IUSD â€” Yearbook 2012/2013
MSc Integrated Urbanism & Sustainable Design (IUSD) www.iusd.uni-stuttgart.de
Editor: Raoul Cyril Humpert, Yehya Serag supported by Melanie Kundrot, Nashwa Emad, Marwa Abdel Latif, Nouran Azouz IUSD Design Concept: Studio Matthias Gรถrlich, Darmstadt MSc Integrated Urbanism and Sustainable Design (MSc IUSD) Faculty of Architecture and Urban Design University of Stuttgart www.iusd.uni-stuttgart.de Print of Prototype: typographics GmbH, Darmstadt Copyright disclaimer: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form of by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 2013
IUSD Office University of Stuttgart Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning Keplerstrasse 11 70174 Stuttgart/Germany email@example.com
IUSD Office Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering 1 El-Sarayat Street 11517 Abbasiya, Cairo/Egypt firstname.lastname@example.org
IUSD — Yearbook 2012/2013
3 — Table of contents
Year I – Stuttgart 01 — Architecture
Y e a r II – Ca iro 7
Construction and Form Sustainable Architecture: Low Tech or High Tech? Earthworkshop in France Foreign Affairs
9 18 22 26
02 — Urban Planning
Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management, Urban Planning I Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management, Urban Planning II
03 — Landscape
Urban Ecology and Ecosystem Design CityTreeHouse II Summer in the City Geodesign
51 58 64 68
05 — Integrated Case Study
Ezzbet Al-Nasr Al-Ezzbah Asly’ Community Market Trash becomes Cash Mazarita Toolbook Streetscape Design
109 116 118 120 122
06 — Electives
Climate and Design Rural Development Urban Upgrading of Slums & Informal Areas Selected Topics on Urbanism
127 130 134 141
07 — Master Theses
08 — Graduation 04 — Integrated Research and Design
1st Intake Graduation Ceremony
Integrated Research and Design Module I Integrated Research and Design Projects II
Year I & II
09 — IUSD Lab
Vision, IUSD Symposium, Siwa Spring School
10 — IUSD People
IUSD Staff IUSD Students 2011/12 IUSD Students 2012/13
175 180 182
4 — IUSD Yearbook 2012/2013
Introduction Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen – course director, Ain Shams University Prof. Antje Stokman – course director, University of Stuttgart Prof. José Moro – head of admissions, University of Stuttgart Prof. Dr. Youhansen Eid – head of admissions, Ain Shams University Dr. Bernd Eisenberg – coordinator, University of Stuttgart Dr. Nina Gribat – coordinator, University of Stuttgart Dr. Yehya Serag – coordinator, Ain Shams University
In the year 2012/2013, the MSc IUSD programme was running in parallel at both partner universities in Stuttgart and Cairo for the first time. The first cohort of students, after completing their first year of study on the MSc IUSD in Stuttgart, transferred to Cairo for their second year of study. At the same time, the second cohort of students arrived for their first year of their programme in Stuttgart. In the meantime, the students of the first cohort have just submitted their master thesis, so very soon we will have our first graduates. In the yearbook 2012-13, we proudly present the full cycle of the MSc IUSD programme, including selected activities, projects and papers that were produced by the students of the first year in Stuttgart (Part 1) and by students of the second year in Cairo (Part 2). The yearbook gives an impression of the variety and kinds of subjects that were taught during this period at both universities. Part 1 is structured according to the three core themes – architecture, urban planning and landscape, each of which is represented by a core module and electives. It is rounded up with the results of the applied training in the Integrated Research and Design Module. Part 2
contains a large section on the Integrated Case Study in Cairo which forms the backbone of the programme. At the same time it gives impressions from the results of the variety of electives that were offered at Ain Shams University. It is summed up by short summaries of the Master Thesis projects that are jointly supervised by staff from both universities. Some of the extracurricular activities and special highlights of the academic year in Stuttgart and Cairo are also documented in the yearbook. The preparation phase of the second intake started with urban safaris in and around Stuttgart, language course as well as team building and project management workshops. Highlights during their academic year at University of Stuttgart included excursions to Berlin, Dessau and the Architectural Biennale in Venice, a GeoDesign workshop in the Black Forest, the participation in the International Earth Construction Festival Grains d´Isère in Lyon as well as the participation in the Module on German-Arab cooperation in development, economy, culture and politics together with four other bicultural MSc programmes in Berlin.
At the same time, the students of the first intake arrived in Egypt and were involved in the preparatory weeks activities to orient and familiarize them in the contextual settings of Cairo and Ain Shams University. Once more the concept of urban safaris was applied with three urban safaris organized to Downtown Cairo, Fatimid Cairo and Alexandria. The activities were complemented by two “one day crash courses” provided by the DAAD Cairo Academy to enhance some of the academic as well as cultural skills of the students. Furthermore, an excursion to Siwa Oasis was organized to understand the logic and value of self-built/self-organised communities. The field study focused on the themes of architecture, urban planning and landscape. IUSD kept the tradition of organizing yearly international symposiums which was held in September 2012 in Cairo, entitled “Integrated Urbanism Dialogues II: On resilience”. The symposium was organized by and hosted at Ain Shams University. Lasting for two days and with the contributions of several Egyptian, MENA and International speakers, the symposium tried to explore the different issues and domains related to resilience with experiences brought from all over the world. In summer 2012, the IUSD team secured funding for the second phase of the programme by developing a concept that outlines several activities leading to the longterm sustainability. One of the main building blocks is the establishment of new entities for research, consultancy and further activities at both universities. These entities, called IUSD-Labs, are envisaged to embed the MSc IUSD in a broader context that will eventually support the course academically as well as financially. We are proud to be able to present the first activities of the IUSD-labs in Stuttgart and Cairo, which are presented in Part 3 of the yearbook. The spring school on neovernacular architecture in Siwa, which was jointly organized by both IUSD-labs, represents a first successful activity. At IUSD-Lab Cairo, two new research projects were launched: One of them is to “Design and Build” a sustainable house, using local materials in remote areas
of Egypt, funded by the Egyptian Academy for Scientific Research and Technology. Another research project is funded by the Science and Technology Research Fund (STDF) focusing on “Development Priorities in Informal Areas: Planning, Realization and Local Perceptions” (in cooperation with TU Berlin). The establishment of the IUSD programme continues to take place in the context of the dramatic political transformation process in the MENA region which continues to present many challenges but also, more importantly, continues to fuel the enthusiasm of all those involved. The ongoing transformation process also affirms and validates our overarching aim of training a new generation of experts and decision-makers (practitioners, academics, civil servants) from a variety of backgrounds to face the tremendous environmental, technological and social challenges of rapid urbanization in the MENA region. It also offers the chance to our graduates to contribute to this transformation process by pursuing new career possibilities within more democratic and open societies. Last but not least, the IUSD team at both universities wants to thank all our IUSD students for their dedication and enthusiasm! We would also like to thank our universities and all our colleagues who contributed to the teaching and worked tirelessly to make IUSD a success. In particular we want to thank the DAAD staff in Bonn and Cairo whose active support made the establishment of IUSD possible. We are looking forward to the next years! ●
01 â€” Architecture
8 â€” Architecture
Construction and Form Core Module, SS 2013 Prof. JosĂŠ Luis Moro, IEK Dipl.-Ing. Matthias Rottner, IEK
The students of this module recognize the interaction between construction and building form and test this relationship by developing practice-related design tasks. They get to know the close conjunction between, on the one hand, the flow of forces, the materials and their assembly, and, on the other hand, the conceptual idea and the aesthetical aim of a design. The students enlarge their technical, constructional and design-related repertoire and also recognize the relations between energy efficiency issues, sustainable building design and urban planning. This course deals with design approaches of sustainable and energy-efficient architecture and urban planning. It offers a practical introduction to different means for energy conservation in buildings, as an approach to environmentally friendly architecture. It also studies the principles of environmental architecture and urban planning and their role in energy conservation, the
available sources of renewable and non-renewable energy, and the use of solar energy as well as natural cooling sources in architecture. The course is based upon the assumption that sustainable architecture is not a matter of purely technology-based solutions but, instead, a matter of an intelligent integration of complex factors, including functional and organizational aspects, a due recognition of the human and behavioral dimensions, contextspecific issues such as local architectural traditions and typologies, local building materials, local climate and other ecological factors, as well as socio-cultural aspects and poverty-related issues. â—?
10 — Architecture
Masdar City – An Example of Sustainable Urban Planning in a Hot Arid Climate by Mohamed ElGamal and Dina Nosier
design does not only incorporate numerous strategies to address the desert climate, but is also characterised by relatively low energy consumption. Traditional Arabic cities are also socially diverse places where people live and work in the same environments, which in turn feature lively and enjoyable public spaces. The urban form and spatial organisation can have a wide variety of implications for a city’s greenhouse gas emissions. The high concentrations of people and economic activities in urban areas can lead to ‘economies’ of scale, proximity and agglomeration, which have a positive impact on the energy consumption and associated emissions. The proximity of homes and businesses encourage people to walk, cycle and make use of the public transport, instead of using their private motor vehicles.
Urban Aspects: The Traditional Arabic City High Density / Compact Design Studying cultural backgrounds reflects solutions of city planning and building design. Taking the traditional Arabic city as source of inspiration, in which the person and not the vehicle is paramount, it becomes clear that the “compact city” supports a far higher level of building density and mixed land use, dramatically minimizing the demand for automotive transport. The compact city provides better shaded areas, paths and facades, which enhance the micro-climatic conditions. This indigenous Masdar City As an example of a sustainable urban planning in hot arid climate
Group 5 .Mohame .Dina Nos
TREATMENTS FOR CLIMATE CONDITIONS URBAN ASPECTS: TRADITIONAL ARABIC CITY High Density Compact city for optimum Mobility. Low Rise to achieve Suitable A/v Ratio. Narrow Streets for shaded walkways. Open Spaces, Landscape
. . . . . .
FORM & ORIENTATION West North direction; direction of prevailing wind. Linear-Form of Parks to catch wind. BUILDING OPTIMIZATION AS URBAN ELEMENT Efficient Envelope and Systems. Building Facades (Insulation, Material & Openings).
HIGH-TECH TREATMENTS Solar Thermal Cooling Wind Towers
AVOIDING HEAT GAINS
TRANSPORTATION (Walkability/Pedestrian Friendly).
Car-free City Carbon Neutral Vehicles. Personal Rapid Transport & Light Rail Transit System; as Low Carbon Transportation.
Universitä Institut fü (und Kons
Constraction and Form
Ready-mix Concrete; deacreasing Embodied CO2.
Renewable Energy for Treatment and Avoiding
Photovoltaic Cells Concentrated Solar Power Plant. Building Integrated Photovoltaic cells on buildings Roofs.
As its ad am co pa th th M tu ro
11 — Construction and Form
Low Rise to Achieve a Suitable A/V Ratio. collector towers were used to collect air, to create a betThe height of As a building, its surface area and its volume ter circulation of climate the ventilation. This helped in reducing Masdar Masdar City City As anan example example of of a sustainable a sustainable urban urban planning planning in in hot hot arid arid climate are important factors for managing solar gains. For this the outdoor temperature by 10 degrees Celsius, in comGrou G UrbAn UrbAn AspeCT: AspeCT: city not only incorporates a dense urban matter, Masdar parison with the down town city. .Moh . .Din. TrAdiTionAL TrAdiTionAL ArAbiC ArAbiC CiTy CiTy fabric, but it also low rise buildings. Together they amHigH HigH denisTy/CoMpACT denisTy/CoMpACT plify the management of solar gains on the architectural Narrow Streets for Shaded Walkways TheThe studying studying of culture of culture background background reflects reflects solutions solutions of city of city planning planning andand building building designs. designs. And And using using traditional traditional Arabic Arabic citycity as source as source of of as well aswhere on the urban level. The buildings incorporate The creation routes encourages pedestrian acinspirations inspirations where thethe person person not not thethe vehicle vehicle is paramount. is paramount. TheThe “compact “compact city” city” supports supports aoffar ashaded far higher higher level level of building of building density density andand mixed mixed land land use, use, dramatically dramatically minimizing minimizing the the demand demand forfor automobile automobile travel. travel. nevertheless, nevertheless, thethe compact compact citycity provides provides better better shaded shaded areas, areas, paths paths andand another important element, which is the air collector. tivity at the street level. Colonnades have been incorpofacades. facades. This This enhances enhances thethe micro-climatic micro-climatic conditions conditions to be to be cooler. cooler. notnot only only does does thisthis indigenous indigenous design design incorporate incorporate numerous numerous strategies strategies to to These two elements are central to a varietybyofby reasons, rated inenergy allconsumption. buildings within the Masdar institute. These address address thethe desert desert climate, climate, butbut it also it also is characterised is characterised relatively relatively lowlow overall overall energy consumption. That’s That’s because because traditional traditional Arabian Arabian cities cities are are compact compact and and densely densely populated. populated. including lower energy use of transportation (both be- colonnades are cooled by high thermal mass materials They They areare also also socially socially diverse diverse places places where where people people livelive andand work work in the in the same same environs, environs, andand feature feature lively lively andand enjoyable enjoyable public public spaces. spaces. tween and within buildings) and reduced heating/cool- applied to soffits, walls and ceilings. The shaded walkUrban Urban form form andand urban urban spatial spatial organisation organisation cancan have have a wide a wide variety of implications of implications for a city’s a city’s greenhouse greenhouse gas emissions. emissions. The high high conconing loads. ways andfornarrow streets willgas create a pedestrian-friendMasdar City As an example of avariety sustainable urban planning inThethat hot arid cli centrations centrations of people of people andand economic economic activities activities in urban in urban areas areas cancan lead lead to ‘economies’ to ‘economies’ of scale, of scale, proximity proximity andand agglomeration agglomeration that cancan have have a a As an impact integral approach, airassociated collectors are inspirations ly environment inbusinesses the context of Abuwalking, Dhabis extreme positive positive impact on on energy energy useuse andand associated emissions; emissions; whilst whilst thethe proximity proximity of homes of homes andand businesses cancan encourage encourage walking, cycling cycling andand from traditional city and itsvehicles. buildings. Air climate. the the useuse ofthe mass of mass transport transport inArabic place in place ofTrAdiTionAL private of private motor motor vehicles. (satterthwaite (satterthwaite 1999). 1999). dense dense urban urban settlements settlements cancan therefore therefore be be seen seen to ento enUrbAn AspeCTs:
ArAbiC CiTy Low rise to achieve suitable A/v ratio. Masdar Masdar CityCity
115115 People/ha People/ha The height of the building, its surface area and 135135 People/ha People/ha its volume are important factors for managing solar gains of every building. For this matter, Masdar city not only incorporates dense urban fabric, but also it incorporates low rise buildings. These low rise buildings along with the dense urban fabric, collectively, amplifies the management of solar gains on the architectural level, as well as the urban level. The buildings, as low rise element, incorporates another element which is the air collectors. These two elements are central Univ U to a variety of reasons, including lower Density in Masdar city and Venice a city of )i.e. relative size and high density) Traditional Arabic City Instit In Fig. Fig. 1. Comparison 1. Comparison between between density density in Masdar in Masdar city(as city andand Venice Venice )i.e. as aas city a city of relative of relative sizesize and and high high density) density) Fig. Fig. 2. Traditional 2. Traditional Arabic Arabic City City energy use on transportation (both between )und )u Prof.PrD and within buildings) and reduced heating/ Fig. 3: Illustrations for the advantages of low rise residential build cooling loads. ustainable sustainable urban urban planning planning in hot in arid hot arid climate climate As an integral approach, air collectors are inspirations from the traditional arabic city Group 5 Grou .Mohamed ElGam .Moh and its buildings. Air collector towers were io. .Dina Nosier.Dina - 277 used to collect air, to create better circulation of ventilation. This helped in reducing the and outdoor temperature by 10 degree Celsius ging than the down town city. ter, nse UrbAn AspeCTs: TrAdiTionAL low Fig. 4: Picture the Narrowcomfort Shaded streets for thermal co ArAbiC CiTy Advantages of low rise residential buildings Narrow shadedshowing streets for thermal ong nArrow sTreeTs For sHAded ely, wALkwAys. s on
12 — Architecture
Analysis of the felt temperature of different urban designs and items (colonnades, greenery, etc.)
Fig. 6: Showing analysis of the felt temprature of different urban designs and items )Colonades, Greens...etc)
Open Spaces, Landscape, Vegetation & Water Features to Reduce the Temperature
Building Optimization as an Urban Element Facades (Insulation, Material & Openings)
The native plant species sourced from local nurseries re- As an integrated approach towards a sustainable and enInstitut fü duce air temperature in public spaces. The strategically ergy efficient design, Masdar City features a technologi)und Kons located water features provide indirect cooling and cre- cal facade prototype. The facade is composed of glass reWind Nightime Winddesign Prof. Dipl.Sun Orientation ate a relaxing environment. inforced concrete,Daytime which incorporates Mashrabia Fig. 7: Ilustrations for the preferable orientation of the urban context. to function like the traditional Arabic Mashrabia. WinKey landscape design elements at the Masdar institute dows which are not already shaded have louvers; vertical Campus include: to block morning and afternoon sun and horizontal to •Reduced air temperature in public spaces. block midday sun. •Strategically located water features used to provide in- Insulation was incorporated also in a technological fashdirect cooling. ion to achieve a more efficient building envelope. The •Native species sourced from local nurseries to reduce façade is highly sealed and insulated, and wrapped in environmental impact. 90% recycled aluminium sheeting in the same rose-red colour as the screens. The aluminium sheeting used on the residential buildings has 6.7kg of embedded carbon per square metre of 2mm-thick sheeting compared to conventional aluminium sheeting, which has 56kg of embedded carbon per square metre.
13 — Construction and Form
Masdar City As an example of a sustainable urban planning in hot arid climate HigH-TeCH TreATMenTs wind Tower
High-Tech Treatments – Wind Tower
The large urban square at the base of the windtower has cafes and other retail The large urban square atwith the seating base of the windtower outlets that spills out on to theprosquare in temperate weather, while mature vides cafes and otherlandscaping retail outlets with seating, which in provides shade, and numerous services, such spills as a gym, prayer temperate weather conditions out ontoroom, the square; organic grocery store and bank are located while mature landscaping provides shade, near the square. As a result, the and squarenumerwill provide a place of recreation and social ous services, such as a gym, a prayer room, an organic interaction that serves as a counterpoint to the serious goingnear on inside labs. As grocery store and a bank are work located thethe square. A raised platform beneath the windtower a result, the squareserves provides a place stage. of recreation and as a performance
Louvres Automated louvres, controlled by sensors, monitor the direction of the prevailing winds are controlled to direct wind down the tower.
Mist Jets These jets located at high level, humidify the air to make it cooler on the ground. It’s an evaporative cooling device.
Monitoring The windtower is used as a platform for monitoring equipment by Masdar Institute.
social interaction, which serves as counterpoint to the The tower’s height means it can capture Inner Sock upper-level and direct them toplatform the serious work going on inside winds the labs. A raised Lighting of the inner sock open-air public square at its base. acts as an indicator to the beneath the windtower serves as a performance stage. energy used collectively The structure is anchored in low-carbon by students and faculty The tower captures the upper-level winds andurban directsplanning in hot arid climate Masdar City As an example of a sustainable concrete reinforced with recycled steel rethroughout the day. them to the open-airbar. public square down sensors at the top of thebelow. steel structure will operate louvers to open in the bUiLding opTiMizATion As UrbAn eLeMenT The structure is anchored inhigh-level low-carbon concrete, reof prevailing winds and to close bUiLding FACAdesdirection (insULATion, MATeriAL & openings). in other directions to divert wind inforced with recycled rebar steel. Sensors atdown the the top of tower. Non-stick brand Teflon membrane As an steel integrated approach towards a wind sustainable and energytoefficient the structure operate louvers open design, masdar city featured a technological facade prototype. The will carry as the high-level downward, while mist facade is composed of glass reinforced concrete, which incorporates mashrabia design to function like the traditional arabic mashrabia. generators at the top will add additional in the direction the prevailing to close in morning and afternoon sun and horizontal to block midday sun. windows that are notof already shaded havewinds louversand ; vertical to block cooling to the air. the otherwas directions to divert down the tower. Non- a more efficient building envelope. The façade is highly sealed and Insulation incorportated also inwind a techological fashion to achieve insulated, and wrapped in 90% recycled in the same rose-red colour as the grC screens. The aluminium sheeting used stick Teflon membranes carry aluminium the windssheeting downward, on the residential buildings has 6.7kg of embedded carbon per square metre of 2mm-thick sheeting compared to conventional aluminium while mist at the topcarbon put additional cooling sheeting, whichgenerators has 56kg of embedded per square metre. to the air.
G . .
As shown in the figure below, the design of the Balcony is for each apartment where it incorporates a shaded balcony, screened for privacy and solar control. As mentioned earlier in this paragraph, residential buildings are defined by glassreinforced concrete (GRC) screen that serve much the same role as traditional Arab mashrabiya screens. They provide shade from the sun, thus preventing solar gain on the building walls. Fig. 12: Wind privacy, tower as an urban for social gathering They allow residents to look out at the street below while maintaining their and element they also permit air to pass through to cool the Wind tower as an urban element for social gathering balconies.
Fig. 9: Building Facade with Mashrabia featured in a new techological way.
Building Facade with Mashrabia featured in a new technological way.
U In )u
14 — Architecture
Mobility Concept of Masdar city “Community facilities distribution & walkability”
Transportation Car-Free City (walkability/pedestrian friendly) In addition to extensive shaded sidewalks and pathways throughout Masder City – pedestrian friendly, community focused and car-free – a public transport system of electric buses and other clean-energy vehicles is provided. Abu Dhabi’s light rail and Metro lines pass through the centre of Masdar City, providing transport within
the city and serving as a link to the wider metropolitan area. This extensive public transportation network means that no destination within the city will be more than 250-300m away from each other. Most private vehicles will be kept at the city’s edge in a number of parking lots that are linked by electric bus routes to other public transportation traversing the city.
15 — Construction and Form CONSTRUCTION AND FORM ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDING DESIGN
Site Plan 1/500
all concept of the design is the “house in house” concept. This concept s the energy efficiency of the building through enclosed building envelope. n integrates energy efficient materials, green roofs, natural ventilation es and water treatment cycle. This in order to maximize the self-sufficiency of ng demands. The middle court is covered with toughned safety glass fixed on me structure.
lighting ntilationGeneral Concept
Site Plan 1/500
The overall concept of the design is the “house in house” concept. This concept
optimizes the energy efficiency of the building through enclosed building envelope. n integrated a sloped The design integrates energy efficient materials, green roofs, natural ventilation techniques and water treatment cycle. This in order to maximize the self-sufficiency of rds the south. This the building demands. The middle court is covered with toughned safety glass fixed on Steel frame structure. Construction and Form – Energy plifies the use of the Day lighting A/V Ratio rgy. This sloped roof The Area to volume ratio of & Ventilation Building Design the building depending on s moving louvres; to the whole building design. The design integrated a sloped Since the favourable a/v roof towards the south. This wind coming from ratio is around 0.3 m -1 and helps amplifies the use of the since the project typology is solar energy. This sloped roof a challenge to achieve this . integrates moving louvres; to value, the concept of “house in
The Area to volume ratio of the building depending on the whole building design. Since the favourable a/v ratio is around 0.3 m -1 and Efficient since the project typology is a challenge to achieve this value, the concept of “house in house” was used for each two U-shaped buildings through applying the glass roof on top.
General Concept The overall concept of the design is the “house-in-house” The overall concept of the design concept. This concept optimizes energy efficiency of is the “house in house” concept. This concept Building Envelope & Structure Waterthe system optimizes the energy efficiency of the building through enclosed building envelope. the building by means of an enclosed building envelope. The design integrates energy efficient materials, green roofs, natural ventilation A/V This Ratio and water treatment cycle. in order to maximize the self-sufficiency of The design integrates energy techniques efficient materials, green system ding Envelope & Structure Water the building demands. The middle court is covered with toughned safety glass fixed on osed structural system for the building, which is 3 storeys, is cross laminated timber The drainage water of the roofs, natural techniques water CONSTRUCTION AND FORM, ventilation SoSe 2013, IEK, PROF, JOSE MORO, BY DINA and NOSEIR a , MOHAMED ELtreatGAMAL Steel frame structure. green roofs will be collected to . a waterSite treatment basin; to be 1/500 ment cycle, in order to maximize the )self-sufficiency of Plan Wall: Cross Laminated Timber (U-value=0,30 [W / m2K] fed back to the water system of Floor:building Cross Laminated Floor (U-value=0,32 [W / m2K] ) al Concept the building. the demands. The middle court is covered with concept of the design is theTriple “house in house” concept. This concept Windows: Glazed Window (U-value= 0.8-2.2 [W / m2K] ) e energy efficiency of the buildingsafety through glass, enclosed fixed buildingon envelope. toughened a steel frame structure. ntegrates energy efficient materials, green roofs, natural ventilation and water treatment cycle. This in order& to maximize the self-sufficiency of Day Lighting Ventilation The fixed design demands. The middle court is covered with toughned safety glass on integrated a sloped The design integrates a sloped roof towards the south. structure. roof towards the south. This RUCTIONThis ANDhelps FORM, SoSe 2013, IEK, PROF, JOSE MORO, helps amplifies the use of the to amplify the use of the solar energy. The BY DINA NOSEIR , MOHAMED EL GAMAL ghting A/V solar energy. This sloped roofRatio The Area to volume ratio of sloped roof integrates movingintegrates louvres,moving whichlouvres; catch the to depending on tilation the building thefrom whole building design. catch the wind coming wind coming from the south. ntegrated a sloped Since the favourable a/v the south. s the south. ThisBuilding Envelope & Structure ratio is around 0.3 m -1 and fies the use of the since the project typology is . This sloped roof The proposed structural system for the three-storeya challenge to achieve this moving louvres; to value, the concept of “house in nd coming frombuilding is a cross laminated timber structure. house” was used for each two U-shaped buildings through A/V Ratio applying the glass roof on top. The area to volume ratio of the building depends on the whole building design. Since the favourable a/v ratio is around 0.3 m -1 and since the project typology is a chal- Day lighting & ventilation lenge to achieve this value, theThe “house-in-house” concept proposed structural system for the building, which is 3 storeys, is cross laminated timber ng Envelope & for Structure structure.buildings through Water system was used each of the two U-shaped d structural system for the building, which is 3 storeys, is cross laminated timber The drainage water of the Cross Laminated Timber (U-value=0,30 [W / m2K] ) greenWall: roofs will be collected to applying the glass roof on top. a water treatment basin; to be Wall: Cross Laminated Timber (U-value=0,30 [W / m2K] ) Floor: Cross Laminated Floor (U-value=0,32 [W / m2K] ) fed back to the water system of Water system Floor: Cross Laminated Floor (U-value=0,32 [W / m2K] ) the building. Windows: Triple Glazed Window (U-value= 0.8-2.2 [W / m2K] ) Windows: Triple Glazedwater Window of (U-value= 0.8-2.2 [W / m2K] ) The drainage the green roofs will be collected in a water treatment basin to be fed back into the water system of the building. catch the wind coming from the south.
house” was used for each two U-shaped buildings through applying the glass roof on top.
The proposed structural system for the building, which is 3 storeys, is cross laminated timber structure.
The drainage water of the green roofs will be collected to a water treatment basin; to be fed back to the water system of the building.
Wall: Cross Laminated Timber (U-value=0,30 [W / m2K] ) Floor: Cross Laminated Floor (U-value=0,32 [W / m2K] )
Windows: Triple Glazed Window (U-value= 0.8-2.2 [W / m2K] )
Day lighting & Ventilation
Building Envelope & Structure
The the b the w Sinc ratio sinc a ch valu hou U-sh appl
The gree a wa fed b the b
UCTION AND FORM, SoSe 2013, IEK, PROF, JOSE MORO, BY DINA NOSEIR , MOHAMED EL GAMAL
CONSTRUCTION AND FORM, SoSe 2013, IEK, PROF, JOSE MO
16 — Architecture
CONSTRUCTION AND FORM ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDING DESIGN
Ground floor plan Ground floor plan 1/100
Second floor plan 1/100 Second floor plan
First floor plan 1/100
First floor plan
Third floor plan 1/100 Third floor plan
CONSTRUCTION AND FORM, SoSe 2013, IEK, PROF, JOSE MORO, BY DINA NOSEIR , MOHAMED EL GAMAL
17 — Construction and Form
CONSTRUCTION AND FORM ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDING DESIGN CONSTRUCTION AND FORM ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDING DESIGN
Section Detail Section Detail Scale 1/20 Scale 1/20
Section scale 1/100 Section scale 1/100 Conceptual perspective Section CONSTRUCTION AND FORM, SoSe 2013, IEK, PROF, JOSE MORO, BY DINA NOSEIR , MOHAMED EL GAMAL CONSTRUCTION AND FORM, SoSe 2013, IEK, PROF, JOSE MORO, BY DINA NOSEIR , MOHAMED EL GAMAL
18 — Architecture
Sustainable Architecture: Low-Tech or High-Tech? Elective, WS 2012/13 Dominique Gauzin-Müller, external at IÖB
Sustainable architecture is the result of integrated planning, which combines ecologic, economic, cultural and social aims. In order to explore his meaning in depth, the seminar was structured around four questions.
Low-Tech architecture. Case studies and a guest lecture by Anna Heringer (Aga Khan Prize Winner 2007) has demonstrated how it is possible to achieve beauty and create specific identities with little means.
Where does sustainable architecture come from? Pioneers like Frank Lloyd Wright, Alvar Aalto and Hassan Fathy were collectively studied and foundational texts about philosophy, economy and sociology commented.
Where is the balance between High-Tech and Low- Tech? Sustainable architecture has to fulfil its functions and satisfy its users. It should be adapted to its natural, social and cultural environment and require little energy. Local, renewable materials should be favoured. Numerous international examples from all the continents were collectively analysed in order to understand the process, which brings to a more sustainable world.
How much High-Tech is appropriate? Sustainable Architecture demands a deep knowledge about current technologies, but it does not need to be covered with photovoltaic. Case studies and a guest lecture by Arnaud Billard from Transsolar climate engineering (e.g. Masdar City) supported us in defining the right measure of High-Tech depending on the context. What does Low-Tech mean in the Global North and in the Global South? „More with less“ is one of the key words representing
The goal of the seminar was to help each student to reflex about the subject, so that one is able to give his own answer to three decisive questions: Is sustainability in architecture and urbanism really more than a “fashion”? Does sustainability bring about a particular aesthetic (materials, energy…)? Which role does context play? The essays of the students show that they could build a personal and original opinion. ●
The solution to achieve sustainability by supporting local efforts to fight against universal structures and powers.
Localism vs. Universalism – Sustainability in Architecture and Urban Planning by Ayham Dalal Sustainability, Architecture, Urbanism, Development, Structure. The world is witnessing a new approach towards architecture and urbanism. Sustainability is becoming a new trend, but what does really stand behind this term? Is it a cutting-edge technology that is applied in modern constructions to save energy? Or is it building techniques developed by our ancestors? Throughout my argument, I explain sustainability in regards to societies and how they develop their own structures, how can this be related to urbanism and architecture in a sustainable manner. Afterwards, I question the role of architects and planners nowadays, and the necessity for them to touch upon a wider spectrum in order to achieve real sustainability. ‘Sustainability’ is a multi-layered term. For engineers, it is widely known that it deals with issues of energy losses in a building, in parallel to the currently emerging standards for building and construction; although, for me, it
relates to a complexity of issues at the same time. For instance, low-, passive- or zero energy standards represent the technical side of sustainability; an utilization of modern technology to save energy and to preserve nature and resources, but is that all? The phenomena of urbanization, cities, buildings and architecture is not restricted to technicality, moreover, it is a result of how people in this spot of earth think, create and deal with life and the question of survival. Sustainability in that manner extends to touch upon this complexity. It is surprising to see that people in former times understood, quiet well, the basic principles of sustainability and even used it before this term was ever created. Looking at our modern times, one can easily distinguish the deterioration of resources, destruction of environment, extremely polarized cities, consuming culture and cheap architecture as striking features. This leads to the question, was our architectural and urban heritage really sustainable? If yes, why and when did we stop building sustainable? The answer, for me, lies between balance, harmony, capability, knowledge and flexibility of societies. In former times, people were directly responsible for developing their own structures. Structures such as religion, culture, economy, politics and societal relations along with solid structures like houses, villages and cities, created an entity. This entity as a whole was sustainable, because it was not dominated by structures that were located outside of the society. The creation of architecture, and all other structures, was, and still is a means of survival. Because of that, societies’ response to life was stark, direct, honest and sustainable. Each in its own way, the world developed the basic techniques of sustainable architecture. For that, architecture was not only a matter of technicality and energy; it was a living representation of people themselves. Now, architecture and cities became detached from their creators. They don’t represent people and society in a transparent manner anymore, but ideologies, accumulation of capital and globalization. Survival as an immediate answer for the ‘raison d’être’ lost its purity. It became heavily distorted, or in another sense, totally unsustainable.
20 — Architecture
Architecture and cities can be sustainable again once peoples’ inter-relation with their structures can be maintained and supported. For that, the usage of current technologies can be supportive, but are not enough. Architects and urban planners ought to stand with people against these opposing powers, to help them reconnect with their structures, help them develop it and keep in intimate relation with it. This is never an easy task, however, because structures are always dialectically changing and, in some cases, not so recognizable. It’s so important for architects and planners in order to fight with people against distorting powers, to understand the active powers within society. Sustainable models of societies, cities and architecture always reflect upon people’s will. This will can be only fostered through participatory approach. Markus Miessen claims that, ‘in order to participate in any environment or given situation, one need to understand the forces of conflict upon that environment.’ In that perspective, I see the future of sustainable architecture tightly connected with urban development, transnational economics, politics, anthropology and sociology. I’m not sure if architects per se
have the capability to deal with all these issues together, however, an academic effort to intersect these disciplines into the profession can be fruitful. In regard to this dilemma, Markus Miessen puts it in this way: he says that ‘the recent invention of particular titles and names catering to that change includes job descriptions such as “spatial consultant”, “urban researcher,” architectural curator,” spatial tactician,” or “framework designer”.’ In that sense, I see our role in the future as framework designers is the best way to ensure sustainability. The design of such frameworks should take into consideration the context and the society with its structures. Architects and urbanists cannot, in this case, decide everything in advanced. These types of architectures and cities foster the needs of people and help them develop themselves through architecture. It allows them to fill the content of the framework using their inherited structures. Once this is done, all structures that people create can be revealed through architecture and cities, and vice versa. People and architecture reunion again, like one entity; a sustainable one.
References Literature Markus Miessen: The Nightmare of Participation (Crossbench Praxis as a Mode of Criticality). Sternberg Press, Berlin 2010.
The scheme symbolises the ideas represented during the argument. On the left the ideal situation is represented, on the right modernity and its production distorted architecture and cities.
21 — Sustainable Architecture: Low-Tech or High-Tech?
