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<> siqgur pRswid

Understanding Gurbaannee gurbwxI dI soJI

Useful Tools for Interpretation ArQW leI smgRI

Ajmel Singh E-mail: ajmel.dulai@comcast.net Publisher: Sikh Youth Federation 6863 Cloister Road Toledo, Ohio 43617


Dedicated To Gurbaannee Lovers

Author: Ajmel Singh

Published by: Sikh Youth Federation

First Edition- February 2008

Book availability contacts: Sardaar Kuldeep Singh Sikh Youth Federation 6863 Cloister Road Toledo, Ohio 43617 Or Ajmel Singh E-mail: ajmel.dulai@comcast.net Phone: (586) 323-3851

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sloku m:3]

siqgur no sBu ko vyKdw jyqw jgqu sMswru ] ifTY mukiq n hoveI ijcru sbid n kry vIcwru ]

(pg 594)

Sree Guroo Graˆnth Saahib Jee

ArQ:: ijqnw ieh swrw sMswr hY (ies iv~c) hryk jIv siqgurU dy drSn krdw hY ArQ (pr) inrw drSn kIiqAW mukqI nhIN imldI, jd qweIN jIv siqgurU dy Sbd iv~c dI ivcwr nhIN krdw, (ikauNik ivcwr krn qoN ibnW) AhMkwr (-rUp mn dI) mYl nhIN auqrdI qy nwm iv~c ipAwr nhIN bxdw[ (ArQ: BweI swihb isMG jI)

Meaning: All the living beings of the world visit and behold the Satguroo, (but) by merely looking at the Satguroo, liberation is not achieved unless one comprehends and reflects upon the words of Satguroo’s Shabad, (because without comprehension and reflection) the filth of ego is not cleansed and the love for Naam is not developed. (pg594)

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Gratitude (DMnvwd)

My foremost gratitude is to God and Guroo for providing me the good health and enabling me to do the Sayvaa of writing this second book. My special thanks go to Sardaar Kuldeep Singh for providing me the support and encouragement to write this book. I am indebted to him for his suggestions, guidance, and publishing efforts. I would also like to thank Sardaar Kulwant Singh for his unconditional support for reviewing each chapter thoroughly, and suggesting corrections. He provided many ideas to improve the quality of the contents of this book. I would also like to thank another individual who wants to remain anonymous. His invaluable critical look at most of the chapters was extremely helpful for me to clarify several sections in this book. I am also indebted to the SaË&#x2020;ngat from two of the local Gurdwaaraas for providing me many helpful suggestions when I shared most of the material with them during our scheduled classes. No doubt, my family members have been my inspiration for writing this second book. Their meticulous reviews over the last year of the material presented in this book gave it the current shape. My frequent discussions and dialogues with them were the basis for most of the chapters and the overall book layout. I cannot thank them enough for their contributions.

Ajmel Singh

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Preface (BUimkw) The objective of this work is to present to the reader a simplified way for understanding the meanings of Gurbaannee. This is the second book written by the author as a natural extension of his first book “Gurbaannee’s Significance and Pronunciation.” The combined aim of both of these books is to equip us with the necessary tools to understand the message contained in Sree Guroo Graˆnth Saahib Jee. That is the reason Sikh Youth Federation has decided to publish both books by Sardaar Ajmel Singh. This separate complementary second book focuses on interpreting Gurbaannee based on logic, reasoning, and grammar rules. He has developed a simplified but excellent rational approach to suit the needs of today’s generation that will lead a learner towards a clearer understanding of Gurbaannee. The author uses a Five-Step systematic analysis technique to determine the meanings of a Tuk or a Shabad and cites numerous examples. The first chapter on introduction makes you aware of the dangers posed by the prevalent misinterpretations and misconceptions of Gurbaannee. Then he briefly presents the case that adoption of a systematic rational self-learning approach is a technique to avoid these dangers. The next three chapters deal with the pertinent aspects of Gurbaannee grammar. The second chapter is a quick review of Gurbaannee grammar etymology fundamentals. The third chapter covers the use of ‘case’ in detail, and the fourth chapter is dedicated to syntax. Although this is not the focus of this book, yet understanding of the grammatical aspects is essential for understanding the meanings of Gurbaannee. The significance of Rahaa-o (pause) is covered in the next chapter. Nine examples are provided to cover its many variations used in Gurbaannee. Comments are annotated with each example to differentiate among its variations for better understanding of the overall impact on the Shabad. Chapter six presents the details of the methodology for interpretation of Gurbaannee in the most rational manner. The next two chapters contain specific examples of the use of the Five-Step analysis technique to understand the meaning of Gurbaannee. Chapter seven deals with the application of this technique in translating specific Tuks, whereas in chapter eight this technique is applied to the entire Shabads. The appendices deal with supplementary information. As a reader, you will find that appendices I and II, which provide the meanings of some of the key words, phrases and idioms from Sree Guroo Graˆnth Saahib, very useful. Appendix III is another useful chapter, which contains summarized examples of numerous interpretations of difficult Gurbaannee Tuks. The author has put a lot of time into this project, and I feel this work will prove to be extremely useful in understanding Gurbaannee. It is bound to benefit many of us who are desperate to know Gurbaannee. Kuldeep Singh Toledo, Ohio April 15, 2007

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How to Use this Book (ies ikqwb ƒ iks qrW vrqo) The purpose of this book is to help you learn how to understand Gurbaannee based on logic, reasoning, and Gurbaannee grammar. To get the most benefit, you should become familiar with the material presented in this entire book. Later you can use this book in four different ways to find the guidance and examples you may need later in your life.

1. The Fundamentals of Gurbaannee/Paˆˆŋjaabee Grammar Chapter 2 summarizes Gurbaannee grammar’s key aspects. The classification of words in this chapter is a quick handy reference for you. For example, if you wish to review the differences between verbs and adverbs, or want to see examples of nouns, pronouns, and prepositional words, you can go directly to the tables on pages 8 through 10.

2. ‘Case’ in Gurbaannee Chapter 3 covers the ‘case’ in detail. If you are uncertain regarding the type of case, the table on page 13 and 14 provide you with a quick reference on the different types of case along with specific examples of words. However, if you are confused about the basics of ‘case’ and need some additional information on how to determine its type, then refer to the table on page 15. This table provides you with specific questions you can ask that will help you determine a case type. In addition, you will find the appropriate prepositional word for the case type from these tables.

3. Process/Technique for Interpreting Gurbaannee The methodology for interpreting is described in chapter 6. Whenever you wish to interpret Gurbaannee, you will find this systematic approach very handy.

4. Specific Examples Chapters 7 and 8 contain a few specific examples of Tuks and Shabads, respectively, with detailed analyses. Additionally, Appendix III supplements chapter 7 by presenting numerous other Gurbaannee Tuks which are often misinterpreted. You will find there a list of those Tuks and their summarized analyses and interpretations. You can use those examples as exercises to validate your or other’s interpretations. These examples will enhance your ability to use the process/technique and the five-step approach to arrive at correct interpretations of Gurbaannee.

5. Other Tools Many other tools are provided to help you learn how to interpret Gurbaannee. If you wish to know the meanings of some of the key words used in Gurbanne, you can examine the tables in Appendix I. Some words are used quite often in Gurbaannee, however, their meanings differ from their common use in Paˆŋjaabee. Three separate quick reference tables, alphabetically arranged, are provided for your convenience. You will find these quite useful when interpreting Gurbaannee. Appendix II provides you with the meanings of some of the noun phrases and idioms from Gurbaannee, also for a quick reference. Chapter 6 contains information on how ‘Rahaa-o’ is used in Gurbaannee. A list of all the tools is provided in chapter 1 of this book.

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Contents Chapter

Description Gratitude (DMnvwd) Preface (BUimkw) How to Use This Book (ies ikqwb ƒ iks qrW vrqo)

1.

2.

Introduction (jwx pCwx) •

Importance of Understanding Gurbaannee (gurbwxI ƒ smJx dI mh~qqw)

• •

Difficulties in Understanding Gurbaannee (gurbwxI ƒ smJx iv~c rukwvtW) Misinterpretations and Misconceptions (glq ArQ Aqy glq Anumwn) o Misinterpretations (glq ArQ) o Misconceptions (glq Anumwn)

• • •

Sikhee Way of Life (is~KI jIvx vwlw rsqw) Tools and Training (smgRI Aqy isKlweI) About This Book (ies ikqwb vwry) o Approach (jugq)

Gurbaannee Grammar Rules (gurbwxI ivAwkrx dy inXm) • •

Introduction (prclx) Etymology (A~Kr boD) o Words Classification/Categorization (A~KrW dIAW SryxIAW/vMf) o Structure of Words (A~KrW dI bxqr) o  

3.

Table 2.3: Nouns, Adjectives and Verbs. (nWv, ivSySx qy ikRAw) Prefix and Suffix (Agyqr qy pCyqr)

Case (kwrk) • •

Use of Case (kwrk dI vrqoN) o Example (audwhrn) Reasons for Etymology Differences (A~Kr boD Prk dy kwrx)) (gurbwxI ivc u qy i dI ivAwkrx~k vrqoN) o Example (audwhrn))

Other Etymology Differences (hor A~Kr boD Prk) o Auˆnkarh ( u ) o Sihaaree ( i )

• • •

Case Type Determination (kwrk dI iksm dw pqw lgwxw) Useoof Case in Paˆŋjaabee (pMjwbI iv~c kwrk dI vrqoN) Use of Case in Gurbaannee (gurbwxI iv~c kwrk dI vrqoN)

Page iv v vi 1-6 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 5

7-10 7 7 7 8 9 9 11-17 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 15 16


4. 4.

Syntax (vwk boD) • •

General Structure Awareness (bxqr dI sDwrn jwxkwrI) Punctuation (ivSrwm) o Table 4.1: Punctuation Marks (ivSrwm icMn@)

5.

• Effect of Lagaaˆn (lgW dw Asr) • Effect of Lagaakhars (lgwKrW dw Asr) • Summary (incoV) Rahaa-o (rhwau)

6.

Significance (mh~qqw) Use Variations (vrqoN dy AMqr) Use in Shabads (SbdW iv`c vrqoN) o Nine Specific Examples (nON Kws audwhrnw) Gurbaannee Interpretation Methodology (gurbwxI dy Anuvwd krx dw qrIkw) • • •

• •

7.

• Fundamental Points (mUl nukqy) • Process (ivDI) Application of Five-Step Analysis Technique (pMj-kdmW vwly Cwx bIx dy qrIky dI vrqoN) •

8.

Introduction (mu~K bMd) Preparing Yourself (quhwfI AwpxI iqAwrI)

Five-Step Analysis Technique (pMj-kdmW vwlw Cwx bIx dw qrIkw)

• Application (vrqoN): Specific Examples (Kws audwhrnw) • Example 1 (audwhrn 1) • Example 2 (audwhrn 2) • Example 3 (audwhrn 3) Meanings of Selected Shabads (cuxvyN SbdW dy ArQ) • •

Technique for Interpretting Shabad (Sbd dy ArQ krn dw qrIkw) Example 1 (audwhrn 1)

• Example 2 (audwhrn 2) Appendices (AMqkw) Appendix I. Vocabulary: Commonly Used Words (Awm vrqoN vwly A~KrW dI SbdwvlI) Appendix II. Noun Phrases/Idioms (nWvokqI/khwvqW) Appendix III. Summarized Analysis of Gurbaannee Tuks (gurbwxI qukW dw sMKyp inKyVw) References (hvwly) Glossary (ArQwvlI) Abbreviations (sMiKpq rUp) Transliteration Key (AMqrn krn dI kMujI) jI)

18-31 18 19 20 25 29 31 32-39 32 32 33 33 40-42 40 40 41 42 43-63 43 43 45 52 60 64-81 64 65 74 82-116

82 86 91 116 117 118 119


1 Introduction (jwx pCwx) Importance of Understanding Gurbaannee (gurbwxI ƒ smJx dI mh~qqw) Gurbaannee is our Guroo. Throughout our lives, we continually work towards learning how to live according to our Guroo Jee’s teachings. Unless we can understand the true meanings of Gurbaannee, we cannot adopt the Sikh way of life and achieve the objective of this human life.

Difficulties in Understanding Gurbaannee (gurbwxI ƒ smJx iv~c rukwvtW) There could be a myriad of reasons for not comprehending Gurbaannee. It all depends on a person’s background, environment, interest, and capability. However, the following three barriers appear to be the primary hindrances in understanding Gurbaannee by most people. 1. Misconceptions and misinterpretations 2. Limited Knowledge of Sikhee way of life 3. Scarce availability of tools and training

Misinterpretations and Misconceptions (glq ArQ Aqy Anuvwd) Many misinterpretations and misconceptions of Gurbaannee, both intentional as well as unintentional, exist today. There is only one Truth, and it can only be known by God/Guroo Jee. Unintentional misinterpretations could be due to someone’s genuine misunderstanding of Gurbaannee. However, we should be concerned about those who intentionally misinterpret it. We are all aware of the efforts that have been made to confuse us, for personal gain or to harm Sikhism. They could be the efforts of individuals or groups of people (i.e. organization, cult, another religion, etc.). Unfortunately, such attempts were made in Guroo Jees’ times and continued. However, we are more vulnerable today. This book helps the reader to sort out such doubtful interpretations and gives validity to the Truth. Items 1 through 5 below are often the sources for both the intentional/unintentional interpretations/misconceptions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Incorrect Pad-Shayd Improper contextual word meaning Inadequate understanding of Gurbaannee grammar Lack of cultural background Improper punctuation Overall knowledge of Sikhism

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Through a combination of the above factors, even the most prominent scholars, having a thorough understanding of Sikhism, sometimes disagree in their interpretations. Item 2 is often the main source for intentional misinterpretations. Based on their personal agenda, some will argue that a word has the same definition no matter where it appears in Gurbaannee (e.g., ‘sbd’ means Naam). If we take a simple example in ‘Anaˆnd Saahib’ which we often recite, we will find variations in the meaning of ‘sbd’ as it appears in several different Paurhees. By taking a single word out of context without a complete reference to the Paurhee in its entirety, the meaning will make no sense and, thus, cannot be taken out of context singularly. Misinterpretations (glq ArQ) If you read different Tteekay, listen to different Kathaakarks, or read different translations, then you have surely been exposed to several different interpretations of Gurbannee. You may have even interpreted the same lines differently at different points in your own life. This is natural when you are still learning. I admit I have. However, a Sikh never stops learning. You can correct these unintentional misinterpretations as you acquire more knowledge and a better understanding. When we have several interpretations of the same Tuk available to us, we may become intimidated and begin to believe that Gurbaannee is too complex to understand and only scholars or Kamaa-ee vaalay can understand it. We may begin to feel that we are not smart enough to understand Gurbaannee, which can stop us from reading and contemplating on it. One may then become dependent on someone else’s understanding which could be completely wrong and not consistent with the Sikh way of life as mentioned earlier. Also, sometimes people start interpreting the same Tuk in several different ways. However, this practice is not logical. Perhaps we should ask this question. Why would Guroo Jees do that, especially when Guroo Jees were preaching daily to the ordinary common people? After only little contemplation on this thought, you will arrive at the same conclusion that I have: “Gurbaannee is for me and every other Sikh (Learner) who wants to follow his/her Guroo!” I firmly believe that Gurbaannee gives specific simple instructions (Hukam) to Sikhs. There can only be a single meaning, not multiple, as some contend. Gurbaannee is not as complex as we tend to believe. It is written in poetry and in the language of the ordinary people of the time. As we know, all languages do change with time. This is why it does require some effort on our part nowadays to understand Gurbaannee. We must learn Paˆŋjaabee first and then make a conscious effort to understand its differences from Gurbaannee. We should never stop reading Gurbaannee and contemplating on it. As anything else, with continued effort, we will find it much simpler than what it appeared to be when we first treaded on this path. Misconceptions (glq Anumwn) As we all know, there is no room for doubts, superstitions, duality or misconceptions in Sikhee. Guroo Jees made every effort to free their Sikhs from them. However, they keep 2


crawling back into our daily lives due to our ignorance of Gurbaannee and outside influences, and we should be on guard to prevent that. One of the most common misconceptions amongst today’s Sikhs is that all you need is faith (Shardaa) to practice Sikhee. This way of thinking is extremely dangerous. Today, most of the Ddayraas use such tactics and lead thousands of Sikhs astray from Sikhee. I believe that faith is the most important element of Sikhee. The problem for most of us is in determining whom we should have faith in. We often place our faith in a person instead of Guroo Jee’s message. No doubt, a true Sikh must have unwavering faith in our eternal Guroo Jee, Sree Guroo Graˆnth Saahib Jee. This is different than having blind faith in human beings because they are prone to making mistakes. In contrast, the Guroo cannot be wrong. As the saying goes, “To err is human.” Human mistakes result in misinterpretations of Gurbaannee. These misinterpretations can lead us away from Guroo Jee’s prescribed way of Sikhee. We should always be wary, no matter how much we respect someone, that their interpretations could be flawed. No one’s interpretations are worthy of blind faith. We must validate interpretations before making them part of our practical lives. Sikhee Way of Life (i~sKI jIvx vwlw rsqw) One does not have to understand the meanings of the entire Sree Guroo Graˆnth Saahib Jee to practice Sikhee. Furthermore, one does not have to understand the meaning of each and every line of Sree Gruroo Graˆnth Saahib Jee in order to have union with God. The Guroo Jees’ prescribed path is for everyone, scholars as well as illiterates. I believe that thousands of Sikhs have achieved salvation in the past and many more will do so in the future, Guroo Jee’s grace playing the major role. In order to receive Guroo Jee’s grace, one must choose the right path. God has created many different kinds of people in this world but created only two paths of living: i.e., the path of a Manmukh (do what Maˆnn desires) and the path of a Gurmukh (do what Guroo Jees prescribed). The path we embark on is our choice. There is nothing in between. Gurmukhs are completely devoid of duality. They will only do what Guroo Jee says. The path of a Gurmukh is the right path for human beings as it is prescribed for us by the Guroo Jees. That could be as simple as understanding and practicing the fundamental tenets of Sikhee or having the vast knowledge of the entire Sree Guroo Graˆnth Saahib Jee. The key point is to not question what Guroo Jee says and to have absolute devotional love for our Guroo/God. This devotional love must be truly unwavering whereby nothing can shake our lifestyle. As one reads Gurbaannee, contemplates on it, and develops a deeper understanding, one becomes firmer in his/her beliefs of Sikhee tenets. One’s love for God/Guroo increases as he/she cleanses his/her mind through continued practice of Sikhee tenets and thus becomes a “Gurmukh.” It suffices to say that no two minds are alike. Everyone’s mind is different from one another. Each mind requires different doses of cleansing to become a Gurmukh. Our daily practices must be consistent with Sikhee’s fundamental beliefs. Whenever we come across an interpretation that is conflicting with our existing beliefs, we doubt the new interpretation before making any adjustments to our way of life. We should seek further 3


clarification before we should doubt our understanding of the basic tenets. It is possible, in some rare cases, that our basic understanding of the fundamentals may have been erroneous and, thus, may need adjustment. However, we must be cautious that we should be fully convinced that the new understanding is indeed the correct one before adopting it. Tools and Training (smgRI Aqy isKlweI ) This book documents useful tools and their applications in a systematic way to interpret Gurbaannee. Significant emphasis is placed on explaining the methodology which can be repeated in a consistent manner. This is an attempt to make self-learning possible without formal training. However, further studying of the relatated references and obtaining formal training are encouraged for one to learn how to interpret Gurbaannee reasonably well. Tools (smgRI) The following basic set of useful tools is contained in this book for understanding Gurbaannee. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Gurbaannee grammar rules Five step analysis approach Process (methodology for interpretations) Vocabulary of commonly used words Commonly used phrases and idioms Related references: works of prominent Sikhs

Training (isKlweI ) To provide ease in self-learning, different chapters and appendices are devoted to the above tools and their applications. One can decide on his/her learning need and thus focus on the use of that specific tool. Numerous examples are documented in detail for practicing, adopting the concept, and becoming proficient in the use of the basic techniques necessary for interpretations. About This Book (ies ikqwb vwry) The aim of this book is to enhance our understanding of Gurbaannee so that we can practice Sikhee to the best of our abilities. Thus, the intent here is not to make ourselves experts, but rather to advance our knowledge of Gurbaannee sufficiently to protect ourselves from falling prey to misconceptions and misinterpretations. This is accomplished through the application of a systematic approach, which involves learning and applying Gurbaannee grammar rules, the Five Step analysis approach, and the process while developing our vocabulary of commonly used words as well as understanding commonly used phrases and idioms. This book is divided into eight chapters and three appendices. I have only summarized some of the key top level rules needed for my work from the several referenced grammar books. 4


This information is presented in chapters 2, 3 and 4. The remainder of this book is devoted to interpreting Gurbaannee Tuks and Shabads, the methodology for interpreting Gurbaannee is presented in chapter 6. The use of the main tool (i.e., the five-step analysis approach) is elaborated in chapter 7. Other supporting tools such as Rahaa-o, process, vocabulary of commonly used words as well as commonly used phrases and idioms are presented in the remaining chapters and appendices. The first two appendices build your background while the third appendix provides you with a systematic analysis of many additional Tuks to advance your learning/understanding. This appendix is especially helpful once you have reasonably learned the process for interpreting Gurbaannee through practical applications in chapters 7 and 8. To increase your knowledge on the use of these tools, I have included examples of numerous Tuks throughout the book. You will be able to use these examples as practice exercises to compare your own analysis of the same Tuks. To get the most benefit from this book, we should be candid with ourselves on our present knowledge of Gurbaannee and be open-minded to trying this new approach. I am not an expert of Gurbaannee or a scholar, and I am sure that mistakes have been made in my analyses of some of the Tuks. Nevertheless, by applying the approach I am presenting in this book, I can assure you that the overall resulting meanings will be consistent with the Paˆnth’s most prominent Gurbaannee experts. Approach (jugq) I have documented in this book what works for me in interpreting Gurbaannee. This is just one approach, and although there may be others, I have not found any documented in English. The fundamentals of this approach take into consideration all of the potential sources of unintentional misinterpretations and misconceptions mentioned earlier. It is specifically designed for the younger readers who are brought up and educated in North America or Europe. Their educational upbringing and cultural backgrounds are based on logic, reasoning, and rules. They know English well and are weak in Paˆŋjaabee. Therefore, I chose to write this book in English and used an approach suitable for today’s readers. This is a systematic, disciplined approach using rules which we should be able to consistently apply to any single line or an entire Shabad of Sree Guroo Graˆnth Saahib Jee to come up with its proper meanings. I will summarize the ingredients (key aspects) of this approach below before concluding this chapter. Many aspects must be considered in order to understand the meanings of any writing, including knowledge of the language, vocabulary, grammar, idioms, culture, history, style of the writers, and the overall theme. The same holds true for Gubaannee. Knowledge of Gurbaannee,Gurmukhee, and Gurbaannee grammar, which includes orthography, etymology, and syntax, are the key aspects which have a predominant effect on understanding the meanings. Therefore, the five-step approach used for analyzing the Tuks in this book is based on Gurbaannee grammar.

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The rules of Gurbaannee grammar used in this approach were originally developed by Pbhaa-ee Saahib Singh Jee. After a thorough study of Sree Guroo Graˆnth Saahib Jee, he wrote a book in Paˆŋjaabee called “Gurbaannee Viakarann.” It took him over twelve years to write this book. Most scholars accept the grammar rules he developed. The ten volumes of Sree Guroo Graˆnth Saahib’s Darpan, also written in Paˆŋjaabee by him, are based on those grammar rules. I used a summary of the same grammar rules and illustrated their detailed application in this book. I also concluded that Pbhaa-ee Saahib Singh Jee’s interpretations in the Darpan are indeed based on his “Gurbaannee Viakarann” book. Recently, Pbhaa-ee Joginder Singh Jee Talwaarhaa further substantiated those rules in his comprehensive grammar book “Gurbaannee Saral Viakarann-Bodh.” This book is also written in Paˆŋjaabee. He has included numerous Gurbaannee Tuks to clearly show how Gurbaannee grammar leads to correct interpretations. The works of these two authors gives a very comprehensive coverage of all of the aspects of Gurbaannee grammar. If someone wants to become an expert in interpreting Gurbaannee, he/she must carefully study their works. However, unless someone is a Paˆŋjaabee language expert, he/she may not be able comprehend their writings. They contain 300 pages and 810 pages, respectively. There is no doubt that the correct application of these grammar rules eliminates the potential for misinterpretation. Both of these authors’ interpretations of Gurbaannee are very consistent with each other’s works and contain complementary information. In addition, both authors are consistent throughout their own works. I highly recommend that you study their detailed works to further advance your learning. In conclusion, I must stress the importance of learning to interpret Gurbaannee ourselves. We should never let anyone fool us with his or her interpretations of the Guroo Jees’ teachings. This is what this book is all about, and it prepares us for this. ‚

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2 Gurbaannee Grammar Rules (gurbwxI ivAwkrx dy inXm) Introduction (prclx) The basics of grammar are very much the same for any language. Therefore, it is not surprising that the majority of grammar rules apply to both Gurbaannee and Paˆŋjaabee. But a few important differences do exist. Grammar (ivAwkrx ivAwkrx pirBwSw) pirBwSw is the study of how words and their component parts combine to form sentences (bolI ƒ aucwrx Aqy ilKx qy lwgU inXmW dw sMgRih) h . The three parts of grammar (ivAwkrx ivAwkrx dy iqMn Bwg) include orthography, etymology, and syntax. Grammar and orthography were discussed in depth in my first book. In this chapter, we will cover etymology. The pertinent parts of syntax are covered in chapters 3 and 4.

Etymology (A~Kr boD) Etymology is defined as the origin and historical development of words and language (SbdboD: A~KrW dI bxqr, SRyxI, Aqy Awkwr). It involves deriving meanings of words from their roots, classification, and form. In the construction of words, the use of prefixes and suffixes is common in both Paˆŋjaabee and Gurbaannee. They affect both pronunciation and meanings (briefly covered in chapter 4). Word Classification (A~KrW dIAW SryxIAW/vMf) Table 2.1 provides the various word classifications found in English, Gurbaannee, and Paˆŋjaabee with some examples. Table 2. 1: Words Classification (A~KrW dIAW SryxIAW qy vMf) Word Classification Examples kbIr, kursI, pwxI, GoVw, klws, KUb Nouns (nWv) nWv) mYN, qUM, ieh, Awp, jo, keI Pronouns (pVnWv) pVnWv) clxw, hsxw, roxw, Kwxw, pIxw Verbs (ikRAw) kwlw kuqw (nWv jW pVnwv nwl vriqAW jWdw hY) Adjectives (ivSySx) QoVw KWdw hY; svyry jwgdw hY Adverbs (ikR ikRAw ivSySx) vwh vwh; hly Xwrw; hw hw; ry: hwie hwie Interjection (ivsimk) ivsimk) qy, Aqy, Ar, jau, jykr, qW, ik, pr Conjunction (Xo Xojk) Prepositions (sM sMbMDk) ny, ƒ, nwl, rwhIN, duAwrw, leI, vwsqy, qoN, pwsoN, etc. mukqw, W, w, i, I, o, O, y, Y, h, ih, hu, ho, n, Case Signs (kwrk kwrk icMn@) Number (vcn) vcn) AOrq, bMdw, A~K, auNglI, b~cw, AOrqW, bMdy, A~KW, auNglIAW, Gender (ilM ilMg) bMdw, muMfw, h~Q, kVw, AOrq, kuVI, A~K, auNglI

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Nouns, pronouns, and verbs are the basic components of a sentence. Each one of these is made up of several categories, which can be found in my first book. An adverb is used to express the quality of a verb such as its time, place, manner, and degree. An interjection has no grammatical function, but expresses emotion, such as an exclamation. A conjunction connects words or phrases. The largest difference between Gurbaannee and Paˆŋjaabee is in the use of “case.” Gurbaannee uses case signs quite extensively, while Paˆŋjaabee does not use case signs at all. Instead, it uses prepositional words. The form a noun, a pronoun, or an adjective takes to show syntactic relationship is called ‘case’ (prepositional words become unnecessary): e.g., nwnik (means nwnk ny). Specific examples are provided in Table 2.2. The first column lists the word classifications and the corresponding column provides an example of that classification in bolded words. Since these examples relate to the specific use of Paˆŋjaabee words, an English translation was avoided to prevent confusion to the learner. Table 2.2: Use of Classification of Words (vMf vwly A~KrW dI vrqoN) Word Classification Examples nWv (pMj iksmW) Ajmyl isMG pVnWv (Cy iksmW) mYN, Ajmyl isMG ikRAw (iqMn iksmW) mYN, Ajmyl isMG, pVHWdw hW[ hW ivSySx (cwr iksmW) mYN, mUrK Ajmyl isMG, pVHWdw hW[ ikRAw ivSySx (ikRAw dw gux) mYN, mUrK Ajmyl isMG, Gt pVHWdw hW[ ivsimk (Ascrjqw) mYN, mUrK Ajmyl isMG, Gt pVHWdw hW! Xojk (jo vwkW ƒ joV)y mYN, mUrK Ajmyl isMG, pVHWdw Gt Aqy CutI izAwdw dyNdw hW! sMbMDk (nWv jW pVnWv ƒ ikRAw mYN, mUrK Ajmyl isMG, klws ƒ pVHWdw Gt Aqy CutI izAwdw nwl joVn vwlw) dyNdw hW! vcn (do qrHW dy) mYN, mUrK Ajmyl isMG, klws ƒ pVHWdw Gt Aqy CutI izAwdw - iek vcn dyNdw hW! - bhu vcn mYN, mUrK Ajmyl isMG, klws dy b~icAW ƒ pVHWdw Gt Aqy CutI izAwdw dyNdw hW! ilMg (do qrHW dy) mYN, mUrK Ajmyl isMG, klws dy muMifAW kuVIAW ƒ pVHWdw Gt - puilMg Aqy CutI izAwdw dyNdw hW! - iesqRI ilMg mYN, mUrK Ajmyl isMG, klws dy Cy muMifAW qy cwr kuVIAW IAW ƒ pVHWdw Gt Aqy CutI izAwdw dyNdw hW! Structure of Words (A~KrW dI bxqr) The structure of a word is extremely important to understand its meaning. The table below shows that a basic word (mUl A~Kr) with an addition of a vowel sign or additional letter(s) changes its classification. As an example, let us look at the second word (soc) in the first

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column. By adding a suffix “vwn” it became an adjective, and with a “xw” at the end it became a verb. Table 2.3: Nouns, Adjectives, and Verbs (nWv, ivSySx, qy ikRAw) Noun (nWv) Adjective (ivSySx) Verb (ikRAw) aujwV (Desolate Place) aujwVU (wastrel) aujwVnw (To devastate) soc (Thought) socvwn (Thoughtful) socxw (To Think) hwsw (Laughter) hsmuK (Jovial) h~sxw (To Laugh) kMm (Work) kwmw* (Hardworking) kmwauxw (To Work) gIq (Song/Lyric) gIqmeI (Lyrical) gwauxw (To Sing) TMF (Chill) TMFw (Chilly) TMiFAwauxw (To Chill) fMg (Sting) fMgmwr (Viperous) fMgxw (To Sting/Bite) qp (Heat) qpq (Thermal) qpwxw ( To Heat) du~K (Pain/Hurt) du~Kdwiek (Painful) du~Kxw (To Pain/Hurt) inMdw (Slander) inMdk (Slanderer) inMdxw (To Slander) ipAwr (Love) ipAwrw (Lovely) ipAwrnw (To Love) rMg (Dye/Color) rMgIlw (Colorful) rMgxw (To Dye/Color) lU (Scorching Wind) lUhTw (Scorched) lUhxw (To Scorch/Burn) ivAwh (Marriage) ivAWhdV (Groom/Bride) ivAwhuxw (To Marry) Note (it~pxI): (it~pxI) * Sometimes these words could also be nouns, however, the appropriate meaning for the category of the column is provided (e.g., ‘kwmw’ is also a noun meaning ‘worker’) Prefixes and Suffixes (Agyqr qy qy pCyqr) The letters that are placed in the beginning of basic words to affect their meaning are called prefixes. The letters that are placed at the end of basic words to affect their meaning are called suffixes. The ‘Use’ column provides examples of Gurbaannee words. Table 2.4: Prefixes (Agyqr) Prefix Effect (Agyqr) (pRBwv) Opposing/Comp.* au Opposing/Comp. A Aau/Av Opposing/Der.** Complimentary Av Opposing Aw Opposing Ax Opposing/Der. An Opposing/Der. Ap Complimentary s

Use (vrqoN) auQip/aulwhI AnwQ,Asnyh Aaugux,Avgux Avgwhy AwjonI,AwBwgw AxfITw,Axhodw AnhonI, AnrUp Apmwnu,Apvwd spuq,sPl,sBwgw

Prefix (Agyqr) ku du/duh dur inr n nw in in/inh ib

Effect (pRBwv) Derogatory Derogatory Derogatory Opposing Opposing Opposing/Der. Opposing/Der. Opposing/Der. Derogatory

Use (vrqoN) kukrm duikRq,duhikRq durBwg,durmiq inrBau nihn,nicMd nwpwk, nwsbUr inkc,inbg ingurw,inhPl ibml,ibqwlw

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Table 2.4: Prefixes (Agyqr) Continued Prefix Effect Use Prefix (Agyqr) (pRBwv) (vrqoN) (Agyqr) Complimentary su sujsu,suikRq,sucjI ib Complimentary sM sMjog,sMgIq by Opposing/Der. k krUip,kbuiD vy Opposing/Der. kw kwbolu,kwpurKu iv Notes (it~pxIAW): (it~pxIAW) 1. * Complimentary is abbreviated as ‘Comp.’ 2. **Derogatory is a abbreviated as ‘Der.’

Effect (pRBwv) Complimentary Opposing/Der. Opposing/Der. Opposing

Use (vrqoN) ibnws,ibmohnh bysmJ vyqgw,vydInw ivjog,ivArQ

Table 2.5: Suffixes (pCyqr) Suffix Effect Use Suffix Effect Use (pCyqr) (Meaning) (vrqoN) (pCyqr) (Meaning) (vrqoN) Attributive*** Attributive isAwnpW aulw hMsulw,AMDulw npW Attributive Attributive bwlpx,fwhpx aUAw kcUAw,csUAw,blUAw px Attributive (Youth) AweI imqRweI,FITweI pO qruxwpO (Husband hood) Attributive srbmY,kruxwmY Awnw* Ksmwnw mY Attributive Attributive AnMdmie Awl dieAwl,ikRpwl mie Attributive Attributive idRstmwn Awvw scwvw, kUVwvw mwn State Attributive koTrw,jmrw,dIvrw AwvI drvyswvI rw Attributive Attributive jUAwrI,iBKwrI eI** sMqoKI,jqI,jogI rI Complimentary Derogatory bUJl eIn kulIn l (Doer, Giver) Attributive rMgulw,pUrblw hwr krnhwr,dynhwr lw Attributive Attributive klwlI,iGAwlI k rCk,rwhk,pwilk lI Attributive Attributive idAwlU tw KUhtw,cmrtw lU Derogatory Attributive srvr,qrvr,gYvr eIx mlIx vr Attributive Attributive sqvwdI xw icrwxw,rsIxw vwdI (Partner) Prepositional (of ) lokwxI,jmwxI xI vwl sWJIvwl Attributive Attributive soBwvMq,guxvMq q imTq,hwxq vMq Complimentary Attributive kulvMqI qw sIqlqw,inmRqw vMqI Derogatory Derogatory CutV qx kOVqx,pIlqx V Attributive Attributive isKVw,dIvVw,muKVw dweI suKdweI,duKdweI Vw Attributive Attributive gMTVI,dwqVI,mqVI np isAwnp,ieAwnp VI Notes (it~pxIAW): (it~pxIAW) 1. *Wherever ‘Aw’ part of a suffix appears inside a word, it is represented by a ‘w’ only 2. **Wherever ‘eI’ is a suffix, it is usually represented by a ‘ I ’ only 3. *** Attribute could be complementary or a derogatory ‚

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3 Case (kwrk) Case (kwrk kwrk) is defined as the syntactic relationship of a noun or a pronoun in a sentence with a verb or other parts of a sentence. Similarly, prepositions (sMbMDk) syntactically tie a noun or a pronoun to a verb.

Use of Case (kwrk kwrk dI vrqoN) Gurbaannee and Paˆŋjaabee both use case but in different ways. In Gurbaannee, a case word is usually formed by taking a root (basic) word and changing the last letter of a word, eliminating the need for prepositions. The addition of one of these letters h, ih, hu, ho, n, or in at the end of a word (i.e., mukqw, W, w, i, I, o, O, y, Y, h, ih, hu, ho, n, in) is referred to as a case sign. Case signs are extensively used throughout Sree Guroo Graˆnth Saahib Jee. Most Tuks in Gurbaannee contain more than one case type. Paˆŋjaabee Words (pMjwbI A~Kr), on the other hand, do not utilize case signs at all, and instead require prepositional words. Examples of prepositional words in English include ‘for,’ ’with,’ and ’to.’ Examples in Paˆŋjaabee include ny, nUµ, nwl, rwhIN, duAwrw, leI, vwsqy, qoN, pwsoN, koloN, dw, dy, dY, dI, iv~c, AMdr, pr, auqy, ky, kY, kU, kUM, mih, etc

Example: hukm Gurbaannee use of Case Sign: Gurbaannee has twelve forms of this word - hukm, hukim, hukmI, hukmu, hukmy, hukmY, hukmo, hukmW, hukmhu, hukmn, hukmwau, hukmwvY

Paˆŋjaabee Words (pMjwbI A~Kr): Paˆŋjaabee has only two forms of this word - hukm, hukmW To further illustrate the use of case signs, the following example will compare the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent meaning using prepositions to demonstrate the use of case signs in Gurbaannee. I have purposely bolded only the noun case words to keep it simple and provide ease in recognizing the difference. Gurbaannee (gurbwxI) : siqguir

nwnik

Bgiq

krI

iek

Paˆˆŋjaabee Equivalent using Prepositions: siqgurU

nwnk ny nwnk ny

BgqI kIqI BgqI kIqI

min

iek-mn ho ky iekiek-mn ho ky

qnu mnu Dnu

goibMd

dIAau ]

goibMd ƒ Arpn kIqw qn mn Aqy Dn goibMd ƒ Arpn kr idqw

Paˆˆŋjaabee Equivalent Rewritten Using Today’s Paˆˆŋjaabee Grammar Rules & Respect

siqgurU nwnk dyv jI ny iekiek-mn ho ky BgqI kIqI, qy Apxw qn, mn, Aqy Dn goibMd jI ƒ Arpn kr idqw[

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From the above example, understanding the use of case may seem to be a complex subject. However, if we take a systematic approach, it is not that difficult. To learn the correct interpretations of the case words used in Gurbaannee, it is important to first recognize such words and their forms.

Reasons for Etymology Difference (A~Kr boD Prk dy kwrx) Gurbaannee contains several languages, and thus the words may have the same meaning but different spellings. For example: Prakritee- Ended singular nouns with o or E: Twkuro, swgro, sbdo, hukmo, etc. Apbhraˆnsh- Ended singular nouns with u or au: pu`qu, pu`qau, hukmu, etc. Paˆŋjaabee- Ended singular nouns with a consonant letter- Twkur, swgr, sbd, puq, hukm, etc. Case Signs (kwrk icMn@) – Use with the last letter of Gurbaannee words (nouns and pronouns) often eliminates the need for prepositional words – Use with the last letter of Gurbaannee words (adjectives)- treated identical to their associated nouns or pronouns The table below depicts some of the forms for the Gurbaannee words. Understanding the use of this table will enable you to quickly recognize the case word forms, signs, and types. The first column lists eight types of case words. The second and third columns show the case signs for those singular and plural words, respectively. The fourth and fifth columns include examples of Gurbaannee words using those case signs, which make them either singular or plural, respectively. The bolded words in these two columns are examples. The sixth column shows two things. First, it lists the preposition that goes with the type of the case in that row. Secondly, underneath each preposition, it indicates in parentheses the meaning of the bolded example word of the same row. Please note that the meanings in Paˆŋjaabee include prepositional words.

