Tauranga. (Courtesy of Alan McQuarters, owner).

Fig. 47.

Plan view of a typical Hartley Coastal 30 interior layout. Hartley, R., & Reid, A. (1973). Hartley’s ferro-cement boat building (2nd ed.). Auckland, N.Z.: Boughtwood Printing House.

Fig. 48.

Anish Kapoor, Memory Sculpture (Author’s photo).

Fig. 57. Carbon Basket Weave: The same as a plain weave except with double overlaps. It is flatter and stronger than a plain weave, but less stable. Gurit. (2012). Guide to Composites. Retrieved from http://www.gurit.com/files/ documents/guide-to-composites Fig. 58.

Carbon Leno Weave: Used to improve stability of other fibre types. The fibres are wound around each other, locking them in place. Cannot be used by itself as too many large gaps. Gurit. (2012). Guide to Composites. Retrieved from http://www.gurit.com/files/documents/guide-to-composites

Fig. 59. Carbon Mock Leno Weave: A version of the plain weave where occasional fibres have double overlaps. This gives the fabric an increased thickness, rougher surface, and additional porosity which make it easy to seal effectively. Gurit. (2012). Guide to Composites. Retrieved from http://www.gurit.com/files/documents/ guide-to-composites Fig. 60.

Photograph of Team New Zealand’s AC72 racing yacht in action. (Courtesy of Chris Cameron - Official photographer for Emirates Team New Zealand. http://www.chriscameron.co.nz).

Fig. 61.

Photograph of Team New Zealand’s AC72 racing yacht in action. (Courtesy of Chris Cameron - Official photographer for Emirates Team New Zealand. http://www.chriscameron.co.nz).

Fig. 62.

Cockatooo Island machine shop, Sydney. Sydney Harbour Federation Trust. (2013). Cockatoo Island. Retrieved from http://www.cockatooisland.gov.au

Table of Figures

Fig. 32.

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Fig. 63.

Voyager Maritime Museum (Author’s photo).

Fig. 64. Voyager Maritime Museum. Voyager New Zealand Maritime Museum. (2013). Retrieved from http://www. maritimemuseum.co.nz Fig. 65. Voyager Maritime Museum. Voyager New Zealand Maritime Museum. (2013). Retrieved from http://www. maritimemuseum.co.nz Fig. 66. Voyager Maritime Museum. Voyager New Zealand Maritime Museum. (2013). Retrieved from http://www. maritimemuseum.co.nz Fig. 67.

Voyager Maritime Museum (Author’s photo).

Fig. 68.

Voyager Maritime Museum (Author’s photo).

Fig. 69. Voyager Maritime Museum visitor map. Voyager New Zealand Maritime Museum. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.maritimemuseum.co.nz Fig. 70.

Wellington Museum of City and Sea (Author’s photo).

Fig. 71. Wellington Museum of City and Sea visitor’s map. Museums Wellington. (2013). Museum of Wellington City and Sea. Retrieved from http://www.museumswellington.org.nz 136|

Fig. 85.

Australian National Maritime Museum (Author’s photos).

Fig. 86.

Endeavour Replica (Author’s photos).

Fig. 87.

‘Vampire’ Destroyer and Submarine ‘Onslow’ (Author’s photos).

Fig. 88. Cockatoo Island visitor’s map. Sydney Harbour Federation Trust. (2013). Cockatoo Island. Retrieved from http://www.cockatooisland.gov.au Fig. 89.

Cockatoo Island (Author’s photo).

Fig. 90. Cockatoo Island. Sydney Harbour Federation Trust. (2013). Cockatoo Island. Retrieved from http://www. cockatooisland.gov.au Fig. 91. Cockatoo Island. Sydney Harbour Federation Trust. (2013). Cockatoo Island. Retrieved from http://www. cockatooisland.gov.au Fig. 92. Cockatoo Island. Sydney Harbour Federation Trust. (2013). Cockatoo Island. Retrieved from http://www. cockatooisland.gov.au Fig. 93.

Cockatoo Island (Author’s photo).

