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IJBURG The Next Generation of Living

AN ILLUSTRATIVE GUIDE FOR RESIDENTS AND INVESTORS


FOREWORD

CONTENTS IJBURG - INTRODUCTION Foreword Introduction Site Context

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IJBURG - AMSTERDAM A BRIEF HISTORY 11 History IJBURG - AMSTERDAM’S SECRETS Ecology Hydrology Users Needs Character Threatened Species Transport SWOT Aims

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IJBURG LEARNING FROM THE PAST Hefencity, Hamburg Hampstead Heath, London Pasona, Tokyo Victoria & Albert, Dundee Belfast Point Park, Sydney South Pointe Park, Miami 2

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IJBURG - LOOKING TO THE FUTURE Green Bio Filter Walls Building Intergrated Photovoltaics

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IJBURG - A CLEAR VISION Centrumeiland Zuideneiland Klieneiland Middenilland Landtongeilland Kringejeilland

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IJBURG - GETTING AROUND Transport Tram Routes IJBURG DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES IJBURG - BIBLIOGRAPHY IJBURG - APPENDIX

This report should be used in collaboration with existing Ijburg Development plans. It has been produced by James Settle, Justyn Nathan and Robin Hutchinson as part of our Post Graduate Diploma in Landscape Architecture at Leeds Metropolitan University. We were tasked with producing a set of designs and design principles that the Amsterdam DRO can take forward in to phase two of the development.

137 Lecturer - Chris Royffe

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Amsterdam Contact - Ruwan Aluvihare

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Produced - 2012-2013

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Written and Produced by James Settle, Justyn Nathan and Robin Hutchinson

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IJBURG


INTRODUCTION The development of Ijburg by Amsterdam DRO, Holland, is based on the struggle to provide new urban housing amidst a raft of conflicting conditions. The demand for new housing close to Amsterdam city centre, the lack of available land to build on and rising sea levels all form part of the design brief. There is a popular tradition in Amsterdam of building and living on water. For centuries large parts of Lake Ijssel have been dredged and prepared for new urban development. In 1965 Van den Broek and Bakema proposed an urban extension for Amsterdam stretching along its eastern harbour in the form of a linear city - Ijburg. Fresh and innovative Landscape Architecture Students JRJ Landscapes have been tasked with developing a new masterplan that the Amsterdam DRO can analyse and take some, or all of the design ideas forward. The result is a green development that supports the required number of residents and workplaces. It also includes a diverse set of water edge conditions; some are woodlands, beaches and shorelines which function like natural habitats, and others encourage interaction with the waterfront.

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LOCATION

LOCATION Amsterdam is the capital city of the Netherlands, which is located in North-West Europe between Germany and, Belgium. The North Sea is to the north and west. Ijburg is located East of Amsterdam; readily accessible from Amsterdam Centraal by tram (journey time is 15-20 minutes).

Site Location

Coat of Arm, Netherlands 8

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IJBURG 10

Amsterdam A Brief History 11


1585 - 1672

During the 14th and 15th Century Amstel went under major development shaping the foundations of the Golden Age of the City.

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This era was a Golden Age; the highlight in Amsterdam’s commercial success. Between 1613 and 1663 the city grew rapidly and the charismatic city-scape of Amsterdam today began to develop, notably the Jordaan district and the canal networks. During this period some of the most important historic buildings in Amsterdam were constructed; including the town hall on Dam Square, the Westerkerk and Zuiderkerk The influx of rich Jewish Immigrants from Spain fled to Amsterdam bringing wealth into the city. The money they brought funded trips to India which proved a huge commercial success.

1813 - 1940

The village originally named Amstelledamme first appears in the toll concession of Floris V, Count of Holland, dated October 27, 1275.

By this period the Golden Era was over. 1672 was a disaster for the Dutch Repulic with France and England both attacking Holland. The City continued to remain a stable market and managed to retain its position as the financial centre for Europe. During this period a large number of residential properties were constructed; both simple and rich canal houses. The majority of the City Centre’s residential dwellings date back to the 18th.

Following these voyages, in 1602, the Dutch East India Company was founded. The city of Amsterdam had a majority share in the organisation, which was to become the first multinational company in the world. The result was a period of unprecedented prosperity, causing the 17th century to become known as the Golden Age within the city.

1795 - 1813

The city of Amsterdam originated at the end of 12th Century as a small fishing village on the grounds of former marshland. Swamps which surrounded the Amstel River were drained and a series of dams and dykes were formed.

1672 - 1795

1200 - 1585

A BRIEF HISTORY OF AMSTERDAM From this period the City made an economic come back and from 1870 the city began to expand once again. The increasing wealth of the city equalled the rapid growth of the population of Amsterdam. The rapid growth and wealth of the city was triggered by an Industrial Revolution which founded the Cities second Golden Age. The expansion of Amsterdam included the area beyond the Singelgracht. Large poorly built working-class neighbourhoods were constructed.

It was a turning point for the city. Business with the East India company, acquired Amsterdam an important position in the world spice trade.

In 1876 the construction of the North Sea Canal meant Amsterdam had a direct connection to the sea. From that moment on, steamships became part of everyday life in Amsterdam’s port.

Between 1920 and 1940 Holland fell into another recession. In 1934 the planned reduction of unemployment benefits caused protests and rioting.

The beginning of the 20th Century began well, with the Amsterdam School building low cost housing around the old city.

World War Two affected the City but did not cause physical damage to buildings. The city lost 10% of its population as the Jewish residents were rounded up and persecuted by the Nazis.