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Table 3.1: Case Types, Signs, and Words in Gurbaannee (gurbwxI iv~c kwrk dIAW iksmW, icMn@ Aqy A~Kr) Case (kwrk) Type (iksm)

Singular Sign

Plural Sign

Nominative krqw

u, i, , Y ih

Objective krm

u, Y, ih

Instrumental krx

i, I, ih

Dative sMpRdwn

mukqw, w, Y, ih i, O, ih, hu

mukqw, w, W, I, h, n, mukqw, w, h, ih mukqw, I, h, hu mukqw, I, n

Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

mukqw, y, ih i, y, Y,ih mukqw, w

I , hu mukqw, w, I, h, n, in mukqw, I, h, hu, in o, hu

Singular Examples

kbIru, nwnik, nwnik kbIrY, gurih kwgdu, hukmY, Ksmih swbuin, sbdI, sbdI mUslih gur, hMsulw, siqgurY, smUih EAMkwir, sbdO, Bvih, muKhu gopwl, bwbIhy, mnih Gir, loBy, mnY, jlih nwnk, nwnkw

Plural Examples

pµifq, cMdw, SwhW, ivrlI, Bgqh, logn gux, isDw, guxh, imrgwih nYn, sRvxI, crnh, nYnhu crx, ipqrI, crnn nYnI, nYnhu sMqn, swDw, swDw ipqrI, sMqh, sMqn, dwsin crx, nYnI, nYnh, nYnhu, krnin sMq jno , Bgqhu

Prepositions (sMbMDk) Paˆŋjaabee (Gurbaannee words)

ny (nwnk nwnk ny ) ƒ (gu guxw ƒ) ƒ nwl, rwhIN, duAwrw (sbd sbd nwl ) leI, vwsqy (gu gurU leI ) qoN, pwsoN, koloN (nY nYYnW qoN ) dw, dy, dI (swDW swDW dw ) iv`c, AMdr, pr, auqy (mn mn iv` iv`c ) Eie, ry, rI, etc. (ry ry sMq jno N )

Notes (it~pxIAW): (it~pxIAW) 1. Nouns are either singular or plural, therefore, the case words result in sixteen types of declensions (i.e., what nouns look like with case signs) to cover both situations 2. A declension also takes into account the gender in order to apply the correct case sign from the two columns in the table above 3. The declensions for adjectives are similar to the associated noun or pronoun 4. The case signs used with nouns, pronouns, and adjectives for declensions include Lagaaˆˆn (lgW) as well as ‘h’ and ‘n’ letters of the Gurmukhee script. Understanding the use of these declensions is of utmost importance for understanding the meaning of Gurbaannee 5. The information in the above table is mostly from reference 13

Other Etymology Differences (hor A~Kr boD vwly Prk) The last letter of Gurbaannee words use ‘ u’ or ‘ i ’ quite frequently in various situations. Sometimes they are used for constructing a case word and other times their use may merely be an indicator of a gender or the number. We must understand the context in which they are used to clarify their pronunciation and meaning. 1. Auˆˆnkarh ( u ) – Use with the last letter of Gurbaannee words (interjection, proper noun, demonstrative pronouns, and verbs) is extensive • often indicative of a word’s gender or number

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2. Sihaaree ( i ) – Use with the last letter of Gurbaannee words (interjection, proper noun, demonstrative pronouns, and verbs) is also extensive • often indicative of a word’s gender or number I hope it is apparent by now that Gurbaannee words use ‘ u’ or ‘ i ’ with the last letter of words for grammatical reasons and affect meaning. The table below further substantiates that for you with some specific examples. The first column lists the words, and the corresponding second column shows their grammatical significance in the same row. Table 3.2: Grammatical use of ‘ u ’ or ‘ i ’ in Gurbaannee words (gurbwxI ivc ‘ u’ qy ‘ i ’ dI ivAwkrx~k vrqoN) A`Kr (Word) rwhu, isAwhu, swhu cwhu, dwhu, gwhu, Bwhu nyhu, nyh, nyih jpu, jp, jip vwhu iehu, ieh; ieih dyhu, dyh, dyih pwvhu, jwvhu, suxhu, cwhhu khhu, bhhu, rhhu, shhu, lhhu hih kwblhu, muKhu, mnhu, jIAhu rwhhu, isAwhhu, swhhu ivchu, ivthu sMqhu, jnhu

ivAwkrx/ nukqw (Grammar/Hint) Noun Singular Noun Singular Noun Singular, Plural, Case Noun Singular, Plural, Case Interjection Pronouns Singular (Gender)*; Plural Verb Singular/Plural, Noun/Verb, Verb (Gender) Verb Plural Verb Plural Verb Plural Case (kwbl qoN) Case (rwh qoN) Case (AMdroN) Vocative Case (Plural)

* iehu (h with ‘ u’ ) is a masculine pronoun and ieh (h without ‘ u’ ) is a feminine pronoun Notes (it~pxIAW): (it~pxIAW) The words in the table above are examples only. The specific category of a word can only be determined from the context it is used in. As seen from the above table ‘ u’ and ‘ i ’ have several different applications, such as: 1. Used ‘ u’ with the last letter of words to indicate a singular noun or a pronoun 2. Used i with the last letter of words to indicate a plural noun 3. In some cases ‘ u ’ or i with the last letter of words is used to indicate gender 4. In other cases ‘ u’ or i is used to form case words 5. And in some other cases ‘hu’ is used to form a case word Bottom-Line: The Lagaaˆn with the last letter of words in Gurbaannee has specific grammatical significance

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Case Types Determination (kwrk dI iksm dw pqw lgwxw) How do we determine the type of case? Once you identify the verb in a phrase, asking the question in this column with that verb will give us the answer to the type of case. Then the correct preposition for that type will provide the proper meaning of that phrase. Table 3.3: Case Types Determination (kwrk dI iksm dw pqw lgwxw) Case (kwrk) Type (iksm)

Singular Sign

Nominative krqw

u, i, , Y ih

Objective krm

u, Y, ih

Instrumental krx

i, I, ih

Dative sMpRdwn

mukqw, w, Y, ih i, O, ih, hu

Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD

mukqw, y, ih

Locative AiDkrx

i, y, Y,ih

Vocative sMboDn

mukqw, w

Plural Sign

mukqw, w, I, h, n, mukqw, w, ih mukqw, I, hu mukqw, I,

W, h, h, n

I , hu mukqw, w, I, h, n, in mukqw, I, h, hu, in o, hu

Prepositions (sMbMDk)

Singular Examples

Plural Examples

kbIru, nwnik, nwnik kbIrY, gurih kwgdu, hukmY, Ksmih swbuin, sbdI, sbdI mUslih gur, hMsulw, siqgurY, smUih EAMkwir, sbdO, Bvih, muKhu gopwl, bwbIhy, mnih Gir, loBy, mnY, jlih nwnk, nwnkw

pµifq, cMdw, SwhW, ivrlI, Bgqh, logn gux, isDw, guxh, imrgwih nYn, sRvxI, crnh, nYnhu crx, ipqrI, crnn nYnI, nYnhu sMqn, swDw, swDw ipqrI, sMqh, sMqn, dwsin crx, nYnI, nYnh, nYnhu, krnin sMq jno , Bgqhu

Paˆŋjaabee (Gurbaannee words)

ny (nwnk nwnk ny ) ƒ (gu guxw ƒ) ƒ nwl, rwhIN, duAwrw (sbd sbd nwl ) leI, vwsqy (gu gurU leI ) qoN, pwsoN, koloN (nY nYYnW qoN ) dw, dy, dI (swDW swDW dw ) iv`c, AMdr, pr, auqy (mn mn ivc ) Eie, ry, rI, etc. (ry ry sMq jno N )

Question With Verb (ikRAw nwl svwl) Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Receiving the Effect kI, iks ƒ? ? Asr How? Means iks qrW? vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik`Qy ? QW Who? Addressing ! iks ƒ? sMboDn!

Use of Case in Paˆˆŋjaabee (pMjwbI iv~c kwrk dI vrqoN) It is best to provide you with some examples of case types for both Paˆŋjaabee and Gurbaannee. I will start with Paˆŋjaabee and then present the Gurbaannee examples. To keep it simple and easy to follow, start with the use of the nominative case type phrase first. Then keep on adding additional words to the same phrase to cover all eight types of case. In the table below, there are three columns. The first column lists the types of case, the second column provides a corresponding example in simple Paˆŋjaabee. The last column provides the questions for determining its type. Let’s discuss example 1 “surjIq isMG pVHdw hY”. Then you should be able to use the same technique for the remaining case types. First, identify the category of each word. Once you identify that ‘pVHdw hY’ (‘is reading’) is the verb, then scan the questions in the right hand column. The appropriate question is ‘kOx pVHdw hY’ (‘who is reading?’). Following that row to the left, the case type is determined (i.e., nominative). Therefore, the doer in this case is surjIq isMG (Surjeet Singh).

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Table 3.4: Use of Case in Paˆˆŋjaabee (pMjwbI iv~c kwrk dI vrqoN) Case (kwrk) Type (iksm) Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

Examples (audwhrnw) 1. surjIq isMG Noun (nWv) Nominative (krqw kwrk) 2. surjIq isMG gurbwxI ƒ Objective (krm kwrk) 3. AiDAwpk ny kMpUtr rwhIN jmwq ƒ Instrumental (krx krqw) 4. BweI qwrU isMG ny isKI Kwqr ShIdI Dative (sMpRdwn) 5. pMjW ipAwirAW qoN AMimRq ƒ Ablative (Apwdwn) 6. ieh myrI ikRpwn Possessive (sMbMD) 7. gurdvwry iv`c cu~p krky Locative (AiDkrx) 8. auh gurisKo gurbwxI ƒ Vocative (sMboDn)

Question With Verb ikRAw nwl svwl pVHdw hY[ Verb (ikRAw)

Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny?

pVHdw hY[ Verb (ikRAw) pVHwieAw[ Verb (ikRAw) idqI[ Verb (ikRAw) C~k lYxw[ Verb (ikRAw) hY[ Verb (ikRAw) bYTo[ Verb (ikRAw) piVHAw kro[ Verb (ikRAw)

What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? Asr How? Means iks qrW? vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik`Qy ? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!

As you can see from the examples above, we use case in Paˆŋjaabee all the time, although we may not be aware of it.

Use of Case in Gurbaannee (gurbwxI iv~c kwrk dI vrqoN) Now let us look at the use of case in Gurbaannee. Earlier we have studied the case word structure of Gurbaannee words. Keeping that in mind now let’s learn how to recognize the case type of words as used in phrases or sentences in Gurbaannee. I am going to use the same Gurbannee Tuk we used earlier for the case type determination. The example “siqguir nwnik Bgiq krI iek min qnu mnu Dnu goibMd dIAau]” will cover three different types of case. Repeat the same procedure which you used above for the case example in Paˆŋjaabee. First, categorize each word of the example Tuk. Notice that there are two phrases, each with a verb. After analyzing each phrase independently, combine the two phrases for the meaning of the whole Tuk in Paˆŋjaabee.

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Table 3.5: Use of Case in Gurbaannee (gurbwxI iv~c kwrk dI vrqoN) Case (kwrk) Type (iksm) Nominative krqw

Objective krm

Instrumental krx

Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn Meanings A~rQ

Example (audwhrn) siqguir nwnik Bgiq krI iek min qnu mnu Dnu goibMd dIAau] siqguir nwnik Bgiq krI adjective (ivSySn) noun (nWv) noun (nWv) verb (ikRAw) Nominative (krqw) siqgurU nwnk ny BgqI kIqI qnu mnu Dnu goibMd dIAau noun (nWv) noun (nWv) verb (ikRAw) Objective (krm) qn mn (Aqy) Dn goibMd ƒ dy idqw siqguir nwnik Bgiq krI iek min verb (ikRAw) adjective (ivSySn) noun (nWv ) I (krx) siqgurU nwnk ny BgqI kIqI iekiek-mn ho ky k

Question With Verb (ikRAw nwl svwl) Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny?

What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? ƒ Asr

How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw

For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik`Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn! siqgurU nwnk (dyv jI) ny BgqI kIqI iekibMd iek-mn ho ky k, qn mn (Aqy) Dn goibM ƒ dy idqw[

Take the liberty to add conjunctions according to the basic grammar rules and add words of respect without changing the meaning. Once you identify that ‘krI’ (‘did’) is the verb, then scan the questions in the right hand column. The appropriate question is ‘iks ny’ (‘who did’). Following that row to the left, the type is determined (i.e., nominative). Therefore, the doer in this case is siqgurU nwnk (Satguroo Naanak). Next, use the prepositional word ‘ny’ for the nominative case type in lieu of the case sign ‘ i ’ with the last letter of the word ‘nwnik’. Now you should be able to use this same process for the second half of the Tuk to see how I came up with the other two case types in the same sentence.

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4 Syntax (vwk boD) General Structure Awareness (bxqr dI sDwrn jwxkwrI) Syntax is the set of rules which governs the structure of a sentence and is essential in understanding its meaning. All languages have specific syntax rules. In Gurbaannee, since it is written in poetry form, the syntax becomes even more important when deriving meanings. To gain the basic understanding of these rules, it is necessary to understand the definition of key Gurbaannee words, and to explain the rules of punctuation and effects of Lagaaˆn Maatraaˆn as well as Lagaakhars. The material in this chapter is presented both in English as well as in Paˆŋjaabee where deemed necessary.

Table 4.1: Definitions of Key Words (mUl A~KrW dI pirBwSw) Tuk*: Padaa:

A Sentence of a stanza A Stanza of a Hymn

quk:

kivqw dw ie~k vwk

pdw:

kivqw, dw ie~k crx (bMd) ie~k, do jW izAwdw crx

Paday: Dupaday, Tipaday, Chaupaday, Paˆnchpadey, Ashttpadee Rahaa-o:

One or More than One Stanza in a Hymn

pdy: dupdy, iqpdy, cOpdy, pMcpdy, AStpdI

Centeral Idea (Shabad/Baannee)

rhwau:

Slok:

A short (2 to 4 sentence Hymn (Shabad/Baannee) A Stanza (Ballad/Ode; Verse)

slok:

A form of Poem/Stanza A Sixlet (A group of Six Shabads) A Hymn

CMq:

bMd (swkw/gIq; kivqw) kivqw dI iek iksm

Ckw:

CyAW SbdW dw iek~T

Sbd:

pUjw dw gIq

Guroo Jees’ Utterance of Teachings

gurbwxI:

gurU jIAW dy aupdyS

Paurhee: Chhaˆnt: Chhakaa: Shabad: Gurbaannee:

pauVI:

kyNdrI Bwv (Sbd/bwxI) prsMg (Sbd/bwxI)

Note (it~pxI): (it~pxI) * indicates that one or more lines can form a sentence (Tuk) kivqw dI iek, do, jW v~D lweInW dw vwk (quk huMdw hY)

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Relationship of Key Words (mUl A~KrW dw sMbMD) The chart below depicts the layout of Baannees in Sree Guroo Graˆnth Saahib Jee. The key words used in Gurbaannee for the orthography are specifically used in this chart. They are presented in a heirarchical order. In each box, the total number of Shabads and Vaaraaˆn in Sree Guroo Graˆnth Saahib is included.

Gurbaannee (gurbwxI) Baannee (bwxI)

Shabad (sbd) 5867 Slok (slok) And Paurhi (pauVI) Or Rahaa-o (rhwau) Or

Chhaˆnt (CMq) (4)

Paurhee-aaˆn (pauVIAW) Padaa (pdw) Ik Tukaa (iek qukw) (1) Du Tukay (do quk)y (2) Tin Tukay (iMqMn quk)y (3) Chaar Tukay (cwr quk)y (4)

(3) (2) (1)

Both (don)o

Vaar (vwr) 22 Paday (pdy)

Slok (slok) Dupaday (dupdy ) (2) Tipaday (iqpdy ) Dupada (3) Chaupaday (cOpdy ) Tipda (4) Paˆnchpaday (pMcpdy ) Caupada (5) Ashttpadee (AstpdI ) 305 (6-34)

Notes (it~pxIAW) 1. Total Number of Shabads in Guroo Graˆnth Saahib Jee = 5,867 (all Guroo Jees’ and Others’ Shabads and Sloks included) swry 5,867 Sbd (swry gurUAW qy hornW dy SbdW Aqy slokW dw joV) 2. Shabads up to 4 Stanzas long have specific names (i.e. Dupaday, Tipaday, Chaupaday) pMjW pidAW qk SbdW dy Kws nwm huMdy hn[ijvyN: pMc pdy 4. Shabadswith more than 5 Paday are called ‘Ashttpadee’ pMjW qoN v~D pidAW vwly Sbd ƒ ‘AStpdI’ ikhw igAw hY 5. A Group of 6 Chhaˆnts/Shabads is a ‘Chha`kaa’ CyAW CMqw/SbdW dy smUh ƒ ‘C~kw’ ikhw igAw hY 6. A Shabad is refered to as Ik Tukaa etc., and an Ashttpadee as Ik Tukee etc. Sbd ƒ iek qukw Awid ikhw jWdw hY, Aqy AStpdI ƒ iek qukI Awid ikhw jWdw hY

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Punctuation (ivSrwm) ivSrwm) Punctuation marks are vital in discerning the intent of spoken or written language. It also indicates intonations and pauses when reading. Modern day Paˆŋjaabee uses all of the same punctuation marks used in English today. However, Gurbaannee and early Paˆŋjaabee used only a few of these marks. Today’s Paˆŋjaabee uses all 14 marks below. boldy, pVHdy,Aqy ilKdy smy Bwv spSt krn leI keI QWeI QoVw-bhuqw Tihrnw pYNdw hY[ aus Atk jW Tihrn ƒ dsx leI vKry-vKry icMnH vrqy jWdy hn[ AjokI pMjwbI ivc hyTly 14 icMnH vrqy jWdy hn[

Table 4.2: List of Punctuation Marks (ivSrwm icMnH) ] : [ :? ‘’ ! “” , : ; () {}

– The first three signs ‘]’ or ‘[’ and ‘?’ are always placed at the end of a sentence pihly iqMn ‘]’ jW ‘[’ Aqy ‘?’ icMn@ sdw vwk dy AMq ivc AwauNdy hn[ – The fourth sign ‘!’ is also sometimes used at the end of a sentence cOQw ivsmk icMn@ ‘!’ BI kdy kdy vwk dy AMq ivc lgwieAw jWdw hY[ – All other signs are placed within a sentence bwkI dy swry icMnH vwk dy ivckwr lgwey jWdy hn[ – ‘[’ or‘]’ and ‘?’ are indicative of a longer pause ‘[’ jW ‘]’ Aqy ‘?’ sB qoN izAwdw Tihrn dw boD krwauNdy hn[ – ‘;’ or ‘:’ are second in the heirarchy of pause ‘;’ jW ‘:’ dw Tihrw dUjy drjy qy hY[ - ‘,’ indicates the shortest pause ‘,’ sB qoN QoVw Tihrn dw boD krwauNdw hY[ -

Only ‘[’ or ‘]’ signs were used in Paˆŋjaabee writings originally pihlW pMjwbI ilKq ivc isrP ‘[’ jW ‘]’ dI hI vrqoN kIqI jWdI sI – Today’s Paˆŋjaabee uses all of the English signs, except ‘[’ is used for ‘.’

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AjokI pMjwbI ilKq dy swry icMn@, Cu~t fMfI qoN (‘.’ dy QW ‘[’), AMgryzI vwly hn[  The pause rules are also the same as English Tihrw vwly inXm BI AMgryzI vwly hI hn[ - Gurbaannee only uses ‘]’ sign gurbwxI dI ilKq ivc kyvl ‘]’ dI hI vrqoN kIqI hoeI hY[

Gurbaannee/Original Paˆˆŋjaabee (gurbwxI/pihlI pMjwbI) In early Paˆŋjaabee and Gurbaannee, the only punctuations used were ‘[’ or ‘]’. However, in order to articulate intonations and pauses in speech, additional punctuation marks were introduced. The correct use of these pauses (‘[’ ‘]’ ‘,’ ‘;’ ‘!’ and ‘?’) during reading and speaking is extremely important. We all know how to use ‘[’ and ‘]’ correctly, therefore, the material on the use of the remaining four signs is presented next. gurbwxI Aqy pihlI pMjwbI dI ilKq ivc qW kyvl ‘[’ jW ‘]’ dI hI vrqoN kIqI geI sI[ pr pVHx Aqy bolx ivc, cMgI qrW iKAwl pRgt krn leI, swry qrW dy ivSrwmW dI loV qW pYNdI hI sI[ pVHx Aqy bolx leI ienHW ivSrwmW (‘[’ ‘]’ ‘,’ ‘;’ ‘!’ Aqy ‘?’) dI shI vrqoN bhuq zrUrI hY[ hW, ‘[’Aqy ‘]’ donW dI TIk vrqoN AwpW sB ƒ krnI AwauNdI hI hY[ies leI bwkI dy cwrW dI vrqoN dy kuJ inXmW dI sUJ Agy idqI geI hY[ Comma (kwmw) ‘,’ The comma sign is indicative of the shortest pause and is used within a sentence. (kwmw icnH sB qoN QoVy ivSrwm dw boD krwauNdw hY Aqy vwk dy ivckwr vriqAw jWdw hY[) It is sometimes extremely difficult to place it correctly in Gurbaannee (see Appendix III for difficult Tuks). Uses of Comma: 1. Between nouns or pronouns (nWvW jW srbnWvW dy ivckwr) Gurbaannee Example (gurbwxI audwhrn) rwqI, ruqI, iQqI, vwr ] pvx, pwxI, AgnI, pwqwl ]

(pg 5)

2. Between three or more listed words or clauses/phrases which appear next to each other (ieko qrHW dy iqMn jW iqMn qoN vDIk A~Kr jW pdW ivc jo nwlo nwl hox[) Gurbaannee Examples (gurbwxI audwhrnw) Nouns (nWv): qnu, mnu, Dnu, sBu sauip gur kau, hukim mµinAY pweIAY] (pg 917) Adjectives (ivSySx): swkq,inMdk, dust, iKn mwih ibdwirAnu] (pg 517) Adverbs (ikRAw-ivSySx): eIq, aUq, jq, kq, qq qumhI, imlY nwnk, sMq syvw]

(pg 680)

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3. For Vocative (sMboDk leI) Gurbaannee Example (gurbwxI audwhrn) gurw, iek dyih buJweI ] (pg 2) But within a sentence, there is a comma before and after the addressing word (pr vwk ivcly sMboDk qoN pihlW Aqy ipCy BI kwmw huMdw hY[) Gurbaannee Example (gurbwxI audwhrn) Awip aupwey, nwnkw, Awpy rKY vyk] (pg 1237) 4. Similar or compound words appearing together (ieko ijhy pdW dy joVy jW smwsI pd nwlo nwl Aw rhy hox) Paˆŋjaabee Example (pMjwbI audwhrn) ivAwh-SwdIAW, mrny-prny, rsm-rvwj swirAW dy lgBg ieko ijhy hn[ 5. For combining two or more clauses (do jW bhuiqAW aupvwkW ƒ joVn leI) Paˆŋjaabee Example (pMjwbI audwhrn) auh pihlW GroN gurdvwry igAw, Pyr ngr kIrqn qy clw igAw[ 6. Between equal locative words (smwn AiDkrx SbdW ivc) Paˆŋjaabee Example (pMjwbI audwhrn) bwbw PrId jI dw ipqw, PkIr muh~XudIn qbIb dy km dw jwxU sI[ 7. When a phrase appears within a sentence, then place a comma before and after a phrase (jd iek vwk dy ivckwr dUjw vwk Awey, qW dUjy vwk qoN pihlW Aqy ipCy BI kwmw huMdw hY) Paˆŋjaabee Example (pMjwbI audwhrn) vIr jI, gu~sw nw krnw, quhwfI g~l TIk nhIN jwpdI[ 8. When two words are joined together with a conjunction or with ‘nw-nw’, then a comma is not used (jd do pd ‘Aqy’ nwl juVy hox jW ‘jW’ nwl jW ‘nw-nw’ nwl, qd kwmw nhIN vriqAw jWdw) Paˆŋjaabee Example (pMjwbI audwhrn) 1. BYroN Aqy dIpk rwg hn[ 2. gurbwxI pVHo jW ilKoH, ivhly nw bYTo[ 3. A~j nw TMf hY nw grmI hY[

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Semi-colon (ibM ibMdI vwlw kwmw) ‘;’ Its pause is similar to a comma, but its use differs as stated below (ies dw Tihrw kwmw vwlw hI hY[ies dw Prk hytW disAw igAw hY[) Uses of semi-colon (ibMdI vwly kwmy dI vrqoN): 1. Independent clauses according to grammar, but have similarity in interpretations (ijhVy aupvwk ivAwkrx dy Anuswr suqMqr hox, pr ArQ krky myl Kwdy hox) Gurbaannee Example (gurbwxI audwhrn) 1. sµig shweI su AwvY n cIiq ] jo bYrweI qw isau pRIiq ] (pg 267) sµig shweI su AwvY n cIiq; jo bYrweI qw isau pRIiq[(ivSrwm icMnH) 2. Amul Awvih Amul lY jwih ] (pg 5) Amul Awvih; Amul lY jwih[(ivSrwm icMnH) 2. Collectively one or more words have a meaning, but is a phrase (iek A~Kr jW iek qoN vD A~KrW dw smUh, ijs dw ArQ hovy, Sbd khWaudw hY) Gurbaannee Example (gurbwxI audwhrn) suixAY Driq Dvl Awkws ] (pg 2) suixAY, Driq; Dvl; Awkws[(ivSrwm icMnH) Exclamation Point (ivsmI) ‘!’ Within a sentence, its pause is similar to a comma; but if it is at the end, then its pause is similar to a period (ies dw Tihrw ivckwr ivc kwmw vwlw Aqy AKIr ivc fMfI vwlw huMdw hY[) Uses of exclamation point (ivsmI dI vrqoN): 1. After a vocative word (sMboDn rUp dy ip`Cy) rI bweI byFI dynu n jweI ] (pg 657) rI bweI! byFI dynu n jweI[(ivSrwm icMnH) 2. After a vocative when indicative of pain (ivsmk Sbd dy ip~Cy pIVw-boDk) pwpI krm kmwvdy, krdy hwey hwie] (pg 1425) pwpI krm kmwvdy, krdy hwey! hwie! (ivSrwm icMnH)

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3. Clauses/phrases indicative of the mind’s vice, sorrow, happiness, wonder, fear, etc. (mn dy ivkwr, Sok, pRsµnqw, Ascrj, fr Awid ƒ pRgt krn vwly vwk nwl Examples of words (A~KrW dIAW audwhrxnw): hY! hY!, hw! hw!, vwhu vwhu!, vwh vw!, swbwsy!, qobw! qobw! Gurbaannee Examples (gurbwxI audwhrnW) (1) vwhu vwhu ikAw KUbu gwvqw hY ] hir kw nwmu, myrY min Bwvqw hY ] (pg 478) vwhu! vwhu! ikAw KUbu gwvqw hY ; hir kw nwmu, myrY min Bwvqw hY[(ivSrwm icMnH) (2) kbIr sUqw ikAw krih jwgu roie BY duK ] (pg 1371) kbIr sUqw ikAw krih! jwgu roie BY duK[(ivSrwm icMnH) (3) hw hw pRB rwiK lyhu ] hm qy ikCU n hoie myry sÍwmI, kir ikrpw Apunw nwmu dyhu ] (pg 675) hw! hw! pRB rwiK lyhu[hm qy ikCU n hoie myry sÍwmI, kir ikrpw Apunw nwmu dyhu[ (ivSrwm icMnH) Question Mark (pR pRSn) ‘?’ Within a sentence, its pause is similar to a comma; but if at the end, then its pause is similar to a period (ies dw Tihrw, ivckwr ivc kwmw vwlw pr AKIr ivc fMfI vwlw huMdw hY[) Uses of question mark (pRSn): 1. It comes after those phrases where some thing is being asked (aunHW vWkW dy AMq ivh AwauNdw hY, ijnHW rWhIN kuJ puiCAw jWdw hY[) Gurbaannee Examples (gurbwxI audwhrnW) (1)

kvn mUl qy kvn idRstwnI ] (pg 266) kvn mUl qy kvn idRstwnI? (ivSrwm icMnH) (2) kvxu su AKru kvx guxu, kvxu su mxIAw mMqu ] (pg 1371) kvxu su AKru, kvx guxu, kvxu su mxIAw mMqu? (ivSrwm icMnH) 2. When a question is under the influence of a clause or a sentence, then a question mark is not used (jd pRSn-vwk aupvwk ADIn huMdw hY, qd aus dy AMq ivc fMfIAW dI hI vrqoN kIqI hY[) Gurbaannee Examples (gurbwxI audwhrnW) (1)

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kbIr sUqw ikAw krih, jwgu roie BY duK ] jw kw bwsw gor mih, so ikau sovY suK ] (pg 1371)


kbIr sUqw ikAw krih, jwgu roie BY duK[ jw kw bwsw gor mih, so ikau sovY suK[ (ivSrwm icMnH) 3. When a question is in the form of a command, then a question mark is not used (jd hukm dy rUp ivc pRSn hoey, qd BI fMfIAW hI vrqIAW jWdIAW hn[) Gurbaannee Examples (gurbwxI audwhrnW) (1)

iBjau isjau kMblI Alh vrsau myhu ] (pg 1379) iBjau isjau kMblI, Alh vrsau myhu [(ivSrwm icMnH)

Effect of Lagaaˆˆn (lgW dw pRBwv) The effect of each Lag (hryk lg dw pRBwv) is covered seperately. Numerous examples from Gurbaannee are presented below. The specific example word with a lag (lg) is bolded throughout this section. • •

Vowel Signs (sÍr icMn@): mukqw, w , i , I , y , Y , u , U , o , O Lagaakhar Signs (lgwKr icMn@): ibMdI ( ˆ ), A~Dk ( ` ), itpI ( M )

Lagaaˆn effect both pronunciation and meanings. The effect of lagaan on pronunciation was covered in the previous book. (lgW mwqRW dw pRBwv dono aucwrx Aqy ArQW auqy huMdw hY[aucwrx qy pRBwv pihlI ikqwb iv~c kr cuky hW[)

Effect of Lagaaˆˆn on Meaning (lgW lgW dw ArQW qy pRBwv) –

Pay attention to all Lagaaˆn (Just as for Uchaarann) swrIAW hI lgW qy iDAwn dyvo (aucwrx dI qrW hI) – Pay specific attention to these Three Lagaaˆn (their use is different than Paˆŋjaabee) ienHW iqMnW lgW ƒ Kws krky iDAwn ivc rKo (ienHW dI vrqoN ivc pMjwbI nwloN Prk hY) • Auˆnkarh (AONkV) • Sihaaree (ishwrI) • Dulaavaaˆn (dulwvW)

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Auˆˆnkarh (AONkV) 1. Auˆnkarh is indicative of a singular masculine noun AONkV iek vcn puilMg nWv dI inSwnI hY[ Gurbaannee Examples (gurbwxI dIAW audwhrnw) a. nwnku nIcu khY ivcwru ] (pg 4) nwnk nIc, khY ivcwr[(ivSrwm icMnH) nwnk ivcwrw (qW) ieh (auprlI q`uC ijhI) ivcwr pyS krdw hY[ (ArQ) b. suin mIqw nwnku ibnvMqw ] (pg 271) suin, mIqw! nwnk ibnvMqw[(ivSrwm icMnH) hy imq®! sux, nwnk bynqI krdw hY[ (ArQ) 2. Auˆnkarh is removed when a noun is used as vocative case jd koeI nWv sMboDk kwrk hovy qW aus dw AONkV lih jWdw hY[ Gurbaannee Example (gurbwxI dI audwhrn) nwnk BgqW sdw ivgwsu] (pg 3) nwnk! BgqW sdw ivgws[ (ivSrwm icMn)H hy nwnk! BgqW dy mn iv`c sdw KyVw rihMdw hY[ (ArQ) 3. Auˆnkarh is also removed when a preposition is used with a noun jd puilMg nWv nwl koeI sMbMDk hovy qW aus dw BI AONkV l~Q jWdw hY[ Gurbaannee Example (gurbwxI dI audwhrn) nwnk kI bynMqI eyh] (pg 684) nwnk kI bynMqI eyh[(ivSrwm icMnH) hy BweI ! nwnk dI (BI prmwqmw dy dr qy sdw) iehI Ardws hY[ (ArQ) Sihaaree (ishwrI) Sihaaree has been extensively used with the last letter of words in Gurbaannee for various grammatical reasons (gurbwxI ivc keI ivAwkrixk kwrnW leI ishwrI ‘i’ dI vrqoN AMqly A~KrW nwl bhuq kIqI geI hY[) Gurbaannee Examples (gurbwxI audwhrnw) 26


1. Mostly with prepositional words (bhuqI sMbMDkI pdW dy nwl) Examples (audwhrnw): ivic, AMqir, bwhir, sµig, g, hyiT 2. To categorize words as feminine (SbdW ƒ iesqRI ilMg drswaux leI) Examples (audwhrnw): kwmix, prdysin, bYrin, mwlin, bYrwgin, rYix 3. As a case sign with nouns to reflect prepositional interpretations (nWvW nwl kwrk icMnH vwsqy sMbMDkI ArQ bnwaux leI[ Examples (audwhrnw): min, iciq, swbuin, dir, doijik ijik 4. With specific adjective numbers (insicq insicq ihMsy (sMiKAk) ivSySxw nwl) Examples (audwhrnw): duie, qIin, cwir, sqir, ATsiT, kroiV, koit 5. With uncertain plural pronoun numbers (Ainsicq Ainsicq ihMsy bhu vcn pVnWvW nwl) Examples (audwhrnw): ieik, eyik, ihik, siB hoir, Avir 6. With definitive plural pronouns or adjectives (insicq insicq bhu vcn pVnWvW jW ivSySnw nwl) Examples (audwhrnw): ieih, Eie, Eih, eyih 7.

With singular pronouns (iek vcn pVnWvW nwl) Examples (audwhrnw): ijin, auin, iqin, iein

8.

Singular present tense verbs instead of dulaavaan, ‘ie’ is used (iek vcn vrqmwn kwl ikRAwvwcI SbdW iv`c dulWvW dy QW qy ‘ie’) Examples (audwhrnw): bsie, die, leyie

9.

With adjectives for places or adverbs(sQwn sQwn vwcI jW kwl vwcI ikRAww-ivSySn) Examples (audwhrnw): AMqir, bwhir, huix, kid

10. With subordinate clauses (ADIn ADIn vwkMs (ies qrW krn nwl ieh huMdw hY) nwl) Example (audwhrn): min jIqY, jgu jIqu] 11. With primary words (mU mUilk) Examples (audwhrnw): Bgiq, hir, nwir, rwis, Buim, Driq, kIriq, iriD, isiD, jwiq, joiq, join, muin 12. To create shorter sound from a longer sound i.e., ‘i’ for ‘I’ lMmI Avwz ƒ CotI krn leI (ibhwrI QW ishwrI) Examples (audwhrnw): cyir, pMik, bwvil, godwvir

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Dulaavaaˆˆn (dulwvW) Dulaavaaˆn have also been used frequently with the last letter of words in Gurbaannee for various grammatical reasons gurbwxI iv~c keI ivAwkrixk kwrnW leI dulwvW dI vrqoN AMqly A~KrW nwl BI kwPI kIqI geI hY[ Gurbaannee Examples (gurbwxI audwhrnw) 1. With nouns and adjectives for prepositional meanings (nWvW Aqy ivSySnw ivcoN sMbMDkI pd vwly ArQ leI) Examples (audwhrnw): pyeIAVY IAVY, swhurVY, kwrY, korY, DMnY, dUjY 2. For nouns with ‘ Y ’ to reflect singular prepositional interpretation (nWvW nWvW nwl lW vwly sMbMDkI pd iek vcn ArQ leI) Examples (audwhrnw): swD kY, sMq kY 3. For singular nouns with prepositional words (sM sMbMDkI pd vwly iek vcn vwly nWv nwl) nwl Examples (audwhrnw): GrY AMdir, nwvY nwil, mUrKY nwil 4. If noun has a ‘i ’and an adjective, then with its adjective (jy ivSySx vwly nWv nwl ishwrI hovy qW ausdy ivSySx nwl) nwl Examples (audwhrnw): mUriK AMDY, guir pUrY, rwih BIVY 5. If noun has ‘ Y ’and an adjective, then with its adjective (jy nWv nwl dulWvW hox qW ausdy ivSySx nwl) nwl Example (audwhrn): kcY BWfY 6. If noun has an ‘ u ’and an adjective, then with its adjective or verb (jy nWv nwl AONkV hovy qW ausdy ivSySx jW ikRAw nwl) nwl Examples (audwhrn): nwnku khY 7. If a subordinate clause has a noun with ‘ i ’ or ‘ Y ’, then with its verb (ADIn vwkMs iv~c jy nWv ishwrI jW dulWvW vwlw hovy qW ikRAw nwl) nwl Example (audwhrn): min jIqY, jgu jIqu] 8. With verbs for purposes of case (i.e., by doing this, this happens) (ikR ikRAw iv`c kwrixk ArQW leI- ieh krn nwl AYh huMdw hY) Example (audwhrn): suixAY, dUK pwp kw nws]

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9. In first person plural sentences with verbs (jd vwk au~qm purK (bhu vcn) vwlw hovy qW ikRAw nwl nwl) Examples (audwhrn): gwvIAY, suxIAY, min rKIAY Bwau]

Effect of Lagaakhar (lgwKrW dw pRBwv) Effect of Suprasegmental Signs ( ˆ , ` , M ) on Meanings lgwKr ( N , ~ , M ) dw ArQW qy pRBwv –

Pay attention to all suprasegmental signs (just as for Uchaarann) swrIAW hI lgwKr qy iDAwn dyvo (aucwrx dI qrW hI) – They have a profound effect on meanings (their use is different than Paˆŋjaabee) ienHW dw ArQW auqy bhuq hI pRBwv huMdw hY[ (ienHW dI vrqoN iv`c pMjwbI nWloN Prk hY) • Biˆndee (ibMdI) ‘ ˆ ’ • A`tdhak (A~Dk) ‘ ` ’ • Ttippee (it~pI) ‘ M ’ Biˆˆndee and A``tdhak (ibMdI qy A~Dk): ‘ ˆ ’ and ‘ ` ’ We have previously learned that these two have an effect on the pronunciation of words. Here we can see from the following examples from Gurbaannee that the presence of Biˆndee and A`tdhak changes the interpretations. I have bolded the word which makes the most difference. Gurbaannee Examples (gurbwxI audwhrnw) The example words are bolded below for your convenience quhwfI AwswnI vwsqy audwhrn vwly A~KrW ƒ hyTW gUVw kr idqw igAw hY[ 1. mqu jwxsih glI pwieAw ] (pg 24) Pronunciation: “glI” “glI” is ‘Galleeˆn’ (ieQy “glI” dw aucwrx “g~lIN” hY[) Both symbols are used in pronunciation (boln ivc donW icMnW dI vrqoN ) Word Meanings (A~Kr ArQ): Merely with words (inrIAW “g`lW” nwl hI) Interpretation (ArQ): Don’t think that merely with words, union with God is Achieved. (ieh n smJIN ik inrIAW “g`lW” nwl hI (r`b) iml pYNdw hY[) 2. myro suMdru khhu imlY ikqu glI ] (pg 527) Pronunciation: “gLI” is ‘Ghalee’ (ieQy “glI” dw aucwrx “gLI”hY “gLI” [)

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None of the symbols are used in pronunciation (boln iv`c donW icMnW dI vrqo nhIN hoeI) Word Meanings (A~Kr ArQ): Street (rsqw) Interpretation (ArQ): Tell me by which street can I meet my beloved (God)? (myrw sohxw (pRIqm) iks “gLI” (rsqy (rsqy) ivc imlygw ? 3.

glI ijn@w jpmwlIAw loty hiQ inbg ] (pg 476) Pronunciation: “gLIN ” is ‘Ghaleeˆn’ (ieQy “glI” dw aucwrx “gLIN ” hY[) Here two Biˆndee symbols (pYr Aqy aupr vwlIAW) are used in pronunciation (boln iv`c do (pYr Aqy au~pr vwlI) ibMdIAW dI vrqo hoeI hY) Word Meaning (A~Kr ArQ): Necks (grdnW) Interpretation (ArQ): They have rosaries around their necks, and they carry glittering jugs in their hands. (ijnHW dy “gLW” iv~c mwlW qy h`Q iv`c ilSkdy loty hn[)

The effect of both symbols above is crystal clear from these examples; the same word has different meanings depending on the context it is used in. ienHW dohW dw ArQW qy pRBwv sp~St hY, ie~k hI A~Kr dy v~K v~K ArQ bx gey hn[

Ttippee (it~pI it~pI ): ‘ M ’ To aid you in your learning process about this subject, I encourage you to go through the following exercise. This will enable you understand the use of Ttippee better. Exercise (AiBAws) Pronounce and derive the meaning of the bolded words below. hyTly “moty” A~Kr dw aucwrx Aqy ArQ kro loBI “An An” An kau syvdy piV vydw krY pukwr ]

(pg 30)

Now let us interpret this above Tuk where “An An” An is without a Ttippee and another example where same word is used with a Ttippee“AM AMn”. Examples (audwhrnW) 1. loBI “An” kau syvdy piV vydw krY pukwr ] (pg 30) Word Meanings (ArQ ArQ hn): hn) Someone else (iksy hor ƒ) Interpretation (ArQ): The greedy people (although) after studying holy scriptures

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‘Vaydaas’ proclaim by beating drums of their sermons, (but inwardly forgetting God) they worship someone else (i.e., Maa-i-aa) (loB-gRsy jIv (auN\ qW) vydW ƒ pVH ky (auhnW dy aupdyS dw) FMForw dyNdy hn, (pr AMdroN pRBU ƒ ivswr ky) hor dI (Bwv, mwieAw dI) syvw krdy hn[) 2. “AM AMn” paux iQru n kueI ] (pg 144) Word Meanings (ArQ ArQ hn): hn) Food material (Anwj) Interpretation (ArQ): Nothing is eternal- not food, not air nwh pwxI, n “Anwj”, nwh hvw—koeI BI iQr rihx vwlw nhIN [ It is clear from the above examples that a Ttippee changed the meaning of the same root word significantly. (auprlIAW audwhrnw qoN sp~St hY ik it~pI krky ausy A~Kr dy ArQ bdl gey hn[)

Summary (incoV) We have now covered the basics of grammar that are essential for understanding Gurbaannee. You have been exposed to orthography, etymology, and syntax of Gurbaannee grammar. Although the primary focus of this chapter has been on syntax, other parts of the grammar are also included to a limited extent. An attempt has been made in the first four chapters of this book along with Appendices I and II to build your background on key aspects of Gurbaannee and prepare you for independently interpreting Gurbaannee. The remainder of the book is dedicated to achieving that objective. ‚

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5 Rahaa-o (rhwau) Significance of ]rhwau] (Pause) So far, I have placed a lot of emphasis on proper pronunciation and the Gurbaannee grammar. Both have profound effect on the interpretation of Gurbaannee. Another factor that affects the interpretation is the “rhwau” (Rahaa-o). One must understand the significance of “rhwau” (Pause) and its use in the text. The “rhwau” provides the central idea of a Shabad and rest of the Shabad elaborates that idea. One must pause and reflect on the wordings of the “rhwayu” Tukaaˆn and grasp the essence of them. The “Key” to comprehending the meaning of a Shabad, therefore, is to understand the meaning of “rhwau.” However, its use has several variations, which may cause difficulties in deciphering the meanings. The experts do not explain these variations. I have attempted here in this section to explain them briefly. Nine specific examples have been annotated below.

