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Apple Campus 2 Foster + Partners


Apple Campus 2 Foster + Partners

Cupertino, California Expected Completion 2016

Jacob Gulezian + Eve Parrot

Drexel University Department of Architecture and Interiors Emerging Architectural Technology, Summer 2013 Professor Lindsay Falck


Phase 1 : Exordium

+

+ Architects Profile + TimeLine + Clients Profile + Products + Retail Stores

Phase 2 : Descriptive + Project OverView + Concept + Scale Comparisons + Site + Plans + Elevations + Sections + Auditorium + Visualizations

Phase 3 : Structural + Plan Diagram + Sectional Diagrams

System

Phase 4 : Sustainable + OverView + Envelope + DayLighting + Site + Mobility + Water + Land + Waste + LEED

Phase 5 : Evaluations + Critiques + Sources

Component

Initiatives

Table of Contents

5 6-9 10 11-16 17-18

+

20-21 22 23 24-31 32-39 40-41 42-44 45-47 48-50

+

52 53-54

+

56-57 58-59 60 61-62 63-66 67-69 70

+

72-73 74

Page 3


Phase 1 :

Exordium


Architects Profile

Sir Norman Foster Foster + Partners

Sir Norman Foster is the Founder and Chairman of Foster + Partners. Foster is a British architect born in Manchester, England in 1935. He studied at Manchester University School of Architecture + City Planning, graduating in 1961. After graduating, he won a Henry Fellowship to Yale University, where he received his Master’s Degree in Architecture. In 1963, Foster co-founded Team 4 with Su Brumwell, Wendy Cheeseman and Richard Rogers. When Team 4 dissolved in 1967, Foster and then wife Cheesemen established Foster Associates. The firm originally focused on innovative industrial buildings, creating open-plan offices kindering a sense of community between workers and managers. The practice has grown into an international architecture + design firm spanning 20+ countries with a diverse portfolio of projects from “urban masterplans, public infrastructure, airports, civic and cultural buildings, offices and workplaces to private houses and product design.” [1] Foster has worked alongside renowned architects like Buckminster Fuller, employing modern and emerging architectural technologies to design cutting-edge and environmentally responsible buildings, while maintaining a critical eye towards detail and materiality. His remarkable buildings are based off ecologically conscious decisions that maintain unique interactions between the building and its environment, transforming and restoring cityscapes. Over nearly 50 years Foster and his partners been highly decorated with 470 awards and citations for excellence. Foster himself has won a Royal Gold Medal for Architecture (1983), the Gold Medal for the French Academy of Architecture (1991) and the American Institute of Architects Gold Medal (1994). He is the second British architect to win the Stirling Prize, twice: the first in 1998 and the second in 2004. In 1999, Norman Foster was nominated as the twenty-first Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate and in 2007, Foster recieved the The Lynn S. Beedle Lifetime Achievement Award to honor his contributions to the advancement of tall buildings. “Foster currently sits on the Board of Trustees at architectural charity Article 25 who design, construct and manage innovative, safe, sustainable buildings in some of the most inhospitable and unstable regions of the world.” [4]

Sources [1a+4] Page 5


TimeLine 1963-1985

The Beginning:

Team 4 + Foster Associates 1963 The Retreat [Team 4], UK + Murray Mews [Team 4] 1963-66 + Creek Vean [Team 4] 1964-66

1965 Newport School [Team 4], UK + Reliance Controls 1967 + IBM Pilot Head Office 1970-71 + Samuel Beckett Theater 1971

1971-75 Willis Faber + Dumas HQ, UK 1974-78 Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts, UK + Gomera Masterplan 1975

1979-86 Hongkong + Shanghai Bank HQ, China 1980-82 Renault Distribution Centre, UK 1981-91 Stansted Airport, UK + BBC Radio Centre 1982-85

Source [1a] Page 6


TimeLine 1986-1989

The Early Years:

Foster + Partners 1984-93 CarrÊ d’Art, France

+ Sackler Galleries, Royal Academy of Arts 1985-91 + Katharine Hamnett Shop 1985-87 + Riverside Apartments + Studio 1986-90

1987 Tecno - Nomos Desking Unit, Italy + Esprit Shop 1987-88 + Stockley Park Offices 1987-89

1987-91 Century Tower, Japan + House in Japan 1987-92

1987-91 American Air Museum, UK + Torre de Collserola 1988-92 + Buisness Promotion Centre 1988-93

1988-95 Bilbao Metro, Spain

+ Microelectronic Centre 1988-96

1989 Millennium Tower, Japan

+ Cranfield University Library 1989-92

Source [1a] Page 7


TimeLine 1990-1999

The Middle Years + House in Corsica 1990-93 + Lycée Albert Camus 1991-93 + Commerzbank HQ 1991-97 + Marine Simulation Centre 1992-93 + Electricité de France Regional HQ 1992-96 + Essen Design Centre 1992-97 + Chek Lap Kok Airport 1992-98

1992-99 Reichstag, New German Parliament, Germany + Musée de Préhistoire 1992-96 + Valencia Congress Centre 1993-98 + Millau Viaduct 1993-04 + Robert Gordon University 1994-98 + North Greenwich Interchange 1995-98 + Great Glass House 1995-00 + Millenium Bridge 1996-00 + Trafalgar Square Redevelopment 1996-03

1996-07 Wembley Stadium, UK

+ Bloomberg HQ, 50 Finsbury Square 1997-00 + EXPO Station 1997-00 + HSBC UK HQ 1997-01

1997-04 Swiss Re HQ, UK

+ Deutsche Bank Place 1997-05

1998-02 London City Hall, UK 1998-04 McLaren Technology Centre, UK 1999-03 Clark Center, Stanford University, USA + San Marino World Trade Center 1999-04

1999-10 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, USA Source [1a] Page 8