The city expanded again to include Schiphol Airport

In 1795 the government ceased to exist and the French started to occupy the Holland. During this period the City of Amsterdam suffered badly from an economic depression and the economy came to a standstill. A lack of money meant that many houses became vacant and fell into disrepair and some collapsed.

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HISTORY OF THE IJBURG In 1965 modernist architects Johannes Hendrik van den Broek and Jacob Berend Bakema designed the Pampus Plan for a town in the Ijmeer Lake, which was to house 350,000 residents. Other National Plans had a different strategy to relocate residents of Amsterdam Centre. This was to expand and develop new towns on the outskirts of Amsterdam which included; Purmerend, Hoorn and the new town of Almere.

The existing islands Include: • Steigereiland (Jetty Island), • Haveneiland West & East (harbour Islands) •3 Rieteilanden (Reed Islands). The future planned Islands are to be named: • Centrumeiland (Centre island) • Middeneiland (Middle island) • Strandeiland (Beach island) • Buiteneiland (Outer island)

The Bijlmermeer neighbourhood was constructed to the south of the city and Diemen was expanded. In 1996 Amsterdam City Council decided to build the Ijburg. It is made up from ten artificial islands which are constructed from sand dredged from the shipping lanes in Amsterdam and further afield. . Due to the current economic climate and lack of funding six Islands have been constructed at present with plans to construct the remaining four in stages.

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The complete Ijburg will cover 660 hectares and contain 18,000 dwellings, at present 430 hectares exists, containing 9,000 dwellings. The islands when complete will included restaurants, bars, shops, schools, leisure facilities and a cemetery. These combined will employ around 12,000 people. The Islands are called ‘super suburbs’ (DRO) to the city of Amsterdam with all habitants travelling to get to work in and around the City. The first residents moved onto the Ijburg in 2002.

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Amsterdam’s Secrets

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ECOLOGY

ECOLOGY_WATER BODIES

There are many different types of habitat which different animals reside in. The following habitats are the most common in Amsterdam and surround the Ijburg.

Ijburg is situated on peat at the mouth of the Amstel, where it meets the IJmeer. Fresh water from the river and the saline water from the IJmeer come together. Even now there is still brackish water in Amsterdam; because the salt water slowly seeps through the locks at IJmuiden. There are over sixty different species of freshwater and marine fish in Amsterdam and the surrounding areas.

•Buildings •Managed green (parks and gardens, forests, cemeteries, allotments, sports) •Water and shores •Reed swamp •Agriculture (pasture, arable land)

Some are common, such as Pike, Roach and Perch, but there are others which are rare such as the Liza aurata. A small number of species of freshwater and saltwater fish (Sea lamprey, salmon and Fint) spend most of their lives in the sea but are drawn into the rivers for spawning. One of the routes used for this is through the North Sea Canal, IJmeer and Amsterdam Canal.

There are various locks in this process, and it can be quite difficult for fish to move freely. The Bitter Roach is a freshwater fish and its distribution is linked to the occurrence of freshwater mussels. There are only a few places in Amsterdam to find freshwater mussels and the locals want them to be increased. A protected species called the bullhead relies on rocky banks to hide and lay eggs.

Buildings Many animals that reside within buildings use the food that is actively or passively offered by man. In the old are mainly species which are adapted to the urban environment; species such as: Swift, Urban Dove, House Mouse, Brown Rat, Little Bat, Tongue Fern, wall fern. Many birds find nesting areas under roof tiles, gutters, chimneys, wall cavities and wall crevices.

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Managed Parks Many parks in the city are intensively managed. Not only parks and gardens, but also cemeteries, allotments and sports areas. They provide a significant green area and are ecologically important, even though they consist mainly of gang mown lawns.

Managed parks improve water retention and provide a diverse selection of small ecosystems. They also contain hedges, shrubs and trees which are important as feeding areas for bats (Little Bat, Bat Rough Dwarf, Let Kite) and other animals.

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ECOLOGY_REEDS The rarest species in the reed swamps of Amsterdam is the root vole. It is uncommon for them to be seen outside of the Netherlands. Because of this it is important that their habitats are increased and opportunity is provided for population growth. Another water-loving species is the Water Shrew. They live in similar habitats to the root vole; in overgrown banks of reed beds. Many current reeds and reed marshes are bordered by levees which keeps them dry.

HYDROLOGY These drier, warm slopes are ideal for grass snakes because they can hide among the rocks. The grass snake can swim well and adjacent reed marshes are suitable hunting waters. In sheltered areas many birds find space for nesting . The Bittern hand is an inconspicuous species that can only be found in mature reed marshes. Their camouflage and characteristics make them difficult to spot. Round sundew, Sphagnum Orchis and Phragmites are some of the rarer species found in these habitats.

Areas of Reed Beds

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God created the world, but the Dutch created The Netherlands. (Voltaire) Hydrology has a very close and important relationship to the Netherlands and the Ijburg. Water is always a threat to man made islands and with global sea levels set to rise this must be taken seriously.

in water levels and parkland and public areas should be designed to accommodate major changes in their functionality and relationship to water. Pumping water may not be an economic option in the future and it is important to facilitate landscapes which can alleviate flooding through natural processes.