Use Variations (vrqoN dy AMqr) A. Single “rhwau” as “]1]rhwau]” (i.e., with ]1]) See Examples # 1, and 4 B. Several “rhwau” (i.e., with and without ]1]) See Examples # 2 C. Single “rhwau” as “]rhwau]” (i.e., without ]1]) See Examples # 3, and 4 D. Single “rhwau” as “]1]rhwau]” (i.e., with ]1] as first sentence on one page, and then as a second sentence on another page in the same Shabad) See Examples # 5 E. Single “rhwau” as “] rhwau]” (i.e., without ]1]) in suKmnI swihb See Examples # 6 F. Single “rhwau” as “]1] rhwau]” (i.e., with ]1]) at the end of a pauVI See Examples # 7 G. Single “rhwau” as “]1]rhwau]” (i.e., with ]1]) in the middle of a vwr See Examples # 8 H. Single “rhwau” and “] rhwau dUjw]” (i.e., without ]1])* See Examples # 9

Note (it~pxI): (it~pxI) 1. * Several other places they also appear with or without ]1].

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Nine Specific Examples (nON Kws audwhrnw) Example #1 ( rhwau appears in isrI rwg for the first time as a second sentence with number (AM AMk) ]1] preceding it) <> siqgur pRswid ] rwgu isrIrwgu mhlw pihlw 1 Gru 1 ] moqI q mMdr aUsrih rqnI q hoih jVwau ] ksqUir kuMgU Agir cMdin lIip AwvY cwau ] mqu dyiK BUlw vIsrY qyrw iciq n AwvY nwau ]1] hir ibnu jIau jil bil jwau ] mY Awpxw guru pUiC dyiKAw Avru nwhI Qwau ]1] rhwau ] DrqI q hIry lwl jVqI pliGlwl jVwau ] mohxI muiK mxI sohY kry rµig pswau ] mqu dy dyiK BUlw vIsrY qyrw iciq n AwvY nwau ]2] isDu hovw isiD lweI iriD AwKw Awau ] gupqu prgtu hoie bYsw loku rwKY Bwau ] mqu dyiK BUlw vIsrY qyrw iciq n AwvY nwau ]3] sulqwnu hovw myil lskr qKiq rwKw pwau ] hukmu hwslu krI bYTw nwnkw sB vwau ] mqu dyiK BUlw vIsrY vIsrY qyrw iciq n AwvY nwau ]4]1] (pg 14) Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) The “rhwau” is directly tied to the last phrase (quk) of the first sentence (pdw) “mqu dyK BUlw vIsrY qyrw icq n AwvY nwau.” It explains what happens if under the influence of Maa-i-aa (mammon), that you forget Lord’s Name. All other sentences end with the same phrase from the first sentence. Hence, the same explanation of the “rhwau” applies to all of the sentences. One could conclude that “rhwau” is providing the essence of the whole shabad and AMk ]1] before “rhwa” links it to the first sentence. However, it is worth pointing out that none of the experts have specifically addressed the significance of AMk ]1] preceding “rhwau.” As you will see in the examples below sometimes “rhwau” appears without AMk ]1], therefore, significance must be determined. The Paˆnth needs to research this.

Example #2 ( rhwau appears after the 1st , 2nd, 3rd, and 4th sentences with slight variations and the AMk ]1] precedes it) isrIrwgu mhlw 1 ] siB rs imTy mµinAY suixAY swloxy ] Kt qursI muiK bolxw mwrx nwd kIey ] CqIh AMimRq Bwau eyku jw kau ndir kryie ]1] bwbw horu Kwxw KusI KuAwru] ijqu KwDY qnu pIVIAY mn mih clih ivkwr ]1] rhwau ] rqw pYnxu mnu rqw supydI squ dwnu ] nIlI isAwhI kdw krxI pihrxu pYr iDAwnu ] kmrbMdu sMqoK kw Dnu jobnu qyrw nwmu ]2] bwbw horu pYnxu KusI KuAwru ] ijqu pYDY qnu pIVIAY mn mih clih ivkwr ]1] rhwau ] GoVy pwKr suieny swKiq bUJxu qyrI vwt ] qrks qIr kmwx sWg qygbMd gux Dwqu ] vwjw nyjw piq isau prgtu krmu qyrw myrI jwiq ]3] bwbw horu cVxw KusI KuAwru ] ijqu ciVAY qnu pIVIAY mn mih clih ivkwr ]1] rhwau ] Gr mMdr KusI nwm kI ndir qyrI prvwru ] hukmu soeI quDu BwvsI horu AwKxu bhuqu Apwru ] nwnk scw pwiqswhu pUiC n

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kry bIcwru ]4] bwbw horu sauxw KusI KuAwru ] ijqu suqY qnu pIVIAY mn mih clih clih ivkwr ]1] rhwau ]4]7] (pg 16) Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) Although “rhwau” appears four times, the essence of the “rhwau” wording is the same in all four variations. The essence is “Not to do things which create discomfort for the body and affect the mind adversely.” A slight wording change in “rhwau” was necessary to show its specific link to each sentence immediately preceding it. mwJ mhlw 5 caupdy Gru 1 ] myrw mnu locY gur drsn qweI ] iblp kry cwiqRk kI inAweI ] iqRKw n auqrY sWiq n AwvY ibnu drsn sMq ipAwry jIau ]1] hau GolI jIau Goil GumweI gur drsn sMq ipAwry jIau ]1] rhwau ] qyrw muKu suhwvw jIau shj Duin bwxI ] icru hoAw dyKy swirMgpwxI ] DMnu su dysu jhw qUM visAw myry sjx mIq murwry jIau ]2] ] hau GolI hau Goil GumweI gur sjx mIq murwry jIau ]1] rhwau ] iek GVI n imlqy qw kiljugu hoqw ] huix kid imlIAY ipRA quDu BgvMqw ] moih rYix n ivhwvY nId n AwvY ibnu dyKy gur drbwry jIau ]3] hau GolI jIau Goil GumweI iqsu scy gur drbwry jIau ]1] rhwau ] Bwgu hoAw guir sMqu imlwieAw ] pRBu AibnwsI Gr mih pwieAw ] syv krI plu csw n ivCuVw jn nwnk dws qumwry jIau ]4] hau GolI jIau Goil GumweI jn nwnk dws qumwry jIau ] rhwau ]1]8] (pg 96)

Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) Again examine each “rhwau” and the sentence preceding it, one will reach the same conclusions as reached in the example above.

DnwsrI mhlw 1 Gru 1 caupdy

<> siq nwmu krqw purKu inrBau inrvYru Akwl mUriq AjUnI sYBM gur pRswid ]

jIau frqu hY Awpxw kY isau krI pukwr ] dUK ivswrxu syivAw sdw sdw dwqwru ]1] swihbu myrw nIq nvw nvw sdw sdw dwqwru ]1] rhwau ] Anidnu swihbu syvIAY Aµiq Cfwey soie ] suix suix myrI kwmxI pwir auqwrw hoie ]2] ] dieAwl qyrY nwim qrw ] sd kurbwxY jwau ]1] rhwau ] srbM swcw eyku hY dUjw nwhI koie ] qw kI syvw so kry jw kau ndir kryie ]3] quDu bwJu ipAwry kyv rhw ] sw vifAweI dyih ijqu nwim qyry lwig rhW ] dUjw nwhI koie ijsu AwgY ipAwry jwie khw ]1] rhwau ] syvI swihbu Awpxw Avru n jwcMau koie ] nwnku qw kw dwsu hY ibMd ibMd cuK cuK hoie ]4] swihb qyry nwm ivthu ibMd ibMd cuK cuK hoie ]1] rhwau ]4]1] (pg 660)

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Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) The slight variations in the wordings of “rhwau” in all four Shabads above show the consistency of approach used by Guroo Jees. The essence of the Shabad is maintained in all four “rhwau.” In all four cases, the “rhwau” provided an explanation to the first sentence. All of the variations in wordings are necessary for maintaining a tie to the first sentence while linking each “rhwau” to each of the sentence preceding it.

Example #3 (rhwau rhwau is the second sentence without the AMk ]1] preceding it) soriT mhlw 1 Gru 1 ] mnu hwlI ikrswxI krxI srmu pwxI qnu Kyqu ] nwmu bIju sMqoKu suhwgw rKu grIbI vysu ] Bwau krm kir jMmsI sy Gr BwgT dyKu ]1] bwbw mwieAw swiQ n hoie ] iein mwieAw jgu moihAw ivrlw bUJY koie ] rhwau ] hwxu htu kir Awrjw scu nwmu kir vQu ] suriq soc kir BWfswl iqsu ivic iqs no rKu ] vxjwirAw isau vxju kir lY lwhw mn hsu ]2] suix swsq saudwgrI squ GoVy lY clu ] Krcu bMnu cMigAweIAw mqu mn jwxih klu ] inrMkwr kY dyis jwih qw suiK lhih mhlu ]3] lwie icqu kir cwkrI mµin nwmu kir kMmu ] bMnu bdIAw kir DwvxI qw ko AwKY DMnu ] nwnk vyKY ndir kir cVY cvgx vMnu ]4]2] (pg 595) Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) Careful study of this Shabad reveals that the wording of “rhwau” equally addresses all four sentences and there is no specific tie to the first sentence. Therefore, there appears to be no need for AMk ]1] preceding “rhwau.”

Example #4 (Two Shabads containing rhwau for comparison:: One with and One without AMk ]1] preceding rhwau) soriT

<> siqgur pRswid ]

bhu prpMc kir pr Dnu ilAwvY ] suq dwrw pih Awin lutwvY ]1] mn myry BUly kptu n kIjY ] Aµiq inbyrw qyry jIA pih lIjY ]1] rhwau ] iCnu iCnu qnu CIjY jrw jnwvY ] qb qyrI Ek koeI pwnIE n pwvY ]2] khqu kbIru koeI nhI qyrw ] ihrdY rwmu kI n jpih svyrw ]3]9] (pg 656) Analysis (Cwx bIx) bIx): A warning for doing bad deeds is given to the mind in the “rhwau” of this Shabad. For whom (i.e., immediate family) the bad deeds are done is only mentioned in the first sentence which provides the direct tie with the “rhwau.” It seems, that is the reason AMk ]1] appears with “rhwau.” 35


sMqhu mn pvnY suKu binAw ] ikCu jogu prwpiq ginAw ] rhwau ] guir idKlweI morI ] ijqu imrg pVq hY corI ] mUMid lIey drvwjy ] bwjIAly Anhd bwjy ]1] kuMB kmlu jil BirAw ] jlu myitAw aUBw kirAw ] khu kbIr jn jwinAw ] jau jwinAw qau mnu mwinAw ]2]10] (pg 656) Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) It is worth pointing out that the above two Shabads are consecutive Shabads. The first Shabad used AMk ]1] with “rhwau” and the second Shabad did not. However, both are Kabeer Jee’s Shabads. See the discussion above for the first Shabad. The central idea in the second Shabad applies to both sentences independently without specifically tying it specifically to either sentence. It seems, therefore, the use AMk ]1] was not deemed appropriate.

Example #5 (Same Shabad is at two different places in Sree Guroo Graˆˆnth Saahib Jee. At one place, rhwau is the first sentence, and the other place rhwau is the second sentence. But, in both the AMk ]1] precedes it) gauVI mhlw 5 ] AauD GtY idnsu rYnwry ] mn gur imil kwj svwry ]1] rhwau ] krau bynµqI sunhu myry mIqw sMq thl kI bylw ] eIhw Kwit clhu hir lwhw AwgY bsnu suhylw ]1] iehu sMswru ibkwru shsy mih qirE bRhm igAwnI ] ijsih jgwie pIAwey hir rsu AkQ kQw iqin jwnI ]2] jw kau Awey soeI ivhwJhu hir gur qy mnih bsyrw ] inj Gir mhlu pwvhu suK shjy bhuir n hoiego Pyrw ]3] AMqrjwmI purK ibDwqy srDw mn kI pUry ] nwnku dwsu iehI suKu mwgY mo kau kir sMqn kI DUry ]4]3]124] (pg 205) rwgu gauVI pUrbI mhlw 5 ] krau bynµqI suxhu myry mIqw sMq thl kI bylw ] eIhw Kwit clhu hir lwhw AwgY bsnu suhylw ]1] AauD GtY idnsu rYxwry ] mn gur imil kwj svwry ]1] rhwau ] iehu sMswru ibkwru sMsy mih qirE bRhm igAwnI ] ijsih jgwie pIAwvY iehu rsu AkQ kQw iqin jwnI ]2] jw kau Awey soeI ibhwJhu hir gur qy mnih bsyrw ] inj Gir mhlu pwvhu suK shjy bhuir n hoiego Pyrw ]3] AMqrjwmI purK ibDwqy srDw mn kI pUry ] nwnk dwsu iehY suKu mwgY mo kau kir sMqn kI DUry ]4]5] (pg 13) Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) There is no doubt that in both cases the “rhwau” is tied to the first sentence. It does not appear to matter whether “rhwau” should come before or after the 1st sentence. In other words, it does not require one to know the meaning of the first sentence in order to do the meaning of “rhwau.”

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Example #6 (rhwau rhwau appears in suKmnI swihb only in the first AstpdI) AstpdI gauVI suKmnI mÚ 5 ] sloku ] <> siqgur pRswid ] Awid gurey nmh ] jugwid gurey nmh ] siqgurey nmh ] sRI gurdyvey nmh ]1] AstpdI ] ismrau ismir ismir suKu pwvau ] kil klys qn mwih imtwvau ] ismrau jwsu ibsuMBr eykY ] nwmu jpq Agnq AnykY ] byd purwn isMimRiq suDwK´r ] kIny rwm nwm iek AwK´r ] iknkw eyku ijsu jIA bswvY ] qw kI mihmw gnI n AwvY ] kWKI eykY drs quhwro ] nwnk aun sµig moih auDwro ]1] suKmnI suK AMimRq pRB nwmu ] Bgq jnw kY min ibsRwm ] rhwau ] pRB kY ismrin griB n bsY ] pRB kY ismrin dUKu jmu nsY ] pRB kY ismrin kwlu prhrY ] pRB kY ismrin dusmnu trY ] pRB ismrq kCu ibGnu n lwgY ] pRB kY ismrin Anidnu jwgY ] pRB kY ismrin Bau n ibAwpY ] pRB kY ismrin duKu n sMqwpY ] pRB kw ismrnu swD kY sµig ] srb inDwn nwnk hir rµig ]2] pRB kY ismrin iriD isiD nau iniD ] pRB kY ismrin igAwnu iDAwnu qqu buiD ] pRB kY ismrin jp qp pUjw ] pRB kY ismrin ibnsY dUjw ] pRB kY ismrin qIrQ iesnwnI ] pRB kY ismrin drgh mwnI ] pRB kY ismrin hoie su Blw ] pRB kY ismrin suPl Plw ] sy ismrih ijn Awip ismrwey ] nwnk qw kY lwgau pwey ]3] pRB kw ismrnu sB qy aUcw ] pRB kY ismrin auDry mUcw ] pRB kY ismrin iqRsnw buJY ] pRB kY ismrin sBu ikCu suJY ] pRB kY ismrin nwhI jm qRwsw ] pRB kY ismrin pUrn Awsw ] pRB kY ismrin mn kI mlu jwie ] AMimRq nwmu ird mwih smwie ] pRB jI bsih swD kI rsnw ] nwnk jn kw dwsin dsnw ]4] pRB kau ismrih sy DnvMqy ] pRB kau ismrih sy piqvMqy ] pRB kau ismrih sy jn prvwn ] pRB kau ismrih sy purK pRDwn ] pRB kau ismrih is bymuhqwjy ] pRB kau ismrih is srb ky rwjy ] pRB kau ismrih sy suKvwsI ] pRB kau ismrih sdw AibnwsI ] ismrn qy lwgy ijn Awip dieAwlw ] nwnk jn kI mMgY rvwlw ]5] pRB kau ismrih sy praupkwrI ] pRB kau ismrih iqn sd bilhwrI ] pRB kau ismrih sy muK suhwvy ] pRB kau ismrih iqn sUiK ibhwvY ] pRB kau ismrih iqn Awqmu jIqw ] pRB kau ismrih iqn inrml rIqw ] pRB kau ismrih iqn And Gnyry ] pRB kau ismrih bsih hir nyry ] sMq ik®pw qy Anidnu jwig ] nwnk ismrnu pUrY Bwig ]6] pRB kY ismrin kwrj pUry ] pRB kY ismrin kbhu n JUry ] pRB kY ismrin hir gun bwnI ] pRB kY ismrin shij smwnI ] pRB kY ismrin inhcl Awsnu ] pRB kY ismrin kml ibgwsnu ] pRB kY ismrin Anhd Junkwr ] suKu pRB ismrn kw AMqu n pwr ] ismrih sy jn ijn kau pRB mieAw ] nwnk iqn jn srnI pieAw ]7] hir ismrnu kir Bgq pRgtwey ] hir ismrin lig byd aupwey ] hir ismrin Bey isD jqI dwqy ] hir ismrin nIc chu kuMt jwqy ] hir ismrin DwrI sB Drnw ] ismir ismir hir kwrn krnw ] hir ismrin kIE sgl Akwrw ] hir ismrn mih Awip inrMkwrw ] kir ikrpw ijsu Awip buJwieAw ] nwnk gurmuiK hir ismrnu iqin pwieAw ]8]1] ]1] (pg 262) Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) This “]rhwau]” is considered the central idea for not only the first AstpdI but also for the entire suKmnI swihb bwxI . This is the only “rhwau” in this bwxI.

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Example #7 (rhwau rhwau appears only once in a vwr at the end of the first pauVI ) <> siqgur pRswid ] rwmklI kI vwr mhlw 3 ] joDY vIrY pUrbwxI kI DunI ] sloku mÚ 3 ] siqguru shjY dw Kyqu hY ijs no lwey Bwau ] nwau bIjy nwau augvY nwmy rhY smwie ] haumY eyho bIju hY shsw gieAw ivlwie ] nw ikCu bIjy n augvY jo bKsy so Kwie ] AMBY syqI AMBu rilAw bhuiV n inkisAw jwie ] nwnk gurmuiK clqu hY vyKhu lokw Awie ] loku ik vyKY bpuVw ijs no soJI nwih ] ijsu vyKwly so vyKY ijsu visAw mn mwih ]1] mÚ 3 ] mnmuKu duK kw Kyqu hY duKu bIjy duKu Kwie ] duK ivic jµmY duiK mrY haumY krq ivhwie ] Awvxu jwxu n suJeI AMDw AMDu kmwie ] jo dyvY iqsY n jwxeI idqy kau lptwie ] nwnk pUrib iliKAw kmwvxw Avru n krxw jwie ]2] mÚ 3 ] siqguir imilAY sdw suKu ijs no Awpy myly soie ] suKY eyhu ibbyku hY AMqru inrmlu hoie ] AigAwn kw BRmu ktIAY igAwnu prwpiq hoie ] nwnk eyko ndrI AwieAw jh dyKw qh soie ]3] pauVI ] scY qKqu rcwieAw bYsx kau jWeI ] sBu ikCu Awpy Awip hY gur sbid suxweI ] Awpy kudriq swjIAnu kir mhl srweI ] cMdu sUrju duie cwnxy pUrI bxq bxweI ] Awpy vyKY suxy Awip gur sbid iDAweI ]1] vwhu vwhu scy pwiqswh qU scI nweI ]1] rhwau ] (pg 947) Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) Generally, a pauVI provides the essence of a Shabad and there are many Shabads in a vwr. In this specific case, “rhwau” appears in the first pauVI at the end, thus creating a unique situation. This is why some consider it not only the central idea in the first Shabad, but also as the essence of the entire vwr. According to Pbhaa-ee Kaahn Singh Jee Naabhaa, this should be sung after the last line of each pauVI of this vwr.

Example #8 (rhwau rhwau appears in the middle of vwr Awsw ) sloku mÚ 1 ] duKu dwrU suKu rogu BieAw jw suKu qwim n hoeI ] qUM krqw krxw mY nwhI jw hau krI n hoeI ]1] bilhwrI kudriq visAw ] qyrw AMqu n jweI liKAw ]1] rhwau ] jwiq mih joiq joiq mih jwqw Akl klw BrpUir rihAw ] qUM scw swihbu isPiq suAwil@au ijin kIqI so pwir pieAw ] khu nwnk krqy kIAw bwqw jo ikCu krxw su kir rihAw ]2] mÚ 2 ] jog sbdµ igAwn sbdµ byd sbdµ bRwhmxh ] KqRI sbdµ sUr sbdµ sUdR sbdM prw ik®qh ] srb sbdµ eyk sbdµ jy ko jwxY Byau ] nwnku qw kw dwsu hY soeI inrMjn dyau ]3] mÚ 2 ] eyk ik®snµ srb dyvw dyv dyvw q Awqmw ] Awqmw bwsudyvis´ jy ko jwxY Byau ] nwnku qw kw dwsu hY soeI inrMjn dyau ]4] mÚ 1 ] kuMBy bDw jlu rhY jl ibnu kuMBu n hoie ] igAwn kw bDw mnu rhY gur ibnu igAwnu n hoie ]5] pauVI ] piVAw hovY gunhgwru qw EmI swDu n mwrIAY ] jyhw Gwly Gwlxw qyvyho nwau pcwrIAY ] AYsI klw n KyfIAY ijqu drgh gieAw hwrIAY ] piVAw AqY EmIAw vIcwru AgY vIcwrIAY ] muih clY su AgY mwrIAY ]12] (pg 469)

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Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) Generally, there is no “rhwau” in a vwr as pointed out above. This is the only “rhwau” in this entire vwr. A combination of one or more slok and a pauVI at the end constitutes a complete Shabad in a vwr, and there are typically many Shabads in a vwr. The pauVI provides the essence of a Shabad in a vwr. Again, this creates another unique situation where “rhwau” appears in a slok and a pauVI at the end of the same Shabad. A “rhwau” is always considered as the central idea for a Shabad. Thus, a situation appears where there seem to be two central ideas for one Shabad. Most experts say that the “rhwau” in this situation is not only the essence of this Shabad, but also it is the essence of the entire vwr Awsw.

Example #9 ( ]rhwau dUjw] appears in the Shabad) soriT mhlw 5 Gru 2 AstpdIAw <> siqgur pRswid ] pwTu piVE Aru bydu bIcwirE invil BuAMgm swDy ] pMc jnw isau sMgu n CutikE AiDk AhMbuiD bwDy ]1] ipAwry ien ibiD imlxu n jweI mY kIey krm Anykw ] hwir pirE suAwmI kY duAwrY dIjY buiD ibbykw ] rhwau ] moin BieE krpwqI rihE ngn iPirE bn mwhI ] qt qIrQ sB DrqI BRimE duibDw CutkY nwhI ]2] mn kwmnw qIrQ jwie bisE isir krvq Drwey ] mn kI mYlu n auqrY ieh ibiD jy lK jqn krwey ]3] kink kwimnI hYvr gYvr bhu ibiD dwnu dwqwrw ] AMn bsqR BUim bhu Arpy nh imlIAY hir duAwrw ]4] pUjw Arcw bMdn fMfauq Ktu krmw rqu rhqw ] hau hau krq bMDn mih pirAw nh imlIAY ieh jugqw ]5] jog isD Awsx caurwsIh ey BI kir kir rihAw ] vfI Awrjw iPir iPir jnmY hir isau sMgu n gihAw ]6] rwj lIlw rwjn kI rcnw kirAw hukmu APwrw ] syj sohnI cMdnu coAw nrk Gor kw duAwrw ]7] hir kIriq swDsMgiq hY isir krmn kY krmw ] khu nwnk iqsu BieE prwpiq ijsu purb ilKy kw lhnw ]8] qyro syvku ieh rµig mwqw ] BieE ik®pwlu dIn duK BMjnu hir hir kIrqin iehu mnu rwqw ] rhwau dUjw ]1]3] (pg 641) Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) Quick study of both “rhwau” sentences reveals that together they provide the complete central idea for this Shabad. The first rhwau begs the question, “What wisdom does God give so that one could meet God?” Then the second “rhwau” provides the answer, “hir hir kIrqin.” This is mostly the case whenever ]rhwau dUjw] appears in a Shabad.

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6 Gurbaannee Interpretation Methodology (gurbwxI dy Anuvwd krx dw qrIkw) Introduction (mu~K bMd) Because Gurbaannee is the embodiment of Guroo/God, it is equally limitless and unfathomable. Only our Guroo Jees understood the message of God to its fullest extent. Human beings only make attempts to interpret Gurbaannee to the best of their ability. The quality of interpretation depends on an individual’s knowledge of Gurbaannee grammar, Sikhee, and mental and spirtual state based on their Kamaa-ee. Diligence and genuine character play an important part in that. It is rare for one individual to possess knowledge of grammar, Sikhee, and spirituality. Differences in these attributes have led to different interpretations of Gurbaannee. Pbhaa-ee Saahib Singh, Pbhaa-ee Kaahn Singh Naabhaa, Pbhaa-ee Veer Singh and Pbhaa-ee Joginder Singh Talwaarhaa are among those prominent scholars who have exhibited all three. However, only Pbhaa-ee Saahib Singh has published a complete interpretation of the entire Sree Guroo Graˆnth Saahib Jee. Our interpretation of Gurbaannee changes as we learn more about Sikh philosophy, history, and grammar, and as we grow spiritually. However, such changes in interpretations occur mostly to create a deeper understanding of Gurbaannee. This chapter is the heart of this book. The other chapters are either to prepare you for this chapter or to supplement the information provided herein. This chapter is based on the documented material from the above mentioned prominent scholars, mostly from the work of Pbhaa-ee Saahib Singh’s “gurbwxI ivAwkrx”. It is my attempt to present the essence of his work in English so a person with an English background can benefit from his invaluable contribution to Sikhee.

Preparing Yourself (quhwfI AwpxI iqAwrI) It is beyond the scope of this book to build up your background adequately for you to interpret Gurbaannee on your own. Each reader will have a different level of understanding and knowledge in the pertinent areas. It will be up to each individual to recognize their own short-comings and build the necessary background through other available resources. Therefore, I am only providing you with a list of topics you need to become familiar with which will help you to comprehend Gurbaannee better. We often attempt to make meanings of Gurbaannee too simplistic. Interpreting Gurbaannee is a complicaed matter because it was written long ago by numerous authors and is in prose. Listed below are some of the key aspects which have been noted in the interpretations by some of the prominent experts which you should become familiar with in order to interpret Gurbaannee reasonably well: 40


a. Knowledge of Paˆŋjaabee language and other languages in the Gurbaannee to include vocabulary b. Paˆŋjaabee folklore, sayings and idioms c. Gurbaannee structure and arrangement of the Sree Guroo Graˆnth Saahib Jee’s text d. The authors and their cultural/religious backgrounds e. Writing style of the authors f. Gurbaannee grammar, specifically the following: - The use of Auˆnkarh, and Sihaaree with the last letters of words 1. as case signs 2. as part of a basic word 3. to indicate plural/singular 4. to indicate gender - The rules for punctuation 1. separating clauses and phrases 2. separting more than two items - The use of other vowel-symbols especially the use of ‘ y ’ vs. ‘ Y ’ 1. to indicate gender 2. to indicate plural/singular g. A thorough understanding of the meanings of Baannee ‘jpu’ Note (it~pxI): (it~pxI) I am a staunch believer that Guroo Naanak Dayv Jee conveyed a complete message in his recitations of ‘Dhur Kee Baannee.’ The other Guroo Jee’s elaborated on that message to simplify it for us. ‘jpu’ is like an executive summary of Sree Guroo Graˆnth Saahib Jee in its entirity h. History i. The overall theme j. General Sikhee concepts/teachings

Fundamental Points (mU mUl nukqy) You must keep the fundamental points presented below in mind in order to reasonably interpret Gurbaannee. A thorough knowledge of each of these key areas will tremendously enhance your own ability to interpret Gurbaannee and to validate others’ interpretations of the same. a. Gurbaannee is written in prose b. Gurbaannee grammar is different than Paˆŋjaabee c. Gurbaannee words have several meanings just like any other language. The specific meaning depends on the contextual use of a word d. Gurbaannee is written mostly in first person e. Guroo Jee conveyed God’s message by addressing mostly his own self or his mind

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f. All Guroo Jees were extremely modest when describing their own personal spiritual state - Guroo Naanak Dayv Jee used extremely harsh words for himself (e.g., nIcu, hrwmKor, baurwnw, BgqhIx, etc.). He used these adjectives with his name to reflect modesty. No other Guroo jee ever used such words as adjectives with the word ‘Naanak’ - All other Guroo Jees also used some of the words such as grIb, ivcwrw, etc. when addressing their own self for the purpose of modesty - They have sometimes used these adjectives with the word ‘Naanak’ to convey Guroo Naanak Dayv Jee’s message and display inherent humility in his messages - In fact, all other Guroo Jees have praised Guroo Naanak Dayv Jee and their own predecessors. Keep in mind that Guroo Naanak Dayv Jee did the same. He praised his Guroo (i.e., God) g. All the human virtues are credited to the creator (God) h. All vices are attributed to humans i. On numerous occasions Gurbaannee says not to differentiate Guroo from God j. All Guroo Jees, including Sree Guroo Graˆnth Saahib Jee, have the same Jot and Jugat (i.e., no differentiation among Guroo Jees) k. There is no salvation without Guroo l. All Bhagats had a Guroo m. The words ‘Gurbaannee,’ ‘Guroo,’ and ‘Satguroo’ are frequently used interchangeably

Process (ivDI) This process is based on the rational approach presented in chaper 1. Understanding the Five-Step technique developed for analyzing the Gurbaannee Tuks along with adequately preparing yourself as mentioned above are the two essential aspects of your learning. It will appropriately build your background to apply this process correctly. The following steps must be performed in the order listed: 1. Carefully read the whole Shabad that contains the Tuk we want to interpret to grasp the overall theme of that Shabad. The theme should be consistent with your overall understanding of the Guroo Jees’ teachings 2. Then read from the beginning through the Rahaa-o to understand the essence of the Shabad. It should be consistent with the overall theme and teachings 3. Break every Tuk into small phrases by using punctuation marks 4. Use the Five-Step approach for the analysis of the Tuks starting from the beginning 5. The meanings of each Tuk must remain in the context of the Shabad 6. Ensure that your interpretation is in line with Guroo Jee’s teachings ‚

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7 Application of Five-Step Analysis Technique (pMjW kdmWkdmW-vwlw Cwx bIx dw qrIkw) Five-Step Analysis Technique (pMjW kdmWkdmW-vwlw Cwx bIx dw qrIkw) The detailed five-step technique described in this chapter is an integeral part of the methodology for interpreting Gurbaannee as presented in chapter six. To come up with an appropriate interpretation of any Tuk of Gurbaannee, each step must be followed in sequential order: 1. Categorize each word grammatically (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) 2. Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) 3. Write the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) 4. Write the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW iv~c ilKo) 5. Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo)

Application (vrqoN): Specific Examples (Kws audwhrnw) Let us apply this technique using the following two examples. 1. siqguir nwnik Bgiq krI iek min qnu mnu Dnu goibMd dIAau] 2. sB qy vfw siqguru nwnku ijin kl rwKI myrI ] (pg 750) 3. guru nwnk jw kau BieAw dieAwlw ] (pg 395)

(pg 1405)

I intentionally picked these three Tuks as examples to emphasize a key point (i.e., that an adjective used with a noun takes the same case form as the noun). Notice the form of words Satgur and Naanak as they appear in two of these examples; the words Gur and Naanak in the third example are both nouns because there forms are different. The application of each step for the first example is explained in sufficient detail to assist you in your learning process. The second example will include only the additional points necessary for your understanding and awareness.

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Abbreviations In the examples, I will be using abbreviations to identify word categories and case types for each word in the Tuk. Please refer to Table 7.1 and 7.2 for a quick reference to the abbreviations. Table 7.1: Case Type (kwrk dI iksm) English Nominative (N) Objective (O) Instrumental (I) Dative (D) Ablative (A) Possessive (P) Locative (L) Vocative (V)

Paˆˆŋjaabee krqw (krqw) krm (krm) krx (krx) sMpRdwn (sMp) Apwdwn (Ap) sMbMD (sM) AiDkrx (AiD) sMboDn (sMb)o

Table 7.2: Word Category (A~Kr dI iksm) English Pronoun (p) Adjective (a) Adverb (av) Verb (v) Singular (s) Plural (pl) Preposition (pr)

Paˆˆŋjaabee pVnWv (pV) ivSySn (iv) ikRAw ivSySn (ikR iv) ikRAw (ikR) iek vcn (ie) bhu vcn (b) sMbMDk (s)

As you can see from the tables above, words with the same first two letters in Paˆŋjaabee (i.e., krqw, krm, and krx) were not abbreviated. However, wherever an abbreviation clearly identifies the correct word without any confusion, I used only a single letter or the first two letters of a word. Modern English seldom uses the syntactic relationships expressed by word order or by inflected forms of words. Therefore, for the familiarization of these terms, I have included all of the eight case types in the Glossary of terms later in this book. 44


Use of Tables I have used tables below to depict analysis of three examples. There are six tables for each example; first to repeat the purpose, then one for each step of the analysis. The first column lists the eight different forms of case. The second column contains the Tuk being analyzed along with each step of its analysis. Each step is included in individual tables. When a new step is analyzed, the results of the previous steps are also included. Once you learn to use each step through these examples, you may prefer to use only one table for all five steps. This is what I have also done in Appendix III. The third column lists questions to determine the corresponding case type from the list in the first column. I have provided the most often asked questions for each of the case types. The key question word for each case is bolded in this column. At a quick glance, it should help you in formulating appropriate questions. Once you know the case type, you will be able to determine the appropriate preposition required for the interpretation. In all of these examples, if the punctuation is not correct, the meanings will not make sense. They will not be consistent with the basic teachings of Sikhism. Here I am using only three of these examples for analysis. There are many other examples included in Chapter 3 which most scholars use to illustrate the need for learning proper punctuation. Before proceeding any further, I encourage you to examine all those Tukaaˆn very carefully to understand the impact of wrong punctuation. This exercise will aid you later in learning the proper procedures for determining the correct meanings. As I pointed out earlier, the use of a systematic approach helps you to determine the correct meanings. Keep in mind that this scientific “Five-Step Approach” is rule-based (i.e., Gurbaannee grammar rules). Now let’s begin with the first example and learn how to use it.

Example 1.. siqguir nwnik Bgiq krI iek min, qnu mnu Dnu goibMd dIAau]

(pg 1392)

Begin by reading the whole Shabad so that this Tuk can be analyzed in the proper context. Break this Tuk into smaller parts as clauses and phrases. You can use lighter commas to separate them. Recognizing the verbs will aid you in breaking the Tuk into smaller parts. Therefore, there are definitely two parts of this Tuk. You may not know exactly where to place a temporary comma, however, do not worry about that at this point.

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Case (kwrk) Type (iksm) Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

Example (audwhrn) 1

Question With Verb (ikRAw nwl svwl)

The purpose is to do the meaning of this Tuk of Gurbaannee and write it in Paˆŋjaabee equivalent using prepositions. mMqv gurbwxI dI quk dy ArQ krx Aqy sMbMDkW nwl pMjwbI iv~c ilKx dw hY[

Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? ƒ Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik`Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!

siqguir nwnik Bgiq krI iek min, qnu mnu Dnu goibMd dIAau] (pg 1405)

Shabad (Sbd): siqguir nwnik Bgiq krI iek min qnu mnu Dnu goibMd dIAau ] AMgid Anµq mUriq inj DwrI Agm g´win ris rs´au hIAau ] guir Amrdwis krqwru kIAau vis vwhu vwhu kir D´wieXau ] sRI gur rwmdws jXo jX jg mih qY hir prm pdu pwieXau ]2]

Step 1. Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) Read the entire Shabad to grasp the theme, it may require several iterations. Then try to understand the essence of the Shabad. This task becomes easier if there is a “Paurhee” or a “Rahaa-o” in the Shabad. In case they are missing, then try to grasp the essence while reading the Shabad. It will also help to keep a Paˆŋjaabee dictionary handy to look up the meanings of the difficult words. Pay particular attention to the verbs, whenever you are preparing yourself to perform an analysis.