TimeLine 2000-

To the Present 2000-06 Hearst Tower, USA

+ Centrica, Scottish Gas HQ 2001-03 + World Trade Center 2002 + Dolder Grand Hotel 2002-08

2002-09 Torre Caja Madrid Tower, Spain + Florence TAV Station 2003 + Regent Place 2003-07

2003-08 Beijing Airport, China

+ Margot + Bill Winspear Opera House 2003-09 + Palace of Peace + Reconciliation 2004-06

2004-07 Smithsonian Institution, USA

+ SSE Hydro 2005-11 + The Bow 2005-13 + Russia Tower 2006 + Camp Nou Stadium for FC Barcelona 2007

2007-08 Masdar Development, United Arab Emirates + Routemaster 2008 + UAE Pavilion Shanghai EXPO 2008-10 + Ilham Baru 2009-10 + Vietinbank 2010 + Marseille Vieux Port 2011

2011 Kuwait International Airport, Kuwait + Faena House 2011

Source [1a] Page 9


Clients Profile

Steve Jobs Apple Inc.

Steve Jobs was an inventor and entrepreneur, he was the co-founder, chairman, and CEO of Apple Inc. Steven Paul was born in San Francisco, California in 1955 to unwed parents who put him up for adoption. He was adopted by Paul and Clara Jobs, who moved to Mountain View, in the Santa Clara county, which would become known as Silicon Valley in the 1950’s. This had a large impact on Steve’s interest in electronics growing up. At 13 years old, Steve met and befriended 18 year old Stephen Wozniak, “an electronics wiz kid.” In 1972, Steve enrolled and spent one semester at Reed College before dropping out to live in a hippie commune, where he cultivated apples. Upon returning to California, Steve got a job with the video game maker Atari, then used his earnings to take a trip to India “seeking enlightenment.” [7] On April 1, 1976 Jobs and Wozniak started Apple Computer, they assembled Apple I computers out of Jobs’ garage and sold them to independent dealers. Later, Wozniak created the Apple II, which was an instant hit “because of its beautiful package, ease of use, and nifty features.” [7] Steve worked on many projects at Apple, but one of the most defining moments came in 1981 when he became head of the Macintosh project, a low cost compact computer. In 1985, sales dropped and tension grew between Jobs and then CEO John Sculley. May of that year, Sculley, backed by the board of directors re-organized the company, stripping Jobs of his operational duties, but keeping him as chairman of the board. Jobs was devastated, in September of that year he resigned selling all but one of his shares in the company. He then focused his attention on NeXT, a failed hardware company, which became a niche software developer. Jobs also bought the computer division of George Lucas’ Lucasfilm and incorporated it as Pixar. Pixar met the same fate as NeXT, going software only in 1990. When Disney signed with Pixar for a full-feature animation movie, it became much more profitable than NeXT, especially after its hit film Toy Story. After Jobs’ departure from Apple, the company’s progress slowed. With Microsoft’s release of Windows 95, Macintosh sales started to plummet. When Gil Amelio took over as CEO in 1996 Jobs convinced him to buy NeXT for $400 million, re-absorbing Jobs back into Apple. Amelio was CEO for 500 days before Jobs organized a board coup. Jobs then became Apple’s interim CEO on September 16, 1997. Over the next 14 years as Apple’s CEO, until his death in 2011, Steve Jobs would resurrect the company while reinventing the personal computer, music player and mobile phone.

Source [7] Page 10


1976-1985

Product TimeLine

The Beginning: Steve + Woz Apple Computers 1976-77 Apple I 1977-79 Apple II

+ Disk II 1978-84 + Apple II Plus 1979-82 + Apple II EuroPlus 1979-82 + Apple II J-Plus 1979-82 + Apple SilenType Printer 1979-82 + Apple Writer 1.0 Software 1979-92

1980-81 Apple III + Disk III 1980-84

1983-85 Apple Lisa

+ Apple III Plus 1983-84 + Apple Lisa 2 1984-85

1984 Macintosh 128K

+ Apple IIc 1984-86 + Apple Mouse IIc 1984-85 + Macintosh 512K 1984-86

1985 Macintosh XL

Sources [7+8] Page 11


1985-1997

Product TimeLine

The Middle Years: Steve Jobs Leaves 1986-90 Macintosh Plus

+ Macintosh 512Ke + Apple IIGS 1986-92 + Apple IIe Platinum 1987-93 + Macintosh II 1987-90 + Apple IIc Plus 1988-90 + Macintosh IIx 1988-90 + Macintosh SE/30 1989-91 + Macintosh IIcx 1989-91 + Macintosh SE FDHD 1989-90

1989-91 Macintosh Portable + Macintosh Classic 1990-92

1991-95 Macintosh Classic II

+ PowerBook (100, 140, 170) 1991-92 + Macintosh LC II 1992-93

1992-95 Quadra 950

+ PowerBook (145, 160, 180) 1992-93 + Macintosh Color Classic 1993-94 + Newton Message Pad** 1993-94

1997-98 PowerBook 3400

+ Power Macintosh Series 1997-98 + PowerBook G3 1997-98

**see mobile phone evolution page

Sources [7+8] Page 12


1998-2011

Product TimeLine

The Resurrection: Steve Jobs Years, Apple Inc. 1998-99 iMac G3

+ PowerBook G3 1999

1999-00 iBook

+ AirPort 1999-2001 + “Pismo” PowerBook 2000-01 + PowerBook G4 Titanium 2001-03 + iPod (1st gen.)* 2001-02

2002-04 iMac G4 15”

+ eMac 2002-04 + Power Macintosh G4 2002-04 + PowerBook G4 Aluminum (12”, 17”) 2003-06 + iMac G5 (17”, 20”) 2004-06 + Mac mini 2005-06 + iPod ( Shuffle, Mini, Nano, 5th gen)* 2005 + Mac Pro 2006-08