Fig. 94.

Cockatoo Island (Author’s photo).

Fig. 95.

Cockatoo Island (Author’s photo).

Fig. 72.

Wellington Museum of City and Sea (Author’s photo).

Fig. 73.

Wellington Museum of City and Sea (Author’s photo).

Fig. 74.

Wellington Museum of City and Sea (Author’s photo).

Fig. 96. Cockatoo Island visitor’s map. Sydney Harbour Federation Trust. (2013). Cockatoo Island. Retrieved from http://www.cockatooisland.gov.au

Fig. 75.

Wellington Museum of City and Sea (Author’s photo).

Fig. 97.

Pocket watch model (Author’s photo).

Fig. 76.

Edwin Fox Maritime Museum (Author’s photo).

Fig. 98.

Pocket watch model One (Author’s model and photographs).

Fig. 77.

Edwin Fox Maritime Museum (Author’s photo).

Fig. 99.

Pocket watch model Two (Author’s model and photographs).

Fig. 78.

Edwin Fox Maritime Museum (Author’s photo).

Fig. 100. Pocket watch model Three (Author’s model and photographs).

Fig. 79.

Edwin Fox Maritime Museum (Author’s photo).

Fig. 101. Pocket watch model Three (Author’s model and photographs).

Fig. 80.

Edwin Fox Maritime Museum (Author’s photo).

Fig. 102. Pocket watch model Four (Author’s model and photographs).

Fig. 81.

Edwin Fox Maritime Museum (Author’s photo).

Fig. 103. Pocket watch model Four (Author’s model and photographs).

Fig. 82.

Edwin Fox Maritime Museum (Author’s photo).

Fig. 104. Wire frame for block models (Author’s photographs and models).

Fig. 83.

Edwin Fox Maritime Museum (Author’s photo).

Fig. 105. Wire frame for block models (Author’s photographs and models).

Fig. 84.

Australian National Maritime Museum visitor’s map. Australian National Maritime Museum. (2013). Re trieved from http://www.anmm.gov.au/site/page.cfm

Fig. 106. Wooden block model with brass wire frame (Author’s photograph and model).


Fig. 107. Block models - Development of Form (Author’s Photographs and models).

Fig. 130. Floor Plan - Level 1. (Author’s image).

Fig. 108. Experimental block models - Composition (Author’s images).

Fig. 131. Logitudinal Section - North to South. (Author’s image).

Fig. 109. Experimental block models - Rotation (Author’s images).

Fig. 132. North and South Elevations. (Author’s image).

Fig. 110. Disassembled pocketwatch (chronograph) drawings (Author’s drawing).

Fig. 133. East and West Elevations. (Author’s image).

Fig. 111. Drawings of Internal Pocket Watch Mechanism (Author’s drawings).

Fig. 134. Materiality of exterior facade - Building 1 - Wood. (Author’s image).

Fig. 112. Drawing linking cog centres with straight lines (Author’s drawing).

Fig. 135. Exploded view of exterior facade - Building 1 - Wood. (Author’s image).

Fig. 113. Drawing linking all cog edges with straight lines (Author’s drawing).

Fig. 136. Materiality of Exterior Facade - Building 2 - Concrete. (Author’s image).

Fig. 114. Drawing linking cog centres with cog edges with straight lines (Author’s drawing).

Fig. 137. Exploded view of exterior facade - Building 2 - Concrete. (Author’s image).

Fig. 115. Drawing extracting siginicant lines to create spatial form (Author’s drawing).

Fig. 138. Materiality of Exterior Facade - Building 3 - Steel. (Author’s image).

Fig. 116. Drawing joining cog edges and centres with curves (Author’s drawing).

Fig. 139. Exploded view of exterior facade - Building 3 - Steel. (Author’s image).

Fig. 117. Combination of all line drawings with mechanism (Author’s drawing).

Fig. 140. Materiality of Exterior Facade - Building 4 - Composite. (Author’s image).

Fig. 118. Significant reference lines produced from each drawing for floor plans layout. (Author’s drawings).