The first step in the analysis is to use your grammar background to categorize each word (i.e., noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, etc.). Pay special attention to the adjectives whenever you are performing an analysis. As you have already learned before, an adjective always takes the form of the associated noun. Please notice that the adjective ‘siqguir’ for the noun ‘nwnik’ is also written with a Sihaaree with the last letter ‘ir’. You will be reminded of this rule in other examples of analysis elsewhere in this book.

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Case Type kwrk iksm

Example (audwhrn) 1

siqguir nwnik Bgiq krI iek min, qnu mnu Dnu goibMd dIAau] (pg 1405)

Nominative Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) krqw 1. Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx Objective muqwbk vMf kro) krm siqguir nwnik Bgiq krI iek min qnu mnu Dnu goibMd dIAau ] Instrumental a (iv) n (nW ) n (nW ) v (ikR) a (iv) n (nW ) n (nW ) n (nW ) v (ikR) krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

Question With Verb ikRAw nwl svwl Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? ƒ Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik~Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!

Step 2. Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) The second step in the analysis is to determine the grammar ‘case.’ Start with one part at a time. In the first part, the verb is ‘krI’. Next go to column 3 and ask the question using that verb. For example “iks ny krI?” The answer is clear ‘nwnk ny’; therefore, the case word in this part of the Tuk is ‘nwnik’ .Then going to the corresponding row in the first column, you know that it is a nominative case . Now ask the second question in the third column “kI krI?”. The answer is the case word “Bgiq”, and following the same procedure I have deduced this word to be an objective case. If you continue to go down the line and ask questions from the third column, you will be able to identify each case type in both parts of this Tuk. Every question in the right hand column may not have an answer, which means there is no corresponding case word in that portion of the Tuk. It is also important to recognize that a Tuk may generally contain several case words as seen in this example. This is very typical of Gurbaannee. This completes step 2.

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Case Type kwrk iksm

Example (audwhrn) 1

siqguir nwnik Bgiq krI iek min, qnu mnu Dnu goibMd dIAau] (pg 1405)

Question With Verb ikRAw nwl svwl

Who, What? Nominative Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) krqw kOx, kI, iks ny? 1. Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx What, Who? Effect Objective muqwbk vMf kro) krm kI, iks ƒ? ƒ Asr siqguir nwnik Bgiq krI iek min qnu mnu Dnu goibMd dIAau ] Instrumental a (iv) n (nW ) n (nW ) v (ikR) a (iv) n (nW ) n (nW ) n (nW ) v (ikR) How? Means krx iks qrW? qrW vsIlw 2. Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) Dative For? Whom siqguir nwnik Bgiq krI iek min qnu mnu Dnu goibMd dIAau ] iks leI? sMpRdwn leI N (krqw) O (krm) v ( ik) I (krx) O (krm) v (ik) Ablative From? Take Apwdwn iks qoN? lYxw Possessive Whose? Ownership sMbMD iks dI? mwlkI Locative Where? Location AiDkrx ik~Qy? QW Who? Addressing! Vocative sMboDn iks ƒ? sMboDn! Step 3. Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo)

When the questions were asked in the previous steps, you knew which preposition is inherent in that case word. For example “iks ny krI?’ The answer was ‘nwnk ny’. So write down the Paˆŋjaabee word ‘nwnk ny’ underneath the noun that has been identified as a nominative case Gurbaannee word ‘nwnik’. Continue this process for other case words. Case Type kwrk iksm Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

48

Example (audwhrn) 1

siqguir nwnik Bgiq krI iek min, qnu mnu Dnu goibMd dIAau] (pg 1405) Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) 1. Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) siqguir nwnik Bgiq krI iek min qnu mnu Dnu goibMd dIAau ] a (iv) n (nW ) n (nW ) v (ikR) a (iv) n (nW ) n (nW ) n (nW ) v (ikR) 2. Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) siqguir nwnik Bgiq krI iek min qnu mnu Dnu goibMd dIAau ] N (krqw) O (krm) v ( ik) I (krx) O (krm) v (ik) 3. Write the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) siqguir nwnik Bgiq krI iek min qnu mnu Dnu goibMd dIAau ] sqgurU nwnk ny BgqI kIqI iekiek-mn ho ky qn mn Dn goibMd ƒ dy id~qw

Question With Verb ikRAw nwl svwl Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? ƒ Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik~Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!


Step 4. Write the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW iv~c ilKo) Now write down the whole Tuk but substitute the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent words with prepositions in lieu of the Gurbaannee case words. Furthermore, based on our understanding of Sikhee concepts, we can use the proper punctuation marks. These marks may be the same or differ from when we started this analysis. Case Type kwrk iksm Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

Example (audwhrn) 1

siqguir nwnik Bgiq krI iek min, qnu mnu Dnu goibMd dIAau]

(pg 1405)

Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) 1. Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) siqguir nwnik Bgiq krI iek min qnu mnu Dnu goibMd dIAau ] a (iv) n (nW ) n (nW ) v (ikR) a (iv) n (nW ) n (nW ) n (nW ) v (ikR) 2. Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) siqguir nwnik Bgiq krI iek min qnu mnu Dnu goibMd dIAau ] N (krqw) O (krm) v ( ik) I (krx) O (krm) (krm) v (ik) 3. Write the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) siqguir nwnik Bgiq krI iek min qnu mnu Dnu goibMd dIAau ] sqgurU nwnk ny BgqI kIqI ie~kie~k-mn ho ky qn mn Dn goibMd ƒ dy id~qw 4. Write the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW iv~c ilKo) siqgurU nwnk ny BgqI kIqI ie~kie~k-mn ho ky k, qn mn Dn goibMd ƒ dy id~qw[

Question With Verb ikR ikRAw nwl svwl Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? ƒ Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik~Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!

Step 5. Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo) Now our analysis is almost complete because the Paˆŋjaabee equivalents of all the Gurbaannee words have been determined. However, it still requires rearrangement of the words and possibly additional words for clarity and respect. In addition, it needs a final check. Please read the entire Shabad again carefully and decide if the analysis thus far makes sense in the overall context of the Shabad. In addition, it should support the ‘rhwau’ (the central idea of the Shabad), if there is one.

Shabad (Sbd):

siqguir nwnik, Bgiq krI iek min, qnu mnu Dnu, goibMd dIAau ]AM ] gid, Anµq mUriq inj DwrI, Agm g´win, ris rs´au hIAau ] guir Amrdwis, krqwru kIAau vis, vwhu vwhu kir D´wieXau ] sRI gur rwmdws,jXo jX jg mih, qY hir prm pdu pwieXau ]2] As we can see there is no ‘rhwau’ in this Shabad, and we have verified our analysis. Now we are ready to proceed to the final step.

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This step improves the readability of your interpretation. As we know, Gurbaannee is written in prose. In any poetry, the poet always takes liberty in arranging words for the purpose of rhyme. Interpretations simplify that by rearranging words for a common spoken language for understandability. Similarly, here we can rearrange the words within the punctuation marks and add conjunctions, etc. for clarity and smooth flow. Before I accept my own interpretation, I always validate my analysis with interpretations of the same by the Paˆnth’s prominent scholars. If they differ, then I feel I made a mistake in my interpretation and I re-apply the five-step approach . I typically compare mine with Pbhaa-ee Saahib Singh Jee’s and Freedkotte Waalaa Tteekaa interpretations. If they conflict and Pbhaa-ee Joginder Singh Jee’s interpretation of the same exist, then I am more inclined to accept whichever among the previous two agrees with Pbhaa-ee Joginder Singh Jee’s.

Case Type kwrk iksm Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

Example (audwhrn) 1

siqguir nwnik Bgiq krI iek min, qnu mnu Dnu goibMd dIAau] (pg 1405) Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) siqguir nwnik Bgiq krI iek min qnu mnu Dnu goibMd dIAau ] a (iv) n (nW ) n (nW ) v (ikR) a (iv) n (nW ) n (nW ) n (nW ) v (ikR) 2. Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) siqguir nwnik Bgiq krI iek min qnu mnu Dnu goibMd dIAau ] N (krqw) I (krx) O (krm) v (ik) (krqw) O (krm) v ( ik) 3. Write the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) siqguir nwnik Bgiq krI iek min qnu mnu Dnu goibMd dIAau ] sqgurU nwnk ny BgqI kIqI ie~kie~k-mn ho ky qn mn Dn goibMd ƒ dy id~qw 4. Write the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW iv~c ilKo) 1.

siqgurU nwnk ny BgqI kIqI ie~kie~k-mn ho ky k, qn mn Dn goibMd ƒ dy id~qw[ 5. Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo) Paˆˆŋjaabee Meanings with Prepositions (sMbMDkW vwly pMjwbI ArQ): siqgurU nwnk (dy ( v jI) ny ie~kie~k-mn ho ky k BgqI kIqI, (qy Apxw) qn mn (Aqy) Dn goibMd jI ƒ (Arpn kr) id~qw[ English: Satguroo Naanak, worshiped God single-mindedly, (and) surrendered (completely dedicated) His body, mind and wealth to the Lord of the Earth (God).

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Question With Verb ikRAw nwl svwl Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? ƒ Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik~Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!


It is clear for the above example that an adjective ‘siqguir’ takes the same case form as of the associated noun ‘nwnik’. To substantiate this point, several Gurbaannee Tuks along with a most commonly recited Tuk from Pbhaa-ee Gurdaas Jee are provided for study. In each of the Tuks below, carefully notice the case form of the word next to the name Naanak. It takes the same case form. For your ease, both the adjective and the noun are bolded. In the following three Tuks the etymology of both bolded words is identical. Both have an Auˆnkarh with the last letter of each word as the case sign. guru nwnku nwnku ijn suixAw pyiKAw sy iPir grBwis n pirAw ry ]4]2]13] (pg 612) Those who have heard, and seen (comprehend the teachings of) Guroo Naanak, did not descend into mother’s womb again. ]4]2]13] guru nwnku quTw kInI dwiq ]4]7]101] (pg 396) Guroo Naanak, greatly pleased, has bestowed this gift. ]4]7]101] jnu nwnku gux gwvY krqy ky jI jo sBsY kw jwxoeI ]5]1] (pg 11) Servant Naanak sings the Glorious Praises of the Dear Creator, the Knower of all. ]5]1] In the next two Tuks, the etymology and the syntax are similar. Both the bolded words are without an Auˆnkarh with the last letter. jn nwnk bil bil sd bil jweIAY qyrw AMq n pwrwvirAw ]4]5] (pg 10) Servant Naanak is devoted, dedicated, forever a sacrifice to The Lord. Your expanse is beyond limits and comprehension. ]4]5] siqgur nwnk pRgitAw imtI DuMDu jig cwnxu hoAw [ (vwr BweI gurdws jI) As the Satguroo Naanak manifested, the fog (of ignorance) disappeared and the light (of Divine knowledge) enlightened the world. (Vaar Pbhaa-ee Gurdaas Jee) In the next four examples, the etymology and the syntax are similar. All contain a preposition explicitly. Therefore, both bolded words are without an Auˆnkarh. pRgt BeI sgly jug AMqr gur nwnk kI vifAweI ]4]11] (pg 611) The glorious greatness of Guroo Naanak is manifest, throughout all the ages It is worth noting here the prepositional word ‘kI’ immediately after the singular noun word ‘nwnk’. Due to that preposition, the Auˆnkarh is missing with the last letter ‘k’ of the word ‘nwnk’. gurisKw kY min BwvdI gur siqgur kI vifAweI ] (pg 310) The glorious greatness of the Guroo, the Satguroo, is pleasing to the hearts of the Gursikhs.. gur siqgur kw jo isKu AKwey su Blky auiT hir nwmu iDAwvY ] (pg 305) One who calls himself a Sikh of the Guroo, the Satguroo, shall rise in the early morning hours and dearly and attentatively remembers God’s Name (God). gur siqgur kY min pwrbRhmu hY pwrbRhm CfweI ] (pg 310) 51


God, who saves human beings from vices, etc., is in the Mind of the Guroo, the True Guroo. Now let us move on to the second example that I have intentionally picked for analysis. Some people interpret it differently than most of the well-known experts of the Sikh Paˆnth. Many people have personally asked for its interpretation, especially the younger generation.

Example 2.. sB qy vfw siqguru nwnku ijin kl rwKI myrI ] (pg 750) To avoid redundancy, I will not repeat the process for completing each step in this example. The process is the same, and you can reference it in the first example if needed for any step. However, the results of each step are fully documented here. In addition, I will also include appropriate comments for each step where necessary to provide you with my thoughts and/or reasoning. Case (kwrk) Type (iksm) Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

Example (audwhrn) 2

sB qy vfw siqguru nwnku ijin kl rwKI myrI ]

(pg 750)

The purpose is to do the meaning of this Tuk of Gurbaannee and write it in Paˆŋjaabee equivalent using prepositions. mMqv gurbwxI dI quk dy ArQ krx Aqy sMbMDkW nwl pMjwbI iv~c ilKx dw hY[ (gurbwxI dI quk dy ArQ kro Aqy sMbMDkW nwl pMjwbI iv~c ilKo)

Shabad (Sbd): sUhI mhlw 5 ] ijs ky isr aUpir qUM suAwmI so duKu kYsw pwvY ] boil n jwxY mwieAw mid mwqw mrxw cIiq n AwvY ]1] myry rwmrwie qUM sMqw kw sMq qyry ] qyry syvk kau Bau ikCu nwhI jmu nhI AwvY nyry ]1] rhwau ] jo qyrY rµig rwqy suAwmI iqn@ kw jnm mrx duKu nwsw ] qyrI bKs n mytY koeI siqgur kw idlwsw ]2] nwmu iDAwiein suK Pl pwiein AwT phr AwrwDih ] qyrI srix qyrY BrvwsY pMc dust lY swDih ]3] igAwnu iDAwnu ikCu krmu n jwxw swr n jwxw qyrI ] sB qy vfw siqguru nwnku ijin kl rwKI myrI ]4]10]57]

Question With Verb (ikRAw nwl svwl) Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? ƒ Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik~Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!

Consistent with the first step of the process for the rational approach as presented earlier, let’s read the whole Shabad and determine the overall theme. There is no doubt that the greatness of ‘Satgur’ (‘siqguru’) is expressed in this Shabad. However, identifying where to place a temporary punctuation mark is somewhat confusing. Should it go after ‘Satgur’ or after ‘Naanak’?

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Let’s proceed with our analysis with that in mind. However, for now, place the comma after ‘Naanak’ for the following two reasons. As we learned from the grammar rule examples of Chapter 4 that: 1. Both of the words ‘siqguru’ and ‘nwnku’ have ‘ u’ with the last letter, which suggests that the word ‘siqguru’ is an adjective for the noun word ‘nwnku’ 2. If we separate the second part by placing a comma after ‘siqguru’ and treat it as a noun, then the noun word ‘nwnku’ next to it should have been without an ‘ u’ Step 1. Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) There are actually two verbs, one being implicit ‘hY’ and the other is explicit ‘rwKI’. The word ‘vfw’ is an adverb (ikRAw ivSySn). Case (kwrk) Type (iksm) Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

Example (audwhrn) 2

sB qy vfw siqguru nwnku ijin kl rwKI myrI ]

(pg 750)

Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) 1. Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) sB qy vfw siqguru nwnku ijin kl rwKI myrI ] a (iv) pr (s) av (ikR iv) a (iv) n (nW) p (pV) n (nW) v (ikR) p (pV)

Question With Verb (ikRAw nwl svwl) Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? ƒ Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik~Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!

Step 2. Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) Now ask the appropriate questions with these two verbs to identify the case types of the two nouns. For example, the first question becomes, “Who is the greatest of all?” The answer makes the noun word ‘nwnku’ a nominative case. Since the nouns as well as the pronouns could be case words, the pronoun ‘ijin’ in this example is also a case word. It is also a nominative case referring to siqguru ‘nwnku’. I did not annotate the other case word ‘kl’ to avoid clutter.

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Case (kwrk) Type (iksm) Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

Example (audwhrn) 2

sB qy vfw siqguru nwnku ijin kl rwKI myrI ]

Question With Verb (ikRAw nwl svwl)

(pg 750)

Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) 1. Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) sB qy vfw siqguru nwnku ijin kl rwKI myrI ] a (iv) pr (s) av (ikR iv) a (iv) n (nW) p (pV) n (nW) v (ikR) p (pV) 2. Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) sB

qy

vfw

siqguru nwnku ijin kl N (krqw) P(krqw)

rwKI

myrI ]

Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? ƒ Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik~Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!

Step 3. Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) Case (kwrk) Type (iksm) Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

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Example (audwhrn) 2

sB qy vfw siqguru nwnku ijin kl rwKI myrI ]

(pg 750)

Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) 1. Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) sB qy vfw siqguru nwnku ijin kl rwKI myrI ] a (iv) pr (s) av (ikR iv) a (iv) n (nW) p (pV) n (nW) v (ikR) p (pV) 2. Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) sB qy vfw siqguru nwnku ijin kl rwKI myrI ] N (krqw) P (krqw) 3. Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) sB sB

qy qoN

vfw v~fw hY

siqgur nwnku sqgurU nwnk

ijin kl rwKI myrI [ ijs ny ie~zq r~K leI myrI

Question With Verb (ikRAw nwl svwl) Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? ƒ Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik~Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!


Step 4. Write the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW iv~c ilKo)

Example (audwhrn) 2

Case (kwrk) Type (iksm)

sB qy vfw siqguru nwnku ijin kl rwKI myrI ]

Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) qrIkw) 1. Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) sB qy vfw siqguru nwnku ijin kl rwKI myrI ] a (iv) pr (s) av (ikR iv) a (iv) n (nW) p (pV) n (nW) v (ikR) p (pV) 2. Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) sB qy vfw siqguru nwnku ijin kl rwKI myrI ] N (krqw) P (krqw) 3. Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) sB qy vfw siqguru nwnku ijin kl rwKI myrI ] sB qoN v~fw sqgurU nwnk ijs ny ie~zq r~K leI myrI 4. Write the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW iv~c ilKo) sB

qoN

v~fw

sqgurU nwnk

(pg 750)

Question With Verb (ikRAw nwl svwl) Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? ƒ Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik~Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!

ijs ny myrI ie~zq r~K leI

Step 5: Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyv Now our analysis is almost complete because the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of all of the Gurbaannee words have been determined. However, it still needs rearrangement of the words and possibly additional words for clarity. In addition, the analysis needs validation. Please read the entire Shabad again carefully and decide if the analysis thus far makes sense in the overall context of the Shabad. In addition, it should support the ‘rhwau’ (central idea of the Shabad), if there is one.

Shabad (Sbd): sUhI mhlw 5 ] ijs ky isr aUpir qUM suAwmI so duKu kYsw pwvY ] boil n jwxY mwieAw mid mwqw mrxw cIiq n AwvY ]1] myry rwmrwie qUM sMqw kw sMq qyry ] qyry syvk kau Bau ikCu nwhI jmu nhI AwvY nyry ]1] rhwau ] jo qyrY rµig rwqy suAwmI iqn@ kw jnm mrx duKu nwsw ] qyrI bKs n mytY koeI siqgur kw idlwsw ]2] nwmu iDAwiein suK Pl pwiein AwT phr AwrwDih ] qyrI srix qyrY BrvwsY pMc dust lY swDih ]3] igAwnu iDAwnu ikCu krmu n jwxw swr n jwxw qyrI ] sB qy vfw siqguru nwnku ijin kl rwKI myrI ]4]10]57]

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If you read the ‘rhwau’ alone, it is not clear how it relates to the Tuk being analyzed here. Whether the word ‘Satgur’ refers to God or Guroo could also be confusing. But, in the context of this Shabad, our analysis appears to be correct. Case (kwrk) Type (iksm) Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

Example (audwhrn) 2

sB qy vfw siqguru nwnku ijin kl rwKI myrI ]

(pg 750)

Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) 1. Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) 2. Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) 3. Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) 4. Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW iv~c ilKo) 5. Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo) sB qy vfw siqguru nwnku ijin kl rwKI myrI ] a (iv) pr (s) av (ikR iv) a (iv) n (nW) p (pV) n (nW) v (ikR) p (pV) N (krqw) P (krqw) sB qoN v~fw sqgur nwnk ijs ny ie~zq r~K leI myrI sB qoN v~fw sqgurU nwnk, ijs ny ie~zq r~K leI myrI [ Paˆˆŋjaabee Meanings with Prepositions (sMbMDkW vwly pMjwbI iv~c ArQ): (pr qyrI myhr nwl mYƒ) sB qoN v`fw gurU nwnk (iml ipAw), ijs ny myrI (lwj) r`K leI (qy mYƒ qyry crnW iv~c joV id`qw)[ (drpn, BweI swihb isMG) English: (But with Your grace) the greatest of all Satgur Naanak met me, who has saved me (my honor and attached me to Your feet )

Question With Verb (ikRAw nwl svwl) Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? ƒ Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik~Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!

Our analysis is complete and is consistent with Pbhaa-ee Saahib Singh Jee’s interpretation. To alleviate any doubt, I am also providing below the interpretation from the Freedkotte Waalaa Tteekaa. ArQ): (prMq)U sB sy v~fw siqgurU nwnk (sRI gurU rwmdws jI jwixAW hY), ijsny myrI (kl) ie~zq r~K leI hY ]4]10]57] (PrId kot vwlw tIkw)

As you can see, Both expert interpretations agree that Guroo Naanak Dayv Jee is the greatest of all which is consistent with my interpretations, and the essence of the whole interpretation of this Tuk is the same between the two expert interpretations. The only difference is the language and reference to “sRI gurU rwmdws jI”, the Jot of Guroo Naanak Dayv Jee, in the second interpretation.

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However, let’s make sure from another perspective; are there other similar references in other Shabads where Guroo Jee is referred to be the greatest of all? Let’s take a quick look at some of the other Shabads along with this Shabad where these references exist. I have purposely bolded such references to Guroo or Guroo as Satguroo in these Shabads. Rather than providing you my own interpretations of the Shabads, I am presenting Pbhaa-ee Saahib Singh Jee’s interpretation. If you are interested in other Tteekakaar’s interpretations, then I have left it for you to do that on your own to keep the volume of this book manageable. However, my study of other Tteekaas shows that they are consistent with these interpretations. sUhI mhlw 5 ] ijs ky isr aUpir qUM suAwmI so duKu kYsw pwvY ] boil n jwxY mwieAw mid mwqw mrxw cIiq n AwvY ]1] myry rwmrwie qUM sMqw kw sMq qyry ] qyry syvk kau Bau ikCu nwhI jmu nhI AwvY nyry ]1] rhwau ] jo qyrY rµig rwqy suAwmI iqn@ kw jnm mrx duKu nwsw ] qyrI bKs n mytY koeI siqgur kw idlwsw ]2] nwmu iDAwiein suK Pl pwiein AwT phr AwrwDih ] qyrI srix qyrY BrvwsY pMc dust lY swDih ]3] igAwnu iDAwnu ikCu krmu n jwxw swr n jwxw qyrI ] sB qy vfw siqguru nwnku ijin kl rwKI myrI ]4]10]57] ArQ:hy ArQ: myry pRBU-pwiqSwh! qUM (Awpxy) sMqW dw (rwKw) hYN, (qyry) sMq qyry (Awsry rihMdy hn)[hy pRBU! qyry syvk ƒ koeI fr poh nhIN skdw[ mOq dw dr ausdy nyVy nhIN Fukdw[1[rhwau[ hy myry mwlk pRBU! ijs mnu~K dy isr auqy qUM (h~Q rKyN) aus ƒ koeI duK nhIN ivAwpdw[ auh mnu~K mwieAw dy nSy iv~c msq ho ky qW bolxw nhIN jwxdw, mOq dw sihm BI aus dy ic~q iv~c nhIN pYdw huMdw[1[ hy myry mwlk! ijhVy mnu~K qyry pRym-rMg iv~c rihMdy hn, auhnW dw jMmx mrn (dy gyV) dw d~uK dUr ho jWdw hY, auhnW ƒ gurU dw (id~qw hoieAw ieh) Brosw (cyqy rihMdw hY ik auhnW au~qy hoeI) qyrI bkS ƒ koeI imtw nhIN skdw[2[ hy pRBU! (qyry sMq qyrw) nwm ismrdy riMhµdy hn, Awqmk AwnMd mwxdy rihMdy hn, A~Ty phr qyrw AwrwDn krdy hn[ qyrI srn iv~c Aw ky, qyry Awsry rih ky auh (kwmwidk) pMjy vYrIAW ƒ PV ky vs iv~c kr lYNdy hn[3[ hy myry mwlk-pRBU! mYN (BI)qyrI (bkS dI) kdr nhIN sW jwxdw, mYƒ Awqmk jIvn dI sUJ nhIN sI, qyry crxw iv~c suriq itkwxI BI nhIN jwxdw sW, iksy hor Drimk kMm dI BI mYƒ sUJ nhIN sI[ pr (qyrI myhr nwl) mYƒ sB qON v~fw gurU nwnk iml ipAw, ijs ny myrI lwj r~K leI (qy mYƒ qyry crxw iv~c joV id~qw)[4[10[57[ id~qw) Shabad (sbd): isrI rwgu mhlw 4 Gru 1 ] mY min qin ibrhu Aiq Aglw, ikau pRIqmu imlY Gir Awie ] jw dyKw pRBu Awpxw, pRiB dyiKAY duKu jwie ] jwie puCw iqn sjxw pRBu ikqu ibiD imlY imlwie ]1] myry siqgurw, mY quJ ibnu Avru n koie ] hm mUrK mugD srxwgqI kir ikrpw myly hir soie ]1]rhwau] siqguru dwqw hir nwmu kw pRBu Awip imlwvY soie ] siqguir hir pR pRBu buiJAw gur jyvfu Avru n koie ] hau gur srxweI Fih pvw kir dieAw myly pRBu soie ] min hiT iknY n pwieAw kir aupwv Qky sBu koie ] shs isAwxp kir rhy, min korY rMgu n hoie ] kUiV kpit iknY n pwieE jo bIjY KwvY soie ]3] sBnw qyrI Aws pRB sB jIA qyry qµU rwis ] pRB, quDhu KwlI ko nhI, dir gurmuKw no swbwis ] ibKu Baujl fubdy kiF lY jn nwnk kI Ardwis ]4]1]65] (pg 39-40)

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ArQ: ArQ: hy myry siqgur! qYQoN ibnw myrw hor koeI (shwrw) nhIN hY [ AsI jIv mUrK hW, AM\wx hW, (pr) qyrI srn Awey hn (jyhVw BwgW vwlw gurU dI srn AwauNdw hY aus ƒ) auh prmwqmw Awp imhr kr ky (Awpxy crnW ivc) imlw lYNdw hY [1[rhwau[ myry mn ivc srIr ivc (pRIqm-pRBU dy) ivCoVy dw BwrI drd hY (myrw mn qVp irhw hY ik) ikvyN pRIqm-pRBU myry ihrdy-Gr ivc mYƒ Aw imly [ jdoN mYN ipAwry pRBU dw drSn krdw hW, pRBU dw drSn kIiqAW myrw (ivCoVy dw) du`K dUr ho jWdw hY [ (ijnHW sqsMgI s`jxW ny pRIqm-pRBU dw drSn kIqw hY) mYN auhnW s`jxW nUµ jw ky pu`Cdw hW ik pRBU iks qrIky nwl imlwieAW imldw hY [1[ gurU hir nwm dI dwiq dyx vwlw hY (ijs nUµ gurU pwsoN ieh dwiq imldI hY aus nUµ) auh pRBU Awp Awpxy nwl imlw lYNdw hY [ gurU ny hrI pRBU nwl fUMGI sWJ pweI hoeI hY (ies vwsqy) gurU jyfw (au~cI Awqmk AvsQw vwlw) hor koeI nhIN [ (myrI iehI qWG hY ik) mYN gurU dI srn, Awpw-Bwv imtw ky, Aw pvW [ (gurU dI srn ipAW hI) auh pRBU imhr kr ky Awpxy nwl imlw lYNdw hY [2[ mn dy hT nwl (kIqy qp Awidk swDnW nwl) kdy iksy ny prmwqmw nUµ nhIN l`Bw [ (ieho ijhy) AnykW aupwv kr ky sB Q`k hI jWdy hn [ (qp Awidk vwlIAW) hzwrW isAwxpW (jyhVy lok) krdy hn (auhnW dw mn pRBU-pRym vloN korw hI rihMdw hY, qy) jy mn (pRBU-pRym qoN) korw hI rhy qW nwm rMg nhIN cVHdw [ mwieAw dy moh ivc Psy rih ky (bwhroN hT-krmW dI) T`gI nwl kdy iksy ny prmwqmw nUµ nhIN l`Bw [ (ieh p`kw inXm hY ik) jo kuJ koeI bIjdw hY auhI auh KWdw hY[3[ hy pRBU! (sMswr-smuMdr qoN bcx vwsqy) sB jIvW nUµ qyrI (shYqw dI) hI Aws hY, sB jIv qyry hI (pYdw kIqy hoey) hn, qUM hI (sB jIvW dI Awqmk) rws pUMjI hYN [ hy pRBU! qyry dr qoN koeI ^wlI nhIN muVdw, gurU dI srn pYx vwly bMidAW nUµ qyry dr qy Awdr mwx imldw hY [ hy pRBU! qyry dws nwnk dI qyry A`gy ArzoeI hY ik qUM sMswr-smuMdr dy (ivkwrW dy) zhr ivc fu`bdy jIvW nUµ Awp k`F lY [4[1[65[ Shabad (Sbd): mlwr mhlw 5 ] gur srxweI sgl inDwn ] swcI drgih pweIAY mwnu ] BRmu Bau dUKu drdu sBu jwie ] swD sµig sd hir gux gwie ]1] mn myry guru pUrw swlwih ] nwmu inDwnu jphu idnu rwqI mn icMdy Pl pwie ]1] rhwau ] siqgur jyvfu Avru n koie ] guru pwrbRhmu prmysru soie ] jnm mrx dUK qy rwKY ] mwieAw ibKu iPir bhuiV n cwKY ]2] gur kI mihmw kQnu n jwie ] guru prmysru swcY nwie ] scu sMjmu krxI sBu swcI ] so mnu inrmlu jo gur sµig rwcI ]3] guru pUrw pweIAY vf Bwig ] kwmu k®oDu loBu mn qy iqAwig ] kir ikrpw gur crx invwis ] nwnk kI pRB scu Ardwis ]4]4]22] (pg 1271)

ArQ: ArQ: hy myry mn ! pUry gurU dI (sdw) is&iq-swlwh kirAw kr [ (gurU dI srn pY ky) idn rwq prmwqmw dw nwm jipAw kr (iehI hY swry suKW dw) ^zwnw [ (ijhVw mnu`K jpdw hY, auh) mn-mMgy Pl pRwpq kr lYNdw hY [1[rhwau[ hy BweI ! gurU dI srn pey irhW swry ^zwny (iml jWdy hn); sdw kwiem rihx vwlI r`bI drgwh iv~c Awdr imldw hY [ hy BweI ! gurU dI sMgiq iv~c rih ky sdw prmwqmw dy gux gwieAw kr (ijhVw mnu`K gWdw hY, aus dw) Brm; fr, hryk du`K-drd dUr ho jWdw hY [1[ hy BweI ! (b^SSW krn iv~c) gurU dy brwbr dw hor koeI nhIN [ auh gurU pwrbRhm hY, gurU prmysr hY [ gurU jMmx mrn dy gyV dy du`KW qoN bcWdw hY [ (ijhVw mnu`K gurU dI srn pYNdw hY, auh) Awqmk mOq ilAwaux vwlI mwieAw dy zhr ƒ muV muV suAwd lw lw ky nhIN c`Kdw rihMdw [2[ hy BweI ! gurU dI vifAweI ibAwn nhIN kIqI jw skdI [ gurU prmysr (dw rUp) hY, gurU (prmwqmw dy) sdw kwiem rihx vwly nwm iv~c (lIn rihMdw hY) [ prmwqmw dw nwm ismrdy rihxw—iehI hY gurU dw sMjm [ prmwqmw dI is&iq-swlwh krdy rihxw—iehI hY gurU dI krxI [ ijhVw mn gurU dI sMgiq

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iv~c msq rihMdw hY auh mn piv`qr ho jWdw hY [3[ hy BweI ! pUrw gurU v`fI iksmq nwl imldw hY, (ijs ƒ imldw hY, auh mnu`K Awpxy) mn iv~coN kwm ko®D loB (Awidk ivkwr) dUr kr ky (gurU dI srn ipAw rihMdw hY) [ hy pRBU ! (qyry syvk) nwnk dI ieh Ardws hY ik imhr kr ky (mYƒ) gurU dy crnW iv~c itkweI r`K, qy, Awpxw sdw-iQr nwm b^S[ Shabad (Sbd): isrIrwgu mhlw 5 ] sMq jnhu imil BweIho scw nwmu smwil ] qosw bMDhu jIA kw AYQY EQY nwil ] gur pUry qy pweIAY AwpxI ndir inhwil ] krim prwpiq iqsu hovY ijs no hoie dieAwlu ]1] myry mn gur jyvfu Avru nw koie ] dUjw Qwau n ko suJY gur myly scu soie ]1]rhwau] sgl pdwrQ iqsu imly ijin gur ifTw jwie ] gur crxI ijn mnu lgw sy vfBwgI mwie ] guru dwqw, smrQu guru, guru sB mih rihAw smwie ] guru prmysru pwrbRhmu, guru fubdw ley qrwie ]2] ikqu muiK guru swlwhIAY krx kwrx smrQu ] sy mQy inhcl rhy ijn guir DwirAw hQu ] guir AMimRq nwmu pIAwilAw jnm mrn kw pQu ] guru prmysru syivAw BY BMjnu duK lQu ]3] siqguru gihr gMBIru hY suK swgru AG KMfu ] ijn guru syivAw Awpxw jmdUq n lwgY fMfu ] gur nwil quil nw lgeI Koij ifTw bRhmMfu ] nwmu inDwnu siqgur dIAw suKu nwnk mn mih mMfu ]4]20]90] (pg 49-50) ArQ:: hy myry mn ! gurU jyfw v`fw (au (au~c jIvn vwlw jgq iv~c) hor koeI nhIN hY [ (gurU qoN ibnw mYƒ) ArQ hor koeI dUjw Awsrw nhIN id`sdw[ (pr) auh sdw-iQr rihx vwlw prmwqmw Awp hI gurU ƒ imlWdw hY[1[rhwau[ hy sMq jno! Brwvo! (swD sMgq iv~c) iml ky sdw-iQr rihx vwly prmwqmw dw nwm ihrdy iv~c vsw ky AwpxI ijMd vwsqy (jIvn-s&r dw) ^rc iek`Tw kro [ ieh nwm-rUp s&r-^rc) ies lok iv~c qy prlok iv~c (ijMd dy nwl) inBdw hY [ (jdoN pRBU) AwpxI imhr dI ingwh nwl q`kdw hY (qdoN ieh nwm-qoSw) pUry gurU qoN imldw hY [ pRBU dI imhr nwl ieh aus mnu`K ƒ pRwpq huMdw hY ijs auqy pRBU dieAwvwn huMdw hY [1[ ijs mnu`K ny jw ky gurU dw drSn kIqw hY, aus nUµ swry (kImqI) pdwrQ iml gey (smJo) [ hy mW ! ijnHW mnu`KW dw mn gurU dy crnW iv~c juVdw hY, auh v`fy BwgW vwly hn [ gurU (aus prmwqmw dw rUp hY jo) sB dwqW dyx vwlw hY jo sB qrHW dI qwkq dw mwlk hY jo sB jIvW iv~c ivAwpk hY [ gurU prmysr (dw rUp) hY, gurU pwrbRhm (dw rUp) hY, gurU (sMswrsmuMdr iv~c) fu`bdy jIv ƒ pwr lMGw lYNdw hY [2[ kyhVy mUMh nwl gurU dI vifAweI kIqI jwey ? gurU (aus pRBU dw rUp hY jo) jgq ƒ pYdw krn dI qwkq r`Kdw hY [ auh m`Qy (gurU-crnW iv~c) sdw leI itky rihMdy hn, ijnHW auqy gurU ny (AwpxI imhr dw) h`Q r`iKAw hY [ (prmwqmw dw nwm) jnm mrn dy gyV-rUp rog dw prhyz hY, Awqmk jIvn dyx vwlw ieh nwm-jl ijnHW (BwgW vwilAW) ƒ gurU ny iplwieAw hY auh prmysr dy rUp gurU ƒ, swry fr dUr krn vwly gurU ƒ, swry du`K nws krn vwly gurU ƒ Awpxy ihrdy iv~c vsWdy hn [3[ siqgurU (mwno, iek) fUMGw (smMudr) hY, gurU v`fy ijgry vwlw hY, gurU swry suKW dw smuMdr hY, gurU pwpW dw nws krn vwlw hY [ ijs mnu`K ny Awpxy gurU dI syvw kIqI hY jmdUqW dw fMfw (aus dy isr au~qy) nhIN v`jdw [ mYN swrw sMswr Bwl ky vyK ilAw hY, koeI BI gurU dy brwbr dw nhIN hY [ hy nwnk ! siqgurU ny ijs mnu`K ƒ prmwqmw dw nwm-Kzwnw id`qw hY, aus ny Awqmk AwnMd (sdw leI) Awpxy mn iv~c pro ilAw hY[ This completes the validation process of this example. For other examples of analysis, please refer to Appendix III.

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Example (audwhrn) 3: guru nwnk jw kau BieAw dieAwlw ] (pg 395) Case (kwrk) Type (iksm) Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

Example (audwhrn) 3

guru nwnk jw kau BieAw dieAwlw ]

(pg 395)

The purpose is to do meaning of this Tuk of Gurbaannee and write it in Paˆŋjaabee equivalent using prepositions. mMqv gurbwxI dI quk dy ArQ krx Aqy sMbMDkW nwl pMjwbI iv~c ilKx dw hY[ (gurbwxI dI quk dy ArQ kro Aqy sMbMDkW nwl pMjwbI iv~c ilKo)

Shabad (Sbd): Awsw mhlw 5 ] pRQmy imitAw qn kw dUK ] mn sgl kau hoAw sUK ] kir ikrpw gur dIno nwau ] bil bil iqsu siqgur kau jwau ]1] gur pUrw pwieE myry BweI ] rog sog sB dUK ibnwsy siqgur kI srxweI ] rhwau ] gur ky crn ihrdy vswey ] mn icMqq sgly Pl pwey ] Agin buJI sB hoeI sWiq ] kir ikrpw guir kInI dwiq ]2] inQwvy kau guir dIno Qwnu ] inmwny kau guir kIno mwnu ] bMDn kwit syvk kir rwKy ] AMimRq bwnI rsnw cwKy ]3] vfY Bwig pUj gur crnw ] sgl pweI sB srnw ] guru nwnk jw kau BieAw dieAwlw ] so jn hoAw sdw inhwlw ] (pg 395)

Question With Verb (ikRAw nwl svwl) Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? ƒ Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik~Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!

Step 1. Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) Case (kwrk) Type (iksm) Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

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Example (audwhrn) 3

guru nwnk jw kau BieAw dieAwlw ]

(pg 395)

Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) 1. Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro)

guru

nwnk

n (nW)

n (nW)

jw

kau

p (pV) pr (s)

BieAw v (ikR)

dieAwlw ] n (nW)

Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) We have learned that an adjective takes the same case form as of its noun. The first two examples demonstrated this point very well. In this example, notice the words ‘guru nwnk’ appearing next to each other. Both of the words have different case forms; the word ‘gur’ have ‘ u’ with the last letter and the word ‘nwnk’ does not. This suggests that the word ‘guru’ is not an adjective for the word ‘nwnk’; both are nouns.

Question With Verb (ikRAw nwl svwl) Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? ƒ Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik~Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!