In the past, the Dutch have perceived water as something to push out or work around, rather than something to integrate into infrastructure; however, policy in the last decade encourages planning toward a perspective of Ïruimte voor waterÎ or making room for water. Can it be reinvented by creative design? The existing floating houses within Ijburg are already well populated, these types of new development may be the future of housing in the Netherlands (especially for the heavily populated western part of the country).� Sustainability of new builds will have a direct and indirect impact upon the hydrology of the area. To minimise local flooding attenuation ponds (SUDS) should be implemented: this can range from natural water retention through planting to large scale man made filtration units. Natural retention of water is generally the most beneficial ecologically, economically and aesthetically. Run off water should be minimised and excess rain water should be collected, filtered and used (Grey water) for use in toilets/ washing vehicles/ gardening. Buildings should have the flexibility to rise and fall with changes

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USERS OF IJBURG

THE CURRENT IJBURG LACKS.....WHAT DOES IT NEED?

ALLOTMENTS

COMMUNAL ACTIVITIES

CLOSE PROXIMITY TO TRAM STOPS

ACCESS TO NATURE FLAT LANDSCAPE

AREAS FOR RECREATION

OLDER GENERATION

COMMUNAL GROWING AREAS

INTERACTIVE AREAS

SECURE HOUSING

AREAS FOR RELAXATION

CLOSE TO ACTIVE AREAS HEALTH

LEISURE PLAY SPACES

SAFE HOUSES

SECURE HOUSING ACCESS TO NATURE

WELLBEING

AREAS FOR RECREATION

INFANTS AND CHILDREN CLOSE PROXIMITY TO TRAM STOPS

SECURE FAMILY HOMES EDUCATION

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ACCESSIBLE SPACES SAFE RECREATION SPACES

ADULTS ALLOTMENTS

CLEAN ENVIRONMENT AREAS FOR RECREATION

LOCAL AMENITIES INTERACTIVE AREAS COMMUNAL GROWING AREAS COMMUNAL ACTIVITIES

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IJBURG_LAND USE Ijburg currently contains 9,000 residential units and 7,000 work places. Ijburg contains a mix of different housing. 30% of the housing will be privately owned , 30% affordable housing for rent, and 30% middle income housing for rent.

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CHARACTER AREAS All open space and public infrastructure (tram line connecting to Amsterdam central) is financed by the city. Development plots were allocated to different consortiums made up of private investors, individuals, large corporate housing developers.

When complete, Ijburg will cover a total area of 660 hectares, including 100,000 square meters of office space, and 30,000 square meters of services, retail outlets and other facilities.

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AMSTERDAM TARGET LIST, THREATENED SPECIES

AMSTERDAM TARGET LIST, THREATENED SPECIES

The Municipality of Amsterdam keeps a regular record of animal and plants species, which are in decline, known as the ‘Dutch Target List’. Along side the Dutch ‘Ministry of Agriculture’ publishes a list of threatened species and conservation, which are protected through the DEFRA Wild Birds and Habitats Directives. This list is updated every 10 years.

FISH

Common Tern

Martin

BIRDS

Allium ursinum (Wild Garlic)

Listera ovata (Twayblade)

Spined Loach

Roach

MAMMALS

Shoveler

Pipistrelle Bat

Peregrine

Smew

Willow Tit Water Shrew

Corydalis flavula (Yellow Corydalis)

Water Bat Squirrel

Barnacle Goose

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Salvia pratensis (Meadow Clary)

Pond Bat

INSECTS

Asplenium scolopendrium Origanum majorana (Tounge Fern) (Wild Marjoram)

Dactylorhiza majalis (Marsh Orchid)

Redshank

Tufted Duck

Black Headed Gull

Nightingale

Long-Eared Owl

Blue Heron

Cystopteris bulbifera (Bladder Fern)

River Lamprey

Linnet

Avocet

Ruff

Kingfisher

Bluethroat

Catfish

Bullhead

Godwit

Species in threat

Bittern

Ringed Plover

Ophrys apifera (Bee Orchid)

By understanding the species habitats within the target list, the proposals intend to create suitable habitat locations for as many of the flora and fauna species as possible, without the risk of future threat. Species in decline

Marsh Harrier

PLANT SPECIES

Little Tern

Swallow Pochard

Skylark

Root Vole Tree Sparrow

Serotine Bat Groene Glazenmaker

Ceterach officinarum (Schubvaren)

Parietaria judaica (Pellitory)

Epidendrum sp. (Reed Orchid)

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AMSTERDAM TARGET LIST, THREATENED SPECIES

PLANT SPECIES

Ceterach officinarum (Schubvaren)

REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS

Epidendrum nocturnum (Night Fragrant Orchid)

Saxifraga cernua (Saxifrage)

Natterjack Toad

Sand Lizard

Grass Snake

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TRANSPORT IN AND AROUND AMSTERDAM Amsterdam is a well connected city. It has one of the largest airports in Europe (Schiphol) which handles 50 million passengers a year. Amsterdam is well known for its relaxed attitude towards Marijuana and sex. Millions of people come to visit Amsterdam each year to experience this relaxed attitude. However, many visitors are surprised to find that this is a very small portion of what Amsterdam has to offer; it is rich with Architecture and steeped in history. Amsterdam relies on its foreign visitors for much of it’s economy, therefore transport plays a fundamental role in the city. Amsterdam has based its city centre on a good public transport system, which is reliable and cheap. Most Amsterdammers use either the Tram or Cycle. Bikes are used widely and users range from tourists to businessmen. Amsterdam has recently completed constructing its Metro system which connects the city centre to the suburbs. When looking at transport systems for the Ijburg it is important to continue this high quality network. When the Ijburg becomes a destination point for tourists and locals, and not just a commuter area the transport system will be important.

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TRANSPORT IN AND AROUND AMSTERDAM The use of green cycle-ways and green tramways will ensure commuters and visitors have a pleasant trip. By looking at transport maps it is apparent that connecting the Ijurg to areas other than the centre will be necessary.