Fig. 141. Exploded view of exterior facade - Building 4 - Composite. (Author’s image).

Fig. 119. Axial points and arrangement of plans (Author’s drawings).

Fig. 142. Building 1 - Wood - Entrance and interior exhibition space. (Author’s image).

Fig. 120. Developmental drawings of building structure and layout.

Fig. 143. Building 2 - Concrete - Exhibition space. (Author’s image).

Fig. 121. Nautical style map showing the Maritime Museum location in Queen’s Wharf and surrounding site (Author’s image).

Fig. 144. Building 3 - Steel - Enderwater walkway. (Author’s image). Fig. 145. Building3 - Steel - Interior with dry dock and doors open. (Author’s image).

Fig. 122. Exterior perspective of the Living Museum (Author’s image). Fig. 146. Building 3 - Steel - Interior with dry dock and doors closed. (Author’s image). Fig. 123. Examples of typical Waka Huia (Feather box) designs. Orio, M. (1996). The feather chest: Te Wakahuia. London, UK: Janus Publishing Company.

Fig. 147. Building 4 - Composite - Interior entrance ramp. (Author’s image).

Fig. 124. Site analysis of the immediate site - shown in red (Author’s image).

Fig. 148. Building 4 - Composite - Exhibition space. (Author’s image).

Fig. 125. Analysis showing the waterfront surrounding the site (Author’s image).

Fig. 149. Exterior view of Timber and Corten Steel buildings from Queen’s Wharf (Author’s image).

Fig. 126. Analysis in relation to the surrounding context of city and harbour (Author’s image).

Fig. 150. Exterior view of Maritime Museum from waterfront near Frank Kitts Park (Author’s image).

Fig. 127. Analysis showing the sites relationship to wider Wellington (Author’s image).

Fig. 151. Exterior view of ‘Composite’ and Concrete buildings from the water (Author’s image).

Fig. 128. Floor Plan - Below Ground. (Author’s image).

Fig. 152. Entrance to the Maritime Museum through timber building and showing cafe. (Author’s image).

Fig. 129. Floor Plan - Ground Level. (Author’s image).

Fig. 153. Impression of Wellington harbour with Maritime Musuem (Author’s image).

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Hartley, R., & Reid, A. (1973). Hartley’s ferro-cement boat building (2nd ed.). Auckland, N.Z.: Boughtwood Printing House.

Crane, S. (1996, December/January). Early Glass. Professional Boat Builder, 38, 30-36.

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Lambert, M., & Hartley, J. (1969). The Wahine disaster. Wellington, N.Z.: A.H. & A. W. Reed. Lazarus, P. (1999, April/May). The new future of marine composites. Professional Boat Builder. 58, 36-52. Marchaj, C. (1988). Aero-hydrodynamics of sailing. Maine, USA: International Marine Publishing. McLauchlan, G., (2012). The saltwater highway: The story of ports and shipping in New Zealand. Auckland, N.Z.: Bateman Publishing. Meech, H. & Oxenham, J. (1840, April 25). ‘Business Advertisement’. New Zealand Gazette and Wellington Spectator. Retrieved from http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz. Mulgan, A., (1939). The city of the straight: Wellington and its province, a centennial history. Wellington, N.Z.: A.H. & A.W. Reed. Museums Wellington. (2013). Museum of Wellington City and Sea. Retrieved from http:// www.museumswellington.org.nz National Library of New Zealand. (2007). Wellington Harbour Board Berthage Plan. Retrieved from http://nlnzcat.natlib.govt.nz New York Times Correspondant. (1860, February 18). Wreck of the Bark Cuba. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com Olthuis, K., & Keuning, D. (2010). Float!: Building on water to combat urban congestion and climate change. Amsterdam: Frame. Orchiston, D. W. (1998). Nautical astronomy in New Zealand: The voyages of James Cook. Wellington, N.Z.: Carter Observatory.

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James Worley's Architecture Thesis  

This research is grounded in understanding the significance of maritime architecture and the boat building history of New Zealand. The aim i...

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