Step 2. Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) Case (kwrk) (kwrk) Type (iksm) Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

Example (audwhrn) 3

guru nwnk jw kau BieAw dieAwlw ]

(pg 395)

Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) 1. Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro)

guru

nwnk

jw

kau

BieAw

dieAwlw ]

n (nW) n (nW) p (pV) pr (s) v (ikR) a (iv) 2. Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro)

guru

nwnk

n (nW) n (nW) N (krqw) V(sMbo)

jw

kau

p (pV) pr (s)

BieAw

dieAwlw ]

v (ikR)

n (nW) O (krm)

Analysis (Cwx bIx): Since the word ‘nwnk’ does not have ‘ u’ with the last letter and there is no preposition following it, therefore it is vocative case.

Question With Verb (ikRAw nwl svwl) Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? ƒ Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik~Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!

Step 3. Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) Case (kwrk) Type (iksm) Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

Example (audwhrn) 3

guru nwnk jw kau BieAw dieAwlw ]

(pg 395)

Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) 1. Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro)

guru

nwnk

jw

kau

BieAw

dieAwlw ]

n (nW) n (nW) p (pV) pr (s) v (ikR) n (nW) 2. Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro)

guru

nwnk

jw

kau

BieAw

dieAwlw ]

N (krqw) V(sMbo) O (krm) 3. Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo)

guru gurU

nwnk qoN hy nwnk

jw ijs

kau

BieAw

dieAwlw ]

ƒ (au~qy) ho jWdw hY dieAwvwn [

Note (it~pxI): (it~pxI) ‘ƒ’ is indicates effect on someone, the appropriate word for that is ‘au~qy’. It does not mean location.

Question With Verb (ikRAw nwl svwl) Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? ƒ Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik~Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!

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Step 4. Write the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW iv~c ilKo) Case (kwrk) Type (iksm) Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

Example (audwhrn) 3

guru nwnk jw kau BieAw dieAwlw ]

(pg 395)

Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) 1. Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro)

guru

nwnk

jw

kau

BieAw

dieAwlw ]

n (nW) n (nW) p (pV) pr (s) v (ikR) n (nW) 2. Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro)

guru

nwnk

jw

kau

BieAw

dieAwlw ]

N (krqw) V(sMbo) O (krm) 1. Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo)

guru gurU

nwnk nwnk

jw kau jw ƒ (au~qy)

BieAw dieAwlw ] ho jWdw hY dieAwvwn [

2. Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW iv~c ilKo)

guru nwnk jw kau BieAw dieAwlw ] hy nwnk! ijs au~qy gurU dieAwvwn ho jWdw hY [

Question With Verb (ikRAw nwl svwl) Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? ƒ Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik~Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!

Step 5: Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyv Please read the entire Shabad again carefully and decide if the analysis thus far makes sense in the overall context of the Shabad. In addition, it should support the ‘rhwau’ (central idea of the Shabad).

Shabad (sbd): Awsw mhlw 5 ] pRQmy imitAw qn kw dUK ] mn sgl kau hoAw sUK ] kir ikrpw gur dIno nwau ] bil bil iqsu siqgur kau jwau ]1] gur pUrw pwieE myry BweI ] rog sog sB dUK ibnwsy siqgur kI srxweI ] rhwau ] gur ky crn ihrdy vswey ] mn icMqq sgly Pl pwey ] Agin buJI sB hoeI sWiq ] kir ikrpw guir kInI dwiq ]2] inQwvy kau guir dIno Qwnu ] inmwny kau guir kIno mwnu ] bMDn kwit syvk kir rwKy ] AMimRq bwnI rsnw cwKy ]3] vfY Bwig pUj gur crnw ] sgl pweI sB srnw ] guru nwnk jw kau BieAw dieAwlw ] so jnu hoAw sdw inhwlw ] (pg 395)

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Case (kwrk) Type (iksm) Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

Example (audwhrn) 3

guru nwnk jw kau BieAw dieAwlw ]

(pg 395)

Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) 1. Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) 2. Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) 3. Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) 4. Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW iv~c ilKo) 5. Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo)

guru

nwnk

n (nW) n (nW) N (krqw) V(sMbo) gurU hy nwnk

jw

kau

p (pV) pr (s)

BieAw

dieAwlw ]

v (ikR)

n (nW) O (krm) ijs au~qy ho jWdw hY dieAwvwn hy nwnk! ijs au~qy gurU dieAwvwn ho jWdw hY [ Paˆˆŋjaabee Meanings with Prepositions (sMbMDkW vwly pMjwbI iv~c ArQ):

Question With Verb (ikRAw nwl svwl) Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? ƒ Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik~Qy ik~Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!

hy nwnk! (AwK—) ijs (mnu`K) au~qy gurU dieAwvwn ho jWdw hY,

(drpn, BweI swihb isMG) English: O Naanak! (say), unto whom the Guroo grants (His) mercy,

Note (it~pxI): (it~pxI) This example is a single line of the hymn which is not a complete sentence (Tuk). To indicate that comma is used purposely at the end of its interpretation. ‚

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8 Meanings of Selected Shabads (cuxvyN SbdW dy ArQ) So far, we have learned how to intepret each Tuk in the context of a over all Shabad. We have studied numerous examples. In this chapter we will interpret two complete Shabads. This will give you some appreciation regarding the technique we have learned as it applies to a Shabad. I have selected the following two complete Shabads for interpretation: 1. ‘ikau lIjY gFu bMkw BweI’: Bhairon Baannee Bhagtaaˆn Kee- Kabeer Jee-o (pg 1161) ‘ikau lIjY gFu bMkw BweI’: BYrau bwxI Bgqw kI- kbIr jIau (pg 1161) 2. First ‘Ashttpadee’ Sukhmanee Saahib- Guroo Arjan Dayv Jee (pg 262) pihlI ‘AstpdI’:suKmnI swihb- gurU Arjn dyv jI (pg 262)

Technique for Interpretting Shabad (Sbd dy ArQ krn dw qrIkw) This technique encompasses all the tools we have learned to use till now for interpretting Gurbaannee Tuks. Follow these steps in the order listed below: 1. First of all, read the entire Shabad, recognize the classifications of words, and then punctuate it in accordance with the grammar rules learned earlier sB qoN pihlW, swrw Sbd pVH lvo, AKrW dI vMf pCwxdy hoey Sbd ivc ivSrwm lgw lvo 2. Read the entire Shabad (grasp topic and theme). This may require several iterations swrw Sbd pVH lvo (ivSy Aqy pRsMg ƒ cMgI qrW smJ lvo), ho skdw keI vwrI duhrwxw pvy 3. Read up to Rahaa-o (if Rahaa-o is without a number and is not first Padaa). Read also first Padaa (if ‘Rahaa-o’ is with Number ‘]1]’). Contemplate and establish their relationship ‘rhwau’ qk pVHo (jy ‘rhwau’ AMk ibnW hovy Aqy pihlw pdw nw hovy ) [pihlw pdw BI pVHo (jy ‘rhwau’ AMk ‘]1]’ vwlw hovy )[ ivcwro Aqy aunHW dy sMbMD dI pCwx kro 4. Begin with the interpretation of the ‘Rahaa-o’ first. Use the five-step analysis technique sB qoN pihlW ‘rhwau’ dy ArQ krxy SurU kro[ pMj-kdmW vwlI qrqIb vrqo a. Contemplate on it and understand its essence (centeral idea of the Shabad) ivcwro Aqy q~q (kyNdrI Bwv) ƒ smJo b. Stay within the framework of the Shabad (topic and theme) Sbd dy dwiery ivc rho (ivSw qy pRsMg) c. Be consistent with Gurbaannee’s teachings ArQ gurbwxI dy aupdySW nwl sihmq hox 5. Then interpret the first Padaa and repeat this step for the remaining Paday of the Shabad. Use the five-step analysis technique for all of the Paday. Pyr pihly pdy qoN ArQ krny SurU kro Aqy bwkI idAW pidAW leI ieh kdm duhrwau[ienHW swry pidAW vwsqy pMj-kdmW vwlI qrqIb vrqo a. Keep essense of ‘Rahaa-o’ in mind ‘rhwau dy (kyNdrI Bwv) ƒ iDAwn ivc rKo 64


b.

Stay within the framework of the Shabad (topic and theme) Sbd dy dwiery ivc rho (ivSw qy pRsMg) c. Be consistent with interpretations of earlier Tuks in this Shabad ArQ ies qoN pihlIAW Sbd dIAW qukW dy ArQW nwl sihmq hox d. Be consistent with overall teaching of Gurbaannee ArQ gurbwxI dy aupdySW Anuswr nwl sihmq hox 6. Review your interpretation of the entire Shabad and amend for consistency as necessary swry Sbd dI iekswrqw dI pVcol kro Aqy loV Anuswr suDwr kr lvo[

Application (vrqoN) Example 1: ‘ikau lIjY gFu bMkw BweI’: Bhairon Baannee Bhagtaaˆˆn Kee- Kabeer Jee-o ‘ikau lIjY gFu bMkw BweI’: BYrau bwxI Bgqw kIkI- kbIr jIau

(pg 1161)

This first example beautifully describes the power of remembering God and the roles of Guroo as well as Saadh Saˆngat. This Shabad further describes how to get rid of human vices, adopt virtues, and achieve union with God. This is Bhagat Kabeer Jee’s Shabad in Bhairooˆn Raag. It has six Paday, which means it is an Ashttpadee. I picked this Shabad for the following reasons: 1. It sums up the concept of Sikhism in a single Shabad 2. Kabeer Jee’s Shabads are difficult and require contemplation to understand 3. Involves cultural understanding 4. Language used is not the mother tongue of the Paˆŋjaabees 5. It is ideal for demonstrating the merit of using this process for interpretation 6. Interpretation will involve most of the elements of interpretation methodology Step 1. Read the entire Shabad and punctuate it Shabad (Sbd) ikau lIjY gFu bMkw BweI ] dovr kot Aru qyvr KweI ]1] rhwau ] pWc pcIs moh md mqsr AwfI prbl mwieAw ] jn grIb ko joru n phucY khw krau rGurwieAw ]1] kwmu ikvwrI duKu suKu drvwnI pwpu puMnu drvwjw ] k®oDu pRDwnu mhw bf duMdr qh mnu mwvwsI rwjw ]2] sÍwd snwh topu mmqw ko kubuiD kmwn cFweI ] iqsnw qIr rhy Gt BIqir ieau gFu lIE n jweI ]3] pRym plIqw suriq hvweI golw igAwnu clwieAw ] bRhm Agin shjy prjwlI eykih cot isJwieAw ]4] squ sMqoKu lY lrny lwgw qory duie drvwjw ] swD sMgiq Aru gur kI ik®pw qy pkirE gF ko rwjw ]5] Bgvq BIir skiq ismrn kI ktI kwl BY PwsI ] dwsu kmIru ciV@E gV@ aUpir rwju lIE AibnwsI ]6]9]17] (pg 1161)

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Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) To punctuate this Shabad, I used only commas so that we can easily differentiate it from its Gurbaannee form. However, when the meaning is provided, I used other punctuation marks as appropriate. Each phrase within each line of the verse is separated by a comma. If more than two nouns or pronouns appear together, they are also separated by a comma. For additional information on punctuation, refer back to chapter 3. Punctuated Shabad (ivS (ivSrwmW smyq Sbd) ikau lIjY gFu bMkw, BweI ] dovr kot Aru qyvr KweI ]1] rhwau ] pWc, pcIs, moh, md, mqsr, AwfI prbl mwieAw ] jn grIb ko joru n phucY, khw krau, rGurwieAw ]1] kwmu ikvwrI, duKu suKu drvwnI, pwpu puMnu drvwjw] k®oDu pRDwnu mhw bf duMdr, qh mnu mwvwsI rwjw ]2] sÍwd snwh, topu mmqw ko, kubuiD kmwn cFweI ] iqsnw qIr rhy Gt BIqir, ieau gFu lIE n jweI ]3] pRym plIqw, suriq hvweI, golw igAwnu clwieAw ] bRhm Agin shjy prjwlI, eykih cot isJwieAw ]4] squ sMqoKu lY lrny lwgw, qory duie drvwjw ] swD sMgiq Aru gur kI ik®pw qy, pkirE gF ko rwjw ]5] Bgvq BIir skiq ismrn kI, ktI kwl BY PwsI ] dwsu kmIru ciV@E gV@ aUpir, rwju lIE AibnwsI ]6]9]17] Step 2. Read the entire Shabad (grasp topic and theme) One may have to read this Shabad several times in order to grasp its topic and the theme. Use a Paˆŋjaabee dictionary as an aid to understand the meaning of the difficult words. It will also make it easier for you to read the interpretations of others. However, your background may limit you to reference the interpretations only in English. But it should be sufficient to grasp both the topic and the theme of this Shabad. Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) Some of the key words of this Shabad provide hints to arrive at this topic and theme. The words are ‘gFu’ (fortress) in Rahaa-o, ‘prbl mwieAw’ (powerful Maa-i-aa) in the first Padaa, ‘mnu mwvwsI rwjw’ (mind the rebelling king) in the second Padaa, and the phrase ‘gFu lIE n jweI’ (unconquerable fortress) in the third Padaa. Putting all this together through contemplation, one can arrive at the idea that Kabeer Jee is talking about the rebelling king/mind under the influence of the powerful Maa-i-aa is using the human body as a fortress for protection. The topic of this Shabad appears to be “The battle between mind and soul.” The theme seems to be “How can the soul win this battle?” In this Ashttpadee of these six stanzas, the first three portray Kabeer Jee’s (soul’s) desperation and inability, and the last three stanzas show how the soul was able to conquer this fortress described in the Rahaa-o.

66


Step 3. Read Rahaa-o along with the first Padaa because ‘Rahaa-o’ is preceded with a numeral ‘]1]’. Contemplate and establish their relationship ikau lIjY gFu bMkw, BweI ] dovr kot Aru qyvr KweI ]1] rhwau ] pWc, pcIs, moh, md, mqsr, AwfI prbl mwieAw ] jn grIb ko joru n phu phucY, khw krau, rGurwieAw ]1] Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) The Rahaa-o Tuk alone does not provide any clue about this fortress. Is it a real fortress built out of mortar and stones, or is it just a simile used in a metaphoric expression. Once you combine it with the first Padaa, one can conclude that it is indeed a simile. The vices mentioned in the first Padaa also allude to the fact that we are talking about the human mind, which is effected by powerful mammon. By contemplation of the combination of these two Tuks, one can deduce that the human body is the fortress in the Rahaa-o Tuk. Step 4. Begin with the interpretation of the Rahaa-o first. Use the five-step analysis technique This is an extremely important step because it provides us with the centeral idea of this Shabad, which will help us to interpret the remaining Tuks of this Shabad. ikau lIjY gFu bMkw, BweI ] dovr kot Aru qyvr KweI ]1] rhwau ] pWc, pcIs, moh, md, mqsr, AwfI prbl mwieAw ] jn grIb ko joru n phucY, khw krau, rGurwieAw ]1] Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) We have previously learned to use the five-step analysis technique in the last chapter to interpret any Tuk of a Shabad. I am going to leave the application of that technique to this Shabad for your exercise and practice. However, I am providing you with the meaning derived from the use of that technique, so that you can compare it with your own analysis. When conducting the analysis, always keep the theme and the topic of the Shabad in view. Meaning: O brother, how can this beautiful solid fortress (human body built for the mind) be conquered (i.e., it is extremely difficult to control the mind)? It has double walls (duality in our mind) and triple moats (i.e., three characteristics of Maa-i-aa (mammon) - darker side of things, passion, and goodness). ]1] ]Pause] ]1] ] ArQ: hy BweI! ieh (srIr(srIr-rUp mn dw iklHw) p`kw iklHw ij~qnw AOKw hY (mn ƒ kwbU krnw bhuq hI muSkl hY) [ ies dy duAwly (dYÍq dI) dohrI &sIl (qy iqMn guxW dI – qmogux, rjogux, sqogux) qyhrI KweI hY[1[rhwau[ Step 5: Then interpret the first Padaa and repeat this step for the remaining Paday of the Shabad. Use the five-step analysis technique for all of the Paday. I have bolded the specific Padaa being interpreted.

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Interpretation of the first Padaa (pihly pdy dw Anuvwd) ikau lIjY gFu bMkw, BweI ] dovr kot Aru qyvr KweI ]1] rhwau ] pWc, pcIs, moh, md, mqsr, AwfI prbl mwieAw ] jn grIb ko joru n phucY, khw krau, rGurwieAw ]1] Meaning: O brother, how can this beautiful solid fortress (human body built for the mind) be conquered (i.e., it is extremely difficult to control the mind)? It has double walls (duality in our mind) and triple moats (i.e., three characteristics of Maa-i-aa (mammon) - darker side of things, passion, and goodness). ]1]Pause]1] With the support of the awesomely powerful Maa-i-aa, it is defended by the ever-ready army of five elements (i.e., sexual desire, anger, greed, attachment and ego) along with their twenty-five subcategories (i.e., malice, slandering, etc), attachment, pride, and jealousy. O God, the poor human being (soul alone) does not have the strength to win over these mighty forces (i.e., soul alone is helpless); (tell me,) what should I (my soul) do? ]1] ] ArQ: hy BweI! ieh (srIr-rUp mn dw iklHw) p`kw iklHw ij~qnw AOKw hY (mn ƒ kwbU krnw bhuq hI muSkl hY) [ ies dy duAwly (dYÍq dI) dohrI &sIl (qy iqMn guxW dI – qmogux, rjogux, sqogux) qyhrI KweI hY[1[rhwau[ bl vwlI mwieAw dw Awsrw lY ky pMj kwmwidk (kwm, kRoD, loB, moh, AhMkwr), Aqy pMJI q`q (vYr, cuglI Awid), moh, AhMkwr, eIrKw (dI &Oj lVn ƒ iqAwr hY) [ hy pRBU ! myrI ZrIb dI (iek~lI jIv Awqmw dI) qwkq nhIN hY (koeI pyS nhIN jWdI, d`s,) mYN kIh krW? [1[ Interpretation of the second Padaa (dUsry pdy dw Anuvwd) ikau lIjY gFu bMkw, BweI ] dovr kot Aru qyvr KweI ]1] rhwau ] pWc, pcIs, moh, md, mqsr, AwfI prbl mwieAw ] jn grIb ko joru n phucY, khw krau, rGurwieAw ]1] kwmu ikvwrI, duKu suKu drvwnI, pwpu puMnu drvwjw] k®oDu pRDwnu mhw bf duMdr, qh mnu mwvwsI rwjw ]2] Meaning: O brother, how can this beautiful solid fortress (human body built for the mind) be conquered (i.e., it is extremely difficult to control the mind)? It has double walls (duality in our mind) and triple moats (i.e., three characteristics of Maa-i-aa (mammon) - darker side of things, passion, and goodness). ]1]Pause]1] With the support of the awesomely powerful Maa-i-aa, it is defended by the ever-ready army of five elements (i.e., sexual desire, anger, greed, attachment and ego) along with their twenty-five subcategories (i.e., malice, slandering, etc), attachment, pride, and jealousy. O God, the poor human being (soul alone) does not have the strength to win over these mighty forces (i.e., soul alone is helpless); (tell me,) what should I (my soul) do? ]1] Sexual desire is the guard at the (fortress) entrance, pain and comfort are the doorkeepers (alluding to the doors for the palace within this fortress where the king/mind resides), sin and virtue are the doors (i.e., two doors for the palace), and anger is the valiant supreme commander of this fortress in which the rebel king/mind is residing (i.e., in the palace within a heavily protected fortress). ]2] ] ArQ: hy BweI! ieh (srIr-rUp mn dw iklHw) p`kw iklHw ij~qnw AOKw hY (mn ƒ kwbU krnw bhuq hI muSkl hY) [ ies dy duAwly (dYÍq dI) dohrI &sIl (qy iqMn guxW dI – qmogux, rjogux, sqogux) qyhrI KweI hY[1[rhwau[ bl vwlI mwieAw dw Awsrw lY ky pMj kwmwidk (kwm, kRoD, loB, moh, AhMkwr), 68


Aqy pMJI q`q (vYr, cuglI Awid), moh, AhMkwr, eIrKw (dI &Oj lVn ƒ iqAwr hY) [ hy pRBU ! myrI ZrIb dI (iek~lI jIv Awqmw dI) qwkq nhIN hY (koeI pyS nhIN jWdI, d`s,) mYN kIh krW? [1[ kwm (ies iklHy dy) bUhy dw mwlk hY, du~K qy su~K pihrydwr hn, pwp qy puMn (iklHy dy) drvwzy hn; bVw lVwkw ko®D (iklHy dw) cODrI hY, au~Qy (Aijhy suriKAq iklHy dy mhl AMdr) mn rwjw AwkI ho ky bYTw hY [2[ Interpretation of the third Padaa (qIsry pdy dw Anuvwd) ikau lIjY gFu bMkw, BweI ] dovr kot Aru qyvr KweI ]1] rhwau ] pWc, pcIs, moh, md, mqsr, AwfI prbl mwieAw ] jn grIb ko joru n phucY, khw krau, rGurwieAw ]1] kwmu ikvwrI, duKu suKu drvwnI, pwpu puMnu drvwjw] k®oDu pRDwnu mhw bf duMdr, qh mnu mwvwsI rwjw ]2] sÍwd snwh, topu mmqw ko, kubuiD kmwn cFweI ] iqsnw qIr rhy Gt BIqir, ieau gFu lIE n jweI ]3] Meaning: O brother, how can this beautiful solid fortress (human body built for the mind) be conquered (i.e., it is extremely difficult to control the mind)? It has double walls (duality in our mind) and triple moats (i.e., three characteristics of Maa-i-aa (mammon) - darker side of things, passion, and goodness). ]1]Pause]1] With the support of the awesomely powerful Maa-i-aa, it is defended by the ever-ready army of five elements (i.e., sexual desire, anger, greed, attachment and ego) along with their twenty-five subcategories (i.e., malice, slandering, etc), attachment, pride, and jealousy. O God, the poor human being (soul alone) does not have the strength to win over these mighty forces (i.e., soul alone is helpless); (tell me,) what should I (my soul) do? ]1] Sexual desire is the guard at the (fortress) entrance, pain and comfort are the doorkeepers (alluding to the doors for the palace within this fortress where the king/mind resides), sin and virtue are the doors (i.e., two doors for the palace), and anger is the valiant supreme commander of this fortress in which the rebel king/mind is residing (i.e., in the palace within a heavily protected fortress). ]2] The king/mind is wearing the armor of tastes (pleasures of tongue), the helmet of attachment, and the bows of corrupt intellect. The arrows of greed that fills his heart are ready to come out of the bow; this fortress is unconquerable (for me- my soul). ]3] ] ArQ: hy BweI! ieh (srIr-rUp mn dw iklHw) p`kw iklHw ij~qnw AOKw hY (mn ƒ kwbU krnw bhuq hI muSkl hY) [ ies dy duAwly (dYÍq dI) dohrI &sIl (qy iqMn guxW dI – qmogux, rjogux, sqogux) qyhrI KweI hY[1[rhwau[ bl vwlI mwieAw dw Awsrw lY ky pMj kwmwidk (kwm, kRoD, loB, moh, AhMkwr), Aqy pMJI q`q (vYr, cuglI Awid), moh, AhMkwr, eIrKw (dI &Oj lVn ƒ iqAwr hY) [ hy pRBU ! myrI ZrIb dI (iek~lI jIv Awqmw dI) qwkq nhIN hY (koeI pyS nhIN jWdI, d`s,) mYN kIh krW? [1[ kwm (ies iklHy dy) bUhy dw mwlk hY, duK qy suK pihrydwr hn, pwp qy puMn (iklHy dy) drvwzy hn; bVw lVwkw ko®D (iklHy dw) cODrI hY, auQy (Aijhy suriKAq iklHy dy mhl AMdr) mn rwjw AwkI ho ky bYTw hY [2[ (jIB dy) csky (mn(mn-rwjy ny) sMjoA (pihnI hoeI hY), mmqw dw top (pwieAw hoieAw hY), BYVI m`q dI kmwn k`sI hoeI hY; iq®Snw dy qIr AMdr hI AMdr k`sy hoey hn, Aijhw iklHw (mYQoN) ij`iqAw nhIN jw skdw [3[

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Interpretation of the fourth Padaa (cOQy pdy dw Anuvwd) If we carefully look at the wording of this Padaa, a shift in Bhagat Kabeer Jee’s message is apparent. We should read the remaining three Paday again to see where he is leading us. In the fourth and fifth Paday, Bhagat Jee is presenting the solution to the problem, which he eloquently depicted in the first three Paday. The message has become extremely optimistic and very inspiring for a common person. In addition, the last Padaa of this Shabad provides the positive consequence of this renewed effort to overcome the influence of Maa-i-aa and control our minds. ikau lIjY gFu bMkw, BweI ] dovr kot Aru qyvr KweI ]1] rhwau ] pWc, pcIs, moh, md, mqsr, AwfI prbl mwieAw ] jn grIb ko joru n phucY, khw krau, rGurwieAw ]1] kwmu ikvwrI, duKu suKu drvwnI, pwpu puMnu drvwjw] k®oDu pRDwnu mhw bf duMdr, qh mnu mwvwsI rwjw ]2] sÍwd snwh, topu mmqw ko, kubuiD kmwn cFweI ] iqsnw qIr rhy Gt BIqir, ieau gFu lIE n jweI ]3] pRym plIqw, suriq hvweI, golw igAwnu clwieAw ] bRhm Agin shjy prjwlI, eykih cot isJwieAw ]4] Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) Most of the words in this Padaa are very interesting and have deeper meanings. The very first word ‘pRym’ is clearly indicative of the shift from vices to virtues in this Shabad. The word ‘igAwnu’ needs some contemplation. According to the overall teachings of Sree Guroo Graˆnth Saahib Jee, the knowledge (Gi-aan) comes from the Guroo only, and the role of the Guroo is presented metaphorically in fighting the battle against the powerful vices. In addition, in the second part of this Padaa ‘bR bRhm Agin’ is mentioned. Earlier in this Shabad, we saw the mentioning of the word ‘iqsnw’, Agin’ according to Guroo ‘iqsnw’ which is also an ‘Agin’ Jee’s teachings. Simply, the word ‘Agin’ Agin’ means fire or burning, ‘iqsnw’ means worldly desires, and ‘bRhm’ means God. Therefore, Bhagat Kabeer Jee is strongly conveying the message that we should have a burning desire for God, i.e., unwavering devotion to God, in lieu of worldly possessions. One does not have the ability to bring about this change through his/her own efforts, no matter how hard they try. The link here is again to the ‘igAwnu’ of Guroo Jee, which has the capacity to bring this change. Meaning: O brother, how can this beautiful solid fortress (human body built for the mind) be conquered (i.e., it is extremely difficult to control the mind)? It has double walls (duality in our mind) and triple moats (i.e., three characteristics of Maa-i-aa (mammon) - darker side of things, passion, and goodness). ]1]Pause]1] With the support of the awesomely powerful Maa-i-aa, it is defended by the ever-ready army of five elements (i.e., sexual desire, anger, greed, attachment and ego) along with their twenty-five subcategories (i.e., malice, slandering, etc), attachment, pride, and jealousy. O God, the poor human being (soul alone) does not have the strength to win over these mighty forces (i.e., soul alone is helpless); (tell me,) what should I (my soul) do? ]1] Sexual desire is the guard at the (fortress) entrance, pain and comfort are the doorkeepers (alluding to the doors for the palace within this fortress where the king/mind resides), sin and virtue are the doors (i.e.,

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two doors for the palace), and anger is the valiant supreme commander of this fortress in which the rebel king/mind is residing (i.e., in the palace within a heavily protected fortress). ]2] The king/mind is wearing the armor of tastes (pleasures of tongue), the helmet of attachment, and the bows of corrupt intellect. The arrows of greed that fills his heart are ready to come out of the bow; this fortress is unconquerable (for me- my soul). ]3] (But when I came to God’s sanctuary) and made the divine love of God the fuse (for the cannon), lifted the cannon of attentiveness, and fired this cannon that was loaded with the bomb of spiritual wisdom (of the Guroo), the fire of God (i.e., longing for God in lieu of worldly desires) was lit through inner poise, and with a single shot (of the cannon), the fortress was easily taken (i.e., achieved success in crumbling the entire fortress). ]4] ] ArQ: hy BweI! ieh (srIr-rUp mn dw iklHw) p`kw iklHw ij~qnw AOKw hY (mn ƒ kwbU krnw bhuq hI muSkl hY) [ ies dy duAwly (dYÍq dI) dohrI &sIl (qy iqMn guxW dI – qmogux, rjogux, sqogux) qyhrI KweI hY[1[rhwau[ bl vwlI mwieAw dw Awsrw lY ky pMj kwmwidk (kwm, kRoD, loB, moh, AhMkwr), Aqy pMJI q`q (vYr, cuglI Awid), moh, AhMkwr, eIrKw (dI &Oj lVn ƒ iqAwr hY) [ hy pRBU ! myrI ZrIb dI (iek~lI jIv Awqmw dI) qwkq nhIN hY (koeI pyS nhIN jWdI, d`s,) mYN kIh krW? [1[ kwm (ies iklHy dy) bUhy dw mwlk hY, duK qy suK pihrydwr hn, pwp qy puMn (iklHy dy) drvwzy hn; bVw lVwkw ko®D (iklHy dw) cODrI hY, auQy (Aijhy suriKAq iklHy dy mhl AMdr) mn rwjw AwkI ho ky bYTw hY [2[(jIB dy) csky (mn-rwjy ny) sMjoA (pihnI hoeI hY), mmqw dw top (pwieAw hoieAw hY), BYVI m`q dI kmwn k`sI hoeI hY; iq®Snw dy qIr AMdr hI AMdr k`sy hoey hn, Aijhw iklHw (mYQoN) ij`iqAw nhIN jw skdw [3[(pr [(pr jdoN mYN pRBU-crnW dy) pRym dw dw (qop ƒ) plIqw lwieAw, (pRBU-crnW ivc juVI) surq ƒ hvweI (qop) bxwieAw, (gurU dy b^Sy) igAwn dw golw clwieAw, sihj AvsQw ivc A`pV ky AMdr r`bII-joq jgweI (imln dI qpS), qW ie`ko hI s`t nwl kwmXwbI ho geI (swrw hI iklHw Fwh idqw) [4[ Interpretation of the fifth Padaa (pMjvyN pdy dw Anuvwd) Again understanding the meanings of some of the key words or their combination in this Padaa guides us to the correct interpretation. The word ‘squ’ means truth, ‘sMqoKu’ means contentment, ‘swD sMgiq’ means Guroo Jee’s congregations, and ‘gur kI ik®pw’ means with the grace of Guroo. Just understanding the meanings of these key words provides us a clear picture of where Kabeer Jee wants to lead us. Thus to effectively fight the army of the mind consisting of vices, the soul needs the army of virtues to win this battle. These virtues come from the grace of Guroo Jee and being in the company of Guroo Jee’s congregations. The message is very clear that as a consequence of these efforts, one can bring his/her mind under complete control (i.e., captures the powerful, rebelling king/mind). ikau lIjY gFu bMkw, BweI ] dovr kot Aru qyvr KweI ]1] rhwau ] pWc, pcIs, moh, md, mqsr, AwfI prbl mwieAw ] jn grIb ko joru n phucY, khw krau, rGurwieAw ]1] kwmu ikvwrI, duKu suKu drvwnI, pwpu puMnu drvwjw] k®oDu pRDwnu mhw bf duMdr, qh mnu mwvwsI rwjw ]2] sÍwd snwh, topu mmqw ko, kubuiD kmwn cFweI ] iqsnw qIr rhy Gt BIqir, ieau gFu lIE n jweI ]3] pRym plIqw,

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suriq hvweI, golw igAwnu clwieAw ] bRhm Agin shjy prjwlI, eykih cot isJwieAw ]4] squ sMqoKu lY lrny lwgw, qory duie drvwjw ] swD sMgiq Aru gur kI ik®pw qy pkirE gF ko rwjw ]5] Meaning: O brother, how can this beautiful solid fortress (human body built for the mind) be conquered (i.e., it is extremely difficult to control the mind)? It has double walls (duality in our mind) and triple moats (i.e., three characteristics of Maa-i-aa (mammon) - darker side of things, passion, and goodness). ]1]Pause]1] With the support of the awesomely powerful Maa-i-aa, it is defended by the ever-ready army of five elements (i.e., sexual desire, anger, greed, attachment and ego) along with their twenty-five subcategories (i.e., malice, slandering, etc), attachment, pride, and jealousy. O God, the poor human being (soul alone) does not have the strength to win over these mighty forces (i.e., soul alone is helpless); (tell me,) what should I (my soul) do? ]1] Sexual desire is the guard at the (fortress) entrance, pain and comfort are the doorkeepers (alluding to the doors for the palace within this fortress where the king/mind resides), sin and virtue are the doors (i.e., two doors for the palace), and anger is the valiant supreme commander of this fortress in which the rebel king/mind is residing (i.e., in the palace within a heavily protected fortress). ]2] The king/mind is wearing the armor of tastes (pleasures of tongue), the helmet of attachment, and the bows of corrupt intellect. The arrows of greed that fills his heart are ready to come out of the bow; this fortress is unconquerable (for me- my soul). ]3] (But when I came to God’s sanctuary) and made the divine love of God the fuse (for the cannon), lifted the cannon of attentiveness, and fired this cannon that was loaded with the bomb of spiritual wisdom (of the Guroo), the fire of God (i.e., longing for God in lieu of worldly desires) was lit through inner poise, and with a single shot (of the cannon), the fortress was easily taken (i.e., achieved success in crumbling the entire fortress). ]4] Taking truth and contentment with me, I began the battle (i.e., against the army of anger, greed, etc.), stormed both the doors (sin and virtue) and tore them down. In the Saadh Saˆˆngat (the company of the Guroo’s congregations) and by Guroo’s Grace, I have captured the king (rebelling mind) of the fortress. ]5] ] ArQ: ArQ: hy BweI! ieh (srIr-rUp mn dw iklHw) p`kw iklHw ij~qnw AOKw hY (mn ƒ kwbU krnw bhuq hI muSkl hY) [ ies dy duAwly (dYÍq dI) dohrI &sIl (qy iqMn guxW dI – qmogux, rjogux, sqogux) qyhrI KweI hY[1[rhwau[ bl vwlI mwieAw dw Awsrw lY ky pMj kwmwidk (kwm, kRoD, loB, moh, AhMkwr), Aqy pMJI q`q (vYr, cuglI Awid), moh, AhMkwr, eIrKw (dI &Oj lVn ƒ iqAwr hY) [ hy pRBU ! myrI ZrIb dI (iek~lI jIv Awqmw dI) qwkq nhIN hY (koeI pyS nhIN jWdI, d`s,) mYN kIh krW? [1[ kwm (ies iklHy dy) bUhy dw mwlk hY, duK qy suK pihrydwr hn, pwp qy puMn (iklHy dy) drvwzy hn; bVw lVwkw ko®D (iklHy dw) cODrI hY, auQy (Aijhy suriKAq iklHy dy mhl AMdr) mn rwjw AwkI ho ky bYTw hY [2[(jIB dy) csky (mn-rwjy ny) sMjoA (pihnI hoeI hY), mmqw dw top (pwieAw hoieAw hY), BYVI m`q dI kmwn k`sI hoeI hY; iq®Snw dy qIr AMdr hI AMdr k`sy hoey hn, Aijhw iklHw (mYQoN) ij`iqAw nhIN jw skdw [3[(pr jdoN mYN pRBU-crnW dy) pRym dw (qop ƒ) plIqw lwieAw, (pRBU-crnW ivc juVI) surq ƒ hvweI (qop) bxwieAw, (gurU dy b^Sy) igAwn dw golw clwieAw, sihj AvsQw ivc A`pV ky AMdr r`bI-joq jgweI (imln dI qpS), qW ie`ko hI s`t nwl kwmXwbI ho geI (swrw hI iklHw Fwh idqw) [4[sq sq qy sMqoK lY ky mYN (aus &Oj dy twkry qy) lVn l`g ipAw, dovyN drvwzy (pwp Aqy puMn) mYN BMn ley, swD sMgq (gurU nwl juVx vwlI sMgq) Aqy gurU dI imhr nwl mYN iklHy dw (AwkI) rwjw PV ilAw [5[ 72


Interpretation of the sixth Padaa (CyvyN pdy dw Anuvwd) Now let us understand the meanings of some of the key words in the last Padaa of this Shabad. Meanings of most of the words are self-apparent and easy to understand. The word ‘Bgvq’ (a case word) means God’s devotees who do meditation, ‘BIir’ (a case word) literally means in crowd (Saˆngat), ‘skiq’ means power, ‘kwl’ means death, ‘PwsI’ noose of death, and ‘kmIru’ means Bhagat Kabeer Jee. The message of Kabeer Jee leaves no doubt that with devotional Naam meditation in the company of other devotees, one get rids of the fear of death and becomes liberated from the influence of Maa-i-aa. ikau lIjY gFu bMkw, BweI ] dovr kot Aru qyvr KweI ]1] rhwau ] pWc, pcIs, moh, md, mqsr, AwfI prbl mwieAw ] jn grIb ko joru n phucY, khw krau, rGurwieAw ]1] kwmu ikvwrI, duKu suKu drvwnI, pwpu puMnu drvwjw] k®oDu pRDwnu mhw bf duMdr, qh mnu mwvwsI rwjw ]2] sÍwd snwh, topu mmqw ko, kubuiD kmwn cFweI ] iqsnw qIr rhy Gt BIqir, ieau gFu lIE n jweI ]3] pRym plIqw, suriq hvweI, golw igAwnu clwieAw ] bRhm Agin shjy prjwlI, eykih cot isJwieAw ]4] squ sMqoKu lY lrny lwgw, qory duie drvwjw ] swD sMgiq Aru gur kI ik®pw qy pkirE gF ko rwjw ]5] Bgvq BIir skiq ismrn kI, ktI kwl BY PwsI ] dwsu kmIru ciV@E gV@ gV@ aUpir, rwju lIE AibnwsI ]6]9]17] Meaning: O brother, how can this beautiful solid fortress (human body built for the mind) be conquered (i.e., it is extremely difficult to control the mind)? It has double walls (duality in our mind) and triple moats (i.e., three characteristics of Maa-i-aa (mammon) - darker side of things, passion, and goodness). ]1]Pause]1] With the support of the awesomely powerful Maa-i-aa, it is defended by the ever-ready army of five elements (i.e., sexual desire, anger, greed, attachment and ego) along with their twenty-five subcategories (i.e., malice, slandering, etc), attachment, pride, and jealousy. O God, the poor human being (soul alone) does not have the strength to win over these mighty forces (i.e., soul alone is helpless); (tell me,) what should I (my soul) do? ]1] Sexual desire is the guard at the (fortress) entrance, pain and comfort are the doorkeepers (alluding to the doors for the palace within this fortress where the king/mind resides), sin and virtue are the doors (i.e., two doors for the palace), and anger is the valiant supreme commander of this fortress in which the rebel king/mind is residing (i.e., in the palace within a heavily protected fortress). ]2] The king/mind is wearing the armor of tastes (pleasures of tongue), the helmet of attachment, and the bows of corrupt intellect. The arrows of greed that fills his heart are ready to come out of the bow; this fortress is unconquerable (for me- my soul). ]3] (But when I came to God’s sanctuary) and made the divine love of God the fuse (for the cannon), lifted the cannon of attentiveness, and fired this cannon that was loaded with the bomb of spiritual wisdom (of the Guroo), the fire of God (i.e., longing for God in lieu of worldly desires) was lit through inner poise, and with a single shot (of the cannon), the fortress was easily taken (i.e., achieved success in crumbling the entire fortress). ]4] Taking truth and contentment with me, I began the battle (i.e., against the army of anger, greed, etc.), stormed both the doors (sin and virtue) and tore them down. In the Saadh Saˆngat (the company of the Guroo’s congregations) and by Guroo’s Grace, I have captured the king (rebelling mind)

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of the fortress. ]5] With the power of devotees ( i.e., the army of God’s devotees) and meditation, I have snapped the noose of death (i.e., noose of worldly fears). Slave Kameer (Kabeer) has climbed to the top of the fortress (i.e., took complete control of both body and mind), and attained the imperishable (spiritual) kingship (i.e., Kabeer Jee says that my soul became the king , and both the body and mind became its slaves). ]6] ]9] ]17] ] ArQ: hy BweI! ieh (srIr-rUp mn dw iklHw) p`kw iklHw ij~qnw AOKw hY (mn ƒ kwbU krnw bhuq hI muSkl hY) [ ies dy duAwly (dYÍq dI) dohrI &sIl (qy iqMn guxW dI – qmogux, rjogux, sqogux) qyhrI KweI hY[1[rhwau[ bl vwlI mwieAw dw Awsrw lY ky pMj kwmwidk (kwm, kRoD, loB, moh, AhMkwr), Aqy pMJI q`q (vYr, cuglI Awid), moh, AhMkwr, eIrKw (dI &Oj lVn ƒ iqAwr hY) [ hy pRBU ! myrI ZrIb dI (iek~lI jIv Awqmw dI) qwkq nhIN hY (koeI pyS nhIN jWdI, d`s,) mYN kIh krW? [1[ kwm (ies iklHy dy) bUhy dw mwlk hY, duK qy suK pihrydwr hn, pwp qy puMn (iklHy dy) drvwzy hn; bVw lVwkw ko®D (iklHy dw) cODrI hY, auQy (Aijhy suriKAq iklHy dy mhl AMdr) mn rwjw AwkI ho ky bYTw hY [2[(jIB dy) csky (mn-rwjy ny) sMjoA (pihnI hoeI hY), mmqw dw top (pwieAw hoieAw hY), BYVI m`q dI kmwn k`sI hoeI hY; iq®Snw dy qIr AMdr hI AMdr k`sy hoey hn, Aijhw iklHw (mYQoN) ij`iqAw nhIN jw skdw [3[(pr jdoN mYN pRBU-crnW dy) pRym dw (qop ƒ) plIqw lwieAw, (pRBU-crnW ivc juVI) surq ƒ hvweI (qop) bxwieAw, (gurU dy b^Sy) igAwn dw golw clwieAw, sihj AvsQw ivc A`pV ky AMdr r`bI-joq jgweI (imln dI qpS), qW ie`ko hI s`t nwl kwmXwbI ho geI (swrw hI iklHw Fwh idqw) [4[sq qy sMqoK lY ky mYN (aus &Oj dy twkry qy) lVn l`g ipAw, dovyN drvwzy (pwp Aqy puMn) mYN BMn ley, swD sMgq (gurU nwl juVx vwlI sMgq) Aqy gurU dI imhr nwl mYN iklHy dw (AwkI) rwjw PV ilAw [5[ BgqI krn vwlI sMgq qy ismrn dy bl nwl mYN kwl dI PwhI (dunIAw dy frW dI PwhI) v`F leI hY [ pRBU dw dws kmIr (kbIr) hux iklHy dy au~pr cVH bYTw hY (srIr Aqy mn ƒ v`s kr cuikAw hY), qy kdy nwh nws hox vwlI (Awqmk) Awqmk) bwdSwhI lY cu~kw hY (kbIr jI kih rhy hn ikh myrI Awqmw bwdSwh bx geI sI, srIr Aqy mn donoN hI gulwm bx gey sn) [6[9[17[ Step 6. Review your interpretation of the entire Shabad and amend for consistency as necessary. Special attention should be given to ensure consistency with the overall teachings of Guroo Jee and for a smooth flow. This is the last step of this technique and completes our interpretation of the entire Shabad. It is worth noting that with proper technique, tools, and reasonable effort, it becomes much easier to interpret even the most difficult Shabads. Bottom-Line Analysis (Cwx bIx bIx dw incoV): ): All human beings are helpless to overcome the power of Maa-i-aa. However, through Guroo jee’s teachings and grace, in the company of Guroo’s congregations, and doing the devotion meditation (Naam Japnaa), one can achieve complete Salvation from Maa-i-aa.