Planet of Slums, Mike Davis, 2006 by Mahy Mourad „He let his mind drift as he stared at the city, half slum, half paradise. How could a place be so ugly and violent, yet beautiful at the same time?“ – Chris Abani  Dramatizing the conditions of the urban slums of Third World cities, in his book ‚Planet of Slums‘, Mike Davis makes a noticeable contribution to understanding inequalities in the urban poor areas in a story-like structure. Mike Davis (born 1946), an American Marxist writer, political activist, urban theorist, and historian , takes a look in his book on the global south and highlights that in spite we live in the era of technology, democracy and human rights, yet there are vast number of slum areas in the mega-cities of the developing countries. Critiques argued that a title like ‘planet of the poor’ does not make much sense as slums, unlike ‘the poor’ who are more general, slums are mainly tied to cities and physically located in easily distinguishable margins, and places for concentration of urban poverty . On the other hand; many experts are criticizing using the term ‚slum‘ in general and claim that it is considered as a dangerous word and mention that it could be misused by politicians, developers and planners to achieve their aims. Planet of slums, which was first published as an article with the same title in the New Left Review in 2004, has emerged basically from the UN-HABITAT’s report the challenge of slums in 2003 . „Urban inequality in the Third World is visible even from space“ claims Davis as he explores slum cases from the Third World mega-cities Mexico, Sao Paulo, Mumbai, Cairo, Bogota and many others. The book mainly explores the roots of slums and urban poverty in postmodern times and its social, economical, political and ecological consequences. Davis starts the discussion with pointing out that now more than half of the world’s population is living in cities and mentions that the urban population of the earth will outnumber the rural. Many of the arguments and critiques are linking to the famous literatures of Charles Dickens, where Davis named one
subtitle in the first chapter ‚Back to Dickens‘; he describes the dynamics of the Third World urbanization referring to the process of shifting from the rural to the urban contexts of the cities. When Davis argues that the contemporary urbanization in the Third World is mainly caused by capitalism, he also refers to Marx’s ‘Communist Manifesto’ to explain the emerging of working classes. „If informal urbanism becomes a dead-end street, won’t the poor revolt?“; „aren’t the great slums just volcanos waiting to erupt?“ complex questions like these must be explored via concrete, comparative case studies before they can be answered in any general sense. Planet of slums is sending a warning message about the future of some societies in the Third World, which the author believes in many cases‘ consequences will include the First and Second World too. The book is strongly arguing that capitalism and neo-liberalism policies are the main root of the urban poverty and the slum phenomenon, which are not necessarily the only reasons for that. Davis also criticizes the workings of international capital and its institutions like the IMF (International Monetary Fund) and World Bank as responsible for the current world slum situation. He is addressing the ‚slums‘ in a more generic way, showing examples from Easter Asia, Latin America to Africa, while a slum area in a poor country will differ a lot than one in a rich country. It would have been more effective if there was certain categorizing for the countries he draws the examples from. The issue of generalization is also present in the way he addresses the urban context, where he classifies it into ‚Urban‘ and ‚Rural‘ dismissing other levels of the urban context, which is more complicated to be abbreviated in two categories. Although the book doesn’t propose any solutions, it is yet considered a must read for anyone seeking to understand the vast inequalities that scar our world and its cities. References  Davis Mike,2007: planet of slums, New York: Verso
 Nikara Movafaghi, 2008: Davis Mike: planet of slums, A critical review  wikipedia http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Mike_Davis_ (scholar)
22 — Architecture
Earthworkshop in France (Lyon) Elective, SS 2013 Dominique Gauzin-Müller, external at IÖB
Since 2001, the festival Grains d’Isère takes place every year at the Grands Ateliers in Villefontaine, near Lyon (France). It is organized by the Laboratoire CRATerre, UNESCO Chair for earth construction at the Ecole d’architecture de Grenoble. We attended from May 28th till June 1st with a group of 40 Students of the faculty of architecture of the University of Stuttgart, among them 16 from the IUSD. The journey started on Monday May 27th early in the morning. On the way, we stopped in Laufen (Switzerland) to discover the new production hall for the Ricola candies designed by Pritzker Prize winners Herzog & de Meuron. We visited the factory where the rammed earth elements are prefabricated by Martin Rauch and his team and the building site, where they are assembled. In the Grands Ateliers, the day begins at 9 am with Japanese gymnastics to warm up for physical work. On Tuesday and Wednesday, the group was divided into four teams, which took part to the pedagogical workshop organized by AMàCO. Each student performed laboratory experiments to discover the physical principles of earth, the adobe and pressed brick station, the plastering station, the experiences around plastic arts and could participate to the construction of a rammed-earth building. On Thursday and Friday, each student was free to join any of these workshops to learn more. Many seminars and conferences were offered during the week, among them two by international personalities: Martin Rauch, Austrian specialist for rammed earth; Anna Heringer, a young German architect who lead
many earth and bamboo projects in developing countries. A poetical theatre performance with the title Tierra Efimera was performed on Friday evening. Furthermore, an outing was organized to the Domaine de la Terre, a group of 60 social houses and flats built in Villefontaine in the 1980s experimenting with different techniques: adobe, rammed earth and pressed bricks. The students could also visit the city of Lyon, and on the way back on Saturday the Chapelle de Ronchamp designed by Le Corbusier. The essays and feedback of the students show that – in spite of the very rainy and cold weather – they enjoyed working with their hands and discovering the advantages and disadvantages of earth construction. Many of them are eager to learn more and to share their new knowledge about the material when they return to their country. It would be nice to see the earth workshop taking place in Stuttgart in the near future… •
Mud Bricks Station
Mud Bricks Station
Mud Bricks Station The mud bricks station represents an interesting and imby Aya El-Wagieh portant station in the workshop. Through this, we were Mud Bricks Station 1- Adobe Bricks able to know how to make different types of mud bricks Prof. making Dominique Gauzin-Müller organized an Earth and we discussed the main advantage of using mud Adobe bricks is a simple technology: all one really requires is soil, water, and a hole in the ground to mix byfor hand. It is one of the least expensive workshop in Villefontaine students of the University bricks building as follows: materialsoftoStuttgart. use. Made for thousands years, adobe bricklike has remained a conBeing one of the of participants I would sistently to popular building material in hot and dry places. emphasize on how important it is to attend this work- – Soil is easily available in every community. shop for all those who are interested in earth construc- – Easy to use and construct with. The workshop was very rich in provid- – Green and sustainable. First steption wetechniques. discussed how the adobe bricks work. The adobe bricks depends ingtheinformation, experiments andstabilizing inputs. Moreover, especially mainly on cohesion, hydric action and as follows: – Highly affordable Adobe Bricksin poor countries. different stations were offered through which a person – Little waste generated material reuse. -Cohesion property: source and :Author Mud Bricksproperty To prepare the is used Starting which works when earth canthe fullyadobe be able to cohesion construct a Station whole building. dries, thefrom volume of the of clay decreases attracting to it the to otherTocomponents the physics earth, building bricks, plastering be able to build a mud brick, different methods were which are completely dry and tied. construction techniques such as rammed earth. taught – mainly the making of adobe bricks and comhnology: all one really requires is soil, water, My main focus here is to document the “Mud Brick Sta- pressed earth blocks. Both are made of different compoand. It is one of the least expensive building tion“ and try has to pass on a part of the knowledge gained sitions of materials, additives and percentages. In this s of years, adobe brick remained a con-Hydric action: through this workshop. section, n hot andearth dry places. As the absorbs water between 20% and 30, its state changes. ThereI will are 4discuss the two sub-stations.
basic states: dry – humid - plastic - liquid. The Adobe is produced in its PLASTIC state. This state enables us to shape the earth using a mould and keep its shape obe bricks work. Theuntil adobe bricks depends after de-moulding it returns to its dry state. n and stabilizing as follows: Adobe Bricks source :Author
property is used which works when earth ases attracting to it the other components -Stabilizing: water, When the earth is clayey there is an excessive risk of cracking once dry. It can be uilding corrected by: increasing the amount of sand so as to reduce cohesion or mixing awith con-straw with the aim of limiting the size of cracks.
n 20% and 30, its state changes. There are 4 iquid. The Adobe is produced in its PLASTIC epends the earth using a mould and keep its shape its dry state. Adobe Bricks Adobe Bricks
n earth onents
Mixing soil with water to reach plastic state source :IUSD student Abd El Rahman Alshorofa
Mixing Mixingsoil soilwith withwater waterto to reach reach plastic plastic state Straw Strawfor for stabilizing stabilizing source :IUSD student Abd El Rahman source :Author Alshorofa
24 — Architecture
Adobe Bricks Adobe bricks making is a simple technique: everything one really requires is soil, water, and a hole in the ground to mix it by hand. It is one of the least expensive building materials to use. Produced for thousands of years, the adobe brick has remained a consistently popular building material in hot and arid places. Firstly we discussed how the adobe bricks function, mainly depending on the cohesion, hydric action and are stabilizing as follows:
or mixing it with straw to limit the size of the cracks. Adobe brick making is mainly dependent on the percentage of the clay in the soil and the amount of water added to it, which requires the knowledge of how to prepare and test the soil. Moreover, the main advantage of the adobe bricks making process is that it is implemented on site with easy preliminary techniques that helps you decide the type of soil and thus the percentage of the ingredients.
– Soil Test – handling + smell test: With water and by touching the mixture with our hands, our senses enable us to identify the main components of the earth, where the most suitable is to find, both sandy and clayey as follows: Organic earth gives off a smell. Sandy earth is rough and – Hydric action: As the earth absorbs water between 20% not very sticky. Silty earth is fine and sticky. Clayey earth Mud Adobe brickbasic making is mainly dependent the very percentage of fine. clayBrick in soil Station and and 30, its state changes. There are four states: dry, is difficult toon break, sticky and the amount of water added, which requires knowing how to prepare and test the humid, plastic and liquid. The Adobe is produced in its soil. Moreover, the main advantage of the adobe bricks making process is that it PLASTIC state. This state enables us to shape the earth – Cigar test: It is used to test the plasticity of the soil and is implemented on site with easy preliminary techniques that helps you decide using a mould and keep its shape after demoulding until define whether it is too sandy or clayey. It is applied by the type of soil and thus the percentage of the ingredients. it returns to its dry state. The mixture then was added into adding water cm to the mixture just enough not stick to 30*30*10 clean dry mould till it isto full then the hands and moulding it on a board in a cigar form of using a flat rod to level the mixture. – Stabilizing: When the earth is clayey there is an enor- 3 cm diameter and 20 cm length. Slowly push the cigar mous risk of cracking once dry. It can be corrected by towards one edge and measure the length of the piece 15 minutes when the block is drybreaks enough, it isByremoved straight up at once increasing the amount of sand so as to later reduce cohesion which away. repeating this procedure several – Cohesion property: To prepare the adobe its cohesion property is used, which comes into play when earth dries out, the volume of the clay decreases, attracting the other components which are completely dry and tied.
from the mould to avoid any internal disruption which may cause cracks. It may e brick making is mainly dependent on to theone percentage of clay in to soil takes up week for the block beand completely dry for usage. mount of water added, which requires knowing how to prepare and test the oreover, the main advantage of the adobe bricks making process is that it Exploring site’s soil lemented on site with easy preliminary techniques that helps you decide Source: Author pe of soil and thus the percentage of the ingredients. ixture then was added into 30*30*10 cm clean dry mould till it is full then a flat rod to level the mixture.
Stabilizing th source :IUSD Alshorofa
nutes later when the block is dry enough, it is removed straight up at once he mould to avoid any internal disruption which may cause cracks. It may up to one week for the block to be completely dry for usage. Flattening the soil into the mould Handling - smell test Handling – smell test Flattening the soil into the mould source :IUSD student Abd El Rahman Alshorofa source :IUSD student Abd El Rahman Alshorofa
Cleaningthe thesoil wood mould Stabilizing with straw source :IUSD student Abd El Stabilizing the soil with straw Rahman Alshorofa source :IUSD student Abd El Rahman Alshorofa
Adobe bricks Source: Auth
25 — Earthworkshop in France (Lyon)
times and calculating the average we can identify the suitability of the soil for adobe, for which between 7 and 15 cm is good earth. The mixture was filled into a 30*30*10 cm clean and dry mould until it is full, then using a flat rod to level the mixture. 15 minutes later when the block is dry enough, it is removed straight up at once from the mould to avoid any internal disruption which may cause cracks. It may take up to one week for the block to be completely dry for usage.
ssed earthCompressed blocks “CEB” depend on high comEarth Block vacuate the air from the soil granules while the Unlike adobe bricks, which are dependent on the water lecules and straw fibre to hold the granules tomolecules and the straw fibre to hold the granules tompletely manual or mechanized.
gether, the compressed earth blocks (CEB) depend on the high compression s as it depend on humid state ofof thethe soilgranules, which which evacuate the air fromgranules the soil granules. canthe be made either comn other hand, larger are usedItfor m when airpletely is sucked fromorwithin the molecule manual mechanized. larger ones. First we discussed how the CEB function as they are deProduced CEB pend on the humid state of the soil, which means waSource:less Author up and larger granules of soil, sand and gravel ter than adobe. Larger granules are used for the smaller a sieve. This dry, screened soil were then mixed Mud Brick Station granules to depend stick on them when air is sucked from within d earth blocks “CEB” high comhand with shovels adding just on enough moisture the molecule the smaller granules stick to the larger uate the air from the soil granules while the ture content. ules and straw ones.fibre to hold the granules toetely manual mechanized. Fororthat matter, the soil is broken up and larger granules ed the mixture blocks in a handof soil,into sanduniform and gravel are removed by sifting through a
sieve. This dry, screened soil was then mixed well. The mixing can be done by hand with shovels adding just enough moisture to the mixture to achieve a 10% moisture content. We then compressed and moulded the mixture into uniform blocks in a hand-operated press. We had to take care to press the soil on the corners of the mould to get bricks with straight edges. The block will take around one week to dry. Conclusion Being an international student from Egypt, this workshop was very enriching, especially because we learned about the potentials of earth constructions in general and mud bricks in particular. The workshop wasn’t only about the techniques, but also about the physics of soil and how to test and determine the best way to prepare any soil available on site. Through this station, I was able to widen my scope on mud bricks’ knowledge and can now take this information back to my country and deal with any kind of soil.
it depend of the soil which are to press on thehumid soil onstate the corners of the mould ther larger granules areto used blockhand, will take around 1 week dry for the hen air is sucked from within the molecule ger ones.
2- Compressed Earth Block
Sifting the soil using a sieve screen sourceCEB :IUSD student Abd El Rahman Produced Alshorofa Source: Author
and larger granules of soil, sand and gravel Unlike adobe bricks, soil the were compressed earth blocks “CEB” depend on high comve. This dry, screened then mixed pression of the granules which evacuate d with shovels adding just enough moisturethe air from the soil granules while the adobe depends on the water molecules and straw fibre to hold the granules toe content. gether. It can be made either completely manual or mechanized.
First we discussed how CEB works it depend on humid state of the soil which the mixture into uniform blocks in aashandlesssoil water than adobe. omeans press the on the corners of On the other mouldhand, larger granules are used for the granules stick to ondry them when air is sucked from within the molecule cksmaller will take around to 1 week they smaller granules stick to the larger ones.
Pressing thethe soil at at thethe corners Sifting the aa sieve screen Pressing soil corners Sifting thesoil soil using using sieve screen Pilling CEB blocks together to dry source :IUSD student Abd El Rahman source :IUSD student Abd El Rahman Source: Author For that matter, the soil is broken up and larger granules of soil, sand and gravel Alshorofa Alshorofa
are removed by sifting through a sieve. This dry, screened soil were then mixed well. The mixing can be done by hand with shovels adding just enough moisture
Produced Produced CEB CEB Source: Author
26 — Architecture
Foreign Affairs Elective, SS 2013 Dipl-Ing. M.A. Christiane Fülscher, ifag
The construction of a diplomatic representation is a particular duty – for the building nation, its architect, and as well for the host country. In the first instance the offices of diplomatic representations are just platforms for the diplomatic activities. Their buildings have to satisfy the requirements of expedience and representation in a functional, economical and aesthetical way. Beyond that a new building not only serves as a protective envelope but also enjoys a special attention abroad. As the perceptible representation of a nation in a structural and material way, it reflects its society, its appreciation of state and its self-conception. At the same time it should consider local conditions, desires, and requirements of the host country, according to the rules of diplomacy. Consequently the architectural expression of newly built diplomatic representations is a relevant component to foreign affairs. In the course of the seminar we survey consulates and embassies of various nations and link them to governmental buildings of the sending and the host country. We analyse its position, volume, construction, and material. We look at the disposition and function of rooms. Thus we seek for the use of architectural elements as instruments to communicate political decisions. ●
The Representation of Egyptian Architecture in Diplomatic Buildings by Mahy Mourad Nowier “Architectural history as we know it has been written tacitly adhering to the crudest version of the paradigm of communication: all the attention has been focussed on the design of the new forms, none on their interpretation. It is time to realize, that even within the limits of the paradigm of communication, there should be a history of meaning, not only a history of forms.” – Juan Pablo Bonta The Egyptian Parliament The Egyptian parliament is a bicameral legislature; the lower house of parliament is the people’s assembly or the ‘House of Representatives’ and the upper house is the Advisory Council or ‘Shura’ council. Parliamentary life began in Egypt as early as 1866; currently the parliament complex occupies three buildings constructed in different historical periods as well as several additional buildings for services, stores and a mosque with green spaces in-between. - Lower House Building: The oldest building of the three houses is the current Advisory council; it was built in 1866 during the reign of Khedive Ismail. It consists of three floors where the first session of the Egyptian people’s assembly was held at in 1881, after that it became the permanent venue of the Advisory council since the constitution of 1923 until now. Significant modifications have been carried out to the hall at the ground floor, which currently holds the meetings of Advisory council. - Upper House Building: The current people’s assembly building was erected in 1923 to house the Egyptian parliament which was occupied before by three other venues. The building designed by an Italian architect consists of an assembly hall, the parliament museum, the library and the Pharaonic Foyer. It holds an architectural and artistic value, as it was built in the style of collection between European architectural styles in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century with
the Islamic influences in architecture and arts and has ornaments of Rococo style. - Parliamentary office Building: The ten-storey complex building was built in 1964 to increase the effectiveness of parliamentary practice. The floors where dedicated to the committees of the Council, a large parliamentary library, an information center in addition to a club for the Parliament. Located in the heart of Cairo, the Egyptian parliamentary complex lies in downtown near the epicenter of Cairo Tahrir square or ‘Midan Al-Tahrir’ and behind the American University in Cairo (AUC). The two main buildings of the parliamentary complex are semi attached through the Pharaonic Foyer. The parliament building is elongated on a main street with the main hall protruding from it and surmounted by a circular dome. The dome is the icon of the Egyptian parliament. The advisory council building is a medium mass building with four short towers at the corners in addition to the main entrance tower. The main entrance of people’s assembly building leads directly to the main hall at the ground floor, where the parliamentary sessions take place, it has 22 meters diameter and is surmounted by a dome. The hall consists of two floors with Balconies recessed from each floor over-looking the assembly hall. The Hall is also connected to the parliament museum and the parliament library which lies on the ground floor. The main hall of this council has witnessed the historic trial of Colonel Ahmed Orabi the Egyptian nationalist and leader, and the issuance of the 1923 Constitution. The first and second floors were occupied before by the Ministry of Public Works and Water Resources until 1991 when it became a part of the people’s assembly buildings. On 2008, a huge fire damaged most of the 19th century palace, which was inaugurated in 2009 after renovations. Analysis: Umberto Eco has noted that “we commonly do experience architecture as communication, even while recognizing its functionality.” This was interpreted in the Egyptian parliament building in the setting of the chairs of the representatives in the hall which came in U-shape -unlike other parliaments that have rather cir-
28 — Architecture
cular sitting arrangement- which allowed the MB’s sitting facing each other and served in means of communication to make the sessions more intense. Comparing the Egyptian parliament building complex to other parliamentary buildings in the world, it would be regarded as a very unique parliamentary building which reflects parts of the Egyptian history such as the colony era represented in the mix of the European architecture style, then later additional parts came in the pharaonic style – like the foyer – to act as a proof of the presence of Egyptian identity in architecture. The Egyptian Embassy in Berlin The Egyptian Embassy in Berlin is the official diplomatic representation of the Arab Republic of Egypt in Germany. The idea of this building dates back to the forties when two pieces of land were purchased for the purpose of building both an embassy and a residence. During World War II the diplomatic relations between Egypt and Germany were partially interrupted and it was only until 1972 when the relations were re-recorded and thus the Egyptian Embassy was, at this time, in the former German capital Bonn and a small representative office in Berlin. After the fall of the Wall and the reunification of Germany in 1990, the core of the federal government moved to Berlin and the Egyptian Embassy was drawn back to the German capital in 1999. One of the two previously purchased lands was sold to finance the construction of a new embassy building on the other piece of land at the current location of the building in Stauffenbergstraße. A closed design competition was announced in Egypt in 1998 for the new embassy in Berlin, proclaimed by the Egyptian architect Samir Rabie. After the completion of the designs, agreements and transfer processes by the end of 1999, the construction works started in 2000 and terminated in October 2001. Situated in the ‘Embassy row location’, the Egyptian embassy is currently located near the river Spree in the central downtown district of the Tiergarten in Stauffenbergstraße, which indicates that the relations between Egypt and Germany are characterized by a close collaboration nowadays. The building consists of three different levels of cubes,
which were cladded altogether from the exterior elevations by one cladding to form one unit and appear as a cuboid. The whole building is divided by vertical bands of windows. The main part of the facade is windowless and is framed by a polished stone-milled into the surface relief. Wavy lines at the bottom symbolize the Nile, from which lotus plants as a symbol of Upper Egypt and papyrus grass as a symbol of Lower Egypt arise. At the entrance level of the embassy a double height foyer right behind the entrance leads to the inner courtyard at the center of the building, through two big columns where the consulate is located. On the first floor there are offices and administrative areas and the last floor is dedicated to residence. The courtyard is designed to resemble the entrance of an old Egyptian Pharaonic temple with pillars, wall drawings and encryptions, it is covered by a glass roof with steel bars in between. Analysis: The idea that architecture can be understood by analogy to language, was clearly noticed in the Egyptian embassy building, either as ‘codes’ that the architect used to communicate his intentions to the users – such as the symbols of the Nile, Papyrus and Lotus – or the architectural characters that he used, from the ‘General’ character, represented in the Egyptian pharaonic style, to the ‘Type’ character, as the icons used in the building and finally the ‘Specific’ character, as the location of the building in the central downtown district of Berlin. In this context, the building could be regarded as a success in being able to recognize the pharaonic Egyptian representation in the building once you see it. On the other hand you could say that the building is not interpreting nor representing the Egyptian architecture on the materialistic and functional level as well as on the aesthetic level, unlike the ancient Egyptian architecture, where the form always follows the function and the building proportions follows golden ratios and other aesthetic proportions. The material used is a natural Egyptian stone and every architectural character used serves a certain function and reflects certain meanings. Furthermore, the building came quit of the surrounding context and appears as if not fitting in.
29 — Foreign Affairs
The German Embassy in Cairo The first representation of Germany in Cairo was in the year 1952, when the German Embassy was located in the Isis Building in the Garden City district of Cairo. In 1955 the embassy was relocated to Dokki district in Boulos Hanna St. and finally the Federal Republic bought a 6250 sqm big plot at the end of the 1970s, where the current embassy was built on. The two-storey building was built in 1982 by the architects Novotny, Mahner & Associates who started the design in 1974. The building is hosting both the residence, embassy and consulates and also a garden space. The building is located on the Nile island of Zamalek [the island is located between downtown Cairo and Giza] in the heart of Cairo, hosting most of the embassies. The German embassy located on Berlin Street lies between the Aquarium park and the Nigerian embassy, back to back with Gezira sporting club. The volume of the embassy consists of two separate buildings, the residence house and the offices, elongated on Hassan Pasha Sabry St. and graduated in height with terraces of maximum two storeys above the ground floor. Those terraces are a transition to the green area in front of the residence building. The ground floor of the residence building is supported by pillars framed with beams to insure ventilation of the inner yard. It hosts the entrance hall and the visitors section while the first floor is for private living. Moving to the separated office building next to the residence building, the main entrance leads to the entrance hall which lies beside the public area [passport and consulate]. While the basement floor contains technical and secondary rooms; the upper two floors host the rest of the embassy’s departments. Analysis: Both countries’ embassies were designed and constructed especially for the purpose of representation, unlike other countries embassies which might be rented or purched in existing buildings. In the fall of 2003 the former Hassan Sabri St. in Zamalek district was renamed Berlin St., which is another evidence of the strong collaboration between both countries. The architectural style of the building came in an industrial style, which is not far from the German architectural
style at the time it was built. Although it is still not the same style as the architecture of Zamalek, yet it still fits quite well in the context. Comparative Analyses & Conclusion Regarding their orientation in the city the three buildings have very good intermediate locations in the center of both, Cairo and Berlin. Both embassies are located respectively in the embassy districts of Berlin and Cairo. This indicates the good political relations between Egypt and Germany, which are characterized by intensive cooperation and exchange of high level. Regarding the architectural styles, the Egyptian parliament building came in an ‘Eclectic’ style that combines different European styles together with the Pharaonic style; which reflects the conflict of (post)colonial Egypt quite clear. The Egyptian embassy in Berlin came quite bold in a clear Pharaonic style that was interpreted on the form level only through some additive details which don’t reflect, match or regard the function or the aesthetic attributes; this doesn’t reflect the exact state of Egyptian architecture past nor present. While the industrial/international style of the German embassy in Cairo is not that far from German architecture at the time it was built. The representation of diplomatic buildings, specially embassies, in other countries should be regarded as a method to represent the countries own values, messages as well as architectural style; and thus, the design of these buildings should be approached carefully as it is the image and message that each country delivers to the world. References: Botschaften In Berlin. Journal Bauverwaltung, 1983. Bibliography Umberto Eco, "Function and Sign: The Semiotics of Architecture," in Rethinking Architecture, ed. Neil Leach (London: Routledge, 1997), 182. The Architecture of Parliaments: Legislative Houses and Political
Culture Author(s): Charles T. Goodsell, 1988. (Goodsell, 2013). How Do Buildings Mean? Some Issues of Interpretation in the History of Architecture Author(s): William Whyte, 2006. http://www.egyptian-embassy. de/ http://www.kairo.diplo.de/ http://www.wikipedia.org/ http:// commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ Main_Page
02 â€” Urban Planning
32 â€” Urban Planning
Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management, Urban Planning I Core Module, WS 2012/13 Prof. Dr. Philipp Misselwitz, SI Dr. Nina Gribat, SI
In Urban Planning I different theoretical approaches to cities, environment, social issues and to the practice of urban and regional planning itself are introduced. The module aims to make students reflect critically on urban policy-making, urban and regional planning and urban management. In highlighting how different theoretical approaches inform planning practices (and vice versa) the module demonstrates that theoretical and practical approaches to planning are closely interlinked. Furthermore, the module draws attention to the dangers of uncritically transferring theories or practices to different urban contexts (e.g. global north to global south; or growing city to shrinking city). Practical constraints of relying on best practice methodologies (and mainstream urban theories) are highlighted. For their assessment, students were asked to write essays that deal with a selected theoretical concern of this course in a chosen case study area. â—?
34 — Urban Planning
Efficient Slum Upgrading Measurements – The
A Suitable Favela Upgrading Measurement?
Case of Rio de Janeiro’s Gondola Teleférico do Complexo do Alemão
For a long time informality was perceived as the “other” to formal planning, Respectively it has been regarded as “uncontrolled problem” and dismissed as illegitimate urban form (Porter et al., 2011, p. 116). “Dealing with informality” as Roy states, “requires recognizing the right to the city” and to respect informality as state of exception. This change in mind-set significantly brings forth the concept of slum intervention by means of upgrading (Roy, 2005, pp. 147–148). In Rio de Janeiro the Favela Bairro program was implemented in the 1990s. The program, financed by the Inter-American Development Bank, targets to transform informal areas (favelas) into officially recognized neighbourhoods (bairros) (Roy, 2005, p. 150). As part of the city’s overall upgrading policy the Teleférico do Complexo do Alemão, an investment of US$ 133, was implemented in 2011 (Kloeckl, 2012, p. 7; Maresch, 2011). Alemão is one of the largest favelas, located on the northern hillsides of Rio de Janeiro, coexisting in a state of exclusion from the rest of the formal city. Major reason for this exclusion depicted the lack of transportation infrastructure, such as public transport and proper streets (Kloeckl, 2012, p. 7). The Teleférico do Alemão is intended to serve as agent of inclusion. Inclusion by providing proper transportation and at the same time establishing public commodities, that foster community development (Gondolaproject 2013; Ponce 2011).
by Franziska Turber Introduction Though having a booming economy Rio de Janeiro faces major difficulties, as wealth is distributed significantly unequal within the city. High income differences cause significant parts of Rio’s inhabitants to live in poverty, mainly in informal settlements, the so called favelas (Winder, 2012, p. 34). According to UN Habitat rapid urbanization, poverty and informality are major challenges of the 21st century (UN-Habitat 2009, xxiv). While former policies targeted to eradicate or relocate informal settlements to the urban periphery, today’s paradigm emphasises the importance of “enablement”. Respectively the necessity to establish effective upgrading measurements is increasingly perceived as common sense (Roy, 2005, p. 150). Upgrading measurements that recently gained popularity, especially in Latin America, are gondola systems between formal and informal areas of the city. These projects are praised to literally “lift” marginalized informal areas, by serving as spatial, social and economic integrator (Kloeckl, 2012, p. 7). In the following the newly implemented gondola system Teleférico do Complexo do Alemão in Rio de Janeiro will be closely examined. After a brief project description and its general context, the research question whether the Teleférico can be considered as upgrading measurement will be examined. Therefore its impact in providing mobility will be analyzed: First in terms of its potential to foster urban inclusion, second regarding its effect on structural change – spatially as well as economically. Moreover the gondola system will be analyzed in regard to its effect as urban acupuncture tool and thus its potential to foster community development.
The Gondola as Provider of Mobility + Inclusion The provision of proper infrastructure represents an integral part of overall slum upgrading policies (Silva, 2002, p. 4). According to the WBCSD Sustainable Mobility report 2030, sustainable mobility is defined as “the ability to meet the needs of a society to move freely, gain access, communicate, trade and establish relationships without sacrificing human or ecological values today or in the future” (“Mobility 2030,” 2004, p. 131). In order to participate in the formal life of the city, the dwellers of Alemão had to accept long, arduous walks, up to 50 minutes at its farthest distance. Six stations now connect the barrio of San Augustin to the city center of Rio de Janeiro, covering the distance in 16 minutes. There
35 — Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management, Urban Planning I
the gondola is connected to the wider public transport system of the city. The system facilitates commuting in large extent. With 152 cabins fitting ten people each, the gondola manages to carry three thousand passengers per hour (Jauregui, 2011; Ponce, 2011). Combined with the policy of providing transportation subvention for residents of the favela, the Teleférico intends to narrow the “mobility opportunity divide” (Jauregui 2013; Germani et al., 2012). Providing transportation of people, goods and information can be seen as crucial driver for inclusion – spatially, socially and economically (Kloeckl. 2009, p. 7; Germani et al., 2012, p. 7). A suitable upgrading measurement, as mentioned above, respects the informal as state of exception and respectively its inherent structures. External physical and policy interventions have effect on the overall structure of the area (Roy, 2005, pp. 147–148). In the following the effects of the gondola in terms of structural maintenance and upgrading will be examined. Changes in Spatial Structure In terms of spatial structures, physical interventions have to be minimal invasive, maintaining the existing structure at its best. Setting up transportation infrastructure in the densely structured Complexo do Alemão was challenging (DAC & Cities 2012). Regarding alternatives, such as road construction, the gondola is estimated to have the least impact on Alemão’s spatial conditions (DAC & Cities 2012). Though the implementation of the project causes less damage it does not consequently mean it is minimal invasive. The construction of the project affected the demolition of about 900 houses (Ponce 2011). This in many cases means violating individual interest for overall community interest, which is access to mobility for about 120.000 residents of Alemão. A further aspect, that has to be considered is the way compensation is ensured for affected families. Affected families are aimed to be compensated with new housing and there is by now no information about potential transgressions regarding unmet promises (DAC & Cities 2012; Jauregui 2013).
Changes in the Economic Structure – The effect on the Micro-Capitalism of Informality Besides its physical impact, the gondola further initiates major economical changes (Kloeckl. 2009, p. 7). According to Roy, there is a growing recognition of informal modes, such as informal work, as significant contributors to urban economies. Informal areas can be regarded as functioning ecosystems, consisting of various micro entrepreneurs, that other than De Soto’s point of view are “independent” from the formal (Roy, 2005, pp. 148-150). The implementation of the gondola impacts this local ecosystem. Taking informal transportation businesses as an example: The provision of more efficient formal modes of transport might threaten their business. As informal services are prone to be flexible, informal transportation businesses learned to adapt to the changing situation. These now tie up with the public transportation. The various gondola stations provide suitable places for them, to offer their service in addition to public transportation (Ponce 2011). The distribution of wealth: The gondola, besides its impact on local informal businesses, might lead to further overall economic changes. Winter (2012) assumes that a dense network of well connected gondola stations might in the course of time foster mutual adjustment of wealth and at a certain point even reach equilibrium, if no factors, such as additionally added wealth, influence the system. Respectively wealth will be distributed from more prosperous parts of the city to Alemão, as now properly connected area (Winder et al, 2012, p. 38). The Gondola as Urban Acupuncture Measurement Besides its function as provider of mobility, the gondola project aims to foster community development, by conceptualizing the areas around the stations as acupuncture points. The concept of urban acupuncture is mainly coined by Spanish architect Solà-Morales and former major of Curitiba Jaime Lerner. Latest as well played a major role as consultant for the Favela Bairro project (Solà-Morales 1999; Lerner 2007). According to SolàMorales (1999), urban acupuncture implies “interven-
36 — Urban Planning
tions at crucial points provoking comprehensive reactions” in an area he refers to as organism (Solà-Morales 1999, p. 82). In the case of Alemão these interventions are the establishment of basic social services, such as job training, education, medical and legal services as well as amenities such as recreation areas (Jauregui 2013; Ponce 2011). Lerner (2007) further indicates, that effective interventions have to be shaped according to the needs of the community (Lerner 2007). As Alemão severely lacks basic services, the provision of those certainly meets the community’s needs. Instead, the beneficial effect of public recreation areas has to be analyzed critically. Such locations of recreation in general attract people form outside to visit the favela (Silva, 2002, p. 4). Jauregui, architect of the gondola project, emphasizes the intention to represent “a tangible and symbolic connection between the favelas and the rest of Rio” (Jauregui 2013). Nevertheless these areas might run into danger to be discounted as tourist attraction, missing to meet the actual needs of the local community. Nevertheless there is no information available in which extent the local community of Alemão accepts the created public spaces. A project analysis in terms of community involvement might give implications, whether community needs are likely to be met. The Planning and Execution of the Project – A Participatory Approach? In order to effectively improve living conditions in favelas, projects intended for the community should as well be planned and implemented in a community participatory way. Otherwise measurements might fail their target and be dismissed as what Roy refers to as “aestheticization of poverty” (Roy, 2005, p. 150). In Brazil the strengthening of democratic processes leads to increased possibilities to express societal concerns, meaning the inclusion of society in formal discussions on policy measurements. This is especially the case when it comes to projects of substantial environmental impact. Nevertheless in terms of transport issues top down approaches are still commonplace (Germani et al, p. 27). The gondola of Alemão claims to focus on local commu-
nity needs (Jauregui 2013). Nevertheless the project is part of the government flagship infrastructure program and though as well part of the Favela Bairro program, it seems organized in a top down manner (Maresch 2011; Smale 2013). According to Roy besides the technical access of infrastructure, the political process of its implementation is equally important. Knowledge about real slum upgrading strategies may come to major extent from the residents of informal settlements itself (Roy 2005, p.152). A best case in terms of community participatory planning depicts a similar project in Caracas. Urban-Think Tank (U-TT) planned a cable car system in a bottom-up approach, involving experts and local barrio leaders from the very first moment (Urban-Think Tank 2013). The Gondola – An Evaluation Tool for Overall Slum Upgrading Measurements In order to derive suitable upgrading measurements, authorities rely on data. Collecting data, in particular smart data, regarding informal areas is challenging. Nevertheless Winder, researcher at the MIT Senseable City Lab, exhibits an effective way of collecting data (Answar et al., 2012). The Bilethe Unico, a metro smart card, which is necessary for accessing the transportation system of the city, is constantly emitting real-time data (Komnios 2012, p. 22). According to Winder, these data about a vast network of trips can be transformed in information about distribution of wealth throughout the city. A traveller, by earning and spending money while moving through the transportation network, transfers respectively wealth between the economies of his or her origin and destination. Using the accumulated travel data allows to track economic progress in closed communities of wealth, such as Alemão. This gives implications on the efficiency of upgrading policies there and respectively enables authorities to reflect and adapt those if necessary. Subsumed, the gondola system serves besides its function as upgrading measurement itself, as an instrument to evaluate overall slum upgrading strategies, by means of data collection. (Winder 2012, p. 37).
