OVER THE MOON 8

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Лара Штамбук • Гордана Ракић

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РАДНА СВЕСКА

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ЕНГЛЕСКИ ЈЕЗИК ЗА 8. РАЗРЕД ОСНОВНЕ ШКОЛЕ ОСМА ГОДИНА УЧЕЊА


UNIT 1 Лара Штамбук • Гордана Ракић OVER THE MOON 8 РАДНА СВЕСКА ЕНГЛЕСКИ ЈЕЗИК ЗА 8. РАЗРЕД ОСНОВНЕ ШКОЛЕ ОСМА ГОДИНА УЧЕЊА Главни уредник Проф. др Бошко Влаховић Одговорни уредник Доц. др Наташа Филиповић Предметни уредник Наталија Кантар

Илустрације Младен Анђелковић

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Дизајн Иван Танић, Агенција Мани два

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Рецензенти Слађана Танасијевић, професор енглеског језика и књижевности, виши педагошки саветник Татјана Ћосић, професор енглеског језика и књижевности, ОШ „Доситеј Обрадовић”, Београд Божидар Никић, професор енглеског језика и књижевности, Школа страних језика Anglian, Београд Јелена Јонић, професор енглеског језика и књижевности, ОШ „Владика Николај Велимировић”, Ваљево

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Лектура и коректура Шила Мекгрегор Ковачевић Наталија Кантар

Издавач ЕДУКА д.о.о. Београд Ул. Змаја од Ноћаја бр. 10/1 Тел./факс: 011 3287 277, 3286 443, 2629 903 Сајт: www.eduka.rs имејл: eduka@eduka.rs За издавача Проф. др Бошко Влаховић, директор Штампа _____________ Издање _____________

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Тираж _____________


CONTENTS UNIT 1

STARTER UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

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UNIT 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

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UNIT 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 SELF CHECK 1 UNITS 1 & 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

UNIT 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 UNIT 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

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SELF CHECK 2 UNITS 3 & 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 UNIT 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 UNIT 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

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SELF CHECK 3 UNITS 5 & 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 UNIT 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 GRAMMAR & VOCABULARY SUMMARY . . . . . . . 70 SELF CHECK ANSWERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

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IRREGULAR VERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

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UNIT 1 UNIT STARTER

STA A

T I N U RTER

Lead-in 1 Fill in the gaps with the words in the box. There is one extra word. resorts

rent

ruins

camp

sunscreen

resting

cuisine

3 Egypt is famous for its hotel _______________.

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2 I never go to the beach without a _______________ lotion.

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1 I like spending my holiday _______________ at home.

4 When we go to the seaside, we usually _______________ an apartment. 5 The hotel we are staying at serves excellent local _______________.

2 Circle the odd one out.

Reading

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holiday seaside travel trip patient passport luggage suitcase learning teaching campus life students skills knowledge lessons landscape scenery cuisine countryside valley mountains nature hostel room hotel camp tourist cottage resort motel

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1 2 3 4

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6 When we were in Athens last year, we visited all the _______________ of Acropolis..

1 Complete each expression and then write whether it is formal (F) or informal (I). 1 2 3 4 5

Yours _______________, Sophie To _______________ with... We’re having a _______________! As you have politely _______________... _______________ hi to everybody.

2 Complete the sentences with a suitable adjective after the verb get. The first letter is given. 1 My brother gets really e______________ when he goes kitesurfing. He loves this sport. 2 My sister usually cries and gets a______________ when she fails her exam. 3 I always get w______________ when it’s raining, even if I carry my umbrella. 4 I always get n______________ when I travel by plane. I don’t like flying. 5 My English is getting b______________ each day. I can speak it fluently. 6 I am getting really t______________ of waiting for Lydia. She’s always late.

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STARTER UNIT UNIT 1 3 Complete the compound nouns. feed__________

__________case

wind__________

__________tan

back__________

lap__________

__________skiing

__________boarding

__________board

4 Word pyramid ■ Build a pyramid of words using the explanations. ti Use the highlighted letters to make a new compound noun. compound noun

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the clear liquid with no colour, taste or smell

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a small, useful device often thought of as a novelty

a location on the Internet that maintains one or more webpages

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helpful information or criticism about prior action communicated to another person and is used as a basis for improvement information and skills gained through learning and experience

a water sport in which you use a kite, a board and the power of the wind to move across water waterskiing on a short board in a kneeling position

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your family, education, experience and social circumstances

5 Complete the compound nouns in the sentences. 1 ___________ surfing is a fun and challenging sport for which you need a board and a sail. 2 ___________tops are more popular than desktop computers. 3 Some people are obsessed with ___________ tanning. They are completely unaware of skin cancer risks and other conditions associated with exposure to UV light. 4 I found Miss Pambleton’s ___________ back on my essay quite useful. 5 ___________ board markers are user-friendly as they do not produce any dust. 6 What a stunning sun ___________! Let’s takee a photo.

6 Match the adjectives 1–6 with the nouns a–f. 1 2 3 4 5 6

picturesque beautiful interactive experienced friendly full board

a) b) c) d) e) f)

teacher environment town accommodation on scenery whiteboard

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UNIT 1 UNIT STARTER

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Grammar Tense Revision 1a Circle the odd one out. always already right now since 2010

now a minute ago at the moment when I was ten

sometimes yesterday this minute yet

every morning last year normally so far

1b Insert a suitable circled time phrase from exercise 1a into each sentence. nce. 1 I tried waterskiing for the first time _________________________________. ______.

3 My mum is sitting by the pool __________________________.

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4 We’ve ____________________________ visited the Louvre.

2 Circle the correct verb forms.

Look! Poppy tries / is trying to climb the rock. Olivia’s brother taught / has taught her to swim when she was five. I haven’t bought / didn’t buy the plane tickets yet. My parents always have booked / book our flights in advance.

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2 We _____________________________ go shopping for souvenirs at the end of our stay.

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3 Write questions for the underlined words.

1 The Smiths have just returned home from holiday. _______________________________________________________________________________? 2 People say that Corsica is an ideal holiday destination.

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_______________________________________________________________________________? 3 Leo is travelling abroad tonight. _______________________________________________________________________________? 4 We enjoyed our holiday because it was exciting. _______________________________________________________________________________?

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STARTER UNIT UNIT 1 4a Complete the email using the correct Present Simple or Present Continuous form of the verbs in brackets.

Hi, Archie! How’s it going? ____________________1 (you/enjoy) your holiday? __________________2 (you / like) Sicily? I ___________________3 (have) ve) a whale of a time in Greece. We ____________________4 (not/stay) in a hotel this year, we __________________5 (camp). We ______________ _6 (love) being outdoors all the time. People here are outgoing and it‘s so easy to make new friends. We ________________7 (get) together every evening and __________________8 (have) barbecue parties ________________10 (get up) quite early and _______________11 (go) to the beach for a whole day of sunbathing and swimming.

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I have to go now and get ready for another barbecue party.

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till dawn. Even though we ________________9 (party) every night, I

See you in a week.

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Freddie

brackets.

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4b Complete the email using the correct Past Simple or Present Perfect form of the verbs in

Hey, my penfriend!

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ths. I How’s life? We ________________1 (not/be) in touch for a few months. 2 ________________ (attend) a language school in London a month ago. o. It 3 ________________ (be) great! I learned a lot and I ________________ __4 (meet) so many nice people there. I made friends with this Spanish girl rl 5 Carmen. We ________________ (be) very good friends from day one. In London, Carmen and I ________________ 6 (go) to all the classes together and on sightseeing tours. We ________________7 (have) so much fun together so we ________________8 (keep) in touch ever since we parted. Last time we ________________ 9 (write) to each other, we decided to go on holiday together next month. Our parents ________________ 10 (agree). We decided to meet in Barcelona on the 21st of next month. I ________________ 11 (already/book) a flight. Write soon and give me the latest news about your holiday. All the best, Paola

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UNIT 11 UNIT STARTER

1 T I UN Lead-in 1 Complete the following questions from the quiz How mature are you? Then give your answers.

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► Where __________________________ yourself 10 years from now? _____________________________________________________________________________. ► Someone __________________________ you. How do you react? _____________________________________________________________________________. ► Your teacher __________________________ the room. You ... _____________________________________________________________________________. ► Who do you want to be __________________________? _____________________________________________________________________________. ► If you could wish for anything, what __________________________? _____________________________________________________________________________. ► How would your friends __________________________ you? _____________________________________________________________________________. ► Where do you like to go __________________________? _____________________________________________________________________________. ► The teacher __________________________ you cheating on a test. You ... _____________________________________________________________________________.

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2 Fill in the gaps with a suitable noun to complete the definitions. 1 An __________________ or a grown-up is a person who is fully developed and mature. 2 An adolescent or a __________________ is a young person who is going through puberty but is not fully mature yet. 3 A __________________ or informally a kid is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty, usually referred to as a minor.

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Reading 1 Match word halves 1–10 with a–j. Then write the compound adjectives on the lines provided. 1 2 3 4 5

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English high record open hard

a) -breaking b) -minded c) -working d) -speaking e) -spirited

_________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________

6 well 7 two 8 part 9 middle 10 good

f) -hour g) -aged h) -known i) -looking j) -time

_________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________


UNIT UNIT 1 2 Complete the sentences with the compound adjectives from exercise 1. 1 Who is that _______________________ boy over there? I can’t take my eyes off him. ve. 2 My little brother is ______________________________ and always on the move. 3 My parents are ______________________________ people of 43 and 45. 4 Ellen has become a ______________________________ pianist in the country and abroad. 5 We had a ______________________________ lecture, but it was not boring at all. 6 Serbia is not an ______________________________ country. 7 The swimmer’s ______________________________ performance won him a gold medal. 9 Joe had a ______________________________ job at the local shop last summer.

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8 I love flexible, tolerant and ______________________________ people!!

Supply the words with the missing vowels (a, e, i, o, u). Then listen to the sounds and number the places. 2.01

P __RK

N__GHT CL__B

C__F__

B__WL__NG __LL__Y

__C__ R__NK

SW__MM__NG P__ __L

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10 I am a ______________________________ student, I have straight As.

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4 Match sentence halves 1–8 with a–h.

a) at repairing things.

2 My mum is very fond

b) on watching football.

3 My dad is quite good

c) at playing video games.

4 My granny is famous

d) about fashion.

5 My grandfather is shocked

e) by the violence on TV.

6 My uncle is not bad

f) of Italian shoes.

7 My aunt is crazy

g) in winter sports.

8 My brother is keen

h) for her knitting skills.

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1 I’m not very interested

5 Now complete the Spidergram with the phrases from exercise 4. ______________________ on

____________________ in

______________________ at

____________________ about

TO BE ______________________ at

____________________ for

______________________ of

____________________ by

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UNIT 11

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Grammar Past Simple and Present Perfect 1a Read about Robert and Lilly. Circle the verbs in the Past Simple imple

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ted Robert and Lilly have been together for a long time. They started er living together two years ago. They got married last August. After their wedding, the couple decided to stay in Liverpool. Lilly hass had her job in Liverpool for five years. She works there as a teacherr and she likes it. Unfortunately, Robert lost his job six months ago.. Three months ago he got an interesting offer, but not in Liverpool.. The new job was in London, so he had to move. The couple have ve lived apart ever since. They say that it hasn’t been easy, but they’ve ve become closer emotionally even though the physical distancee of 287 km separates them.

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and underline the ones in the Present Perfect.

1b Decide if the following statements are true (T) or false (F). T

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Robert and Lilly got married last summer. They got divorced. Lilly is a teacher in Liverpool. The couple lived apart in the past. Robert moved to London six months ago. Robert and Lilly feel closer now.

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1 2 3 4 5 6

2 Read the entry from Lilly’s diary. Find, cross out and correct five more mistakes in the use of the Past Simple and Present Perfect. The first one has been done for you.

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December 20th It is 10 p.m. It was has been a very difficult week and it hasn’t finished yet. I still have to finish marking some papers. I’ve started marking them three days ago and I have to return them tomorrow. I had so much marking to do in these last couple of weeks. It was always like that ever since I started working, at this time of the year. I haven’t slept much last night and I am so worn out. I miss Robbie so much!!!!! I’ve seen him last Sunday but it seems like ages ago.

3 Complete the dialogue with the correct Past Simple or Present Perfect form of the verbs in brackets. Nick:

Maria, _________ you ______________________ (ever / be) to Canada?

Maria: Yes, I ______________________ (go) to Toronto last summer. Nick:

How _________ you ______________________ (like) it?

Maria: I ______________________ (enjoy) the trip very much. While I was there, I also ______________________ (visit) Lake Erie and the capital Ottawa. Nick:

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Last week we ______________________ (book) a holiday there. I ___________________________ (always / want) to visit this great country!


UNIT UNIT 1

Vocabulary and Listening 1 Fill in the gaps with the words in the box. on

computers

like

back

over

about

for

looks

1 What was your life _________________ when you were teenagers? 2 My girlfriends and I were talking _________________ dieting all the time. 3 _________________ were very important for us, too. 4 What were phones and TV like _________________ then? 5 You said you had no _________________, how did you listen to music then? 6 People couldn’t post anything on social networks _________________ everyone to see.

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7 Teenagers didn’t have control _________________ TV while their parents were watching it.

Listen and circle the odd one out in each column. /ʌ/

/e/

/ɪ/

/ɒ/

/ʊ/

lucky

when

listen

was

computer

some

meant

needle

of

look

and

record

thing

what

to

mum

that

middle

for

could

cut

went

differ

constant

put

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8 We used to go to a library to do some research _________________ our homework.

3 Read the dialogue and change the given words with your own on the lines provided.

Leonard: What were you doing from 8 to 10 / _____________________ last night, Alice? I called you several times, but you didn’t answer your phone. I was at San Antonio’s /__________________ Alice: with Kate. I was engaged in salsa, meringue and bachata steps / _____________________. Leonard: I’ve heard of salsa /_____________________, but what on earth are meringue and bachata / _____________________? Come with us next Saturday /_____________________ and see it for yourself. Alice: What about you? Leonard: Well, I was ice skating / ___________________ with my brother / ____________________ He was struggling to stay on his feet / _____________________. It was quite a laugh. Then we went to a nearby café /_____________________ to meet up with Jacob and Henry /_____________________. Alice: So, why did you call me? Leonard: I thought you could join us. Alice: Oh, maybe next time.

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UNIT 11

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Grammar Past Simple and Past Continuous 1 Combine the two sentences into one using the Past Simple or Past Continuous. 1 I did my homework. I heard a strange noise. ________________________________________ when __________________________________. 2 It started to thunder. My parents returned home. ________________________________________ when __________________________________. 3 Sam played online games. His brother chatted on the phone. ________________________________________ while __________________________________. 4 Leonard and Jacob stood in the street. They saw an accident. While _______________________________________, __________________________________.

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5 Kate and Emily did their homework. They heard a knock on the door. ________________________________________ when __________________________________.

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6 Alice studied for the test. Her best friend called her. While _______________________________________, __________________________________.

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7 Joshua hit his head. He fell down the stairs. ________________________________________ when __________________________________.

2 Read the sentences and then write true (T) or false (F).

1 Jane and Emma were playing basketball from 8 to 10 p.m. last night. We do no not know whether the girls were playing basketball for two hours last night.

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2 When we turned off the TV Novak Đoković was losing the match. When we turned it on again he was winning. We do not know whether he won the match. 3 Kate: What were you doing last night at 10 o’clock? John: I was watching TV. We know when he started watching it.

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4 We were preparing to go out when our parents arrived. We did not leave when our parents came. 5 George was drinking some orange juice while he was surfing the net. We do not know whether George finished drinking the orange juice. 6 My dad came home while I was having lunch. I finished lunch when my dad came home.

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UNIT UNIT 1 3 Complete the text with a suitable form of the Past Simple or Past Continuous.

Dear Diary, Two days ago, I __________________ (decide) to throw a surprise party for my younger sister’s 13th birthday. I __________________ (organize) everything. I __________________ (clean) and __________________ (decorate) the living room all morning. Then I __________________ (make) her favourite chocolate cake. After that, I __________________ (go) to the supermarket to buy some food and drinks. I __________________ (know) she wouldn’t come home before 6 p.m., so I __________________ (tell) her friends to come at 5 o’clock. While I __________________ (wait) for her friends to arrive, I __________________ (turn on) the TV to kill time, but I __________________ (fall asleep).

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Unfortunately, my sister __________________ (come) home while I __________________ (sleep). When she _________________ (wake) me up, I __________________ (cannot) believe my eyes. Her instructor ____________ (get) the flu, so she __________________ (not / have) her salsa lesson. I ________________ (want) to surprise my sister. However, the surprise __________________ (be) all mine. 

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She __________________ (be) so over the moon when she __________________ (hear) about the party that she __________________ (run) all over the house, screaming with excitement. Anyway, the party __________________ (be) terrific, my sister __________________ (teach) us salsa steps and we __________________ (laugh) our heads off while we __________________ (do) them. When our parents _______________(arrive), they __________________ (join) the party. Dad __________________ (grab) his guitar and __________________ (start) playing while mum __________________ (dance) and __________________ (sing) along with the rest of us. All in all, we __________________ (have) a ball! 

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Bye for now, Kate

4 Circle the correct verb forms. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Mary drove / was driving along when she was seeing / saw her friend across the street. As I was leaving / left my flat, the phone was ringing / rang. I was reading / read a book while I sat / was sitting in the park. What did you do / were you doing from 9 till 10 yesterday evening? My brother surfed / was surfing the Internet all night long. When I was coming home / came home, I washed / was washing my hands and was putting / put the pizza in the microwave. 7 It still rained / was still raining when my parents went / were going to the theatre.

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UNIT 11

E

Across Cultures 1 Complete the crossword and find the mystery word. fashionable hygiene grounds, locations or buildings comes after primary informally tongue (English, Serbian ...) colleague value a slang word for Australian

1 2 3

4 5 6 7 8 9

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

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1 Japanese teens are very n _ _ _. They clean their school on a daily basis. 2 Teens around the world wear s _ _ _ _ _ _ clothes. They all like jeans and T-shirts. 3 Aussie teens are quite l _ _ _ - _ _ _ _. They like partying and having fun. 4 My best friend is b_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. She speaks English and French. 5 Swedish schoolchildren have a lot of o _ _ _ _ _ _ activities. They pick mushrooms and berries in the woods.