Trams

Trams are common in Amsterdam, with routes heading from the centre in all directions. They are convenient and have now adopted a touch card system which makes it easy to pay. Trams are ideal for short journeys and for commuting short distances; such as from the centre of Amsterdam to the Ijburg

Bicycles

Amsterdam is a bicycle-friendly City. In Amsterdam over 60% of trips are made by bike in the inner city and 38% of trips are made by bike overall in the greater city area. It is one of the most important centres of bicycle culture worldwide, with world-class facilities for cyclists such as dedicated paths. There are almost half a million bicycles in Amsterdam

Ferrys

Behind Central Station, ferries make their way across the river ,transporting both commuters and tourist to various locations in Amsterdam Nord. This ferry service could be extended towards the Ijburg. There is no fare. Some other ferries also travel along the river to other districts of the city.

Water Taxis

With 100km of waterways in Amsterdam it would make sense that there would be a water taxi. These taxis can be hailed when they are seen and can also be booked in advance. This method of transport is not as common as the others mentioned and is aimed more towards the tourist market. It is far more expensive than trams.

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SWOT. ANALYSIS

DESIGN AIMS GOOD ROAD NETWORK RELAXING

INCREASE BIO-DIVERSITY GREEN TRANSPORT

DIRECT ACCESS TO WATER

FOOD PRODUCTION

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FAR FROM AMSTERDAM CITY

CULTURE

LITTLE RETAIL OR RECREATION FACILITIES

ECOLOGY

BLAND AND STERILE

Promote a healthy lifestyle

Provide spaces for community Enforce Amsterdam’s strong cohesion and integration identity with water

Promote Ijburg as a complementary Promote robust and sucessfull destination to Amsterdam developments

LACK OF CHARACTER

Provide biodiversity through a rich variety of habitats Promote a visually rich and stimulating street-scape to accommodate a broad range of flora and fauna with green facade’s with all year round interest

RISK OF FLOODING

ECONOMIC CLIMATE

RISING WATERS

STRONG WINDS

COMMUNITY COHESION GREEN EDGES

UNIQUE EXPERIENCES

SUCCESSFUL SELF BUILD HOMES

BLANK CANVAS USES FOR WATER

NO DESTINATION POINTS NO HISTORY

URBAL

ARCHITECTURAL STYLES BLANK CANVAS

NO CENTRAL CORE

INCREASING SALINE LEVELS IN WATER FUNDING RISKS

SUCCESSFUL SELF BUILD HOUSES 360’ VIEWS

GOOD TRANSPORTATION

DIRECT ACCESS TO WATER

S W O T

FASTEST BROADBAND IN THE WORLD

NO FEATURES

Provide self sufficient micro-generating housing though Promote a low - zero carbon footprint lifestyle

SUSTAINABILITY building integrated photovoltaics.

Innovative hydroponic technologies for food production and building insulation

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IJBURG Learning From The Past 36

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CASE STUDIES HEFENCITY, HAMBURG HAMPSTEAD HEATH, LONDON PASONA SUBTERRANEAN FARM, TOKYO VICTORIA & ALBERT - DUNDEE BALLAST POINT PARK - SYDNEY SOUTH POINTE PARK - MIAMI

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HEFENCITY, HAMBURG

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CASE STUDY_HAMPSTEAD HEATH, LONDON

Hampstead Heath is an ancient Heathland and Woodland covering 790 acres in North West London, first recorded in 9876. The site is managed by The City of London Corporation. Hampstead Heath is a mosaic of varied habitats, Including marshland, heath land, swimming ponds. It is one of London’s major ecological corridors. It is rich in wildlife and provides extensive sports and recreational facilities. In relation to the Ijburg, the creation of natural swimming pools and varied wetlands similar to those in Hampstead Heath would create recreational facilities and a unique attraction for the new island. A series of wetlands will also increase flora and fauna on the Islands.

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CASE STUDY_PASONA SUBTERRANEAN FARM, TOKYO

Pasona Global is a modern office block in downtown Tokyo. From street level the office looks no different to the surrounding architecture but within it is an extraordinary network of subterranean farms named ‘Pasona O2’ which are maintained by the employees of Pasona. This can be related to the Ijburg proposals for sustainable living. Each property or apartment block on the Ijburg could have a series of Subterranean farms which would take advantage of valuable space; growing a variety of fruit, veg and florals under UV growth lamps, using hydroponic systems.

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The Victoria and Albert, Dundee

Waterfront design, iconic buildings

The project: VICTORIA & ALBERT - DUNDEE - WATERFRONT DESIGN “The V&A building at Dundee will form an inspiring ‘anchor’ for the Dundee Waterfront Project- a major initiative to redevelop the City’s waterfront. The new building will be a striking statement that will stimulate minds and set the standard for subsequent development of the area. As an exemplar of 21st century design itself, the building will be externally beautiful and provide functional spaces capable of housing the various exhibitions and accommodating a wide range of visitors. More than 120 architects from across the world entered the architectural competition to design the V&A at Dundee building. Models and descriptions of the six shortlisted designs are currently on display at Abertay University Library.â€? 7KHZLQQLQJHQWU\ZDVVXEPLWWHGE\.HQJR.XQDDVVRFLDWHVD-DSDQEDVHGDUFKLWHFWXUHÂżUP7KH EXLOGLQJLVGHVLJQHGWRORRNDVWKRXJKLWLVĂ€RDWLQJRQWKHZDWHUDOWKRXJKLWLVFXUUHQWO\EHLQJUHYLHZHGEHFDXVHRIWKHFRVW7KHVSDFHVLQDQGDURXQGWKHEXLOGLQJDUHGHVLJQHGWREHDVĂ€H[LEOH as possible. The spaces vary from open airy to small and intimate. Relevance to Ijburg: /LNHWKH'XQGHHZDWHUIURQW,MEXUJZLOOEHQHÂżWIURPÂľLQVSLUDWLRQDOÂśPRGHUQEXLOGLQJVZKLFKDFWDVD visual and social focal point for both residents and visitors to the islands. Ideally this inspirational building should be a multifunctional space on the outside as well as on the inside; maximum use of WKHEXLOGLQJDQGLWVVXUURXQGLQJVSDFHZLOOEHQHÂżWWKHVRFLDODVSHFWRIWKHLVODQG Other buildings on the island should have reasonable levels of conformity to one another to create coherent uncluttered spaces. Images of shortlisted designs for V&A at Dundee