37 — Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management, Urban Planning I
Conclusion An isolated consideration of the potential of the gondola as a suitable upgrading measurement is difficult, as it depicts one within a set of many measurements of Rio’s overall upgrading policy. In regard of upcoming events such as the World Cup in 2014 and the Olympic Games in 2016, Rio vigorously pushes forward a number of upgrading measurements in favelas (DAC & Cities 2012). Keeping this in mind, the expensive high tech gondola project might to some extent seem more like a prestigious rather than solely efficient transportation facility. In the urgency of the upcoming events, the project has been executed in a rapid process, that partly suffers sustainable proceeding: Obviously the gondola improved the transportation situation in Alemão to large extent. Setting the physical base for connection does not necessarily result in inclusion itself. Therefore it was reasonable to further combine the gondola project with community development measurements around the stations. As the community co-determination in the creation of these additional measurements is questionable, time will reveal the community’s acceptance towards those and thus its impact on the wider area. Though the sustainability of the spatial intervention, causing demolition of many houses, is questionable, the overall economic changes are promising. Nevertheless it facilitates the participation in the formal job market of Rio de Janeiro for many. The now properly connected area of Alemão is expected to experience economical adjustment to the formal part of the city. Though this means increased wealth for many residents of the favela, probable gentrification effects might affect the most vulnerable of the poor. Regarding this reflection, providing a general answer to the research question, whether the gondola is a suitable upgrading tool, is difficult and in large extent dependent on the attitude towards informality and the perception of “upgrading” itself. The interpretation of upgrading in the case of the gondola project of Alemão implicated to a certain extent the violation against its existing ecosystem, in order to create inclusion of the formal to the informal. Whether this is the right approach will be shown in the future.
References Answar, A., Gordon, J., Komnios, A., Barone Lumaga, M., Silvester, K., Winder, J. I., & Radoman, S. (2012). Rio de Janeiro – 2 SENSEable City Guide. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology. DAC & Cities (2012) Rio de Janeiro: The Gondola opens up the Favela. Available at: http://www.dac.dk/en/daccities/sustainable-cities-2/ all-cases/transport/rio-de-janeiro-the-gondola-opens-up-thefavela/?bbredirect=true (Accessed February 10, 2012) Germani, E., Alcantara de Vasconcellos, E., Branco, G. M., Alvim, B. G., & Kohl, V. R. (2009). Mobility for development. World Business Council for Sustainable Development. Jauregui, J. (2013) Gondola in Complexo do Alemao Favelas. Available at: http://www.jauregui.arq.br/ teleferico.html (Accessed February 7, 2012) Lerner, J. (2007) Jaime Lerner besingt die Stadt. Available at: http://www.ted.com/talks/jaime_ lerner_sings_of_the_city.html (Accessed February 12, 2012) Maresch, P. (2011) Gondola in Complexo do Alemao Favelas. Available at: http://riotimesonline.com/ brazil-news/front-page/gondolain-complexo-do-alemao-favelas/ (Accessed February 15, 2012) Mobility 2030. (2004).World Business Council for Sustainable Development.
Ponce, L., Cable Car System Crowns Urban Revitalization Project in Rio de Janeiro's Alemão Favelas. Available at: http://inhabitat.com/cablecar-system-crowns-urban-revitalization-project-in-rio-dejaneiros-alemao-favela-complex/ (Accessed February 17, 2012) Porter, L., Lombard, M., Huxley, M., Ingin, A. K., Islam, T., Briggs, J., Rukmana, D., et al. (2011). Informality, the Commons and the Paradoxes for Planning. Planning Theory & Practice, 12(1). Roy, A. (2005). Urban Informality. Journal of the American Planning Association, 71(2). Silva, E. (2002). Interpreting Design Knowledge through Latin American Slum Upgrading Efforts. Harvard University Graduate School of Design. Smale, W. (2013). Rio's Shanty Towns spread their Wings. Available at: http://www.bbc. co.uk/news/business-20582470 (Accessed February 18, 2012) The Gondola Project (2011), Teleférico do Alemão. Available at: http://gondolaproject.com/ wp-content/uploads/2011/11/WCrioalemao.pdf (Accessed February 16, 2012) Urban Think Tank (2013) Metro Cable. Available at: http://u-tt. com/projects_Metrocable.html (Accessed February 17, 2012) UN-Habitat (2009). Planning Sustainable Cities: Global Report on Human Settlements.
38 â€” Urban Planning
Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management, Urban Planning II Core Module, SS 2013 Vertr. Prof. Dr. Nina Gribat, SI Dipl.-Ing. M.A. Sandra Meireis M.Arch. Marisol Rivas Velasquez
Urban and planning theory may sometimes seem a little abstract and detached from concerns in planning practice. This course aims to show how theoretical concerns underpin practice in focusing on urban development projects that target social, environmental, or economic sustainability, both in the global north and south. The course is based on a case study approach. In the first phase, students are required to critically analyse different urban development approaches of different real-word projects regarding social, environmental and economical issues of sustainability. In the second phase, they develop suitable strategies to enhance certain aspects of sustainability in the case study area. In both phases, the analyses and the preparation of strategic urban development concepts follows a structured approach to which students are introduced at the beginning of the term. In addition, students receive course materials, which form the starting points for their analyses and interventions. Case study areas are selected based on different urban development and planning approaches, spanning from urban upgrading approaches of existing areas to the construction of new quarters or towns, but also including non-building approaches. â—?
IMPROVE YOUR LOT – Phase I Introduction FORMATION OF NEW VILLAGES – Phase II In recent years Detroit has become known as a paradigm for industrial deIntroduction
Detroit: Vacant Land development. Berry, D., 2006. Detroit: Opendevelopment City. Princeton University. Detroit: Vacant Land –
Berry, D., 2006, Detroit: Open City, Princeton University
Detroit: Vacant Land development. Berry, D., 2006. Detroit: Open City. Princeton University.
Detroit: Empty Lots; Photo: Alex MacLean
Detroit: Empty Lots; Photo: Alex MacLean
Detroit: Empty Lots – Photo: Alex MacLean
cline and urban shrinkage. Detroit, once the fastest growing city within the United States is Detroit now experiencing the dark side overexposure toKrupp, an ecoFranziska Turber, Nuha Lucas Inby recent years has become known asInnab, a of paradigm for industrial denomic monoculture. This decline hasonce led to a number of problems of economcline and urban shrinkage. Detroit, the fastest growing city within the Daniel Koschorrek ic, socialStates and environmental nature.the dark side of overexposure to an ecoUnited is now experiencing Detroit has lately become topic ofhas debate amongst urban scholars. of Academic nomic monoculture. Thisadecline led to a number of problems economopinions on Detroit vary become widely fromknown unstoppable decline recent years for Detroit has as aurban paradigm ic,In social andsolutions environmental nature. to heroichas metropolitan revivals. Detroit lately become a topic of debate amongst urban scholars. Academic for industrial de-cline and urban shrinkage. Detroit, In this context our analysis is based primarily theunstoppable proposal of the New opinions on solutions for Detroit vary widely on from urban decline once the fastestrevivals. growing city office within the Partners, Unitedfirst States York based interdisciplinary urban design Interboro to heroic metropolitan published in a paper titled „Improve your lot!“. on In analysis we now experiencing dark side ofour overexposure to the an Inisthis context our analysis isthe based primarily the proposal of discuss the New effects of theinterdisciplinary „Improve your lot“ proposal inoffice termsInterboro of ecologic, economic and York based urban design Partners, first economic monoculture. This decline has led to a number social sustainability an urban planning shortpublished in a paperintitled „Improve yourcontext lot!“. Inand ourhighlight analysis critical we discuss the comings the proposal. of problems of economic, social and of environmental effects ofofthe „Improve your lot“ proposal in terms ecologic, economicnaand In part two of this report we propose a new strategy to overcome these shortsocial sustainability in an urban planning context and highlight critical shortture. comings comings of the proposal. Detroit Detroit - Lifehas and lately Death become a topic of debate amongst urIn part two of this report we propose a new strategy to overcome these shortEven the car industry settled in Detroit at beginning of theDetroit 20th banbefore scholars. Academic opinions onthe solutions for comings century, Detroit was a booming trade city. Due to its geographic location on Detroit Life and Death vary -widely from unstoppable urban decline to heroic the Detroit river, it formed an ideal hub for trading goods. 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With high oil prices and increasWith more then 65000 vacant andPartners, deteriorating homes, a tremendous design office Interboro first published in budget a paing competition from emerging markets, Detroit has been shaken in its core deficit, an ill-functioning real estate market and plummeting property prices, per titled „Improve your lot!“. In our analysis we discuss structure. the city and most of all its residence face many challenges. What is a city withWith more then 65000 and deteriorating homes, a tremendous budget the effects of threads thevacant „Improve your lot“ proposal in terms out residents? What and opportunities are Detroit‘s residents facing deficit, an ill-functioning real estate market and plummeting property prices, inof their daily life? What is a vision for Detroit‘s future? ecological, economic and social sustainability in an the city and most of all its residence face many challenges. What is a city withOur poroposal for a new urban strategy of autonomy for Detroit overcomes urban planning context and highlight criticalresidents shortcomout residents? What threads and opportunities are Detroit‘s facing the often idealized “romanticist urban revival” which might in effect lead to a inings their daily life? What is a vision for Detroit‘s future? of the In part two of this report we promore liveable cityproposal. for Detroits remaining inhabitants. Our poroposal for a new urban strategy of autonomy for Detroit overcomes pose a new strategy to overcome these shortcomings. the often idealized “romanticist urban revival” which might in effect lead to a more liveable city for Detroits remaining inhabitants.
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QRSURSHULQYHVWPHQWLQFHQWLYH GXH ther WRXQFHUWDLQW\RIRZQHUVKLS OLPLWIXWXUHDFFHVVE\FKDQJLQJÂłJHnew usages. WRXQFHUWDLQW\RIRZQHUVKLS OLPLWIXWXUHDFFHVVE\FKDQJLQJÂłJHâ€˘ city vs. private ownership QHWLFFRGHÂ´SORWVWUXFWXUH
more private ownership initiatives city ownership initiatives or the remaining 701.000 (2012). Regarding blotting: Blotting makes long termPLJKWFKDQJHÂłJHQHWLFFRGHÂ´SORW efQHWLFFRGHÂ´SORWVWUXFWXUH
PLJKWFKDQJHÂłJHQHWLFFRGHÂ´SORW VWUXFWXUH VWUXFWXUH â€˘ d of Ecological 200 $ Claim When actor of was involved which is the state, ruraloffersystem low efficiency of infrastructure vs another urban (mode rollback urbanism?) â€˘â€˘ rural
erfonfronted with a lack of moneying to actively environmental sustainable measpeople toengage buy theinvacant lots for 200$, made it easier natural human intervention human â€˘â€˘ rural vs vs. urban (mode of rollback urbanism?) d infor people to expand, especially those who were worried on rary a legalvs. base, to occupy land that itâ€™s not their own, but now â€˘ natural human intervention
they can officially use it. Sustainability Criteria
rural system ? human
urban density high efficiency natural urban density econnatural
ecol soc Actors Social Project Asessment The actors of the â€žnew suburbanismâ€œ can be classified into individualism community â€˘ individualism â€œ sections. Firstly the owners and neighbours that are diultural mix should be seen astwo crucial forvs. thecommunity community. Thus a sustainable initia(Patterns of the unplanned, Urban Catalyst) ve to rectly changing the situation on the plot; secondly the instictively contribute to that development. (compare Hopwood et al: Sustainable social homogeneity social mix â€˘ social homogenity vs. socialB.mix cant tutions such as land bank, municipality and planning de? (Philipp...) cultural homogeneity cultural mix â€˘ cultural homogenity cultural mix ome partment which arevs. either the political power or the policy SWOT ? ng or makers in a long termtoperspective. exclusive access access for all â€˘ access for interfering all vs. exclusive access land yners in order to establish of a strong sense of community itself (compare E. Ostrom: Strength ? Weakness heanCommons). As mentioned before the blotting system works on a very individual Criteria of Sustainability - tendency of unhinging the usual nature of access: rich and - non-organization in the community (individualism) causes When r extraordinary to space social exchangeof nor to community it-of ownership stability instability â€˘ access stability vs. instability ownership system organization poor contributing can equally inefficient land use (everybody has a playground on its own). was --> distribution of (temporary) ownership according to SWOT ownership formal ownership â€˘ formal vs. informal ownership of plots -informal does not have a positive effect on social and cultural individual initiative. (De Soto ... Davidoff....) heterogenity, but has a preserving character. - Strength use and maintenance of otherwise unused space â€˘ Weakness â€œi.e. - good system to keep themultiple city livelyplaygrounds next to each otherâ€? - tendency of unhinging the usual nature of access: rich and - self-healing mechanism the citys spatial infrastructure poor can equally accessof space --> distribution of (temporary) - rural experience though living inownership the city according to individual initiative. - use and maintenance of otherwise unused space
- non-organization in the community (individualism) causes inefficient land use (everybody has a playground on its own). - does not have a positive effect on social and cultural heterogenity, but has a preserving character.
- good system to keep the city lively - self-healing mechanism of the citys spatial infrastructure - rural experience though living in the city
- a set of new programs target the ÂŤformalization of blottingÂť. --> encourage blotters to dare further investment on their occupied spaces. - big investors are not attracted to the spaces: no competition concerning the blots enables free activity as self oriented entrepreneurs for blotters. - a set of new programs target the ÂŤformalization of blottingÂť. --> encourage blotters to dare further investment on their occupied spaces. - big investors are not attracted to the spaces: no competition concerning the blots enables free activity as self oriented entrepreneurs for blotters.
- short term orientation but long term changes in the genetic code of the city with unforseen consequences - inflexibility for efficient city planning in the future - city of long distances: requirement of cars and consequently causes CO2 emissions. - short term orientation but long term changes in the genetic code of the city with unforseen consequences - inflexibility for efficient city planning in the future - city of long distances: requirement of cars and consequently causes CO2 emissions.
SWOT analysis â€“ Strenght, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat 4
41 — Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management, Urban Planning II
Detroit – Life and Death Even before the car industry settled in Detroit at the beginning of the 20th century, Detroit was a booming trade city. Due to its geographic location on the Detroit river, it formed an ideal hub for trading goods. The city expanded rapidly in parallel to a booming car industry which came to an abrupt stop with the 1973 oil crisis. With high oil prices and increasing competition from emerging markets, Detroit has been shaken in its core structure. With more then 65.000 vacant and deteriorating homes, a tremendous budget deficit, an ill-functioning real estate market and plummeting property prices, the city and most of all its residence face many challenges. What is a city without residents? What threads and opportunities are Detroit‘s residents facing in their daily life? What is a vision for Detroit‘s future? Our proposal for a new urban strategy of autonomy for Detroit overcomes the often idealized “romanticist urban revival” which might in effect lead to a more liveable city for Detroits remaining inhabitants. IMPROVE YOUR LOT – Report Phase I New Sub-urbanism What does it mean when industrial cities return to nature, like parts of inner Detroit did? Does this mean the end of urbanism as we know it, and will a new urban formation emerge from these exurban spaces? (Park, 2004) In the article about Detroit as a shrinking city, Kyong Park asks another question: if shrinking cities like Detroit are somehow introducing another kind of preservation. But what kind of preservation does it offer, more likely it‘s a way to maintain the situation as it is for a longer period of time, rather than preserving and upgrading. From occupied lots, using the whole capacity of the block, to a perforated density, in order to make use of these vacant lands, interested individuals, started to expand their properties, by building new temporary structures, or by adding new usages to what they already have, using the neighboring vacant lots as the expansion of their own.
“BLOT” Concept In the attempt to understand what is happening in Detroit, we have to understand the spatial configuration, and the ownership of these vacant lots, transforming into expanded „blots“ taking more than one lot in some cases. Cases range from temporal usage by borrowing land for gardening or vegetation to building new structures. Since it is hard to track the owners of the lots in most cases, temporariness comes as an easy and fast answer and usually people who occupy have a beneficial use in mind. When these actions grew with time, becoming more like a pattern, the state started to get involved, offering buyers a lot for 200$. Sustainability Criteria The concept of sustainable urban development is based on social, economical and ecological sustainability. These three dimensions inherit contradictions and therefore need to be balanced out to find a sustainable development concept (Campbell, 1996). The developed proposal of Interboro was classified and assessed according to the dimensions of sustainable urban development social, economical and ecological and respective sub-indicators. Detroit has now officially declared bankruptcy. Hence the aspect of economical sustainable development is more important than ever. Self-initiative is for example a crucial aspect and blotting highly relies on that. The quality of this self-initiative is however questionable, mainly due to unclear ownership claims, that discourage from proper investment in blots. To the most extent selfinitiative concerns the individual, less the community or the city perspective. Nevertheless there might be more efficient alternatives to canalize the resident’s engagement (cf. E. Ostrom: Governing the Commons) – alternatives based on community initiative, that properly target current challenges and systematically enable Detroit to gain ground again. Detroit is known for its low density spatial structure. With the economic decline the spatial density consequently decreased even more. Consequently the city’s public service infrastructure runs inefficient and at high costs, as the system for formerly 1.8 mio.
42 — Urban Planning
Shifting Responsibility As mentioned before the villages are testing labs, specializing on innovative, simplyfied public services. The motivation to create successful public service innovations roots in the need for further ensuring working basic services, as the city will increasingly face difficulties in providing those properly. Ideally this concept generates a network of inovative hubs, each specialized on a particular basic public service. For the planning and implementation of the service, the innovative villages can rely on advisory teams, consisting of experts from relevant fields. Those are crucial for creating a successful public service. Even if the innovation might be theoretically sound, its applicability still has to be proven and refined in an iterative process. The idea of starting the public service innovation on village scale rather than imposing the concept on the entire city, is as mentioned before to step by step enable the villages to act self-organized. The villages are taking over the responsibilities form an overstrained, bankrupt central municipality. Another major aspect is to diversify in order to mitigate the risk of overall failure. A service concept is implemented and refined in one village at a time. After its applicability is successfully proven the concept is meant to be spread with either merging with adjacent villages or generally transferring the knowledge to further interested villages - traded or ideally in a bilateral way. For example village A develops a waste disposal system, while village B develops a simplyfied sewage system. Both can exchange their knowledge and benefit from it.
formation of new villages Shift village of responsibilities council
From the development of a simplified public service, as well as knowledge trade, the village council increases its budget, which is used to foster community initiatives, such as “quality” blotting as well as various grassroot initiatives.
How? the villages are to be considered as organizational districts and determined by the city council
The interests of the various villages are represented by village councils elected by the residents of the district city council
Each village council has the possibility to co-operate with an advisory team and together work on a proposal for a selfinitiated public service. The districts develop to testing labs and in best case evolve to a local hub of expertise in a certain ﬁeld.
Overall Public Service and Budget Strategy New villages with new autonomies
village Transition of Responsibility According to the proposal, the city subsequently breaks down this part of the public service infrastructure in the village city council services
Formation of new villages – shifting responsibilities
The budget spent for the public service infrastructure for this district before, will now be a direct investment for this village.
43 — Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management, Urban Planning II
(1950) has to be equally maintained for the remaining 701.000 (2012). Regarding blotting: Blotting makes long term efficient city planning and densification difficult. Detroit is confronted with a lack of money to actively engage in environmental sustainable measurements. It is additionally confronted with the inefficient infrastructure system mentioned before, which comes along with negative ecological effects. Effective ecological sustainable development should take an efficient operation of the infrastructure into consideration. Social and cultural mix should be seen as crucial for the community. Thus a sustainable initiative has to actively contribute to that development. (cf. B. Hopwood et al: Sustainable development: mapping different approaches, p. 47; L. Sandercock: When Strangers become Neighbours, p. 14ff). Furthermore it ideally has to foster the coordination of resources within a community in order to establish of a strong sense of community itself (cf. E. Ostrom: Governing the Commons). As mentioned before the blotting system works on a very individual base, neither extraordinary contributing to social exchange nor to community organization itself.
The strategy proposes breaking down infrastructure and shifting the responsibility to smaller administrative structures. Formation of new villages In order to achieve this, “new villages” have to be formed and village councils have to be established who then take responsibility for a certain service infrastructure (see example). The interests of the villagers are represented by village councils which are elected by the villagers. The villages are to be considered as organizational districts, determined by the city council. These villages can gain more autonomy and independence, financially and organizationally. They are increasingly emancipating from the municipality by self-initiative in particular by taking responsibility for the public service infrastructure. A crucial part of the down-scaling is the creation of innovative labs on village scale that are creating a community based public infrastructure management system. The process of implementing these management systems is facilitated and advised by an expert team, which supports every village.
FORMATION OF NEW VILLAGES Report Phase II In the previous phase the urban dynamics considering the “Blotting” phenomenon based on the proposal of Interboro were shown and individual blotting strategies evolving in this framework were highlighted and reflected on. Based on the analysis a strategy was developed in the second phase. The project approaches different levels, reaching from political processes on town level to the enabling of grassroot initiatives. Also different sectors are considered e.g. service infrastructure, social infrastructure and city budgeting. Overall Strategies Detroit lost a great part of its inhabitants and the large service infrastructure is now being maintained at relatively high costs. The city needs to find solutions to simplify the infrastructure in order to ensure financing.
Saving strategy The decentralization of responsibilities and simplification of the public service infrastructure will decrease the expenditures of the municipality. To give an example: If 90% of the expenditures are saved, 45% can be transferred directly to the village whilst the rest is saving (percentage values are sample values). On the village level the more efficient management of the public service infrastructure will provide the village with a surplus that can be used for initiatives (see page 9) to improve the livelihood of the community. Shifting Responsibility As mentioned before the villages are testing labs, specializing on innovative, simplified public services. The motivation to create successful public service innovations roots in the need for further ensuring working basic services, as the city will increasingly face difficulties
44 — Urban Planning
Example The Village village claims claim that they want The they want to to focus communitybased based waste focus in in community waste management. management.
seperating the garbage
waste land main collecting point
transportation from the main collecting point by the city initiatives the organic waste can be used by the quality blotting initiatives e.g. gardening to fertilize their plants
Example – Garbage System
Community initiated “quality” blotting
good idea... winner
An optimized blotting strategy should ideally con sider the fostering of social, cultural and economical aspects as well --> create heterogeinity The blotting strategy: "Pioneering Detroit" - a revo lutionary campaign triggering the resident's pioneerspirit of taking the opportunity The idea is to claim your land, not by your horse but by your BRAINS HOW? provide a convincing concepts, something creative, interesting
quality and active blotting
45 — Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management, Urban Planning II
in providing those properly. Ideally this concept generates a network of innovative hubs, each specialized on a particular basic public service. For the planning and implementation of the service, the innovative villages can rely on advisory teams, consisting of experts from relevant fields. Those are crucial for creating a successful public service. Even if the innovation might be theoretically sound, its applicability still has to be proven and refined in an iterative process. The idea of starting the public service innovation on village scale rather than imposing the concept on the entire city, is to enable the villages to act self-organized step by step. The villages are taking over the responsibilities from an overstrained, bankrupt central municipality. Another major aspect is to diversify in order to mitigate the risk of an overall failure. A service concept is implemented and refined in one village at a time. After its applicability is successfully proven the concept is meant to be spread with either merging with adjacent villages or generally transferring the knowledge to further interested villages – traded or ideally in a bilateral way. For example: village A develops a waste disposal system, while village B develops a simplified sewage system. Both can exchange their knowledge and benefit from it. From the development of a simplified public service, as well as knowledge trade, the village council increases its budget, which is used to foster community initiatives, such as “quality” blotting as well as various grassroot initiatives. Example – Garbage System The village decides to focus on community based waste management. The city council gives the resources to get support by an advisory team. The advisory team consists for example of an engineer with experience in building up a waste management system for informal settlements in India, a sociologist, writing her PhD about Americans and their ability to get used to separate garbage etc. After handing in a concept together the city council gives its approval. The residents are encouraged to separate organic waste from conventional garbage and bring it to a collection
point. The conventional garbage will be collected by a garbage truck organized by the city council (interface: village and city responsibility). In this case the municipality only has to pick up the garbage from on single point instead of from every household. In turn the village profits from part of the city savings. The organic waste is stored and can be used as fertilizer for gardening initiatives (community organized).
Resources • Berry, D., 2006. Detroit: Open City. Princeton University. • Campbell, S. (1996) Green cities, growing cities, just cities? Urban planning and the contradictions of sustainable development, Journal of the American Planning Association, 62(3), pp. 296–312. • Glaeser, E., 2012. Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier, Penguin Books. • Hopwood, B., Mellor, M. & O’Brien, G., 2005. Sustainable development: mapping different approaches. Sustainable Development, 13(1), pp.38–52 • Jacobs, J., 1961. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. In The Life and Death of Great American Cities • Ostrom, E., 1990. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action
(Political Economy of Institutions and Decisions), Cambridge University Press. • Oswalt, P., Overmeyer, K. & Misselwitz, P., URBAN CATALYST, mit zwischennutzung stadt entwickeln, • Porter, L. et al., 2011. Informality, the Commons and the Paradoxes for Planning: Concepts and Debates for Informality and Planning. Planning Theory & Practice, 12(1), pp.115–153. • Sandercock, L., 2000. When Strangers Become Neighbours : Managing Cities of Difference. , 1(1), pp.13–31. • http://www.bloomberg.com/ news/2013-04-09/detroit-homesrot-as-appraisals-stopping-salesmortgages.html • Håkan Thörn, Cathrin Wasshede and Tomas Nilson: Space for Urban Alternatives? Christiania 1971–2011, Gothenburg University, 2011
46 — Urban Planning
PARAISOPOLIS | Who Said Participation? Water & Infrastructure
Public Spaces & Services
Economical - Lacking specific strategy for economic development.
Market Building Micro-business Capacities Social Art Projects Enviromental Infrastructure Awareness Community Educational
PARAISOPOLIS | Attention! PHASE I
- No development for exist- - Targetting ecological ing housing. issues has less weight than - No Strategy for communi- other issues. ty Involvement. - Bad reputation and negative image causes marginalization - Missing link to adjacent neighborhood and city. - Not enough organizational bodies in Paraisopolis.
Rennovating Existing Buildings
Stuttgart University | Urban Planning II | Ayhm Dalal, Fadi El Droubi Charaf , Katherina Frieling, Mahy Mourad & Athar Mufreh
Stimulation Participation\ PARAISOPOLIS | Attention!
. Kick-off Strategy: Stimulation Activating community and inviting people from the whole city of Sao Paulo to a One Day Event.
. Kick-off Strategy: . A call for participation: Activating community and inviting Contacting NGOs/CBOs, key people from the whole city of Sao persons, volunteers to organise and Paulo to a One Day Event. fund the event. Finding potential partners (uni./students) to conduct . A call for participation: guided waste walks, art workshops. Contacting NGOs/CBOs, key persons, volunteers to organise and . One Day Event fund the event. Finding potential ‹Waste Collection› and ‹Recycling partners (uni./students) to conduct Art› from solid wastes of guided waste walks, art workshops. Paraisópolis.
. One Day Event . Waste Walk ‹Waste Collection› and ‹Recycling Meeting points on the outskirts of Art› from solid wastes of the area, team-up to start guided Paraisópolis. garbage routes to collect waste in the streets of Paraisópolis. . Waste Walk Meeting points on the outskirts of . Festival the area, team-up to start guided Gathering in open space to garbage routes to collect waste in accumulate waste and have a break the streets of Paraisópolis. with local food.
Spread adds and flyer for event Participation\ Community Engagement
Meeting points for waste walk Initiatives/Self-maintenance
Spread adds and �lyer for event
Meeting points for waste walk
CALL FOR WASTE COLLECTION!!!
CALL FOR WASTE COLLECTION!!!
Gather community and outsiders
Gather community and outsiders
Outcome: Gathering ! Attention ! Reputation ! Improve the reputation of the favela Create attention to the environment of the area Outcome: Gather people to motivate them Gathering ! Attention ! Reputation ! Generate profit Improve the reputation of the favela Create attention to the environment Conflicts: of the area Security issues, e.g. vulnerable high Gather people to motivate them risk area Generate pro�it Non cooperative community
Con�licts: Security issues, e.g. vulnerable high risk area Non cooperative community
. Public Media . Flyers, Advertisement . Key Persons, NGOs, CBOs . Art
. Festival . One Day Workshop Gathering in open space to Arts & crafts workshop to use solid . Public Media accumulate waste and have a break waste for Recycling Art. . Flyers, Advertisement with local food. Registration for regular art . Key Persons, NGOs, CBOs courses/seminar in Paraisópolis. . Art . One Day Workshop Arts & crafts workshop to use solid waste for Recycling Art. Registration for regular art courses/seminar in Paraisópolis. Stuttgart University | Urban Planning II | Ayhm Dalal, Fadi El Droubi Charaf , Katherina Frieling, Mahy Mourad & Athar Mufreh
by Ayham Dalal, Fadi El Droubi Charaf , Katherina Frieling, Mahy Mourad, Athar Mufreh
Stuttgart University | Urban Planning II | Ayhm Dalal, Fadi El Droubi Charaf , Katherina Frieling, Mahy Mourad & Athar Mufreh
47 — Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management, Urban Planning II
PARAISOPOLIS | Hand in Hand with Society
Participation\ Community Engagement
Find strategic collective space
. Space Finding a suitable space for art workshops.
Launch small spaces for waste collection
. Workshop Implementing program for conducting temporary workshops and regular courses with local craftsmen, artists and art-school students for teaching re-cyling arts & crafts to community members.
Outcome: Realize design practices together with people and implement projects, e.g. art initiatives/exhibitions Discover talents and competences in community Raise environmental awareness Learn and produce
. Call for Waste Regular waste collection in the area by people to accumulate waste in small spaces around Paraisópolis.
Con�licts: Government vs. Community, e.g. contradiction of participatory approach to governmental plans/ visions Non cooperative community, e.g. not responding to call for waste Logistic problems, e.g. mixing waste together, community not abiding by the rules
. Exhibition Display the outputs of the workshops to the public in a temporary exhibition.
. Community Participation . Collective Recycling . Knowledge Transfer
Stuttgart University | Urban Planning II | Ayhm Dalal, Fadi El Droubi Charaf , Katherina Frieling, Mahy Mourad & Athar Mufreh
PARAISOPOLIS | Capacity Building PARAISOPOLIS | Capacity Building Stimulation Participation\ Community Engagement
Collective art-work space Stimulation
Collective art-work space
Initiatives/Self-maintenance PHASE III
Elaborate markets and micro-businesses . Space Participation\ Initiatives/Self-maintenance to sell art products Permanent art-work space for Community Engagement conducting permanent workshops. Elaborate markets and micro-businesses to sell art products
.. Production Space Permenant with Permanent art-work art-work space, space for regular courses and temporary conducting permanent workshops. workshops to create Recycling Art. . Production . Call for waste Permenant art-work space, with Regularcourses waste collection in the regular and temporary area by people to accumulate workshops to create Recyclingwaste Art. in small spaces spread around Delivery of waste to .Paraisópolis. Call for waste workshop space. Regular waste collection in the area by people to accumulate waste . Exhibition in small spaces spread around Display the outputs/products Paraisópolis. Delivery of wasteoftothe workshopsspace. to the public in rotating workshop temporary exhibitions. . Exhibition . Marketthe outputs/products of the Display Display the to products on various workshops the public in rotating regular markets in and around the temporary exhibitions. area and sell them to gain profit for .program Market extension and to build a strong community body. Display the products on various regular markets in and around the area and sell them to gain pro�it for program extension and to build a strong community body.
Outcome: Transfer intiatives into an official community body (NGO) Permenant art school + learning hub Outcome: Conflicts: Transfer intiatives into an of�icial Government vs. Community, e.g. community body (NGO) contradiction participatory Permenant artofschool + learning hub approach to governmental plans/ visions Con�licts: Conflict with vs. adjacent high class Government Community, e.g. neighborhood which might be necontradiction of participatory gatively affected by the production approach to governmental plans/ space visions Legal status the space (owned/ Con�lict withofadjacent high class occupied/ statewhich granted) and neighborhood might beposnesible need for a funding body gatively affected by the production Risk spaceof robbery Legal status of the space (owned/ occupied/ state granted) and possible need for a funding body Risk of robbery . Selling booths/kiosks . Exhibitions . Open markets
. Selling booths/kiosks . Exhibitions . Open markets
by Ayham Dalal, Fadi El Droubi Charaf , Katherina Frieling, Mahy Mourad, Athar Mufreh
03 — Landscape
50 — Landscape
Urban Ecology and Ecosystem Design Core Module, WS 2012/13 Prof. Antje Stokman, ILPÖ Dipl.-Ing. Moritz Bellers, ILPÖ
This module presents the basic principles of ecological landscape design theory applied to urban environments, investigates the new landscape-based technologies as well as design approaches to create and discuss the challenges of an integrated planning process. The module aims to make students reflect critically on how urban landscapes are conceptualized, planned and implemented. It gives an overview of actual environmental challenges related to the urban environment and explained the effects of infrastructure development on landscape structure and function – drawing on knowledge from the fields of ecology, engineering and landscape architecture. Different theories are introduced that try to re-center landscape planning and design around the goal of designing green infrastructure systems rather than creating beautiful and luxury landscape images. Responding to contemporary urban and infrastructure development challenges, this course brings together a series of innovative concepts and theories to discuss different methods, models and measures of ecological design of combined landscape and infrastructure for the 21st century. ●
52 — Landscape
URBAN RECYCLE Lucas Krupp
2006 - 2009 Lot abandoned as storage area 1997 - 1999 New building construction
80s/90s Last building in center of site demolished
Se as str
id upside down nature
se 1945 Site bombed during WWII
Part 1: Urban Ecological History positive and negative f lora Commonly our understanding of nature, plants and the environment is based on our visual perception - what we see is all there is - a tree in the urban environment consists out of trunk and leaves. But what lies underneath? What is the hidden nature of plants? Is not in fact what lies underneath what shapes a plant, what decides over growth or stagnation? So maybe what we can see is a mere organic imprint of what lies below. What would a plant look like, if we could see it upside down? This project tries to investigate the nature of the site in this light and develops ideas to investigation this link between positive and negative flora.
site & context The site is situated at the end of an urban green stretch that consists of the university campus and the old graveyard. On one end of the site there is an office building that was constructed until 1999. A parking lot is situated to the SW of the site. The rest of the site is partially overgrown by plants and no maintenance is taking place. site and urban context
CORE MODULE: URBAN ECOLOGY AND ECOSYSTEM DESIGN II - SEMINAR: ECOLOGY & DESIGN - IUSD, MIP & ARCH. - WS 2012/13 - UNIVERSITY STUTTGART, ILPÖ - PROF. A. STOKMAN, M. BELLERS
1990 site plan 1990
1945 (1st occurance on
Asphalt and building foundations
Grasses & mosses
Fast growing trees
robinia pseudoacacia rubus fruticosus
Succession on site, based on drawing by Moritz Bellers
building remainders soil
Part 2: Natural Succession 1992 - 1212 start of a succession Around 1990, the site was almost completely empty without any buildings. Large parts of the site are covered with asphalt or a waterproof membrane to prohibit water infiltrating the ground into remaining foundations of previous buildings. A few trees (primarily robinia and other woody pioneers) have formed a core from which the natural succession begins and spreads out. Surrounding the woody pioneers, there is a ring of pioneer shrubs and annual and biannual plants. Part of the site is used for storage of construction materials for the neighborhood. One cherry tree on the parking lot (artificially planted).
damp proof membrane
2 Woody pioneers
Mosses & Grasses
Mosses & Grasses
Mosses & Grasses
CORE MODULE: URBAN ECOLOGY AND ECOSYSTEM DESIGN II - SEMINAR: ECOLOGY & DESIGN - IUSD, MIP & ARCH. - WS 2012/13 - UNIVERSITY STUTTGART, ILPÖ - PROF. A. STOKMAN, M. BELLERS
Urban Recycle by Lucas Krupp
53 — Urban Ecology and Ecosystem Design
site plan 2012
Above and below: Photos of the site in 2012, by Moritz Bellers
Part 3: The Site Today succession in progress Today the visitor of the site can encounter many different stages of succession. The most recently abandoned material storage area is mainly covered by annual and biannual plants. Many other invasive species like the butterfly tree can also be found. Fast growing trees cover one area of the site. Here primarily robinia can be found (fast growing). A few slower growing species (i.e. maple) are slowly growing from the ground and try and breach the roof of robinia. In between both of these zones blackberries and other shrubs form a boundary towards the trees. Currently the site is not accessible for visitors due to a high fence around the site. This does not even allow view connections into the site.