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2 Complete the sentences with suitable words. The first letter is given.

3 Match the words 1–5 with their definitions a–e. part-time indoor enemy optional bright

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a) that can be chosen b) a person who hates you or who tries to harm you c) working fewer hours d) intense in colour e) inside a building

4 Write the opposites for the words in exercise 3. The first or the last letter is given. 1 f__________________ 4 m__________________

2 o__________________ 5 __________________k

3 __________________ d

5 Rewrite the italicised words and phrases so that they sound more polite.

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1 Most teenagers in Serbia like to wear trendy clothes.

________________________________

2 My sister is really childish. She always does silly things.

________________________________

3 I want to buy a return ticket to Stockholm.

________________________________

4 ‘Can you help me with this?’ – No, I can’t.

________________________________

5 Your friend is a bit skinny.

________________________________

6 His brother is rather lazy.

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UNIT UNIT 1

Writing A Diary 1 Write two diary entries. Read the model text in the student’s book, p. 22 and the writing guide to help you.

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Writing guide Step 1 Decide where to hide your diary. If you want to keep your diary private, find a special hiding place for it. A good way to keep your thoughts secret is writing in a foreign language. Step 2 Start with the date of your entry, then write Dear Diary, mention what happened, how it happened, when it happened, where it happened, who you were with and how you felt. Be honest if you want your diary to save your memories and have a true perspective of a certain event. Sign off with e.g. Bye for now. / I’ll get back to you soon. / Love,... / Good night. Step 3 Check the use of the tenses – Present Perfect, Past Simple, Past Continuous and punctuation.

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UNIT 1 UNIT STARTER

2 T I UN Lead-in 1 Complete the facts about Historical Figures. Use the words in the box. disappeared poetry lightning suggested gliders died

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Awards Greek obsessed deaf childhood lighthouse Prizes painted dedicated consisted

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1 Leonardo da Vinci was born in the town of Vinci. He __________________ Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. He designed hang __________________, helicopters and musical instruments. 2 Pablo Picasso’s name __________________ of 23 words. He produced more than 1,200 sculptures and 1,800 paintings and also wrote __________________ and plays.

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3 Nikola Tesla was born during a violent __________________ storm. Historians say that he was __________________ with number 3, hated pearls and wouldn’t touch hair.

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4 Maria Callas was a world famous soprano. She was of __________________ origin and she lived in New York City. Her biographers say she had an unhappy __________________. 5 Marie Curie received two Nobel __________________ for physics and chemistry. Her daughter Irene also received one for chemistry. She __________________ due to exposure to radiation. 6 Amelia Earhart __________________ in July 1937 and was declared dead two years later. She had a __________________ built in her honour on Howland Island in the Pacific Ocean.

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7 Walt Disney won 22 Academy __________________ for his work. He wanted to name his famous mouse Mortimer, but his wife __________________ the name Mickey. 8 Ludwig van Beethoven became almost completely __________________ by the age of 44. He was best known for his nine symphonies. He __________________ the third one to Napoleon.

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Reading 1 Match the words in the box with the explanations. the sick 1 2 3 4 5

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the homeless

the disabled

the poor

the leprous

____________________ – the opposite of the rich ____________________ – the opposite of the healthy ____________________ – people suffering from leprosy ____________________ – people with no home and living on the streets ____________________ – people with limited movements, senses or activities


UNIT UNIT 2 1 2 Complete the sentences by using the correct form of the words in CAPITALS. SPIRIT

2 My aunt collects ____________________ artefacts and books.

RELIGION

3 She was a great humanitarian and was ____________________ to all in need.

KINDNESS

4 He used to be quite a ____________________ child.

DISOBEDIENCE

5 When did Gandhi lead the fight for Indian ____________________?

INDEPENDENT

6 What did Gandhi’s ____________________ name Mahatma mean in Sanskrit?

HONOUR

7 Mother Teresa had some basic training in ____________________.

MEDICAL

8 He had a huge, ____________________ smile on his face. He made a point!

TRIUMPH

9 Mahatma Gandhi was known for his ____________________ resistance to the British rule.

NON-VIOLENCE

10 There should not be any barriers considering sex, ____________________, class or national origin!

RACIAL

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1 Who was her ____________________ guide when she decided to go to India?

3 Order the words to make sentences about Mahatma Gandhi and Mother Teresa.

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1 At ▪ Ireland ▪ age ▪ become ▪ the ▪ of ▪ 18 ▪ she ▪ nun ▪ went ▪ to ▪ to ▪ a

__________________________________________________________________________________. 2 At ▪ London ▪ age ▪ went ▪ the ▪ of ▪ law ▪ 19 ▪ he ▪ to ▪ to ▪ study

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__________________________________________________________________________________. 3 order ▪ colony ▪ established ▪ a ▪ leper ▪ orphanage ▪ an ▪ numerous ▪ and ▪ for ▪ clinics ▪ sick ▪ The ▪ the __________________________________________________________________________________. 4 was ▪ He ▪ one ▪ famous ▪ of ▪ most ▪ the ▪ leaders ▪ promoters ▪ and ▪ in ▪ justice ▪ of ▪ world ▪ the

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__________________________________________________________________________________. 5 salt ▪ on ▪ 388 ▪ Britain ▪ a ▪ put ▪ tax ▪ kilometres ▪ Gandhi ▪ decided ▪ to ▪ Dandi ▪ walk ▪ to ▪ When __________________________________________________________________________________.

4 Decide who these interesting facts refer to – Mahatma Gandhi or Mother Teresa. Write their initials in the boxes provided. ► An international airport is named after this person. ► This person’s birthday is a national holiday in India. ► This person was very shy as a child and had bad handwriting. ► This person was fluent in five languages.

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UNIT 12

B

B Grammar Used to and Would 1 Cross out would in the sentences where you cannot use it. You can use both used to and would in some sentences.

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1 Amelia Earhart used to / would collect frogs and insects as a child. She and her sister used to / would be very adventurous children. 2 My dad used to / would like wearing a moustache when he was young. 3 Some people used to / would hate Picasso’s paintings at first, because they didn’t understand them. 4 My granny used to / would listen to opera for hours. She used to / would be an opera singer. 5 Our grandad used to / would be a history teacher. He used to / would tell us many interesting stories, especially from the Second World War. 6 Einstein used to / would have problems with speech and his parents used to / would worry that he wasn’t very intelligent.

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2 Circle the correct option.

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1 I used to / would be fascinated by film stars. I am not any more, ore, I have grown out of it. 2 We didn’t use to / used to know anything about Leonardo da Vinci, but now we do. 3 The British used to / would eventually release Gandhi. 4 People used to / didn’t use to think that Albert Einstein’s ideas were strange and impossible. 5 My grandad Peter would / wouldn’t go to bed before he read a historic book. He used to / would love reading them. 6 My dad would / used to often read for hours about famous historic people and then he would / used to always retell me the most interesting facts.

3 Write true sentences about yourself when you were 8 years old.

Ed

Use used to / didn’t use to or would / wouldn’t and the ideas below. ► wear my older sister’s / brother’s clothes ► do cartwheels ► be outgoing ► handle disgusting animals ► dress like a superhero ► have a pet When I was eight years old, 1 _______________________________________________________________________________ 2 _______________________________________________________________________________ 3 _______________________________________________________________________________ 4 _______________________________________________________________________________ 5 _______________________________________________________________________________ 6 _______________________________________________________________________________

18


UNIT UNIT 2 1

Vocabulary and Listening 1 Complete the phrases with a suitable word. The first letter is given.

2.04

/ɑ:/

/ᴂ/

/і:/

/ᴐ:/

party

and

similar

before

but

handsome

me

father

well

leave

laugh

that

seem

o

Listen and circle the odd one out in each column. /u:/

/ɜ:/

mutual

aside

gorgeous

soon

first

your

couldn’t

turn

ago

you

early

Listen to the dialogue. Fill in the table with the missing information.

Where did Joshua’s parents meet?

At the ____________.

When did they meet?

About twenty years ____________.

How did they meet?

Through a ____________ friend.

uk a

3

2.03

om

2

As s _ _ _ _ _ _ as it may seem it turned out just fine. They started dating and p _ _ _ _ _ soon they fell in l _ _ _. No w _ _! A matchmaker paired you! Thank g _ _ _ _ _ _ _ for ‘aunt’ Jessica! Your father and I had a g _ _ _ laugh. Later that night your dad asked me on a d _ _ _.

pr

1 2 3 4 5 6

Her name was ____________.

4a Match the words with the definitions.

Ed

C

1 gorgeous

a) look like somebody or something without being exactly the same

2 matchmaker

b) good-looking

3 mutual

c) polite

4 similar

d) very pleasant or extremely beautiful

5 well-mannered

e) shared by two or more people

6 handsome

f) someone who arranges romances or marriages

4b Use the words 1–6 from ex. 4a to write your own sentences. 1 _______________________________________________________________________________ 2 _______________________________________________________________________________ 3 _______________________________________________________________________________ 4 _______________________________________________________________________________ 5 _______________________________________________________________________________ 6 _______________________________________________________________________________

19


UNIT 12

D

Grammar Gerund vs. Infinitive 1 Circle the correct option. 1 I can’t stand people to tell / telling me what to do. 2 She stopped to buy / buying the latest edition of her favourite magazine. 3 We are looking forward to meet / meeting your brother. 4 My boyfriend and I want travelling / to travel to Paris next year. 5 My mum won’t let me stay / staying at the party until midnight. 6 I remember going / to go to that restaurant with my parents when I was a boy.

She suggested going / to go to that new café for her birthday. They managed preparing / to prepare everything for her arrival. You promised coming / to come to my birthday party. They discussed to postpone / postponing their honeymoon.

om

1 2 3 4

o

2 Cross out the incorrect option.

mind

refuse

apologize

makes

pr

3 Complete the sentences with the words in the box. avoids

promise

can’t help

uk a

1 Can I go to the party, Mum? I _________________________to to come home by 11 o’clock. 2 She _________________________ thinking about the boy she met at the party. 3 Would you _________________________ telling me the truth, please?

Ed

4 I _________________________ to lie to her. I never tell lies, especially to my friends. 5 My best friend is so funny. He always _________________________ me laugh. gh. 6 I _________________________ for being late. I’ll make it up to you. 7 He _________________________ talking about his ex-girlfriend.

4 Complete the sentences about yourself. Use gerund or infinitive. 1 I love ________________________________________________________________________ ________________ . 2 I hate ________________________________________________________________________ . 3 I can’t help ____________________________________________________________________ . 4 I always forget _________________________________________________________________ . 5 I need ________________________________________________________________________ . 6 I would like ___________________________________________________________________ . 7 I stopped _____________________________________________________________________ . 8 I have decided _________________________________________________________________ .

20


UNIT UNIT 2 1 5 Match sentence halves. 1 2 3 4 5

We need She refuses Nicholas doesn’t mind Rebecca made me Sean apologized for

a) b) c) d) e)

go to my ex-boyfriend’s party. leaving the party early. to believe that he has forgotten about it. cleaning his room. to set our wedding date.

6 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form, gerund or infinitive. 1 We managed _________________ (settle) our differences. 2 Our parents enjoy _________________ (listen) to music and _________________ (dance). 3 I adore _________________ (go out) and _________________ (have) fun with my friends. 5 He promised _________________ (take) me to the cinema.

o

4 I have decided _________________ (visit) my grandparents this week.

om

6 My sister and I need _________________ (help) our mum clean the house.

7 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form, gerund or infinitive. Pay attention to the change in meaning after the verbs forget / regret / remember / stop.

uk a

pr

1 Don’t forget _________________________ (bring) me your pocket-sized guide to Vienna. 2 I forgot _________________________ (tell) Julie about the party. I’ll tell her tomorrow. 3 Patty regrets _________________________ (invite) Bill to her birthday party. He picked a quarrel with her boyfriend and ruined everything. 4 We regret _________________________ (say) that the party is over. 5 I remember _________________________ (throw) a huge party when I moved into my new flat. 6 Please remember _________________________ (lock) the door when you go out.. 7 Will you stop _________________________ (make) so much noise? I’m trying to sleep. 8 She stopped _________________________ (buy) a cup of coffee in her favourite coffee shop.

Ed

8 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form, gerund or infinitive to complete the story. My grandparents started __________________ (date) six months before they got married. They both loved __________________ _____ (travel). Before they got married they agreed __________________ ___ (travel) to Costa del Sol in Spain. When they returned from Spain n * they decided __________________ (tie) the knot . After thee wedding they were looking forward to to________________ (go)) to their honeymoon. They chose __________________ (spend)) their honeymoon on the Amalfi Coast in Italy. They loved it there. e. A month after that they considered __________________ (have) e) children. My mum and her twin sister were born a year later. Both h of them enjoy ________________ (travel). They promised my brother er and me __________________ (take) us to the Amalfi Coast next year.

* tie the knot = get married

21


UNIT 12

E

Across Cultures 1 Write the missing parts of speech. Verb plot triumph march prosper vary

Noun

Adjective / triumphant

march prosperous variety

2 Complete the sentences with a suitable word from the table in exercise 1.

o

There were a lot of ________________ bands in the streets during the parade. They planned a a________________ to kill the king. There were thirteen of them. People in India think that goddess of wealth and ________________ brings good luck. For Hindu people light signifies the the________________ of good over evil. The best chefs prepare a lot of vegetarian dishes, including ________________ fruits.

om

1 2 3 4 5

ashes business harvest citizens sauce wealth meal Plot soup

uk a

Gunpowder cranberry squash monkey goddess of family bonfire plentiful fellow

pr

3 Match word halves to make useful expressions. Then write the expressions in the spaces provided.

1 2 3 4 5 6

Ed

4 Decide if the following statements are true (T) or false (F). For Hindu people wealth is the symbol of hope. People in the USA don’t celebrate Bonfire Night. Thanksgiving isn’t celebrated on the third Thursday in November. Diwali is also known as Monkey Banquet. Monkeys play an important role in Lopburi culture. British people celebrate Thanksgiving Day.

5 Circle the correct preposition at the end of each question. 1 Who do the Americans gather with / for to celebrate Thanksgiving? 2 The Pilgrims had a plentiful harvest. Who did they give thanks for / to? 3 Hindu people have adopted several symbols. What is light the symbol of / off? 4 Lopburi Banquet attracts a lot of tourists. Who do the tourists have fun at / with? 5 Who do the locals in the town of Lopburi lay out a buffet for / on? 6 What typical sweets is Diwali famous of / for? 7 What traditional food is Bonfire Night associated with / by? 8 What kind of celebrations are people in Serbia interested for / in?

22


UNIT UNIT 2 1

Writing A Thriller Story 1 Write a thriller story. Read the model text in the student’s book, p. 34 and the writing guide to help you. Writing guide Step 1 Choose a title for your thriller story. Here are some ideas: A mysterious woman in black, A strange man on the train, A house of evil or use your own ideas. You can begin or end your story with the words I / He / She will never forget that day / night ... Step 2 > In the introduction describe where and when the story takes place and introduce the main characters. > In the main part mention what happened and what the characters did. Build up the suspense. > In the conclusion write what happened in the end and write a short commentary. Use as many linking words as possible to make your story flow. Here are some to help you.

om

o

Narration  immediately, all of a sudden, suddenly, as soon as, before, after, when, during, later, soon, firstly, then, finally, in the end Contrast  but, nevertheless, however, although, on the other hand, despite / in spite of Result  so ... that, therefore, as a result Cause and reason  because of, since Emphasis  actually, especially, in fact, above all

pr

Step 3 Check the use of the tenses – Past Simple, Past Continuous, used to / would and punctuation.

Story Title

uk a

It all happened

Ed

F

23


UNIT CHECK SELF 1 1

SELF CHECK 1

Units 1&2

1 Find eight words in the wordsearch to complete the compound adjectives. O R A T H U L Y I S

R C

P A T H R E E Q E O

P P E K E C T R U A P E W I

N M R E C O R D

A E P O L K L M I I

I

U T T H W

D Y D H E A E

L N E W E L D M R T

1 __ __ __ __-minded 2 __ __ __ __-working 3 __ __ __ __ __ __-breaking 4 __ __ __ __ __-hour 5 high-__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ 6 English-__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __

N N C S

P E Z R L D L

7 __ __ __ __ __ __ -aged

G S

R

8 __ __ __ __ -known

I

I

T E D E L

o

P

om

2 Complete the dialogue with the correct Present Perfect or Past Simple form of the verbs in brackets.

uk a

pr

A: __________________________ (you / ever / taste) nasi goreng? B: Oh yes! I __________________________ (eat) nasi goreng at least ten times so far. A: When __________________________ (you / eat) it for the first time? B: I first ______________________ (try) it on my parents’ wedding anniversary a few months ago. They _________________________ (invite) family and friends to an Indonesian restaurant. A: __________________________ (you / like) it? B: Absolutely! Actually, it __________________________ (be) so good that we __________________________ (become) their regular customers since then.

3 Complete the text with the correct Past Simple or Past Continuous form of the verbs in brackets.

Ed

Last night, a murder __________________________(happen) in my apartment building around 8 p.m. A detective __________________________ (arrive) at the crime scene an hour ago. He __________________________ (ask) me a few questions. ‘What __________________________ (you / do) at 8 last night?’ ‘I __________________________ (watch) a film on Netflix.’ ‘_________________________ (you / be) alone?’ ‘Yes, I __________________________(be).’ ‘_________________________ (hear / you) anything suspicious?’ ‘Yes, some time before 8 I heard that two people __________________________ (argue) next door. But the film __________________________(be) so exciting that I __________________________ (turn on) the volume and __________________________ (continue) watching it. I didn’t hear anything else.’

4 Circle the correct option. My sister is my role model. She paints beautiful / beautifully. She is a good / well singer. She plays the guitar very good / well. She always studies hard / hardly for her exams. She is never late / lately. Above all she is full of understanding and very kind / kindly to other people. She never feels bad / badly of anyone. I really admire her and I am happy / happily that she is my sister.