2007 MacBook Pro + iPhone** 2007-08

2008 MacBook Air + iPod Touch* 2008 + iMac 2008-09 + Mac Pro 2009-10 + iPad** 2010-11

2010-12 Mac Pro 2011-12 iMac

*see iPod evolution page **see mobile phone evolution page

Sources [1b+7+8] Page 13


2011-

Product TimeLine

To the Present: After Jobs; Tim Cook + iMac 2011-12 + iPhone 4** 2011-present

2012-13 Mac Pro 2013 Retina MacBook Pro 2013 iMac 2013 Mac mini 2013 Mac Pro 2013 MacBook Air

**see mobile phone evolution page

Sources [1b+7+8] Page 14


2001-

iPod TimeLine

To the Present: Revolution of the Mp3 Player 2001-02 iPod

+ iPod 2nd Generation 2002-03 + iPod 3rd Generation 2003-04

2004 iPod family (iPod, iPod photo, mini, shuffle) + iPod (shuffle, nano, video) 2005 + iPod (shuffle, nano, iPod) 2006 + iPhone 2007**

2007 iPod family (touch, classic, nano, shuffle) 2008 iPod family (touch, classic, nano, shuffle) + iPod nano with video, touch 3rd gen. 2009

2010 iPod family (touch, nano, shuffle) + iPad, iPhone 4** 2010

2012 iPod family (touch, nano) + iPad, iPad mini, iPhone 5**

**see mobile phone evolution page

Sources [1b+8+9] Page 15


2007-

iPhone TimeLine

To the Present: Re-inventing the Cell Phone 2007 iPhone

+ iPhone 3G (8, 16GB) 2008

2009 iPhone 3GS (16, 32 GB) 2010 iPad (Wi-Fi + 3G) + iPhone 4 2010

2011 iPad 2 2011-present iPhone 4s

+ iPad 3rd Generation 2012

2012-present iPhone 5 2012-present iPad + iPad mini

Sources [1b+8+9] Page 16


The Apple Brand

Steve Jobs was obsessed with design. This is clear looking at the careful detail and evolution of every product he has had a hand in designing from the original iMac to the iPhone 5 and forward to the Apple Campus 2. His love for design was not constained to electronics, “Jobs was equally obsessed with fashion, once sending his sister Issey Miyake dresses so that she wouldn’t look like a ‘struggling novelist.’ Like Le Corbusier, Jobs himself appeared as everyman, notorious for his bland uniform of a black turtle-neck.” [6d] When Apple started to create a brand image of retail stores, Jobs had a heavy hand in their design and aesthetic. It was critical that “Jobs work closely with designers, refining product designs and educating himself in the technological properties of the materials he pushed to extremes” [6d] including structural glass. In order to make his architectural voice heard Jobs “found a firm, [Bohlin Cywinski Jackson,] that would collaborate with him to help realize his visions without imposing its own signature.” [6d] Jobs collaborated closely with Peter Bohlin on the designs for many of the Apple retail stores, including their flagship 5th Ave. Glass Cube in New York City, NY, “the pinnacle of Apple’s store design [with a] forty-foot glass cube entrance.” [6c] More importantly, Jobs and Bohlin succeeded in creating an architectural identity in the retail stores. Among the 360 Apple retail stores there is a consistent architectural language in the use of materials: steel, glass and stone. The 4th St. Store in northern California, for example, is perfectly symmetrical, from the large panes of glass to the interior stone flooring, even the edges of the exterior sidewalk align with with store. This level of attention to detail has become synonymous with the Apple brand. Inside the stores, the grays of the steel and stone are highlighted by simple aligned wooden tables. This precise organization allows the store to become the pedastal to showcase the crafted aluminum and glass products on display. This achieves the ultimate goal in retail “the Apple store is identified with Apple.” [6d]

5th Ave. Store (NY)

4th St. Store (CA)

Retail Stores

Sources [1b+6c+6d] Page 17


Typologies

Retail Stores

Bohlin Cywinski Jackson used a strict architectural language of materiality and aesthetic while designing Apple’s many retail stores. They were faced with the challenge of creating a distinctly Apple store in a variety of different locations from shopping malls to historic buildings in cities big and small around the world. Diagrammed here are the various typologies of their solutions.

Apple Store, Pudong, Shanghai

Apple Store, Bethesda, Maryland, USA Source [1b+6] Page 18


Phase 2 :

Descriptive Component


project:

Apple Campus 2

architect:

Foster + Partners

location: Cupertino, California project start: April 2006 initial proposal: August 2011 expected completion: 2016 client: Apple inc. cost: Estimated $5 billion

Project Objectives

from Apple’s Proposal Documents, April 2013 “Apple Campus 2 will result in replacement and rebuilding of the entire approximately 176-acre site with a mix of office, research and development and ancillary land uses. The main objective of the project is to redevelop the site with a new, unified, secure and private Apple campus. The project’s specific objectives are to:

Primary Objectives

+ Create an innovative and beautiful campus near Apple’s Infinite Loop facility that consolidates up to 14,200 of Apple’s engineers and support personnel in a single distinctive office, research and development building with supporting facilities. The purpose of consolidation within a single building set in a secure landscape is to promote shared creativity and collaboration, and spur invention of the next several generations of Apple products. + Achieve the security and privacy required for the invention of new products by eliminating any public access through the site, and protecting the perimeters against trespassers.