Asphalt parking lot with artificial opening for cherry tree
Grasses and mosses form the first layer on asphalt topography
Grasses and shrubs follow this succession
Fast growing trees
In the area of fast growing trees a soil layer of around 0,1m thickness has formed
CORE MODULE: URBAN ECOLOGY AND ECOSYSTEM DESIGN II - SEMINAR: ECOLOGY & DESIGN - IUSD, MIP & ARCH. - WS 2012/13 - UNIVERSITY STUTTGART, ILPÖ - PROF. A. STOKMAN, M. BELLERS
URBAN URBAN RECYCLE RECYCLE Lucas Krupp Lucas LucasKrupp Krupp
2017 2017 site plan 2017 sitesite plan plan 2017 2017
Section AA Section Section AAAA
3 3 3growing trees Fast
2 2 2 pioneers Woody
FastFast growing growing trees trees
Woody Woody pioneers pioneers
3 3 3growing trees Fast
FastFast growing growing trees trees
Part 4: The Site In 2017 (no intervention) Part Part4:4:The TheSite SiteInIn2017 2017(no (nointervention) intervention) natural succession continues
natural natural succession succession continues continues Fast growing trees continue to spread over the site, more and more soil Fast Fast growing growing trees trees continue continue to spread spread over over the the site, site, more more and more more soil soil builds up on the ground and to forms a new layer for plants toand flourish. builds builds upup onon the the ground ground and and forms forms a new a new layer layer forfor plants plants toto flourish. flourish.
Section AA Section Section AAAA
3 3 3growing trees Fast
3 3 3growing trees Fast
Part 4: The Site In 3032 (no intervention) Part Part4:4:The TheSite SiteInIn3032 3032(no (nointervention) intervention)
natural succession continues continues natural natural succession continues The site issuccession almost completely covered with fast growing trees. In the The site is is almost completely with fast growing trees. InIn the The site almost completely covered with fast growing trees. the area where trees were alreadycovered existing in 2012, longer lasting trees Photo by area where trees were already existing inin 2012, longer lasting trees area where trees were already existing 2012, longer lasting trees start to dominate the forest. Moritz Bellers Photo Photo by by toto dominate the forest. start dominate the forest. Moritz Moritz Bellers Bellersstart CORE MODULE: URBAN ECOLOGY AND ECOSYSTEM DESIGN II - SEMINAR: ECOLOGY & DESIGN - IUSD, MIP & ARCH. - WS 2012/13 - UNIVERSITY STUTTGART, ILPÖ - PROF. A. STOKMAN, M. BELLERS CORE CORE MODULE: MODULE: URBAN URBAN ECOLOGY ECOLOGY AND AND ECOSYSTEM ECOSYSTEM DESIGN DESIGN II II - SEMINAR: - SEMINAR: ECOLOGY ECOLOGY && DESIGN DESIGN - IUSD, - IUSD, MIP MIP && ARCH. ARCH. - WS - WS 2012/13 2012/13 - UNIVERSITY - UNIVERSITY STUTTGART, STUTTGART, ILPÖ ILPÖ - PROF. - PROF. A.A. STOKMAN, STOKMAN, M.M. BELLERS BELLERS FastFast growing growing trees trees
Urban Recycle by Lucas Krupp
FastFast growing growing trees trees
54 — Landscape
URBAN WASTE Lucas Krupp
Diagram - Reuse recycled materials
NOT FOR BUILDING - NOT LOCAL
New Development / Renovation - high Material / Resource Input
deisgn with recycled urban fabric In my site analysis it becomes clear that the soil conditions have a strong impact on the vegetation. The intervention idea is to develop a design process, that generates vituous circles. By using recycled, non toxic materials (i.e. glass pieces, wood, bricks, metal etc.) from local building demolishions as a basis for the ground on site, visitors will be able to experience the direct influence of certain materials on the “natural” succession of flora and fauna.
Part 5: Design Intervention Concept
WASTE WITH POTENTIAL
Building Demolition / Deconstruction, clearing of contaminations
Different plant species grow on different soil and ground conditions (material & graininess).
OUTPUT WASTE DISPOSAL - EXPENSIVE - ENVIRONM. UNFRIENDL. - DIRTY - UGLY - NOT LOCAL
Resources Used for Project Verkehr, Bau- und Stadtentwicklung: Arbeitshilfen Recycling Below: Abstract drawing, Deconstructing the urban fabric
URBAN MOSAIC Lucas Krupp
Part 6: Design Intervention Urban Mosaic
2029 2028 2027
Intervention phase C
accessability To open up the site to visitors and pedestriants passing the site, all surrounding fences are taking down (used as one of the mosaic areas). This will create a much more open nature of the site. Especially from the SW of the site (Seidenstrasse) a new public plaza is created (access to tramline). The existing paved area (previously parking lot) is furnished with urban furniture and creates a popular meeting spot and microclimate. The new footpath through the site invites visitors to a tour of exploring natural succession and vegetable patterns and creates a new shortcut from Seidenstrasse to Hegelstrasse.
form through process The process of disposal of materials on site is designed in several steps to create a specific pattern of vegetation over a timeframe of 20 years. Every year one truck load (ca. 18t) of building waste gets disposed on site. (This covers exactly an area of 7,5m x 18,75m with 0,1m of material) The pattern design is created in a way that over the years a more included, intimate space along the new footpath is created, where visitors get an overview over the entire succession of plants over a duration of 20 years. (see 3D layout on the right) To minimize the effort it would also be possible to intervene fewer times on site and only add new materials ever two, three or four years of course.
2023 2022 2021
Spatial evolution on site, design by process
Intervention phase B
2016 2015 2014
Intervention phase A
Axonometric: Urban mosaic
Urban Recycle by Lucas Krupp
55 — Urban Ecology and Ecosystem Design
URBAN RECYCLE RECYCLE URBAN MOSAIC
Lucas Krupp Lucas Krupp
Part 7: Paradigm Shift, Intervention 2017 - 2032 Part 7: Paradigm Shift, Intervention 2017 - 2032
2017 -- 2032 2032 2017
se as e str rass en st id en Se eid S
pattern change pattern change In the site analysis without intervention it beomes obvious that an In the site analysis without intervention it beomes obvious that an invasive and pioneering growth pattern is predominant on the site. The invasive and pioneering growth pattern is predominant on the site. The different stages of succession follow one after the other and spread out different stages of succession follow one after the other and spread out trying to take over as much site as possible. trying to take over as much site as possible. With this new type of intervention this pattern changes. Because of With this new type of intervention this pattern changes. Because of regular small interventions (the disposal of construction waste on site), regular small interventions (the disposal of construction waste on site), this horizontal spread of succession changes into a vertical succesthis horizontal spread of succession changes into a vertical succession (see section below). With this paradigm shift visitors will be able sion (see section below). With this paradigm shift visitors will be able to compare the natural succession and “wilderness” (no maintenance) to compare the natural succession and “wilderness” (no maintenance) to one side of the footpath, to the artificial imprint of different stages to one side of the footpath, to the artificial imprint of different stages of succession on their other side, created by pattern strips of material of succession on their other side, created by pattern strips of material waste. waste. The footpath is raised from the ground to offer the visitors a different The footpath is raised from the ground to offer the visitors a different perspective and enable them to see more stages of succession (change perspective and enable them to see more stages of succession (change of perspectivity). of perspectivity).
Schematic Detail Schematic Detail
SectionAA AA Section
Fast growing trees Fast growing trees
Mosses & Grasses Grasses Grasses PerennialsFastFast growing trees Mosses & Grasses Perennials growing trees
siteplan plan2017 2017- -2032 2032 site
MODULE: URBAN ECOLOGY ECOLOGY AND ANDECOSYSTEM ECOSYSTEMDESIGN DESIGNIIII- -SEMINAR: SEMINAR:ECOLOGY ECOLOGY&&DESIGN DESIGN- -IUSD, IUSD,MIP MIP&&ARCH. ARCH.- WS - WS2012/13 2012/13- UNIVERSITY - UNIVERSITY STUTTGART, ILPÖ - PROF. STOKMAN, BELLERS CORE MODULE: STUTTGART, ILPÖ - PROF. A.A. STOKMAN, M.M. BELLERS Lucas KruppURBAN
atmospheric rendering 2032 (with extension of plaza)
Urban Recycle by Lucas Krupp
56 — Landscape
Fog & condensation Katharina Frieling
1. Experiment Fog: Do it yourself
#1 Creating fog...
Fog: A short explanation... Fog consist of liquid water droplets, fine spreaded and pending in the air close to the Earth’s surface. The droplets evolve from the condensation of moisture from the surface in the saturated humid air. They generally emerge from a nearby moist ground or lake/ocean. Fog has a visibility range of less than 1 km. With a visibility range of more than 1 km the visible humidity in the air with its lower density is considered as mist. Fog is a kind of stratus cloud, but it distinguishes from clouds in general by the surface contact. It only exists in low, horizontal levels with a uniform base. In higher territories a layer of clouds can also become fog.
in a bottle filled with hot water by placing an icecube on top of it. The hot air diffuses and it reaches the cold icecube where it immediately cooles down and the small water particles become visible because of the temperature difference.
Fog (clouds) in the mountains
Fog & condensation
2 5 For in the landscape CORE MODULE: URban ECOLOgy anD ECOsystEM DEsign ii - sEMinaR: ECOLOgy & DEsign - iUsD, MiP & aRCh. - Ws 2012/13 - UnivERsity stUttgaRt, iLPö - PROF. a. stOKMan, M. bELLERs
boards. Fog collectors The fog rolls from the ocean into the mountains where the fog collectors are positioned. Large pieces of vertical canvas, known as a fog fence, make the fog condense into droplets of water and flow down towards a sag below the canvas.
3. Intervene Fog: In the desert In Atacama Desert, the worlds driest desert at the west coast of South America, there has been no rain since the record of the weather history. The only moisture is contained in the fog from the ocean.
The village has fog for 5-6 days a week, thus the fog fence catches 10 000 liters of water per day. For their water supply the village receives one truck every week.
The Fog Garden In the project ‘The Fog Garden’ located in the Chilean part of the desert, Rodrigo Perez de Arce is the overseeing architect. For the past several years the architects have been exploring the possibility of collecting water from fog in order to supply the nearby villages. The project should collect enough water for a garden in the desert and a village of 300 people. A few fog-collecting prototypes have been installed and used in the past few years near the desert center. The structures are big like highway billDesert garden: ‘The Fog Garden’
Fog bank in Atacama Desert fog moving across the mountains
fog fence: fog is condensating on the canvas
fog fence catching the condensat water
sag for collecting water Structures for fog collection’ Fog collectors CORE MODULE: URban ECOLOgy anD ECOsystEM DEsign ii - sEMinaR: ECOLOgy & DEsign - iUsD, MiP & aRCh. - Ws 2012/13 - UnivERsity stUttgaRt, iLPö - PROF. a. stOKMan, M. bELLERs
Extract from Fog & condensation by Katharina Frieling
57 — Urban Ecology and Ecosystem Design
WATER FILTERATION Athar Mufreh, Wesam El-Bardisy Observations
Natural discharge for the ground layering, water is puritfied by through the diffrent ground layering and then forms springs Water can infiltrate the subsurface because solid bedrock—as well as loose soil, sand, and gravel—contains pore spaces. There are four main types of pore spaces, or voids, in rocks : (1) spaces between mineral grains`, (2) fractures, (3) solution cavities, and (4) vesicles. In sand and gravel deposits, pore space can constitute from 12% to 45% of the total volume. If several grain sizes are abundant and the smaller grains fill the space between larger grains, or if a significant amount of cementing material fills the spaces between grains, the porosity is greatly reduced. All rocks are cut by fractures, and in some dense rocks (such as granite), fractures are the only significant pore spaces . Solution activity, especially in limestone, commonly removes soluble material, forming pits and holes. Some limestones thus have high porosity. Rain water & other sources :
The trapped grains passing through different natural layering
Water penetration passing through different natural layering
Vesicles and fractures in basalt 30-40%
Solution cavities in limestone 30%
Spaces between grains in cemented sandstone 5%
Spaces between grains in conglomerate 20°
Fractures in granite < 1%
SANDSTONE CONGLOMERATE GRANITE
Fig. Water flow within diffrent layering with diffrent spaces between grains Source: http://www.asla.org/2012studentawards/073.html
WATER INDUSTRY COMMERCIAL SPACE RESIDENTIAL SPACE
WATER INDUSTRY COMMERCIAL SPACE RESIDENTIAL SPACE
WATER INDUSTRY COMMERCIAL SPACE RESIDENTIAL SPACE
WATER INDUSTRY COMMERCIAL SPACE
WATER INDUSTRY COMMERCIAL SPACE
Directing a new water industry to the Chicago river which will redefine the area as a generator and production hub for sustainable freshwater resource management. The district will become a Water Institute which will be devoted to research, training, and technological developments related to water filtration, community awareness, and water policy and planning. The knowledge generated will spur the development of water industries, creating needed jobs and a local economy entirely based on water.
WATER INDUSTRY COMMERCIAL SPACE
Phasing Phase 1 changing the perception of Pilsen’s post-industrial landscape while generating interest for future change. Phase 2 establishes a development framework through hydrologic and ecologic landscape intervention. The filtering slips become unique urban demonstrations of water filtration technologies. Pilsen is transformed into a testing ground for the effectiveness of varying types of filtration systems. Each of the filtering slips employs a unique filtering technology to clean stormwater. Five strategies of filtration (sand filtration, organic/compost filtration, gravel filtration, bioremediation filtration, and phytoremediation filtration) are applied. Phase 3, which includes repurposing the Fisk Power Plant for the Water Institute Campus Phase 4 identifies sites for industries that are byproducts of the knowledge and technologies generated at the Water Institute. SLIP (GRAVEL FILTRATION)
Slip district: Chicago testing ground for water industry Concept: (Water as Industry, Water as Productive Urban Form)
Hydrologic Interventions Ecologic Interventions
Fig.: Isometric for Phase 2 Source: http://www.asla.org/2012studentawards/073.html
Fig.: Overview for the whole the project Source: http://www.asla.org/2012studentawards/073.html
ORGANIC (COMPOST) FILTRATION
ICE SKATING RINK
ORGANIC (COMPOST) FILTRATION
GRAVEL FILTRATION Fig.: Illustration of layering
Extract from Water Filtration by Athar Mufreh, Wesam El-Bardisy
58 — Landscape
CityTreeHouse II Elective, SS 2013 Dr. Ferdinand Ludwig, IGMA Dipl.-Ing. Daniel Schönle, external
During last semesters seminar “CityTreeHouse I” first approaches have been developed to combine the qualities of city trees with aspects of tree houses and dense urban building typologies. Based on the methods of Baubotanik, these CityTreeHouses are designed as artificially constructed yet living plant structures, appearing in the dimension of a fully grown tree right after construction. Nonetheless they show a growth- and developmental process that can take decades: Their outer shape, their spatial expression, their usability and their ecological potential change over time. In the seminar “CityTreeHouse II” design strategies have been developed to deal with these processes and to interweave them with the development of cities and urban landscapes. The seminar was divided into a theoretical and a designing part: In the first part specific aspects of ecosystems and cities have been analysed. Therefore a wide range of knowledge reaching from urban sociology to system theories and forestry sciences had to be
acquired. In the second part these findings have been applied to small design projects during workshops. The focus of these designs was not the final object but the development of a method to design processes. The seminarwas a collaboration between the diploma and bachelor courses in architecture and the international Master program Integrated Urbanism and Sustainable Design (IUSD). •
59 â€” Stainless steel plate
putting a mixture of water with salt and prussian blue at percentage one to one to the model The District started to Grow.
A mixture of water with salt and prussian blue . at percentage one to one
Let it grow !
Name: Mohamed ElGamal
Explanations After putting a portion of the mixture described above in the stainless steel plate, primary results could be estimated, after one hour we can recognize the various amount of absorbed water depending on materials. The faster the liquid ascends in probes , the faster the whole process works (cartoon sheets and light wood), generally the crystals grows the most where the ascension of the liquid stops, firstly the crystals grows on the upper parts of cartoon and light wood then gradually on the other materials. Small crystals grow in the bottom parts (which still keep water inside),
after 18 hours
Drawings setup scale 1:1.000
after xx hours
and on the outer frame of the plate, generally we can conclude that growing process goes vertically from the upper parts to bottom, and horizontally from borders to inner areas. Crystallization process came slow and slow by time regarding to water evaporation process, only sponge crystals still active and growing more in the same time of stop growing of other crystals, and that is because sponge has high ability of keeping water inside for long time more than other materials.
after 64 hours
Drawings prediction scale 1:1.000
after one hour
after 112 hours
Drawings results scale 1:1.000
after xx hours
Mission 1: Drawings setup and experiment process fotos after 16 hours, 64 hours and 112 hours
Mission1: Let it grow! by Mohamed ElGamal Concept and Experiment setup The city as a crystal garden aims to demonstrate a â€žgrowingâ€œ process in the urban context. Depending on the water evaporation phenomena the salt formed crystals in various ways, related to the different materials and the surrounding conditions. The headquarters district was designed and abstractly modelled in various materials, such as coal, cartoon sheets, sponge, light wood, natural rocks, surrounded by a normal room temperature. Putting a mixture (at a ratio of 1:1) of water with salt and Prussian blue to the model, the district started to grow. After putting a portion of the mixture described above in the stainless steel plate, primary results could be estimated. After one hour we
could recognize the various amount of absorbed water depending on the material. The faster the liquid ascends in probes, the faster the whole process works (cartoon sheets and light wood). Generally the crystals grow most where the ascension of the liquid stops, firstly the crystals grow on the upper parts of the cartoon and light wood, then gradually on the other materials. Small crystals grow in the bottom parts (which still keep water inside), and on the outer frame of the plate. Generally we can conclude that the growing process goes vertically from the upper parts to bottom, and horizontally from the edges to the inner areas. The crystallization process came step by step, depending on the water evaporation process. Only the sponge crystals were still active and grew more, while other crystals stopped growing, and that is because the sponge has a high ability of keeping water inside for a long time, more than other materials.
60 — Landscape Palace of Republic
Palace of Republic
Berliner Stadt Schloss
Users of the site
1933 1945 1948
mtraud Eckart, Mohamed ElGamal, Eric Puttrowait
City Tree II Sose 2013
ory Dubai development
Highest skyscraper in the world “Khalifa tower 2011” Highest Twisting Skyscraper in The World June 2013” Iconic City
Developed city “ Europien Style”
Vernicular Arabic city Developing city Before Gas
Dubai 2000 Developed City
Dubai 2020 International City
Dubai 2050 Sustainable City
Dubai inhabitants Forigners inhabitants year
Mission 2: Developmental Parameters & Timelines comparing Dubai, Sahara, the Palace of Republic in Berlin and the Tanzende Linde in Peesten by Irmtraud Eckart, Mohamed ElGamal, Eric Puttrowait
raud Eckart, Mohamed ElGamal, Eric Puttrowait
City Tree II Sose 2013
61 â€” CityTreeHouse II Sahara
Landscape Form of developsettlement
Form of settlement
Nomadic Population & Agglomerations at Edges
Nomadic Population & Agglomerations at Edges
Tanzende Linde year Peesten
Irmtraud Eckart, Mohamed ElGamal, Eric Puttrowait
Irmtraud Eckart, Mohamed ElGamal, Eric Puttrowait
City Tree II Sose 2013
City Tree II Sose 2013
15 height of 10 the tree (meter) 5 year
Dubai, : I r m t r Mission a u d E2:c Developmental k a r t , M o hParameters amed E& l GTimelines a m a l , comparing Eric Pu t t r oSahara, w a i t the IPalace U S Dof Republic C i t y Tinr Berlin ee II Sose 2013 and the Tanzende Linde in Peesten by Irmtraud Eckart, Mohamed ElGamal, Eric Puttrowait
- skateboarding: obstacles build from conequipment
62 —struction Landscape
Eric Puttrowait, IUSD 2013, Universität Stuttgart
Mission 3: Gerber Construction Site – overview Baubotanicalized by Eric Puttrowait
potential uses: - market - beach - garden: use biomass produced by trees - exhibition: in the lower levels lit by holes - skateboarding: obstacles build from construction equipment
potential usages: – market – beach Mission 3 – garden: use biomass produced by trees Gerber construction site - baubotanicalized – exhibition: in the lower levels lit by holes – skateboarding: obstacles build from construction equipment
Eric Puttrowait, IUSD 2013, Universität Stuttgart
Mission 3: Gerber construction site – baubotanicalized – by Eric Puttrowait
63 — CityTreeHouse II
Eric Puttrowait, IUSD 2013, Universität Stuttgart
bridge/ascent Eric Puttrowait, IUSD 2013, Universität Stuttgart
amount of bioamount of biomass mass producedproduced by the tree: by the trees: amount of biomass produced by the trees:
Eric Puttrowait, IUSD 2013, Universität Stuttgart
Eric Puttrowait, IUSD 2013, Universität Stuttgart
Mission 3: Gerber construction site – baubotanicalized – by Eric Puttrowait
amount of biomass produced by the trees:
64 — Landscape
Summer In The City Elective, SS 2013 Dr. Bernd Eisenberg, ILPÖ
Global Climate Change has a major impact on cities and their inhabitants. The number of heat days in central and northern Europe for instance is going to increase significantly due to global climate change whereas the regions with already high summer temperatures in Southern Europe face longer and hotter heat periods. The effects will be significant for the cities’ inhabitants and pose a major difficulty for the usability of the cities. „Urban climate comfort zones“ address the problem, they aim to maintain and improve the usability of open spaces with regard to ambient temperature and humidity through urban planning guidelines focusing on the green infrastructure and local interventions. Seminar Programme: After collecting best practice examples from various climatic regions for local climate adaptation measures, the situation in the city of Ludwigsburg was investigated closer. Open space analyses including walkability and observations of user behavior,
were performed in order to identify the areas that need special attention for climate change adaptation measures. As a final step specific solutions were proposed and summarized in a proposal for an „Urban Climate Comfort Zone Intervention“ in Ludwigsburg. The seminar was connected to the EU-funded research project TURAS (www.turas-cities.org), in which ILPÖ is one of 26 partners. Results of the seminar will therefore also be presented within the framework of the project.
Market square Basemap
Shadow Analysis 19.09.2012, 12.00
Market square Festival Time
Market square Ordinary Situation
Climate change poses a challenge for the planning o facilitate climate adaptation. The Marktplatz in Lud critical exposure to sunlight and only a few means o weekly market, had to be taken into account when Shadow Analysis
Proposal for local intervention: Tri-Cooler and Sprinklers for Marktplatz Ludwigsburg by Wesam El-Bardisy Sana Kassouh, Boyan Mihaylov Description: Climate change poses a challenge for the planning of comfort zones in urban spaces. The climate trend in Ludwigsburg towards hotter summer days requires appropriate and flexible measures to facilitate climate adaptation. The Marktplatz in Ludwigsburg was identified as a critical zone in terms of urban comfort, since it is one of the most diversely and intensely used sites in the city, yet has critical exposure to sunlight and only a few means of cooling. Important aspects such as the squareâ€˜s quality as historic heritage and its multifunctionality in accommodating diverse events, including the weekly market, had to be taken into account when planning a new comfort zone strategy.
66 — Landscape CLIMATE
Climate Comfort Concept
Water Jets The physical and thermal properties of water, as well as its ability to draw heat from the environment during its evaporation; make it a suitable element for the biocliWATER JETS matic design of urban open spaces. A network of water sources was planned in accordance The physical and thermal properties to the rainwater gathering system, with the aim to optiof water, as well as its ability to draw integrate rainwater heat mally from the environment during usage and the new introduced Water jet location/ its evaporation; it acould suitable of effect water jets.make These be distributedrange horizontally and element for the bioclimatic design of vertically, either as water fountains or as water vapor urban open spaces. generators. A network of water sources was 18 water jets are introduced in the whole square, accordplanned in accordance to the ing togathering the rainwater drainage. These jets are generally rainwater system, with the aim to optimallyabove integrate rainwaterof 27°C, can all be controlled activated threshold usage and the new introduced water makes it possible to create a whole jets. individually, These could be which distributed horizontally and“dancing vertically,water” either asroutines. A total of 40 cubic range of water fountains or as water vapor meters clean water per day pass through the system, 0.5 generators. 18 water jets are introduced the jet, that is roughly the equivacubic meters per hourinper whole square, according to the lent of 150 bath tubs of water.
rainwater drainage. These jets are generally activated above threshold of 27°C, can all be controlled individually, which makes it possible to create a whole range of “dancing water” routines. A total of 40 cubic meters clean water per day pass through the system, 0.5 cubic meters per hour per jet, that is roughly the equivalent of 150 bath tubs of water.
Tri-Coolers Geometric Configurations The lightweight portable modules allow interaction of users with their urban environment. The basic operations related to their usage include: 1. Reconfiguration 2. Carrying 3. Attachment to water source through integrated adapters The different, interchangeable module types incorporate functions like seating, greener and water evaporation. To facilitate their mobility, they are made from light plastic, e.g. fibreglass, and are provided with wheels and handles. For the green modules, a lightweight substrate such as coconut fibres is used. The general geometric configuration of the modules can be defined by municipal workers at the beginning of the day, depending on specific aims, themes and occasions. After that, it is up to the users to bring the tri-coolers to the desired comfort spots.
67 — Microclimatic Functions Summer In The City
Air cooling effect – vegetation
Direct Sunlight Coconut Fiber –light weight
Triangular structure with shading element
Climate Functions of the Tri-Cooler System
Optimized Area of Effect
68 — Landscape
Geodesign Elective, SS 2013 Prof. Antje Stokman, ILPÖ Dr. Hans-Georg Schwarz von Raumer, ILPÖ Eng. Abdulmoneim Alfiky
Geodesign denotes a methodological field which brings together creativity and knowledge based constructiveness in a model and communication driven design process of meso-scaled planning tasks. Both technical and communicational challenges must be tackled and a lot of them still are unsolved: How to install a direct manmachine feedback loop? What are the restrictions for the designer’s degree of freedom in creativity, choice and finality? How to tackle uncertainty and ambiguity of model results? Which limits do exist with respect to tool interfaces and IT-skills expected? Do we need an optimized collaboration between designers/planners and IT-specialists/modellers? For a start the seminar provides a visit in an interactive virtual environment at the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) and a lecture which draws the basic lines and illustrates solutions of geodesign approaches. The core part of the seminar considers “The Geodesign of Renewable Energy Landscapes”. Here we focus on landscapes as a source of renewable energies. We discuss potentials as well as impacts, and we prepare the knowledge that lays down the necessary grounds for a
design workshop. The target of this workshop is to develop a vision of “future energy landscapes” in the vicinity of Schramberg, a small town in the black forest. To have a direct on-site environment, this part of the seminar will happen during an excursion to Schramberg region. •
Integrating Renewable Energy in Schramberg by Mohammed Alfiky, Abdalrahman Alshorafa, Mohamed Abdelghafar, Tariq Nassar, Wesam El-Bardisy Location: Schramberg – Germany Schramberg is a town in the district of Rottweil, in BadenWürttemberg, Germany. It is situated in the eastern Black Forest, 25 km northwest of Rottweil. With all its districts Talstadt, Sulgen, Waldmössingen, Heiligenbronn, Schönbronn and Tennenbronn (since 2006) it has about 22,000 inhabitants. Site Analysis Since there is a high integration of different vegetation types in the area, a particular attention had to be given to any proposed design intervention strategies. Through the field visits to the old city centre of Schramberg, we noticed the humongous relation between the forests in the valley and the urban context next to it, which should be preserved in a way or another. More to the East, there is the area of Sulgen located, which forms the new urban sprawl mixed with an industrialized orientation. The expansion of the new sprawl is surrounded by open agricultural fields. The study of the area heights has shown the existence of two different topographical characteristics. The old city centre of Schramberg is situated in the valley and Site Analysis Site Analysis surrounded by a series of mountains which contains a Schramberg - Germany Schramberg - Germany
number of overlooking points to the old city such as the historical castle and the hiking routes. More to the West of Schramberg, the heights of mountains increase significantly. The Eastern part which accommodates Sulgen is flatter and the hills are less steep than in the western part of the area. To find a suitable area in Schramberg city for locating photovoltaic fields, which produce energy, the GIS tool is used to identify the highest area that is directly exposed to sun radiations within the city. – Adding existing data (height grid) as a raster date for the city with cell size 30 * 30 cm to ArcMap application. The height grid layer could be called in the GIS language as elevation surface raster. – By running the Area Solar Radiation model with the height grid raster data, a new raster data is produced with a range of solar radiation values. – Locating the suitable area for photovoltaic fields depended on different indicators: soil quality, area inclination, public transportation (main roads), birds protection areas, industrial areas and future expansions of it, areas for residential expansions and the existing infrastructure power lines.
Schramberg, Schramberg, oldold citycity
Vegetaion types study Vegetaion types study
Vegetaion types study
Schramberg, Schramberg, oldcity city old
Topography - Average heights study Topography - Average heights study
Topography – Average heights study
424 metres 424 metres
Arable Lands Arable Lands
700 700 mm
Since the high integration between different vegetaSince the high integration between different vegetation types in the area, a particular attention had to be
The study area heights has shownthe theexistance existance The study of of thethe area heights has shown of two different topographical characteristics. The old
70 — Landscape
GIS Steps – Find suitable existing buildings within the city with a south orientation, according to the sun radiation, that can be cladded with photovoltaic cells on the roofs.
- Finally by intersecting between the buildings as point features with the new RasterT_Int_Asp1 as a polygon feature, we will end up with new point features having all the orientation values.
– Adding the height grid as raster data, and building layers as polygon feature to ArcMap application.
- Select attributes for the new point layer and type: Grid code (Field) >= 157<= 202, then we export a new layer as point features just for south oriented buildings and we exclude all the buildings with south orientation within the old center to reserve the city image without adding any photovoltaic cells on the roofs for these building.
– By running Aspect model for the height grid raster to identify the down-slope direction of the maximum rate of change in value from each cell to its neighbors. – Change the raster data to polygon all the values for the raster data has to be without any decimal, so by using Int model for deleting the decimal digits from the values, which produce another grid with the same values except the decimal digits. – Change the raster data to polygon features by using raster to polygon model, so we have a polygon layer " ) " ) " " called RasterT_Int_Asp1. ) " " ) ) ) " " " ) ) ) ) " ) " )" " ) " )
" ) ) " )" " )
Buildings oriented South
" ) " ) ) " ) " ) " " )" " ) ) " ) " ) " " ) ) " )" ) " " ) ) ) )" " " )" " ) " " ) " ) ) " " " ) ) ) ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) ) " ) " " ) ) "
– For")")")") selecting the") buildings with south orientation (157Description Site Analysis ") ") ")")")")")")")")")")")")")") The map shows all the buildings " ) " " " ) ) ) " ) 202 degree) from the layer toRasterT_Int_ " ) )" which are oriented the south, " )" Schramberg - Germany " " ) ) " " ) " " ) ) )" ) ) new polygon " " ) ) ) " " " ) ) " ) ) " ) " ) " ) ) " ) " ) )" " ) " " ) ) " " ) " " ) " " ) ) ) " ) " ) " ) where PV cells can be installed. " ) Asp1," we change the original building layer from polygon " ) " ) " " ) ) " " ) ) " ) " ) " ) " )" )" " ) )" " " )) ) " " ) ) ) )" " ) " " ) " " )" " " )" ) ) " " " ) " )" )) ) " " ) " ) ) ) " ) ) ) " " )" " )" ) " " ) " ) " ) " ) ) " ) " " ) " ) ) " )" )" ) " " ) ) ) " ) " " )" ) ) )" " " ) )" " " ) ) feature to Point, so)to we able to intersect with the New " ) Buildings Oreinted the South " ) are " ) " " " )" ) ) " ) " " ) ) " ) " " ) ) " ) ) " ) " ) ) ) " ) " " ) " ) " )" ) " ) " " ) " )" ) " )" ) " ) " ) " ) RasterT_Int_Asp1. Legend " )" " ) " ) " ) " ) )" " ) " ) " ) " ) ) " ) "
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Solar radiation map
Buildings oriented South
) "" ) " " ) )) " " " " ) ) ) " " ) ) " " ) " ) ) " ) " " " ) ) ) ) Description " ) " " " " ) ) " ) " ) ) ) ) " " ) ) " ) " " ) " )" ) " " " ) ) ) " " ) ) " ) " ) " )" ) ) " ) ) "" ) map " ) ) " )"
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" ) ) " )" ) " " ) ) ) " " ) ) " ) ) " )" " " " ) ) " ) ) " ) " )" ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) ) GIS STEPS Legend " ) " ) " )" ) " " ) ) " ) " ) To")")")")")find the suitable existing building with south " )" " ) ) " )" ) " ) " ) " " ) ) " ) " ) " ) " " " ) ) ) " " ) " ) ) " " ) " ) ) " " )according to sun radia) " " " " " )Industrial ) ) ) " " ) " ) ) " ) " Buildings ) ) " " " )" " ) ) )" " ) " oriented within the city ) " ) " ) ) " ) " ) " ) " ) tion,")")")")")that can be placed with photovoltaic cells " ) ) " )) " )" " ) " " ) " ) )" " ) " ) Settlement " )" " ) " " " ) ) " ) )on the " ) " ) ) " ) roofs. " " " ) " ) " )" )) )" "
" ) " ) " ) " " ) " ) " ) " )" ) " " " ) ) ) " " ) " ) ) " " " " ) ) ) " " ) " ) ) " " ) " " ) " ) " " ) ) ) ) " " " ) ) Buildings Preserved ) ) Oriented South Schramberg, " ) " ) - Adding the Heightgrid old as cityraster data, and ) " )" " )" )" ) " ) " )" " ) " ) ) building layers as polygon " " ) ) " ) Buildings Orientedfeature South " ) " " " ) ) " " ) ) " " ) " " ) " ) ) " ) )to ArcMap " " " " ) ) ) ) " " ) ) " " " ) " ) ) ) " " " ) ) " " ) " ) ) " ) " " ) )) " ) " " " )" ) " ) " ) ) " " ) " ) ) " " " ) ) ) )" " " " ) ) " " ) " " ) " ) ) ) " " " ) ) ) ) " " ) ) " " ) " " " ) ) " ) ) ) " " ) ) " " ) " " " ) " ) ) ) ) " ) " ) ) " ) ) " " ) " " ) ) " " " ) ) application. ) ) " " " " ) ) ) " " " ) " ) ) " " ) " " ) " )" ) ) ) " " " " " ) " ) ) ) " ) " ) )" ) " " ) ) ) " ) " " ) " " ) ) " ) " ) ) )" " " ) ) " " )" ) ) ) ) " " )" )" ) "
" ) the " The map shows different areas " ) ) " " ) ) " ) in Schramberg affected by")")the sun " ) " )" " ) " ) ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " " " radiations ranging from blue -least ) ) " ) ) ) ) " " " " ) ) ) " " " " ) ) " " ) " " ) " ) ) ) ) " " ) " " " ) ) ) " )" " ) ) ) " " ) " ) ) " ) )" " ) " " )" ) effected to red -highly exposed to " ) " ) " ) " " " ) ) ) ) " )" ) ) ) " " " ) ) " ) ) " ) " ) " " ) " " " ) ) " )" )) ) ) " " ) " " "" ) )) ) " ) " )" " ) )" " ) ) )" " sun. ) " )) " )"
Settlement Buildings Preserved Oriented South " )
Buildings Oriented South
buildings layer from polygon feature to Point, so we can be able to intersect with the New RasterT_Int_Asp1. Sulgen - Finally by intersecting between the buildings as point features with the new RasterT_ Int_Asp1 as polygon feature, so we will end up with new point features, which have all the orientation values. 0 950 1,900 3,800 Meters - By using select by attributes for the new point layer and typing Grid_code (Field) >= 157<= 202, and then we export a new layer as point features just for south oriented buildings and we exclude all the building with south oriented within the old center for reserve the city image without adding a any photovoltaic cells on the roofs for these building.