24


SELF CHECK UNIT 1 5 Complete the sentences by using the correct form of the words in brackets. Buddhism is a ____________________ (religious) with millions of followers known as Buddhists. The Dalai Lamas are the ____________________ (spirit) leaders of the Tibetan people and the head monks of Tibetan Buddhism. They are known for their ____________________ (kind), ____________________ (non-violent) and their belief in peace, love and understanding. Lama is an ____________________ (honour) title for a spiritual leader in Tibetan Buddhism. Tenzin Gyatso, His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama has written ____________________ (number) books about Buddhism.

6 Cross out the incorrect option. Both options are possible in some sentences. entences.

pr

om

o

When I was little I used to / would live in a small town, but when my y father pend got a new job we had to move to a big city. Back then I used to / would spend a lot of time in a beautiful park where my parents used to / would take my w, sister Sarah and me every day. We would / used to swing, ride the see-saw, y, ride a bike, play hopscotch and play hide-and-seek there. Unfortunately, our park is no longer there. The city turned it into a shopping centre. Wee d would / used to have a dog called Timmy. Sarah and I used to / would k walk Timmy in the park every day and it used to / would always bark ld at cats and chase them. It was so funny! In those days I used to / would n’t walk to school but today I go to school by bus. I remember that I wouldn’t / didn’t use to like vegetables, but now they’re my favourite food. I usedd to / ften go would like punk, but now I listen to reggae. My family would / used to often on a picnic at weekends but now we never do. A lot has changed since I was a child.

uk a

7 Complete the questions for the given answers. Pay attention to the italicized prepositions. 1 Hindu people celebrate Diwali with firecrackers and candles. What _________________________________________________________________________ ? 2 The Guy is made of old clothes filled with newspaper. What _________________________________________________________________________ ?

Ed

3 The monkeys of Lopburi are fed by local residents. Who _________________________________________________________________________ ? 4 Thanksgiving is celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November. What day of the week ___________________________________________________________ ?

8 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form, gerund or infinitive. My dad has promised _________________ (buy) a new laptop for my sister. It’s quite expensive, but he doesn’t mind _________________ (give) a lot of money for it. We have agreed _________________ (keep) it a secret because we want _________________ (surprise) her. I can’t help _________________ (think) about my sister’s reaction when she sees her present. I enjoy _________________ (make) people happy, especially the members of my family. I look forward to _________________ (go) shopping with my dad. We always stop _________________ (eat) something or _________________ (have) a drink at my favourite restaurant when we’ve done shopping. I want _________________ (bring) a smile to my mum’s face, too. I’ve managed _________________ (persuade) my dad to throw her an unforgettable birthday party. He can hardly refuse _________________ (do) anything I ask. He’s the best Dad ever!

25


UNIT 1 UNIT STARTER

3 T I UN Lead-in Lead in 1 Use the mixed up letters to write the words for the given definitions. 1 osaerfwt – different types of programmes and data which enable computers to work. __________________

om

o

2 lawelfri – a security system designed to prevent hackers from accessing your private network __________________

3 ttennrai – an internal network assessible only to authorised users __________________ 4 kpucba –an extra copy of computer files or data stored separately and used in case the original is destroyed or lost __________________

pr

5 niihhpgs –an act of gaining personal information (ID or social security numbers, credit card data, etc.) by sending false emails that appear to come from well-known organisations __________________

uk a

6 apsm – unwanted online messages, usually commercial advertising, sent to a great number of Internet users __________________ 7 yikenhprl – a highlighted word, icon, phrase, etc. in a text or web page that a user can click on in order to access another electronic document __________________ 8 ttgniimlusak – the ability of a computer to perform several tasks simultaneously __________________

A

Ed

9 aaesbtad – a considerable amount of data stored in a computer and easily used __________________

Reading

1 Circle the word that best suits the meaning of the sentence. 1 2 3 4 5 6

26

They saw things different / differently and contributed to a huge change in the world / Europe. Steve Jobs was fired from / of Apple, the company he imagined / created. He was an innovative thinker / magician. He improved the existing technology in many ways. Mark Zuckerberg invented a new profile / way of interacting and connected / divided the whole world. Jobs suffered of / from pancreatic cancer / flu. He aspires to get every person in the world offline / online.


UNIT UNIT 3 1 2 Circle the correct option. 1 Steve Jobs was a visionary who who____________________ the existing technology. a) founded b) improved c) invented d) created 2 None of them ____________________ university even though they brought about a revolution in technology. a) studied from b) learned from c) graduated from d) taught from 3 Mark Zuckerberg is the ____________________ of the social-networking website Facebook. a) founder b) innovator c) entrepreneur d) co-founder 4 By investing ________ research, a small company of just 30 people turned into a global force that employs more than 120,000 people. a) on b) in c) at d) from

o

5 Mark Zuckerberg is a computer _______________, Internet entrepreneur and the co-founder and CEO of the social-network Facebook. a) scientist b) programmer c) inventor d) thinker

om

6 After a dispute with Apple’s Board of Directors, he was fired _________ the company. a) off b) of c) from d) with 7 Apple released the Macintosh computer, which ____________________ the way for personal computers. a) paved b) iced c) followed d) lost

(-er, -or, -ist, -ian, -ant) to the words.

uk a

They write programmes for computers. They are ____________________s. Lucy is a ____________________. She is a real expert in mathematics. My brother is the ____________________ manager. ____________________s are scientists or engineers who specialise in technology. 5 This is the ____________________ I was telling you about. He acts in my favourite TV series but I can’t remember his name. 6 ____________________s study or write about past events. 7 Innovative ____________________s are people who can change the world. 8 My uncle is a ____________________ when it comes to technology. 9 A large number of ____________________s took part in the discussion. 10 His mum is a ____________________ in a big international company.

Ed

1 2 3 4

pr

3 Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the words in CAPITALS. Add the appropriate suffix PROGRAMME MATHEMATICS ASSIST TECHNOLOGY ACT HISTORY THINK MAGIC PARTICIPATE CONSULT

4 Write a suitable reflexive pronoun. 1 I play online games till late at night. I really can’t control ___________________. 2 Mr Arrington is a great man. He should be proud of ___________________. 3 People around the world get ___________________ connected via the Internet. 4 My friend Lyn is a blogger. She writes blogs about ___________________. 5 My brother and I always repair our laptop by ___________________. We W ddon’t ’ need d any hhelp. l 6 When someone attacks you, you must defend ___________________.

27


UNIT 13

B

Grammar Modal Verbs for Speculation in the Present 1 Look at the four presents. What do you think they are? Use must, might or could to guess what is inside. Be creative!

2

3

4

pr

2 Read the dialogue and circle the correct option.

om

o

1

Ed

uk a

Mum: Jane, where is Josh? I can’t reach him on his mobile phone! Jane: Have you tried phoning him at home? Mum: Yes, but he could / can’t be at home because no one is answering the phone. I wonder where he is. Jane: I don’t know. He could / couldn’t be in his room playing video games with the headphones on. You know he does that all the time. Mum: He has an appointment at the dentist’s at 5 o’clock and I wanted to remind him about it. Jane: Don’t worry, Мum. I’m on my way home. I’m sure he might / must be in his room playing. I’ll give you a ring as soon as I check on him. Mum: OK, he might / must feel less scared at the dentist’s after playing a game. You know how he gets when he has to visit a dentist!

3 Find the incorrect word in each sentence and correct it. Use can’t and must and a suitable word in the box.

mathematician

programmer

hacker

scientist

He is a teacher who has launched a new computer programme. He can’t be a teacher. He must be a programmer. 1 Unfortunately, Paul’s brother is an inventor who steals other people’s identities on the Internet. He ___________________________________________________________________________ . 2 Neil’s sister Amy is a technician. She has always been good with numbers. She __________________________________________________________________________ . 3 He is a magician. He always does some research. He ___________________________________________________________________________ .

28


UNIT UNIT 3 1

Vocabulary and Listening 1 Circle the correct option. 1 We must take a ____________________ against bullying! a) look b) photo c) risk d) stand 2 Adults need to step in and help us sort ____________________ such problems. s. a) on b) out c) of d) off 3 ____________________ to your senses, girl! Don’t believe everything you hear. ar. a) Arrive b) Take c) Come d) Go

Listen and circle the odd one out in each column.

/eɪ/ may Facebook create giant

/aɪ/ animated iconic design Microsoft

/ɔɪ/ enjoy proud toy join

/ɪə/ idea fear seat years

om

2.05

/ʊə/ where pure endure cure

pr

2

o

4 They have focused ____________________ poverty and disease around the world. orld. a) at b) in c) on d) of

/eə/ software chairman aspire their

/aʊ/ ʊ/ louder Windows founder how

/əʊ/ /əʊ/ upload own videos without

3

uk a

Diphthongs consist of more than one sound.

Listen and complete some useful pieces of advice about what to do if you are cyberbullied. 2.06

If you are cyberbullied, this is what to do:

Ed

C

1 ______________________ the cyberbully. This can quite discouragee the bullies. 2 If the harassment continues, ______________________. 3 Block or ______________________ the person. Also block emails from specific email addresses. 4 If someone continuously sends you messages that you don’t like, consider changing your ______________________ address or ______________________. 5 If someone has hacked into your profile, change your ______________________. 6 If someone creates a false profile pretending to be you, contact the company that runs the ______________________ to remove the profile or posted comments. 7 ______________________ to someone you trust. When ______________________ gets out of control, talking to an adult can be very helpful, especially if you feel upset and scared. If you feel uncomfortable talking to a parent, you can talk to a teacher, coach, or other ______________________ family member such as an uncle or an aunt. You don’t need to feel like you are alone in this.

29


UNIT 13

D

Grammar Past Modals 1 Circle the correct option. 1 We __________ interrupt the back-up process because it wasn’t over yet. a) was able to b) were able to c) couldn’t d) could 2 Simon __________ get up early yesterday morning because he had an appointment at 8 a.m. a) had to b) had c) has to d) have to 3 Anne __________ do her maths assignment by herself because it was very easy. a) wasn’t able to b) was able to c) were able to d) couldn’t 4 I’m so sad! I lost my mobile phone yesterday, I __________ find it anywhere. a) had to b) didn’t have to c) could d) couldn’t

o

5 My parents __________ use my laptop because I told them my password. a) wasn’t able to b) were able to c) should d) couldn’t

2 Cross out the incorrect option in each sentence.

om

6 I __________ finish the project yesterday because the teacher postponed the deadline. a) had to b) didn’t have to c) should d) shouldn’t

Ed

uk a

pr

1 My cousin was able to / could fix my computer when it broke down. 2 Karen’s parents were / weren’t able to reach her on her mobile phone because she was in class. 3 Sean could / couldn’t write software when he was only 12 years old. 4 Were / Was Professor Wilson’s students able to prepare the presentation on time? 5 Our dad didn’t have to / had to go to work yesterday because he had a day off. 6 My uncle could / was able to save all the data when his computer crashed. ss. 7 We had to / didn’t have to hurry up because we were late for our class.

3 Complete sentences about yourself when you were five years old. When I was five years old ...

1 I could _______________________________________________________________________ . 2 I couldn’t _____________________________________________________________________ . 3 I was able to ___________________________________________________________________ . 4 I wasn’t able to _________________________________________________________________ . 5 I had to _______________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________ . ___ 6 I didn’t have to _________________________ _________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________ .

30


UNIT UNIT 3 1 4 Write a sentence with should have for each picture. Use the words in brackets. 1

2

(close / the window) She ________________________. ____________________________.

1

(wear / warmer clothes) He _________________________ ____________________________.

3 (use / public transport) They ________________________. ____________________________.

4

om

3

uk a

pr

2

o

4 (go / to bed earlier) My dad ______________________. ____________________________.

5 Choose and tick the sentence a) or b) that has a similar meaning to the model sentence. 1 Why didn’t Alex come to the café last night? – I think he might have forgotten. a) I’m sure he forgot all about it. ______ b) Perhaps he forgot all about it. ______

Ed

2 They can’t have done it. a) It’s possible that they did it. ______

b) It’s impossible that they did it. ______

3 Kate must have ordered these books via Internet. a) We are quite certain that she did. ______ b) It’s impossible that she did. ______ 4 She could have told her parents about cyberbullying on Facebook but she was embarrassed to do so. a) She told her parents about it. ______ b) She didn’t tell her parents about it. _____

6 Complete the dialogue. Use might / must / shouldn’t have + past participle of the verb in brackets. A Look, there’s a parcel in front of the door. The postman ___________________________ (leave) it there. B He ___________________________ (leave) it there. He is not allowed to do that. A passer-by ___________________________ (take) it. A You ___________________________ (be) out when he came. B That’s impossible, I haven’t been out all day. A Is it possible that you didn’t hear the doorbell? B Well, yes. I ___________________________ (be) in the bathroom, taking a shower.

31


UNIT 13

E

Across Cultures 1 Write the numbers. Don’t forget commas and decimal points. 1 a hundred thousand

__________________

5 a quarter

__________________

2 five hundred and fifty-five __________________

6 eight million

__________________

3 two point nine

__________________

7 one third

__________________

4 the forty-third

__________________

8 nine billion

__________________

2 Fill in the gaps with a suitable word. The first letter of each word is given. 1 H__________________________ cities are centres of innovation and technological development.

o

2 Amsterdam is usually called ‘V__________________________ of the North.’

om

3 Some people call S__________________________ a city reaching for the clouds because its skyscrapers are among the tallest in the world. 4 Burj Khalifa, the tallest s__________________________ in the world, is situated in Dubai. 5 Singapore implemented a high-tech system for charging vehicles on main roads to avoid traffic j__________________________ during rush hours.

pr

6 Tokyo is the c__________________________ of Japan.

uk a

7 The D__________________________ built the IJburg District where people live in floating homes on water.

3 Correct the italicised word collocations in the sentences. Write the correct ones on the lines provided.

1 There are fewer fuel jams in the streets of Singapore due to a system ________ for charging vehicles on main roads. __________________________

Ed

2 Neon energy can save money and improve our environment. __________________________ 3 Urban charging is concerned with improving ng quality of life in urban areas through development of infrastructure. __________________________ 4 A lot of people get caught in the afternoon bustling hour on their way home from work. k. __________________________

4 Write the appropriate noun from the adjectives in CAPITALS.

32

1 The total ____________________ of Burj Khalifa in Dubai is 829.8 metres.

HIGH

2 The ____________________ of Shanghai Metro is 676 kilometres.

LONG

3 The ____________________ of 9 de Julio Avenue in Buenos Aires is 140 metres which makes it the widest street in the world.

WIDE

4 The ____________________ of North Korea’s Pyongyang Metro is 110 meters.

DEEP


UNIT UNIT 3 1

Writing A Formal Letter of Complaint 1 Read the advertisement and write a formal letter of complaint using the given notes. Read the model letter in the student’s book, p. 46 and the writing guide to help you. Writing guide These are some common phrases you can use when writing a formal letter of complaint:

om

o

Reason for writing  I am writing to express my dissatisfaction with ...; I am writing to complain about ... First complaint  Firstly; My first complaint is ... Further complaints  Secondly; Also; In addition to this; To make matters worse; Furthermore, ... Mentioning negative consequences  I'm afraid that ...; Unfortunately, ... Expressing dissatisfaction  I feel it is absolutely unacceptable ...; I am disappointed because ... Demanding action  I therefore suggest that you ...; I would like to request that ...; I would be grateful if you could replace the item; I demand a full refund. Ending the letter  I look forward to hearing from you; I look forward to receiving a full refund; I look forward to your reply and a resolution to my problem; Thank you in advance.

missing

uk a

it overheats

Buy it at the lowest price! Comes with a battery charger, headphones and a 4 GB memory card.

pr

The fastest smart phone of the year!

slow response

Available in black, white and silver.

Ed

F

Dear Sir / Madam,

33


UNIT 1 UNIT STARTER

4 T I UN Lead-in 1 Complete the following questions from the Are you healthy? quiz. Then give your answers.

Reading

Ed

A

uk a

pr

om

o

1 How __________________ water do you drink a day? _______________________________________________________________________________. 2 Do you avoid fried __________________? _______________________________________________________________________________. 3 On a scale of 0–5, how much energy do you have __________________ the day? _______________________________________________________________________________. 4 What is your daily fruit and vegetable__________________? _______________________________________________________________________________. 5 How many hours of sleep on __________________ do you get a night? _______________________________________________________________________________. 6 Do you get at least 30 minutes of physical __________________ every day? _______________________________________________________________________________. 7 How many hours a day do you __________________ at a computer? _______________________________________________________________________________. 8 What __________________ of meat do you usually eat? _______________________________________________________________________________.

1 Correct the following false statements on the lines provided. 1 Beta-carotene found in carrots delays degenerative changes in the brain. _______________________________________________________________________________. 2 You should eat tomatoes mixed with coconut oil to reduce the risk of heart disease. _______________________________________________________________________________. 3 Walnuts are nicknamed ‘stomach food’. _______________________________________________________________________________. 4 Magnesium, calcium and sodium are the components of celery which are essential for the health of our eyes. _______________________________________________________________________________. 5 The Chinese have used ginger root for a millennium to help settle down an upset stomach. _______________________________________________________________________________. _ _________________________

34


UNIT UNIT 4 1 2 Complete the Spidergram with the verbs in the box to form phrasal verbs. ward

give

turn

take

cut

call

get

settle

hurry

OFF

UP DOWN

om

____________________ – cancel ____________________ – refuse ____________________ – become calm ____________________ – use less of something ____________________ – prevent something from harming you ____________________ – stop doing ____________________ – remove a piece of clothing ____________________ – move more quickly ____________________ – get out of bed

pr

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

o

3 Match the phrasal verbs from exercise 2 with their meanings 1–9.

uk a

4 Correct the following sentences. Write the correct phrasal verb in the box provided. Phrasal verbs are mixed up.

He has to settle down on coffee and cigarettes and start eating a balanced diet. You’re so slow, get up please! There were mass burials in an effort to call off an outbreak of cholera. We have to give up very early in the morning. Amy had to take off the appointment at the last minute. We have to turn down our jackets because it’s getting quite warm in the room. Lisa, did you cut down Gary’s offer to go to the gym together? We’ll never hurry up trying until we succeed! I’ll drink some ginger ale and I’m sure my stomach will ward off.