Consultants

Project OverView

planning consultant: Kier + Wright planning + design consultant: Alta landscape architect: OLIN engineer: ARUP contractors: DPR Construction prefabrication specialists: Skanska USA Building

Secondary Objectives:

+ Maximize the provision of green space, and design this space in accordance with the climate and history of the area. + Provide on-site amenities for Apple’s employees in order to promote employees’ health and wellbeing and reduce offcampus travel. + Provide an on-site venue for the introduction of Apple’s new products that will generate surprise and delight, and enable the products to be introduced at Apple’s corporate home. + Create a physically unified campus community that improves internal circulation and eliminates unnecessary access points by consolidating the existing properties within one campus. + Create a campus plan that incorporates flexibility to respond to Apple’s future business needs. + Achieve a net zero energy development by constructing energy efficient buildings, generating a significant amount of the Campus’energy from on-site renewable sources, and developing partnerships with renewable energy providers for grid-purchased renewable energy. + Minimize use of potable water through using recycled water, if available as a result of projects now under consideration, and improve runoff by increasing permeable surfaces.

+ Enable a commuting culture where thoughtful site planning and regional connectivity coupled with a robust TDM program prioritize transit and active commute modes. + Exceed economic, social, and environmental sustainability goals through integrated design and development. + Enhance the City’s tax base. + Create a campus that reflects Apple’s business and design practices, and allows for a longterm presence in Cupertino.”

Sources [2+3] Page 20


Project Description

from Apple’s Proposal Documents, April 2013

Project OverView

In 2006, Steve Jobs announced that Apple had acquired 176 acres of land, where Hewlett-Packard had previously had its facilities, located one mile east of the existing Infinite Loop Apple Campus. This site “will be redeveloped with sustainable, state-of-the-art office, research and development facilities.” [2] The buildings are intended to connect the interior workspaces to the outdoors for relaxation and reflection. This idea is intended “to promote shared creativity and collaboration, and spur invention of the next several generations of Apple products.” [2] The Main Building will “accommodate up to 12,000 employees and comprises of approximately 2.8 million square feet in four stories.” [2] The site will also include a restaurant, a Corporate Fitness Center, a Corporate Auditorium and two research and development labs. “There will be approximately 10,980 parking spaces.” [2] Of these Apple has set aside room for power stations for 300 electric vehicles. [5] Apple encourages employees to use public transit or bicycling by compensating them. They have provided shuttles for employees from various areas and will have marked bike lanes, as well as bicycle racks, lockers and showers available at the campus. [5] The project plans to replace the existing asphalt and hardscape with over 100 acres of the redeveloped site with landscaped green space. They want trees to hide nearly all the roads and parking so that they appear secluded. The overall landscape will incorporate original agricultural use of the land. “The landscape design of meadows and woodlands will create an ecologically rich oak savanna reminiscent of the early Santa Clara Valley. It will incorporate both young and mature trees, and native and drought tolerant plants, that will thrive in Santa Clara County with minimal water consumption. The increase in permeable surfaces will promote natural drainage and improve water quality in Calabazas Creek.” [2]

Apple plans to plant Californian grassland and 309 different species of trees (6,000 new ones and 1,000 existing trees.) The courtyard in the center of the main building will be rich with fruit orchards and an herb garden. [3] “Apple Campus 2 will become a model for the 21st century workplace – a fantastic place to work, to create, to collaborate, and to shape future technology.” [2]

Sources [2+3+5] Page 21


Reactions

Concept

With it’s new headquarters in Cupertino, Apple wanted to make a statement about quality of design and innovation with respect to the future and the environment. The attention to detail on this project had to be as exacting as the attention given to every one of their products, yet be familiar, intriguing and a little mysterious. Circles may be one of the most symbolic shapes, often “a symbol for nature, perfection, the divine, industrialization, commitment -- not to mention life itself” “There is no end point in a circle but there is implied momentum and energy, free flowing, faster and faster. There can be no blockage in a circle, no corners or right angles to inhibit movement. There is nothing to impede progress within a circle” [6a] The meaning of the perfect circle shape of the main building will be and has been debated by architects since its unveiling, “Architects are the only professionals who could debate the significance of a circle so endlessly. But while we wait for the next news story on the headquarters, all this talk is merely applying symbolism to the circle to give it more value than it has. While Jobs jokingly referred to the building as a spaceship during his presentation, neither client nor architect has said anything of its true intention and significance - no donut, no infinity, no Zen, no spaceship, no iPod wheel.” [6b] However, this didn’t stop outsiders from making their own comments about the project likening the shape to everything from a “donut” [kiljoy616], to a “sphincter” [Mark Goulthorpe, dECOi], to the Large Hadron Collider [MacsOnAnabolics]. Looking at the scale of the project, it is clear that Apple wants to demonstrate their growing prescence in the technology world. [see diagrams]

Sources [2+6] Page 22


Scale Comparisons

Apple Campus 2 is about 1520 feet across, making it one of the largest man-made structures. This diagram compares it’s size to other well-known buildings. Source [6] Page 23


Context

Site

Source [2] Page 24


Site

Existing/Proposed

Existing Site

Proposed Site

Source [2] Page 25


Building Positions

Site

Source [2] Page 26


Circulation

Site

Source [2] Page 27


���S�TIME���

Site General Notes

1. Do not scale drawings. Dimensions govern. 2. All dimensions are in feet and inches unless noted otherwise.

3. All dimensions shall be verified on site before proceeding with the work.

GreenScape ���DGNSPEC���

4. Foster ďż˝ Partners shall be notified in writing of any discrepancies.

5. Any areas indicated on this sheet are approximate and indicative only.

East Homestead Road

North Wolfe Road

North Wolfe Road

North Tantau Avenue

East Homestead Road

06

04/12/13

Planning Revision

05

11/01/12

Planning Revision

04

05/25/12

Planning Revision

03

02/29/12

Planning Revision

02

01/17/12

Planning Revision

01

11/04/11

Planning Revision

00

08/09/11

Planned Development Permit

Rev.