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BALLAST POINT PARK - SYDNEY

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SOUTH POINTE PARK - MIAMI

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IJBURG Looking To the Future 52

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GREEN BIO FILTER WALLS

GREEN BIO FILTER WALLS AE

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Each green wall is unique a piece of art in its own right.

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The complex matrix of a diverse range of plants create an eye catching, intriguing and aesthetically pleasing building facade which will compliment the surrounding green Ijburg.

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BENEFITS OF GREEN BIO FILTER WALLS

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GREEN BIO FILTER WALLS

GREEN BIO FILTER WALLS

A IR Q

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U A LIT Y

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Air pollution contains; formalaehyde, VOC’s, trichloroethylene, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, benzene, tolliene and xylene..etc

Green walls protect buildings by providing additional insulation, and reducing temperate fluctuations.

Green walls absorb and clean pollutants from the air. One single plant removes a portion of airborne toxins, a will filled with 1000’s of plants will increase this creating energy-rich oxygen.

A green wall protects a buildings facade from precipitation, wind and UV radiation, reducing the deterioration of a building and increasing the integrity and longevity of the buildings exterior.

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GREEN BIO FILTER WALLS

GREEN BIO FILTER WALLS

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HE During the summer period, structures are exposed to solar radiation. There is an increased demand for mechanical cooling systems. Studies have shown that the surface of an exterior green wall is up to 10’C cooler than an exposed wall, therefore less heat is radiated inwards. Green walls reduce mechanical cooling requirements and also help offset the urban heat island effect.

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HA ALT

N D W ELL BE IN G

Living in urban environments, we are surrounded by traffic, concrete, noise and pollution, which is not healthy. These conditions have a profound impact on our physical and mental wellbeing. Green walls soften the hard environment and provide a substantial connection to nature which is missing in the concrete jungle.

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GREEN BIO FILTER WALLS

GREEN BIO FILTER WALLS

O PR

PERTY VALUE

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Green walls are a current design trend. They have featured in many luxurious hotels, retail stores and exclusive venues, making places of significant value stand out. Green walls can increase values of a property by up to 20%

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TAINABILIT

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Green walls help buildings to become more energy efficient, leading to a decrease in carbon emissions. The eco-features also absorb and filter grey water, reducing water run off, which is an important factor to consider within the Ijburg. Using native species and varieties of plants within the walls matrix, will be beneficial for small birds, butterflies and other small organisms and will help to bring biodiversity into urban areas.

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GREEN BIO FILTER WALL DETAIL

BUILDING INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAICS (BIPV’s)

The bio-filter uses vertical hydroponics in the form of a wall. A pump circulates harvested grey water captured in the reservoir which is located below grade to the top of the green wall. The water flows back to the base through a porus rooting material, onto which the plants are rooted.

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Air is passed through the media, as it passes through the rooting zone contaminants are broken down by microbes, in addition to the leaves themselves intercepting larger particles and absorbing various gaseous pollutants .

Intergrated PV Panels within Ijburg Properties

Storage Battery

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Excess energy is purchased at a cost per kWh and fed in to the grid

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DC/AC Inverter and Charge Controller

Charge Controller

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Water outlet pipe Top outer edge Plant box plenum chamber Inner edge of matrix panel Pump Water inlet Drain

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Water storage tank Tank cover Nutrient reservoir Matrix - Pourous materials Back surface of matrix Exterior facade of building

DC

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Individual properties consume captured solar energy from the battery

AC Light

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Radio

Computers

Telephones

Television Large Appliances

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Information sourced from: J. Nathan, Battle McCarthy (2011)

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Connected System

Diagram to display how building integrated photovoltaics can be incorporated within Ijburg properties and how BIPV’s operate.

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BUILDING INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAICS (BIPV’S)

BUILDING INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAICS (BIPV’S)

Certain countries across Europe offer additional incentives or subsidies for BIPV’s. The incentives offered are a set rate paid for electricity produced, which is fed into the grid. Existing EU Incentives (approx): • France €0.25/kWh • Germany €0.05/kWh • Italy €0.04/kWh • Spain €0.28/kWh • UK £0.05/kWh BIPV’s could potentially be partly funded with financial incentives, initially from the Dutch government with further incentives for additional energy produced, which will be fed into the grid. A micro-generating development such as the Ijburg could act as a catalyst for future developments, not only for Amsterdam but for the Netherlands and for Europe.