Ed

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

5 Complete the sentences with a suitable partitive. 1 For this recipe you will need a _________________ of cabbage, two _________________ of celery, a _________________ of carrots, two _________________ of olive oil, three _________________ of lemon juice, some raisins and a _________________ of sea salt. 2 Let me give you a few _________________ss of advice. If you want to lose weight take a small _______________ of water after every bite of food you eat. A _______________ of dark chocolate is much healthier than a _________________ of milk chocolate. Always buy a _________________ of whole-grain bread instead of white bread. A _________________ of homemade fruit jam is much better than the one from the supermarket.

35


UNIT 14

B

Grammar Conditional Sentences > Typess 0 and 1

o

1 Order the words to make conditional sentences. Add a comma if necessary.

uk a

pr

om

1 if ▪ vegetarian ▪ don’t ▪ you’re ▪ meat ▪ You ▪ eat ▪ a _______________________________________________________________________________. 2 healthy ▪ Don’t ▪ want ▪ you ▪ if ▪ veggies ▪ to stay ▪ to eat ▪ forget _______________________________________________________________________________. 3 do ▪ eat ▪ If ▪ you ▪ a ▪ an ▪ day ▪ apple ▪ will ▪ good ▪ you ▪ it _______________________________________________________________________________. 4 ward off ▪ you ▪ If ▪ diseases ▪ eat ▪ food ▪ organic ▪ you’ll _______________________________________________________________________________. 5 day ▪ She’ll ▪ starts ▪ every ▪ better ▪ if ▪ much ▪ she ▪ exercising ▪ feel _______________________________________________________________________________. 6 I ▪ read ▪ I’ll ▪ healthy ▪ time ▪ about ▪ eating ▪ if ▪ have _______________________________________________________________________________.

1 2 3 4

Ed

2 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense to complete the conditional sentences. If your doctor ____________________ (prescribe) this new medication, will you take it? If your headaches continue, ____________________ (you / go) to the doctor’s? Your health improves if you ____________________ (exercise) at least three times a week. Will you admit a person into hospital if he or she ____________________ (suffer) from dehydration? 5 Unless you cook the potatoes well, you ____________________ (be) sick. 6 I forget recipes if I ____________________ (not / write) them down.

3 Complete the following conditional sentences with your own ideas. 1 People drink a lot of water if _______________________________________________________________________________. 2 If you don’t eat fruits and vegetables, _______________________________________________________________________________. 3 If people eat a balanced diet, _______________________________________________________________________________. 4 Unless he gives up smoking, _______________________________________________________________________________.

36


UNIT UNIT 4 1

Vocabulary and Listening 1 Make a COMB using the words from part C in the student’s book p. 53. P

P

O

I

N

T M E

N

T

2.07

3

Listen and circle the odd one out in each column. /ʤ/

/θ/

/ð/

changes

urgent

thank

thumb

chemical

during

unhealthy

choice

surgery

light

catch

veggies

theory

/ʃ/

/ʒ/

/ŋ/

finish

usually

anything

pr

/ʧ/

these

should

jogging

strong

clothing

school

decision

thing

that

Charlotte

pleasure

bones

uk a

2

om

o

A

Listen to the dialogue. Fill in the gaps with MP for Mr Potter tter and R for the receptionist. 2.08

1

works at Doctor Wilson’s surgery.

2

’s name is James.

3 4 5 6

Ed

C

would like to book an appointment for the following day. mentions the appointment at 6 p.m. mentions available slots at 4 and 7:15 p.m. books the 7:15 appointment for

.

4 Write the word that best suits the meaning of the sentence. The first letter is given. 1 You cannot book an appointment at the doctor’s if there are no s_________________ available. 2 A practice n_________________ can give you advice during yourr treatment if the doctor cannot see you. 3 Doctor’s s_________________ is a place where doctors treat their patients. 4 I would really a_________________ it if you could squeeze me in any time today. 5 Sorry, I’m a_________________ it won’t be possible. 6 When something is u_________________ it requires immediate action.

37


UNIT 14

D

Grammar Conditional Sentences > Type 2 1 Order the words to make second conditional sentences. Add a comma if necessary. 1 would ▪ if ▪ the pill ▪ better ▪ feel ▪ Holly ▪ took ▪ she _______________________________________________________________________________. 2 they ▪ If ▪ they ▪ would ▪ fitter ▪ be ▪ exercised _______________________________________________________________________________. 3 a ▪ If ▪ swimming ▪ didn’t ▪ cold ▪ would ▪ with ▪ he ▪ have ▪ go ▪ you ▪ he _______________________________________________________________________________. 4 be ▪ you ▪ ate ▪ more ▪ heart ▪ tomatoes ▪ your ▪ would ▪ healthier ▪ If _______________________________________________________________________________.

o

5 would ▪ throat ▪ do ▪ had ▪ you ▪ What ▪ if ▪ you ▪ sore ▪ a ______________________________________________________________________________?

om

6 Clare ▪ would ▪ water ▪ her ▪ If ▪ better ▪ drank ▪ more ▪ look ▪ skin _______________________________________________________________________________.

Ed

uk a

Frank doesn’t feel very well. He’s got a sore throat and he coughs, sniffs and sneezes a lot. He would feel better if he made these clever moves. 1 He should stay home from school and put his daily routine on hold. 2 He should go to bed early. 3 Frank should also take naps during the day. 4 He should drink a lot of tea. 5 Frank should have a tablespoon of honey at bedtime. 6 He should eat chicken soup to soothe a sore throat and ease cold symptoms. 7 He should take an aspirin to relieve pain and reduce fever.

pr

2a Read the text about Frank.

2b Complete the second conditional sentences using the numbered sentences from ex. 2a to help Frank feel better. Look at the example. Frank would feel better if he ... 1 stayed home from school and put his daily routine on hold. 2 _______________________________________________________________________________. 3 _______________________________________________________________________________. 4 _______________________________________________________________________________. 5 _______________________________________________________________________________. 6 _______________________________________________________________________________. 7 _______________________________________________________________________________.

38


UNIT UNIT 4 1 3 Fill in the gaps with a suitable form of the verbs in brackets to complete plete the second conditional sentences. 1 If I ___________________ (get) the flu, I ___________________ (see) a doctor. 2 Unless my mum ___________________ (feel) better, she ___________________ (not / go) to work. ealth 3 She ___________________ (not / be) in such good health unless she ___________________ (exercise) regularly. y. 4 If I ___________________ (eat) a balanced diet, it ___________________ (help) me lose weight.

o

5 If I ___________________ (have) a headache, I ___________________ (take) an aspirin.

om

4 Answer the following questions.

1 What would you do if you caught a cold? If I caught a cold, I ______________________________________________________________ .

pr

2 What would you do if you wanted to prevent health problems? _____________________________________________________________________________ . 3 What would you do if you felt exhausted? _____________________________________________________________________________ .

uk a

4 What would you do if you wanted to keep your bones healthy? _____________________________________________________________________________ . 5 What would you do if you had a stomachache? _____________________________________________________________________________ .

Ed

6 What would you do if you wanted to improve your memory and reduce anxiety? _____________________________________________________________________________ .

5 Complete the following second conditional sentences with your own ideas. 1 If I had time, __________________________________________________________________ . 2 If I went for a walk more often, ____________________________________________________ . 3 I would dehydrate if _____________________________________________________________ . 4 I wouldn’t feel so sick if _________________________________________________________ . 5 I wouldn’t be healthy unless ______________________________________________________ .

6 Write a few second conditional sentences to give advice to your friend. If I were you, I would cut down on sweets. If I were you, ___________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

39


UNIT 14

E

E Across Cultures 1 Supply the sentences with a positive or a negative question tag. 1 2 3 4 5

Spas are perfect places to re-energize, _________________? Lime Spa is an incredible place, _________________? Your friends don’t like spas, _________________? The Blue Lagoon in Iceland isn’t a chocolate spa, _________________? Some unconventional spas can provide extraordinary treatments, _________________? 6 Let’s go to Hershey’s Spa next week, _________________?

2 Write the missing preposition.

pr

om

o

1 This world-famous spa is known ________________ its unique treatments. 2 Lime Spa guests can take pleasure ________________ miraculous massages surrounded by the Indian Ocean. 3 You can apply pressure ________________ this spot and ease the pain. 4 Chocolate spa is ideal ________________ those with a sweet tooth. 5 The Blue Lagoon is famous ________________ its white silica mud masks. 6 Those who embark ________________ a journey to Iceland will have an opportunity to visit one of the most popular tourist attractions, the Blue Lagoon.

3 Complete the sentences by using the correct form of the words in CAPITALS.

Ed

uk a

1 My sister had a snake massage. It takes a lot of _____________________ to do that. 2 The treatments in Lime Spa are really _____________________. 3 Chocolate milk bath must be an _____________________ experience. 4 Visitors of Hershey’s Spa can indulge in _____________________ chocolate treatments. 5 The beauty of this underwater reef and its _____________________ sealife is _____________________. 6 Snakes can feel the _____________________ spot on the human body.

COURAGEOUS MIRACLE FORGET LUXURY COLOUR / ORDINARY PAIN

4 Circle the correct option.

1 The treatment was _______________________. I’ll always remember it. a) ideal b) unforgettable c) colourful 2 This spa is quite _______________________ because one rarely has the opportunity to have a massage several metres under water. a) lucky b) delight c) unique 3 My sister is very _______________________. She’s not afraid of snakes. a) conventional b) courageous c) paradise-like 4 I didn’t enjoy the therapy. It wasn’t as _______________________ as I expected. a) soothing b) painful c) mouthwatering 5 I’ve just read an article about Hershey’s Spa in the USA. It offers _______________________ chocolate treatments. a) horrible b) absolute c) incredible

40


UNIT UNIT 4 1

Writing A Restaurant Review 1 Write a review about a fast food or vegetarian restaurant. Read the model text in the student’s book, p. 58 and the writing guide to help you.

uk a

pr

om

o

Writing guide Step 1 In the first paragraph give some facts about the restaurant. Mention what it is called, where it is located, when it is open (days a week, from ... to ...), what type of a restaurant it is, the food / dishes / drinks it serves, the prices. Step 2 In the second paragraph express your opinion. If you have a positive opinion, use some of the following: I like / love going there because ... It’s popular / friendly / comfortable / welcoming / clean / charming / inexpensive ... The food is tasty / delicious / healthy / looks good ... I was very satisfied with ... If you have a negative opinion, use some of the following: I don’t like going there because ... It’s overcrowded / expensive / unwelcoming / not very clean ... The food is unhealthy / tasteless / inedible / undercooked / overcooked ... I was highly dissatisfied with ... Step 3 Check the use of conditional sentences – types 0, 1, 2 and punctuation.

Ed

F

41


UNIT CHECK SELF 1 2

SELF CHECK 2

Units 3&4

1 Complete the crossword and find 1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

2 ■

3 ■

4 5

■ ■

7 8 ■

om

9

a person with high intellectual powers a person who introduces new ideas or products become calm refuse a person who establishes a company with a partner / partners 6 prevent from harming you stop doing something a person who creates drawings or paintings 9 get yourself on your feet

o

the mystery word.

2 Fill in the gaps with a suitable modal verb for speculation in the present. More than one option is possible in some sentences.

Ed

uk a

pr

1 I’m pretty sure my brother will do well at the exam. He’s studied really hard. He __________________ pass. 2 Pete told me that Mary went to New York last night, but I saw her this morning here in London. She __________________ be in New York. 3 Charlie’s dad gave him some money for his birthday. He’ll probably buy an iPhone. He __________________ buy it. 4 She will come to see us tomorrow but we do not know at what time exactly. She __________________ be here around noon. 5 Winston's dad __________________ be a great man. He has donated a lot of money to charity. 6 Steve Jobs __________________ be considered an artist. His computers and devices resemble works of art.

3 Choose a suitable past modal. 1 It’s impossible for me turn on my computer. I tried to last night but I could / couldn’t do it. 2 We didn’t have to / had to finish our essays during class. The teacher postponed it for next week. 3 Geraldine should have / shouldn’t have told all those horrible things to Anne. They are supposed to be good friends. 4 Ruby was able / wasn’t able to see anything from the back of the classroom yesterday. I guess she should check her eyesight. 5 Mark Zuckerberg could / couldn’t programme at the age of 12. He created a chat service for his family called Zucknet. 6 Their children must / could have made a party last night. The house is quite a mess! 7 Emma can’t / may have passed the maths exam. She did practice ce yesterday. ’t have h to t wake k up 8 I had to / didn’t have to go to bed early because I had to / didn’t before 6 the following morning.

42


SELF CHECK UNIT 2 1 4 Write a suitable reflexive pronoun.

5 Write the given numbers in words.

1 He never controls ____________.

a) 1.5 ____________________________

2 They did it by ____________.

b) ¼ _____________________________

3 I enjoyed ____________ at the party.

c) 1,000,000 ______________________

4 My wound healed ____________ quickly.

d) ½ _____________________________

5 Can you finish it by ____________?

e) 1,000,000,000 ___________________

6 She cut ____________ on a piece of paper.

f) 100,000 ________________________

7 We blame ____________ for the mistake.

g) 1,000 __________________________

6 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense to complete the conditional sentences.

o

If I ___________________ (be) you, I would eat more fibre-rich foods. I wouldn’t go on a diet if I ___________________ (not / put on) so much weight. If you eat tomatoes, you ___________________ (cut down) bad cholesterol. What would you do if you ___________________ (have) a sore throat and a fever? I always go to the doctor’s if I ___________________ (feel) sick.

om

1 2 3 4 5

7 Complete each sentence with a suitable partitive. The first letter is given.

uk a

pr

1 There is a j_______________ of jam in the cupboard. Can you bring it to me?? 2 That was quite a useful p_______________ of information. 3 You can eat a b_______________ of dark chocolate every day. It is rich in minerals, such as iron, zinc and magnesium. 4 When you go to the supermarket please buy a b_______________ of carrots. 5 Don’t put too much salt into the soup, just a p_______________ of it.

8 Fill in the gaps with a suitable question tag.

Ed

A: Your sister has gone to a spa, _________________? B: Yes, to Hershey’s Spa in the USA. A: Lucky her! She is probably having a chocolate milk bath as we speak, _________________? B: Yes. She is so delighted that she wants to go again in the spring. A: You will go with her, _________________? B: Absolutely not. A: Why? It isn’t your idea of fun, _________________? B: Definitely not. I’m more into a snake massage. You think that’s crazy, _________________? A: I’ll just say I’m more into chocolate.

9 Circle the correct option. It was my birthday two days ago. I took a few of my friends to this new Moroccan restaurant. The food looked incredibly / incredible. More importantly, it tasted fantastic / fantastically. I tasted some of the spices for the first time in my life and they smelled perfect / perfectly. We had a great time, but we overate. We had to go home early because we felt very sleepy / sleepily after so much food. In the end, I must add that I looked prettily / pretty in my new purple dress!

43


UNIT 1 UNIT STARTER

5 T I UN Lead-in 1 Write questions for the underlined words. 1 _______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________? Ten athletic events form a decathlon.

o

2 _____________________________________________________________? __? _ The word ‘love’ is used in tennis.

om

3 ___________________________________________________________________? _________? _ Polo is played on horseback. 4 ________________________________________________________________?? You run and jump as far as possible onto a sandpit in the sport called long jump.

pr

5 ________________________________________________________________?? London hosts the Wimbledon Tennis Championships.

uk a

6 _____________________________________________________________? __? _ England invented baseball. 7 __________________________________________________________? There are six players in an ice hockey team.

Reading

Ed

A

1 Complete the sentences with the opposites of the adjectives in CAPITALS. Use the prefixes un-, ir-, im-, in-, dis-, il-. 1 He is still an ________________________ climber, but he is a quick learner.

EXPERIENCED

2 My sister is an __________________________ skater. Look at her!

CREDIBLE

3 It is __________________________ what gymnasts can do with their bodies! BELIEVABLE 4 Suddenly, I felt an __________________________ urge to run and jump.

RESISTIBLE

5 They were climbing into the __________________________ but they weren’t scared.

KNOWN

6 I thought it was mission __________________________ but I succeeded.

POSSIBLE

7 Martin felt quite __________________________ after hitting his head.

ORIENTATED

8 Zoe kept on trying even though she was ________________________ at first. SUCCESSFUL

44

9 Some substances are considered dangerous and __________________________ in sport.

LEGAL

10 Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay achieved the __________________________. They reached the roof of the world.

THINKABLE


UNIT UNIT 1 5 2 Complete the sentences with the correct preposition. Use with, to or of. f f.

6 7 8 9

Hillary and Tenzing made it ____________ the top on May 29th, 1953. ark. We had to return ____________ the base camp because it was getting dark. Our team consists ____________ the best players in the country. I had trouble ____________ disorientation and dizziness. Connor devoted much of his time ____________ becoming fit and strong again. The Queen awarded them ____________ the Coronation Medal. On her way ____________ the top Helen experienced a lot of problems.. Caitlin didn’t want the rest ____________ the world to know about her health problems. Mountaineers sometimes have to deal ____________ problems that go along with ‘mountain sickness’.

3 Replace the phrases in bold with the correct ones in the box. paved the way

with flying colours

felt the urge

They have completed the task very successfully ________________________________. We felt a strong need ________________________________ to go further and higher. Nobody before them went to _______________________________ this mountain top. Hillary and Tenzing prepared the way ________________________________ for other climbers to try to reach Mt. Everest. 5 Queen Elizabeth II showed her appreciation to ________________________________ Edmund Hillary by making him a knight.

uk a

pr

1 2 3 4

paid her respects to

om

set foot on

o

1 2 3 4 5

4 Order the words to make sentences.

Ed

1 in ▪ Mount Everest ▪ mountain ▪ is ▪ highest ▪ the world’s ▪ the Himalayas _______________________________________________________________________________. 2 tried to ▪ climbers ▪ Two ▪ to the top ▪ make it ▪ of ▪ pairs _______________________________________________________________________________. 3 reached ▪ unbelievable ▪ News of their ▪ quickly ▪ triumph ▪ Britain _______________________________________________________________________________. 4 awarded ▪ Medal ▪ Queen ▪ the team ▪ with ▪ the Coronation ▪ Elizabeth II _______________________________________________________________________________. 5 the Sherpa people ▪ to helping ▪ much of ▪ his life ▪ devoted ▪ Edmund Hillary _______________________________________________________________________________.