Date

Reason For Issue

Chk

North Tantau Avenue

Key Plan

Pruneridge Avenue

N

Š Foster

Partners 2010

Arup North America Ltd. 560 Mission Street, Suite 700 San Francisco, CA 94105 USA Tel (415) 957 9445 Fax (415) 957 9096 www.arup.com

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www.altaplanning.com 2560 9th Street, Suite 212 Berkeley, CA 94710 p:510.540.5008 f:510.540.5039

Client

Apple Inc.

Project

Impermeable Area:

130.4 acres

Impermeable Area:

70.3 acres

Permeable Area:

42.6 acres

Permeable Area:

101.7 acres

Apple Campus 2

Title

01 Existing Absorbent Landscape NTS

02 Proposed Absorbent Landscape

Existing and Proposed Landscape

Source [2] Page 28

NTS

Project No.

1858 Number

P1.22

Date

04/12/2013

Scale @ Arch E1

NTS

Revision

04


$$$SYTIME$$$

Site

2. All dimensions are in feet and inches unless noted otherwise.

3. All dimensions shall be verified on site before proceeding with the work. 4. Foster + Partners shall be notified in writing of any discrepancies.

$$$DGNSPEC$$$

5. Any areas indicated on this sheet are approximate and indicative only.

East Homestead Road

North Wolfe Road

East Homestead Road

North Wolfe Road

06

04/12/13

Planning Revision

05

11/01/12

Planning Revision

04

05/25/12

Planning Revision

03

02/29/12

Planning Revision

02

01/17/12

Planning Revision

01

11/04/11

Planning Revision

00

08/09/11

Planned Development Permit

Rev.

Date

Reason For Issue

Chk

Key Plan

Pruneridge Avenue N

Int

North Tantau Avenue

Š Foster

North Tantau Avenue

Trees

General Notes

1. Do not scale drawings. Dimensions govern.

er

sta

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28

0

Arup North America Ltd. 560 Mission Street, Suite 700 San Francisco, CA 94105 USA Tel (415) 957 9445 Fax (415) 957 9096 www.arup.com

KIER & WRIGHT

Int

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Partners 2010

3350 Scott Boulevard, Building 22 Santa Clara, California 95054

sta

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Phone: (408) 727 6665 www.kierwright.com

Fax: (408) 727 5641 Š Kier & Wright, 2011

28

0

www.altaplanning.com 2560 9th Street, Suite 212 Berkeley, CA 94710 p:510.540.5008 f:510.540.5039

Client

Apple Inc.

Total Existing Trees:

4506

Existing Standard Trees:

4438

Existing Heritage Trees:

0

Existing Specimen Trees:

68

See P7.00 and P7.01

Proposed Trees:

6100

Standard Trees to Remain:

844

Standard Trees to Transplant:

76

Specimen Trees to Remain:

01

Specimen Trees to Transplant:

13

Total Trees:

7034

Total Trees to Transplant:

89

Project

Apple Campus 2

See P7.02 and P7.03 Proposed locations for Transplanted Trees Tree #1034 Memorial English Oak will be transplanted. If it does not survive it will be replaced by another specimen oak

All existing specimen trees to be removed will be replaced at a minimum rate of 1 to 1 with new specimen trees. Existing Tree to Remain

Title

Existing and Proposed Trees

Project No.

Existing Trees NTS

Proposed Trees NTS

1858 Number

P1.23

Date

04/12/2013

Scale @ Arch E1

Source [2] Page 29 06 NTS

Revision


Topography

Site

Source [2] Page 30


Grading + Building Height

Site

Source [2] Page 31


Basement

Plan

level 1

Source [2] Page 32


Basement

Plan

level 2

Source [2] Page 33


Level 1

Plan

Source [2] Page 34


Level 2

Plan

Source [2] Page 35


Level 3

Plan

Source [2] Page 36


Level 4

Plan

Source [2] Page 37


Plant Level

Plan

Source [2] Page 38


Roof Level

Plan

Source [2] Page 39


Exterior Elevations

Elevations

Source [2] Page 40


Courtyard Elevations

Elevations

Source [2] Page 41


Typical Entrance

Section

Source [2] Page 42


Restaurant

Section

Source [2] Page 43


Typical Offices

Section

Source [2] Page 44


Auditorium Plan

Corporate Auditorium level 1

+212’-0�

Source [2] Page 45


Corporate Auditorium level b2

Auditorium Plan

Source [2] Page 46


Corporate Auditorium

Auditorium Section

Source [2] Page 47


Bird’s Eye

Visualization

Source [2] Page 48


View Towards Restaurant

Visualization

Source [2] Page 49


Visualization

Page 50


Phase 3 :

Structural System


Plan Diagram

Vertical Structural Elements Museum-Quality Floors

void over restaurant

Rather than cement floors, Jobs wanted to use “a stone- infused alternative such as terrazzo, buffed to a sheen normally reserved for museums and high-end residences.” [3] Jobs insisted that the tiny gaps where walls and other surfaces come together be no more than 1/32 of an inch across, versus the typical 1/8 inch in most U.S. construction. Jobs also wants the ceilings to be of polished concrete, which is unusual. Contractors typically pour the cement in place and scaffolding leaves marks on the surface. In order to not have these defects “Apple will instead cast the ceilings in molds on the floor and lift them into place.” [3]

Pre-Fab Modules

glazing line

shading blade

Thousands of prefabricated 26-foot long modules will arrive by truck onto the site. These modules will consist of various configurations: “bathrooms, utility closets and banks of offices complete with carpets and window treatments.” This will allow more precise construction and for fewer hours of on-site work. “Apple hopes to complete construction in two years.” [3]

Sources [2+3] Page 52


Gravitational Load Transfer through Typical Office

Sectional Diagram

Source [2] Page 53


Column + Beam Placement through Restaurant

Sectional Diagram

Source [2] Page 54


Phase 4 :