- By running Aspect model for the Heighgrid raster to identify the downslope direction of the maximum rate of change in value from each cell to its neighbors. - To change the raster data to polygon all the values for the raster data has to be without any decimal, so by using Int model for deleting the decimal digits from the values, which produce " ) " " ) " ) " ) ) " ) " ) a nother raster with the same values except the 0 950 1,900 3,800 Meters decimal digits. - To change the raster data to polygon features by using raster to polygon model, so we will have a polygon layer called RasterT_Int_ Asp1. radiation hamed ABDELGHAFAR, Tariq NASSAR, Wesam ELBARDISY MSc.shows IUSD Solar map : The map the different GeoDesign areas2013in - For selecting the buildings with south oriSchramberg affected by the sun radiations ranging from blue – ented (157-202 degree) from the new polygon layer RasterT_Int_Asp1, change the original least effected – to we red – highly exposed to sun
Design Concept The main concept was influenced by the historical buildings that exist in the old city of Schramberg, which make up the majority in the valley. The idea is to preserve the overview of the old city in the valley as indicated in the map, so here no technological installation will be added for energy production. In contrast with Schramberg, Sulgen is proposed to host different means of energy production through renewable energy with the maximum efficiency based on some local analysis through GIS. These installations are also adopted with a further expansion for industrial and residential settlements, so that visitors can experience the contrast between these")")")areas. " ) ) " ) " ) " ) )" " " " )" ) ) " ) " " ) " ) " ) "" ) " ) ) " " " ) ) ) " " ) " ) ) " ) ) " ) " " " )) )" " ) ) " " " " ) )" ) " " " ) " " ) ) " ) ) ) " ) ) " " ) ) ) " " ) ) )" )" " ) " ) ) " " " ) )" " ) ) " ) Description " " )) ) " " )" ) )" ) " " ) " ) ) )" " ) "
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High : 587775
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Abdalrahman ALSHORAFA, Mohammed ALFIKY, Mohamed ABDELGHAFAR, Tariq NASSAR, Wesam ELBARDISY
The map sho which are ori where PV ce
" ) ) "
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71 â€” Geodesign
Proposed Renewable Energy Distribution As mentioned in the design concept, the focus was on Sulgen area to host different means of energy production. Throughout GIS analysis, the best local distribution and usage of renewable energies were proposed. According to the solar radiation map, photovoltaic cells and fields were located to the most exposed area for direct sun light that can supply 16 % of the energy needed to supply the existing settlement and the further expansion as indicated in the map. A Biomass Plant was located according to arable land availability and the best soil quality. Taking into account the land uses and less transport energy needed to operate the plant which can supply 1 % of the energy needed to supply the settlement. Wind turbines were located according to wind speed, poor soil quality, away from fauna and flora and invisible for the existing settlements throughout visibility study in GIS analysis. This turbines can supply 83% of the energy needed to supply the settlement.
Sulgen. It is proposed that the produced biomass energy should cover the required energy for both historical Schramberg and the existing residential settlement and industrial area in Sulgen. The energy produced by the photovoltaic cells and the solar farms proposed should feed the whole Sulgen area and its future expansion. In addition to the newly installed wind turbines that will provide the energy gaps within the whole area. The GIS data had shown different potentials for solar power in Sulgen. In relation to the design concept, which tries to influence the industrial atmosphere within the area, wide spaces of industrial facility roofs in the area north east of Sulgen are considered to have a good potential for installing solar panels. Solar fields are proposed to be placed to the east of Sulgen depending on GIS indicators for the different aspects. In the same area to the east, Road panels are proposed to be placed close to the main road; making a usable buffer zone for the road and initiating suitable entrance character to the industrial area. On a larger scale in the area of Sulgen, photovoltaic cells are proposed to be installed on the buildings roofs, mostly concentrated in the northern part of the area, which shows the most suitable buildings orientated to the South.
Energy Feed-In Vision Biomass cycle: To operate the biomass plant, it will be preliminary fed from arable lands and organic waste of the old historical Schramberg area and the settlement Renewable Energy Distribution in Sulgen; additionally to the Proposed cultivated plants from the buffer zone between the historical Schramberg and As mentioned in the design concept, the focus was on Sulgen area to host different means of energy production. Throughout GIS analysis, the best locational distribution and usage of renewable energies were proposed. According to solar radiation map, photovoltaic cells and fields were located to the most exposed area for direct sun light that can supply 16 % of the energy needed to supply the existing settlement and the further expansion as indicated in map.
Biomass Plant was located according to arable lands availability and the best soil quality. It was taken into account the land uses and the less transport energy needed to operate the plant that can supply 1 % of the energy needed to supply the settlement. Wind turbines were located according to wind speed, a poor soil quality, away for fauna and flora and invisible for the existing settlements throughout visibility study in GIS analysis. This turbines can supply 83% of the energy needed to supply the settlement.
New satelments (intervention area) Schramberg hitorical old town. Buffer zone around old town. P V cells around main streets Biomass planet P V cells fields Wind turbins fields
d ALFIKY, Mohamed ABDELGHAFAR, Tariq NASSAR, Wesam ELBARDISY
Newly Proposed Energy distribution
Abdalrahman ALSHORAFA, Mohammed Mohamed ABDELGHAFAR, Tariq NASSAR, Wesam ELBARDISY GeoDesignALFIKY, 2013 8
04 â€” Integrated Research & Design
74 â€” Integrated Research & Design
Integrated Research and Design Module I WS 2012/13 Dr. Nina Gribat, SI Prof. Antje Stokman, ILPÖ Dipl.-Ing. Moritz Bellers, ILPÖ Yasar Adanali, M.A.
In the winter term, students concentrate on the development of an integrated bottom-up research-and-designproject. This includes an initial phase of site exploration based on the “creating knowledge” methodology (Studio Urbane Landschaften). Thereafter, methods of participatory development such as integrated actor and needs assessment will play an important role in defining particular projects. Students will meet a variety of stakeholders including local planning authorities and other public sector officials, civil society initiatives, representatives of the private sector, local residents and activists. Students are required to gather a range of data relating to different interests and needs of their stakeholder and to translate these into actual projects. Through intensive site visits and the study of reports, literature and data, students will familiarize themselves with the specific ecological, socioeconomic and political contexts and analyse the development challenges and chances in relation to their projects. On the basis of these analyses and in collaboration with their actor groups, students will develop their projects. Workshops focusing on project management and different theories and practices as well as research methodologies support this phase of work.
In Winter Semester 2012/13 the IUSD students together with a local stakeholder group developed project proposals for the competition “New Neighbourhoods” which was issued by Montag Foundation. •
76 â€” Integrated Research & Design
by Athar Mufreh, Aya El-Wagieh, Irmtraud Eckart, Nuha Innab
77 â€” Integrated Research and Design Module I
by Athar Mufreh, Aya El-Wagieh, Irmtraud Eckart, Nuha Innab
— Integrated Research and Design Module _ call me a Wüman! Integrated Research & Design
Münster Weilimdorf Feuerbach
call me a Wüman!
Nordbahnhof Rasha Abodeeb, Fadi Charaf, Daniel Koschorrek, Mahy Mourad
Figure_the surrounding area
Research and Design Project
The houses in the area are mainly traditional apartment blocks. In terms of transportation, the area is well conIRDM Phase II The Wüman Association Area Description by Rasha Abodeeb, Fadi Charaf, Daniel Kosnected to the city; however, people tend to stayIntegrated within Needs and In the second phase: The project is to establish an association funded The ‘Nordbahnhof’ area in Stuttgart; is an isolated Analysis; a 1996). mapping for the Nordbahnhof co and provided byMahy womenMourad for women. Due to the district lying between two mainneeds (Europe, chorrek, theindustrial area to areas, satisfy their
was done to represent the possible actors h lack of social and physical spaces for women in the roads, a cemetery and a railway. The major traffic Nordbahnhof area the “Wüman association” will act routes and the railway yard act as a boundary sepa- cally. Further, a communication/participation egy was developed for identifying possible p as Introduction a facilitator in the search for vacant spaces. It will rating the area fromAnalysis the surroundings. Nordbahnhof and Strategy partners and identifying their needs. Also a function like a non-profit real estate agency with a is a well-functioning community developed at the The Wüman Assocation Community Mapping strong focus on women groups or individual woman, beginning of the century, where there were repeated analysis was undertaken. which to improve the social of thefunded waves of immigration to the area since 1979. In themap of the community focusThewant project establishes ancoherence association and pro- Through creating a spatial Nordbahnhof area and therefore need space to unmeantime, it is a multicultural and multilingual ComIRDM Phase III vided by women for women. Due to the lack of social and ing on both ‘women’ and ‘migrants’ user groups, and takfold their ideas. munity with (≈38%) of the population have migraIn the third phase: Project Brief Developmen tion background, they give a dominant physical spaces for women in the Nordbahnhof area the though ing the multitude of theand actors project in the idea Nordbahnhof comwas developed together with th distinctive characteristic to the area. Most apartIUSD Project Mission partners at Nordbahnhof area. Further, a pro “Wüman association” will act as a facilitator in search munity into consideration, then bringing them together ments in the area are owned by the non-profit housthe “Neue Nachbarschaften” competition w In the Integrated Research and Design Module, the ing development of theand German railways forworks vacant spaces. It functions a non-profit real es- company inclusively representing them holistically in a condeveloped and submitted by the project tea IUSD in small groups on integratedlike research (Deutsche Bahn AG), houses in the area are mainly and design projects, are related thefemale Nor- groups or inditate agency withwhich a strong focustoon ceptual network ‘community map’ shows the diversity of traditional apartment blocks. In terms of transportadbahnhof area in Stuttgart. Concentrating on the IRDM Phase IV tion, the area is well connected to the city; however, vidual women, who want to improve their social coherthe community but also the missing spaces concerning development of an integrated bottom-up project; people tend to stay within the area to satisfy their The last phase: Reflection and Documentati based methodology, theory,area practice enceonofthethe Nordbahnhof andand thereforeneeds need(Europe, space 1996). women’s needs. presented hereunder in this documentation participatory development; the IUSD students have flective way to the whole project. to unfold developed six their projectideas. proposals. IRDM Phase I
Area Description Strategy In the first phase of the project: Site Exploring and The ‘Nordbahnhof’ area in Stuttgart is an isolated disthe main idea the of the Initial Visioning; theWhile aim was understanding site’sproject focuses on participacharacter andaunderstanding the social it situation trict lying between industrial areas, two main roads, tory approaches, is quite important to develop a suitbased on the “creating knowledge” methodology. cemetery and railways. The major traffic routes and the able strategy to approach women as a user group. The railway yard act as a boundary separating the area from objective is to facilitate the integration of women into the their surroundings. Nordbahnhof is a well-functioning community and opening different channels to articulate community developed at the beginning of the century, their needs. To reach a suitable partner, a general stratwhere since 1979 waves of immigration recurred. In the egy for interaction with institutions and people was demeantime, it is a multicultural and multilingual com- veloped that considers and relates the Urban Commons munity; approximately 38% of the population having and the different participatory approaches to enable a migration background, though they give a dominant women of the neighbourhood to be deliberately included and distinctive characteristic to the area. Most apart- and integrated in the process of their community develments are owned by the non-profit housing development opment. company of the German railways (Deutsche Bahn AG).
Creating a spatial map of the community focusing on both ‘women’ and ‘migrants’ user groups, through thinking of the multitude of actors in Nordbahnhof community; bringing them together inclusively and representing them holistically in a conceptual network ‘community map’ that shows the diversity of the community but also the missing spaces concerning women needs.
direct contact with the people. Taking part in these activities as ‘users’ and communicating with some
key persons in the area e.g. Mr. Sofuoğlu, helped the 79 group to get more sense of how the neighbourhood is and to establish strong connections with residents — and people from inside the area. Integrated Research and Design Module I Strategy While the main focus of the project idea depend on participatory approaches, it is quite important to develop the suitable strategy to approach women as user-group. The objective is to facilitate the integration of women into the community and opening different channels to articulate their needs. To reach the suitable partner; a general strategy for interaction with institutions and people was developed that considers and relates the Urban Commons and the different participatory approaches to enable the women of the neighbourhood to be deliberately included and integrated in the process of their community development.
Rosenstein school education_youth
Combining both Top-down with Bottom-Up methods and working with them in-parallel, the group succeeded in developing strong connections in the which eventually have led to specifying a partner.
ch and Design Module _ call me a Wüman! Partner found
Combining both woman and migrants as an outcome of the community mapping; and using both formal and informal approaches; the group has found a group of Turkish women as user-group to co-develop together the project. In addition Mr. Sofuoğlu suported the developing process.
Youth center nord some of the women meet in the morning. The bakery’s opening hours are related to the school hours’ Wagenhallen and thus it closes after midday and therefore the Haus 49 communication space closes. social_youth
Why women? Why women? question of who participates and who benefits providingThespace The question of who participates and who benefits raises raises awkward questions for participatory development. The very projects that appear so transformative can development. turn out to be supportive of The a status awkward questions for a participatory center nord quo that is highly inequitable for women (Cornwall, What can Family be done in vacant spaces? 2003). Women’s involvement, it was argued that, is Kopling very projects that appear so transformative can where turn out Mosque often limited to implementation, essentialisms Bildungswerk about women’s caring roles and naïve assumptions It was argued that Martins the transformation of what already church about ‘the community’ come into play (Guijt and to be supportive of a status quo that is highly inequitable common space kaul shah 1998, Lind 1997, in Cornwall 2003) which exists is the key to the urban development of tomorapproach a mean by which women are excluded. Thus, the for Formal women (Cornwall, 2003). Itisgroup is argued women’s have decide to that, choose women as project row and that it is about how what is given can be To develop the communication/participation stratpartners. egy, the group has first followed conventional involvement is often to implementation, where perceived, used, changed, or removed (Urban Catatop-down method ‘Formal approach’limited for identifying a potential partner. The group has approached lyst, 2013). The project adopts the notion of vacant institutions and organizations through contacting essentialisms about women’s caring roles and naïve asmanagers and responsible people in order to reach Facilitator for ﬁnding spaces as a resource that already exists to include a potential partner. This approach did not achieve its sumptions community’ come into play (Guijt target of leadingabout to a project ‘the partner. The group have vacant space and engage women of the Nordbahnhof area in the then adjusted its approach and developed other a partner. andstrategies Kaulto reach shah 1998, Lind 1997, in Cornwall 2003) is a community by enabling them to use these spaces_tocall m Integrated Research and Design Module Informal approach Community Mapping means through which women are excluded. Thus, the unfold their ideas and talents. social activity The Informal communication approach was devels core ProjectThe project enables gradual development of the oped by the group to reach residents and users of e group decided choose like women as project partners. the neighbourhood withto no ‘intermediary’ the gain Access to a Figure_Community mapping neighbourhood by finding vacant spaces then c providing space facili- 3 guidance for space ﬁnding space tating permanent or temporary uses of these spaces W Project by the women. These spaces can become nuclei for I common space e Idea women start-ups and initiatives, in the fields of arts, r p Today, when most of the spaces in the city are address cultures and other creative realms. Women ly products Facilitator for ﬁnding s initiatives of young and creative people in the city, apvacant space a c pear some marginalized groups in the community such u social activity core T as women and migrants. ‘Say I’m a wüman’ is an associagain Access to n space t tion that is initiated for women by women, in the Norb facilitating communication w dbahnhof area where most of the residents come from landlord - women c products a migrant background. Investigating the social spaces, Project focus Mission Figure_Project focus art initiatives and start-ups in the Nordbahnhof area, city are The project mission is detecting the vacant spaces found that they are dominated by young creative creative it was Open unused space in the area, making a database for them then faciliwith vegetation Idea Mission people orpermanent men, so theor idea was bornuses of creating project ginaltating temporary of thesea spaces In a time where most of the spaces in the city are The project mission is detecting the vacant spaces men and for by the women. Further, the project will contribute women that deals with spaces in the area. addressing initiatives of the young and the creative in the area, making a database for them then facilipeople in the city, there appear some marginaltating permanent or temporary uses of these spaces on that the of development ofto the member’s potentials of and ized Theinaim the project is change the perception thegroups in the community such as women and by the women. Further, the project will contribute migrants. ‘say I’m a wüman’ is a association that in the development of the member’s potentials and ordbahnskills; and will create the legal framework. is initiated for women by women, in the Nordbahnwomen in the area through enabling them to contribute skills; and will create the legal framework. e from a hof area where most of the residents come from a social coherence of their community. They willmigrant be background. Investigating the social spaces, Vision ial spaces,to the Vision art initiatives and start-ups in the Nordbahnhof area, Paved walkway Establishing ‘Say I’m a Wüman ‘ association that will it was found that they are dominated byaccess the young no car nhof area, able to develop the capacity to claim their needs and thus enable the gradual development of the Nordbahncreative or by men, so there comes the idea of creEstablishing ‘Say I’m a Wüman ‘ association that will hof neighbourhood, through the active participation e young they will be empowered and actively participate in ating a project for women that deals with spaces in the of the women in the area. Having many nuclei for enable the gradual development of the Nordbahnthe area. women start-ups and initiatives; in the fields of arts, ea of credevelopment of their neighborhood by using the potencultures and other creative realms by using the pohof neighbourhood, through the active participation Aim paces in tential of vacant spaces in the area. the women tialofvacant spaces.in the area. Having many nuclei forThe aim of the project is to change the perception unused space of the women in the area through enabling them to What areOpen vacant spaces? in the spaces fields ofinarts, contribute Thewomen projectstart-ups mission and is toinitiatives; detect vacant the to the social coherence of their communi- Vacant spaces in the area are the disused sites and ty. They will be able to develop the capacity to claim cultures and other creative realms by using the poempty buildings that go unused all of the time or for their needs and thus they will be empowered and area, creating a database for them and then facilitating some time are considered as ‘vacant spaces’ which actively participate in the developing of their neightential of vacant spaces in the area. Dead end street the project aims to use as a resource. bourhood through using the potential vacant spaces. ception permanent or temporary uses of those spaces by women. (see figure_vacant spaces) Example for the spaces that are unused some of the them to Further, contribute in the development What the are project vacant will spaces? time in the area: ‘Brotkörble’ a bakery shop; where F communi- of member’s potentials and skills and will create the leVacant spaces in the area are the disused sites and y to claim galempty framework. Establishing the ‘Sayall I’m Wüman‘ assobuildings that go unused ofathe time or for ed and some time are considered ‘vacant spaces’ will enable the gradualas development of thewhich Nordeir neigh- ciation the project aims to use as a resource. Abandoned building neighborhood, through the active participation nt spaces.bahnhof former milk factory (see figure_vacant spaces) of women in the area. By using the potential of vacant Example for the spaces that are unused some of the Vacant Spaces time in the area: ‘Brotkörble’ a bakery shop; where Figure_Vacant spaces social_all generation
event Haus 49
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spaces women can create start-ups and initiatives, in the field of arts, cultures and other creative realms. What are vacant spaces? Vacant spaces in the area are disused sites and empty buildings that are unused all the time or are considered for some time as ‘vacant spaces’ which the project aims to use as a resource. An example for the spaces that are unused some of the time in the area is the ‘Brotkörble’; a bakery shop where some of the women meet in the morning. The bakery’s opening hours are related to the school hours’ and thus it closes after midday and so the communication space closes too. What can be done in vacant spaces? It was argued that the transformation of what already exists is the key to the urban development of tomorrow and that it is about how the given can be perceived, used, changed, or removed (Urban Catalyst, 2013). The project adopts the notion of vacant spaces as a resource that already exists to include and engage women of the Nordbahnhof area in the community by enabling them to use these spaces to unfold their ideas and talents. The project enables gradual development of the neighborhood by finding vacant spaces, then facilitating permanent or temporary uses of these spaces by women. These spaces can become nuclei for women start-ups and initiatives, in the fields of arts, cultures and other creative realms. Stakeholders, defined as persons or organizations that are actively involved in the project, have interests that may be positively or negatively affected by the performance or completion of the project and also may exert influence over the project, its deliverables or its team member (PMBOK Guide). Every stakeholder has a certain influence in the process of creating the project. The Nordbahnhof community, residents and users of the area, are the main and most considered actors in the process. Through the project phases, the community provided us with the street’s voice and problems and helped us to know more about the area. Through the community we became more aware of the different cul-
tural orientations in the area which helped us to formulate our approaches further to the project idea. A group of four Turkish women from the Nordbahnhof area, who are quite motivated to express their needs, ideas and willing to participate in the community. They are the partner of the project. A key person in the Nordbahnhof area: Gökay Sofuoğlu, who was the former manager of Haus 49, worked for 20 years with migrants in the area and still has a good communication with people in the area. He was the link between our group and the Turkish women. Haus 49 is a neighborhood center for education and activities for the youth, children and families and a meeting space for different cultural groups. It was founded by Caritas and is the main venue place for project meetings and workshops. Haus 49 is also considered as the curator of the project, as it has offered to provide the needed space for the project to initiate. The municipality has experts working with different groups of women, they have already some programs that deal with women in educational programs. They offered to support the project with know-how to form an association, where to get financial support and other general support. The Story of Hatice / The Board of the Women ‘Hatice’ is a Turkish woman and mother from the Nordbahnhof area. She wakes up in the morning every day to prepare breakfast for her family and then take her children to school. Although Hatice is also working for some days during the week, she still has some free time. After taking her children to school, in the free days, she usually meets other women who have similar daily routines. Not knowing the right ways to use their times effectively, women were wondering what they could do? Which places to go to? Their common ground is they want to do something different to fulfill their needs, as well they want to have their own space in which they can meet, share activities and make use of their potentials. Workshops Workshops were recommended to give women the chance to express their needs, articulate their voices and
81 — Integrated Research and Design Module I
gain more confidence. Thus, two workshops were held References and moderated by the group in Haus 49 together with Cornwall, A., 2003. Whose voices? the project partners. In two workshops with the project Whose choices? Reflections on partners (Turkish woman/ mothers), the group inquired gender and participatory development. In The Participation Reader. about the women’s needs and their vision of the area. pp. 203–223. Aiming to identify their needs and interests, the group has created the suitable casual atmosphere for the wom- Council of Europe, 1996. Areabased projects in districts of high en to express their needs. immigrant concentration, ExrotThe group was able to prioritize needs of the partner, aprint e.V., Exrotaprint. Available which are feasible to implement. In the workshop, the at: http://www.exrotaprint.de/ [Accessed March 3, 2013]. following needs were detected: – Communication ability (Language skills) – Secure living conditions (Stuttgart 21) – Meeting place (Ice cafe, Shisha bar) Integrated Research andequipment, Design Module _ call me a Wüman! – Recreational area (Sport Playgrounds) considered as the curator of the project, as it has Project – Children education (Farm, Urban garden) offered to provide the needed space for the project
Oswalt, P., Overmeyer, K. & Misselwitz, P., 2013. Urban Catalyst, The Power of Temporary Use, DOM Publisher. Project Management Institute, Definition Stakeholder. Available at: http://blogs.pmi.org/blog/ voices_on_pro- ject_management/2009/09/who-is-a-stakeholder.html [Accessed March 3, 2013].
Integrated Research and Design Module _ call m to initiate.
SWOT analysis The municipality has experts working with different groups of women, they have already some programs Participatory workshops deal with women in educational programs. They To get a first impression ofthatthe qualities of the project offered to support the project with: know-how to form an association, where to get financial support partner we undertook a SWOT analysis. out Workshops were recommended to giveWe thefigured women and other general support. Every stakeholder has certain influence in the prothe chance to express their needs, their their migration background andarticulate fact of being cess ofthat creating the project. The story of Hatice / the The Board of the Women more beneficial confidence. two work‘Hatice’ is a TurkishThus, woman from Nordbanhof area, Community avoices womanand willgain be quite for developing a good she is also a mother. She wakes up in the morning shops were held andof moderated by breakfast the group in and Nordbahnhof community, residents and users every day to prepare for her family project. On the other thetake language barrier and the the area, is the main and most considered actorside in then her children to school. Although Hatice is Haus49 project the process. Through thetogether project phases, with the com-thealso working for partners. some days during the week, she munity level have provided us with the street are voice and of education barriers which up cerstill has some freemight time. After bring taking her children to problems, helped us to know more about the area. school, in the free days, she usually meets other Through the community we became more aware of women who havementioned similar daily routines.analysis Not knowing tain difficulties.the Merging the above Workshop 2 the different cultural orientation1in & area which the right ways to use their times effectively; Women helped us to formulate our approaches further the were wondering what could they do? Which places the outcomes of the workshops, the group isthen foprojectwith idea. could they go to? The common thing that they In two workshops with the project partners (Turkwant to do something different to fulfil their needs, main need ofspace theincomTurkishcused women on the spatial aspectsasas wellthe they want to have their own which ish woman/ mothers), thetheyGroup inquired about the can meet, share activities and make use of their A group of four Turkish women from the Nordbahpotentials. munity. This ledto to the decision to of create an association women’s needs and their vision the area. Aimnhof area, who are quite motivated express their needs and ideas and willing to participate in the ingTheytoareisidentify needs and interests, the group community. the partner of their the project. which addressing the needs of women through providhasorcreated the them suitable casual atmosphere for the IUSD Group ing supporting by gaining access to space.
women to express their needs. Brain storming for the partners needs and further, Prioritising them, Future development the group was able to identify the main need of the Many municipalities have opened themselves up to the partner. Mr. Sofuoğlu A team of four students of the Integrated Urbanism and Sustainable Design at the University of Stuttgart are involved in the project as a scope in the university, which is dealing with community participatory strategies.
issue of temporary use of space [...], temporary uses have Partner Needs almost become an integral part of official urban planning jargon (Urban catalyst, The next stepsofofthe thepartprojThe group was able to2013). a prioritize needs Haus 49 ner,include which plans are feasible to implement. In the workect to establish a link to the municipality Haus 49 which is a neighbourhood centre for edushop, the following needs wereFurther detected: and create synergies with them. workshops are cation and activities for youth, children and families and meeting space for different cultural groups, founded by Caritas, is the main venue place for planned to extend the possible participants of the associproject meetings and workshops. Haus49 is also ation. Bringing more women in will improve the integration of the association in the area. Then it can be focused on profiling the association in order to bring it to life. A Key person in the Nordbahnhof area: Gökay Sofuoğlu; who was the former manager of Haus49, worked for 20 years with migrants in area and now he still has a good communication with people in the area. He was the link between the group and the Turkish women group.
? ? ? ability (Language skill) • Communication • Secure living conditions (Stuttgart 21) • Meeting place (Ice cafe, Shisha bar) go to work • Recreational area (Sport equipment, Playgrounds) • Children education (Farm, Urban garden) meet friends
SWOT analysis To have a first impression of the qualities of the project partner we undertook a SWOT analysis. It bring kids to school was figured out that the migration background and thewake fact of being a woman will be quite benefitial for up make breakfast Figure_Daily developing a good project. On the other side the life of Hatice Daily Life of Hatice language barrier and the level of education are barriers which might bring up certain difficulties. Women in Positive Nordbahnhof
Stakeholders which are defined as persons or organizations that are actively involved in the project; have interests that may be positively or negatively affected by the performance or completion of the project; may exert influence over the project, its deliverables or its team member (PMBOK Guide).
Study the validaty and feasi-
- Area expertise
are you a woman? Living in the area do you -live in Nordbahnhof area? Knowing the needs are you-interested in community improvement? women / kids do you need space to develop?
of a family/ Wümen
- Focus in theofTurkish culture bility the suggested ideas - Small group true? - Communication proceed with the develop-
- Strong own culture (Turkish) processes (Workshops)
please join us in Haus 49 - Experience in formal every wednesday.
this Opportunities announcement by the association, through which possible spatial -needs will berichness ﬁltered Cultural throughout different criteria set - Dense cultural landscape by the association.
49, Youth center, Mosque, school etc.) - Institutional infrastructure (use of Haus 49 infrastructure)
ment. scanning area for suitable space.
false? adjust and develop the ideas to ﬁt them into the core ideas of the assocuation.
- Not understood or liked by the old DB workers - Development implementation of Stuttgart 21 (Patricia Real Estate, construction site, worker sheds) - Partriachic culture (Man dominated)
Merging the above mentioned analysis with the findings of the workshops, the group then focused on the spatial aspects as the main need of the community.
M th ra of Th lis th po m as th lif
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Research and Design Projects II Integrated Research and Design Module, SS 2013 Dr. Nina Gribat, SI Dipl.-Ing. Moritz Bellers, ILPÖ M. Arch. Marisol Rivas-Velázquez, SI Dipl.-Ing. Daniel Schönle, external Prof. Dr. Wolf Reuter, IWE
In the summer term of this year-long module, students were asked to develop innovative integrated approaches to collective housing on a particular site at the Nordbahnhof area in Stuttgart, which manage to integrate inhabitants with different backgrounds and needs, particular in terms generational, social and cultural aspects. In the first phase, students worked in small teams of four on the development of an Urban Design Concept for Collective Housing. At the end of the first phase, the best concepts were selected and integrated into a joint framework for the thematic developments which were the focus of the second phase. Students formed new groups for the thematic development in Phase 2 according to their interests. This course aimed at expanding students’ understanding of the roles and responsibilities of different professionals involved in the process of shaping our cities, buildings and urban environment. It links research and design skills in terms of applying ecological knowl-
edge, up to date technologies and shaping built form to approaches and relates them to collaborative forms of project development and organization. In addition and as part of the integrated research and design module in the summer semester, students received structured training and support in writing their first proposals for their master theses. •
83 â€” Research and Design Projects II
Integrated Energy Strategies â€“Collective Housing Project, Nordbahnhof Stuttgart by Abdelrahman Alshorafa, Eric Petruweit, Mohammed Alfiky, Mohammed Mahrous, Rasha Abodeeb, Wesam El Bardisy, Tareq Nasser Integrated Energy Concept The Energy dimension relates to three levels: building, community or city, and global or international level. To make a beneficial change on the global level in terms of energy reduction one should start with the small scale to achieve an effective impact on the higher levels (community, city, and international). In this study the energy concept is constituted by integrating the different energy strategies in terms of reduce, reuse, and recycle. In doing so the three-Rconcept will be applied on the different levels. Starting with on the building level, open spaces with a block and district, and the energy system production network. Integrated Energy Networks is one of the main targets of the renewable energy strategies in our future cities. Energy efficiency should pervade the network infrastructure as a whole, to such an extent as to become part of the network design criteria
Energy Dimension and Impact
and to carry across multiple networking domains for the achievement of a general target. There are many types of renewable energy sources, which can be integrated in our cities to achieve a green sustainable development, which relates to the reduction of wastes, to have an impact on the C02 emissions, and the economic one, stemming from the need of operators to reduce the cost of keeping the network up and running at the desired service level on the human dimension. The integration of energy networks and water systems is the most beneficial concept we can achieve in our cities. In the case of the Nordbahnhof district, which is located in the heart of Stuttgart city, we considered to neglect few types of the renewable energy sources, namely the ones which are unsuitable for the location in the Nordbahnhof area, such as wind and water turbines, geothermal systems and biomass power plants. Hence we propose to use the PVC for electricity production, combined with heating and cooling systems on the building level, especially since in this area the temperature and solar radiation are raising for the last decade. At the same time the water system collectors will be combined with energy sources on three levels: building, neighborhood, and the district, which is connected to the city grid network. The design strategies on the three levels should consider the three-R-concept: Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle.
Integral Energy Network & Water System
84 â€” Integrated Research & Design
Integrated Energy and Water Networks The integrated network concept is meant to exploit most of the assets in the Nordbahnhof district; to maximize the use of the natural resources available and sustain the usage of the provided infrastructure â€“ the electricity and fresh water networks. To achieve the concept in the Nordbahnhof district regarding the energy, a new local energy production is proposed. On the district scale photovoltaic cells are added to the existing buildings. Although those photovoltaic cells are not sufficient to provide the buildings with the energy needed, they will decrease the demand from the main electricity network. Taking the advantage of the existing/newly proposed transportation-networks, especially of the U-Bahn, the KinerRail technology is proposed. Its energy benefits from the U-Bahn stations and transforms the kinetic energy to electrical energy which then feeds the main electricity network. To maximize the usage of natural resources within the building scale for the newly proposed design, solar panels are proposed to be installed to finally transform the captured sunlight into electricity and heating/cooling water. Since the buildings will
Concept â€“ Integrated Energy Network & Water System In The Area
produce more energy than needed, the excess energy can as well feed the landscape elements in open spaces and provides the main network with additional electricity. Rainwater is also collected, stored and used after filtration. Within the building the stored water will be used for the irrigation of the roofgardens and the toilet flushing, and within the open spaces, the stored water will be used for waterscape elements and irrigation as well. To conceptualize the idea of reusing and reducing, the used fresh water from the buildings is reused in toilet flushing and roofgarden irrigating as well as it is used in the landscape of the open spaces, this in one way or another reduces the demand of fresh water. The wastewater is collected from buildings and landscape and returns to the main sewage system. District Scale Strategies Water The area offers a functioning potable water supply as well as a sewage system. Thus, we suggest connecting to these, in addition to the rainwater and grey water usage on the block scale. Waste water treatment on the block
85 — Research and Design Projects II
scale or the district scale would require the installation of complex, space consuming facilities and is therefore not considered efficient by us.
the location is a sensitive place for Stuttgart’s climate, since it is the main air flow corridor for the valley’s natural ventilation.
Green spaces The conservation of the existing surrounding park areas (Pragfriedhof, Schlossgarten and Rosensteinpark) is very important, because they offer recreational space, enable children to play in natural surroundings, improve the air quality and reduce the heat island effect. In case of the realization of Stuttgart21, we support extensions of Schlossgarten and Rosensteinpark towards the currently existing railway tracks. From the energy point of view, green areas work temperature regulative and as water storage, taking pressure off the sewerage system.