45


UNIT 15

B

Grammar Reported Speech > Statements 1 Report the following statements.

o

1 ‘Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay were the first men to set foot onto the summit of Mount Everest.’ They say _______________________________________________________________________. 2 ‘Mount Everest in the Himalayas is about 8,850 m above sea level.’ Our geography teacher says ________________________________________________________. 3 ‘Mountain sickness is the biggest problem for climbers.’ Sherpa guide says _______________________________________________________________. 4 ‘Queen Elizabeth II awarded the whole mountaineering team with the Coronation Medal.’ Our history teacher says __________________________________________________________. 5 ‘Edmund Hillary devoted much of his life to helping the Sherpa people of Nepal.’ The journalist says _______________________________________________________________.

om

2 Look at the pictures of sportspeople. Rewrite what they say in the reported speech. h. I am going to the gym and I’ll be back in an hour.

pr

I drink almost a litre of water after my training.

2 Helen says

uk a

1 Joe says

.

.

Ed

I have finished my Zumba class and I feel great.

I sprained my ankle at football practice yesterday.

3 Nicole says

4 Zak says

.

.

3 Read what Nicole says about her Zumba classes. Report her words. ‘I’ve started going to Zumba classes and I love it! It is a Latin-style dance class combined with hip hop or some other dances like belly dancing or flamenco. Zumba is for people of all ages, shapes and sizes. Anyone who can stand up and dance is welcome to attend the classes. Most of the time it really doesn't feel like you're working out at all. It seems like a great party.’ Nicole says _____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ .

46


UNIT UNIT 5 1

Vocabulary and Listening 1 Circle the correct option.

2

2.09

om

o

1 Can you ____________________ me your snowboarding goggles, Jack?? a) lend b) borrow c) acquire d) let 2 Would you mind ____________________ me some tips? a) give b) to give c) to giving d) giving 3 He ____________________ me if I had a pair of snow overalls. a) told b) said c) asked d) requested 4 Always try ____________________ on your front leg, not your rear. a) lean b) to lean c) to leaning d) leaning 5 I’ll keep your advice ____________________ mind. a) on b) in c) at d) of 6 ____________________ all, don’t give up! a) In b) For c) At d) Above Listen and write the words from the box in the correct column.

pneumonia climber ballet receipt half calm might plumber could known government knight lamb high written hymn doubt autumn buffet wrong listen psychology knife answer right knee column two cupboard often talk

pr

weight

3

silent ‘k’

silent ‘l’

silent ‘n’

uk a

silent ‘b’

silent ‘p’

silent ‘t’

silent ‘w’

silent ‘gh’

Ed

C

Listen to the definition of board sports and complete it. Then circle le the words with silent letters. 2.10

___. _ Board sports are sports that use a board as their main ___________________. These sports might be played on different terrains like ___________________, __, _ hills covered with snow, in air or water. Most board sports are also known as ___________________ sports or extreme sports. Without doubt that is thee reason why ___________________ people love them and talk about them.. The ultimate ___________________ behind board sports ports is the ‘natural high’ that all young people often look for.

47


UNIT 15

D

Grammar Reported Speech > Imperatives and Questions 1 Read the following pieces of advice from an experienced mountaineer. Rewrite the imperatives in the reported speech. 1 ‘Take time to plan and prepare for your climb.’ He tells us _____________________________________________________________________ . 2 ‘Invest in a good pair of mountaineering boots.’ He advises us ___________________________________________________________________ . 3 ‘Carry plenty of high energy food and water.’ He advises us ___________________________________________________________________ .

o

4 ‘Get a local weather forecast before embarking on a mountaineering trip.’ He told us ______________________________________________________________________ .

om

5 ‘Don’t move far from your ascent route. ‘ He told us ______________________________________________________________________ . 6 ‘Don’t forget to carry a lightweight emergency shelter.’ He advised us ___________________________________________________________________ .

uk a

The word order in reported questions is the same as in original questions. We don’t change the verb tense when we use the reporting verb in the present tense. We don’t change the verb tense when we use the reporting verb in the past tense. There isn’t a question mark in reported questions. When we report questions with question words we don’t use the question word from the original question. 6 When we report questions without question words we add if or whether.

T T T T

F F F F

T T

F F

Ed

1 2 3 4 5

pr

2 Circle T (true) or F (false) for the statements below.

3 Match the direct with reported questions. estions. 1 2 3 4 5

48

Which sport do you practise? Which sport are you practising? Which sport did you practise? Which sport are you going to practise? Which sport will you practise?

a) She wants to know which sport I practised. b) She wants to know which sport I am going to practise. c) She wants to know which sport I will practice. d) She wants to know which sport I am practising. e) She wants to know which sport I practise.


UNIT UNIT 5 1 4 Steve is a successful basketball player. Here is a list of questions ons that Steve has to answer for his school magazine. Report the questions on the lines provided. 1 ‘Why did you decide to play basketball?’ They want to know _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 2 ‘How long have you played basketball?’ They ask me _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 3 ‘Are you a captain of your team?’ They want to know _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

om

_________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

o

4 ‘Have you ever received any medals?’ They ask me

5 ‘Which athlete do you look up to?’ They want to know

_________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

pr

6 Does anybody in your family play basketball?’ They ask me

_________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

uk a

7 ‘What food or drinks help you stay energized for the game?’ They want to know

_________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

Ed

8 ‘What are your plans for the future?’ They ask me _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

5 Who is Steve talking to? Match his questions 1–5 to the people a–e. Then report Steve’s questions. 1 2 3 4 5

‘What time does the practice start?’ ‘How many vitamin tablets do I have to take a day?’ ‘Can you give me some money for a new pair of trainers?’ ‘Do you have this model in size 9?’ ‘When are we doing the interview?’

a) shop assistant b) journalist c) his doctor d) his dad e) his coach

► Steve asks the shop assistant _______________________________________________________. ► He asks the journalist _____________________________________________________________. ► He asks his dad _________________________________________________________________. ► He asks his coach ________________________________________________________________. ► He asks his doctor _______________________________________________________________.

49


UNIT 15

E

Across Cultures A 1 Read about another unusual sport. Fill in the gaps with the words in the box. They all start with the letter ‘b’. before

ball burns

bodies burning boarding brave

barefoot

pr

om

o

Fireball soccer or Sepak Bola Api is a sport which represents a test of courage for _______________________ school students on the Indonesian island of Java. These _______________________ young men brought soccer to a whole new level. It seems like playing soccer _______________________ with a hard coconut is not challenging enough for them so they additionally set the coconut on fire. The _______________________ is actually a dry coconut shell soaked in kerosene. Players perform a number of rituals _______________________ the tournament. They prepare themselves for the match by fasting for 21 days and saying prayers. They also cover their _______________________ with a mixture of herbs and salt to prevent _______________________ as they literally ’play with fire.’ Just imagine dribbling such a ball without spikes! Easier said than done! Two teams of five skillful and courageous players will certainly put on a 60-minute fiery evening show. In short, _______________________ hot!

2 Complete the sentences with the words or phrases in the box. fusion particularly pastime give it a try

Last night’s match was a spectacle ______________________________________. Underwater hockey is a great fun. You should ______________________________________. Teddy’s favourite ______________________________________ is playing chess. I gained some weight ______________________________________, so I decided to take up a sport. Nancy ______________________________________ shifts from one activity to the other. She can’t sit still. 6 I like sports, ______________________________________ water sports. 7 Enki Bilal’s ______________________________________ of chess and boxing has become an interesting new sport. 8 The rules are ______________________________________ those in water polo.

Ed

1 2 3 4 5

constantly similar to

uk a

in the meantime in every sense of the word

3 Fill in the gaps to complete the collective nouns. The first letter is given. a c_____________ of people, a h_____________ of rubbish, a s_____________ of fish a t_____________ of players, a b_____________ of flowers, a f_____________ of birds a b_____________ of musicians, a p_____________ of cards, an a_____________ of ants

4 Complete the text with a suitable relative pronoun. Brockworth is a village near Gloucester ___________ the Cooper’s Hill Cheese-Rolling & Wake takes place every spring. Participants ___________ come from all over the world give their best to catch a wheel of cheese. The cheese reaches speeds up to 70 mph ___________ can be very dangerous. The organisers ___________ aim was the safety of the participants and spectators replaced the cheese with a foam replica in 2013. The person ___________ reaches the bottom of the hill first wins the cheese. How strange is that?

50


UNIT UNIT 5 1

Writing An Informal Email 1 Write an informal email to a friend about your favourite sport. Read the model email in the student’s book, p. 70 and the writing guide to help you. Writing guide

2 Complete the paragraph plan. Use the phrases in the box. Greeting Main paragraph Opening paragraph Signature Concluding paragraph _________________________ > Hi, Hey or Dear + person’s first name or nickname

om

o

_________________________ > Express your thanks, refer to the previous correspondence and mention the topic of your writing. The opening sentences should be casual and in a friendly manner. Sorry for not being in touch for so long. / How’s life? / How are things? / Any news? / You asked me to write about ... _________________________ > Continue using friendly and relaxed language since you know the person you are writing to. Make a funny comment. Make sure to use connectives to help your letter flow. Firstly, ... / Secondly, ... / Thirdly, ... / Moreover, ... / Finally, ... / Last but not the least ...

uk a

pr

_________________________ > Do not end the letter suddenly. Sign off and invite your friend to respond to your email. Don’t forget to write. / Write soon. / I can’t wait to hear from you. How you sign off depends on how you feel about the person you are writing to. Love,... / Yours truly, ... / Best wishes, ... / Best regards, ... g your y _________________________ > Sign name or nickname

Ed

F

51


UNIT 1 UNIT STARTER

6 T I UN Lead-in 1 2 3 4 5 6

pr

uk a

1

an animal and a country in Eurasia the capital of Italy a waterproof jacket with a hood worn in wet and cold weather the capital of Austria a country where you can see the pyramids and the Sphinx the Americans call it a ‘truck’ the underground train system in London 7 a garden vegetable, its green leaves are often used in salads 8 9 a country in South America; the capital 9 is Buenos Aires 2 3 4

om

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

o

1 Complete the crossword and find the mystery idiom.

7

8

9

Ed

6

5

A

Reading 1 Match sentence halves 1–6 with a–f.

52

1 Ancient Greek and Roman empires

a) encouraged their followers to go on pilgrimages.

2 All major religions at the time

b) were the cradle of leisure travel.

3 Grand Tour took young, wealthy travellers

c) any destination in 48 hours at most, at an affordable price.

4 An Englishman who greatly influenced

d) to travel into space for pleasure.

5 Airplanes made it possible to reach

e) across Europe to broaden their education.

6 They are going to be the first tourists

f) further development of tourism was Thomas Cook.


UNIT UNIT 6 1 2 Complete the sentences with the words in the box. trip (x2) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

journey (x2)

tour

travel

voyage

A ________________ is usually one-way. A ________________ includes going somewhere and back. We can say round-the-world ________________. ________________ is the most general of all travel words. A ________________ is often in a vehicle. A ________________ is a long journey by sea or in space. A ________________ is usually guided.

3 Make nouns from the adjectives given in CAPITALS. Then complete the sentences. NEW

pr

om

o

1 Space travel is a _______________ in tourism. 2 He went on that business trip out of _______________, not because he wanted to. 3 I enjoy the _______________ of air travel. 4 Commercial space flights will probably become a _______________ one day. 5 A backpacking tour is quite an _______________! 6 The best way to find out about other people’s customs and _______________ is to travel round the world.

NECESSARY COMFORTABLE REAL ADVENTUROUS CULTURAL

4 Fill in the gaps with the words in the box. There is one extra word. resort

tourism

leisure

pilgrimage

passengers

uk a

destination

Ed

Last year my friend Lewis went on a ________________ to Jerusalem. The Holy Land Tour lasted for ten days. He visited a lot of great historic and archaeological places. He didn’t have much ________________ time, just one day to relax and go shopping. He says that Jerusalem is not a popular ________________ only for religious people. Those who like delicious food and nightlife also come to this incredible modern city. Next month he is planning to board the Royal Scotsman train. He wants to explore Scotland’s castles and enjoy the beautiful countryside. He says that ________________ can rent a kilt during the journey. That will probably be great fun. After Scotland he is going to a popular beach ________________ in Spain. What an incredible holiday!

5 Answer the questions about the text in exercise 4. 1 Why did Lewis go to Jerusalem? _______________________________________________________________________________. 2 What is there to see in Jerusalem? _______________________________________________________________________________. 3 What do non-religious people like about Jerusalem? _______________________________________________________________________________. 4 How much leisure time did Lewis have on the Holy Land Tour? _______________________________________________________________________________. 5 Why is Lewis planning to board the Royal Scotsman train? _______________________________________________________________________________. 6 What are his plans after visiting Scotland? _______________________________________________________________________________.

53


UNIT 16

B

Grammar Will vs. Be Going To 1 Write what you would do in the following situations. Use will to express spontaneous decisions. Use the appropriate verb from the box. lend

help

buy

have

open

1 You are meeting your cousin at the airport. He is carrying a lot of luggage. _______________________________________________________________________________. 2 You and your parents enter the hotel room. The window is closed and it is very hot in there. _______________________________________________________________________________. 3 Your friend Lucy has to phone her parents but her phone has gone dead. _______________________________________________________________________________.

o

4 You are at a restaurant and you don’t eat meat. You only eat grilled vegetables. _______________________________________________________________________________.

om

5 You are in Rome and you come across a souvenir shop. You want to surprise your parents. _______________________________________________________________________________.

2 Write what you would say in the following situations. Use be going to to express plans, intentions fall down

snow

pr

or predictions based on the information you have. Use the appropriate verb from the box. travel

not stop

be sick

uk a

1 It’s freezing cold. _______________________________________________________________________________. 2 You see a cyclist losing control over his bike. _______________________________________________________________________________. 3 You’re on a plane and you feel strong turbulence. _______________________________________________________________________________.

Ed

4 My sister is getting married in March. She’s planning to have her honeymoon in Hawaii. _______________________________________________________________________________. 5 You are waiting for a bus and you see one. It is moving very fast. _______________________________________________________________________________.

3 Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets. Use will or be going to to express the future. 1 My sister wants to go skiing in February. That’s why she ______________________________ (start) saving money. 2 Madam, your bag is quite heavy. I ______________________________ (help) you with it. 3 There is a customer at the reception desk. I ____________________________ (see) to him. 4 My brother ______________________________ (travel) the world when he finishes college. 5 I expect everything __________________________ (be) all right at the border crossing.

54


UNIT UNIT 6 1

Vocabulary and Listening 1 Fill in the gaps with the prepositions in the box. for 1 2 3 4 5

off

about

1 I’m getting really excited / interested about my trip. 2 Would you like to see me of / off? 3 Have you already brought / packed? 4 My cousin is coming for / to a visit. 5 Let me / I think. 6 That’s fine / well with me.

with

see someone _________ come _________ a visit get excited _________ be _________ touch with That’s fine _________ me.

2.11

Listen and write the words from the box in the correct column.

o

3

in

2 Circle the correct word.

/і:/

/ɒ/

/әʊ/

/e/

/eɪ/

/ᴂ/

/ɑ:/

uk a

pr

/ɪ/

om

sorry are day visit hope travel street can’t dreadful trip no wait afternoon shop we’ll pack meet plan so off will better later Barcelona then that see this well make problem whole

4 Put the sentences from the dialogue in the correct order.

2.12

Then listen and check.

Josh: Have you already packed? David: Hi. I’ve got some great news. I’m going to Rome. I’m really excited about it. Josh: No problem. When should I come to pick you up? David: I’m leaving on Friday. My plane leaves at 12 a.m. Josh: Hi! What’s up? David: See you. Bye. Josh: That’s great. See you on Friday then. David: Well, almost. I’ve got to buy a few more things. Josh: Would you like me to drive you to the airport? David: That would be great. You’re a real friend. Thanks. Josh: Who is taking you to the airport? David: You can come around 9. I’ll buy a pizza so we can have breakfast before we go. Josh: That’s great! When are you leaving? David: No one. I’m going to take a taxi.

Ed

C

55


UNIT 16

D

Grammar Future Forms 1 Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets. Use will or be going to to express the future. 1 What cities ______________________________ (you / visit) in China? 2 I expect we ______________________________ (be) in London by 6.

om

4 I can hear the phone ringing. I ______________________________ (answer) it. 5 I hope we ______________________________ (not / be) late for our flight.

o

3 Monica wants to learn French. That is why she ______________________________ (spend) her summer holiday in Paris.

6 Who ______________________________ (your brother / travel) vel) to Japan with?

2 Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets. Use will or the Present Continuous to express the future.

pr

1 We ______________________________ (meet) Trevor later tonight at the café. w. He ______________________________ (leave) for Liverpool tomorrow.

uk a

2 Let’s leave a message for Mum. Otherwise she ______________________________ (not / know) where we have gone.. 3 One day people _____________ probably ________________ (travel) to the Moon and back on a daily basis. 4 Megan has set her alarm clock for 4 a.m. She ______________________________ (get up) very early. She has a plane to catch.

Ed

5 I think I ______________________________ (be) late for my flight. I really have to hurry up. 6 We ______________________________ (go) on a bus tour tomorrow at noon.

3 Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets. Use the Present Continuous or be going to to express the future. 1 Take your umbrella. It ______________________________ (rain). 2 When ______________________________ (Dad / come) from his business trip? At 6 o’clock. 3 We ______________________________ (leave) really early tomorrow, before 6. We ______________________________ (climb) Ben Nevis, remember? 4 I ______________________________ (not / go) anywhere tonight. I ______________________________ (write) some emails and then read about Italy. 5 Erik ______________________________ (miss) his train. It’s already 8:30. 0.