Sustainable Initiatives


Green Objectives

OverView

from Apple’s Proposal Documents, Project Description, April 2013 When Steve Jobs announced his plans for Apple Campus 2 the intent for a carbon neutral facility was clearly stated in the Project’s Objectives. They wanted to: + Achieve a net zero energy development by constructing energy efficient buildings, generating a significant amount of the Campus’energy from on-site renewable sources, and developing partnerships with renewable energy providers for grid-purchased renewable energy. + Minimize use of potable water through using recycled water, if available as a result of projects now under consideration, and improve runoff by increasing permeable surfaces. + Exceed economic, social, and environmental sustainability goals through integrated design and development. The plan also outlines strategies to reduce carbon footprint outside of the building by creating safe bike and foot paths. Apple is implementing a compensation program for employees who use public transit or bike to work. As well as providing shuttles and bicycle racks, lockers and showers available at the campus. They also plan on having power stations for 300 electric vehicles. [5] The company plans to plant 15 acres of native Californian grassland and 309 different species of trees (that includes the 6,000 new ones and 1,000 existing trees that will be dug up, stored during construction, and transplanted back from the nursery later). The vast courtyard in the center of the main building’s doughnut will be especially verdant, with apricot, olive, and apple orchards, and an herb garden near the patio of a sprawling cafe. The project will increase the permeable area on site from about 42 acres to approximately 109 acres. The building itseself also exhibits this attention to sustainability, with its enourmous state-of-the-art curved glass envelope the interiror will make great use of the natural daylighting. Sunshades, articulating themselves as white strips wrapped around the building can be repositioned to either deflect excess heat from the sun or to reflect more light into deeper spaces. The roof is completely clad with photo-voltaic panels which will produce electricity that will help to power the building. They aim to achieve a LEED Silver Certification.

Sources [2+3+5] Page 56


Sustainability Features

OverView

from Apple’s Proposal Documents, Project Description, April 2013 The environmental sustainability features are designed to provide a net zero increase of greenhouse gas emissions, minimize natural resource consumption and improve the air, water, light and micro-climate quality of the site. Additional sustainability features are as follows: + Co-location of services within the large integrated Campus development will improve efficiency over the current disjointed land use. + The number of inter- and intra-Campus car trips generated will be reduced through Apple’s existing and extensive TDM programs. + The Central Plant serves as a primary consolidation point for heating, cooling and electricity for the main site. + Approximately 9,240 of the 10,980 parking spaces provided on-site will be provided in sub-grade levels or in a parking structure, creating more permeable landscape and minimizing heat island effect. + In excess of 6,000 trees will be planted on the site, including fruit trees, in addition to retaining approximately 1,000 trees currently on the site. + The project will increase the permeable area on site from about 42 acres to approximately 109 acres.

Energy

Apple is committed to using 100% renewable energy throughout Apple Campus 2, with an emphasis on onsite generation from photovoltaics and fuel cells. The Main Building will incorporate a variety of technologies that help to achieve Apple’s net zero energy goal. Initiatives include radiant conditioning systems, LED electric lighting, natural ventilation, and green information and communication technologies. Other energy initiatives include: + 300 electrical vehicle charging stations will be provided, with built-in capacity to expand. + Buildings will be designed to allow for passive heating and cooling and high performance building systems. + The project’s overall energy needs will be provided by renewable energy. The majority will be generated on-site through the use of photovoltaics and fuel cells with directed biogas. These will be supplemented by grid purchased renewable energy if needed during periods of peak demand. + Approximately 8MW of photovoltaics will be installed on the Main Building and parking structure roofs. + The sites east and west of North Tantau Avenue will also be served by 100% renewable energy, maximizing the use of photovoltaics and fuel cells on-site. Sources [2] Page 57


Curved Glass

Envelope

from Bloomburg Businessweek’s “Inside Apple’s Plans for Its Futuristic, $5 Billion Headquarters” The main building will also be groundbreaking in how it’s assembled. While the structural shell will be erected on site, the glass that forms the exterior walls will be bent and framed by Seele GmbH in its factory in Gersthofen, Germany. “It’s something like 6 kilometers of glass,” said Peter Arbour, an architect with Seele, who said no company has attempted to use panes as large -- certainly not curved panes -- in anything approaching this scale. “Normally we talk in terms of square feet.” Seele, which built the glass staircases in many Apple stores as well as the large glass cube at the entrance to its store on Fifth Avenue in New York, has doubled the capacity of its plant to supply the Apple project, Arbour said. Most curved glass is created through a heating process that can lead to cloudiness or house-of-mirror-style distortions. Apple’s will use a cold-bent process; Seele developed machines to bend the panes and hold them in place as they are laminated with a bonding material so they keep the correct shape. “With cold-bent glass, you get a true surface and true transparency and true reflectivity,” Arbour said. Seele can complete this process only at its Gersthofen factory, requiring that the glass be shipped from Europe.

Source [2+3] Page 58


Entrance

Envelope

Source [2] Page 59


Energy Efficiency

Day Lighting

To achieve a “net-zero energy” campus, the roof “will hold 700,000 square feet of solar panels, enough to generae 8 megawatts of power.” [3] The campus will also have “climate responsive” techonology. The windows and louvres will open or close automatically, letting in the right amount of light, wind and fresh air to maintain a comfortable temperature. [3] Light welled atrium spaces are placed at regular intervals around the circle creating dynamic entrances. Smaller light wells punctuate the office spaces allowing natural light to penetrate the otherwise solid floor slab system.