Example2: First ‘Ashttpadee’ Sukhmanee Saahib- Guroo Arjan Dayv Jee (pg 262) pihlI ‘AstpdI’:su ‘AstpdI’:suKmnI swihbswihb- gurU Arjn Arjn dyv jI

(pg 262)

This second example has several unique qualities. It is from a very popular Baannee with the headings ‘Sukhmanee’ and ‘Maˆnglaacharan’. Most people recite it frequently.

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Sukhmanee Saahib has a single Rahaa-o, 24 Sloks, and 24 Ashttpadee-aaˆn. The topic for the Baannee is its name, “Sukhmanee.” Each Ashttpadee begins with a Slok followed by an Ashttpadee. Although the single Rahaa-o is contained in the first Ashttpadee, it covers the entire Baannee. A Slok provides the theme for each Ashttpadee. Each Ashttpadee constitutes a complete Shabad. Thus, each of the 24 Ashttpadee-aaˆn are long Shabads. However, each line of the verse in this entire Baannee is relatively short. Guroo Jee recited it in Paˆŋjaabee, therefore, it is easy to pronounce most of the words. For the purpose of brevity, I am combining some of the steps of the interpretation technique mentioned in the beginning of this chapter. For example, I am skipping step one and not presenting the punctuated version of the entire Shabad. However, each smaller part of the Shabad being interpretted shows the punctuation marks. This should allow you to compare your outcome if you prefer to follow each step. Shabad (Sbd) gauVI suKmnI mÚ 5 ] sloku ]

<> siqgur pRswid ]

Awid gurey nmh ] jugwid gurey nmh ] siqgurey nmh ] sRI gurdyvey nmh ]1] AstpdI ] ismrau ismir ismir suKu pwvau ] kil klys qn mwih imtwvau ] ismrau jwsu ibsuMBr eykY ] nwmu jpq Agnq AnykY ] byd purwn isMimRiq suDwK´r ] kIny rwm nwm iek AwK´r ] iknkw eyk ijsu jIA bswvY ] qw kI mihmw gnI n AwvY ] kWKI eykY drs quhwro ] nwnk aun sµig moih auDwro ]1] suKmnI suK AMimRq pRB nwmu ] Bgq jnw kY min ibsRwm ] rhwau ] pRB kY ismrin griB n bsY ] pRB kY ismrin dUKu jmu nsY ] pRB kY ismrin kwlu prhrY ] pRB kY ismrin dusmnu trY ] pRB ismrq kCu ibGnu n lwgY ] pRB kY ismrin Anidnu jwgY ] pRB kY ismrin Bau n ibAwpY ] pRB kY ismrin duKu n sMqwpY ] pRB kw ismrnu swD kY sµig ] srb inDwn nwnk hir rµig ]2] pRB kY ismrin iriD isiD nau iniD ] pRB kY ismrin igAwnu iDAwnu qqu buiD ] pRB kY ismrin jp qp pUjw ] pRB kY ismrin ibnsY dUjw ] pRB kY ismrin qIrQ iesnwnI ] pRB kY ismrin drgh mwnI ] pRB kY ismrin hoie su Blw ] pRB kY ismrin suPl Plw ] sy ismrih ijn Awip ismrwey ] nwnk qw kY lwgau pwey ]3] pRB kw ismrnu sB qy aUcw ] pRB kY ismrin auDry mUcw ] pRB kY ismrin iqRsnw buJY ] pRB kY ismrin sBu ikCu suJY ] pRB kY ismrin nwhI jm qRwsw ] pRB kY ismrin pUrn Awsw ] pRB kY ismrin mn kI mlu jwie ] AMimRq nwmu ird mwih smwie ] pRB jI bsih swD kI rsnw ] nwnk jn kw dwsin dsnw ]4] pRB kau ismrih sy DnvMqy ] pRB kau ismrih sy piqvMqy ] pRB kau ismrih sy jn prvwn ] pRB kau ismrih sy purK pRDwn ] pRB kau ismrih is bymuhqwjy ] pRB kau ismrih is srb ky rwjy ] pRB kau ismrih sy suKvwsI ] pRB kau ismrih sdw AibnwsI ] ismrn qy lwgy ijn Awip dieAwlw ] nwnk jn kI mMgY rvwlw ]5] pRB kau ismrih sy praupkwrI ] pRB kau ismrih iqn sd bilhwrI ] pRB kau ismrih sy muK suhwvy ] pRB kau ismrih iqn sUiK ibhwvY ] pRB kau ismrih iqn Awqmu jIqw ] pRB kau ismrih iqn inrml rIqw ] pRB kau ismrih iqn And Gnyry ] pRB kau ismrih bsih hir nyry] sMq ik®pw qy Anidnu jwig ] nwnk ismrnu pUrY Bwig ]6] pRB kY ismrin kwrj pUry ] pRB kY ismrin kbhu n JUry ] pRB kY ismrin hir gun bwnI ] pRB kY ismrin shij smwnI ] pRB kY ismrin inhcl Awsnu ] pRB kY ismrin kml ibgwsnu ] pRB kY ismrin Anhd Junkwr ] suKu pRB ismrn kw AMqu n pwr ] ismrih sy jn ijn kau pRB mieAw ] nwnk iqn jn srnI pieAw ]7] hir ismrnu

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kir Bgq pRgtwey ] hir ismrin lig byd aupwey ] hir ismrin Bey isD jqI dwqy ] hir ismrin nIc chu kuMt jwqy ] hir ismrin DwrI sB Drnw ] ismir ismir hir kwrn krnw ] hir ismrin kIE sgl Akwrw ] hir ismrn mih Awip inrMkwrw ] kir ikrpw ijsu Awip buJwieAw ] nwnk gurmuiK hir ismrnu iqin pwieAw ]8]1] (pg 262) Now we will interpret this Shabad by taking smaller parts at a time and continue to build until all parts of the Shabad are completed. I have only bolded the part that is being interpreted, but included all other preceding parts which have already been interpretted. This approach allows for a consistency check at a glance. gauVI suKmnI mÚ 5

<> siqgur pRswid ]

All Baanees in Sree Guroo Graˆnth Saahib Jee begin with a ‘Maˆˆnglaacharan’. It could be in its full or one of its abbreviate forms. In this case it is the abbreviated form ‘<> siqgur pRswid’. Customarily, it is always presented on the right half of the page in Sree Guroo Graˆnth Saahib Jee. Again, the meanings below pertain to the bolded portion. Meaning: only one God and the union with God is possible with Guroo’s Grace. ArQ: rb iek hY[ gurU dI myhr sdkw imldw hY[ gauVI, suKmnI, mÚ 5

<> siqgur pRswid ]

‘gauVI’ is the name of Raag, ‘suKmnI’ is the name of this Baannee, and ‘mÚ 5’ indicates that this Baannee is recited by Guroo Arjan Dayv Jee (fifth Naanak) Meaning: Sukhmanee- means “Mine of Comforts.” In other words, “That which provides all the comforts to one’s mind!” ArQ: ArQ: suKmnI‘suKW dI Kwn’[ dUjy A~KrW iv~c auh cIz jo ‘mn ƒ swry hI suK dyx vwlI’ hY[ mnI] sloku ] Awid gurey nmh ] jugwid gurey nmh ] siqgurey nmh ] sRI gurdyvey nmh ]1] Meaning: Slok (slo slok )- means “Couplet/Short Stanza.” Provides the theme of a topic. ArQ hY ‘XS dw gIq/CMd’[ ies iv~c ivSy dw pRsMg huMdw hY[ Theme (pR pRsM sg M ): ) ‘I bow to the Guroo’ ‘gurU ƒ nmskwr hY’

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] sloku ] Awid gurey nmh ] jugwid gurey nmh ] siqgurey nmh ] sRI gurdyvey nmh ]1] Meaning: I bow before the One, Who has been the Guroo (Guide) from the beginning of the Earth, Who was in existence from the beginning of ages, Who is the True Guroo (Guide) and Who is the Greatest of all the Guroos (Guides). ||1|| ArQ: (myrI) aus sB qoN v`fy (Akwl purK) ƒ nmskwr hY[(myrI) aus gurU ƒ nmskwr jo jugW dy ArQ: hY mu`F qoN hY[ siqgurU ƒ (myrI) nmskwr hY[ sRI gurdyv jI ƒ (myrI) nmskwr hY [1[ A Slok precedes each Ashttpadee in this entire Baannee. Since this is the first Slok, it is also an invocation along with being the theme for the first Ashttpadee. The next step is to interpret the Rahaa-o in view of the topic and its theme. gauVI suKmnI mÚ 5 ] sloku ]

<> siqgur pRswid ]

Awid gurey nmh ] jugwid gurey nmh ] siqgurey nmh ] sRI gurdyvey nmh ]1] AstpdI ] ismrau ismir ismir suKu pwvau ] kil klys qn mwih imtwvau ] ismrau jwsu ibsuMBr eykY ] nwmu jpq Agnq AnykY ] byd purwn isMimRiq suDwK´r ] kIny rwm nwm iek AwK´r ] iknkw eyk ijsu jIA bswvY ] qw kI mihmw gnI n AwvY ] kWKI eykY drs quhwro ] nwnk aun sµig moih auDwro ]1] suKmnI suK AMimRq pRB nwmu ] Bgq jnw kY min ibsRwm ] rhwau ] Meaning Rahaa-o (rhwau rhwau)- means ‘to pause.’ It provides the central idea (essence) of the Shabad and Baannee ArQ hn ‘Tihro’[ ies ivc sbd dw Aqy swrI bwxI dw BI kyNdrI Bwv (q~q) hY[ Rahaa-o: God’s Naam is eternal and comforting like a mine of all comforts. It abides in the minds of Bhagats Essence: Naam is Sukhmanee. It abides in the mind of Bhagats ArQ ‘rhwau’ : pRBU dw Amr krn vwlw qy suKdweI nwm (sB) suKW dI mxI hY; ies dw itkwxw BgqW dy ihrdy ivc hY [ q~q: nwm suKmnI hY[BgqW dw mn itkwxw hY[ Notes (it~pxIAW): (it~pxIAW) To use an aid for the interpretations, I have summarized below the topic, theme, and central idea of the Ashttpadee for quick reference Sukhmanee (Topic)- Mine of Comforts suKmnI (ivSw)- suKW dI Kwn Slok (Theme)I bow to the Guroo slok (pRsMg)- gurU ƒ nmskwr hY Rahaa-o (Essence)- Naam is Sukhmanee. Abides in Bhagats’ minds rhwau (q~q)nwm suKmnI hY[BgqW dw mn itkwxw hY

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AstpdI ] ismrau , ismir ismir suKu pwvau ] kil klys, qn mwih mwih imtwvau ] ismrau, jwsu ibsuMBr eykY ] nwmu jpq Agnq AnykY ] byd, purwn, isMimRiq suDwK´r ] kIny rwm nwm, iek AwK´r] iknkw eyk, ijsu jIA bswvY ] qw kI mihmw, gnI n AwvY ] kWKI eykY drs quhwro] nwnk aun sµig, g, moih auDwro]1] ]1] Meaning- (May I) remember God, and through continual remembrance of God (may I) find peace; (in this way may I) wipe out the worries and aguish from (my) body. (May I) remember in praise the One who sustains the whole universe and the One Who’s Name is uttered by countless beings. The Vaydaas, the Puraanaas and the Simritees also consider only the Name of the God to be the purest (among all utterances). That one, in whose heart God instills an iota of His Naam; the praises of his/her glory cannot be recounted. O God! those who yearn only for the blessing of Your Darshan (Company), keep me (Naanak) in their company, and save me along with them (from this horrific worldly ocean) ||1| ArQ: mYN (Akwl purK dw nwm) ismrW qy ismr ismr ky suK hwsl krW; (ies qrHW) srIr ivc (jo) du`K ibKWD (hn auhnW ƒ) imtw lvW[ ijs iek jgq pwlk (hrI) dw nwm AnykW qy Axigxq (jIv) jpdy hn, mYN (BI aus ƒ) ismrW[ vydW, purwnW qy isimRqIAW ny, iek Akwl purK dy nwm ƒ hI, sB qoN piv`q® nwm mµinAw hY[ ijs (mnu`K) dy jI ivc (Akwl purK Apnw nwm) QoVw ijhw BI vswauNdw hY, aus dI vifAweI ibAwn nhIN ho skdI [ (hy Akwl purK !) jo mnu`K qyry dIdwr dy cwhvwn hn, auhnW dI sMgiq ivc (r`K ky) mYƒ nwnk ƒ (sMswr swgr qoN) bcw lvo [1[ pRB kY ismrin griB n bsY ] pRB kY ismrin dUKu jmu nsY ] pRB kY ismrin kwlu prhrY ] pRB kY ismrin dusmnu trY ] pRB ismrq kCu ibGnu n lwgY ] pRB kY ismrin Anidnu jwgY ] pRB kY ismrin Bau n ibAwpY ] pRB kY ismrin duKu n sMqwpY ] pRB kw ismrnu swD kY sµig ] srb inDwn nwnk hir rµig ]2] Meaning: Remembering God, (one) does not enter into the womb (cycle of birth and death) again, and (one’s) suffering and the (fear of) messenger of death are dispelled. Remembering God, (fear of) death is eliminated, and one's enemies (vices) are repelled. Remembering God, no obstacles are met (in the path of life), because a God-remembering person remains vigilant (from vices), night and day. Remembering God, one is not overtaken by any fear, and one does not suffer from sorrow. The technique of remembering God is learnt in the Company of the Holy (Gurmukh); and the one who remembers God, O Naanak, (he/she believes that) the pleasure one gets by falling in Love with God is the worldly treasure for them. ||2|| ArQ: ArQ: pRBU dw ismrn krn nwl (jIv) jnm ivc nhIN AwauNdw, (jIv dw) duK qy jm (dw fr) dUr ho jWdw hY [ mOq (dw Bau) pry ht jWdw hY, (ivkwr rUpI) duSmn tl jWdw hY [pRBU ƒ ismirAW (izMdgI dy rwh ivc) koeI rukwvt nhIN pYNdI, (ikauNik) pRBU dw ismrn krn nwl (mnu`K) hr vyly (ivkwrW vloN) sucyq rihMdw hY [pRBU dw ismrn krn nwl (koeI) fr (jIv au~qy) dbwau nhIN pw skdw qy (koeI) du`K ivAwkul nhIN kr skdw [Akwl purK dw ismrn gurmuK dI sMgiq ivc (imldw hY); (Aqy jo mnu`K ismrn krdw hY, aus ƒ) hy nwnk ! Akwl purK dy ipAwr ivc (hI) (dunIAw dy) swry ^zwny (pRqIq huMdy hn) [2[

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pRB kY ismrin iriD, isiD, nau iniD ] pRB kY ismrin igAwnu, iDAwnu, qqu buiD ]pRB kY ismrin jp, qp, pUjw ] pRB kY ismrin ibnsY dUjw ] pRB kY ismrin qIrQ iesnwnI ] pRB kY ismrin drgh mwnI ] pRB kY ismrin hoie su Blw ] pRB kY ismrin suPl Plw ] sy ismrih, ijn Awip ismrwey ] nwnk qw kY lwgau pwey ]3] Meaning: Remembrance of God itself is wealth, miraculous spiritual powers and the nine treasures; in the remembrance of God are knowledge, concentration and the essence of wisdom. Remembrance of God itself is uttering, intense meditation, and (deity-) worship, (because) in the remembrance of God, duality is removed (considerations for equality with God are completely eradicated). In the remembrance of God, one becomes capable of taking (an internal) purifying bath (pilgrimage) of the soul, receives honor in the court of God; and everything appears to happen in God’s Will, and his/her (human-birth) flowers in fruition. They alone remember God, whom He inspires to meditate, (then say) O Naanak (I may) grasp the feet of those humble beings (persons who remember God). ||3|| ArQ— pRBU dy ismrn ivc (hI) swrIAW ir`DIAW is`DIAW qy nO ^zwny hn: pRB-ismrn ivc hI ArQ igAwn, suriq dw itkwau, Aqy jgq dy mUl (hrI) dI smJ vwlI bu`DI hY [pRBU dy ismrn ivc hI (swry) jwp qwp Aqy (dyv-) pUjw hn, (ikauNik) ismrn krn nwl pRBU qoN ibnw iksy hor aus vrgI hsqI dI hoNd dw i^Awl hI dUr ho jWdw hY [ismrn krn vwlw (Awqm-) qIrQ dw ieSnwn krn vwlw ho jweIdw hY, qy, drgwh ivc ie`zq imldI hY; jgq ivc jo ho irhw hY Blw pRqIq huMdw hY, Aqy mnu`K-jnm dw au~cw mnorQ is`D ho jWdw hY[(nwm) auhI ismrdy hn, ijnHW ƒ pRBU Awip pRyrdw hY, (qW qy, AwK) hy nwnk ! mYN auhnW (ismrn krn vwilAW) dI pYrIN l`gW [3[ pRB kw ismrnu sB qy aUcw ] pRB kY ismrin auDry mUcw ] pRB kY ismrin iqRsnw buJY ] pRB kY ismrin ismrin sBu ikCu suJY ] pRB kY ismrin nwhI jm qRwsw ] pRB kY ismrin pUrn Awsw ] pRB kY ismrin mn kI mlu jwie ] AMimRq nwmu ird mwih smwie ] pRB jI bsih swD kI rsnw ] nwnk jn kw dwsin dsnw ]4] Meaning: The remembrance of God is the best (effort) of all; in the remembrance of God, many are saved (from vices). In the remembrance of God, thirst (for mammon) quenches, because a person comes to know the reality. In the remembrance of God, the fear of messengers of death and the desires (of the human being) end. In the remembrance of God, one cleanses the filth of the mind’s vices, and absorbs the Ambrosial Naam, the Name of God, into the heart. God dwells upon the tongues of His Saints (because they are always in tune with God). Say Naanak! (May I) become the servant of God’s servants. ||4|| ArQ— ArQ— pRBU dw ismrn krnw (hor) swry (AwhrW) nwloN cMgw hY; pRBU dw ismrn krn nwl bhuq swry (jIv) (ivkwrW qoN) bc jWdy hn [pRBU dw ismrn krn nwl (mwieAw dI) iq®h imt jWdI hY, (ikauNik mwieAw dy) hryk (kyl) dI smJ pY jWdI hY [pRBU dw ismrn krn nwl jmW dw fr mu`k jWdw hY, qy, (jIv dI) Aws pUrn ho jWdI hY (Bwv, AwsW v`loN mn r`j jWdw hY) [pRBU dw ismrn kIiqAW mn dI (ivkwrW dI) mYl dUr ho jWdI hY, Aqy mnu`K dy ihrdy ivc (pRBU dw) Amr krn vwlw nwm itk jWdw hY [pRBU jI gurmuK mnu`KW dI jIB auqy v`sdy hn (Bwv, swD jn sdw pRBU ƒ jpdy hn) [ (AwK) hy nwnk ! (mYN) gurmuKW dy syvkW dw syvk (bxW) [4[

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pRB kau ismrih sy DnvMqy ] pRB kau ismrih sy piqvMqy ] pRB kau ismrih sy jn prvwn ] pRB kau ismrih sy purK pRDwn ] pRB kau ismrih is bymuhqwjy ] pRB kau ismrih is srb ky rwjy ] pRB kau ismrih sy suKvwsI ] pRB kau ismrih sdw AibnwsI ] ismrn qy lwgy ijn Awip dieAwlw ] nwnk jn kI mMgY rvwlw ]5] Meaning: Those who remember God are wealthy, and they are honorable. Those who remember God are accepted (in the Court of God) and are the most distinguished persons among all. Those who remember God are not dependent on anyone but are the rulers of all. Those who remember God dwell in peace, and become immortals forever. (But) they alone take to the remembrance of God, unto whom God shows His Mercy (directs), O Naanak! Only some fortunate individuals beg for the dust of the feet these Gurmukhs. ||5|| ArQ— ArQ— jo mnu`K pRBU ƒ ismrdy hn, auh DnwF hn, qy, auh ie`zq vwly hn [jo mnu`K pRBU ƒ ismrdy hn, auh mMny-pRmMny hoey hn, qy auh (sB mnu`KW qoN) cMgy hn [jo mnu`K pRBU ƒ ismrdy hn auh iksy dy muQwj nhIN hn, auh (qW sgoN) sB dy bwdSwh hn [jo mnu`K pRBU ƒ ismrdy hn auh suKI v`sdy hn Aqy sdw leI jnm mrn qoN rihq ho jWdy hn [(pr) pRB-ismrn ivc auhI mnu`K l`gdy hn ijnHW auqy pRBU Awip myhrbwn (huMdw hY); hy nwnk ! (koeI vf-BwgI) iehnW gurmuKW dI crn-DUV mMgdw hY [5[ pRB kau ismrih sy praupkwrI ] pRB kau ismrih iqn sd bilhwrI ] pRB kau ismrih sy muK suhwvy ] pRB kau ismrih iqn sUiK ibhwvY ] pRB kau ismrih iqn Awqmu jIqw ] pRB kau ismrih iqn inrml rIqw ] pRB kau ismrih iqn And Gnyry ] pRB kau ismrih bsih hir nyry] sMq ik®pw qy Anidnu jwig ] nwnk ismrnu pUrY Bwig ]6] Meaning: Those who remember God, they become generously helpful to others (altruism becomes their habit); to them, I am forever a sacrifice. Those who remember God - their faces (appear to be) beautiful, their lives pass by in peace. Those who remember God conquer their own souls, and their life-style becomes pure. Those who remember God, they experience joy after joy, because they are so close to God. By the Grace of the Saintly people, they can remain awake and aware (of meditation) night and day, O Naanak! This meditative remembrance comes only by perfect fortune . ||6|| ArQ— ArQ— jo mnu~K pRBU ƒ ismrdy hn, auh dUijAW nwl BlweI krn vwly bx jWdy hn; auhnW qoN (mYN) sdw sdky hW[ jo mn~uK pRBU ƒ ismrdy hn auhnW dy mUM sohxy (l~gdy) hn, auhnW dI (aumr) suK iv~c guzrdI hY[ jo mn~uK pRBU ƒ ismrdy hn, auh Awpxy Awp ƒ ij~q lYNdy hn Aqy auhnW dY izMdgI guzwrn dw qrIkw pivqR ho jWdw hY[ jo mn~uK pRBU ƒ ismrdy hn, auhnW ƒ KuSIAW hI KuSIAW hn, ikauN ik auh pRBU dI hzUrI iv~c v~sdy hn[ sMqW dI ikrpw nwl hI ieh hr vyly (ismrn dI) jwg Aw skdI hY; hy nwnk! ismrn (dI dwq) v~fI iksmq nwl (imldI hY) [6[ pRB kY ismrin kwrj pUry ] pRB kY ismrin kbhu n JUry ] pRB kY ismrin hir gun bwnI ] pRB kY ismrin shij smwnI ] pRB kY ismrin inhcl Awsnu ] pRB kY ismrin kml ibgwsnu ] pRB kY ismrin Anhd Junkwr ] suKu pRB ismrn kw AMqu n pwr ] ismrih sy jn ijn kau pRB mieAw ] nwnk iqn jn srnI srnI pieAw ]7]

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Meaning: Remembering God, one's (all) works are accomplished. Remembering God, one never grieves. Remembering God, one sings the Glorious Praises of God. Remembering God (means- develops the habit of praising God), and one stays absorbed in the state of equipoise. Remembering God, one’s position (posture of mind) becomes steadfast and the heart-lotus stays in blossom. Remembering God, the unstruck melody continually vibrates (means- remembering God, the peace that ensues is eternal). The peace from the meditative remembrance of God has no end or limitation. (Only) those persons Remember God on whom He showers His Grace; O Naanak! (Only a fortunate person) comes to the sanctuary of those humble beings. ||7| ArQ— ArQ— pRBU dw ismrn krn nwl mnu`K dy (swry) kMm pUry ho jWdy hn (Bwv, auh loVW dy ADIn nhIN rihMdw) Aqy kdy icMqw dy v`s nhIN hMudw [pRBU dw ismrn krn nwl, mnu`K Akwl purK dy gux hI aucwrdw hY (Bwv, aus ƒ is&iq-swlwh dI Awdq pY jWdI hY) Aqy shj AvsQw ivc itikAw rihMdw hY [pRBU dw ismrn krn nwl mnu`K dw (mn rUpI) Awsn foldw nhIN Aqy aus dy (ihrdy dw) kaul-Pu`l iKiVAw rihMdw hY [pRBU dw ismrn krn nwl (mnu`K dy AMdr) iek-rs sMgIq (ijhw) (huMdw rihMdw hY), (Bwv- pRBU dy ismrn qoN jo suK (aupjdw) hY auh (kdy) mu`kdw nhIN [auhI mnu`K (pRBU ƒ) ismrdy hn, ijnHW auqy pRBU dI myhr huMdI hY; hy nwnk ! (koeI vfBwgI) auhnW (ismrn krn vwly) jnW dI srxI pYNdw hY [7[ hir ismrnu kir Bgq pRgtwey ] hir ismrin lig byd aupwey ] hir ismrin Bey isD, jqI, dwqy ] hir ismrin nIc chu kuMt jwqy ] hir ismrin DwrI sB Drnw ] ismir ismir hir kwrn krnw ] hir ismrin kIE sgl Akwrw ] hir ismrn mih Awip inrMkwrw ] kir ikrpw ijsu Awip buJwieAw] nwnk, gurmuiK hir ismrnu iqin pwieAw ]8]1] (pg 262) Meaning: By Remembering God (by Simran), His devotees become famous (in the world). By indulging in Simran, (the sage) composed Vaydaas. By Simran, people became Sidhaas, celibates and givers. By Simran, the lowly became known everywhere in all four directions (world). The remembrance of God provides support to the whole (planet) Earth; (then O Brother!) always meditate (on the Naam of) God, the Creator. For the remembrance (Simran), God created the whole creation; where there is Simran, Formless God abides there. Whosoever God showers His Grace upon, he/she is bestowed with the understanding (of Simran), O Naanak, that person receives the gift of Simran through the Guroo. ||8||1|| ArQ— ArQ— pRBU dw ismrn kr ky Bgq (jgq ivc) mShUr huMdy hn, ismrn ivc hI juV ky (irSIAW ny) vyd (Awidk Drm pusqk) rcy [pRBU dy ismrn duAwrw hI mnu`K is`D bx gey, jqI bx gey, dwqy bx gey; ismrn dI brkiq nwl nIc mnu`K swry sMswr ivc prgt ho gey[ pRBU dy ismrn ny swrI DrqI ƒ Awsrw id`qw hoieAw hY; (qW qy hy BweI !) jgq dy krqw pRBU ƒ sdw ismr [pRBU ny ismrn vwsqy swrw jgq bxwieAw hY; ijQy ismrn hY EQy inrMkwr Awp v`sdw hY [myhr kr ky ijs mnu`K ƒ (ismrn krn dI) smJ dyNdw hY, hy nwnk ! aus mnu`K ny gurU duAwrw ismrn (dI dwq) pRwpq kr leI hY [8[1[ ‚

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Appendix I Vocabulary of Key Words of Gurbaannee This appendix lists some of the words from Gurbaannee which have unique as well common meanings of words. The common meanings are the same as Paˆŋjaabee language, and the unique ones do not apply to Paˆŋjaabee. The tables below contain both. However, I have bolded the unique ones. Knowing the meanings of the words in this appendix is very useful when interpreting Gurbaannee. I highly recommend that you become familiar with the meanings of this small list of words and make them a permanent part of your vocabulary. This will go a long way in understanding and interpreting Gurbaannee. Let us begin with a short list of single letter words in the table below. The bolded letters in the ‘word’ column appear quite frequently in Gurbaannee compared to others.

Word (A~Kr) ik ij jY ju jw jy jo c cy q qy qY n dY

Single Letter Gurbaannee Word Meanings Meaning (A~rQ) Paˆˆŋjaabee English kI, iks, kyqw jo, ijhVw, ijs ijs, ij~q, ij~q jX ho jo; jd, Agr, jy ijs, jW, jW jb, QW jy jo kw, dw qW, ky, dy kyvl, qW, qW qd au~pr, Eh, qoN, Aqy AqY Aq, qUM, aus dy, qYƒ, qyry, iqMn, QW, qoN, dy, qIk, syk nw dy ky

What, Who/What/Which Who,Which,That Who, Win, Hail When, If Whose, Or, When, Place If, In Case, Provided Who/Which/What/That Of His/Her Only, His/Her, Then On, He/She, From, And And, You, His/Her, You, Your, Three, Place, From, Upto, Heat No By Giving

Now let us look at some of the unique words of Gurbaannee that are either not used at all or, at least, not commonly used in today’s Paˆŋjaabee. There are several reasons for this, but the most apparent reason is that those words are from other Indian languages. Again, although the next table depicts only a small list of these words, knowing them will help you considerably in understanding Gurbaannee. As an example simply understanding that the

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word ‘hau’ is used in lieu of the Paˆŋjaabee word ‘mYN’ will help you tremendously in the interpretation of Gurbaannee.

Word (A~Kr) Air Ar srm hau ikau kwiFAw kwmxu kwmx kwmix klml iklivK krm Kqw jau jh jih qwVI inrbwx prcw pUrib poqY ibrid Bgiq Bgqu Bgq Bny mMq mMgl lB vKwxY

Meanings of Selected Words of Gurbaannee Meaning (A~rQ) Paˆˆŋjaabee English vYrI Aqy imhnq mYYN iks qrW/ik~dW, qrW/ik~dW, iks leI, ikauN AwiKAw jWdw hY tUxw iesqRIAW (bhu vcn) iesqRI (iek vcn) pwp bjr pwp bKiSS, bKiSS kMm doS jy, jON ij~Qy ij~Qy BgqI vwSnw rihq ipAwr pihlW p~ly p~l, Kzwny ivc, BwgW ivc mUl subwh BgqI Bgq (iek vcn) Bgq (bhu vcn) AwKdy hn aupdyS AnMd, KuSI ieMdRIAW dy rs AwKdw hY

Enemy And Diligence (Hard Work) I How, For Whom, Why Is Called Spell Women (Plural) Woman (Singular) Sin Serious Sin Gift/Boon/Blessing, Work Accusation If, Barley Where Where Devotion, Worship, Meditation Devoid of Sensual Desire Love Formerly, Previously In Fate/Destiny/Fortune Basic Nature Devotion, Worship, Meditation Devotee (Singular) Devotees (Plural) They Say Sermon, Lesson Bless, Happiness Sensual Pleasure Says

The table below demonstrates that Gurbaannee words have many different forms where Paˆŋjaabee is limited to a few forms of the same word. You will note that several forms have the same meaning but for grammatical or poetic reasons, each word needs a specific form.

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As we have already learned, the extra (different from Paˆŋjaabee words) Lagaaˆn Maatraaˆn in these variant forms serve the purpose of identifying the tense, number, or the case category of a word. If you want to learn to interpret Gurbaannee, you must know these Gurbaannee grammar rules. For example, notice the difference in the two separate forms of the basic word ‘gwv’ in the table below (i.e., ‘gwvy’ and ‘gwvY’). The word ‘gwvy’ is plural, whereas the word ‘gwvY’ is singular. However, for poetic reasons, the choice of a word form is purely Guroo Jee’s preference. For example, we are familiar with the words ‘gwvih’ and ‘gwvin’ from “Jap Jee Saahib” and “Raihraas Saahib.” As you will notice from the table below, both have the same meaning.

Meanings of Different Forms of Gurbaannee’s Basic Word gwv Meaning (A~rQ) Word (A~Kr) Paˆˆŋjaabee English gwv gwau

gw (iek vcn, BivKq), ipMf mYN gwauNdw hW(iek vcn, vrqmwn), ipMf

gwvw gwvy gwvY gwvin gwvih gwvis gwvsI gwvnI gwvw gwvwey gwvwvih gwvwhw gwvIey gwvIAY gwvIjY gvIqw gwvo gwvhu gwvIAih

gWvW, gwien krW (iek vcn, BivKq) gWdy hn (bhu vcn, vrqmwn) gWdw hY (iek vcn, vrqmwn) gWdy hn (bhu vcn, vrqmwn) gwauNdy hn (bhu vcn, vrqmwn) gwvygw, gwauNdw (iek vcn, BivKq) gwvygw, gwauNdw (iek vcn, BivKq) gwaux dI rIq mY gWvW, gwien krW (iek vcn, BivKq) gwien krwey (iek vcn, BivKq) gwien krWey (iek vcn, vrqmwn) gwien krWaudw hY (iek vcn, vrqmwn) gweIey (bhu vcn, BivKq) gweIey (gwien krnw cwhIdw hY) gweIey, gwien krIjy (bhu vcn, BivKq) gwien kIqw (BUq kwl) qusIN gwvo (bhu vcn, BivKq) gwien kro (bhu vcn, BivKq) gwien krIdy hn (bhu vcn, vrqmwn)

Sing (Singular, Future Tense), Village I’m Singing (Singular, Present Tense), Village, Shall I sing Are Singing Is Singing Are Singing Are Singing Will Sing, Singing Will Sing, Singing Singing Custom Shall I sing Will ask to sing Is making you sing He Is making you sing Should we sing Need to Sing You should sing Sang You Sing You Sing Are for singing

Another useful tool for understanding Gurbaannee is to know the names of animals used in Gurbaannee. These names in Gurbaannee, mostly from Paˆŋjaabee, indicate the

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inclination/tendencies of one’s mind. Understanding the meanings of the words in the following table will greatly help you in interpreting Shabads of Bhagat Kabeer Jee.

Word (A~Kr) aUT krhlw Syr kCU kuqw kuqy gDhw cUhw, mUsw bkrI iblI bld BYNsw

Meanings of Words Relating to Animal Names Meaning (A~rQ) Paˆˆŋjaabee English Btkx vwlI ibrqI

Wandering, Roaming Tendencies

AhMkwr vwlI ibrqI (kihr) SrmSIl (frpok) ibrqI loB vwlI ibrqI qmoguxI ieMdRIAW kwmI (Koqy) vwlI ibrqI dunIAw dy pdwrQ, jm

Egotistic Tendencies (Wrath)

grIbI (kmzor) vwlI ibrqI inmRqw vwlI ibrqI Awls (bld) vwlI ibrqI AVb (Jot)y ibrqI

Meek Tendencies Politeness Tendencies Lazy Tendencies Stubborn Tendencies

Modest Tendencies Greedy Tendencies Complete Ignorant Tendencies Lustful Tendencies Worldly Things, Messenger of Death

The next table contains the names of living beings. However, in Gurbaannee, they represent specific meanings that are different than a mere name as indicated in the table below.

Word (A~Kr)

Some Meanings of Words Relating to Beings Meaning (A~rQ) Paˆˆŋjaabee English

Kr cUhw lirkw

gDw (byvkUP) frpok kwm, kRoD, loB, moh, AhMkwr

lirkI

Awsw, iqRSnw, eIrKw

(mwieAw dy pMj lVky )

(mwieAw dIAW iqMn DIAW)

Donkey (Stupid) Coward Lust, Anger, Greed, Attachment, Egotistic Pride (Five Sons of Maa-i-aa) Hope, Anxiety, Jealousy/Envy (Three Daughters of Maa-i-aa)

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Appendix II Common Phrases/Idioms Every culture in the world has its own phrases and idioms. Even subcultures may differ in their interpretations or have their own unique ones. As an example, in America “run for office” is very commonly used phrase. On the other hand, in England “stand for office” is used to mean the same thing. They both mean, “seek a position in office,” however, the literal meanings are opposite. Similarly, Gurbaannee contains phrases/idioms from many cultures/subcultures. Many of the Bhagats, whose Baannee is contained in Sree Guroo Graˆnth Saahib Jee were from different provinces with different cultures/subcultures. Furthermore, Guroo Jees traveled a lot and visited many different areas in India and surrounding countries, especially Guroo Naanak Dayv Jee. Wherever Guroo Jees went, they preached local audiences using appropriate language so that they could understand. Unless the phrases and idioms are interpreted in the overall context taking cultural aspect in consideration, you will arrive at different meanings. Therefore, it is extremely important to understand the meanings of Gurbaannee phrases and idioms in the context they are used. Below, I have included many of the phrases/idioms used in Gurbaannee. Most of this material is from reference 3. I added few and provided the meanings in English along with the interpretation of the Gurbaannee Tuks where appropriate.