56


UNIT UNIT 6 1 4 Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets. Use the Present Simple or will to express the future. 1 The coach from York ______________________________ (leave) at 8 a.m. and ______________________________ (arrive) to London after 5 hours and 20 minutes. 2 Professor Owen is giving a lecture on new trends in tourism at 9. It ______________________________ (last) one hour. 3 I’d better hurry up to my hotel room before it ______________________________ (start) raining. I ______________________________ (see) you later. 4 The documentary about famous landmarks ______________________________ (start) at 8:45 tonight. I believe it ______________________________ (be) very interesting. sting.

o

5 Hurry up! Our bus is leaving in just a few minutes. I’m sure they ______________________________ (not / wait) for us.

om

6 What ______________________________ (the weather / be like) tomorrow? I don’t know. I ______________________________ (check) the weather forecast on my phone.

5 Cross out the incorrect option.

Ed

uk a

pr

1 Sorry, I will be able to / won’t be able to go with you tomorrow. I have other plans. 2 My little sister can / will be able to swim in a few days. onths. 3 She won’t be able to / can’t speak Spanish in a few weeks. It will take months. 4 Audrey can’t / won’t be able to help you at the moment. She’s busy. 5 Paul will be able to / can drive in two months. He’s taking driving lessons. s. 6 Will you be able to / Can you hear me now? 7 Next year when I graduate I can / will be able to work as a tourist guide.

6 Circle the correct option.

1 How old ____________________ next year? a) are you b) you will be

c) will you be

2 How ____________________ Jason pay for his round-the-world trip? a) going to b) is c) will 3 ____________________ you be able to visit him next week? a) Are b) Will c) Can 4 Look at those black clouds! It ____________________ be a stormy evening! a) will b) is c) ‘s going to 5 I ‘m sure your brother ____________________ fine once he gets settled in New York. a) will be b) is going to be c) is 6 Look at the schedule, when _____ the next train _______? a) will / leave b) does / leave c) is / leaving 7 I believe people ____________________ life on some other planets in the Universe. c) are going to find a) will find b) are finding

57


UNIT 16

E

Across Cultures A 1 Read the text and fill in the gaps with a, an, the or Ø.

2 Circle the correct option.

uk a

His trip to Paris was really relaxing / relaxed. I was completely stunning / stunned by the beauty of the Seychelles! Travelling is more interesting / interested if you get to know the local culture. We were shocking / shocked and amazing / amazed by the wilderness of Amazonia. My best friend was really excited / exciting about a 5-day rafting tour. It was both frightened / frightening and exciting / excited to see hippos and giant crocodiles on a canoeing safari along the Zambezi River.

Ed

1 2 3 4 5 6

pr

om

o

My older sister Ashley spent almost _______1 year travelling around _______2 Europe. _______3 first city she visited was _______4 Rome. Next she travelled south to _______5 Sicily, _______6 largest island in _______7 Mediterranean. She said that _______8 Mount Etna, still _______9 active volcano, was _______10 most striking place on that beautiful island. Then she moved north and explored _______11 Alps in _______12 Italy and _______13 France. After that she spent some time in _______14 Paris where she loved the cruises on _______15 Seine. The river flows right through _______16 heart of this magnificent city. Then she travelled through _______17 Germany by _______18 train and visited quite _______19 few cities and towns. She loved _______20 Berlin, _______21 Dusseldorf and _______22 Munich. _______23 Netherlands was her next stop. She spent almost two months there touring _______24 Amsterdam, _______25 Rotterdam, _______26 Hague and _______27 Eindhoven. From _______28 Holland she took _______29 ferry back home, to _______30 UK. What _______31 amazing year! When I grow up I’ll do the same.

3 Complete the sentences with the synonyms of the italicised nouns. 1 A must do walk /___________________ is certainly the Tongariro Alpine Crossing. 2 Guests on cruise ships can enjoy different conveniences /___________________ like swimming pools, slides, cinemas, theatres, restaurants and shops. 3 Following the Inca Path /___________________ to Machu Picchu in Peru must be breathtaking! 4 Backpacking tours are for the adventurous excitement /___________________ seekers. 5 If you go on an open vehicle safari, you will be able to see the ‘Big Five’ in their natural environment /___________________.

4 Circle the correct preposition of movement. 1 2 3 4

We were driving onto / towards the desert when we saw a snake. The cruise along / through the Nile was amazing. When we stepped onto / into the platform the train arrived. Walking around / into the Kings Canyon rim in Australia can take about 3 hours. 5 Driving across / through huge herds of wildebeest and zebras was quite an adventure.

58


UNIT UNIT 6 1

Writing A Travel Experience 1 Write a blog post about a trip. It can be about your summer or winter holiday, going to the countryside, etc. Stick some photos in the given frames. Use the writing guide to help you. Read the model text in the student’s book, p. 82 and the writing guide to help you. Writing guide If you ever decide to write a blog post in cyberspace follow the steps below.

om

o

Step 1 Provide readers with accurate information so that you can teach your visitors about the locations you have visited. People like to read convincing stories so that they can connect to the place you are describing. Step 2 Good stories need to have the introduction, the main information and the conclusion. Step 3 Write simple, short sentences. Pay attention to punctuation and capital letters for proper nouns and at the beginning of the sentence. Step 4 Include photos of the sites you mention to emphasize your story and draw readers into your blog. Step 5 Engage with your readers if you want them to keep coming back.

PHOTO

uk a

pr

By

Ed

F

PHOTO

PHOTO

59


UNIT CHECK SELF 1 3

SELF CHECK 3

Units 5&6

1 Complete the crossword and find the mystery word. 1 2 3 4 5 6

very attractive hard to achieve unfamiliar lacking experience hard to imagine not having success

1 2 3 4 5 6

2 Report the following statements and imperatives.

o

1 ‘Don’t go that way.’ Mum told me ___________________________________________________________________.

om

2 ‘I am going on a tour of South America.’ John says that ___________________________________________________________________. 3 ‘The trip takes about an hour and a half.’ Our guide says __________________________________________________________________.

pr

4 ‘Please, follow me.’ Jill asked them __________________________________________________________________.

3 Order the words to make reported questions.

uk a

1 what / asks / time / leaving / are / Greg / we _______________________________________________________________________________. 2 we / her / will / with / Julia / wants / go / if / to / know / hiking _______________________________________________________________________________.

Ed

3 the / benefits / My / asks / are / of / neighbour / travelling / what _______________________________________________________________________________. 4 to / will / Ed / they / wants / arrive / know / if / time / on _______________________________________________________________________________. 5 many / He / me / how / visited / countries / so / I’ve / asks / far _______________________________________________________________________________.

4 Join the following pairs of sentences using relative pronouns who, whose, which, where. 1 London is the city. It attracts a lot of tourists. _______________________________________________________________________________. 2 I have a friend. He is very good at snowboarding. _______________________________________________________________________________. 3 A gym is a place. You can work out there at your own pace. _______________________________________________________________________________. 4 The girl is a great athlete. Her name is Mia Allen. _______________________________________________________________________________.

60


SELF CHECK UNIT 3 1 5 Circle the correct option. Jack is my schoolmate. He loves winter sports. So / Neither do I. Neither / Both of us prefer winter to summer. Jack doesn’t like temperatures above 20℃. Either / Neither do I. Whenever we have a chance, we go to the mountains to ski or snowboard. None / Both of our friends from school understand our passion for winter sports. We don’t understand them neither / either. We either / both plan to become professional y p Games. skiers soon. Hopefully, our friends from school will watch us compete in the next Winter Olympic

6 Answer the questions about travel words. What is usually one way? What is usually guided? What is the most general word? What is a long journey in space called? What is usually short?

________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

o

1 2 3 4 5

7 Fill in the gaps with a suitable future form of the verbs in brackets.

uk a

pr

om

1 I believe Paula _______________________________ (be) late. She always is. 2 They _______________________________ (leave) on Sunday, about ut 7 in the morning. ning. 3 We _______________________________ (meet) Leon at 8 this evening. 4 Our bus _______________________________ (arrive) at 6 p.m. 5 I promise I _______________________________ (you / see off). 6 The sky is so cloudy. It _______________________________ (rain). 7 I can’t make it. I _______________________________ (have to) cancel my reservation.

8 Write a, an, the or Ø.

1 Most people have to train hard for their climb of ____ Mont Blanc. It is not easy to conquer ____ highest mountain in ____ Alps.

Ed

2 He is going to ____ Bulgaria next week. He wants to go to the Rila mountain range to climb ____ Musala, the highest peak in ____ Balkans. 3 My brother’s favourite sport is ____ football but I prefer ____ tennis. 4 I am going on ____ cruise to ____ Africa. I can’t wait to see ____ Madagascar. 5 What ____ incredible tour! That was ____ best travel experience ever. 6 ____ Gobi Desert in ____ Mongolia is ____ coldest desert on ____ earth. 7 ____ Ebenezer Place in ____ Wick, ____ Scotland is ____ shortest street in ____ world. It is only 2.06 metres long and it has got one address.

9 Write -ed or -ing to complete the adjectives. 1 2 3 4 5 6

I am so excit______ about my cruise along the Amazon! She was frighten______ when she saw the buffaloes out in the wild. Our tour guide’s stories were sometimes too long and quite bor______. Machu Picchu in Peru is one the most interest______ places I’ve ever been to. We stayed in this small, but charm______ hotel in Nairobi. We were exhaust______ after our hike in the Rainbow Mountains in China but we loved it.

61


UNIT 1 UNIT STARTER

7 T I UN Lead-in 1 What is the surname of a famous British writer of detective stories Agatha? 2 What is the name of the Saint that the biggest cathedral in London is named after? 3 What is the surname of a famous actor and director from the silent film era Sir Charles Spencer? 4 What is the full name of a famous German composer Ludwig Van? 5 Where are artefacts and important works of art exhibited? In a ... 6 What is another name for the statuette given by the American Film Academy? 7 Which Shakespeare’s character is known for saying the words ‘to be or not to be’?

2

o

1

1 Complete the crossword and find the mystery word.

4

pr

om

3

1

uk a

2

5

3 4 5

7

Ed

6

6

7

A

Reading

1 Find eight more intensifiers in the word search. Then use them to make the following adjectives stronger. The first letter is given. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

62

r __ __ __ __ __ good q __ __ __ __ difficult v __ __ __ charismatic r __ __ __ __ __ controversial t __ __ __ __ amazing d __ __ __ __ __ emotional e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ popular c __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ unbelievable i __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ powerful

D E X T R E M E L Y E

R E G V E R U N C T I

A A E O P V N C O I N

T V T P O L E V M N C

R Y E S L U L R N Q R

U M C R W Y K A Y U E

L E T R U S E Z R I D

Y T R A T H E R Y B I

I Q U I T E M R H E B

R E A L L Y P A L S L

C O M P L E T E L Y Y


UNIT UNIT 7 1 2 Match sentence halves 1–7 with a–g. 1 I think this painting

a) truly powerful symphonies, sonatas and quartets. b) is a deeply emotional piano composition. c) a rather controversial artist and a very charismatic man. d) is quite morbid, but rather interesting. e) are still incredibly popular with theatregoers. f) for an artist to sell a favourite painting. g) is a really good example of Expressionism.

2 It is said that Picasso was 3 Beethoven wrote 4 Shakespeare’s dramas, comedies and histories 5 The painting called The Scream by Edvard Munch 6 Beethoven’s Moonlight Sonata 7 It must be quite difficult

eventually

gradually

originally

certainly

om

approximately

o

3 Complete the sentences with the adverbs in the box.

pr

1 Among the geniuses are _______________________ Shakespeare, Beethoven and Picasso who never cease to impress and provoke wide audiences. 2 ‘The Bard of Avon’, as Shakespeare was called, wrote _______________________ 40 plays, 154 sonnets and other poems. 3 Beethoven’s Symphony No.3 or Eroica was _______________________ dedicated to Napoleon. 4 Beethoven’s condition worsened _______________________ and _______________________ led to complete deafness.

time

uk a

4 Complete the sentences with the words in the box. mystery

arouse

phrase

back

bring

impact

Ed

1 Edward Bulwer-Lytton, an English writer, coined the famous ________________ ‘The pen is mightier than the sword.’ 2 Beethoven has been dead for almost two centuries now but his compositions have stood the test of ________________. 3 Who was the girl in Johannes Vermeer’s painting The Girl with a Pearl Earring? It remains a ________________ to this day. 4 Great works of art ________________ joy to people all around the world. 5 Van Gogh turned his ________________ on Dutch Realist tradition to develop a style of his own. 6 Pablo Picasso has had great ________________ on the 20th century art. 7 Van Gogh’s paintings never cease to ________________ curiosity among art lovers.

63


UNIT 17

B

Grammar The Passive Voice

Matisse’s The Boat

1 Read the Did You Know? facts about famous artists. Make the active sentences passive. Use the agent if necessary.

pr

om

o

1. 1 The thieves stole Mona Lisa from the Louvre in August 1911. _______________________________________________________________________________. 2 Vincent Van Gogh sold just one painting Red Vineyard at Arles during his entire life. _______________________________________________________________________________. 3 Edgar Degas produced approximately 1500 paintings, pastels, prints and drawings of dancers. _______________________________________________________________________________. 4 A British art designer John Pasche created the Rolling Stone’s emblem – the big red tongue. _______________________________________________________________________________. 5 No one knows the real name of the world’s most famous graffiti artist, Banksy. _______________________________________________________________________________. 6 In 1961, they hung Matisse’s The Boat upside down in the Museum of Modern Art in New York. _______________________________________________________________________________.

2 Write the following passive sentences in the active.

Ed

uk a

1 The Persistence of Memory was painted by Salvador Dali in 1931. _______________________________________________________________________________. 2 Beautiful paintings by young artists can be bought in my aunt’s gallery. _______________________________________________________________________________. 3 A lot of money has been raised through charity auctions this year. _______________________________________________________________________________. 4 Artworks for a secret ‘Art on a Postcard’ auction in London will be donated by famous artists next month. _______________________________________________________________________________. 5 Christie’s is known for the auctions of Coco Chanel’s wardrobe, Albert Einstein’s personal notes and Elizabeth Taylor’s jewellery. _______________________________________________________________________________. 6 Salvator Mundi by Leonardo da Vinci was sold for a record-breaking $450 million at Christie's. _______________________________________________________________________________.

3 Complete the following sentences about your school with the passive form of the verbs in brackets and your own words. 1 My school ____________________ (build) in ____________________. 2 Students ____________________ (give) homework on a daily basis. 3 ____________________ and ____________________ ____________________ (teach) at my school. 4 My school is very strict on discipline. School rules ____________________ (must / obey).

64


UNIT UNIT 7 1

Vocabulary and Listening 1 Match sentence halves 1–7 with a–g. a) about that.

2 I’ll see all those incredible paintings

b) on you eventually.

3 Expressionists, impressionists, it’s all the same

c) on the world around us.

4 One day you’ll realize how much you can learn

d) in person.

5 Art puts a completely different perspective

e) to me!

6 I’m not so convinced

f) up?

7 It’ll grow

g) from art.

Listen and write the words from the box in the correct column. how there painting Hi grow /aɪ/

/ɔɪ/

/ɪə/

actually hopefully gradually

Oh great theatre hair enjoy dear about coin

/ʊə/

/eə/

/aʊ/

/əʊ/

uk a

pr

/eɪ/

joy nails why eventually around genius like their

o

2.13

om

2

1 Why are you all dressed

Diphthongs consist of more than one sound.

Ed

C

3 Fill in the gaps with the words in the box to complete the text.

perspective exhibition

expressionists’ hair art Mum works learn

Josh’s _________________ has had her __________________ done because she is going to an ___________________ to see some of the greatest ___________________ works. She wants to see the ___________________ of Van Gogh and Munch in person. She thinks that ___________________ is beautiful and that people can ___________________ a lot from it. In her opinion art puts a completely different __________________ on the world around us.

65


UNIT 17

D

Grammar Causative ■ The Passive Voice 1 Circle the correct option which best completes each sentence. 1 The book ____________________ written in 2010. a) is b) was c) were

d) has

2 The book was written ____________________ J. K Rowling. a) at b) by c) from d) of 3 Millions of people ____________________ Mona Lisa every year. a) will be seen b) must be seen c) see d) are seen 4 I need to get my photo ____________________ by a professional. a) taken b) take c) took d) taking

om

6 When will the painting ____________________ completed? a) have b) is c) being d) be

o

5 Grace doesn’t cut her own hair. She ____________________ at the hairdresser’s. a) gets it b) cuts it c) has cut it d) has it cut

7 The exhibition won’t ____________________. a) be cancelled b) cancel c) cancelled

d) been cancelled

pr

8 Deborah ____________________ her hair permed yesterday. It’s her premiere night tonight. a) has b) gets c) got d) was

2 Read the sentences below and decide if they are active (A) or passive (P).

Ed

uk a

____ 1 The New Yorker, an American magazine including reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons and poetry, was started in 1925. ____ 2 It debuted on February 21st, 1925. ____ 3 It was founded by Harold Ross and his wife Jane Grant. ____ 4 Ross wanted to create a magazine with sophisticated humor that would be different from other American magazines. ____ 5 He edited the magazine until his death in 1951. ____ 6 The New Yorker has featured cartoons since its publication. ____ 7 Both fiction and non-fiction stories from this magazine have been adapted for films. ____ 8 Despite its title, The New Yorker is read both nationwide and internationally. ____ 9 Nowadays the magazine is published 47 times annually. ____ 10 Five issues cover two-week span.

3 Write sentences with the following cues. Use the correct present, past or future passive forms. 1 Impressionism / develop / in Paris / in the 1890s. _____________________________________________________________________________ . 2 Hamlet / write / at an uncertain date between 1599 and 1602. _____________________________________________________________________________ . 3 This young artist’s paintings / exhibit / at the Tate Modern / next month. _____________________________________________________________________________ . 4 Steel and concrete / use / to build bridges / in modern times. _____________________________________________________________________________ .