Sources [3+11] Page 60


Boundary Conditions

Site

Source [2] Page 61


Grading + Building Height

Site

Source [2] Page 62


Mobility

Parking

from Apple’s Proposal Documents, Project Description, April 2013 Apple will expand its already robust Transportation Demand Management (TDM) program by 20%, increasing the reduction in peak hour trips from 28% to 34%. Key elements of the TDM program include expansion of the employee shuttle program to access all regional public transportation systems and communities with concentrations of Apple employees, targeting employees residing within 15-minutes of the Campus. Management of the site’s limited parking supply will be used as an incentive for employees to take advantage of Apple’s alternative commuting options. Approximately 9,240 of the 10,980 parking spaces provided on-site will be provided in sub-grade levels or in a parking structure, creating more permeable landscape and minimizing heat island effect.

Vehicular Access Sources [2+3] Page 63


Mobility

Bicycles

from Apple’s Proposal Documents, Project Description, April 2013 Recommended Bicycle Access Improvements

Bike Lanes Buffered Bike Lanes + Provides greater shy distance between cars and bicyclists. + Provides space for bicyclists to pass each other. + Provides greater space for the bicycle travel lane without making the lane appear so wide that it may be mistaken for car use. + Appeals to not just experienced bicyclists, but people who bicycle on occasion and those new to bicycling. Bike Boxes A bike box is generally a right angle extension to a bike lane at the head of a signalized intersection. The bike box allows bicyclists to get to the front of the traffic queue on a red light and proceed first when that signal turns green. The bike box can also act as a storage area if heavy bicycle traffic exists. The bike box can also facilitate left turning movements for bicyclists who use the ‘two stage turn.’ Motor vehicles must stop behind the white stop line at the rear of the bike box. Bike boxes should be located at signalized intersections only. Two –Stage Turn Boxes Two-stage turn boxes assist bicyclists with makingleft turns at multi-lane intersections. This treatment is typically applied on multi-lane streets with high traffic speeds and/ Plan Detail: North Tantau Ave. or volumes. It provides a number of benefits including: + Improves bicyclist comfort. + Provides formal waiting area for bicyclists making left turns outside of the crosswalk.

Section E: North Tantau Ave.

Sources [2+3] Page 64


Mobility

Bicycles

from Apple’s Proposal Documents, Project Description, April 2013 Intersection Crossing Markings Intersection crossing markings are an extension of the bicycle lane through an intersection. This bike lane extension has a number of benefits, including: + Enables bicyclists to correctly position themselves to the left of right turn lanes or to the right of left turn lanes. + Reduces conflict between turning motorists and bicycle through traffic. + Provides bicyclists with guidance to follow the preferred travel path. + Alerts motorists to expect and yield to merging bicycle traffic. Green Bike Lanes Through Conflict Areas Green bike lanes through conflict areas is the application of green coloring applied to pavement in conflict zones. Benefits of this treatment include: + Alerts roadway users to expect bicyclists. + Assigns the right of way to bicyclists.

Plan + Section Detail: North Wolfe Road.

Sources [2+3] Page 65


Site Perimeter Enhancements

Visualization The enhancements planned for the perimeter of the site will benefit the community and Apple employees. Featured improvements include: + Wide, clearly marked bicycle lanes + Comfotable, spacious crosswalks and sidewalks + Available buses + Abundant vegetation

Source [2] Page 66


LandScape + Herbaceous Plans

Water + Land

Source [2] Page 67


Re-Use + Recycle

from Apple’s Proposal Documents, Project Description, April 2013

Water + Waste

Water

A recycled water main connection to the site is under consideration. Apple is currently discussing the potential recycled water line with the City of Sunnyvale. The most likely alignment would extend the line from the existing City of Sunnyvale Water Pollution Control Plant to the Apple Campus 2 site along North Wolfe Road. A final route and design specifications, including capacity, have not been determined. The reduction of impermeable surfaces on site, and roof rainwater capture from the Main Building roof will promote natural drainage, reduce storm water runoff and improve water quality in Calabazas Creek. Landscaping will incorporate both young and mature trees, and native and drought tolerant plants, which will minimize water consumption. Water efficiency initiatives include the evaluation of low flow fixtures. Water use would be reduced by about 30 percent below a typical commercial development within the Silicon Valley area.

Waste

Apple will expand its current waste management program, which achieves a diversion rate of 78%. During construction of Apple Campus 2, the goal is to divert construction and demolition waste from landfills by finding multiple alternative uses, such as recycling, reuse on site or on other sites. Key elements of the waste management program during operations are the increase of material reuse, recycling from solid waste sources and composting.

Source [2] Page 68


StormWater Drainage Systems

Water

Source [2] Page 69


LEED 2009 NC Preliminary Points Tally

LEED

Source [2] Page 70


Phase 5 :

Evaluations


Critiques

Critiques

from Clog : Apple, February 2012

Closed and Open: The Apple Paradox “There’s a closed and open paradox at the heart of Apple Inc., which stems from its nature as a secretive and patriarchal organization creating products which enable individuals to freely compute, communicate and collaborate in a vast variety of ways. Concurrent with Apple’s ascent to global pre-eminence as the byword for personal technological emancipation, the tensions radiating from this closed and open paradox have gained traction across a wide range of human endeavors. The new Apple Campus in Cupertino illuminates this; the architects, Foster + Partners, deserve credit for manifesting the nature of their celebrated client in the form of a huge low-rise cylinder landed in groves of Californian fruit trees. In the publicly released images, the building appears to pulse and rotate in the landscape while bearing a classical stability. These qualities are a function of the sheer size of the campus in conjunction with the clarity of its organizational principle: the circle. The Apple-circle. Herein lies the Apple paradox. The new campus looks outward to the space which surrounds it and simultaneously looks inward to a private, enclosed space. The implacable seperation of these spaces is effected by the presence of the building itself. That is the terrible beauty of the circle; it possesses a simplicity which is at once communitarian and absolute. Every individual construction component of the building and each individula employee will function within the unifying system of the circle; a twenty-first century vision of Jeremy Bentham’s Panopticon in which the centralized eye - or ‘i’ - is manifest in personal technological devices rather than an achitectural gaze. the Apple-circle also performs in the manner of medieval fortified architecture by contsrtucting a division between outer and inner space; when seen from above the new campus has the look of an hermetic fiefdom. And, although it remains unclear how the fiefom will function now that the king has departed, there is a question of wider consequence latent within the closed and open paradox of Apple. This question is also burning in the contested cores of contemporary politics, commerce, industy and media.”