BIPV Skylights

Solar Integrated Glazing

BIPV Facade

Building Intergrated photovoltaics (BIPV’s), commonly known as photovoltaic materials can be used to replace more traditional and conventional building materials, such as: roofs, skylights, windows or facades. The new Ijburg extension will become a green oasis for a self sufficient community. Using BIPV’s within new buildings will act as a primary source of energy, producing on site micro generation electricity, powering the island. BIPV’s will aid reduction of the carbon footprint of the development in the future. The grid will act as an ancillary source of electricity in the event of a power failure or when additional power is needed.

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BPIV Roofing

BIPV Roofing Tiles

BIPV Facade Westengate,Frankfurt

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IJBURG

A CLEAR VISION

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WHAT MAKES A GREAT PLACE TO LIVE?

Access

Easy and enjoyable to walk around? Paths lead to useful spaces? Making the space function for people ? Can people use a variety of transportation options – bus train, car, bicycle, etc. – to reach the place?

The more activities that are going and that people have an opportunity to participate in, the better. People of different ages are using the space. A space that is used by individuals and groups is better than one that is used just by individuals. The more opportunities for social interaction the better.

Image & Comfort

Activities

Make a good first impression?

A place where you would choose to meet your friends. Welcomes people in groups?

Places to sit? Are Spaces Green or Grey?

Do people seem to know each other by face or by name?

Making areas easy to clean thus free of litter?

Do people bring their friends and relatives to see the place or they point to one of its features with pride?

Using natural suveilance to make people feel safe?

Ensure people use the place regularly and by choice? Attract a mix of ages and ethnic group.

Are there many photo opportunities available?

Do people tend to pick up litter when they see it?

Vehicles do not dominate pedestrian use of the space, or prevent them from easily getting to the space?

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Sociability


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IJBURG Living There in 2050

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CENTRUMEILAND

CENTRUMEILAND GATEWAY TO IJBURG

Wide pedestrian streets and narrow roads will encourage pedestrian dominance. Centrumeiland consists of: • Ferry connections to Amsterdam Centraal • Shopping area for local producers. • Harbour and Marina • Restaurants and Cinema Mature street trees (Sorbus aucuparia) will provide shelter from prevailing winds and also provide great habitats. Hard materials will be of a high quality, the marina should be constructed from stone rather than concrete to add character to the area. The tramway will be planted with low growing plants that attract and encourage insects and wildlife.

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ZUIDENEILAND

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ZUIDENEILAND

ZUIDENEILAND

ZUIDENEILAND - A HIGH DENSITY, HIGH QUALITY RESIDENTIAL AREA

Successful higher density housing has four key factors: location and sense of place, a successful allocation policy and occupancy, successful management approach and good design.

CABE’s document entitled ‘Better Neighbourhoods: Making higher densities work’ states that “in the right circumstances, higher densities can produce a range of benefits”. These benefits are as follows: Increasing value, convenient shops and services, safer streets, design for living, energy conservation, mixed communities and ‘somewhere not anywhere’. Where land values are high, like the on the Ijburg, increased densities can help to fund environmental improvements and provide affordable housing. More people will help to make local shops, regular public transport and schools economically viable. 25 homes per hectare is needed to support a regular bus route. Regular public transport can reduce reliance on cars and personal travel which will promote livelier pedestrianised streets and help to create

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better neighbourhoods. Streets that are overlooked by multiple homes are safer and have lower burglary rates. Reduced traffic and safer streets lead to children playing outside and gives them the opportunity to walk to school safely. Higher density housing reduces energy loss. The larger the housing scheme, the more possible it is to provide ‘affordable’ housing, which will create mixed communities and improve social integration of people with different backgrounds.“ Higher density development makes it easier to create a sense of identity and place. When combined with greenery and attention to detail, it can turn locations into desirable places. Far from reducing the quality of neighbourhoods, higher density housing can make the more distinctive and introduce a much needed element of diversity.

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ZUIDENEILAND

ZUIDENEILAND Many of the problems blamed on high density developments are in fact a combination of problems with location, design, tenure mix, allocation policies, lack of management and maintenance. Ijburg has been designed with higher density housing not only because land is scarce but also desirable, as it can deliver real social benefits. For example: Much of the desirable housing in urban areas is of a higher density design higher density housing in existing urban areas creates vibrant, successful neighbourhoods, and the number and variety of people who live there support local shops, transport and community facilities higher density neighbourhoods do not mean higher density housing are all the same, a combination of housing types and different designs create variety and interest, a place people will want to explore and find different design through each turn. One of the main benefits is that higher density housing allows for more accessible private outdoor spaces and more land to create shared spaces (such as parks) and shared facilities (recycling, playgrounds). 82

Reiselfeld, Housing attracts families because children can play outside safely “Early in 2008, more than 8,200 people were living in approximately 3,200 apartments were built by more than 110 private building contractor societies and investors - in the new neighbourhood of Rieselfeld. The positive image, the comprehensive public infrastructure tailored to suit market needs, as well as the intact neighbourhood life, makes Rieselfeld a good address for owners and tenants alike. Civic commitment and proactive co- operation are important in this district. It borders directly on a natural reserve area covering 205 hectares that serves the inhabitants of Rieselfeld as a green belt. All houses are built as low-energy buildings. In many of them, photovoltaics and solar heating utilise the energy of the sun. Additional forms of renewable energy utilisation and district heating from a combined heat and power station complement the far-sighted energy concept of this young district. A consistent water concept and consideration of climatic aspects are further components. The urban development concept attaches great importance to green spaces, playgrounds, open areas, as well as bicycle paths and traffic-calmed streets where children are allowed to play.�

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ZUIDENEILAND

ZUIDENEILAND

Enclosed by large mixed use buildings is this tranquil formal garden. A grid of walkways traverse a series of formal ponds; each contains different planting types and some contain fish. Smaller ponds will be gently heated during winter while the larger ones will be allowed to freeze to provide space for ice skating.The planting will help to keep the water clean and the reed 86

beds at the edge of the pond will filter waste water from the buildings and screen the green spaces to create small semi private ‘rooms’. Two walls will be green and two will light up blue. Water features will be situated at the bottom of the blue walls. The courtyard will be lit at night using ‘up’ lights which will shine through the water and create patterns on the surrounding trees and walls. 87


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ZUIDENEILAND

ZUIDENEILAND

These residential mixed tenure ‘leaning buildings’ provide residents with low cost living. The lower level houses will be ‘passive’ while the upper storeys make use of photovoltaics and rooftop water filtration. Each set of 92

blocks has its own garden which will be accessible only by residents. A small underground car and bike park will be provided for the residents, but public transport and walking will be encouraged. The rooftop gardens will be

low maintenance planting. They will have a year round gardener but interaction will be encouraged and planting schemes can be submitted to the gardener and community group and planted by the residents if they are suitable. 93


KLEINEILAND

KLEINEILAND

Kleineiland has been designated as a self build island, free from many planning restrictions. Self build plots are ideal for people on low incomes budgets, during the economic crisis, or for people who want to create their own house. Kleineiland contains 77no. of 15m2 and 10no 30m2 plots which are located around a English designed street plan. Each resident will be allocated a plot with the freedom to design and build their own home. This will create a great variety in architecture. The one restriction that will be put in place is that people must have a small allotment or garden wether this built into the facades of the buildings or placed at street level. Further afield in Amsterdam, Almere has erected some 800 self build homes with thousands more currently being planned. Building costs in Almere vary depending on how much the buyers do themselves, averaging from €800 per sq m to €1,800. A three bedroom property averages between €72,000€160,000 (around 105 sq m).

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MIDDENEILLAND

MIDDENEILLAND Middeneilland is mainly for privately owned properties. The buildings will be designed to maximise community cohesion by providing significant landscaped areas in-between the buildings. To encompass various actives allotments, play areas, wildlife areas, water features, attenuation ponds, nature reserves and seminatural spaces will be provided. This island will be the economic hub of the Ijburg, creating a central point that people will disembark the tram. It will provide the Ijburg with Doctors surgeries, motor servicing, restaurants, cafes small shops, a school and a library. This island will also house the Ijburg town hall, which can be used by residents for local events such as Scouts, Womens Institute and private functions such as weddings or Birthdays free of charge.

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MIDDENEILLAND

MIDDENEILLAND

Giving the community easy access to water strengthens their relationship with it. It also provides a rich habitat for wildlife to flourish.

This area will be home to office based business’; this will make it a hive of activity throughout the day. Due to its location, it will always be used as a transitional space. The layout of the buildings stop the feeling of claustrophobia through the use of interesting landscapes. The landscapes give the users space to relax and have their lunch without the need to leave the Ijburg.

Green, exciting spaces that soften the geometric lines of the buildings and contrast the grid like street layout, provide space for social interaction, relaxation and play.

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MIDDENEILLAND

MIDDENEILLAND This area will be pedestrian dominated. It will have swathes of grasses with linear form, which will draw the eye towards open spaces. There will be some gentle contouring to suggest routes through the spaces. Large deciduous trees will line the edges of pathways and roads. They will break up open expanses and highlight views of interest. Smaller, less formal paths will be distinguished by informal materials.

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MIDDENEILLAND

MIDDENEILLAND

The design of the buildings reflects the prevailing winds. The design principal behind their shapes is to direct most of the wind away from the inner core of the island. The rest of the wind will be absorbed by the trees and shrubs. These plants will create a micro climate in which more delicate trees and shrubs can flourish. The building design maximises views out over the Ijmeer.

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MIDDENEILLAND

MIDDENEILLAND The area leading to the Eco-Ring will be heavily wooded. It will be small enough to be safe for children to play in, but large enough for them to experience nature on their front door. The woodland will have many different landforms within it to add to its authenticity. This feature adds a fantastic habitat for wildlife to flourish. Species of trees and plants should include, Quercus, Betula and Pinus silvetica.

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MIDDENEILLAND

MIDDENEILLAND

RESIDENTIAL AREA

Ijburg will include high quality residential blocks that maximise the space between the built form, so that the landscape can take centre stage. As designers we tried to change traditional street layouts subtlly. Instead of introducing curves and bends into the roads , the buildings alter the streets form. The result of doing this is the mitigation of the wind tunnel effect. The land that has been created next to the road should be used for community projects such as playgrounds, sports areas, allotments, recycling areas and small events spaces.

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MIDDENEILLAND

MIDDENEILLAND The courtyard area is comprised of 4 separate buildings all with internal curves. The buildings will vary in height; ranging from two storeys to five storeys. This will enhance views from balconies and add diversity. The central area will consist of a large attenuation pond which will collect rain water from around the Ijburg and help to slow water run off, whilst creating a wetland habitat. The area will also include play areas , allotments and a hydroponic food production centre.

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LANDTONGEILLAND

LANDTONGEILLAND Floating homes Each floating home will be connected to a small private park which will be accessible by several other floating homes. Each of these parks will connect to a larger park which will be used by all of the adjacent homes. This middle park will join to a larger public park. The smaller parks will be used as a vegetable and fruit growing resource and the larger park will hold vegetables and fruit trading and selling stalls at certain intervals throughout the year. The floating homes will be 50 percent self sufficient.