66


UNIT UNIT 7 1

4 Write each sentence using the given words so that it means the same as the first one. 1 Leonardo Da Vinci painted Mona Lisa between 1503 and 1506. Mona Lisa ____________________________________________________________________ . 2 The painter used the technique called gouache. The technique called gouache _____________________________________________________ . 3 Artists often paint outdoor paintings in gouache because of its fast-drying quality. Outdoor paintings ______________________________________________________________ . 4 They will organize a charity auction to help sick children next Friday. A charity auction _______________________________________________________________ . 5 Colin always takes photos of me. I always have my photos _________________________________________________________ .

uk a

pr

om

o

5 Complete the text with the correct active or passive form of the verbs in brackets.

Ed

Hercule Poirot is one of the most famous fictional detectives. This famous character ______________________ (create) by Agatha Christie. Poirot ______________________ (appear) in 33 novels and 54 short stories. Poirot ______________________ (portray) for films and TV by various actors. They include: Albert Finney, Peter Ustinov, David Suchet, Kenneth Branagh and some others. Albert Finney ______________________ (play) Poirot in 1974 in the cinematic version of Murder on the Orient Express. It was a very accurate adaptation of Christie’s crime story and it ______________________ (think) to be the most successful British film ever made. It ______________________ (approve) by Agatha Christie herself. Peter Ustinov played Poirot six times, starting with Death on the Nile (1978). He ______________________ (repeat) the role in Evil Under the Sun (1982) and Appointment with Death (1988). He appeared again as Poirot in three films made for television: Thirteen at Dinner (1985), Dead Man's Folly (1986) and Murder in Three Acts (1986). David Suchet played the role of this famous detective in total of 70 episodes in the British crime drama Agatha Christie's Poirot. The series ___________________ (broadcast) from January 1989 to November 2013. The latest version of Murder on the Orient Express _______________ (direct) by Kenneth Branagh. He also _____________________ (star) in it. The film ______________________ (release) in 2017.

67


UNIT 17

E

Across Cultures A 1 Read about another masterpiece. Fill in the gaps with the words in the box. They all start with the letter ‘c’. central celebrated concept considered Christianity Creation ceiling commissioned

2 Unscramble the letters to get the types of paintings.

3 Unscramble the letters to get three verbs, two adjectives and one noun.

uk a

_______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________

uuqee temcasrpiee ssmmiioocn ctpide cciino

_______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________

mptraeenn

_______________________

Ed

fgaitirf adlnsceap ltisl ilef aioprttr slfe-tpoarirt gllcaeo

pr

om

o

The _______________________ of Adam by Michelangelo Buonarroti is a fresco painting, which is part of the Sistine Chapel's _______________________ in Vatican. It is _______________________ to be the best known image of the Sistine Chapel and one of the most replicated religious paintings of all time. It depicts God giving life to the first human - Adam. Pope Julius II _______________________ the artist to paint the frescos. However, Michelangelo was hesitant and almost refused to do it because he was principally a sculptor, not a fresco painter. The story goes that originally the design for the frescos was limited to just the Twelve Apostles and a few decorative works. But Michelangelo extended the whole _______________________ and painted more than 300 figures. As a result, his work as a fresco painter became one of his most _______________________ achievements and the _______________________ painting The Creation of Adam one of _______________________'s 's greatest pictorial works of art.

4 Complete the sentences with the phrases in the box. catch a glimpse / in his mind’s eye / scratch beneath the surface / had a brainwave / cast a glance 1 Suddenly, Richard ___________________________ how to finish his play. 2 I queued for hours in front of the Vatican just to ___________________________ of Michelangelo’s masterpieces Pietà and David. 3 The painter went to his studio to ___________________________ at the picture he was creating. 4 If you ___________________________, you will find out that there is always an interesting story behind every genius. 5 An image of a burning giraffe appeared ___________________________.

5 Complete the sentences with the genitive case of the nouns in brackets. 1 2 3 4 5

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We’ll be in London in _______________________________. (two hours / time) Tate Modern is one of the _______________________________ top tourist attractions. (UK) Van Gogh is _______________________________. (my parents / favourite painter) The Louvre holds the largest _______________________________. (collection / da Vinci’s paintings) Picasso appreciated _______________________________. (children / art)


UNIT UNIT 7 1

Writing A Description of a Painting 1 Look at the portraits. Choose one and write a description of it. Also read the model description in the student’s book, p. 94 and the writing guide to help you.

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Girl with h a Pearl Earring Earring (an oil painting by Dutch Golden Age painter Johannes Vermeer / painted around 1665 / the model’s identity not known)

2 itt off Dr Dr Gachet Gach hett Portrait (an oil painting by Dutch artist Vincent van Gogh / painted in June 1890 / doctor Paul Gachet took care of Van Gogh during the final months of his life)

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Writing guide

1 Introduce the work of art. Mention the name of the painting, and of the artist and the year it was created. _____________________ was painted /made by _____________________ in ___________________. 2 Mention the type of work of art and the technique used. This is a portrait / drawing / sketch of a man / woman. The technique used is oil on canvas / gouache / tempera / water colour / ink ... 3 Describe the man’s / woman’s age / facial features. The man / woman is young / old. He / She has got big / small / brown / blue / green eyes. He / She has got a straight / snub / aquiline nose. His / Her mouth is small / wide / open / closed with thin / full lips. The chin is square / pointed. His / Her hair is long / short / straight / curly / wavy ... He / She is wearing ... 4 Describe the atmosphere / facial expression / colours / shapes The mood / atmosphere is pleasant / warm / calm / romantic / friendly / gloomy / tense ... He / She is / seems happy / sad / tense / relaxed / absent-minded / depressed / tired / calm ... The colours are bright / dark / intense / rich ... 5 Give your opinion what the artist was trying to express. The painting shows happiness / despair / serenity / tension / delight / anxiety / joy / misery ...

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UNIT 1

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D N A R A Y M R A M M M U A S GR ABUL ARY VOC

PRESENT SIMPLE

We use the Present Simple to express ... habitual actions. facts. general truths. scheduled future events like timetables or programmes.

He visits his grandparents every Sunday. He lives in Belgrade. Birds have wings. The train arrives at 7 a.m.

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> > > >

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I, You, We, They stop / go ... / He, She, It stops / goes ... I, You, We, They do not (don’t) stop / go ... / He, She, It does not (doesn’t) stop / go ... Do I, you, we, they stop / go ...? / Does he, she, it stop / go ...?

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PRESENT CONTINUOUS

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Time expressions: every day (night / week / month / year), always, usually, normally, often, frequently, sometimes, from time to time, rarely, seldom, never

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I am going / sitting ... / We, You, They are going / sitting ... He, She, It is going / sitting ... I am not (I’m not) going / sitting .../ We, You, They are not (aren’t) going / sitting ... He, She, It is not (isn’t) going / sitting ... Am I going / sitting ... / Are we, you, they going / sitting ...? Is he, she, it going / sitting ...?

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We use the Present Continuous to express ... > actions happening at the moment of speaking. Listen! Our neighbour is playing the piano. > actions happening around the moment of speaking. My friend is getting ready for the race. > the plans we have arranged to do in the future We’re meeting Peter at 8 tonight. i.e. definite arrangements. Time expressions: now, at the moment, at present, today, tonight, these days

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PAST SIMPLE I, He, She, It, We, You, They stopped / went I, He, She, It, We, You, They did not (didn’t) stop / go ... Did I, he, she, it, we, you, they stop / go ...? We use the Past Simple to express ... > an action completed at a specific time in the past. She finished the ironing at 10 last night. > habitual past actions. When I was young I often played hide-and-seek. > a sequence of short past actions. I entered the house, washed my hands and sat down to eat. Time expressions: yesterday, last week (month / year), ... ago, in 2015

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GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY UNIT 1 SUMMARY

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PAST CONTINUOUS I, He, She, It was going / sitting ... / We, You, They were going / sitting ... I, He, She, It was not (wasn’t) going / sitting ... We, You, They were not (weren’t) going / sitting ... Was I, he, she, it going / sitting ... / Were we, you, they going / sitting ...?

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We use the Past Continuous to express ... > a longer past action (at a specific time in the past). I was tidying my room all morning yesterday. > an action that was in progress in the past when another action happened. She was making a cake when her friends arrived. > two or more parallel past actions with while / as. My friends were playing basketball while I was doing my homework. > in descriptions. The sun was shining and it was very hot as I was walking by the river. The people were sunbathing and swimming in the river ...

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PRESENT PERFECT

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Time expressions: all day, the whole morning, while, as, when

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I, You, We, They have played / come ... / He, She, It has played / come ... I, You, We, They have not (haven’t) played / come ... He, She, It has not (hasn’t) played / come ... Have I, you, we, they played / come ... / Has he, she, it played / come ...? We use the Present Perfect to express ... > actions occurring at an unspecified time. I have finished my homework. > recent past actions with the result in the present. I have just read the book.

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Time expressions: just, already, ever, never, since, for, yet, so far, up to now, lately, recently, before, this week (month / year), today

USED TO / WOULD

Both used to and would describe past habits that are no longer true. % Used to refers to past actions and states. My sister and I used to play hopscotch a lot when we were young. I used to believe in Santa Claus but now I don’t. % Would refers only to past actions, not states. They would go to the countryside very often. % We use adverbs before used to and after would. Dad often used to buy me presents when I was a child. Dad would often buy me presents when I was a child.

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GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY UNIT 1 SUMMARY

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MODAL VERBS FOR SPECULATION IN THE PRESENT % Modal verbs are used to describe ability, permission, habits, obligation and advice. They are always followed by the infinitive without ‘to’. They can’t swim. May I open the window? Kelly would do something like this. That’s so typical of her. It’s quite late. We must go home. You should study harder. % Modal verbs can also be used for deduction, speculation, probability or certainty to express the speaker’s degree of certainty about something. % We use must to express the speaker’s certainty about something based on very strong evidence. You have worked a lot. You must be exhausted.

PAST MODALS

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% We use can’t when we are almost sure that something is NOT true. I don’t believe it! It can’t be happening.

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% We use might, may and could to say that there is a possibility of something happening but we are not certain. She might / may / could do it, I’m not sure.

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% When we talk about general past ability we use could. She could read when she was five. However, when we talk about things that we managed to do on a specific occasion in the past, we use was / were able to. After searching the Internet for hours we were able to find the information we needed (could is NOT possible here). Negative forms couldn’t and wasn’t / weren’t able to have the same meaning. After searching the Internet for hours we couldn’t / weren’t able to find the information we needed.

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% We use had to when we talk about an action that was necessary. I had to get up early. We use didn’t have to when we talk about an action that wasn’t necessary. I didn’t have to get up early. % We use should + past participle of the main verb for making judgments about the past or to say that something was advisable but did not happen. You should have told your parents (but you didn’t). % We use must / may (not) / might (not) / could / couldn’t / can't + have + past participle of the main verb for speculation in the past, to express how certain we are about something that happened or did not happen in the past. The level of certainty varies depending on the verb we use.

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CONDITIONAL SENTENCES > TYPES 0, 1, 2 Conditional sentences consist of two clauses, the if-clause and the main clause. The basic forms of conditional sentences are: > Zero Conditional if + present simple, present simple is used to describe general truths. If we heat ice, it melts. > The First Conditional if + present simple, will + infinitive is used to describe something that is possible to happen in the future. If he tries harder, he will succeed. = He will succeed if he tries harder.

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GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY UNIT 1 SUMMARY > The Second Conditional if + past simple, would + infinitive is used to describe something that is unlikely or impossible to happen in the future. If he tried harder, he would succeed. = He would succeed if he tried harder. If we want to give a piece of advice to someone, we use the expression If I were you, (NOT If I was you,) If I were you, I wouldn’t do it. We can use were for all persons in the if-clause. If he were sick, he would stayy in bed.

unless + affirmative verb means the same as if + negative. We will be punished unless we tell the truth. = We will be punished if we don’t tell the truth.

REPORTED SPEECH > STATEMENTS

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% Direct Speech repeats the speaker’s exact words. The original words ords of the speaker are put in inverted commas ‘...’. We usually putt a ut comma between the reporting clause and the reported clause, but sometimes we can use a colon (:) when the reporting clause is first. ‘The mountains are calling and I must go,’ said John Muir. John Muir said: ‘The mountains are calling and I must go.’

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g % Reported Speech retells what somebody else said but without using the exact words. se We use the reporting verbs like said and told with a that clause to introduce reported speech. When the reporting verb is in the past simple we change the tense. ‘It is not the mountain we conquer but ourselves,’ said Hillary. → Hillary said that it was not the mountain they conquered but themselves.

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% We do not change the tense in reported speech if the reporting verb is in the present. We use the reporting verbs in the present say, tell, claim, know, state, etc. when we want to report a conversation in progress, when we report someone’s statement that he / she uses very often or when we read something and we would like to report it. We change pronouns, this → that, these → those and here → there in reported speech to keep the original meaning. Mountaineers have to deal with mountain sickness here on Mount Everest. → People say that mountaineers have to deal with mountain sickness there on Mount Everest.

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REPORTED SPEECH > IMPERATIVES AND QUESTIONS % We use to-infinitive or negative to-infinitive (not + to-infinitive) to report the imperatives: commands, advice, requests and invitations. Common verbs that we use in this structure are order, advise, tell, ask, invite.

Direct speech

 Reported speech

‘Move your arms!’ (command) ‘Wear warm clothes!’ (advice) ‘Could you lend me your goggles, please?’ (request) ‘Let’s go snowboarding!’ (invitation) ‘Don’t worry!’ (negative imperative)

    

He ordered me to move my arms. He advised me to wear warm clothes. I asked him to lend me his goggles. He invited me to go snowboarding. He told me not to worry.

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GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY UNIT 1 SUMMARY The word order in reported questions isn’t the same as in original questions. It is the same as in affirmative sentences. We don’t change the verb tense when we use the reporting verb in the present tense. We change the verb tense when we use the reporting verb in the past tense. There isn’t a question mark in reported questions. When we report questions with question words we use the question word from the original question. When we report questions without question words we add if or whether. We use ask and want to know to report questions.

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FUTURE FORMS

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% We use the Future Simple to express future predictions and spontaneous decisions. It is often used with probably, perhaps, maybe and with verbs think, believe, hope, expect, promise, be sure, etc. We will probably go to the party.

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% We use be going to to express plans, intentions and to predict the future based on the information we know now. I’m going to see the exhibition. Look at those clouds! It is going to be a stormy night.

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% We use the Present Continuous when we talk about definitee future arrangements. I’m meeting Michael tomorrow evening at 9 o’clock.

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% We use the Present Simple when we talk about scheduled d future events like timetables or programmes. The train leaves at 7 p.m.

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% We use be able to + infinitive to express ability as an alternative tive to modal verbs can (used in the present) or could (used in the past). We must use it when a different tense is needed. ‘Able’ is an adjective djective which means having the skill or power to do something. We use will be able to to express general ability in the future. They will be able to speak Japanese, but it will take months of practice practice.

THE PASSIVE VOICE

% We form the passive with a suitable form of the verb to be in the same tense as the active verb and the past participle of the main verb. The object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. % We use the passive only with transitive verbs – verbs followed by an object. % We can use by in the passive before an agent. Some active sentences have both direct and indirect object. Both can become subjects of the passive sentence. He gave me a nice present. → I was given a nice present. / A nice present was given to me. % We use the passive when the action is more important than the agent i.e. the person or thing that does it. The agent isn’t always needed in the passive sentence. Somebody stole the painting last night. → The painting was stolen last night.

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GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY UNIT 1 SUMMARY % The agent is mentioned when it is interesting or if you want to give credit to someone for doing something important. Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque created Cubism. → Cubism was created by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. % Active and passive sentences have the same meaning, but the focus is different. % The focus in the active sentence is on the subject and in the passive on the object. The Passive Voice past participle

Present Simple

am / is / are

Past Simple

was / were

Present Perfect

have / has been

Modal verbs

will / must / can / could be

left taken created allowed

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to be

Pablo Picasso, Spanish Cubist Oil Canvas

CAUSATIVE

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ARTICLES

% We use the definite article before the names of oceans, seas, rivers, groups of islands, umbers, chains of mountains, deserts, plural names of countries, superlatives, ordinal numbers, something that is considered unique, in phrases consisting of ‘noun + of + noun’ ms, (e.g. the joys of travel). It is also used before theatres, cinemas, museums, galleries, hotels, etc. the Pacific (Ocean), the Black Sea, the Danube, the Bahamas, the Pyrenees,, The Gobi Desert, the Netherlands, the tallest / the best / the most interesting, the first, the Equator, the Duke of York, the Belgrade Drama Theatre, thee Cineplexx Cinema, the British Museum, the National Gallery, the Hyatt, etc.

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% We form it with have / get + object + past participle. We use it when we want to say that we have arranged someone else to do something for us. I had my hair trimmed yesterday.

in % We use the indefinite article with singular countable nouns, before certain numbers, when we mention someone or something for the first time, in exclamations such a / an ..., what a / an ... a hundred, a thousand, a million There is a man at the door. What a nice boy! / She is such a nice girl! % There is no article before the names of continents, countries, citiess (except for the Hague), mountains, streets, squares, parks, bridgess (except for the Golden Gate Bridge and the Severn Bridge), airports, sports, meals, in fixed phrases. et, Africa, England, London, Kopaonik, Regent Street, w Trafalgar Square, Hyde Park, Tower Bridge, Heathrow Airport, tennis, breakfast, go to school, on foot, by car / bus / plane / train, etc.