- Tom Brooksbank

Source [6f] Page 72


Critiques

Critiques

from Clog : Apple, February 2012

Back to Ectopia - Apple Design and Futurist Classicism

“For all its promise of unlimited connectivity, Apple’s design seems to leave almost everything out. Apple has built a style on impenetrability, providing us with sleek, polished technological gizmos that are not only a product of design, but a symbol of designed obsolescence... Like an alien mothership hanging gently in the middle of Arcadia, the new Cupertino campus speaks of a dream of ascetic-aesthetic plenitude that goes back to modern utopianism. Foster’s design, bred in a sensibilty nourished by Dan Dare, Werner Von Braun and the visionary ‘60s conjures an ultimate state of the Corbusian cult of the liner as a model for architectural assertion. The platonic exactitude of Cupertino’s rounded shell conjures the old ideal of ectopic utopianism: a technological eutopia of isolated perfection in an antithetic relationship with natural beauty. Apple leaves behind the organic, anarchic ambiguity of postmodernity, substituting the visceral for the virtual; and somehow, this renewed dream of an (old) brave new world scares me a little bit. But then, I’m a PC guy.” - Luis Miguel Lus-Arana

Utopia, Techonology, and Architecture

“Despite the past failures of utopia and architecture, designers continue to dream of a better future through built work. However, there has been a necessary shift in the relationship between crisi, technology and the building. While architecture used to act as the filtering element, technology now distills the social climate and relieves architecutre of its heroic responsibilities. Apple is a successful company because it responds to the changes in society; in an information-based economy, efficiency and functionality are drivers of the design. Apple not only understands the culture in which they operate, but also defines it, as their products become prosthetics of the human body. Apple’s relevancy is continual because they adapt as a company. The major design requirement of the Apple Campus 2 is to convey hope... In the completion of this project, the building will become an instant icon not only in America, but also in the global community. When considering the design of the Apple Campus 2, utopian values have not been forgotten; the geometry and scale of the building share the same enthusiasm of the 1950s modernists, but with the hindsight of its limitations. The shape of the virvle implies continuity as a beacon of light encompasses the structure... Postmodern society is more complex than a string of linear relationships; the built work is only one of the contributing agents. In the Apple Campus 2, architecture and technology work together to become emblematic of the new American dream.” - Allyn Hughes

Sources [6e+6g] Page 73


Sources [1a] “Foster + Partners.” Foster + Partners. N.p., n.d. Web. 2013. <http://www.fosterandpartners.com/>. [1b] “Apple.” Apple. N.p., n.d. Web. Aug. 2013. <http://www.apple.com/>. [2] “News.” Cupertino : : Apple Campus 2 Project Update. N.p., n.d. Web. 2013. <http://www.cupertino.org/index. aspx?recordid=888&page=26>. [3] Burrows, Peter. “Inside Apple’s Plans for Its Futuristic, $5 Billion Headquarters.” Bloomburg Buisnessweek Technology. N.p., 04 Apr. 2013. Web. [4] “Norman Foster, Baron Foster of Thames Bank.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 07 Sept. 2013. Web. <http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Norman_Foster%2C_Baron_Foster_of_Thames_Bank>. [5] Searer, Stephen. “An In-depth Look At Apple’s Iconic Campus II - Office Snapshots.” Office Snapshots. N.p., Aug. 2012. Web. [6] May, Kyle, Julia van den Hout, Jacob Reidel, and Human Wu, eds. Comp. PlayLab. CLOG : Apple III (2012): 1-149. Print. [6a] Treff, Mike. “The Circle as a Symbol.” CLOG : Apple III (2012): 84-85. Print. [6b] van den Hout, Julia. “Contemplating the Circle.” CLOG : Apple III (2012): 86-87. Print. [6c] Allen, Gary. “Unique and Unusual.” CLOG : Apple III (2012): 28-29. Print. [6d] Varnels, Kazys. “The Architect.” CLOG : Apple III (2012): 44-45. Print. [6e] Lus-Arana, Luis Miguel. “Back to Ectopia - Apple Design and Futurist Classicism.” CLOG : Apple III (2012): 96-97. Print. [6f] Brooksbank, Tom. “Closed and Open: The Apple Paradox.” CLOG : Apple III (2012): 102-103. Print. [6g] Hughes, Allyn. “Utopia, Technology, and Architecture.” CLOG : Apple III (2012): 110-111. Print. [7] Moisescot, Romain. “Biography.” All about Steve Jobs.com. N.p., 7 Mar. 2012. Web. <http://allaboutstevejobs.com/bio/shortbio.php>. [8] “Timeline of Apple Inc. Products.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 29 June 2013. Web. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Apple_Inc._products>. [9] Sanford, Glen. “Company History: 1976-1981.” Apple-history.com / Company History: 1976-1981. N.p., 26 Aug. 2012. Web. <http://apple-history.com/h1>. [10] Golson, Jordan. “Apple Retail Store Design.” MacRumors. N.p., 30 Aug. 2011. Web. <http://www.macrumors.com/2011/08/30/new-apple-retail-store-design-is-perfectly-symmetrical/>. [11] “9to5Mac: Apple IPhone, Mac and IPad News Breaking All Day.” 9to5Mac. N.p., n.d. Web. Aug. 2013.

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Apple campus 2 case study