Waste management The conventional waste collection and treatment methods practiced in Nordbahnhof meet the German standards. The company “Abfallwirtschaft Stuttgart” cares for the collection of paper, glass, organic waste, hazardous waste, bulk garbage and residual waste. It is also responsible for the city cleaning and winter road maintenance and management of public rubbish bins, which could all be adopted.
Mobility The area is close to the city center. Bus and light-rail stops exist. The nearest DB bicycle-sharing station is over one kilometer away from our site. We thus suggest the installation of additional stations, one next to the “Milchhof” stop, and another near Rosensteinschule. Cycle paths need to be extended along busy Rosensteinstraße. The other streets are quiet with low car traffic and do therefore not need dedicated cycle paths. Electricity Connection to the communal electricity grid is also available. Due to the seasonal discrepancies in electric energy production capacities from photovoltaic cells and energy demand and in the face of lacking technology for energy storage on the local scale, it is advisable to establish a connection to the grid. This will enable a feed-in of surplus solar energy in summer and coverage of additional demands in winter. Most of the residential buildings in Nordbahnhof have pitched roofs. Most of the newer buildings have flat roofs however, they are mostly planted. The plain flat roofs are suitable for installing PV-cells to increase the production of renewable energy. The use of wind turbines for energy production is not advisable, since the entire area is (or will be) built up. Also, District Scale Strategies
IRD 2013 86 — Integrated Research & Design
The Urban Hub site analysis Urban Design and Housing Typologies
The Urban Hub Urban Design and Housing Typologies
Nordba The site fact that area stro generati average be impro resident
Lucas Krupp, Athar Mufreh, Nuha Innab, Sana Kasouha, Sary Mudhafar, Aya El Wagieh, Daniel Koschorrek
by Lucas Krupp, Athar Mufreh, Nuha Innab, Sana Kasouha, Sary Mudhafar, Aya El Wagieh, Daniel Koschorrek
Site Analysis – Nordbahnhof The site is located in “Nordbahnhof” area in the north of Stuttgart, Germany. The area has a special urban setting. Due to the fact that it inhabits people with different migration backgrounds as well as the S21 project which will affect the area strongly, creates a unique area. As a general contextual remark, the area lacks interaction between different generational groups, citizens have low income and there is a high percentage (10.8%) of unemployment (Stuttgart city average 5.4%). Despite the area’s diversity and multinationality the integration and connection to other areas could be improved, as well as the connection with its surroundings (street level and buildings, private and public, commercial and residential). Circulation and Use The site offers a direct link to the existing public transport connection in Stuttgart and sits at a crossing point beween both commercial and residential usage. The future plans for Stuttgart 21 foresee to extend the public transport link and transform the Nordbahnhof quarter into a vibrant neighbourhood. Situated at the gate to the new urban district, the site offers exceptional potential for development.
U 1:5000 city center
87 â€” Research and Design Projects II
The Urban Hub Concept
The area surrounding the site has a different urban Concept sense â€“ one feels as if being out of the city, somewhat like being in the countryside, orhe in went an industrial sense, one feels as if out of thearea. city or a The site should function as a new urban center, country side, industrial area. The sitewhere should fu as a new urban center, where the of development the development plans of S21 are benefitting the urbanity and connection to the city center. The new project city center. The new project in the site should a should activate the connection with its surroundings the connection with surroundings and improve and improve the urban condition. urban condition. This could be achieved by creating an active path from the area to the This connection could function Thiscity. could benew achieved by creating an active pa connect area walkability with the city. This new as a strong to element tothe ensure through theconn tion works a strong element to ensure walka site. Commercial, socialasand environmental sustainabilthrough the site. Commercial, social and enviro ity are focal points in the spatial configuration of the site.
tion of the site.
88 â€” Integrated Research & Design
concept experimenting density Concept experimenting density The overall design is to offer housing which is adaptable to the changing needs of the users. It accommodates change over time and adjusts to new living patterns. This collective housing allows cultural interaction and social equality. The general chosen masses on the site are experimented to have a suitable density regarding the surrounding urban blocks. The built up area and its housing typologies should allow more exposure to the south, and more flexibility and diversity.
The concept started by acknowledging the importance of the site location and its connection with surrounding park. We proposed a main pedestrian The concept started by acknowledging walkway connecting the Nordbahnhof Main street the ofwith thethe location the site andimportance the cinema plaza new axisof to the Schlosspark in the future. and its connection with the surrounding
The site was developed in regard to the main pedestrian walkway proposing four kind of different spaces: private, semi private, semipublic and Thepublic. site was developed in regard to the The upper part will be used more for commain pedestrian proposing four mercials purposeswalkway as well offering offices, studios andofsingle flats in the upper floors. kind different spaces: private, semi-
park. We proposed a main pedestrian walkway connecting the Nordbahnhof M main street and the cinema plaza with the new axis to the Schlosspark in the future.
private, semi-public and public. The roundings. The usage of levels creates the upper part will be used more for comnew big terraces towards the SchlossgarLucas Krupp, Athar Mufreh, Nuha Innab, Sana Kasouha, Sary Mudhafar, Aya El Wagieh, Daniel Koschorrek mercial purposes, but as well offer office ten. This will be a major attraction in the spaces, studios and studio apartments in project for people to socialize and have a the upper floors. great view onto the park.
This stage shows the spaces between the buildings and was is showing the main three public plazas which connect the site with surroundings. The This stage shows the spaces between the usage of levels creats the new big terraces to the buildings and the main three public plaSchlossgarten. This will be a major attraction in the project for people to socialize and its havesura great zas which connect the site with view onto the park.
89 — Research and Design Projects II
concept The chosen spatial configuration includes more public usages on the ground floor, together with green courtyards and a big stair to have something like a continuous green landscape towards the park. There are more commercial spaces on the first floor, and in the upper floors it gets more private. It is oriented to the south, to gain more sun exposure and open views towards the park.
public semi-public public
semi-public semi-private semi-private
private semi-public private
The chosen spatial configuration includes more public usages on the ground floor, together with green courtyards and a big stair to have like a continuous green landscape towards +- 0 the park. And more commercial spaces on the first floor, and it gets more private to the use of users in the upper floors.
+- 0 +- 0
a private Phases Semi-Public d Semi-Private the flexible development in different phases reacts c Private s to the given situation in Nordbahnhof and makes i use of the existing buildings on site. This is retained c a and used as an activator to generate additional inl comes (see finances). The site approach connects to the t I II existing buildings on the northern end of the site (1–2) and completes the new city quarter IIto the south (3–4). I Public
Oriented to the south, to have more sun exposure and open view towards the park.
PubT Sem q Sem s Priv
Diversity in space/Semi-Public Quality of space The project prioritizesSemi-Private diversity in the Private Diversity in space – Quality of quality spaceof space from different dimenspatial, experiential, The project prioritizes diversity in sions: the quality of space functional and architectural dimensions which form in different dimensions: spatial, experiential, functional different relations and diverse the socioThe project design enand architectural dimensions whichcultural form context. different relasures variety in the architectural layout, Diversity in space/ Quality of space typology of the units. Offer main tions and diversify the socioculturalinterior context. The project The project prioritizes diversity in the cores,quality Public courtyards and intermediof space from different dimendesign ensures variety in the architectural typologies, sions: spatial, experiential, functional ate/ shared spaces. Furthermore, It aland architectural dimensions which form lows the ofthediverse and in the interior layout of the units. Itaccommodation offers main different relations and diverse socio- funccultural context. The project design entions for different users.
I III sures variety in the architectural layout, cores like public courtyards IIand intermediate/shared interior typology of the units. Offer main cores, Public courtyards and intermedispaces. Furthermore, It allows the accommodation of ate/ shared spaces. Furthermore, It allows the accommodation of diverse funcdiverse functions for different users. tions for different users.
Public Semi-Public Semi-Private Private
T b ( t
Development in different phases III
P T t m
T t n
Phases The flexible development in phases reacts to the given situation in Nordbahnhof an Phases makes use of the existing building on site.
The flexible development in phases reacts
Lucas Krupp, Athar Mufreh, Nuha Innab, Sana Ka
IUSD around the world â€“ clockwise: Machu Picchu, Peru Madrid, Spain Lima, Peru Riga, Latvia Zanzibar, Tanzania Vilnius, Lithuania Marsa Matrouh, Egypt Biennale di Venezia, Italy â€˘
Italy – ‘Common Ground’: visiting the 13th International Architecture Biennale in Venice
France – IUSD students working with mud at the earth workshop in Lyon •
Germany â€“ IUSD Berlin Module: students and staff on tour in Dessau and Berlin, visiting the Bauhaus, the Reichstag, exhibitions and ministries â€˘
96 — Chapter / subject
Germany – Geodesign workshop in the Black Forest: exploring, discussing and working •
Germany â€“ IUSD team and students of the second intake are celebrating the finishing of the 1st year of the MSc IUSD programme â€˘
Egypt â€“ Urban safaris in Cairo and Alexandria: Fatimid Cairo is the historic centre of Cairo and is contrasted by the modern downtown, influenced by European planning methods. The city of Alexandria is situated in a different urban, climatic and historical context. â€˘
Egypt– IUSD students investigating the unique landscape and the character of the settlement in the desert oasis Siwa (Dec ‘12/Jan ‘13) •
IUSD around the world clockwise: Zanzibar, Tanzania Lilongwe, Malawi Cairo, Egypt San Sebastiรกn, Spain Golan Heights, Israel Zanzibar, Tanzania Biennale di Venezia, Italy Golan Heights, Israel โข
05 — Integrated Case-Study 107 — Chapter / subject
108 â€” Integrated Case Study
Ezzbet Al-Nasr Integrated Case-Study Projects and Methods and Tools, WS 2012/13 Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen Dr. Marwa Dabaieh
The Integrated Case Study Module is designed to address the new conditions and prepare the next generation of professionals to be leaders in the development of new modes of research and design practices. This module aims at expanding students’ understanding of the roles and responsibilities of professionals involved in the process of shaping our cities, buildings and urban environments. It links research and design skills in terms of applying ecological knowledge, up to date technologies and shaping built form, and beyond that it uses research and design skills in terms of collaborative forms of project development and organization. Students are asked to creatively and strategically assemble new alliances and relationships among owners, clients, builders, fabricators, consultants, NGOs etc. who lay the groundwork for innovative environmental, urban and architectural design and research. This year the study area was Ezzbet Al-Nasr. it is one of the areas labelled as an informal settlement on desert and state-owned land, covering an area of 0.42 km² with 72.190 inhabitants. It is formally attributed to the southern districts of Cairo and the Al-Basateen district. It is bounded by the Ring Road to the South, the highway called “Autostrad” to the East and the slaughterhouse to the North. A historic Jewish cemetery is embedded into its western parts. The two highways in the South and
the East both act as extension barriers and main access ways to the area. The history of the area’s construction goes back more than 40 years. It is strongly linked with an influx of rural migrants from Upper Egypt. Most internal streets are unpaved. Ezzbet Al-Nasr is -in many ways- physically and socially segregated from the rest of the city. The area is full of interrelated issues of governance, socioeconomic aspects as well as built and natural environments. Such complexity requires design projects with an integrated approach. To develop design projects, the Integrated Planning process is divided into three main phases. The first phase ‘Issue Prioritisation’ begins with conducting an integrated site analysis. Based on this analysis, a preliminary list of prioritized issues is identified. This list is then re-considered according to stakeholder analysis. By the end of the first phase, a list of prioritized issues for intervention is formulated. These issues serve as the input for the second phase ‘Integrated Design Brief Development’, where fast track measures for intervention are proposed. Subsequently, design briefs for these proposed interventions are prepared. These proposals are used to select the final design projects to be developed. In the last phase ‘Design Strategies Formulation and Implementation’, the design strategies for the final projects are developed, to make the projects ready for implementation. •
110 — Integrated Case Study
The matrix of the UN-Habitat urban development sectors (BUS, LED, L&S) which are not mutually exclusive with the crosscutting issues of Governance, Vulnerability and Environment (IUSD students 2012)
Preliminary Site Analysis and Prioritization of Issues The preliminary analysis used a pre-set structural approach to the assessment of urban needs, chances, and problems following the UN-Habitat urban development matrix. The matrix comprises Land and Shelter (L&S), Basic Urban Services (BUS) and Local Economic Development (LED) as development sectors. Crosscutting issues are Vulnerability, Governance, and Environment. The first phase of the preliminary analysis brought insights on the matrix’s sectors and crosscutting issues in separate lines in an equivalent weight. In the second phase, the 21 students with the supporting team from ASU held many workshops and discussion tables aiming at developing an exercise that results in a prioritization of issues for the coming phase. Throughout the workshops different analytical tools were discussed and applied with the aim to propose a set of fast track measures for intervention.These measures should encompass many of the problems and aspects raised from the analysis of the first phase. Initially, this was done in a matrix comprising all aspects. Afterwards, a “knowledge café” workshop has been conducted which has resulted in a preliminary prioritization of relevant topics for intervention. Topics were further subject to a second round of the prioritization exercise through multi-criteria matrices opposing issues versus issues and issues versus stakeholders. Each matrix prioritized a certain selection of issues. The overlapping issues were combined and
summed up into eight final priorities for the following phase of developing fast-track interventions.
Location of Ezzbet Al-Nasr in Cairo, based on map by Ketterer, I., Schade,
Cities without informality
Cities with informality
111 â€” Ezzbet Al-Nasr
Basic Urban Services (Bus) Map illustrating the roads surrounding the site (IUSD students 2012)
Local Economic Development (LED) The most predominant among the identified sectors appears to be the light industry sector. The distribution of activities shows a concentration of workshops related to car repairs and marble processing on the fringe areas. This location is strategically chosen by its proximity to the main roads and the targeted clients mainly not living in the area. Subsequently, the areas at the fringes are among the most polluted. Different grocery shops are located mainly in the inner parts, supposedly targeting local clients. Most of the workshops and shops are located on the ground floors.
112 — Integrated Case Study
A protocol is signed between Cairo Governorate HSBC Bank
Meeting between Governor HSBC representative UUU representative
Site survey (data collection for community needs in May 2010), actors involved: District chief (June 2010) Local council Liocals NGO Representative of HSBC
2nd site visit (meeting with NGO June 2010) UUU representative Local popular council representative District engineers HSBC Bank representative
Governance Relevant actors on the different administrational tiers A. Municipality Level B. Governorate (Mohafaza) C. Central Government
•• Ministry of Local Development •• Ministry of Sewage & Sanitation •• General Organization of Physical Planning (GOPP)
UUU defines actors for the implementation of the plan
A committee composed of representatives for all mentioned actors is formed under the coordination of the UUU, which held a number of meetings to propose development interventions for the area of Ezzbet Al-Nasr. According to the minutes of meetings, this committee has discussed and decided about a number of development interventions in the area. Within this step of the process the inclusion of community members or civil society was completely neglected.
D. Egyptian Funds •• Informal Settlement Development Fund (ISDF) •• National Fund for the UUU E. International agencies/actors •• Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) •• European Union •• HSBC F. Elected Bodies G. Military
Land and Shelter Typology 1
one floor hut
two-stories bearing system
two-stories skeleton system
multi-story skeleton system
Rented/built through a contractor
< 180 sqm
red brick / timber ceiling
red brick and reinforced concrete
red brick and reinforced concrete
Typlogies of open spaces (IUSD students 2012)
113 — Ezzbet Al-Nasr Vulnerability “Six dimensions of justice” (Harvey 1992) was used to define vulnerable groups within Ezzbet Al-Nasr. This tool covers many aspects and elements affecting the vulnerability of different groups, considering six dimensions or aspects to define and specify the most vulnerable groups: exploitation, marginalization, powerlessness, cultural imperialism, violence and ecological projects. Then, those aspects are interpreted into three main categories of vulnerability: • Urban vulnerability • Spatial vulnerability • Socioeconomic vulnerability
Solid Waste Hazard
“Six dimensions of Justice” 1. Exploitation 2. Marginalization 3. Powerlessness 4. Cultural Imperialism 5. Violence 6. Ecological projects Harvey 1992: 430-433 based on Iris Marion Young(1990) ‘Justice and the politics of difference’
Spatial Vulnerability • Urban Degredation • Location and exposure • Infrastructure • Building conditions
• Distribution of urban services • Right to housing • Health services • Education ScioEconomic Vulnerability • Equity in allocating resources • Employment • Demographics • Income generators
Types of vulnerability within Ezzbet Al-Nasr (IUSD students 2012, developed after HARVEY 1992).
114 â€” Integrated Case Study
Graph on defining environmental aspects in Ezzbet Al-Nasr (IUSD students 2012)
Prioritization In the beginning of November 2012 the second phase of the work started based on the analysis, results and findings of the first phase. The corrupt garbage collection system, poor school education, and a mal-functioning sewage system have been amongst the most often cited problems â€“ an enumeration most Cairenes would share. The inhabitants of Ezzbet Al-Nasr feel unduly stricken and so eight issues of importance were found to be in the need of inevitable solutions. Consequently, new working groups were formed to start designing and writing intervention proposals (Design brief documents). Based on that, and because the number of students is limited and the timeframe to work on these interventions is confined to two and a half months, until the third semester ends, four focused interventions were chosen through a voting process among the students. This process ended up with the formation of four newly focused groups working on the implementation of the elected interventions
115 â€” Ezzbet Al-Nasr
Organization chart of Developtment
MAZARITA TOOLBOOK CURITY TOWARDS SE U N OF TE RE research + participatory approach
ition of ecogn
ASLYEZBE UNITY COMM ET R MA K
2. Qu o and dem and ty ali
ing support ro ic local m y econom
em et ark
fo bor f la
MES BECO TRASH SH CA
ibility a nd
AS DECHILDREN ERS N T R SIGN PA DESPE A SC T E E STR OOL H SC E GN OF TH COMPLEX participatory approach
116 — Integrated Case Study
Client Product handover and payment
Product order and down payment
Craftsman Current situation without financial backup
‘Al-Ezzbah Asly’ – Community Market by Mohammed Abdel Aziz, Lisa Deister, Ghevar Ismaiel, Pia Lorenz, Eslam Mahdy, Ebtihal Mattar, Ayham Mouad In the context of Ezzbet Al-Nasr, the three identified determinants seem of considerable importance, especially concerning the locally producing micro-scale craftsmen. Over many other active but more large scale producing entities in the area, the sector of micro-scale handcrafts seemed particularly disadvantaged considering the following aspects. Accessibility to reach the craftsmen It has been observed that there are many problems of accessibility and walking through the neighborhood. This is due to the compact and very dense urban pattern in Ezzbet Al Nasr. The irregular and unpaved streets limit the loading of the products and materials – a main challenge for the craftsmen. Showcasing the products Most of the craftsmen work inside their homes, in a room or a small shop in the house. There are no signs or advertisement. In addition, there are no outlets or display windows to exhibit their products.
A craftsman’s workshop
Fear of Taxes In such an informal area built on state owned land with no legislation or legal framework, most of the craftsmen work informally without any permits in micro businesses. They cannot afford to pay the taxes or they are incapable of going through all bureaucratic steps to legalize their work. “Are you sure that the exhibition you are suggesting will not bring us the tax takers, police men, district men and other authorities?”, asked Zarief, a workshop owner No financial backup The craftsmen work with very little capital or with no capital at all in most cases. Hence, it’s quite difficult for them to produce products or even samples for any community markets or exhibitions to market their work. Aims, Objectives and Measures ‘Al-Ezzbah Asly’ aims to (1) enhance the exposure and recognition of the area, to (2) enable access to finance and to (3) promote human resource development. The table below shows which specific objects are expected to lead to the mentioned aims and which measures we chose for the implementation in order to achieve the mentioned objectives.
Showcasing the products
117 — Ezzbet Al-Nasr
1200 LE 1200 LE 1200 LE Set up conditions Set up conditions Set up conditions
Expert Consulting Expert Consulting Expert Consulting Workshops Workshops Workshops Production Production Production Selling Selling Selling Expert Consulting Expert Consulting Expert Consulting 1200 LE+ 5 % = 1260 LE
1200 LE+ 5 % = 1260 LE Exemplary 1200 funding LE+ 5scheme % = 1260 LE
Al-Ezzbah Asly Flyer
Business Plan The Business Plan of ‘Al-Ezzbah Asly’ will identify the Unique selling point The project ‘Al-Ezzbah Asly’ can be used as a unique selling point while a part of the benefits will go back to human resource development of the craftsmen themselves.
to larger selling points which offer a unique kind of local crafts at high quality as well as to mid-scale companies who buy larger quantities. Al-Ezzbah Asly Set-UP For the organizational set-up of ‘Al-Ezzbah Asly’ two different options have been developed. Option 1: Craftsmen choose representatives Option 2: Craftsmen choose representatives and available funding.
Target Group In the short term the target group is defined through the network channels which are mainly community markets and other consumer awareness raising selling points. In the long term it is advisable to connect the craftsmen Broom-Palm midribs
Furniture Workshops Stone Workshops Furniture Workshops Furniture Painting Workshops Copper lamp-frames
Tricot, Canvas & Curtains
Tricot, Canvas & Curtains Furniture Painting Workshops
Tricot, Canvas & Curtains Wire-frames Workshops Furniture Painting Workshops
Broom -Palm midribs
Tricot, Canvas & Curtains
Wire-frames Workshops (Lamps, etc..)
Mapping of craftsmen in Ezzbet Al-Nasr
Furniture Painting Workshops
First meeting with the youth
118 â€” Integrated Case Study
Trash becomes Cash â€“ An applied intervention for the garbage problem solving in Ezbet Al-Nasr, Cairo, Egypt by Zeina El-Cheikh, Nahla Nabil Makhlouf, Sandy Qarmout Garbage is generally found almost everywhere in Ezbet Al-Nasr: on the streets, pathways, and neglected vacant spaces, but especially in the streets just adjacent to the Jewish cemetery. It is obvious that the huge amount of left-over garbage in Ezbet Al-Nasr is causing physical problems as a result of the direct exposure to the pathogenic germs of the organic wastes left. Here, we have decided to work
on solving this problem. However, we also noticed that people are generally belonging to a low-income community. They are seeking for any means to gain well-being and more comfortable circumstances. Therefore an intervention which would focus mainly on tackling the garbage problem is highly needed. It is set as a main goal of our work to solve one of the areaâ€™s problems and at the same time making use of its potentials. During several meetings and talks with the concerned NGOs, associations and individuals, the idea that few people start to set a biogas unit on their rooftops was very attracting for us. In doing so organic waste from the kitchen could be used to produce methane gas which in turn can be used for cooking and heating purposes.
Illustration of the biodegradable process from the organic waste to biogas (Methane gas). (Adopted by authors based on: Mechanical engineering online, 2011)
Graphical representation of benefits from the project
Garbage is thrown everywhere and especially in the proximities of the Jewish cemetery (Taken by: Lisa Deister, IUSD 2012)
119 â€” Ezzbet Al-Nasr
Networking Since the scope of the work was reduced, and communicated associations and NGOs were determind and confined, establishing a network which would gather all the experts, associations and the community became inevitable in order to kick off the project. The TBC group did a big effort in talking to the people in Ezbet Al-Nasr. Around two weeks before the implementation and the installation of the first biogas units started, many informal meetings took place on the streets.
Implementation It is a new idea for the community to produce gas from their wastes, and because of its cost it cannot easily be afforded by most of them. Al-Musbah Al-Mudii has generously agreed to offer financial support to install five biogas units as a first step. Two Egyptian experts were involved in the installation phase: Mr. Hussein Farag and Mr. Hany El-Khodary, who provided the technical support and actually took the responsibilty of installing the five units in Ezbet Al-Nasr.
Local community MSc Integrated Urbanism & Sustainable Design (IUSD)
IUSD Students (coordinators)
National/ Local NGOs A process of garbage sorting is already existing in Ezbet Al-Nasr (IUSD report, 2012)
IUSD Students during their field research in Ezbet Al-Nasr
120 — Integrated Case Study
Mazarita Toolbook – For a Sustainable & Incremental Process of Tenure Security by Rasha Arous, Franziska Laue, Lobna Mitkees, Muna Sha‘alan, Baher Al-Shaarawy, Omar Wanas The “conventional” approaches of securing tenure are no more helpful and so we went for an “alternative” path. We concentrated on the newly squatted area of Mazarita, an emerging informal settlement, and developed a framework for the socioeconomic and political dynamics which are influencing its development and emergence. Through an Atlas we documenting its socio-physical aspects. The area is subject to ongoing change and is being created amidst a complex calculus of actors, interests
and values which effect its stabilization. Through extensive field visits and discussions we started understanding all those factors and build trust with the residents on site. Objectives Formulation of a Community Land Trust or Committee which is aware of and empowered to establish community-based titles or co-operatives, and to put in place effective local land management arrangements.Communicating data on aspects of land distribution, situations, households and other important information. To bridge between the local community, civil, legal and media advocates and in between these actors themselves to form a support unit dealing with the residents of Mazarita.
A registered cooperative which is both accepted by the locals and legitimized by the authorities
Formulating a local committee which is empowered to advocate occuoancy rights
towards security of tenure
• • • • • • • •
identify meet discuss mobilize analyse research empower enable
Ezzbet Al-Nasr – “Mazarita Toolbook”
• • • • • • •
consult partner back-up legimitize structure advocate proceed
• decentralization of land management • set a right framework • formulation of local policies
121 — Ezzbet Al-Nasr
MAZARITA TOOLBOOK For a sustainable and incremental process of tenure security Edition 1
Ezzbet Al-Nasr – “Mazarita Toolbook”
Security of Tenure Actors
Security of Tenure Legal framework
DRAFT OF THE TOOLBOOK
-- What actors are needed? -- Actors involved in the process -- The case of Cairo -- The case of Mazarita -- Mazarita Committee -- Structure -- Outlook
-- Why an Atlas -- Intro to Mazarita -- Evolution of Mazarita -- Process of Squatting -- Initial observations of dynamics -- Facts and Figures (Land values, etc.) -- Morphology
-- Checklists -- Outputs -- Making an Atlas -- Contacts, etc. -- Documenting the process
-- Introduction -- Legal modes analysis -- International case studies -- Types and Tools -- Concepts of Securing of tenure -- Housing Cooperatives (HC) -- Structure of HC -- Recommendations -- Checklist
Security of Tenure Introduction
-- Mission -- Objectives -- Definition -- Status Quo in Egypt -- How to achieve SoT -- International case studies -- Scenarios -- Alternatives
To whom our book is addressed to? ••Direct Actors/ Beneficiaries: Private Initiatives, NGOs, active lawyers... ••Local communities, ••Government bodies: Central government (Ministry of housing, etc. and local governance, i.e districts- governorate, UUU, etc.). ••Other interest groups can be GIZ, right for housing associations, political parties, researchers,developers, media, etc.
Guidelines and checklists for Output section
Mazarita Toolbook This document, developed in full particiption of the local people of Mazarita aims at advocating their rights through an alternative land-titling and through an in-
cremental planning process that empowers them and helps them refine their needs and prospects and preserves their right of staying.
Description of Mazarita Atlas (by and for community)
Committee set-up A committee of natural leaders and representatives of the socio-political composition of the area is to be created democratically. The committee when empowered and set into a legal framework will make a cooperative. The role of bringing the active actors involved in the process of the cooperatives is quite challenging. The composition of the committee must require all actors to have a common consensus regarding the reason for joining.
-- CD -- Sample Contrac -- Photos
122 — Integrated Case Study
Streetscape Design – Al Shaheed Muhammad Al-Durrah’ School in Ezzbet Al-Nasr by Mohamed Amer, Manal Fakhouri, Mona Farouk, Zaineb Madyouni, Insaf Ben Othmane Hamrouni Scope The school complex and the area around is considered as a main attraction point and landmark, as it is almost the only facility existing in the area. Children head towards the school daily from all over the area and from outside the neighbourhood of Ezbet Elnasr, the same for the teachers. Besides, it is near the entrance to the area from the Autostrad and close to the youth center (under construction) and the newly constructed market space, which indicates that the area is potentially going to be more of an attraction.
Objectives The project objectives are mainly on two levels. Firstly, it aims at improving children’s relationship with the school and their neighbourhood. Secondly, this design partnership allows the students as well as teachers to work together on improving the school’s surrounding environment. The initiation and the work on the project itself is also an important step in presenting the area to other associations and volunteers for further initiatives.
Project Process Diagram
123 — Ezzbet Al-Nasr
Working on such a project requires quite a lot of logistics in the preparation phase and observational field work which is of great importance. Having the input of different experts and academicians is an important guideline to prioritize our objectives. While planning the workshops, we drew from lessons learned through previous experiences. The organizing team finalized the preparation phase. The work on preparing, networking and attracting volunteers is an important part of the work. It is a strategic goal as well as a key step for civil work and community mobilization initiation in Ezzbet Al-Nasr. Initiating such project in a public establishment is quite challenging.
The Mini stry of Education s by should endorce initiative academic s that aim public inschools, to amelirate their s ternal and exter nal condition
Ezzbet Al-Nasr – “STREETSCAPE DESIGN” by Mohamed Amer, Manal Fakhouri, Mona Farouk, Zaineb Madyouni, Insaf Ben Othmane H.
Children in Ezzbet Al’Nasr as ‘Agents for Change’. The implication of children has to be a key condition for ongoing projects in the area.
06 â€” Electives
126 â€” Electives
Climate and Design Elective, WS 2012/13 Prof. Ingo Helmedag Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen
The course looks at the combined role of architecture and urban planning in conserving energy in addition to the identification of renewable and non-renewable energy sources and the use of solar energy in architecture. This module reviews the different techniques of energy conservation on the urban and architectural levels. Energy efficiency is thought to be a principle of a sustainable, environmentally friendly and climate responsive architectural and urban planning praxis and it will be reviewed especially in the context of the MENA region. Upon the successful completion of this Module, students are able to understand the energy situation in the MENA region on an architectural and urban scale. They will gain the knowledge to achieve energy efficiency through a better planning and construction practice. A further outcome will be to identify sources of energy waste and to learn about techniques for energy efficiency. Also then the students can explain, distinguish, estimate, rank and assess planning and construction measures for energy efficiency in buildings and on an urban level and furthermore assess their own strengths and weaknesses in research, design and group work for future performances. â€˘
128 — Electives
Incremental Upgrading Of Housing Blocks in Ezbet El-Nasr by AyhamMouad, Mona Farouk Criteria of choice:
•• Area is near to school, stone-cutting workshops, future youth center and the cemetery.
•• Plots from 50 – 100 m •• Old Structures (30 – 40 years old) •• Single-storey, two-storey, multistorey •• Residents are house owners, •• Desire to improve their houses, Inhabitants mostly 2
work in scrap business
Ground Floor Plan
First Floor Plan
129 â€” Climate and Design
130 â€” Electives
Rural Development Elective, WS 2012/13 Prof. Dr. Youhansen Eid Dr. Ahmed Toimah
This module provides an overview of managing change and development among communities with a particular emphasis on rural development. The class utilizes comparative case studies and effects of cultural and traditional values on management practices in different socio-cultural environments. It explores the classification of rural and urban communities and addresses the rural-urban relationship.The module looks closely at recent management strategies implemented in Egyptian villages. Upon the successful completion of this module, students become more knowledgeable and get and understanding of rural and urban developments, regions and strategies. They could identify rural-urban classification arguments, list different rural-urban classification methods and outline the political, social, and economical backgrounds of development paradigms and rural development approaches. As well, they will gain different Intellectual & Practical Skills (IS & PS), by differentiating between rural and urban settlements, distinguishing the relation between rural development approaches and development paradigms, assess rural development strate-
gies, evaluate projects and rank their priorities. Furthermore they will be able to analyze factors affecting rural communities and illustrate urban-rural interrelationship models, also they will be able to delineate urbanrural boundaries, design tools to analyze and evaluate rural development strategies, projects and actions and finally modify running rural development strategies to adapt to political or economical changes. â€˘
Urban-Rural Relationships Rural Politics Syria & Damascus Ghouta & Damascus (A case affecting both rural and urban development) by Franziska Laue Agricultural Sector • 1946, agriculture was the most important sector of the economy • In the 1950s it was the fastest growing sector • Rapid expansion of the cultivated area along with increased output stimulated the rest of the economy • 1960s, agricultural output stagnated due to political instability and land reform. • Agriculture as an economy lost importance as other sectors grew more rapidly • 1970s, 53 percent of the population was still classified as rural, although the movement to the cities continued to accelerate • Since the start of the 5-year plans, agriculture became a focus • mid 1980s, the Syrian government had taken measures to revitalize agriculture (including land reclamation and irrigation.) – Issue 1 – Recent Agricultural Policies Public interventions have been shifting from self-sufficiency to sustainable self-reliance in food, to be pursued through the enhancement of agricultural productivity and sustainability (NAPC). • Currently the state maintains the monopoly of purchasing and marketing and processing main strategic crops (wheat, cotton, tobacco, and sugarbeet) • Agricultural production is almost entirely privately based (by relatively small farm units) • Fertiliser distribution is publicly controlled. Towards Adverse Trends • Policy initiatives such as fixing prices
• Infrastructural improvements in the countryside • Strong governmental support for prices, especially in strategic crops. Effects On Rural Population • have not eliminated large income disparities, or poverty among rural households. • have not prevented exodus • Still, the incomes of half of the agricultural households are not enough even for the bare necessities of life • Farmers cultivate larger areas in wheat and cotton • Utilise larger irrigated areas. • More equal distribution of land • However, benefits for larger and wealthier farmers. – Issue 2 – Rural-Urban Interrelationships • Syria is a provincial country • No dominance and unproportional growth of one major city • of production sources • Strong ties between urban population and place of origin (socio-economic support). Rural • Less commercial and economic considerations • Production of agricultural goods • Economic basis: mainly agricultural • Governed from outside • Strongly related to customary traditional systems, detached from „urban“ administration Urban • Stronger individualization • Processing and marketing of goods • Varied economic basis (industry, services, etc.) • Administrative centers • No incentive to work in rural areas (in peace times). Effects On Rural Population • Dependent on mutual economic and socio-economic relationship with urban areas
132 — Electives
• Dependent on infrastructures (administrational, etc.) from cities • Looking for work in urban areas rather than looking for alternative economic chances in rural areas. – Issue 3 – Climate Change • Climate change leading to severe droughts since 2006 – loss of rural livelihoods for over 800,000 inhabitants (northeast) • Degradation of pastures and grazing land (Pastures account for nearly half of Syria’s total land and the livelihood of almost 2.5 million rural people depending on them) • Limited water ressources • Desertification • Unequal and limited rainfall • Temperature and wind.
– Issue 4 – Unsuitable Irrigation Techniques • Mismanagement and misuse of natural resources • Irrigated agriculture increased since 1985 • Expenditures for irrigated agriculture ca. 70 percent of all expenditures in agriculture (Sarris, 2001) • Irrigated farming lead to increased salinization of the ground • Land degradation, reduced water supply, and limited agricultural production. Effects On Rural Population • Salinization of fertile land – loss of arable land • Loss of the main economic basis for majority of rural population • Increase of material and natural poverty • Increased migration out of affected areas • Droughts forced many herders to sell a large part of their stock.
– Issue 5 – Soil Sealing • For rural areas close to urban or urbanizing areas • Urbanization of oases (i.e. Damascus) • Due to development of agricultural land for urban expansion or other real estate and infrastructure projects • Selling (illegally) land property for real estate developers – more financial profit than long term agricultural tilling. Effects On Rural Population • Tendency to use land for other than agricultural use • Loss of long term economic income potential • Loss of subsistence basis (crops, vegetable, etc.).