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GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY UNIT 1 SUMMARY

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COMPOUND NOUNS % Compound nouns are nouns made up two parts. There are different combinations such as: noun + noun = laptop, noun + gerund = windsurfing, gerund + noun = drinking water, adjective + noun = whiteboard. seafood, suitcase, laptop, suntan, website, kitesurfing, kneeboarding, waterskiing, whiteboard, background, feedback

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SUFFIXES THAT FORM NOUNS

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% There are suffixes in the English language that form nouns that refer to people. Such suffixes are -er, -or, -ist, -ian, -ant. think → thinker; invent → inventor; art → artist; magic → magician; consult → consultant

SUFFIXES THAT TRANSFORM NOUNS INTO ADJECTIVES AND VICE VERSA Adjective

-al / -ial / -ual

medicine → medical race → racial spirit → spiritual

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Suffixes to make an adjective from a noun

-eous, -ious, -ous

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% Typical suffixes to transform nouns into adjectives and vice versa are given in the table.

neous spontaneity → spontaneous ambition → ambitious jealousy → jealous honour → honorific artist → artistic poet → poetic

-ant / -ent

triumph → triumphantt edient disobedience → disobedient

Suffixes to make a noun from an adjective

Noun

-ance /-ence

nce significant → significance ndence independent → independence

-ness

kind → kindness

-ity / -ty

equal → equality cruel → cruelty


GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY UNIT 1 SUMMARY

GERUND VS. INFINITIVE

RULES COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS (+ING)

agree ask choose decide hope manage need promise refuse want would hate / like / love

admit adore avoid can’t help / can’t stand consider discuss enjoy mind / don’t mind practise suggest For processes finish keep

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COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY TO-INFINITIVES

VERBS FOLLOWED BY BARE INFINITIVES

With prepositions apologise for be interested in be looking forward to

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let + object make + object modal verbs

VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS OR TO-INFINITIVES

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like, love, hate, prefer, start, begin stop, remember, forget, regret

There is a change in meaning when you use the infinitive or gerund after the verbs in bold e.g. She stopped eating the sandwich. (She doesn’t eat the sandwich anymore.) She stopped to eat a sandwich. (She stopped another activity to eat the sandwich.) She remembered turning off the cooker. (She first turned it off and then remembered doing it.) She remembered to turn off the cooker. (She first remembered to turn it off and then she did it.) She never forgot meeting him. (It was a very important event that she still remembers.) She forgot to meet him last night. (They had a deal, but she forgot and they did not meet.) She regrets saying it to him. (This refers to the past action and it was a stupid thing to say.) She regrets to say that she can’t help you. (She announces the bad news that she can’t help you.)

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GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY UNIT 1 SUMMARY

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ADJECTIVES % Compound adjectives consist of two or more words. English-speaking, well-known, three-hour, part-time, middle-aged, hard-working, high-spirited, 15-year-old, record-breaking, open-minded, good-looking % Adjectival nouns are preceded by a definite article THE e.g. the sick, the homeless, the disabled. They function as nouns and represent a group as a whole. They have a plural meaning and take a plural verb. The homeless need food and shelter.

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ADJECTIVES ENDING IN -ED / -ING

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% Adjectives ending in -ed describe the way we feel. I am tired.

PREFIXES THAT FORM NEGATIVE ADJECTIVES

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% Adjectives ending in - ing describe the thing that makes us feel a certain way. The walk was tiring.

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% There are prefixes in the English language that form negative adjectives. Such prefixes are un-, ir-, im-, in-, dis-, il-. unthinkable, unbelievable; irresistible, irresponsible; impossible, impatient; inexperienced, independent; disorientated, disorganized; illegal, illogical

GET + ADJECTIVE

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% Get + adjective refers to a change of state. It means the same as become + adjective. We’re getting better each day. = We’re becoming better each day. Some more examples are: get tired, get angry, get cold, get wet, get nervous, get excited, get serious, etc.

ADVERBS OF MANNER % Adverbs of manner usually come after the verb and describe how an action is done. We form them mostly by adding –ly to an adjective. beautiful → beautifully, happy → happily, shy → shyly, etc. % Adverbs hard / fast / early / late have the same form as adjectives. The adverbial form of adjective good is well.

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ADVERBS (INTENSIFIERS) % We use adverbs like completely / extremely / quite / truly / deeply / really / very / incredibly / rather, etc. to make adjectives stronger. These adverbs are called intensifiers. I think that Picasso and Van Gogh are truly great painters.

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GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY UNIT 1 SUMMARY

COLLECTIVE NOUNS % Collective nouns describe a group of people, animals or things as a single unit. people: a team of players, a class of pupils, a crowd of people, a band of musicians animals: a school / shoal of fish, a pack of wolves / dogs, a swarm of bees, a herd of cattle, an army of ants, a flock of birds / sheep things: a pile of books, a heap of stones / rubbish, a set of tools, a pack of cards, a bunch of grapes / flowers

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

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% Possessive pronouns (mine / yours / his / hers / ours / theirs) refer to possession / show that something belongs to someone. We use them instead of a noun / noun phrase already mentioned to avoid repetition. Is this their kit? Yes, it’s theirs. (instead of their kit) That’s not my mum’s camera, hers is Nikon D3500. (instead of her camera)

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

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% We can use possessive pronouns after of. a customer of yours, some friends of mine

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% Reflexive pronouns end in -self (myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself) or -selves (ourselves, yourselves, themselves). We use them when the subject and the object of a sentence are the same person / thing. I trust myself. / The test itself was easy.

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% We use by + reflexive pronoun to say that someone did something alone, without any help. He repaired the laptop by himself.

SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS % Synonyms are words that have the same meaning as other words in the same language. neat = tidy hygiene = cleanliness usual = typical % Antonyms are words opposite in meaning to other words in the same language. indoor ≠ outdoor enemy ≠ friend dark ≠ light

NUMBERS % In English big numbers are separated with a comma , and decimals with a point . whereas in Serbian it is vice versa, big numbers are separated with a point . and decimals with a comma , . 2,153,284 / 15,000 / 2.5 % Numbers like a hundred, a thousand, a million, a billion do not take plural s, except in phrases like hundreds, thousands, millions, billions of + noun when we refer to a large, non-specific number. Millions of people still live in poverty. / I’ve done it hundreds of times!

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GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY UNIT 1 SUMMARY

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SO / EITHER / NEITHER / NONE % We use so + auxiliary + subject (pronoun) to show agreement with positive statements. The auxiliary needs to agree with the verb tense in the original statement. We use neither and either (when we refer to two things or people) to show agreement with negative statements. None means not any / not one. We use it when we refer to a group of people or things. It goes with a singular verb, but a plural verb is also possible, depending on what it refers to. None of them is / are good at basketball.

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PHRASAL VERBS

STATIVE VERBS

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% Certain phrasal verbs can split, but only if they have a direct object. Take off your jacket. = Take your jacket off.

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% A phrase that consists of a verb and a preposition / an adverb or both is called a phrasal verb or a multipart verb. It has one or several meanings and we cannot understand it based on the meanings of its separate parts, but we must take it as a whole. give up = stop doing something cool down = relax look up to somebody = admire somebody

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SENSE VERBS

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% Stative verbs describe a state (feelings and emotions like, love, hate, want, etc. / thoughts and opinions think, believe, know, etc. / senses hear, see, smell, taste, look, etc. / possession have, own, possess, etc.) not an action. These verbs are usually not used in the continuous form. I believe you. / I am believing you.

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% When we want to describe someone or something using sense verbs like look / taste / smell / feel, the simple rule is subject + sense verb + adjective The cake looks perfect. This fish tastes fantastic! The spices smell nice. I feel sleepy after so much food. He sounds happy.

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PARTITIVES % We use partitives when we want to refer to a part of something, not the whole of it. They can refer to the amount, size or shape of something. a stalk of celery, a bunch of carrots / flowers, a slice of ham, a jar of jam, a head of cabbage, a bar of chocolate / soap, a lump of sugar, a pinch of salt, a grain of rice, a sip of water, a bottle of wine, a tablespoon of oil / juice, a piece of advice / information, an item of news / clothing, etc. % We often use them to make uncountable nouns countable. a loaf of bread → two loaves of bread

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GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY UNIT 1 SUMMARY

PREPOSITIONS OF MOVEMENT

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> through – going from one side of an enclosed space to another drive through the tunnel > into – entering an enclosed space get into a cage > onto – movement to the top of some surface step onto the platform

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% Prepositions of Movement are used after the verbs of motion to show movement from one place to another. The most common of these are: > to / toward(s) – in the direction of something go to town / drive toward(s) the desert > across – going from one to the opposite side (usually on surface) which has limits (a city / road / river, etc.) sail across the world’s oceans, seas and rivers > along – following a line cruise along the Nile > around – going in a circular direction travel around the world

GENITIVE CASE

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% We use Saxon Genitive to indicate animate possession: 1 singular noun +’s + noun woman’s enigmatic expression, Van Gogh’s asylum room 2 plural noun ending in s + ’ + noun my parents’ gallery 3 irregular plural noun +’s + noun the men’s books 4 with time expressions two hours’ time, half an hour’s drive

ession % We use Norman Genitive ‘noun + of + noun’ to indicate inanimate possession a portrait of his wife, the roof of the museum % We use Double Genitive ‘noun + of + noun +’s or a pronoun’ to indicatee possession. a picture of Emma’s, a friend of yours

QUESTION TAGS % Question tags are short questions that follow statements. Positive statements are followed by a suitable negative auxiliary or modal verb from the statement and negative statements by a suitable positive auxiliary or modal verb from the statement. You are having fun, aren’t you? Ann needs to rest, doesn’t she? You aren’t having fun, are you? They can’t swim, can they? * I am exhausted, aren’t I? * Let’s go, shall we?

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ECK LF CH E GRAMMAR WORDLIST UNIT 1 CHECK ANSWERS

H C F SEL

S R E W S ECK AN

SELF CHECK 1 Units 1&2

pages 24–25

1 Across: three, record, spirited

5 religion, spiritual, kindness, non-violence,

Down: speaking, well, hard Diagonally: open, middle 1 open 2 hard 3 record 4 three 5 spirited 6 speaking 7 middle 8 well

honorific, numerous

6 used to / would

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used to / would would / used to would / used to used to / would used to / would used to / would wouldn’t / didn’t use to used to /would would / used to

2 A: have you ever tasted

7 1 What do Hindu people celebrate

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3 happened, arrived, asked, were you doing, was watching, Were you, was, Did you hear, were arguing, was, turned on, continued

4 beautifully, good, well, hard, late, kind, bad, happy

Diwali with? 2 What is the Guy made of? 3 Who are the monkeys of Lopburi fed by? 4 What day of the week is Thanksgiving celebrated on?

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B: have eaten A: did you eat B: tried, invited A: Did you like B: was, have become

8 to buy, giving, to keep, to surprise, thinking, making, going, to eat, have, to bring, to persuade, to do

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Units 3&4 SELF CHECK 2 Units 3&4

1 1 thinker 2 innovator 3 settle down 4 turn down 5 co-founder 6 ward off 7 give up 8 artist 9 stand up Mystery word: HISTORIAN 2 1 2 3 4 5 6

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must can’t may /might /could may /might /could must may /might /could

PAGES

3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

couldn’t didn’t have to shouldn’t have wasn’t able could must may had to, had to

4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

himself themselves myself itself yourself/yourselves herself ourselves

42–43


SELF CHECK GRAMMAR WORDLIST UNIT CHECK 1 ANSWERS 5 a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

one point five a / one quarter a / one million a / one half a / one billion a / one hundred thousand a / one thousand

7 1 jar 2 3 4 5

8 A: hasn’t she A: A: A: B:

6 1 were didn’t put on will cut down had feel

9 incredible, fantastic, perfect, sleepy, pretty

1 1 irresistible 2 impossible 3 unknown 4 inexperienced 5 unthinkable 6 unsuccessful Mystery word: SPORTS

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Units 5&6

pages 60–61

5 So, Both, Neither, None, either, both

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Units 5&6 SELF CHECK 3

isn’t she won’t you is it don’t you

6 1 journey 2 3 4 5

tour travel voyage trip

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2 3 4 5

piece bar bunch pinch

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2 1 Mum told me not to go that way. 2 John says that he is going on a tour of South America. 3 Our guide says that the trip takes about an hour and a half. 4 Jill asked them to follow her.

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3 1 Greg asks what time we are leaving.

2 Julia wants to know if we will go hiking with her. 3 My neighbour asks what the benefits of travelling are. 4 Ed wants to know if they will arrive on time. 5 He asks me how many countries I’ve visited so far.

4 1 London is the city which attracts a lot of tourists. 2 I have a friend who is very good at snowboarding. 3 A gym is a place where you can work out at your own pace. 4 The girl, whose name is Mia Allen, is a great athlete.

7 1 will be 2 3 4 5 6 7

are leaving are meeting arrives will see you off is going to rain will have to

8 1 Ø, the, the 2 3 4 5 6 7

9 1 2 3 4 5 6

Ø, Ø, the Ø, Ø a, Ø, Ø an, the The, Ø, the, Ø Ø, Ø, Ø, the, the

excited frightened boring interesting charming exhausted

83


UNIT 8

S B R E V S B R R A E L V U R A G L E U R G R E IIRR Past Simple

Past Participle

be /biː/

was / were /wɒz, wɜː/

been /biːn/

become /bɪˈkʌm/

became /bɪˈkeɪm/

become /bɪˈkʌm/

begin /bɪˈɡɪn/

began /bɪˈɡæn/

begun /bɪˈɡʌn/

bite /baɪt/

bit /bɪt/

bitten /ˈbɪtn/

blow /bləʊ/

blew /bluː/

blown /bləʊn/

break /breɪk/

broke /brəʊk/

broken /ˈbrəʊkən/

bring /brɪŋ/

brought /brɔːt/

build /bɪld/

built /bɪlt/

burn /bɜːn/

burnt / burned /bɜːnt, bɜːnd /

burnt / burned /bɜːnt, bɜːnd /

buy /baɪ/

bought /bɔːt/

bought /bɔːt/

cast /ka:st/

cast /ka:st/

cast /ka:st/

catch /kætʃ/

caught /kɔːt/

caught /kɔːt/

choose /tʃuːz/

chose /tʃəʊz/

chosen /ˈtʃəʊzn/

come /kʌm/

came /keɪm/

come /kʌm/

cost /kɒst/

cost /kɒst/

cut /kʌt/

cut /kʌt/

dug /dʌɡ/

dug /dʌɡ/

did /dɪd/

done /dʌn/

drank /dræŋk/

drunk /drʌŋk/

drove /drəʊv/

driven /ˈdrɪvn/

eat /iːt/

ate /et/ /eɪt/

eaten /iːtn/

fall /fɔːl/

fell /fel/

fallen /ˈfɔːlən/

feed /fiːd/

fed /fed/

fed /fed/

feel /fiːl/

felt /felt/

felt /felt/

find /faɪnd/

found /faʊnd/

found /faʊnd/

fly /flaɪ/

flew /fluː/

flown /fləʊn/

forget /fəˈɡet/

forgot /fəˈɡɒt/

forgotten /fəˈɡɒtn/

get /ɡet/

got /ɡɒt/

got /ɡɒt/

give /ɡɪv/

gave /ɡeɪv/

given /ˈɡɪvn/

go /ɡəʊ/

went /went/

gone /ɡɒn/

grow /ɡrəʊ/

grew /ɡruː/

grown /ɡrəʊn/

hang /hæŋ/

hung / hanged /hʌŋ, hæŋd/

hung / hanged /hʌŋ, hæŋd/

have /hæv/

had /hæd/

had /hæd/

hear /hɪə/

heard /hɜːd/

heard /hɜːd/

hide /haɪd/

hid /hɪd/

hidden /ˈhɪdn/

dig /dɪɡ/ do /duː/ drink /drɪŋk/

84

brought /brɔːt/

om

pr

Ed

drive /draɪv/

uk a

cost /kɒst/ cut /kʌt/

o

Infinitive

built /bɪlt/


Past Simple

Past Participle

hold /həʊld/

held /held/

held /held/

hurt /hɜːt/

hurt /hɜːt/

hurt /hɜːt/

keep /kiːp/

kept /kept/

kept /kept/

know /nəʊ/

knew /njuː/

known /nəʊn/

learn /lɜːn/

learnt / learned /lɜːnt, lɜːnd /

learnt / learned /lɜːnt, lɜːnd /

leave /liːv/

left /left/

left /left/

lend /lend/

lent /lent/

lent /lent/

lose /luːz/

lost /lɒst/

lost /lɒst/

make /meɪk/

made /meɪd/

made /meɪd/

meet /miːt/

met /met/

met /met/

put /pʊt/

put /pʊt/

put /pʊt/

read /ri:d/

read /red/

ride /raɪd/

rode /rəʊd/

ring /rɪŋ/

rang /ræŋ/

rung /rʌŋ/

run /rʌn/

ran /ræn/

run /rʌn/

say /seɪ/

said /sed/

said /sed/

see /siː/

saw /sɔː/

seen /siːn/

sold /səʊld/

sold /səʊld/

sent /sent/

sent /sent/

shone /ʃɒn/

shone /ʃɒn/

shot /ʃɒt/

shot /ʃɒt/

sang /sæŋ/

sung /sʌŋ/

sank /sæŋk/

sunk /sʌŋk/

sat /sæt/

sat /sæt/

slept /slept/

slept /slept/

spoke /spəʊk/

spoken /ˈspəʊkən/

spend /spend/

spent /spent/

spent /spent/

stand /stænd/

stood /stʊd/

stood /stʊd/

steal /stiːl/

stole /stəʊl/

stolen /ˈstəʊlən/

swim /swɪm/

swam /swæm/

swum /swʌm/

take /teɪk/

took /tʊk/

taken /ˈteɪkən/

teach /tiːtʃ/

taught /tɔːt/

taught /tɔːt/

tell /tel/

told /təʊld/

told /təʊld/

think /θɪŋk/

thought /θɔːt/

thought /θɔːt/

throw /θrəʊ/

threw /θruː/

thrown /θrəʊn/

understand /ˌʌndəˈstænd/

understood /ˌʌndəˈstʊd/

understood /ˌʌndəˈstʊd/

wake /weɪk/

woke /wəʊk/

woken /ˈwəʊkən/

wear /weə/

wore /wɔː(r)/

worn /wɔːn/

win /wɪn/

won /wʌn/

won /wʌn/

write /raɪt/

wrote /rəʊt/

written /ˈrɪtn/

send /send/

sink /sɪŋk/ sit /sɪt/ sleep /sliːp/ speak /spiːk/

uk a

shine /ʃaɪn/ sing /sɪŋ/

read /red/

om

pr

sell /sel/

shoot /ʃuːt/

o

Infinitive

Ed

IRREGULAR VERBS

ridden /ˈrɪdn/

85


Ed

uk a

pr

om

o

GRAMMAR UNIT 1 CHECK