Table: Noun Phrases (nWvokqIAW) Noun Phrase (nWvokqI) Epiq Kpiq Awl jwl Awlu pqwlu Alu mlu suK swiq swK sWid saudw sUdu sogu dUKu sUJ bUJ isPiq snweI swiJ pwiq sr Apsr 86

Meaning (A~rQ) Paˆˆŋjaabee (pMjwbI) auqpqI dw nws duinAwvI/pirvwrk JMJyly aUl-jlUl jUT pUrn suK hwl cwl saudw-pqR klyS smJ vifAweI ie~zq dI sWJ, BweIcwrw cMgw mMdw smw

English (AMgryzI) Destruction of Creation Worldly/Family Ties (Entanglements) Nonsense Filth and Refuse, Rubbish Peace and Comfort Welfare Goods, Belongings Throes, Agony Sense, Comprehension Praise, Laudation Brotherhood, Share Respect Good and Bad Times


Table (continued): Noun Phrases (nWvokqIAW) Noun Phrase (nWvokqI) hwtI bwtI kcu ipc bolxw kil klys kUVu kusqu kUVu kbwVu giq imiq qMqu mMq Qwau kuQwau piq swKu mqw msUriq ruK ibrK rol Gcolw lok pcwrw vxu iqxu vlu Clu

Meaning (A~rQ) Paˆˆŋjaabee (pMjwbI) ikrq-kwr iP~kw bolxw duK JUT kUV kus~qu jwxkwrI tUxw cMgw mMdI QW ie~zq slwh-mSvrw bnspqI rOlw-gOlw idKwvw, lokW dI rIiq krnI bnspqI Pryb, DoKw

English (AMgryzI) Occupation, Business Rude, Discourteous talk Suffering Lie Lie Complete Knowledge/Information Spell, Hex, Witchcraft Good or Bad Place Honor, Respect Consultation, Conference Vegetation, Foliage Confusion Follow the Crowd Vegetation, Foliage Fraud

Now let us look at some of the commonly used idioms in Gurbaannee

Table: Idioms (khwvqW) Idiom khwvq gµgw kw nIr cwKu lgxI cwVI KwxI icq ivc pwauxw CweI mweI ho jwxw

Meanings A~rQ

Use in Gurbaannee gurbwxI iv~c vrqoN

mhW pivqR qy inrml

so igrhI ‘gµgw kw nIr’]

Extremely pure & immaculate

Such a householder is as ‘pure as the water of the Ganges’.

952

nzr l~g jwxI

qMq mMq nh joheI iqqu ‘cwKu n lwgY’]

Harmed by evil eye

He is not affected by charms and spells, nor is he ‘harmed by the evil eye’.

818

cuglI lwxI

lok muhwvih ‘cwVI Kwih’]

To slander/backbite

They slander people (to authorities) and get them plundered

951

prvwh krnI

iks hI ‘iciq n pwveI’ ibsirAw sB swk ]

To care about

(Intoxicated by Maa-i-aa) you ‘care about’ nothing else, and You have (even) forgotten all your relatives.

CW Xw prCWvy vWg nws jW lop ho jwxw To vanish like a shade or shadow

42

khw su pwn qMbolI hrmw ‘hoeIAw CweI mweI’] 417 Where are those betel leaves, their sellers, and the haremees? They have ‘vanished like shadows’.

87


Table (continued): Idioms (khwvqW) Idiom khwvq Cihbr lw ky v~sxw

Th mwrnw

faurU vjw ky Qwie pYxw duK suK kr ky duK roxy

duie duie locn pyKxw dulIcw pw ky bihxw

nk sr hoxw

nK isK cInxw

nYx Aloie dyKxw nYn pswr dyKxw nIr ivrolxw pweI BrI jwxI

88

Meanings A~rQ

Use in Gurbaannee gurbwxI iv~c vrqoN

Bhuq vrKw hoxI

duK BuK kwVw sBu cukwiesI mIhu ‘vuTw Cihbr lwie’]

Rain fall in torrents

When the ‘rain falls in torrents’, it ends all pain, hunger and sultry weather.

QW mwr dyxw, jwnoN mukw dyxw

dusmn dUq jmkwlu ‘Tyh mwrau’ hir syvk nyiV n jweI jIau] 998

To kill on the spot (instantly)

One (who meditates on Naam) is enabled to ‘kill instantly’, the evil enemies and the Messengers of Death (Spiritual Death)’; the death does not even approach God’s servant.

g~j v~j ky, bl dy mwx qy

ijnu sIqw AwdI ‘faurU vwie’] 954

With pomp & show/elegantly

Who brought Seetaa ‘with pomp and show’

1250

kbUl hoxw Xw prvwx hoxw

sbid imlih qw hir imlY syvw ‘pvY sB Qwie’]

To be accepted/recognized

When souls realize Shabad, God meets them, and all their service ‘is accepted’.

duKW ƒ suK jwxky Accepting pain and sufferings smilingly

‘duKu suKu kir kY’ kutMb jIvwieAw]

27

792

‘Through hardships’ (accepting pains as pleasures); you have taken care of your family (all your life).

kIrny pwauxy, duK Prolxy

jo moih mwieAw icqu lwiedy sy Coif cly ‘duKu roie’]

To painfully telling one’s own sufferings /woeful story

Those who focus their consciousness on emotional attachment of Maa-i-aa; they depart (when death approaches) in despair while ‘painfully telling about their own sufferings’.

cMgI qrHW cuPyry q~kxw

‘duie duie locn pyKw’] hau hir ibnu Aauru n dyKw] 655

To Look around with both eyes

‘With both of my eyes, I look around’ (now); I do not see anything except God.

sdw leI kwiem rihxw

bIjau sUJYy ko nhI ‘bhY dulIcw pwie’] 936

To occupy a position permanently

I cannot conceive of anyone, who ‘remained (here) permanently’.

n~k-ijMd Aw jwxI

ieh muMfIAw sglo dRbu KoeI] Awvq jwq ‘nwk sr hoeI’]871

Difficult to exist

This (my husband) Sadhu wastes all his wealth, (and my) ‘existence has become difficult’ due the continual coming and going of his companions.

81

cMgI qrHW pVqwl krnI

jb ‘nK isK iehu mnu cIn@w’] qb AMqir mjnu kInw] 972

To thoroughly scrutinize (from tips of my toes to the crown of my head)

(Now) when I see my mind, from the ‘tips of my toes to the crown of my head’, then I am taking my cleansing bath, deep within my self.

ghu nwl vyKxw

siB Qwn ‘dyKy nYx Aloie’] iqsu ibnu dUjw Avr n koie]

To look carefully (with eyes wide open)

(He/She) ‘sees all places with eyes wide open’, (and) does not see other than Him (God).

ghu nwl vyKxw

khw su BweI mIq hy ‘dyKu nYn pswir’]

To look around carefully

Hey (fool)! ‘open your eyes and look around carefully’, where have your brothers and friends gone?

ivArQ kMm krny

dUjy Bwie sdw duKu hY ‘inq nIr ivroly’]

(pwxI irVkxw)

915

808

955

work hard without any fruits (like churning the water)

(He/She is doing a ‘useless effort endlessly (like churning the water)’.and always suffers in the love of duality.

aumr mu~k jwxI

muhliq punI ‘pweI BrI’ jwnIAVw Giq clwieAw] 578

One’s time is up (Life comes to end –death)

When ‘one's time is up (Life ends)’, the soul (dear friend of the body) is caught, and taken forward.


Table (continued): Idioms (khwvqW) Idiom khwvq pY sauxw pwsw Fwlxw ptMbr qwx sauxw poqY puMn hoxw ipV m~l ky

bIs ibsuey bWh lufw ky qurnw

Meanings A~rQ by-prvwh ho ky sOxw

inMdRw ibnu nru ‘pY sovY’] ibnu bwsn KIru iblovY] 1194

To sleep care free

(Due to the effect of Kaljug) Without feeling sleepy, mind is ‘sleeping care freely’, and is churning milk without a churn.

caupV dI bwjI KyfxI

khu kbIr qy jn kbhu n hwrih ‘Fwil ju jwnih pwsw’] 793

To play a game in which you throw dice

Say Kabeer, those humble beings who ‘know how to throw these dice (of meditation)’, they never depart losing the game of life.

insicMq ho jwxw

mMdir ‘sovih ptMbr qwin’] 971

Carefree sleep

You ‘sleep care freely (in the blankets of silk)’ in your mansion.

cMgy Bwg hoxy

(ply BlweI hoxI)

bldI AMdr qyl Gqxw Bs puxydy v~qxw mMUh dyxw

muhqwjI kfxw mrx jIvx kau AwvY rwis rws krnw

ijn kau ‘poqY puMnu hY” iqin vwiq ispIqI]

951

Having good fate

Those who have ‘good fate’ (predetermined by God prior to birth), utter the Praises of God.

bwzI ij~q ky

ijsu qUM mylih so imlY jwie scw ‘ipVu mil’]

Win the game in the arena

(O mind pray to God and say) O God! the one whom You unite, (only) he/she gets union with You and departs as the ‘winner in the Arena’ of Truth.

pUry qOr qy

‘bIs ibsuey’ jw mn Thrwny]

Completely, totally

Now when my mind is ‘totally’ held in check (tranquility),

AhMkwr ivc msq ho ky qurnw To walk intoxicated with pride

bx AwauxI

Use in Gurbaannee gurbwxI iv~c vrqoN

60

887

suix suix kwm ghylIey ikAw ‘clih bwh lfwie’] 37 By listening (to your own self) again and again, O soul-bride (trader of falsehood): you are overtaken by sexual desire-why do you walk intoxicated with pride (like swinging your arms in joy)’?

P~bxw, idl lg jwxI

kQn khx kau soJI nhI jo pyKY iqsu ‘bix AwvY’] 883

Embellish, realize

(To say the glories of that priceless thing) no one’s intelect could work; yes, the one who sees it ‘embellishes’ it.

iksy ivgVy kMm ƒ hor ivgwVnw To make bad things worse like pouring the oil on fire Kyh Cwxdy iPrnw, t~krW mwrnw To perform wasteful efforts (like sifting dust)

‘bldI AMdir qylu duibdw GiqAw’]

1289

Duality makes bad things worse (like pouring the oil on fire)’.

hBy ‘Bsu puxydy vqnu’ jw mY sjxu qU hY]

963

O God, if You become my Friend, then they can all continue to perform wasteful efforts’ (like sifting the dust).

swhmxy hoxw, m~Qy lgxw

Awpxw ipru n pCwxhI ikAw ‘muhu dysih’ jwie] 37

To show face (to see someone)

(In your self interest) Now you do not recognize your own Husband God! When you go to the next word, what ‘face will you show’ there?

ArQIey hoxw

iqs kI ‘muhqwjI loku kFdw’ horq ht n vQu n vyswhu] 852

To pledge allegiance

People ‘pledge their allegiance’ to him; no other store stocks this merchandise, nor deals in this trade.

v~sx vwsqy

‘mrx jIvx kau’ DrqI dInI eyqy gux ivsry] 877

For living

(God) gave humans the earth ‘for living (to die and to live)’, but they have forgotten so many of His blessings by forgetting Him.

P~bxw, lwhyvMd hoxw

kIAw grbu n ‘AwvY rwis’]

Become profitable

Taking pride shall never ‘become profitable’.

154

svwrnw

Awip ibnwhy ‘Awip kry rwis’]

To restore, mend way

He Himself annihilates, and He Himself ‘mends the way’ for achieving the objective of the life.

179

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Table (continued): Idioms (khwvqW) Idiom khwvq lk bMn Kloxw lvY lwauxw l~V lw lYxw

Meanings A~rQ

Use in Gurbaannee gurbwxI iv~c vrqoN

qqpr rhxw, iqAwr rhxw

Agly muey is pwCY pry] jo aubry ‘sy bMiD lku Kry’]

Ever ready

Those elders who have died have been forgotten, and their survivors are ‘Ever ready (have fastened their belts)’ to go.

178

brwbrI krnw

hir jyhw Avru n idseI koeI dUjw ‘lvY n lwie’] 136

To become equal

There is no other like God, and there is ‘no equal to Him’.

Apnwxw, shwieqw krnI

Awip ‘lIey liV’ ikrpw DwrIAw jIau]

Commitment To help

The ones God showers His Mercy with, He Himself ‘helps them (attach them to the hem of His robe)’.

691

ivx pwxI fub mrnw

aumr AjweIN gvw lYxI

mnmuiK iPrih sdw duKu pwvih ‘fUib mUey ivxu pwxI’]

To waste life

The self-willed Manmukhs wander around, suffering in constant pain; they waste their lives (drown and die, even without water)’.

pau mu~kxy

pMD (sPr) mu~k jwxy

guru Amrdwsu prsIAY iDAwnu lhIAY ‘pau mukih’]

Journeys end

By touching the feet of Guroo Amar Daas, the mortals meditate on God, and their ‘journeys end’.

kysW qoN PV ky hyT sutxw

inMdk mwrY qqkwil iKnu itkn n idqy] ‘mQy vwil pCwiVAnu’ jm mwrg muqy] 523

mQy vwl pCwVnw

To throw down on the ground by grabbing hair

1394

The slanderers (of Gurmukhs) are destroyed in an instant; they are not spared for even a moment. ‘grabbing them by the hair on their heads, God throws them down on the ground’, and leaves them on the path of Death.

90

602


Appendix III Shabads (Sbd) Use of Case in Gurbaannee (gurbwxI ivc kwrk dI vrqoN) In Chapter 5, we learned how to use a systematic approach to interpret the meanings of Gurbaannee Tuks. As we know now, the use of case is quite extensive throughout Gurbaannee. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to have a clear understanding of the case types and their differences. Although we have discussed and seen some examples in the main text, I feel additional coverage is warranted. This two-part appendix is designed to present additional examples for your study. The first part elaborates on the case types, and the second part gives you the interpretations of some difficult Tuks from Gurbaannee.

Part 1: Case Types (kwrk dIAW iksmwN) This first part starts with a specific example for each of the eight different types of case. You have the option to use these examples as exercises to broaden your knowledge of all eight types of case or select a specific type where you need further practice. Each example depicts the resulting chart from my use of the five-step approach. In essence, these examples provide you with a learning tool for your study. You can perform your own analysis of the Tuk as an exercise and then compare it with the chart in this appendix. Before proceeding any further, review the two charts of abbreviations at the end of this book. These abbreviations are exentensively used in the analyses Tables.

Specific Example Tuks for Your Study As you have seen in chapter five, each Gurbaannee Tuk usually contains several words representing different case types. To make it easier for your study, I have only bolded a single word in each of the example Tukaaˆn below which indicates the case type you want to learn more about. The first Tuk exemplifies the ‘nominative’ case. The second Tuk demonstrates ‘objective’ case, and so on. In this way, each Tuk provides an example to cover all eight case types. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

myrw guru hoAw Awip shweI ] (pg 615) gux gwvY suK shij invwsu ] (pg 932) Awpu gieAw soJI peI gur sbdI mylw ]1] rhwau ] (pg 421) bilhwrI gur Awpxy idauhwVI sd vwr ] (pg 462) nYnhu nIru bhY qnu KInw Bey kys duD vwnI ] (pg 659) mwnu mhqu n skiq hI kweI swDw dwsI QIE ] (pg 803) mnih kmwvY muiK hir hir bolY ] (pg 189) guru sMq jno ipAwrw mY imilAw myrI iqRsnw buiJ geIAwsy ] (pg 776)

Note (it~pxI): (it~pxI) The above Tukaaˆn are specifically selected for demonstrating the eight different types of case In all of these examples, if the punctuation is not correct, the meanings will not make sense at all. They will not be consistent with the basic teachings of Sikhism. Although the focus of

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this part is case type, I encourage you to examine each Tuk very carefully to understand the impact of case type as well as the wrong punctuation. The next part will specifically focus on the impact of punctuation. Use these tukaan as a learning exercise. Apply the grammatical rules and the analysis techniques you have learned in the earlier chapters of this book. This exercise will aid you in developing the basic skills for determining the correct meanings of any Gurbaannee Tuk and will create a solid foundation for interpreting Gurbaannee in general. As I pointed out earlier, the use of the scientific approach leads to the correct meanings. You will be applying the same procedures to ensure consistent meanings. This scientific “Five Step” approach prescribed in this book is based on Gurbaannee grammar developed by well-known scholars of Gurbaannee. Pbhaa-ee Saahib Singh Jee devoted nearly twelve and a half years to documenting Gurmukhee grammar. Let us begin with the first example and apply this five-step approach.

Example 1. Nominative Case Shabad (Sbd): soriT mhlw 5] krx krwvhwr pRB dwqw pwrbRhm pRBu suAwmI ] sgly jIA

kIey dieAwlw so pRBu AMqrjwmI ]1] myrw guru Awip hoAw shweI ] sUK shj AwnMd mMgl rs Acrj BeI bfweI ]rhwau] gur kI srix Bie BY nwsy swcI drgh mwny ] gux gwvq AwrwiD nwmu hir Awey Apuny Qwn y]2] jY jY kwru krY sB ausqiq sMgiq swD ipAwrI ] sd bilhwir jwau pRB Apuny ijin pUrn pYj svwrI ]3] gosit igAwnu nwmu suix auDry ijin ijin drsnu pwieAw ] BieE ikRpwlu nwnk pRBu Apunw And syqI Gir AwieAw ] (pg 615)

Case Type kwrk iksm

Example 1. Nominative Case (krqw kwrk)

1. myrw guru hoAw Awip shweI ] (pg 615) Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) Nominative krqw 1. Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx Objective muqwbk vMf kro) krm 2. Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) Instrumental 3. Write down the Panjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI krx A~Kr ilKo) Dative 4. Write down the Panjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk nUM pMjwbI sMpRdwn smwnwrQI A~KrW ivc ilKo) Ablative 5. Arrange & add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow & Apwdwn meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW nUM srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW dI Possessive vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo) sMbMD myrw guru hoAw Awip shweI ] Locative p (pV) n (nW ) v (ikR ) p (pV) av (ikR iv) AiDkrx N (krqw) Vocative myrw gurU ho jWdw (bxdw) Awpy shweI , sMboDn myrw gurU Awpy shweI bxdw (hY), Panjaabee Meanings with Prepositions (sMbMDkW vwly vwly pMjwbI ArQ): (hy BweI!) myrw gurU (ijs mnuK dw) Awpy shweI bxdw hY,

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Question With Verb ikRAw nwl svwl Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks nUM? Asr How? Means iks qrW? vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik`Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks nUM? sMboDn!


Example 2. Objective Case Shabad (Sbd): (Sbd):

ggn gMBIru ggnµqir vwsu ] gux gwvY suK shij invwsu ]

gieAw n AwvY Awie n jwie ]

gur prswid rhY ilv lwie ] ggnu AgMmu AnwQu AjonI ] AsiQru cIqu smwiD sgonI ] hir nwmu cyiq iPir pvih n jUnI ] gurmiq swru hor nwm ibhUnI ]20]

Example 2. Objective Case (krm kwrk)

Case Type kwrk iksm Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

2. gux gwvY gwvY suK shij invwsu ] (pg 932) Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW ivc ilKo) Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo)

gux gwvY suK shij invwsu ] n (nW) v (ikR) n (nW) n (nW) v (ikR) O (krm) guxw ƒ gWdw hY suK iv`c Afolqw iv`c itk jWdw hY [ (jo) guxw ƒ gwNdw hY, (auh) SWqI (Aqy) Afolqw ivc itk jWdw hY[ Paˆˆŋjaabee Meanings with Prepositions (sMbMDkW vwly pMjwbI ArQ): (jo mnu`K aus dy) gux ƒ gWdw hY, (auh) SWqI (Aqy) Afolqw iv`c itk jWdw hY[

Question With Verb ikRAw nwl svwl Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? Asr How? Means iks qrW? vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik`Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!

Example 3. Insrumental Case Shabad (Sbd): Sbd):

Awsw mhlw 1 ] kyqw AwKxu AwKIAY qw ky AMq n jwxw ] mY inDirAw Dr eyk qUM mY qwxu sqwxw ]1] nwnk kI Ardwis hY sc nwim suhylw ] Awpu gieAw soJI peI gur sbdI mylw ]1] rhwau ]

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haumY grbu gvweIAY pweIAY vIcwru ] swihb isau mnu mwinAw dy swcu ADwru ]2] Aihinis nwim sMqoKIAw syvw scu sweI ] qw kau ibGnu n lwgeI cwlY hukim rjweI ]3] hukim rjweI jo clY so pvY KjwnY ] Koty Tvr n pwienI rly jUTwnY ]4] inq inq Krw smwlIAY scu saudw pweIAY ] Koty ndir n AwvnI ly Agin jlweIAY]5] ijnI Awqmu cIinAw prmwqmu soeI ] eyko AMimRq ibrKu hY Plu AMimRqu hoeI ]6] AMimRq Plu ijnI cwiKAw sic rhy AGweI ] iqMnw Brmu n Bydu hY hir rsn rsweI ]7] hukim sMjogI AwieAw clu sdw rjweI ] AaugixAwry kau guxu nwnkY scu imlY vfweI ]8]20] Case Type kwrk iksm

Example 3. Instrumental Case (krx kwrk)

3. Awpu gieAw soJI peI gur sbdI mylw ]1] rhwau ] (pg 421) Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW ivc ilKo) Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo)

Nominative krqw 1. Objective krm 2. Instrumental 3. krx Dative 4. sMpRdwn Ablative 5. Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Awpu gieAw soJI peI gur sbdI mylw ] Locative AiDkrx p (pV) v (ikR) n (nW) v (ikR) n (nW) n (nW) v (ikR) I (krx) Vocative sMboDn Awpw-Bwv gvWdw hY smJ pYNdI hY gurU dy Sbd rwhIN imlwp ho jWdw hY [ (jo) Awpw-Bwv gvWdw hY, (aus ƒ) smJ pYNdI hY, gurU dy Sbd rwhIN imlwp ho jWdw hY[ Paˆˆŋjaabee Meanings with Prepositions (sMbMDkW vwly pMjwbI ArQ): siqgurU nwnk (dy ( v jI) ny iek-mn ho ky BgqI kIqI, (qy Apxw) qn mn (Aqy) Dn goibMd jI ƒ (Arpn kr) idqw[

94

Question With Verb ikRAw nwl svwl Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik`Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!


Example 4. Dative Case Shabad (Sbd): Sbd):

sloku mÚ 1 ] bilhwrI gur Awpxy idauhwVI sd vwr ] ijin mwxs qy dyvqy kIey krq n lwgI vwr ]1] mhlw 2 ] jy sau cMdw augvih sUrj cVih hjwr ] eyqycwnx hoidAW gur ibnu Gor AMDwr ]2] mÚ 1 ] nwnk gurU n cyqnI min AwpxYsucyq ] Cuty iql bUAwV ijau suM\y AMdir Kyq ] KyqY AMdir CuitAw khu nwnk saunwh ] PlIAih PulIAih bpuVy BI qn ivic suAwh ]3] pauVI ] AwpIn@Y AwpuswijE AwpIn@Y ricE nwau ] duXI kudriq swjIAY kir Awsxu ifTo cwau ] dwqwkrqw Awip qUM quis dyvih krih pswau ] qUM jwxoeI sBsY dy lYsih ijMdu kvwau] kir Awsxu ifTo cwau ]1]

Case Type kwrk iksm

Example 4. Dative Case (sMpRdwn kwrk)

4. bilhwrI gur Awpxy idauhwVI sd vwr ] (pg 462) Nominative Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) krqw 1. Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx Objective muqwbk vMf kro) krm 2. Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) Instrumental 3. Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI krx A~Kr ilKo) Dative 4. Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI sMpRdwn smwnwrQI A~KrW ivc ilKo) Ablative 5. Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow Apwdwn and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW Possessive dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo) sMbMD bilhwrI gur Awpxy idauhwVI sd vwr ] Locative AiDkrx v (ikR) n (nW) p (pV) n (nW) a (iv) n (nW) D (sMp) Vocative sMboDn sdky huMdw hW gurU qoN Awpxy idn iv`c sO vwrI [ Awpxy gurU qoN idn ivc sO vwrI sdky huMdw hW[ Paˆˆŋjaabee Meanings with Prepositions (sMbMDkW vwly pMjwbI ArQ): (mYN) Awpxy gurU qoN (iek) idn iv`c sO vwrI sdky huMdw hW[

Question With Verb ikRAw nwl svwl Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? Asr How? Means iks qrW? vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik`Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!

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Example 5. Ablative Case Shabad (Sbd): Sbd): rwgu soriT bwxI Bgq BIKn kI siqgur pRswid ] nYnhu nIru bhY qnu KInw Bey kys duDvwnI ] rUDw kMTu sbdu nhI aucrY, Ab ikAw krih prwnI ]1] rwm rwie hoih bYd bnvwrI ] Apny sMqh lyhu aubwrI ]1] rhwau ] mwQy pIr srIir jlin hY, krk kryjy mwhI ] AYsI bydn aupij KrI BeI, vw kw AauKDu nwhI ]2] hir kw nwmu AMimRq jlu inrmlu iehu AauKDu jig swrw ] gur prswid khY jnu BIKnu pwvau moK duAwrw ]3]1]

Example 5. Ablative Case (Apwdwn kwrk)

Case Type kwrk iksm Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

96

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

5. nYnhu nIru bhY qnu KInw Bey ky kys duD vwnI ] (pg 659) Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW ivc ilKo) Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo)

nYnhu nIru bhY qnu KInw Bey kys duD vwnI ] n (nW) n (nW) v (ikR) n (nW) a (iv) v (ikR) n (nW) n (nW) a (iv) A (Ap (Ap) A~KW qoN pwxI vg irhw hY srIr il~sw ho igAw hY kys duD vrgy [ A~KW qoN pwxI vg irhw hY, srIr il~sw ho igAw hY, kys du`D vrgy ho gey hn[ Paˆˆŋjaabee Meanings with Prepositions (sMbMDkW vwly pMjwbI ArQ): (hy jIv ! ibrD AvsQw iv`c kmzor hox krky) qyrIAW A~KW qoN pwxI vg irhw hY, qyrw srIr il`sw ho igAw hY, qyry kys du`D vrgy (ic`ty) ho gey hn[

Question With Verb ikRAw nwl svwl Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? Asr How? Means iks qrW? vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik`Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!


Example 6. Possessive Case Shabad (Sbd): Sbd):

iblwvlu mhlw 5 ] ibKY bnu PIkw iqAwig rI sKIey nwmu mhw rsu pIE ] ibnu rs cwKy buif geI sglI suKI n hovq jIE ] mwnu mhqu n skiq hI kweI swDw dwsI QIE ] nwnk sy dir soBwvMqy jo pRiB ApunY kIE ]1] hircMdaurI icq BRmu sKIey imRg iqRsnw dRüm CwieAw ] cMcil sµig n cwlqI sKIey Aµiq qij jwvq mwieAw ] ris Bogx Aiq rUp rs mwqy ien sµig sUKu n pwieAw ] Dµµin Dµµin hir swD jn sKIey nwnk ijn@I nwmuiDAwieAw ]2] jwie bshu vfBwgxI sKIey sMqw sµig smweIAY ] qh dUK n BUK n rogu ibAwpY crn kml ilv lweIAY ] qh jnm n mrxu n Awvx jwxw inhclu srxI pweIAY ] pRym ibCohu n mohu ibAwpY nwnk hir eyk iDAweIAY ]3] idRsit Dwir mnu byiDAw ipAwry rqVy shij suBwey ] syj suhwvI sµig imil pRIqm And mMgl gux gwey ] sKI shylI rwm rµig rwqI mn qn ieC pujwey ] nwnk Acrju Acrj isau imilAw khxw kCU n jwey]4]2]5]

Case Type kwrk iksm

Example 6. Possessive Case (sMbMD kwrk)

6. mwnu mhqu n skiq hI kweI swDw dwsI QIE ] (pg 803 ) Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW ivc ilKo) Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo)

Nominative krqw 1. Objective krm 2. Instrumental 3. krx Dative 4. sMpRdwn Ablative 5. Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD mwnu mhqu n skiq hI kweI swDw dwsI QIE ] Locative AiDkrx n (nW) n (nW) a (iv) n (nW) av (ikR iv) a (iv) n (nW) n (nW) v (ikR) P (sM) Vocative sMboDn Awsrw vf~px nhIN SkqI hI koeI swDW dI dwsI ho jw [ koeI Awsrw, koeI vf~px koeI SkqI nhIN swDW (gurmuKW) dI dwsI bx jw[ Paˆˆŋjaabee Meanings with Prepositions (sMbMDkW vwly pMjwbI ArQ): koeI (hor) Awsrw, koeI vf`px koeI qwkq (nwm-AMimRq dI pRwpqI dw swDn) nhIN (bx skdy), (hy shylIey ! nwm-jl dI pRwpqI vwsqy) gurmuKW dI dwsI bxI rh[

Question With Verb ikRAw nwl svwl Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? Asr How? Means iks qrW? vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik`Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!

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Example 7. Locative Case Shabad (Sbd): Sbd):

gauVI mhlw 5 ] eyksu isau jw kw mnu rwqw ] ivsrI iqsY prweI qwqw ]1] ibnu goibMd n dIsY koeI ] krn krwvn krqw soeI ]1] rhwau ] mnih kmwvY muiK hir hir bolY ] so jnu ieq auq kqih n folY ]2] jw kY hir Dnu so sc swhu ] guir pUrY kir dIno ivswhu ]3] jIvn purKu imilAw hir rwieAw ] khu nwnk prm pdu pwieAw ]4]48]117]

Example 7. Locative Case (AiDkrx kwrk)

Case Type kwrk iksm Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

98

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

7. mnih kmwvY muiK hir hir bolY ] (pg 189) Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW ivc ilKo) Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo)

mnih kmwvY muiK hir hir bolY ] n (nW) v (ikR) n (nW) n (nW) n (nW) v (ikR) L (AiD) mn lw ky kmweI krdw hY mMUh nwl prmwqmw dw nwm aucwrdw hY [ mMn lw ky kmweI krdw hY, mUMh nwl prmwqmw dw nwm aucwrdw hY[ Paˆˆŋjaabee Meanings with Prepositions (sMbMDkW vwly pMjwbI ArQ): (gurU dI ikrpw nwl ijhVw mnu`K) mn lw ky ismrn dI kmweI krdw hY, qy mMUhoN (sdw prmwqmw dw) nwm aucwrdw hY[

Question With Verb ikRAw nwl svwl Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? Asr How? Means iks qrW? vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik`Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!


Example 8. Vocative Case Shabad (Sbd): Sbd):

sUhI mhlw 4 Gru 5 <> siqgur pRswid ] guru sMq jno ipAwrw mY imilAw myrI iqRsnw buiJ geIAwsy ] hau mnu qnu dyvw siqgurY mY myly pRB guxqwsy ] Dnu DMnu gurU vf purKu hY mY dsy hir swbwsy ] vfBwgI hir pwieAw jn nwnk nwim ivgwsy ]1] guru sjxu ipAwrw mY imilAw hir mwrgu pMQu dswhw ] Gir Awvhu icrI ivCuMinAw imlu sbid gurU pRB nwhw ] hau quJu bwJhu KrI aufIxIAw ijau jl ibnu mInu mrwhw ] vfBwgI hir iDAwieAw jn nwnk nwim smwhw ]2] mnu dh idis cil cil BrimAw mnmuKu Brim BulwieAw ] inq Awsw min icqvY mn iqRsnw BuK lgwieAw ] Anqw Dnu Dir dibAw iPir ibKu Bwlx gieAw ] jn nwnk nwmu slwih qU ibnu nwvY pic pic muieAw ]3] guru suMdru mohnu pwie kry hir pRym bwxI mnu mwirAw ] myrY ihrdY suiD buiD ivsir geI mn Awsw icMq ivswirAw ] mY AMqir vydn pRym kI gur dyKq mnu swDwirAw ] vfBwgI pRBAwie imlu jnu nwnku iKnu iKnu vwirAw ]4]1]5] Case Type kwrk iksm

Example 8. Vocative Case (sMboDn kwrk)

8. guru sMq jno ipAwrw mY imilAw myrI iqRsnw buiJ geIAwsy ] (pg 776) Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW ivc ilKo) Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo)

Nominative krqw 1. Objective krm 2. Instrumental 3. krx Dative 4. sMpRdwn Ablative 5. Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD guru sMq jno ipAwrw mY imilAw myrI iqRsnw buiJ geIAwsy] Locative AiDkrx n (nW) n (nW) a (iv) p (pV) v (ikR) p (pV) n (nW) av (ikR iv) v (ikR) V (sM b o ) Vocative sMboDn gurU hy sMq jno ipAwrw mYnMU iml ipAw hY myrI iqRSnw imt geI hY [ hy sMq jnoN! ipAwrw gurU mYƒ iml ipAw hY, myrI iqRSnw imt geI hY[ Paˆˆŋjaabee Meanings with Prepositions (sMbMDkW vwly pMjwbI ArQ): hy sMq jno! mYƒ ipAwrw gurU iml ipAw hY,(aus dI imhr nwl) myrI (mwieAw dI) iq®Snw imt geI hY [

Question With Verb ikRAw nwl svwl Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? Asr How? Means iks qrW? vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik`Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!

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Part 2. The main focus of Appendix III is for you to gain more knowledge on the case types through practical exercises. However, one of the byproducts of these exercises is that you will also learn how to punctuate the Gurbaannee Tuks properly.

Correct Punctuation (TIk ibsrwm) The importance of correct punctuation was presented in chapter four of this book for you. Numerous examples gave you the clear message that wrong punctuation will lead to incorrect interpretation of the Gurbaannee Tuks. In all of those examples, incorrect punctuation resulted in meanings which made no sense, and most of the time, those meanings conflicted with the basic teachings of Sikhism. Additional Tuks are presented in this part for your study. You may use these as an exercise in interpretation and then compare the results. I encourage you to examine each Tuk very carefully. You should examine both the impact of case type as well as wrong punctuation.

Specific Example Tuks for Your Study I picked the following examples for several reasons. The foremost reason is that these are often mis-interpreted. They look simple, but are difficult in reality and often become controversial. I firmly believe that taking a systematic approach based on logic and grammar alleviates, or at least minimizes, the potential for such controversies.

Proper Punctuation Examples (TIk iv ivsrwm dIAW audwhrnW) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

mUrK bwmx pRBU smwil ] (pg 372) nwnk kwiF lyhu pRB dieAwl ]4] (pg 267) kyso gopwl pµifq sidAhu hir hir kQw pVih purwxu jIau ] (pg 923) iBsqu njIik rwKu rhmwnw ] (pg 1161) dIvw myrw eyku nwmu duKu ivic pwieAw qylu ] (pg 358) kwieAw Awrxu mnu ivic lohw pMc Agin iqqu lwig rhI ] (pg 990) sB qy vfw siqguru nwnku ijin kl rwKI myrI ] (pg 750) guru eIsru guru gorKu brmw guru pwrbqI mweI ] (pg 2) gur kI krxI kwhy Dwvhu ] (pg 933) gur syvw qy Bgiq kmweI ] qb ieh mwns dyhI pweI ] (pg 1159) guru Arjunu Gir gur rwmdws Bgq auqir AwXau ]1] (pg 1407) Awhr siB krdw iPrY Awhru ieku n hoie ] (pg 965) gµg guswiein gihr gMBIr ] jMjIr bWiD kir Kry kbIr ] (pg 1162) soeI soeI sdw scu swihbu swcw swcI nweI ] (pg 6)

Note (it~pxI): (it~pxI) The above Tukaaˆn were chosen mostly to show the importance of proper punctuation. As I pointed out earlier, the use of this scientific approach helps you to determine the correct meanings. The “Five Step” approach prescribed earlier is based on Gurbaannee grammar. The use of these tools will result in the same interpretation repeatedly. Now let us begin with the first example and apply this five-step approach.

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Example 1: mUrK bwmx pRBU smwil ]

(pg 372)

mUrK! bwmx pRBU smwil ] (Wrong) mUrK bwmx! pRBU smwil ] (Correct)

Shabad (Sbd): Sbd):

Awsw mhlw 5 ] dwnu dyie kir pUjw krnw ] lYq dyq aun@ mUkir prnw ] ijqu dir qum@ hY bRwhmx jwxw ] iqqu dir qUMhI hY pCuqwxw ]1] AYsy bRwhmx fUby BweI ] inrwprwD icqvih buirAweI ]1] rhwau ] AMqir loBu iPrih hlkwey ] inMdw krih isir Bwru auTwey ] mwieAw mUTw cyqY nwhI ] Brmy BUlw bhuqI rwhI ]2] bwhir ByK krih Gnyry ] AMqir ibiKAw auqrI Gyry ] Avr aupdysY Awip n bUJY ] AYsw bRwhmxu khI n sIJY ]3] mUrK bwmx pRBU smwil ] dyKq sunq qyrY hY nwil ] khu nwnk jy hovI Bwgu ] mwnu Coif gur crxI lwgu ]4]8] (372)

Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) It is important to recognize that ‘mUrK’ is an adjective used for the word ‘bwmx’, therefore, we should not separate them. Both words are without an Auˆnkarh (i.e., same grammatical form)

Proper Punctuation Examples (TIk ivS ivSrwm vSrwm dIAW audwhrnW)

Case Type kwrk iksm Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

1.. mUrK bwmx pRBU smwil smwil ] (pg 372) Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW ivc ilKo) Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo)

mUrK a (iv)

bwmx pRBU smwil ] n (nW) n (nW) v (ikR) V (sMbo) O (krm) mUrK hy bRwhmx prmwqmw ƒ Xwd kr [ hy mUrK bRwhmx, prmwqmw ƒ Xwd kr [ Paˆˆŋjaabee Meanings with Prepositions (sMbMDkW vwly pMjwbI ArQ): ArQ) hy mUrK bRwhmx! prmwqmw ƒ (Awpxy ihrdy ivc) Xwd kirAw kr[

Question With Verb ikRAw nwl svwl Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik`Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!

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Example 2: nwnk kwiF lyhu pRB dieAwl ]4] ]4]

(pg 267)

nwnk kwiF lyhu, pRB dieAwl ]4] (Wrong) nwnk, kwiF lyhu pRB dieAwl! ]4] (Correct)

Shabad (Sbd): Sbd):

rqnu iqAwig kaufI sµig rcY ] swcu Coif JUT sµig mcY ] jo Cfnw su AsiQru kir mwnY ] jo hovnu so dUir prwnY ] Coif jwie iqs kw sRmu krY ] sµig shweI iqsu prhrY ] cMdn lypu auqwrY Doie ] grDb pRIiq Bsm sµig hoie ] AMD kUp mih piqq ibkrwl ] nwnk kwiF lyhu pRB dieAwl ]4]

(267)

Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) Step 5 in analyzing this Tuk is critical in order to determine its punctuation. You must consider the overall context of this Shabad. Notice that the Tuk before this one tells us who should be saved. The word ‘piqq’ in that Tuk is plural. Those are the people Guroo Naanak Dayv Jee indicates who need to be saved. Proper Punctuation Examples (TIk ivSrwm dIAW audwhrnW)

Case Type kwrk iksm Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

102

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

2. nwnk, kwiF lyhu pRB dieAwl ]4] (pg 267) Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW iv`c ilKo) Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo)

nwnk kwiF lyhu pRB dieAwl ] n (nW) v (ikR) n (nW) a (iv) V (sMb)o V (sMb)o hy nwnk k~F lY (Ardws) hy pRBU dieAwl [ hy nwnk (Ardws kr), hy dieAwl pRBU k~F lY [ Paˆˆŋjaabee Meanings with Prepositions (sMbMDkW vwly pMjwbI ArQ): ArQ) hy nwnk! (Ardws kr qy AwK), hy idAwl pRBU! (iehnW piqqW ƒ Awp ies KUh ivcoN) k`F lY [

Question With Verb ikRAw nwl svwl Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik`Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!