– Issue 6 – Armed Conflict • However, during the past year, increasing influx in rural areas took place • Shelter from conflicts in cities • Subsistence is secured (no depenency on commercial food provision) • Less agricultural productivity due to sabotage • Loss of man power • Parts of the crops used for subsistence • Increased vulnerability to violence. – Towards rural development Legal Framework – Laws: • Agricultural labour policy (Law No 2004/12/29 56 (Law of Agricultural Relationships) – aims at regulating relationships among different parties (i.e. landowners, workers, entrepreneurs) • The Unemployment Combating Commission (UCC) started providing unemployment alleviation loans (upgraded to the General Commission of Employment and Businesses Development (GCEBD) in 2006 −− Providing financial support to rural entrepreneurs of different scale?
133 — Rural Development
Shift Of Paradigm • Until recently, the government pursued a rural social welfare and self-sufficiency policy through the instruments of state socialism: production planning, marketing controls, directed credit and trade restrictions, input and water subsidies. −− State as the main decision maker −− End of centralized system
Effects On Rural Settlements Results: • Loss of fertile land (contamination and sealing) −− Loss of traditional economic and entrepreneurial basis • Loss of biodiversity • Loss of diversity of agricultural products −− increasing dependency from state and other economic and financial support Results: National Strategies • Loss of rural identity (cultural, professional, spatial, • loss of fertile land (contamination and sealing) • Programme for economic transition towards an open architectural) --> loss of traditional economic and entrepreneurial basis and competitive economy • Loss of natural buffer zones • loss of biodiversity • Programmes for community development −− vulnerability to climate change and effects of envi• loss of diversity of agricultural products in rural areas starting with the agrarian sector: degradation --> increasing dependency from state and other economic and ronmental support • Development of identity small and medium-sized enterprises • Decline of local climate balance • loss of rural (cultural, professional, spatial, architectural) and • Unbalanced urban-rural relationship • income-generating loss of natural bufferactivities zones --> vulnerability to Climate change effects of environmental • «Encourages industrialization and and agricultural −− degradation increase dependency on urban labor market • decline of local climate balance products being marketed to increase the value added −− change of labour focus in rural settlements unbalanced urban-rural relationship to•them»* −− uncontrolled urban development swallowing --> increase dependency on urban labor market • Protection and rational use of water settlements due to ineffcient urban and regional --> change of labour focus in rural settlements planning. −− Effect on the role of rural areas. --> uncontrolled urban development swallowing settlements due to ineffcient urban and regional planning
Effects On Rural Settlements
economic, administrational dominance
increased migration towards urban areas loss of fertile land
reduced fertility for agric. products
Damascus growth – 1941-2006
Climate change 2006
loss of fertile land reduction of agric. labor and life opportunities
134 â€” Electives
Urban Upgrading of Slums & Informal Areas Elective, WS 2012/13 Prof. Shafak el Wakil Dr. Marwa Abou el Fotoh
This module introduces non-traditional concepts and approaches to dealing with squatter settlements. It provides a methodology for classifying squatter settlements and their typologies. It discusses how to analyze the growth of a squatter settlement, and suggests ways of dealing with this it as an attempt to control unplanned growth. The course reviews techniques and advantages of upgrading. It discusses the role of public policy and its impact on housing and governmental and non-governmental interventions that have been made in the recent years to help deal with squatter settlements. Upon the successful completion of this module, students become more knowledgeable and get an understanding of how to perceive the main characteristics of informal settlements from different points of view: physical, social, economic and visual aspects. They will learn how to deal with field survey, and how to make significant and meaningful discussions and deductions, and finally learn different strategies for upgrading the informal areas. â€˘
Food Production in Informal Settlements: Geziret al Dahab – A Step Towards Food Security by Lisa Deister 1.Introduction Urban Agriculture Mougeot (2000: 1) defines urban agriculture (UA) as follows: “Urban agriculture is located within (intra-urban) or on the fringe (peri-urban) of a town, a city or a metropolis, and grows or raises, processes and distributes a diversity of food and non-food products, (re-)uses largely human and material resources, products and services found in and around that urban area, and in turn supplies human and material resources, products and services largely to that urban area.” Generally, agriculture is associated with the rural sector. However, agriculture in urban locations can be seen as an interesting complement, also in the context of Egypt. It can help to increase the efficiency of the national food supply in order to satisfy the demand of Egypt’s growing population and to establish a resilient food system. To name just a few positive aspects, UA may provide fresh, but perishable products which require rapid delivery upon harvest, or substitute food imports intended for urban areas. Besides, pressure to cultivate new rural land decreases if production is increasingly done in urban areas – in the case of Egypt it could be refrained from the cost and water intensive reclamation of desert land which recently has gained importance (see Fig. 1). (Drescher et al. 2000) It is obvious that certain production systems are completely inappropriate to be established in urban areas, such as those requiring large plots of land, relying heavily on inputs of petrochemicals, or creating negative effects for the surrounding environment (e.g. conventional grain production or livestock confinement systems). (Lovell 2010) The operation of large agricultural machinery is mostly not feasible and therefore, UA offers lots of job opportunities. Especially in a country like
Egypt, where the migration from rural areas to Cairo continues due to lack of arable land and employment offers, UA can help to decrease the unemployment rate and support families to improve and sustain their living conditions. (Zigmann 2007) UA can take place in various scales, from small pots on balconies or roof tops to the rededication/redesign of public parks. Also in Cairo, several small UA projects are established and a few will be described in chapter 2. However, to be accepted as a serious contributor to food security and to stand other competing land use needs in the city, UA has to be multifunctional, integrated in the urban planning process and related policies and incentives for the people have to be established. Next to production functions, various ecological and cultural functions (e.g. biodiversity, nutrient cycling, and microclimate control; recreation, cultural heritage, and visual quality) that benefit the nearby community as well as the society as whole shall be offered by UA. Besides, urban planning strategies have to be developed in order to integrate UA in the urban system (Fig. 2). (Lovell 2010) Food Insecurity and Environmental Degradation in Egypt According to World Food Summit in 1996 “Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.” (FAO 2006)
Fig. 1 Cultivated desert in Siwa (author 2013)
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Egypt’s population keeps on growing and thus, the consumption of arable land for housing rises while less land is available for food production. Therefore, Egypt imported 40% of its food in 2010. (Weisenthal 2011) Currently, the country is in a deep currency crisis: the EGP got devaluated, goods to import get more and more expensive which might put Egypt in a serious situation of food insecurity in the long term. Besides, especially the capital Cairo lacks green open spaces and the environmental degradation reaches an alarming level.
Fig. 4 Street Garden in Heliopolis (author 2012)
Fig. 5 Volunteers forming seed bombs (author 2012)
Objective The objective of this paper is to present small attempts and further ideas of how the problem of food insecurity as well as environmental degradation is tackled with the help of UA in Cairo and how this positive impact could be further increased. The focus lies on the island Geziret al Dahab, Cairo, which has been one of the case study areas in the seminar “Upgrading of slums and informal settlements” within the Master Programme “Integrated Urbanism and Sustainable Design” at the Ain Shams University, Cairo. The paper is based on the presentations held during this seminar. The island as well as the developed upgrading strategy will be presented briefly. To conclude, the potential role of Geziret al Dahab within a holistic UA strategy for Cairo will be discussed. 2.Urban Agriculture Projects in Cairo There are several attempts to implement Urban Agriculture in small scale in Cairo. They are “inserted” into the urban fabric and their focus lies on different aspects.
Fig. 6 The seeds bombs
Urban Agriculture in Formal Settlements Street Garden Heliopolis The Street Garden was initiated by Ostaz Gamal on the greenery next to his home in Heliopolis. During time, people started to join him as they saw and liked his gardening activities. A community garden developed with the aim to enhance the appearance of the area, grow various plants which are edible, have a positive impact on
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Fig. 7 Hydoponic tables by Schaduf on a roof top (CairoKitchenBlog 2012)
Fig. 8 A proud owner of a Micro Garden (Cattane 2012a)
Fig. 9 Micro Garden (Cattane 2012b)
the biodiversity and the microclimate, raise awareness and teach especially the youth on how to grow plants. (Interviewee: El Abd 2012) “Bezoor Baladi” – Seed Bombing Action Nawaya In order to raise awareness about Egypt’s need to preserve local seeds and promote Egyptian varieties of fruits, vegetables, cereals and grains, Nawaya organized a “Seed Bombing Action” in October 2012. Nawaya is a social enterprise focusing on agriculture as a driving force for rural development. The action consisted of several meetings during which volunteers formed small seed bombs out of clay, dung and seeds. These bombs were then thrown to neglected or misused land in Cairo and also other governorates with the hope that after a few weeks plants would grow out of these seeds bombs and make people think about the action. (see e.g. Thabet 2013) Urban Agriculture in Informal Settlements “Schaduf – Urban Micro Farms” Schaduf, a for-profit organization with a social mission, has established several “Urban Micro Farms” on roof tops using the hydroponic technique to grow vegetables. Their aim is to provide low income individuals with an option to produce their own healthy food in order to create an additional income source for them. The role of Schaduf in these projects is to manufacture the equipment, install it, provide training as well as supervision and create links to micro-finance institutions. Besides, they collect the harvest of the individual farmers and sell it wholesale for them. (CairoKitchenBlog 2012) Since 2011, they have established projects in the informal settlement Manshiat Nasser and the poor neighborhood El Darb El Ahmar, amongst other.
Micro Gardens in the City of the Dead In Qarafa al-Arafa, or the City of the Dead, the Italian NGO Liveinslums developed small scale agriculture projects with the aim to enhance the local resources in this informal settlement. During a 10-day long workshop, transportable off-soil “micro gardens” were established. The technology mostly used was the hydroponic
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culture as food production on the available soil in the City of the Dead is not feasible. Based on the needs of the residents as well as the given conditions mainly eggplants, tomatoes, peppers and strawberries are being cultivated in the micro gardens. The idea of the NGO is that the cultivation eventually satisfies the community’s food need and represents an additional income source for the area’s informal economy. (Cattane 2012) Brief Summary Land availability is often the limiting factor, but the projects show that solutions can be found for this challenge: redesign of public greenery along streets, roof top gardens or transportable micro gardens are just a few examples of the creative ideas. For individuals or families from the low income class in particular, UA can present a way towards increased secure food security or/and an additional income source. Especially women can find their niche in UA in order to contribute to their families’ well-being. The presented projects affect food security, biodiversity and microclimate in a positive way mainly for a few interested and committed individuals. In order to foster, ensure and enhance the influence of these kinds of projects, they could be integrated into an overarching strategy. The Case of Geziret al Dahab The case of the island Geziret al Dahab in Cairo is different to the previously described UA projects: here, the land use is supposed to be agriculture, but might decrease in the future due to competing land use needs. On the following pages, the case of Geziret al Dahab will be described briefly and the adequacy of continuous UA on the island will be highlighted. Geziret al Dahab Geziret al Dahab is an island located in the Nile in the south of Cairo, in the Governorate of Giza. Since the construction of the High Dam in Aswan in 1970, the island does not face flooding anymore and thus, peasants have settled there, mainly coming from Upper Egypt (Miao
and Van Winsen 2010). The soil is very fertile and agricultural activities are dominating the landscape image. The island has a size of about 650 fedden. According to Pibars (2011) 90 fedden are owned by the Ministry of Agriculture, about 150 to 180 fedden are legally owned by locals and about 400 fedden are state-owned land. However, it is not transparent which plot of land belongs to which entity. Although the law 102/1983 declares Dahab Island a natural reserve and thus, building and living on the island are prohibited (El-Ghad et al., n.d.), the islanders keep on constructing or expanding their houses for themselves and their families and in recent times even new people buy a piece of land and build on it. The Fig. 10 and 11 shows the increase of buildings on the island from 2009 to 2011. The government connected the island with the water supply and electricity network, but not with the sewerage. Garbage is dumped everywhere and collected just once in a while to burn it collectively. The continuous construction as well as the lack of sanitation and garbage disposal system can be seen as a hazard to the environment, the unique flair and especially to the agricultural productivity of the island. As mentioned before, agriculture is clearly the dominating land use (see Fig. 12). Various kinds of crops as well as fruits are grown and the land is cultivated with traditional methods (see Fig. 13). Neither large machines for agriculture nor cars can be found on the island as it is only accessible via Falluka. This has a positive effect on the agricultural products. On the other hand, the absence of a proper sewage and garbage disposal system decreases the quality of the products tremendously. The agricultural harvest is consumed by the inhabitants and partly sold outside the island. However, it is not possible anymore to solely depend on agricultural production as an income source. From governmental side, there have been attempts to relocate the islanders on the basis of the decree 542/2011 (the island is not used for the ‘public benefit’) and to transform the island into a public park as part of the Cairo 2050 plan. (Habitat International Coalition 2009)
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Fig. 10 Solid void plan of Geziret al Dahab in 2009 (author 2012, based on Google Earth 2009)
Fig. 11 Solid void plan of Geziret al Dahab in 2011, new buildings are marked in orange (author 2012, based on Google Earth 2011)
Development trends Based on current developments on the island and the published plans for Cairo 2050 two future scenarios for the island can be developed: 1. Continuation of current development: The informal building activities by islanders and new settlers continue. Hence, agricultural production would decrease and disappear in the long term as it is not the most benefi cial land use anymore. 2. Intervention to increase public benefit: The state takes over the island and develops a public park. Also in this scenario, the landscape image would lose its rural and agricultural flair. Both scenarios are not unlikely to become reality, but both of them exclude a large group of stakeholders.
Fig. 12 Land use map (author 2012)
Fig. 13 Cultivation of Dahab’s agriculture land with a yoke of oxen, Cairo’s skyline in the background (author 2012)
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During the seminar “Upgrading of slums and informal settlements” a student group developed a vision and an upgrading strategy for Geziret al Dahab which addresses the partly alarming living conditions of the islanders, but also meets the needs of other stakeholders. The vision “Geziret al Dahab maintains its rural flair providing the inhabitants with legal stability and stable and diverse economic income sources” is supposed to be achieved through the implementation of a total of 11 policies which again are based on various measures. For more detailed information about the developed policies and related measures please consult the slides of the presentation held during the seminar “Upgrading of slums and informal settlements” on 14th of January 2013. 3. The Role of Geziret al Dahab in a Holistic Urban Agriculture Strategy for the City of Cairo Agricultural activities play a major role when it comes to the unique rural flair of Geziret al Dahab and the existing economic income sources and are therefore considered as key issues in the upgrading strategy. Besides, they do not only tackle the islanders, but can be of increasing relevance to the whole city of Cairo as described in the introduction about the benefits of UA. However, the full set of policies and measures have to be implemented in an integrated way in order to achieve the well-functioning of the single policies and measures and of the upgrading strategy as a whole. In addition, a holistic UA strategy for the city of Cairo has to be developed which integrates the upgrading strategy for Geziret al Dahab as well as other small scale UA projects such as the ones described beforehand. To maintain agriculture on Geziret al Dahab, make it the most profitable land use on the island and link other income generation sources such as tourism and recreation with it, should be seen as one of the steps to make UA a reliable contributor to food security in Cairo. Geziret al Dahab brings along several advantages which facilitate the implementation of such a project: the availability of
not built-up and fertile land, the existence of agricultural activities and facilities such as irrigation canals, as well as skilled labor force, to name just a few. Therefore, the Egyptian government, the islanders as well as all other included stakeholder should take the chance to foster and enhance UA on Geziret al Dahab instead of banishing it.
References CairoKitchenBlog (2012): Schaduf “urban micro farms”. [online] available from <http:// blog.cairokitchen.com/schadufurban-micro-farms/> accessed 19.01.2013 Cattane, V. (2012): An Italian NGO trains locals to grow vegetable gardens in the City of the Dead. [online]available from <http:// www.egyptindependent.com/ news/italian-ngo-trains-localsgrow-vegetablegardens-citydead> accessed 19.01.2013 Drescher, A.W., Jacobi, P. and Amend, J. (200): Urban Food Security. Urban agriculture, a response tocrisis? In: Urban Agriculture Magazin 1 (1) [online] available from <http://ruaf.org/ node/106> accessed 19.01.2013 El Abd, Rania (2012) Volunteer in the Street Garden [unstructured interview by Deister, Lisa] 05.10.2012 Lovell, S. ( 2010): Multifunctional Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Land Use Planning in the United States. In: Sustainability 2
[online] available from < http://www.mdpi.com/20711050/2/8/2499 > accessed 19.01.2013 Miao Yong, X. and Van Winsen, E. (2010): Islands on the Nile. ETH Studio Basel Contemporary City Insitute [draft version]. [online] available from <http://www. studio-basel.com/projects/cairo/ studentwork/ islands-of-the-nile. html> accessed 21.10.12 Mougeot, L.J.A. (2000): Urban Agriculture: Concept and Defi nition. In: Urban Agriculture Magazin 1 (1) [online] available from <http://ruaf.org/node/105> accessed 19.01.2013 Thabet, L. (2013): Bombing Cairo With Seeds. [online] available from <http://permaculturenews. org/2013/01/14/bombing-cairowith-seeds/>accessed 19.01.2013 Weisenthal, J. (2011): Egypt’s Food Problem In A Nutshell. [online] available from <http://articles. businessinsider.com/2011-01-31/ markets/30099172_1_food-prices-world-wheat-food-inflation> accessed 19.01.2013
Selected Topics on Urbanism Elective, WS 2012/13 Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen Dr. Yehya Serag
The course tries to analyze the relationship between social factors, the compositition of the society, its power structures, the political and economical systems and their impacts on urbanism in terms of urban and regional planning stratgies and urban design as well as the physical spatial impacts, within the MENA region and European cities and human settlements. The course intends to stir the discussion relaying on the different orgins of the students, aiming to establish several compartive analysis cases within the MENA and Europe. Upon the successful completion of this module, students become more knowledgeable and get an understanding of identifying the relation between political and social transformations and physical and spatial reorganization of cities. As well, they will gain different intellectual instruments through analyzing the relationship between political change, social settings and planning and development actions, estimate possible scenarios for physical development based on similar cases, predict the development and planning possibilities for cities and settlements based on current political and social events and classify the levels of the physical sphere. â€˘
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Out of Site … Out of Mind Qursaya Island: An Ongoing Struggle by Ebtihal Mohamed Zakaria Introduction “Imagine this: You and your family are asleep in the safety of your home, when the door is smashed in without warning. Armed thugs hustle you from your house without allowing you to take any belongings. The streets are swarming with armed police, and you watch as your home is bulldozed to the ground. The same thing is happening to your neighbors, and within a short space of time, your community is a wasteland. You receive no compensation for your loss, nor any offer of relocation to another site, and you cannot take your case to court, as the entire exercise has been sanctioned by government.” (COHRE C. o., 2009). The forced eviction of people from their homes because of the interest in their land has become a usual sight. People are bombarded upon by bulldozers and security officers with no prior notice or appropriate legal measures. They are neither involved in the overall scheme of evictions nor do they participate in properly studied plans for their housing relocation. Not only does this represent a violation of human rights but these evictions often turn violent as well. On the one hand, the government imposing the eviction and in most cases backed by actors involved in the private sector ostensibly in pursuit of economic gains and on the other hand by desperate residents as acts of defiance and resistance. “In Egypt for the year 2007, the number of people living in informal areas is 15 million and 6.1 million in Greater Cairo alone.” (Nawar, 2008) There are plans set forward for Egypt’s informal settlements such as the framework of the Strategic Vision for Greater Cairo in 2050 (Cairo 2050 plan), which is planned by the General Organization for Physical Planning (GOPP) at the Ministry of Housing, Utilities and Urban Development. “This master plan envisages a competing city at the local and international levels and aims to redistribute residents of Cairo and Giza to the outer fringes of new
cities, mainly 6 October City and Helwan. The plan raises serious concerns about possible forced evictions, especially because communities living in informal settlements have not been consulted, nor been given any opportunity to suggest alternatives for their relocation.” (Amnesty, 2011) This paper is an attempt to chronicle the ongoing struggle of people facing forced evictions in Egypt by highlighting one of the areas that has been subjected to a series of trials for forced evictions from 2001 to date; Qursaya Island. The rest of this paper examines a number of snapshots that together form a brief description of the struggle before and after the 2011 revolution.
1· Forced Evictions ‘’The term “forced evictions” is defined as the permanent or temporary removal against their will of individuals, families and/or communities from the homes and/or land which they occupy, without the provision of, and access to, appropriate forms of legal or other protection. Although the practice of forced evictions might appear to occur primarily in heavily populated urban areas, it also takes place in connection with forced population transfers, internal displacement, and forced relocations in the context of armed conflict, mass exoduses and refugee movements. Evictions may be carried out in connection with conflict over land rights, development and infrastructure projects, such as the construction of dams or other large-scale energy projects, with land acquisition measures associated with urban renewal, housing renovation, city beautification programs, the clearing of land for agricultural purposes, unbridled speculation in land, or the holding of major sporting events like the Olympic Games” (Rights, 1997).
2· Egyptian Laws on Eviction “All land in Egypt is in theory reserved for the military. To gain land ownership you need to obtain permission
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from the military to use the land. After getting permission from the military you can move on to getting permission from the other ministries involved. The ministries involved in land registration in Egypt are the Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, the Ministry of Housing, Utilities and Urban Communities (MOHUUC), the Ministry of Justice, the Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA) and the Ministry of Petroleum. A person needs the approval of all these authorities to officially own land. Still the military, even in case of proved ownership, has the right, at any time, to reclaim the land they consider necessary for military purposes.” (al., 2008). The latest Egyptian constitution issued in the year 2012 does not address forced evictions explicitly. Only one article talks about property rights in the latest constitution, article 24; which states that ‘Public property is protected, and its defense and support is a duty incumbent on every citizen, according to the law. Private property is safeguarded, and it is not permitted to impose guardianship over it except through the means stated in law and the judiciary. Property cannot be seized except for the public benefit and in exchange for compensation according to the law, and the right of inheritance is guaranteed.’ (Assembly, 2012) It may be worth mentioning that public benefit is a very concurrent justification commonly provided by governments for implementing forced evictions. Forced evictions in Egypt are mainly a result of demolition, destruction and confiscation of properties as seen in (Figure 3) . There is no clear prohibition on forced evictions in the Egyptian law. There are only laws governing and justifying expropriation procedures. “Those include Law 252l6o and Law 131162, and lays down the provisions pertaining to the expropriation of real estate property for public benefit and improvement; and law No. 27 of 1956, which stipulates the provisions for expropriation of districts for re-planning, upgrading, and improvement, and the amended and comprehensive Law No.10 of 1990 on the expropriation of real estate for public interest. Law No. 577 I 54 was promulgated to equilibrate the rights and guarantees for individuals with the rights of
the state in expropriating private property. Moreover, this law has stipulated that the assessment of public benefit I interest, which justifies property expropriation, shall be emanated in all cases by a Presidential Decree, while previously it was made by the competent minister.” (EGas, 2008). Nevertheless, even if there be necessary cases of expropriation, Egyptian law does not set out sufficient safeguards that should be followed in evictions, particularly in situations where people are living on stateowned land or land which they do not own. Egyptian law does not provide for consultation with residents of “unplanned areas” prior to eviction. Egyptian law does not provide for adequate and reasonable notice to evictees in cases of eviction from state-owned land, such as cases of expropriation for ‘Public Benefit’. (Amnesty, 2011) This is quite paradoxical because “in the 1967 and 1973 wars blocked all state investments in public housing construction. Most public funds were allocated to the war efforts and so public units were massively lacking” (Sejourne). In addition about 6 million Egyptians are ultra poor, that is, they have an income lower than a third of the national average and live on less than quarter of a dollar per day (Mobarak, 1996).
3· Qursaya Island Location Qursaya is an island of five feddans that lies in the Giza Governorate. It is a rural area with one small hand operated boat that transports passengers from and to the island. The community comprises of 1000 fishermen and 4000 farmers, who have been living on the island for generations since 1966 and sustain themselves by farming and fishing for their own food. The strategic location of the island for development appeared after the construction of the Ring Road, Cairo’s most important freeway. Events have unfolded further with the plans set forth by the Cairo 2050 Development Plan and Giza 2030 Plan. Since then the islanders have been in a perilous battle over their land.
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Development Plan According to the official website of Giza Governorate, the project development of the Giza Cornice and Qursaya Island (Giza 2030), which is a collaboration between the General Authority for Urban Planning and Giza Governorate includes several main ideas for developing the island. Their development entails the removal of the encroachments that distort vision, enhancing the role of the cornice, and benefitting from the vacant land by developing tourism and entertainment services. An Ongoing Struggle In the 1990s, there were no inhabitants on the island because of the Nile flooding at that time. People crossed over seasonally to tend the land and plant their crops, returning to their original homes when the water rose and covered the fields. By 1969 and after the construction of the High Dam, peasants from neighboring islands; Al-Warraq and Geziret Al-Dahab moved in to settle on the island and began a land improvement scheme that allowed them to start planting more than one crop. They
Housing Crisis Alerts for 2004–2006 eviction dispossession / confiscation privatization post-disaster violations massive displacements Number of affected families Fig.3: Housing Rights Crisis 2004 – 2006
dug irrigation canals and spread fertilizers and started a life on Qursaya. In 2001, investors wanted to develop the neighboring islands of Al-Warraq and Geziret AlDahab. There was confrontation on ground between the security forces and the residents but later on the confrontation between the government and the inhabitants of two Nile islands AlDahab and Al-Warraq moved to the courts. This lasted for 5 years from 2002 to 2007. Investors soon after backed off in the face of massive demonstrations. Even though this incident was not directly related to Qursaya Island but it rang alarm bells for the residents on the island that development projects are on their way sooner or later. This happened eventually in the year 2007. In 2007, authorities did not take any action to consult with the people prior to the eviction and the armed forces started the procedures to evict and confiscate their land. This was because of the vision that was put for the Island in the Cairo 2050 Development Plan of Greater Cairo area, which was brought out to light in 2008. The residents of Qursaya Island took their case to court and
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carried out peaceful open struggles to turn eyes to their case. On the 16th of November 2008, the residents won an administrative court ruling in their favor, turning down a ministerial decree to evict them. The government appealed again in court in 2010, but the court rejected the appeal and ruled reinstating the farmers’ rights to their land. This would have been a great success story for a community resistance that was able to fight off forced evictions if not one year after 2011 revolution and after millions have revolted demanding ‘’bread, freedom and human dignity,” Qursaya fights again with the military for their land. The struggle can thus be divided in two phases, mainly in 2007 before the revolution and the second phase in 2012, after the revolution of 2011 and the fall of the regime. Different tactics, policies of intervention and resistance have been unfolded within the two phases. The Eviction Process In 2007, farmers have been told to stop paying rent as the land “will be cleared”. Military bulldozers and
Fig.4: Location of Qursaya Island
troops stormed the island with no prior consultation, reasonable notice, or plans for relocation. In 2012, the court order that was issued in 2007 was overlooked and the same story occurred. This time however, unnecessary excessive use of force was used which left 2 residents dead, some homes destroyed and some fields burnt. In addition, 25 civilians were arrested during the military attack and face military trials on charges of assaulting members of the Armed Forces. Reasons of Eviction In 2007, the reason stated by the authorities for the forced eviction was the expropriation of land for the general interest and public benefit. In 2012, forced evictions was also carried out in the name of public benefit but other reasons were stated as well such as people living on the Ebtihal Mohamed Zakaria Rashad Abbas island were thugs who took over state owned land and that the island is a sensitive location for the protection of Cairo.
Fig.5: Qursaya Development Plan
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Community Resistance In 2007, Qursaya was a successful story for a community that peacefully resisted the government and was able to regain its land.” The islanders have invented new ways to express their attachment to their island, like walking in made·up funerals and carrying the bodies of some of them, then putting them in holes that look like graves so as to prevent the army from confiscating their land.” (Eddin, 2013) Some concerts took place there and art workshops to spread awareness. In parallel to negotiation with public authorities through legal channels and court cases, there was an intense media campaign promotion by the island’s residents and activists in solidarity with them. This was done through independent social media networks and a very few national media references In 2012, the struggle was more open, the resistance took a more political perspective. Due to the fact that there was unnecessary violence used from the authorities, the resistance therefore started to have more aggressive approach such as blocking roads and burning tires. There is a combined effort from activists to address housing rights and policies especially in the new constitution and to tackle military trials status quo in the constitution. There is also campaigning and awareness through music and art. Impacts of Social Networking The armed forces were a red line in Egyptian politics and journalism, and any public discussion of the armed forces was a taboo. Therefore a few of the national media wrote
Fig.6: The Eviction Process
about what was going on in Qursaya in 2007. Independent social media networks took place for campaigning and transferring the news such as blogging, digital media, and photo-sharing site ‘flickr’. Social media networks featured original reporting and gave first-hand insight. A facebook group was formed in 2007 called “Save the People of Qursaya Island”. People gathered for a press conference to promote a documentary about the residents and prominent human rights lawyers filed cases on behalf of the residents.”Social media networks created alternative public spheres. These alternative public spheres function through the empowerment of individuals whose ability to express themselves and participate in politics is severely limited in other ways” (Faris, 2010 ).
4· Consequences In a state where the number of people living in informal and self built areas is 15 million, and where “inhabitants are forced to live in inhumane settlements, owing to a severe shortage of affordable housing in the cities, suffer from lack of electricity and sewage services, and are subjected to mistreatment by the state, including regular forced evictions”, security of tenure is a necessary element of housing rights. Even in necessary cases of forced evictions, there is no legal requirement or legislations for the authorities to notify people of eviction decisions. “The prohibition on forced evictions does not
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apply to evictions carried out in accordance with the law and in conformity with the provisions of international human rights standards. In other words, if a government has put in place processes such as genuine consultation to explore all feasible alternatives, has provided adequate notice, remedies, adequate alternative housing and compensation, and has met all other procedural requirements, the eviction and if necessary, the use of force in a proportionate and reasonable manner to carry out the eviction, would not amount to a forced eviction.” (Amnesty, 2011). Above all, the articles on the right to housing in the latest Egyptian constitution issued in the year 2012 are very trivial and there is no addressing about the future situation for people living in informal or squatter settlements. Simultaneously the issue of forced evictions is not touched upon. This is fundamental as it is related to the long term security of one’s home and to his well being. It also adds more the squatter crisis because people are just removed with no plans for their relocation, as long as they are out of sight, authorities think the problem is solved. However, people will tend to go elsewhere to look for shelter, in most cases near their work and again build other informal areas. Theoretically security of tenure is a basic ingredient to developing sustainable cities, human dignity and urban development, and the threat of forced evictions are a huge impediment to human development.
Community Resistance 2007
University College London.
AI Gohary, S., & AI Faramawy, A (201o ). Egyptian Approach to Informal Settlements Development. IDRC Davos , (p. 5).
Eddin, M. A (2013, January 25). The battle over Qursaya Island (2007-2012) • Retrieved January 25, 2013, from Egypt Independent: http:/ /panorama. egyptindependent.com/2013/thebattle- over~orsaya-~land/
al., AT. (2008). Landownership disputes in Egypt. Cairo: Arab West Report: Egyptian Press Summaries and Media Research for Dialogue. Amnesty. (2011). ‘We Are Not Dirt’ Forced Evictions in Egypt’s Informal Settlements. London: Amnesty International Ltd. Assembly, C. (2012, November 30 ). Draft Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt. Retrieved December 1, 2012, from egelections-2011: http:/ fegelections-2011.appspot.com/Referendum2012/ dostor_masr_final. pdf COHRE, C. o. (2009). Forced Evictions: Violations of Human Rights- Global Survey No. 11. Geneva: COHRE Global Forced Evictions Programme. COHRE, C. o. (2002). Forced Evictions: Violations of Human Rights- Global Survey No. 8.Amsterdam: Primavera. DPU/UCL, D.P. (2010). How People Face Evictions. London: Development Planning Unit/
El-Hamalawy, H. (2007, December 16). Qursaya Island Portraits. Retrieved January 14, 2012, from flicker: http://www .tlickr.com/ photos/ elhamalawy I 2117694 775/in/pool-602330@N2of~, D. (2010). Revolutions without Revolutionaries? Social Media Networks and Regime Response in Egypt. ScholarlyCommons , 92. Giza, G. (2011, November 12). Strategic Projects. Retrieved November 5, 2012, from Giza Governorate: http:/ fwww.giza. gov.eg/llits/List75/DispForm. aspx?ID=3 GTZ. (2009). Cairo’s Informal Areas Between Urban Challenges and Hidden Potentials. Portugal: Norprint SA . Housing, S. M. (2012, November 18). Retrieved December 2012, 2012, from Shadow Ministry of Housing: http://blog.shadowministryofhousing.org/2010/02/ blog-post.html
07 â€” Master Theses Abstracts
150 â€” Master Theses
151 — Abstracts
Multi-Functional Urban Waterfronts Case study – The Nile River in Central Cairo by Ayham Abdul Razzak Mouad supervised by Prof. Antje Stokman, Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen, Dr. Ahmed Sami AbdElrahman This research aims to achieve a clearer understanding of the potential for the integration of the Nile waterfront with the public and urban activities in central Cairo in order to bring the river back to the city. To achieve that aim, the research will introduce the multi-functional urban waterfront as an approach for creating integrated public spaces along the Nile River in central Cairo, where by this integration; a better connection to the river will result, thus bringing the river back to the city. •
Social housing between implementability and affordability by Baher Mohamed Bahgat El Shaarawy supervised by Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen, Prof. Dr. Stefan Siedentop Although there was a significant growth in housing sector over the past three decades, it was not able to face the housing problem in Egypt in particular for the lowincome classes. The research deals with a gap between the recent housing mechanisms in Egypt and affordable mechanisms. It introduces an integrated model which focuses on an integrated approach between different actors [government, investors, private sector and cooperative housing associations] with specific reference to cooperative housing system. •
Paradigms of Development in Cairo: Mobilization patterns of development organizations by Ebtihal Mohamed Zakaria Rashad supervised by Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen, Prof. Dr. Philipp Misselwitz, Dr. Nina Gribat Civil society has become increasingly important as an actor over the past decades in harnessing urbanisation and urban problems. Partly an effect of neoliberal reforms that have decreased areas of state responsibility in dealing with urbanisation issues and have left more space for private actors and civil society organizations to intervene. The thesis will explore the causes and the evolution of different paradigms in the state–society relations that are shaping the urban environment in Cairo and their mobilization patterns. The focus is mainly on the civil society’s role in finding solutions to urbanisation issues, such as the increased demand on service provision particularly felt by the urban poor. •
Energy Efficient Urban Configurations for Residential Projects in Cairo by Eslam Mohamed Mahdy Youssef supervised by Prof. Dr. Youhansen Yehia Eid, Prof. Dr. Ingo Helmedag, Prof. José Luis Moro The scarcity of energy sources in Egypt is one of the most challenging issues for urban development. Therefore working for more energy efficient built environment is crucial. This research focuses on the fundamental role of urban design in energy conversation. The research tries to assess the urban design of two recent residential projects against the design principles of energy efficient urban configurations. The results draw out the necessity to develop ongoing design practices and update urban planning regulations to optimize energy efficient urban configurations. •
152 — Master Theses
Coping with Climate Change – Reflections for Community Based Strategies in Cairo’s Urban Informal Settlements by Franziska Laue supervised by Prof. Dr. Philipp Misselwitz, Prof. Antje Stokman, Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen Climate change causes a growing burden on Egypt’s settlements. Particularly, informal urban areas are among the most vulnerable to climate change related exposure, predominantly increasing heat. The thesis aims at exploring the applicability of adaptation as a developmental response to climate change impacts in Greater Cairo’s informal urban communities. Ezzbet El Nasr was chosen as a case study to identify vulnerabilities and adaptive capacities, hence identifying responsive measures. The thesis aims at contributing to the discourse that community based adaptation in informal urban areas has the potential to be applied as a synergetic and integrative aspect of a good and holistic urban development approach towards achieving urban resilience and sustainability. •
Urban Upgrading of the Historical Town as a Step towards Sustainability – Development of a Generic Sustainable Urban Upgrading Strategy for the Historical Town in Syria Applied to the old Town of Jableh by Ghevar Mohamed Ismaiel supervised by Prof. Dr. Youhansen Yehia Eid, Prof. José Luis Moro, Prof. Dr. Ahmed Atef Faggal The thesis addresses sustaining the small historical towns in Syria, and asks how to formulate a strategy that guarantees safeguarding the historical town as a place of cultural heritage and while simultaneously consider it as an urban settlement to be lived in. The adopted strategy is applied to Jableh old town, in order to test the validity and availability of it, offering a concept about how the historical Syrian towns could be improved without compromising the heritage value of these towns. •
The Shifting Role of Planners with and through Development Aid Cooperations in MENA region context – The Case Study of UN-HABITAT in Egypt by Insaf Ben Othmane Hamrouni supervised by Prof. Dr. Youhansen Yehia Eid, Prof. Dr. Philipp Misselwitz, Dr. Nina Gribat The scope of this research is to explore and understand urban planning and the role of International Development Aid Corporations (IDAC), in MENA regions through the case of Egypt. The main hypothesis of this research stipulates that UN-HABITAT, the United Nations of Human Settlements plays a decisive role in questioning and in shifting the Egyptian planning system towards the strategic planning paradigm and thus contribute to the shift of the Egyptian planner’s role and urban planning practices. • Claiming the Urban Commons –Land tenure conflict and neighbourhood-based mobilization in Cairo by Julia Hartmann supervised by Prof. Dr. Philipp Misselwitz, Dr. Nina Gribat In the aftermath of the 2011 revolution, there has been an increase of neighbourhood-based mobilization in Cairo’s sprawling informal settlements. Rather than framing the interest in such local urban action in unpolitical terms such as “community-based initiatives”, an empirical enquiry into their potential for future processes of urban upgrading and development needs to be situated in the larger framework of neoliberal transformation. But it also needs to take much more careful note of the actual micro-practices on the ground. By comparing a case of local of resistance against an urban upgrading scheme with the current discourse in the emerging Cairo-wide networks of neighbourhood-based popular committees, Egyptian rights organisations, and local urban planners, this thesis aims to sketch out possible future scenarios for urban change. While the locally
153 — Abstracts
emerging practices can be read as claims to the urban commons, their translation into future forms of urban governance and resource management moves onto contested political ground.