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ECO RING

KRINGETJEILLAND (Eco-Ring)

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KRINGETJEILLAND

KRINGETJEILLAND KRINGETJEILLAND is an ecological ring surrounding the Ijburg. Not only is the arching island a retreat but it also serves a functional purpose; acting as a ‘natural’ wave and wind breaking element, which will reduce the risk of erosion to the inner islands dykes.

Amongst the dense woodland, winds a wide path dappled with shade from the surrounding woodland. It is filled with semi-mature species and is an ideal location for avid nature lovers, bird watchers, or even dog walkers.

The ring promotes Amsterdams’ strong connection with water. A green bridge connects Kringetjeilland with Strandeilland allowing pedestrians and some limited vehicular access into the nature reserve.

Arching sandy beaches sandwich the ecological band. On the inner side a natural beach, planted with semi-natural reeds and grasses, spans to the waters edge where the water is protected and calm. The inner edge also contains clusters of floating homes, which are reached by a wooden jetty.

Kringetjeilland offers a unique selling point to island developments; promoting Holland’s native species which are beneficial for the biodiversity of the islands. Wide turning circles for vehicles and emergency access

Recreational beach

Section through Kringetjeilland, turning circle and floating houses

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Ecological ‘wild’ beach

Floating houses

Upon the outer edge of the island spans a broad beach with golden sand for recreational purposes. It is a space to pause, relax, or socialise with friends and family. Wide woodland path Logs encouraging natural play

Section through Kringetjeilland, woodland path and beaches

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IJBURG 136

Getting Around 137


TRANSPORT

TRAM ROUTE

Transport in and around the ijburg will be much the same as the rest of Amsterdam, however the introduction of a tram line to the suburbs of Amsterdam would be required to make Ijburg a new destination. The proposed tram track has been designed to ensure that the majority of housing is no further than 350m away from it. Instead of the tram line coming to a stop, it will run on a constant loop. Bicycles and walking will be promoted by creating nature walks in and around the islands with the inclusion of public art displays at key points. Bicycle routes are included in the shared spaces within much of the design. Due to the current traffic problems, the introduction of a ferry terminal on Centrumeilland will connect to Amsterdam Centraal and should ease the congestion.

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IJBURG 140

Design Philosophies 141


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Example of what an average street will look like . 143


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Example of what an average street will look like 145 .


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Ijburg has numerous green walkways and streets leading to points of interest or larger green spaces. These walkways will follow a standard design but will have unique viewpoints and art installations to ensure fluidity between spaces. The streets will generally be broken into two sections; a smaller less linear path and a large direct path. The smaller ones will provide space for meandering and the larger ones will have space for cycling and walking, but also will provide areas for sitting and gathering. The spaces will be broken up by contouring land and creating unobtrusive but large physical barriers. Planting will be determined by the specific area but will largely consist 147 of Perennials, Grasses and Specimen Trees.


IJBURG 148

Bibliography 149


BIBLIOGRAPHY http://www.amsterdam.info/basics/history/ http://www.amsterdam.info/parks/ http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.world-guides.com Koekebakker, Olof. Westergasfabriek Culture Park. NAi Publishers, Rotterdam, NL. 2003 Read, Stephen. Future City. Spoon Press, London. 2005 Van Eyck, Aldo. The Playgrounds and the City. NAi Publishers, Rotterdam, NL. 2002 Van Den Berg, Leo. Growth Clusters in European Metropolitan Cities. Ashgate, Burlington, USA. 2001 Barrenche, R. Floating Waterhouse. Architecture and Urbanism 1991 April no.4 Extra edition p190192 Cable, C. The Houseboat as Domestic Architecture. Architecture and Fine Arts Librarian, University of Texas, Austin. Dennis, B, Case, B. Houseboat- Reflections of North America’s Floating Homes… History, Architecture and Lifestyles. Smuggler’s Cove Publishing 1977 Seattle. Gabor, M. Houseboats from Floating Places to Humble Dwellings- a glowing tribute to a growing lifestyle. Published by Ballantine Books, Toronto 1979.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Malo, J. The Complete Guide to Houseboating. MacMillian Publishing Co. Inc, New York 1974. Mate, F. Waterhouses the Romantic Alternative. Albatross Publishing House, Vancouver 1977. http://www.amsterdam.nl/gemeente/organisatie-diensten/dienst-ruimtelijke/ http://www.shfa.nsw.gov.au/sydney-Our_places_and_projects-Our_projects-Ballast_Point_Park_Walama.htm http://www.archdaily.com/152230/south-pointe-park-hargreaves-associates/ http://vandaatdundee.com/your-future/ http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110118095356/http:/www.cabe.org.uk/news/action-plan-for-social-housing-spaces http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/our-work/cabe/resources/cabe-publications/space-in-new-homes/ Uffelen, Van Chris. Collection: Landscape Architecture. publication place: Braun Publish,Csi, 2009. http://www.nioo.knaw.nl/en/node/12 http://www.pbl.nl/ http://www.nern.nl/ http://www.animalinfo.org/country/netherla.htm http://www.belastingdienst.nl/wps/wcm/connect/bldcontenten/belastingdienst/individuals/abroad_and_customs/luggage/from_a_non_eu_ country/special_products_and_pets/endangered_animal_and_plant_species http://www.defra.gov.uk/wildlife-pets/wildlife-management/rare-exploited-species/

MacDonald, J. Houseboat Chronicles. The Canadian Publishers, Canada 2002.

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Appendix 153


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Ijburg, Amsterdam  

Visual Design Guide, based upon a Post graduate landscape architecture module on sustainable living

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