Example 3: kyso gopwl pµifq sidAhu hir hir kQw pVih purwxu jIau] (pg 923) kyso gopwl, wl, pµifq sidAhu, hir hir kQw pVih purwxu jIau] (Wrong) kyso gopwl pµifq sidAhu, hir hir kQw pVih purwxu jIau] (Correct)

Shabad (Sbd): Sbd):

AMqy siqguru boilAw mY ipCY kIrqnu kirAhu inrbwxu jIau ] kyso gopwl pµifq sidAhu hir hir kQw pVih purwxu jIau ] hir kQw pVIAY hir nwmu suxIAY bybwxu hir rMgu gur Bwvey ] ipMfu pqil ikirAw dIvw Pul hir sir pwvey ] hir BwieAw siqguru boilAw hir imilAw purKu sujwxu jIau ] rwmdws soFI iqlku dIAw gur sbdu scu nIswxu jIau ]5] (923)

Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) This is an extremely difficult Tuk to analyze for a novice. You need a thorough understanding of Gurbaannee and its grammar. You can punctuate it correctly, but even still come up with completely different interpretations unless you use Gurbaannee grammar rules correctly. I looked at the word ‘pVih’ and knew it is plural, so the word ‘pµifq’ is plural also. It is not an adjective for the preceding word ‘gopwl’. The adjective for ‘gopwl’ is ‘kyso’ referring to God. Thus, the relation of ‘gopwl’ with ‘pµifq’ is through a preposition as it becomes clear in step 2 of this analysis that helps us punctuating this Tuk correctly. Question With Verb Case (kwrk) Proper Punctuation Examples (TIk ivSrwm dIAW audwhrnW)) whrnW)) (ikRAw nwl svwl) 3. kyso gopwl pµifq sidAhu hir hir kQw pVih purwxu jIau] (pg 923) Type (iksm) Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW ivc ilKo) Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo)

kyso a(iv)

gopwl pµifq sidAhu hir hir kQw pVih purwxu jIau] n (nW) n (nW) v (ikR) n (nW) n (nW) v (ikR) n (nW) P (sM) O (krm) P (sM) O (krm) Akwl purK dy pµifqW ƒ s~d ilE Akwl purK dI kQw pVHn purwx ƒ [ kyso gopwl (Akwl purK) dy pµifqW ƒ s`d ilE, jo (Aw ky) Akwl purK dI kQw (vwrqw-rUp) purwx pVHn [

Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik` Q? y QW ik`Qy Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!

Paˆˆŋjaabee Meanings with Prepositions (sMbMDkW vwly pMjwbI ivc ArQ): (hy BweI ! myry ip`CoN inrol kIrqn kirE), kyso gopwl (Akwl purK) dy pµifqW ƒ s`d G`ilE, (jo Aw ky) Akwl purK dI kQw (vwrqw-rUp) purwx pVHn [

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Example 4: iBsqu njIik rwKu rhmwnw ]

(pg 1161)

iBsqu njIik, rwKu rhmwnw ] (Wrong) iBsqu, njIik rwKu rhmwnw ] (Correct)

Shabad (Sbd): Sbd):

sqir sYie slwr hY jw ky ] svw lwKu pYkwbr qw ky ] syK ju khIAih koit ATwsI ] Cpn koit jw ky Kyl KwsI ]1] mo grIb kI ko gujrwvY ] mjlis dUir mhlu ko pwvY ]1] rhwau ] qyqIs kroVI hY Kyl Kwnw ] caurwsI lK iPrY idvwnW ] bwbw Awdm kau ikCu ndir idKweI ] auin BI iBsiq GnyrI pweI ]2] idl Klhlu jw kY jrd rU bwnI ] Coif kqyb krY sYqwnI ] dunIAw dosu rosu hY loeI ] Apnw kIAw pwvY soeI ]3] qum dwqy hm sdw iBKwrI ] dyau jbwbu hoie bjgwrI ] dwsu kbIru qyrI pnh smwnW ] iBsq njIik rwKu rhmwnw ]4]7]15] ] (1161)

Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) For those who understand Sikhism, this analysis is simple. First, Sikhism does not believe in the existence of heaven or hell. Your life on earth could experience either. Secondly, living near either is superfluous. Our aim is to be near (i.e., in the feet of) God. Case Type kwrk iksm

Proper Punctuation Examples (TIk ivSrwm dIAW audwhrnW) 4. iBsqu, njIik rwKu rhmwnw ] (pg 1161)

Nominative Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) krqw 1. Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx Objective muqwbk vMf kro) krm 2. Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) Instrumental 3. Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI krx A~Kr ilKo) Dative 4. Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI sMpRdwn smwnwrQI A~KrW ivc ilKo) Ablative 5. Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow Apwdwn and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW Possessive dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo) sMbMD iBsqu njIik rwKu rhmwnw ] Locative AiDkrx n (nW) av (ikR iv) v (ikR) n (nW) V (sMbo) Vocative sMboDn bihSq nyVy r~K hy rihm krn vwly [ (myry leI) bihSq, hy rihm krn vwly (Awpxy) nyVy r~K[ Paˆˆŋjaabee Meanings with Prepositions (sMbMDkW vwly pMjwbI ArQ): hy rihm krn vwly ! (mYƒ Awpxy crnW dy) nyVy r`K, (iehI myry leI) bihSq hY [

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Question With Verb ikRAw nwl svwl Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik` Q? y QW ik`Qy Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!


Example 5: dIvw myrw eyku nwmu duKu ivic pwieAw qylu ]

(pg 1161)

dIvw myrw eyku nwmu, duKu ivic pwieAw qylu ] (Wrong) dIvw myrw eyku nwmu, duKu, ivic pwieAw qylu ] (Correct)

Shabad (Sbd): Sbd):

Awsw mhlw 1 ] dIvw myrw eyku nwmu duKu ivic ivic pwieAw qylu ] auin cwnix Ehu soiKAw cUkw jm isau mylu ]1] lokw mq ko PkiV pwie ] lK miVAw kir eykTy eyk rqI ly Bwih ]1] rhwau ] ipMfu pqil myrI kysau ikirAw scu nwmu krqwru ] AYQY EQY AwgY pwCY eyhu myrw AwDwru ]2] gµg bnwris isPiq qumwrI nwvY Awqm rwau ] scw nwvxu qW QIAY jW Aihinis lwgY Bwau ]3] iek lokI horu CimCrI bRwhmxu vit ipMfu Kwie ] nwnk ipMfu bKsIs kw kbhUM inKUtis nwih ]4]2]32] Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) The preposition ‘ivic’ does not go with the word ‘duKu’; it goes with word ‘dIvw’. If that were the case, then the word ‘duK’ would have been without an Auˆnkarh to indicate their relationship with each other. Therefore, we must pause after word ‘duKu’. Case Type kwrk iksm

Proper Punctuation Examples (TIk ivSrwm dIAW audwhrnW)

5. dIvw my myrw eyku nwmu, duKu, ivic pwieAw qylu ] (pg 1161) Nominative Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) krqw 1. Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx Objective muqwbk vMf kro) krm 2. Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) Instrumental 3. Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI krx A~Kr ilKo) Dative 4. Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI sMpRdwn smwnwrQI A~KrW ivc ilKo) Ablative 5. Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow Apwdwn and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW Possessive dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo) sMbMD dIvw myrw eyku nwmu duKu ivic pwieAw qylu ] Locative AiDkrx n (nW) p (pV) a (iv) n (nW) n (nW) pr (s) v (ikR) n (nW) D (sM) Vocative sMboDn dIvw myry leI iek prmwqmw dw nwm, du`K, iv`c pwieAw hoieAw qyl [ myry leI iek prmwqmw dw nwm dIvw (hY), (ijs) iv`c duK qyl pwieAw hoieAw[

Question With Verb ikRAw nwl svwl Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik`Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!

Paˆˆŋjaabee Meanings with Prepositions (sMbMDkW vwly pMjwbI ivc ArQ): myry vwsqy prmwqmw dw nwm hI dIvw hY (jo myrI izMdgI dy rsqy ivc Awqmk rOSnI krdw hY) aus dIvy iv`c mYN (dunIAw iv`c ivAwpx vwlw) du`K (-rUp) qyl pwieAw hoieAw hY [

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Example 6: kwieAw Awrxu mnu ivic lohw pMc Agin iqqu lwig rhI ]

(pg 358)

kwieAw Awrxu, mnu ivic lohw pMc Agin iqqu lwig rhI ] (Wrong) kwieAw Awrxu, mnu, ivic lohw pMc Agin iqqu lwig rhI ] (Correct)

Shabad (Sbd): Sbd):

mwrU mhlw 1 Gru 1 ] krxI kwgdu mnu msvwxI burw Blw duie lyK pey ] ijau ijau ikrqu clwey iqau clIAY qau gux nwhI AMqu hry ]1] icq cyqis kI nhI bwvirAw ] hir ibsrq qyry gux gilAw ]1] rhwau ] jwlI rYin jwlu idnu hUAw jyqI GVI PwhI qyqI] ris ris cog cugih inq Pwsih CUtis mUVy kvn guxI ]2] kwieAw Awrxu, mnu ivic lohw pMc Agin iqqu lwig rhI ] koiely pwp pVy iqsu aUpir mnu jilAw sMn@I icMq BeI ]3] BieAw mnUru kMcnu iPir hovY jy guru imlY iqnyhw ] eyku nwmu AMimRqu Ehu dyvY qau nwnk iqRstis dyhw]4]3]

Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) Although only slightly more complex, this example is similar to the previous one. Again, there is no relationship between the word ‘mnu’ and the preposition next to it. Otherwise, the Auˆnkarh would be missing from the word ‘mnu’. So the two words must be separated by a comma. Case Type kwrk iksm

Proper Punctuation Examples (TIk ivSrwm dIAW audwhrnW)

6. kwieAw Awrxu, mnu, ivic lohw pMc Agin iqqu lwig rhI ] (pg 358) Nominative Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) krqw 1. Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx Objective muqwbk vMf kro) krm 2. Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) Instrumental 3. Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI krx A~Kr ilKo) Dative 4. Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI sMpRdwn smwnwrQI A~KrW ivc ilKo) Ablative 5. Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow Apwdwn and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW Possessive dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo) sMbMD kwieAw Awrxu mnu ivic lohw pMc Agin iqqu lwig rhI ] Locative AiDkrx n (nW) n (nW) n (nW) pr (s) n (nW) a (iv) n (nW) p (pV) v (ikR) L (AiD) Vocative sMboDn srIr B~TI mn iv`c lohw pMj A~gW aus au`qy bl rhIAW hn [ srIr B~TI ivc mn lohw hY, aus au`qy pMj A~gW bl rhIAW hn[ Paˆˆŋjaabee Meanings with Prepositions (sMbMDkW vwly pMjwbI ArQ): mnu`K dw srIr, mwno, (lohwr dI) B`TI hY, aus B`TI ivc mn, mwno, lohw hY qy aus au~qy (kwmwidk) pMj A`gW bl rhIAW hn[

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Question With Verb ikRAw nwl svwl Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik`Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!


Example 7: sB qy vfw siqguru nwnku ijin kl rwKI myrI ]

(pg 750)

sB qy vfw siqguru, nwnku ijin kl rwKI myrI ] (Wrong) sB qy vfw siqguru nwnku, ijin kl rwKI myrI ] (Correct)

Shabad (Sbd): Sbd):

sUhI mhlw 5 ] ijs ky isr aUpir qUM suAwmI so duKu kYsw pwvY ] boil n jwxY mwieAw mid mwqw mrxw cIiq n AwvY ]1] myry rwm rwie qUM sMqw kw sMq qyry ] qyry syvk kau Bau ikCu nwhI jmu nhI AwvY nyry ]1] rhwau ] jo qyrY rµig rwqy suAwmI iqn@ kw jnm mrx duKu nwsw ] qyrI bKs n mytY koeI siqgur kw idlwsw ]2] nwmu iDAwiein suK Pl pwiein AwT phr AwrwDih ] qyrI srix qyrY BrvwsY pMc dust lY swDih ]3] igAwnu iDAwnu ikCu krmu n jwxw swr n jwxw qyrI ] sB qy vfw siqguru nwnku ijin kl rwKI myrI ]4]10]57]

Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) A lot of confusion exists in interpreting this Tuk. Numerous people have asked me how I would interpret this Tuk. I always give them the interpretation by Pbhaa-ee Saahib Singh Jee. However, for many years I was also looking for a convincing answer for myself. Once, I became familiar with Gurbaannee grammar, I applied the grammar rules to discover an answer for myself. Naturally, that answer is consistent with Pbhaa-ee Saahib Singh Jee’s interpretation, because he is the one who documented Gurbaannee grammar. Furthermore, I feel comfortable with this interpretation because it is also consistent with the interpretation in the Freedkott Tteekaa which was written prior to Pbhaa-ee Saahib Singh Jee’s book on Gurbaannee grammar. Therefore, in this analysis I am giving you both of their interpretations. In addition, I would like to point out several other points which convinced me that this is the correct interpretation: 1. There are many instances in Gurbaannee where it is stated ‘gur jyvf Avr n koie’ 2. It is my observation that in Gurbaannee all Guroo Jees used highly respectful words for Guroo Naanak Dayv Jee and praised him. Therefore, the use of the word ‘siqgur’ for Guroo Naanak Dayv Jee is common throughout Gurbaannee written by other Guroo Jees. In fact, the word ‘siqgur’ for other preceding Guroo Jees also appears in many places in Gurbaannee. As we know, Guroo Arjan Dayv Jee recited this Shabad and not Guroo Naanak Dayv Jee. Note (it~pxI): (it~pxI) The extreme humility of each Guroo Jee is reflected in how each addressed himself, especially Guroo Naanak Dayv Jee (nwnku nIcu, hrwmKor, ivcwrw, grIb, BgiqhIx, etc.). But, predecessor Guroo Jees are always addressed with respect in Gurbaannee.

107


We have already studied earlier (i.e., example 1 in the first part of this Appendix) another Tuk where the word ‘siqgur’ was used as an adjective for Guroo Naanak Dayv Jee (i.e., siqguir nwnik). An adjective in Gurbaannee takes the same form as the associated noun or pronoun. In that case, ‘i’ is with the last letter of both words. Similarly, in this example, the word ‘siqguru’ is an adjective, which takes the same form as the associated noun (nwnku). If we separate the adjective from its noun with a pause; it will result in misinterpretation. Both of these Tuks are discussed in detail in chapter 5. However, the summarized result of that analysis is provided here.

Case Type kwrk iksm

Proper Punctuation Examples (TIk ivSrwm dIAW audwhrnW)

sB qy vfw siqguru nwnku ijin kl rwKI myrI ] (pg 750) Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW ivc ilKo) Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo) 7.

Nominative krqw 1. Objective krm 2. Instrumental 3. krx Dative 4. sMpRdwn Ablative 5. Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD sB qy vfw siqguru nwnku ijin kl rwKI myrI ] Locative AiDkrx a (iv) pr (s) av (ikR iv) a (iv) n (nW) p (pV) n (nW) v (ikR) p (pV) N (krqw) N (krqw) Vocative sMboDn sB qoN vfw hY sqgurU nwnk ijs ny ie~zq r~K leI myrI [ sB qoN v`fw sqgurU nwnk, ijs ny ie~zq r~K leI myrI [ Paˆˆŋjaabee Meanings with Prepositions (sMbMDkW vwly pMjwbI ArQ): drpn, BweI swihb isMG (pr qyrI myhr nwl mYƒ) sB qoN v`fw gurU nwnk iml ipAw, ijs ny myrI (lwj) r`K leI (qy mYƒ qyry crnW iv`c joV id`qw)[ PrId kot vwlw tIkw mYN qo gÎwn Ar DÎwn koeI krm BI nhIN jwnqw hW AOr nw myry ko qyrI gÎwq hI hY prMqU sB sy vfw siqgurU nwnk sRI gurU rwmdws jI jwixAW hY ijsny myrI (kl) iejq r~K leI hY ]

108

Question With Verb ikRAw nwl svwl Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik`Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!


Example 8: guru eIsru guru gorKu brmw guru pwrbqI mweI ]

(pg 2)

guru eIsru, guru gorKu, brmw guru, pwrbqI mweI ] (Wrong) guru eIsru, guru gorKu brmw, guru pwrbqI mweI ] (Correct)

Shabad (Sbd): Sbd):

QwipAw n jwie kIqw n hoie ] Awpy Awip inrMjnu soie ] ijin syivAw iqin pwieAw mwnu ] nwnk gwvIAY guxI inDwnu ] gwvIAY suxIAY min rKIAY Bwau ] duKu prhir suKu Gir lY jwie ] gurmuiK nwdµ gurmuiK vydµ gurmuiK rihAw smweI ] guru eIsru guru gorKu brmw guru pwrbqI mweI ] jy hau jwxw AwKw nwhI khxw kQnu n jweI ] gurw iek dyih buJweI ] sBnw jIAw kw ieku dwqw so mY ivsir n jweI ]5]

Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) The meaning of this Tuk is that in essence the Guroo is all my Dayvees and Dayvtaas. It makes no sense to say ‘pwrbqI mweI’ without prefacing it with ‘guru’. There are three identical clauses in this Tuk, and they have similar interpretations. Proper Punctuation Examples (TIk ivSrwm dIAW audwhrnW)

Case Type kwrk iksm Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

guru eIsru guru gorKu brmw guru pwrbqI mweI ] (pg 2) Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW ivc ilKo) Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo) 8.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

guru eIsru guru gorKu brmw n (nW) n (nW) n (nW) n (nW) n (nW) N (krqw) N (krqw) gurU hI eISr gurU hI gorK bRhmw gurU hI eISr, gurU hI gorK (qy) bRhmw, gurU hI

guru pwrbqI mweI ] n (nW) n (nW) a (iv) N (krqw) gurU hI pwrbqI mweI [ mweI pwrbqI hY[

Question With Verb ikRAw nwl svwl Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik`Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn! n!

Paˆˆŋjaabee Meanings with Prepositions (sMbMDkW vwly pMjwbI ArQ): gurU hI (swfy leI) iSv hY, gurU hI (swfy leI) gorK qy bRhmw hY Aqy gurU hI (swfy leI) mweI pwrbqI hY[

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Example 9: gur kI krxI kwhy Dwvhu ]

(pg 933)

gur kI krxI kwhy Dwvhu ] (Wrong) gur kI krxI, kwhy Dwvhu ] (Correct)

Shabad (Sbd): Sbd):

i\Awno bolY Awpy bUJY ] Awpy smJY Awpy sUJY ] gur kw kihAw Aµµik smwvY ] inrml sUcy swco BwvY ] guru swgru rqnI nhI qot ] lwl pdwrQ swcu AKot ] guir kihAw sw kwr kmwvhu ] gur kI krxI kwhy Dwvhu ] nwnk gurmiq swic smwvhu ]27] Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) Different people have different interpretations. If this Tuk is interpreted in isolation, most people will interpret it incorrectly. If interpreted in the context of this Shabad, the interpretations may differ, but they will be in the realm of Gurmat (i.e., most prominent Tteekaas). However, if interpreted in the context of the overall Shabad along with a thorough knowledge of Gurbaannee and its grammar, then one will arrive at Pbhaa-ee Saahib Singh Jee’s interpretation provided in this analysis. Proper Punctuation Examples (TIk ivSrwm dIAW audwhrnW)

Case Type kwrk iksm Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

110

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

9. gur kI krxI kwhy Dwvhu ] (pg 933) Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW ivc ilKo) Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo)

gur kI krxI kwhy Dwvhu ] n (nW) pr (s) n (nW) av (ikR iv)) v (ikR) P (sMbM) A (Ap) gurU dI krxI qoN ikaN dOVo [ gurU dI d`sI krxI qoN ikauN dOVo [ Paˆˆŋjaabee Meanings with Prepositions (sMbMDkW vwly pMjwbI ArQ): siqgurU dI d`sI krxI qoN pry nwh dOVo [

Question With Verb ikRAw nwl svwl Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik`Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!


Example 10: gur syvw qy Bgiq kmweI ] qb ieh mwns dyhI pweI pweI ]

(pg 1159)

No further punctuation is needed, and it is usually done correctly.

Shabad (Sbd): Sbd):

gur syvw qy Bgiq kmweI ] qb ieh mwns dyhI pweI ] ies dyhI kau ismrih dyv ] so dyhI Bju hir kI syv ]1] Bjhu guoibMd BUil mq jwhu ] mwns jnm kw eyhI lwhu ]1] rhwau ] jb lgu jrw rogu nhI AwieAw ] jb lgu kwil gRsI nhI kwieAw ] jb lgu ibkl BeI nhI bwnI] Bij lyih ry mn swirgpwnI ]2] Ab n Bjis Bjis kb BweI ] AwvY AMqu n BijAw jweI ] jo ikCu krih soeI Ab swru ] iPir pCuqwhu n pwvhu pwru ]3] so syvku jo lwieAw syv] iqn hI pwey inrMjn dyv ] gur imil qw ky Kul@y kpwt] bhuir n AwvY jonI bwt ]4] iehI qyrw Aausru ieh qyrI bwr ] Gt BIqir qU dyKu ibcwir ] khq kbIru jIiq kY hwir ] bhu ibiD kihE pukwir pukwir ]5]1]9]

Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) The key hint for interpretation is in the word ‘qb’ (meaning ‘then’) in the second Tuk. This indicates that the word ‘jb’ (meaning ‘when’) is implicit in the first Tuk. In addition, the meaning of word ‘kmweI’ is also critical for this analysis. If you do the meanings with a Biˆndee (i.e., kmweIN to mean ‘kmweI kryN jW kryNgw’), then the remaining analysis becomes straight forward. Proper Punctuation Examples (TIk ivSrwm dIAW audwhrnW)

Case Type kwrk iksm Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

10. gur syvw qy Bgiq kmweI ] qb ieh mwns dyhI pweI ] (pg 1159) Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW ivc ilKo) Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo)

gur syvw qy Bgiq kmweI] qb ieh mwns dyhI pweI ] n (nW) n (nW) pr (s) n (nW) v (ikR) pr (s) p (pV) n (nW) n (nW) v (ikR) P (sMbM) gurU dI syvw rwhIN BgqI kmwvyN qW hI ieh mnu~Kw dyhI (srIr) l`BI [ (jb) gurU dI syvw rwhIN BgqI kmweI kryNgw, qW hI ieh mnu~Kw-dyhI l~BI (smJ)[ Paˆˆŋjaabee Meanings with Prepositions (sMbMDkW vwly pMjwbI ArQ): (hy BweI ! jy qUµ) gurU dI syvw rwhIN bMdgI dI kmweI kryN, qW hI ieh mnu`Kw-srIr imilAw (smJ) [ ( drpn, BweI swihb isMG)

Question With Verb ikRAw nwl svwl Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik`Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!

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Example 11: guru Arjunu Gir gur rwmdws Bgq auqir AwXau ]1]

(pg 1407)

guru Arjunu Gir, gur rwmdws, Bgq auqir AwXau ]1] (Wrong) guru Arjunu, Gir gur rwmdws, Bgq auqir AwXau ]1] (Correct)

Shabad (Sbd): Sbd):

ismrM soeI purKu Aclu AibnwsI ] ijsu ismrq durmiq mlu nwsI] siqgur crx kvl irid Dwrµ ] gur Arjun gux shij ibcwrµ ] gur rwmdws Gir kIAau pRgwsw ] sgl mnorQ pUrI Awsw ] qY jnmq gurmiq bRhmu pCwixE ] kl´ joiV kr sujsu vKwixE ] Bgiq jog kO jYqvwru hir jnku aupwXau ] sbdu gurU prkwisE hir rsn bswXau] gur nwnk AMgd Amr lwig auqm pdu pwXau] guru Arju nu Gir gur rwmdws Bgq auqir AwXau]1] Arjunu

Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) Again, there is no relationship between the word ‘Arjnuu’ and the implicit prepositional word ‘Gir’ next to it. Otherwise, an Auˆnkarh would be missing from the word ‘Arjnuu’. So the two words must be separated by a comma. Howevever, since the word ‘rwmdws’ has no Auˆnkarh, the word ‘Gir’ goes with it. An additional hint comes from the fact that Guroo Raamdaas was Guroo Arjan Dayv Jee’s father.

Case Type kwrk iksm

Proper Punctuation Examples (TIk ivSrwm dIAW audwhrnW)

11. guru Arjunu Gir gur rwmdws Bgq auqir AwXau ]1] (pg 1407) Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW ivc ilKo) Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo)

Nominative krqw 1. Objective krm 2. Instrumental 3. krx Dative 4. sMpRdwn Ablative 5. Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD guru Arjunu Gir gur rwmdws Bgq auqir AwXau ] Locative AiDkrx a(iv) n (nW) n (nW) a(iv) n (nW) n (nW) khwvq v (ikR) L (AiD) P(sMbM) N (krqw) Vocative sMboDn gurU Arjun Gr iv`c gurU rwmdws dy Bgq jMm ipAw [ gurU rwmdws (jI) dy Gr ivc, gurU Arjun, Bgq jMm ipAw hY [ Paˆˆŋjaabee Meanings with Prepositions (sMbMDkW vwly pMjwbI ArQ): ArQ:—gurU rwmdws (jI) dy Gr ivc, gurU Arjun, Bgq jMm ipAw hY [1[ (drpn, BweI swihb isMG)

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Question With Verb ikRAw nwl svwl Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik`Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!


Example 12: Awhr siB krdw iPrY Awhru ieku n hoie ]

(pg 965)

Punctuation is not the issue for interpreting this Tuk either. However, understanding of the grammar rules is necessary.

Shabad (Sbd): Sbd):

slok mÚ 5 ] jW ipru AMdir qW Dn bwhir ] jW ipru bwhir qW Dn mwhir] ibnu nwvY bhu Pyru iPrwhir] siqguir sµig idKwieAw jwhir] jn nwnk scy sic smwhir]1] mÚ 5] Awhr siB krdw iPrY Awhru ieku n hoie ] nwnk ijqu Awhir jgu auDrY ivrlw bUJY koie ]2] pauVI ] vfI hU vfw Apwru qyrw mrqbw ] rMg prMg Anyk n jwpin krqbw ] jIAw AMdir jIau sBu ikCu jwxlw ] sBu ikCu qyrY vis qyrw Gru Blw ] qyrY Gir Awnµdu vDweI quDu Gir ] mwxu mhqw qyju Awpxw Awip jir ] srb klw BrpUru idsY jq kqw ] nwnk dwsin dwsu quDu AwgY ibnvqw ]18]

Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) It should be noted that the word ‘Awhr’ without an Auˆnkarh is plural, and, therefore its adjective ‘siB’ is also plural. On the other hand, the word ‘Awhru’ has an Auˆnkarh and is singular. Therefore, its adjective ‘ieku’ is also singular as indicated by its Auˆnkarh. Proper Punctuation Examples (TIk ivSrwm dIAW audwhrnW)

Case Type kwrk iksm Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

12. Awhr siB krdw iPrY Awhru ieku n hoie ] (pg 965) Step By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW ivc ilKo) Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo)

Awhr siB krdw iPrY Awhru ieku n hoie ] n (nW) p (pV) v (ikR) n (nW) p (pV) p a (pV iv) v (ikR) O (krm) O (krm) audmW ƒ swry krdw iPrdw hY audm ƒ iek nhIN krdw (mnu~K) swry audmW nMU krdw iPrdw hY, (pr) iek audm ƒ nhIN krdw[ Paˆˆŋjaabee Meanings with Prepositions (sMbMDkW vwly pMjwbI ArQ): (hy nwnk !) mnu`K (hor) swry au~dm krdw iPrdw hY, pr iek (pRBU ƒ ismrn dw) au~dm nhIN krdw[ (drpn, BweI swihb isMG)

Question With Verb ikRAw nwl svwl Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik`Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!

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Example 13: gµgw kI lhir myrI tutI jMjIr ] imRgCwlw pr bYTy kbIr ]

(pg1162)

Again punctuation is not the issue for interpreting this Tuk. However, the understanding of grammar rules is necessary.

Shabad (Sbd Sbd):

gµg guswiein gihr gMBIr ] jMjIr bWiD kir Kry kbIr ]1] mnu n ifgY qnu kwhy kau frwie ] crn kml icqu rihE smwie ] rhwau ] gµgw kI lhir myrI tutI jMjIr ] imRgCwlw pr bYTy kbIr ]2] kih kMbIr koaU sMg n swQ ] jl Ql rwKn hY rGunwQ ]3]10]18] (pg1162)

Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) To interpret this sentence correctly, we must carefully examine the word ‘lhir’. The case sign ‘i’ with the last letter of this word indicates it is a case. In order to understand which category of the case this word belongs to and which preposition we should use, just follow the systematic analysis provided below. Proper Punctuation Examples (TIk ivSrwm dIAW audwhrnW) 13. gµgw kI lhir myrI tutI jMjIr ] imRgCwlw pr bYTy kbIr ] (pg1162)

Case Type kwrk iksm Nominative krqw Objective krm Instrumental krx Dative sMpRdwn Ablative Apwdwn Possessive sMbMD Locative AiDkrx Vocative sMboDn

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Sep By Step Approach (qrqIbvwr qrIkw) Categorize each word per grammar (hryk A~Kr dI ivAwkrx muqwbk vMf kro) Determine the case type (kwrk dI iksm nIXq kro) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the words (pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~Kr ilKo) Write down the Paˆŋjaabee equivalent of the Tuk (quk ƒ pMjwbI smwnwrQI A~KrW ivc ilKo) Arrange and add words in the context of the Shabad for proper flow and meanings (Sbd dI quk dy ArQW ƒ srl bnwaux leI loVINdw A~KrW dI vrqoN Aqy TIk qrqIb dyvo)

gµgw kI lhir myrI tutI jMjIr] imRgCwlw pr bYTy kbIr] n (nW) pr (s) n (nW) p (pV) v (ikR) n (nW) n (nW) pr (s) v (ikR) n (nW) O (krm) I (krx) O (krm) L (AiD) N (krqw) gµgw

dIAW

lihrW nwl myrI tu~t geI zMjIr imRgCwlw au~qy bYTw hoieAw hY kbIr [

Question With Verb ikRAw nwl svwl Who, What? kOx, kI, iks ny? What, Who? Effect kI, iks ƒ? Asr How? Means iks qrW? qrW vsIlw For? Whom iks leI? leI From? Take iks qoN? lYxw Whose? Ownership iks dI? mwlkI Where? Location ik`Qy? QW Who? Addressing! iks ƒ? sMboDn!

gµgw dIAW lihrW nwl myrI zMjIr tu`t geI, imRgCwlw au~qy bYTw hoieAw kbIr hW[ Paˆˆŋjaabee Meanings with Prepositions (sMbMDkW vwly pMjwbI ArQ): gµgw dIAW lihrW nwl myrI zMjIr tu`t geI, (mYN) kbIr (aus jl au~qy ieauN qrn l`g ipAw ijvyN) imRgCwlw au~qy bYTw hoieAw hW [

This concludes the analyses of the Tuks listed in part two of this appendix. Next we are going to to examine a Tuk which recited daily as part of our Nit’Naym Baannees, “Jap Jee Saahib” as well as “Raihrass Saahib”. It is punctuated in two different ways; both appear to be correct from a Sikhee point of view.

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Example 14: soeI soeI sdw scu swihbu swihbu swcw swcI nweI ] (pg 6) Two Different Punctuations: 1. soeI soeI sdw scu swihbu, swcw, swcI nweI ] 2. soeI soeI sdw scu, swihbu swcw, swcI nweI ] Analysis (Cwx bIx): bIx) A study of the entire “Paurhee” (Shabad) does not help us in punctuating this Tuk. However, a thorough understanding of grammar rules is helpful. To interpret this sentence correctly, we must carefully examine the etymology and syntax. The key difference between the two punctuations is that which two words from ‘scu swihbu swcw’ should appear together. The first step of the five-step technique is most critical and difficult for this analysis. The outcome of step one determines which of these is grammatically correct. Let us categories the key words. Both punctuations consider ‘swihbu’ as a noun. However, each treats one of the other two words as an adjective. Note the structure of words ‘scu’ and ‘swihbu’, both have an Auˆnkarh under the last letters, they are identical etymologically, and they appear next to each other. Therefore, the word ‘scu’ in the first punctuation is an adjective for the noun word ‘swihbu’. In addition, if we look at the remaining words of the Tuk their etymological structure is similar. Therefore, syntactically, the first punctuation is more logical.

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References (hvwly) 1.. sRI gurU gRMQ swihb jI 2. . SuD gurbwxI aucwrx; gurmiq imSnrI kwlj, id`lI 3. gurbwxI ivAwkrx; pRoPYsr swihb isMG 4. sRI gurU gRMQ swihb drpx (ds poQIAW); pRoPYsr swihb isMG 5. gurbwxI aucwrx; ipRMsIpl qyjw isMG 6. ikRq ipRM: hrBjn isMG 7. gurbwxI aucwrx; joigMdr isMG qlvwVw 8. inqnym srl stIk; joigMdr isMG qlvwVw 9. nvIn gurbwxI ivAwkrx (srl nymw qy SuD aucwrx-syDW sihq): BweI swihb igAwnI hrbMs isMG 10. gurbwxI pwT drSn ArQwq sRI guru gRMQ swihb jI ivc Awey hoey kTn pwTwN dI vIcwr; krqw sRI mwn pMQ rqn sc KMf vwsI sMq igAwnI gurbcn isMG jI Kwlsw 11. pMjwbI ivAwkrx qy rcnwvlI, nirMdr isMG du~gl, mu~KI pMjwbI ivBwg (rItwierf),bI.XU.sI. kwlj, btwlw 12. SbdwrQ sRI gurU gRMQ swihb jI; SRomxI gurduAwrw pRbMdk kmytI sRI AimRqsr 13. pMjwbI BwSw dw ivAwkrx; dunI cMdR 14. gurbwxI ivAwkrx dy srl nym; gurmiq imSnrI kwlj, id`lI 15. gurbwxI dI BwSw qy ivAwkrx; fw. hrkIrq isMG, pMjwbI XUnIvristI, pitAwlw 16. gurbwxI pVHn sMbMDI do hor g`lW, pRkwSk gurmiq pRcwr sBw pitAwlw 17. gurbwxI dIAW lgWmwqRW dI ivl~Kxqw; BweI swihb rxDIr isMG 18. gurbwxI dw srl ivAwkrx-boD, ijld 1 Aqy 2; joigMdr isMG qlvwVw 19. sRI gurU gRMQ swihb jI dI gurbwxI dw Su~D aucwrx, DMnw isMG rItwierf kimSnr pitAwlw

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Glossary (SbdwrQ) English

Definition

Case

Shows syntactic relationship of a noun, pronoun, or adjective in a sentence with a verb of a sentence (through inflection or prepositional words)

Ablative Dative Instrumental Locative Nominative Objective Possessive Vocative

Person, place, or thing from which something is obtained (Take) For whom something is done or given (Give) Through which something is done to achieve (Means) Person or a place receiving a new right for something (Upon/In) Performer of a task indicated with a verb (who/what) The impact on a person or a thing expressed through a verb (Effect) Syntactic relationship indicating subservience (ownership) Direct addressing of a person or thing or by alerting (Addressing)

Eight Types

pMjwbI kwrk

pirBwSW vwk rcnw ivc nWv/pVnWv/ivsSySx dw ikRAw nwl sMbMD ivBkqI (sMbMDk A~Kr jW icnH) rwhIN pRgtauxw

A~T iksmw Apwdwn sMpRdwn krx AiDkrx krqw krm sMbMD sMboDn

auh ivAkqI, jgHw jW vsqU ijs qoN koeI cIz leI jwvy[(lYxw) ijs leI koeI kMm kIqw jwvy, jW ijs ƒ koeI vsqU idqI jwvy[(dyxw) nWv dw ikRAw nwl auh sMbMD ijs dy rwhIN kMm kIqw jwvy[ (vsIlw) ijs ƒ koeI nvW AiDkwr idqw jwvy[ (au`qy q/y iv` c) iv`c) jW ijs dy auy`qy jW iv`c koeI nvIN cIz r~KI jwvy[ ikRAw dy rwhIN d~sy kMm ƒ krn vwlw[ (kOn/iks ny) ijs qy ikRAw dy rwhIN d~sy kMm dw Asr pv[ (Asr) ijs vwk ivc ADInqw pRgt hovy[ (mwlkI) auh nWv ijs ƒ Avwz mwrI jwvy jW swvdwn krky kuJ AwiKAw jwvy[(sMsMboDn)

‚ 117


Abbreviations Case Type English Nominative Objective Instrumental Dative Ablative Possessive Locative Vocative

(N) (O) (I) (D) (A) (P) (L) (V)

Word Category English Pronoun Adjective Adverb Verb Singular Plural Preposition

118

(p) (a) (av) (v) (s) (pl) (pr)

kwrk dI iksm pMjwbI krqw (krqw) krm (krm) krx (krx) sMpRdwn (sMp) Apwdwn (Ap) sMbMD (sM) AiDkrx (AiD) sMboDn (sMbo)

A~Kr dI iksm pMjwbI pVnWv (pV) ivSySn (iv) ikRAw ivSySn (ikR iv) ikRAw (ikR) iek vcn (ie) bhu vcn (b) sMbMDk (s)


Transliteration Key (AMqrn krn dI kuMjI) Symbol Trans. Paˆŋjaabee ** a a A ** e s s h h k k kh K g g kgh; gh G ġ | ch c chh C j j chjh; jh J ŋ \ tt t tth T dd f ttddh; ddh F nn x t q th Q d d tdh; dh D n n p p f P b b pbh; bh B m m y X r r l l v v rh V

English ** u ** s h k c, k g * * ch ch j * * tt t d * * th th th * n p f b * m y, Vowel’s r l v *

Examples *** ** Cut ** Son Have, Hub Stick, Track Car, King Game, Good (kghar; aggh) (aˆġġ; raˆġġ) Which, Pitch Chair, Cherry

Joy, Just (chjhoor; maajh) (vaŋˆŋaa) Sitter, Cutter Time, Table Dad, Mad (ttddhol; kaddh) (paannee) Thin, Thanks Path, Math They, This (tdhoor; dudh) Gun, Run Police, Put Finger Boy, Bad (pbhukh; sabh) Man, Mike Yes, Play Roll, Run Love, Lot Vice, Vapor (kghorhaa)

Symbol Paˆŋjaabee

Trans.

English

Examples ***

Expanded Paˆŋjaabee Script S ^ Z z & L

sh khh gh z fh lh

sh * * z * *

Shot, Ship (khhaalak) (ghalh) Zebra, Zoo (Gaafhal) (Laalh)

Paˆŋjaabee Vowels and Vowel Signs A Aw, w AY, Y AO, O ey, y (ie, i ) eI, I ie, i E, o oo aU, U au, u

a aa ai au ay e ee i o oo u

u, o, oo a,o a, ai a, o, au a, ai, ay e

Hut, Color, Flood

Car, Cot At, Apple, Plaid Law, Horn, Cause

Ape, Maid, Say

Get, Set

ee, ea, ey

See, Flea, Money

i o, oa oo, u u, oo

It, Sit Go, Boat Cool, Rule Put, Look

Vowel Sound Modifier Symbols ˆn ˘ ˆn, ˆm, ˆŋ, ˆġ,or ˆnn

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

(˙ ) (˘) (M)

nasal Stresses Both

Tank, Pink, Pulling Running

Notes(it~pxIAW): * indicates that English letters cannot produce exact sound ** indicate that the symbol alone does not have a sound *** parentheses indicates Paˆŋjaabee words 1st and 5th columns show transliteration symbols 2nd and 6th columns show Paˆŋjaabee Script letters/symbols /signs 3rd and 7th columns identify the English letter(s) that produce equivalent sound of Paˆŋjaabee letters, symbols, and signs 4th and 8th columns provide the examples of words which produce that sound of the Paˆŋjaabee letters/symbols/signs Few Paˆŋjaabee symbols are used in transliteration

119


AwieE sunn pVn kau bwxI ] nwmu ivswir lgih An lwlic ibrQw jnmu prwxI ]1]rhwau]

(pg 1219) Sree Guroo GraË&#x2020;nth Saahib Jee

The mortal has come (into this world) to listen and recite Baannee (The Praises of Vaaheguroo). People, however, have detached themselves from Naam (the Name of God) and attached themselves to other (worldly) temptations, thus wasting their precious lives. ] Pause] ] (pg 1219)

Understanding Gurbaannee  

Dedicated to Gurbaannee Lovers

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