Integrating Urban Agriculture into Refugee Camps Development by Manal Salim Fakhouri supervised by Prof. Antje Stokman, Prof. Dr. Youhansen Yehia Eid
Designing Landscape as Infrastructure by Lisa Deister supervised by Prof. Antje Stokman, Prof. Dr. Aly N. ElBahrawy, Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen
The urban environment as productive urban landscape must become an integral part of urban development to engage refugee population towards urban agriculture. Urban agriculture as integrated approach to refugee camps development transforming its urban environment and open spaces into a multifunctional and productive landscape that integrates ecology, society and economy while promoting livelihoods and self-reliance, increasing urban food security, strengthening social interaction and improving their quality of life and wellbeing of refugees. •
Situated in a desert region, Egypt is a country facing water scarcity. One approach to deal with this situation is to reduce water consumption, especially where it is not urgently needed, e.g. irrigation of green open spaces. This thesis explores opportunities of water sensitive open space design, an approach to reduce water consumption when irrigating green open spaces while increasing their amenity value and maintaining a lush green appearance.• Coastal Landscape between Resistance and Resilience to Sea Level Rise: Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Coastal Landscape by Lobna Mohamed Mitkees supervised by Prof. Antje Stockman, Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen, Prof. José Luis Moro Sea level rise will be one of the greatest challenges to confront the coastal region. The current paradigm in dealing with the coastal communities is towards mitigating the impact and increasing protection measures. However this arguably establishes resistant coastal community on the account of its resilience. Resilience is a new prominent paradigm that offers more flexibility in coping with change that requires understanding the natural environment and incorporating it into the design process. The study will present Alexandria as a resistance paradigm. Then it will offer resilience measures for the newly proposed City of New Motobus. •
Parametric Analysis for Daylight Autonomy and Energy Consumption in Hot climate Regions by Mohamed Amer Mohamed Hegazy supervised by Prof. José Luis Moro, Prof. Dr. Ahmed Atef Faggal This thesis is based on a parametric analysis to study the quantitative effect of the fenestration designs (ratio, glazing and shading type) on daylight autonomy and energy consumption in the hot climate regions under different urban contexts. Moreover, it presents a developed evaluation criteria to be used in the early stages for the different design options. •
154 — Master Theses
Developing Informal Areas Through Business Model by Mohammed Abd El Aziz Ibrahim supervised by Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen, Prof. Dr. Philipp Misselwitz, Dr. Nina Gribat
Analyzing the Public Transportation in Amman: The Case of the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) by Muna Abd el Karim Sha’lan supervised by Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen, Prof. Dr. Wolf Reuter, Dr. Nina Gribat
The research explores development of Informal Areas through Business Model (BM), to develop a workable model for all parties involved, which ensures a better quality of life and involves the local community in decision-making. Moreover achieving a win-win situation for the community, government, and the developers as main entities in BM. This will be applied in the case of Ramlet Boulaq area, as one of IAs in Cairo, then concluding research and constraints of using BM. •
This master thesis is an excretion of efforts to study the relation between the reality of public transportation and the urban context of Amman City following a case study approach. More specifically, the research focuses on analyzing the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), which has been touted as a flag-ship project to deal with the illstructured public transportation system in the city. It is envisaged that the findings of this research will have a far-reaching impact on the urban policies of Amman city in its efforts to achieve sustainability through adopting principles of Transit-oriented Development and active public participation. •
Alternative Building Materials and Components for Affordable Housing in Egypt: Towards Improved Competitiveness of Modern Earth Construction by Mona Farouk al Kabbany supervised by Prof. José Luis Moro, Prof. Dr. Ahmed Atef Faggal, Prof. Dr. Hend Farouh The research investigates the factors causing the underutilization of earth as a modern sustainable building material within the Egyptian construction sector and the opportunities for improving its competitiveness. The analysis is based on a group of interviews with experts and practitioners in the field, as well as the study of contemporary examples for using compressed earth blocks and rammed earth as building materials in Egypt. •
Towards an Integrated Neo-Vernacular Built Environment. Design guidelines for the living environments inspired by socio-cultural and environmental aspects – Qārrat Um-Āsaġīr Village, the western desert of Egypt by Nahla Nabil Makhlouf supervised by Prof. Dr. Youhansen Y. Eid, Prof. José Luis Moro, Dr. Mohamed S. Asar This master’s thesis is based on a case study methodology. It discusses an integrated neo-vernacular approach for the current developments in one the distinctive remote desert areas in the Western Desert of Egypt. The integration between advanced high- and traditional lowtechniques as an approach to achieve the contemporary needs of its segregated community is one of its significant results. The study is conducted to outline the responses towards the contemporary living needs, through sociocultural and environmental factors, by tracing the architectural development of its housing typologies. •
155 — Abstracts
Assessing Thermal Comfort in Secondary Schools in Egypt by Omar Wanas supervised by Prof. José Moro, Prof. Mohamed S. Asar, Prof. Dr. Ahmed Atef Fagal, The research aims to calculate the magnitude of the thermal discomfort within classrooms of standardized prototypes of secondary schools in Cairo by using computerized thermal simulation software. After this thorough evaluation, several single passive retrofitting measures are applied to the school prototype and the extent of enhancement in the indoor thermal conditions are recorded. Finally, the combinations of retrofitting measures that lead to the thermally optimized classroom environment are recommended and their effect is quantified. The results of this research should enable decision makers to issue evidence based, precise and resource efficient decision concerning the thermal retrofitting of these schools that form the physical infrastructure of the largest educational system in the Middle East and Africa. •
Participatory Development Projects in Postrevolutionary Egypt – Partnering with Civil Society? by Pia Lorenz supervised by Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen, Prof. Dr. Philipp Misselwitz This research project will explore how the GIZ and UNHabitat cooperate with civil society in their participatory urban development projects in post-revolutionary Cairo. Critical aspects about the notion of participation and civil society in political science, urban planning and development cooperation are deducted from the literature and transferred to the two projects in Cairo. National strategies of the two organizations, on-the-ground interpretations of participation and civil society, the character of collaboration with civic partnerships, their representative nature and the agencies’ interpretation of community are assessed in the context of a changing political environment. •
Refugee Setting and Urban Form and Governance – The Predicament of Syrian Refugees in Navigating Cairo’s Urban Spaces and the Complexities of Governance in Turbulent Times by Rasha Arous supervised by Prof. Dr. Youhansen Y. Eid, Prof. Dr. Philipp Misselwitz, Dr. Nina Gribat The paper looks at the ways in which the recently arriving Syrian refugees negotiate their ways through the capital metropolis of Cairo. It examines refugee spaces through extensive field engagement with a wider look into the socio- political organization. Cairo provides multi-choice avenues and offers various prospects of asylum experience. However, it marginalizes the poor and positions them into vulnerable assistance and protection structures. Spaces of refuge are products of physical structures and dynamic relationships and are incited by the formal and informal political, economic, social and psychological attitudes of the city. Towards an Integrated Transport Planning Approach in Amman by Sandy Raji Jalil Qarmout supervised by Prof. Dr. Stefan Siedentop, Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen, Prof. Dr. Markus Friedrich, Dr. Ayman Smadi Traffic congestion is a continuously growing issue in Amman. Attempts have been continuously developed by the Greater Amman Municipality. The Transport and Mobility Master Plan 2025 is the last product of these attempts. Yet, the realization of the TMMP is currently facing major obstacles. This research evaluates the TMMP by comparative analysis of suggested approaches for solving transportation problems in Amman based on the comparison between the strategies, policies, and planning measures set in Stuttgart. The main objective of this research is to recommend an integrated transport planning approach for Amman. •
156 â€” Master Theses
Landscapes Between Conservation and Development: Negotiating Infrastructure Development in Agglomerations in Mountainous Areas in the Northwest of Tunisia by Zaineb Madyouni supervised by Prof. Antje Stokman, Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen Biodiversity conservation and human development seem to be two irreconcilable goals. Mountain areas are challenging settings to integrate both achievements. In Tunisia, mountains in the northwest region are rich and fragile ecosystems. Despite this potential, communities living in these areas are stagnating under the load of the underdevelopment increased by the remoteness. Green infrastructure (GI) is an emerging approach to spatial planning assumed to be of benefit to natural and human systems. The research aims at having an insight into the dilemma between biodiversity conservation and human development and examining the ideas underpinning GI approach in the study area. â€˘
Cultural Tourism Planning Impacts on Saving Identity and Economic Development by Zeina Mohamed Elcheikh supervised by Prof. Dr. Youhansen Yehia Eid, Prof. Dr. Philipp Misselwitz, Dr. Yehya Serag The assimilation of culture and heritage into the tourism industry brought more attention to the Nubian cultural identity, and made a vital contribution to the local economy of Nubian villages. However, this assimilation has generated drawbacks regarding the protection of this cultural identity, and has linked the living culture with an image from a bygone past. â€˘
157 — Abstracts
08 â€” Graduation
160 â€” Graduation Ceremony
1st Intake Graduation Ceremony
Two years ago twentytwo sutdents started as the first intake of the Arab-German Masters Programme Integrated Urbanism and Sustainable Design. The students as well as the teachers and coordinators gained a lot of experience in these times of transition. The main focus of studies are comprising the recent challenges of sustainable planning in Europe, Northern Africa and the Middle East. All IUSD students completed the programme successfully and received their Master’s degree from both Stuttgart University and Ain Shams University, Cairo. The Course Director on Cairo side, Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen said, “Stuttgart already has become a kind of second home.”
ing global challenges. To create a better future in each of their home countries is one of the main concerns for every graduate. After finishing the international studies, they feel closer reaching this goal.
On September 19th we had the occasion to jointly celebrate their graduation. Due to the current political situation in Cairo, the ceremony was shifted to Stuttgart. “This programme becomes even more important in political difficult times” Prof. Arno Lederer, Dean of Stuttgart University said. Also the president of Ain Shams University, Prof. Dr. Hussein Eissa is proud of building something new and creating a new generation of planners facing the upcom-
The IUSD Team wishes you the very best for your future as the Course Director on Stuttgart side, Prof. Antje Stockman said, “Keep the spirit of IUSD and develop it further in the steps lying ahead of you.” •
With Arabic live music and delicious drinks and snacks everyone was really glad to join the ceremony, including all staff members, friends, families and children, as well as the second and third intake students. Most of the graduates returned already to their home countries to fulfil their role as “change agents” in a vast field of different topics dealing with sustainable research and planning.
Stuttgart– IUSD students, friends, famlies and staff celebrating the first intake’s graduation •
09 — IUSD-Lab
166 — IUSD-Lab
167 — Vision
Our vision is to jointly develop the IUSD programme into a self-sustainable German-Egyptian centre for graduate teaching, research, training and dialogue in Stuttgart and Cairo – the “Integrated Urbanism and Sustainable Design Laboratory” (IUSD-Lab). Its thematic focus will be on sustainable urban development of Egypt and the MENA region in close relation to international approaches. IUSD-Lab will establish itself as a joint, cross-institutional centre at Stuttgart University and Ain Shams University, involving several faculties and departments within these universities. It will closely cooperate with a broad range of partners from different academic, governmental and private institutions around the world. IUSD-Lab was inaugurated in September 2012, on the occasion of the second IUSD-week. The aim of situating the IUSD programme within the framework of the IUSD-Lab is to pool competencies in sustainable urban development in order to become self-sustainable through external research funding and funding of partners after the end of the initial period of funding by DAAD and the supporting ministries. •
Siwa Spring School (2013)
In September 2012 IUSD organized its second international symposium in Cairo entitled “Integrated Urbanism Dialogues II: On Resilience”. In focusing on the interconnected disciplinary fields of architecture, urban planning and landscape design, the two day symposium examined closely the implications of their inter-relations, both on conceptual and practical levels in relation to resilience. In addition, it explored the potential of integrating the different disciplinary approaches to resilience in the urban context of the MENA region. International and Egyptian scholars were invited as speakers in the symposium with a wide participation of scholars and students throughout Egypt. The second Integrated Urbanism Dialogues symposium marked the start of the IUSD LAB at both universities. Further similar activities are planned.
As one of its pilot activities, the IUSD LAB Cairo organized a spring school in Siwa in March 2013, funded by a DAAD Transformation Partnership grant. The spring school was jointly conceptualised and successfully carried out by Prof. Moro (IEK, University of Stuttgart) and Prof. Helmedag (Ain Shams University). 24 participants from Egypt Germany and Tunisia were selected based on an open call. Siwa oasis is still a remote and very traditional place in Egypt, which is under development pressure from its population, as well as tourism and investment. Siwan people realized this, and they are still searching for the right way to develop yet with great appreciation and respect to their culture and traditions. The task of the spring school was to help the Siwan people, who are looking for a new modern expression for their houses while keeping their traditional identity. The workshop aimed to find possible ways to deal with the needs and demands of the people and to develop building practices and design solutions according to them.
Egypt – IUSD Symposium September 2012: “Integrated Urbanism Dialogues II: On Resilience” •
Egypt – International Spring School 2013 in the Siwa Desert Oasis “Towards a neo-vernacular architecture” with students from Egypt, Tunisia and Germany •
10 — IUSD People
174 — IUSD People
175 — IUSD Staff
Dr. Marwa Abdellatif Marwa Abdellatif obtained a B.Sc. in Urban Planning and Design (Ain Shams University, Cairo, 2000) and a M.Sc. in ecotourism in the Western Desert of Egypt (ASU, 2006), and received her PhD on the topic of ‘Paradigms for Spatial Planning – Transformations in the Planning System of Egypt’ (ASU, 2013). She currently holds the position of an assistant professor at the Department of Urban Planning and Design, Ain Shams University. She is particularly interested in exploring new pedagogical approaches for education of spatial planning. She participated in a number of workshops in Egypt and Germany on higher education. In 2011, she co-founded ‘Letaarfo’ initiative to deepen the understanding of the interwoven relationships of people and places. She is a programme coordinator of the MSc. IUSD at Ain Shams University, Cairo. Eng. Abdulmoneim Alfiky received his B.Sc. in Urban Planning and Design in 2001 from the Faculty of Engineering – Ain Shams University, where he subsequently became a teaching assistant in the Dept. of Urban Planning and Design. In 2008 he received his M.Sc. on the topic of Urban Environmental management from Ain Shams University. His professional experience focuses on strategic and regional planning in rural areas of
the Egyptian Nile Delta. He actively participated in several TEMPUS project between Ain Shams University and various European universities. Currently he is working on his PhD on effects of urban and rural sprawling on the agricultural lands in the Nile Delta under joint supervision from Ain Shams Uni & Uni Stuttgart and recently joined the coordination team of the MSc IUSD programme. Eng. Nouran Azouz Nouran Azouz received her B.Sc. in Urban planning and Design in 2009 from Ain Shams University, Cairo. Nouran is M.Sc. Candidate at Ain Shams University; her on-going Master thesis is on the “Good Urban Governance of Informal settlements in Metropolitan Areas”. She attended several courses and workshops through the CNRD student exchange program in Cologne, Germany. She also participated in “Tadamun” project, which is under the partnership of the AU of Washington and Ford Organization, as a researcher on the issues of Urban Governance in Egypt in correspondence to Global Models. Nouran Azouz is working at the present as a research assistant at the MSc IUSD program at Ain Shams University, Cairo. Dipl.-Ing. Moritz Bellers After completing a Diploma in landscape and open space planning
at Leibniz University Hannover in 2008 and landscape architecture (between 2004 and 2005) at Universiteit Wageningen, NL he worked for jbbug – landscape architects in Cologne from 2009 to 2011. Since July 2010 he teaches and researches at the Department of Landscape Planning and Ecology, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning at University Stuttgart. Moritz Bellers teaches on several MSc IUSD modules. Dr. Marwa Dabaieh Marwa Dabaieh is an Egyptian architect and BioGeometry practitioner, worked for the last 12 years in the field of sustainable architectural conservation, environmental design and energy efficiency buildings. Marwa received her bachelor degree in architecture from Egypt in 2001. She earned a master degree in environmental design in 2006 and a PhD in conservation of vernacular architecture in 2011 from Lund University in Sweden. Marwa mainly applies transdisciplinary approaches in her research work through participatory action research methods. She received the Swedish Elna Bengtssons foundation prize for scientific research in 2012 for her PhD project in the Western Desert of Egypt. Marwa had several publications and lectures in the fields of energy efficiency buildings, sustainable conservation, environmental design, vernacular architecture and
BioGeometry. As a practitioner, she participated in several design projects in Egypt, MENA region and Europe. She joined the teaching staff of IUSD master program at Ain Shams University during fall 2012. Marwa’s current research focus is passive low-tech vernacular methods and their adaptation for contemporary energy efficient and zero energy building practice. Prof. Dr. Youhansen Y. Eid received a B.Sc. in Architectural Engineering, a M. of Architecture (1986), and a Ph.D. in Urban planning from the University of Southern California (1992). Since then, she has worked at the Faculty of Engineering at ASU. She held the positions of head of department of Urban planning (2007–2009) and Vice-Dean at the Faculty of Engineering (2009–2011). Currently she is Professor of Urban planning at ASU, Visiting Professor at the British University Egypt and was head of admission committee for the M.Sc. program Integrated Urbanism and Sustainable Design untill the end of SS 2013. Prof. Eid conducted a private architectural and planning practice and held planning consulting positions in some agencies in Egypt including GAEB and GOPP. Her research interests include the impact of sociopolitical and technological changes on urban form, strategic planning and sustainability.
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Dr. Bernd Eisenberg completed a diploma in Landscape and Open Space Planning at TU Hannover and worked in the field of GIS-based planning in Hamburg and Stuttgart. He obtained his PhD on the topic of “Park metrics – quantification methods for spatial potentials of green open spaces with regard to recreational uses” at the University of Stuttgart. Bernd is involved in ongoing research activities of the Institute of Landscape Planning and Ecology (ILPÖ) related to sustainability and resilience of cities (projects LiWa and TURaS) and international educational cooperations. Since October 2010, he is programme coordinator of the MSc IUSD. Eng. Nourhan El-Zafarany received her BSc in Architectural Engineering, Urban design and Planning major, from Ain Shams University, Egypt 2011. She’s about to defend her master thesis in urban design in Cairo University, Faculty of Engineering. Her thesis integrates the study of Urban design in Public Places with environmental psychology and political philosophy. The study about adaptive places for people is done within the context of the philosophical concept of the right to the city, using environmental psychology analysis techniques such as behavior settings and proxemics. She’s been working as a teaching assistant at the American
University in Cairo since September 2011. Nourhan was a teaching and research assistant for the MSc IUSD program at Ain Shams University Cairo for the fall semester of 2012. Eng. Nashwa Emad Nashwa Emad received her B.Sc. in Urban Planning and Design (Ain Shams University, Cairo, 2012); she holds the position of a teaching assistant at the Department of Urban Planning and Design, Ain Shams University where she is currently enrolled as M.Sc. Candidate at Ain Shams. Nashwa is interested mainly in the role of landscape in the urban development of public open spaces, and its impact on the viability of the city. Nashwa Emad is working at the present as a research assistant at the MSc IUSD program at Ain Shams University, Cairo. Prof.Dr. Shafak El Wakil received her B.Sc. and MSc in 1971 and 1975 respectively from Ain Shams University. She obtained her PhD from Stuttgart University in 1980. Prof. El Wakil has been academically active since 1971, ending with being the head of the urban planning department (2001-2007). She currently holds the position of Emeritus professor in the department. Professor El wakil has many fields of interest including, strategic urban and regional planning, climatology and environment as well as architecture. Her interests are
reflected in her professional career through the national projects she conducted and headed in her office such as the new city of Assiut and the New city of Toshka. She is also an active consultant to the Ministry of Housing and was the former adviser of the Minister of Environment in the early 2000s, where she represented the Ministry in several International events in North Africa and Europe. She has been awarded the Ain Shams University award for arts and literature for the year 2012. She has supervised and guided many MSc and PhD dissertations and she holds the course of upgrading informal settlements within the IUSD Master Program in Cairo. Dr. Nina Gribat completed a Diploma in Architecture and Urban Design (TU Berlin), the Bauhauskolleg Transitspaces (Bauhaus Dessau) and a MA in Planning Research and Theory (The University of Sheffield). She has worked at different architecture practices in Berlin and as a freelancer for different urban research projects. In 2010 she obtained her PhD on the topic of “Governing the Future of a Shrinking City: Hoyerswerda, East Germany” at the Department of Architecture and Planning at Sheffield Hallam University. Since April 2011, she is programme coordinator of the MSc IUSD and also teaches several modules of the MSc IUSD.
Dipl.-Ing. Ingo Helmedag studied architecture at Hanover University and at Graz University of Technology. After graduating from Hanover University he worked as an architect in a number of projects. Starting in 1993, he has taught as an assistant professor for Building Construction and Design at Dresden University of Technology. For the Faculty of Architecture, he established the European Erasmus Program and furthered worldwide University exchange. In 1998, he was a visiting professor at the UBC, Vancouver. After joining DAAD in 2008, Ingo Helmedag became professor for Building Techniques and Design at the German Jordanian University (GJU) in Amman, where he remained until his transfer to Cairo’s Ain Shams University (IUSD Master Program) in September 2012. His focus and research interest is on building technique and sustainable design. Dipl.-Ing. Raoul C. Humpert studied at the École Nationale Supérieure d´Architecture de Montpellier and the University of Stuttgart, where he received his diploma of Architecture and Urbanism. His interest in the multidisciplinarity of architecture strengthened while working in different architectural disciplines. He participated in different international workshops for mudbrick constructions, walkable cities and
177 — IUSD Staff
public schoolyards. Currently he holds a teaching position at the University of Innsbruck and recently joined the coordination team of the MSc IUSD programme. Dr. Marwa A. Khalifa has obtained her B.Sc. & M.Sc., “Urban Planning” specialization from Ain Shams University (ASU), while her PhD was a joint supervision between ASU and the University of Sheffield, UK. Dr. Khalifa has major interest in environmental assessment, strategic planning, upgrading of informal settlements and participatory planning approaches. She combines the advantages of having both the theoretical grounds and practical application experience. She has been teaching and supervising multidisciplinary topics, both undergraduate and postgraduate since 1996 and is currently Associate Professor at the Department of Urban Planning and Design. Simultaneously, she provided consultancy services to both national organizations such as General Organization for Physical Planning and Informal Settlement Development Facility as well as International Organizations such as UN-Habitat related to her area of expertise mentioned above. Additionally, since 2007 she has participated and coordinated several international cooperation projects with universities in EU, Latin America, South Asia and MENA Region related to higher
education reform in the field of participatory planning and natural resources management. BSc. Mona Mannoun received her BSc in Architectural Engineering from Misr International University, Egypt in 2008. Her ongoing Master thesis at the Department of Urban Planning at Ain Shams University is on “selfdeveloped areas”, focusing on the urban fabric and the architectural character of different case studies in Egypt and Germany that depend on society participation. In addition, Mona Mannoun works on a handson project related to informal settlements. She worked at ökoplan and IDG consultancy offices in Cairo between 2009 to 2010 and 2010 to 2012. Since May 2012 Mona is the assistant programme coordinator for the MSc IUSD at Ain Shams University Cairo. Dipl.-Ing. M.A. Sandra Meireis graduated in 2010 with a diploma in architecture and design from the State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart, where she became a teaching assistant in the department of architectural history, theory and criticism. During this period she was enrolled at the Architectural Association, London studying 2011/12 in the MA programme History and Critical Thinking. Following her main area of interest her master thesis focused on the political relevance
of (derelict) urban spaces in London, Berlin and Warsaw. The prospective subject of her PhD continues to conduct this research. Since April 2013 Sandra is a research assistant at the department of International Urbanism at the University of Stuttgart and involved with the MSc IUSD as a coordinator. Prof. Dr. Philipp Misselwitz was the Chair of International Urbanism at the Institute of Urban Planning at the University of Stuttgart untill SS2013. He was educated at Cambridge University (Bachelor of Architecture, 1996) and the Architecture Association London (AA Diploma, 2001) and received a doctorate in architecture and urbanism at Stuttgart University (2009). He is a founding member of the Berlin based architectural research group ‘urban catalyst’. He has worked as a consultant, project coordinator and researchers for a number of German and international organizations including GIZ, UN, UNRWA, Bundeskulturstiftung, Goethe Institute, Robert Bosch Foundation and Allianz Cultural Foundation. In 2009, he co-initiated and directed the MSc IUSD. Prof. José Luis Moro is the chair of the Insitute of Design and Construction at the University of Stuttgart. After completing a Diploma in Architecture and Urban Design at the University of
Stuttgart, José Luis Moro worked as a project leader and office manager at different architecture practices in Madrid, Berlin, Munich, Darmstadt and Zürich (Fernando Higueras, Thomas Herzog, Santiago Calatrava). He was mainly involved in the design and implementation of large public buildings and bridges. In 1990 José Moro established his own architecture office in Darmstadt. In 1996 he responded to a call of Stuttgart University to the professorship of Planning and Construction at the Faculty of Civil Engineering. At IUSD Prof. Moro is responsible for the core module of sustainable architecture. M.Arch. Marisol Rivas Velásquez studied architecture at the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey Mexico (B.S. 1998) and received the Master of Excellence in Architecture at the Berlage Institute, Postgraduate Laboratory of Architecture (2002). She collaborated with several offices in Mexico and Belgium, among them the renowned offices of Teodoro González de León/ Mexico City, Ricardo Legorreta/ Mexico City and Stéphane Beel/ Ghent. She is a founding partner of the Ulm based practice “Architecture, Urbanism + Research Agency”. Marisol has been Visiting Professor at the ITESM Monterrey, Lecturer at the University of Technology,
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Munich and Assistant Professor at the Institute of Design Studio1 of Leopold-Franzens-University in Innsbruck. Since 2010 Marisol is Assistant Professor at the Department of International Urbanism were she has been teaching and coordinating studies and research projects. In both her professional and academic practice Marisol’s research interest evolve on the topics of culture conflicts, tourism and informal urban development with special focus on African and Latin American cities. Dipl.-Ing. Matthias Rottner After completing a Diploma in Architecture and Urban Design (Stuttgart University) in 1991, Matthias Rottner worked as a building planner and architect in different architecture offices in Stuttgart (Heinle, Wischer and Partners, Fahlbusch and Köhler Architects, Rainer Walder Architects). Center of his interest was the planning of hospitals and retirement homes. Since 1996 he collaborated as an assistant lecturer at the Department of Planning and Construction with Prof. José Moro at the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Stuttgart University. In 2006 the complete department changed to the Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning. Eng. Mai Moustafa Sabry received her B.Sc. in Architecture Department in 2009 from Ain
Shams University, Cairo. She is M.Sc. candidate at Ain Shams University and currently working on her Master thesis. She attended several courses and workshops through the CNRD student exchange program in Cologne, Germany. Mai has worked as an architect at IDG consultancy offices in Cairo in 2009, she worked also as a Teacher Assistant at the department of Architecture “Misr international University” between 2010 and 2012. Recently Mai worked as a research assistant at the MSc. IUSD program at Ain Shams University this winter term. Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen obtained his BSc in Urban Planning and Design in 1993 from Ain Shams University, Cairo. He was appointed as teaching staff at the department and later received a PhD scholarship to obtain his PhD in Urban Design from Edinburgh College of Art, UK in 2001 with a thesis on Comprehensive Analysis Approaches in dealing with Urban Settings. Since then he acted as assistant and associate professor at Ain Shams University teaching and supervising multidisciplinary topics. He has coordinated several international cooperation projects with Universities in Germany, Sweden, Austria and Denmark. He is currently an appointed member of the EU Higher Education reform Experts (HEREs) Group, contributing to various workshops and seminars on internationaliza-
tion and harmonization of Higher Education. Salheen is also active in practice and consultation working with GIZ, UN-Habitat, UNEP and UNDP as well as many other national and regional organizations in the fields of strategic, environmental and integrated planning and design. Dr. Yehya Serag received a Bachelor degree in Architecture with a major in Urban Planning and Design from Ain Shams University, Cairo. He, then, obtained his MA in human settlements (PGCHS – Catholic University of Leuven) as well as a Post Graduate Certificate in spatial and regional planning after completing the European Module for spatial development and planning (NewCastle University). He graduated with a PhD on the topic “Networking and networks as tools for regional development and planning: Human settlements’ development potentialities in the Western part of Egypt” from the department of Architecture, spatial planning and landscape (Catholic University of Leuven). Since September 2008, Serag holds the position of an assistant professor of urban and regional planning at the Department of Urban Planning and Design at Ain Shams University. He was also a visiting assistant professor at the Future University in Egypt (2011–2012). Starting from December 2010, he coordinates the MSc IUSD.
Prof. Antje Stokman is the chair of the Institute of Landscape Planning and Ecology at the University of Stuttgart and founding partner of the practice “osp urbanelandschaften” in Hamburg. She studied landscape architecture at Hanover University and Edinburgh College of Art. After graduation she gained practical experiences as a landscape architect in many international projects and was Associate Professor in Hannover University from 2005–2010. She was awarded the Topos Landscape Award in 2011, the Lower Saxony Science Prize in 2009 and is member of the German national advisory council on spatial planning since 2010. In 2009, she co-initiated the MSc IUSD and now acts as Director of Admissions and teaches in various courses within the IUSD. Dr. Ahmad Toimah has about 12 years of academic, professional and practical experience in the field of rural and agricultural development for old cultivated land inside Nile delta and newly cultivated land in Wadi El-Natroun (west of the delta). His academic experience includes a MSc thesis in “interaction between urban and rural settlements”, a PhD thesis in “urban rural balance” and a teaching experience in rural development courses. The professional experience includes participation in the strategic plan-
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ning for a number of cities, villages, hamlets and new villages in various governorates in upper and lower Egypt. He has practiced farming and animals and poultry growing for more than 10 years in his family farms in Monfeia governorate and Wadi El-Natroun. Ahmad Toimah has a wide network in various rural local communities and agricultural business community.
staff from other institutes involved in teaching … Dr. Onur Dursun, bauoek offered an elective on “Construction Business and Investment Appraisal” in WS 2012/13. Dr. Ferdinand Ludwig, IGMA offered an elective on “CityTreeHouse” in SS 2013. Prof. Dr. Wolf Reuter, IWE was involved in teaching on the Integrated Research and Design Module in SS 2013. Dr. Hans-Georg Schwarzvon Raumer, ILPÖ offered an elective on “Geodesign” in SS 2013. Dominique Gauzin-Müller, IÖB offered the elective courses “Sustainable Architecture: Low Tech or High Tech?” in WS 2012/13 and the “Earthworkshop in Lyon” in SS 2013. Dipl.-Ing. M.A. Christiane Fülscher, ifag offered an elective on “Foreign Affairs” in SS 2013.
External partners: Yaşar A. Adanalı is a sociologist and political scientist, writer and expert on participation, urban development and planning. He was involved in teaching on the Integrated Research and Design Module. Gerd Lüers is an expert in project monitoring and evaluation, change management and institutional capacity building; he delivers regular workshops for the MSc IUSD such as teambuilding and project management. Dipl.-Ing. Daniel Schönle is owner of architecture and planning practice hp4, www. hp4.org; he co-taught the elective “CityTreeHouse” in SS 2013 and the Integrated Research and Design Project. Prof. Dr. Stefan Siedentop offered an elective course on Regional Planning I + II. Dr. Anette Gangler a private architect and urban planner, holds a master’s degree and Ph.D. from University of Stuttgart and offered the elective “Beyond Tourism – Exhibition Support” in WS 2012/13.
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Ayham Mouad architect, Syria
Baher Elshaarawy urban planner, Egypt
Ebtihal Zakaria Rashad urban planner, Egypt
Eslam Mahdy urban planner, Egypt
Lisa Deister landscape architect, Germany
Lobna Mitkees urban planner, Egypt
Manal Fakhouri architect, Jordan
Mohamed Amer Mahmoud Hegazy architect, Egypt
Omar Wanas architect, Egypt
Pia Lorenz political scientist, Germany
Rasha Arous planner/civil engineer, Syria
Sandy Qarmout architect, Jordan
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Franziska Laue architect, Germany
Ghevar Ismaiel architect, Syria
Insaf Ben Othmane Hamrouni architect, Tunesia
Julia Hartmann architect, Germany
Mohammed Abdel Aziz Ibrahim urban planner, Egypt
Mona Farouk Elkabbany architect, Egypt
Muna Shalan architect, Jordan
Nahla Makhlouf architect, Egypt
Zaineb Madyouni architect, Tunesia
Zeina Elcheikh architect, Syria
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Mohamed El-Gamal architect, Egypt
Sara Abdelghany architect, Egypt
Dina Noseir Abdelrashid urban planner, Egypt
Rasha Abodeeb architect, Egypt
Mohammed Alfiky urban planner, Egypt
Sary Abdullah architect, Iraq
Abdalrahman Alshorafa architect, Palestine
Ayham Dalal architect, Syria
Heba Badr GIS-analyst, Egypt
Irmtraud Eckart anthropologist, Austria
Wesam El-Bardisy urban planner, Egypt
Fadi Charaf civil engineer, Lebanon
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Aya El-Wagieh urban planner, Egypt
Katharina Frieling architect, Germany
Nuha Innab architect, Jordan
Sana Kassouha urban planner, Syria
Daniel Koschorrek architect, Germany
Lucas Krupp architect, Germany
Mohamed Mahrous architect, Egypt
Athar Mufreh architect, Palestine
Mahy Mourad Nowier architect, Egypt
Tariq Nassar architect, Palestine
Eric Puttrowait desinger, Germany
Franziska Turber economist, Germany