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In This Issue Assessing the Efficiency of Functional Performance of Shopping Malls in the Kingdom of Bahrain Mud-Brick High-Rise Buildings Architectural Linkages for Thermal Comfort in Hadhramout Valley, Yemen Rainfall and Chemical Weathering of Basalt Facade at Puebla Cathedral, Mexico Impact of Flexibility Principle on the Efficiency of Interior Design Slum Upgrading Without Displacement at Danukusuman Sub-District Surakarta City Volume 5 Issue 3 (July 2014) ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642

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Cover Photos are from published article ITJEMAST V5(3) of Udai Ali Al-Juboori, and Faris Ali Mustafa (2014) “Assessing the Efficiency of Functional Performance of Shopping Malls in the Kingdom of Bahrain.� Photos show justified permeability graphs (Gamma analysis method) of shopping mall layouts in the Kingdom of Bahrain.


2014 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies.

International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies http://TuEngr.com

International Editorial Board

Editor-in-Chief Ahmad Sanusi Hassan, PhD Associate Professor Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA

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Noble Editorial Board:

Professor Dr.Mikio SATOMURA (Shizuoka University, JAPAN) Professor Dr.Chuen-Sheng Cheng (Yuan Ze University, TAIWAN) Professor Dr.I Nyoman Pujawan (Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, INDONESIA) Professor Dr.Neven Duić (University of Zagreb, CROATIA) Professor Dr.Lee, Yong-Chang (Incheon City College SOUTH KOREA) Professor Dr.Dewan M. Nuruzzaman (Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology, BANGLADESH) Professor Dr. Lutero Carmo de Lima (State University of Ceará, BRAZIL )

Scientific and Technical Committee & Editorial Review Board on Engineering, Technologies and Applied Sciences:

Associate Prof. Dr. Paulo Cesar Lima Segantine (University of São Paulo, BRASIL) Associate Prof. Dr. Kurt B. Wurm (New Mexico State University, USA ) Associate Prof. Dr. Truong Vu Bang Giang (Vietnam National University, Hanoi, VIETNAM ) Dr.H. Mustafa Palancıoğlu (Erciyes University, TURKEY) Associate Prof.Dr.Peter Kuntu-Mensah (Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, USA) Associate Prof. Dr. Masato SAITOH (Saitama University, JAPAN ) Assistant Prof.Dr. Zoe D. Ziaka (International Hellenic University, GREECE ) Associate Prof.Dr. Junji SHIKATA (Yokohama National University, JAPAN) Assistant Prof.Dr. Akeel Noori Abdul Hameed (University of Sharjah, UAE) Assistant Prof.Dr. Rohit Srivastava (Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, INDIA) Madam Wan Mariah Wan Harun (Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA ) Dr. David Kuria (Kimathi University College of Technology, KENYA ) Dr. Mazran bin Ismail (Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA ) Dr. Salahaddin Yasin Baper (Salahaddin University - Hawler, IRAQ ) Dr. Foong Swee Yeok (Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA)


2014 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies.

:: International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies Volume 5 Issue 3 (July, 2014) http://TuEngr.com

ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642

FEATURE PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLES

 Assessing the Efficiency of Functional Performance of Shopping Malls in the Kingdom of Bahrain 143  Mud-Brick High-Rise Buildings Architectural Linkages for Thermal Comfort in Hadhramout Valley, Yemen 167  Rainfall and Chemical Weathering of Basalt Facade at Puebla Cathedral, Mexico 183  Impact of Flexibility Principle on the Efficiency of Interior Design 195  Slum Upgrading Without Displacement at Danukusuman Sub-District 213 Surakarta City

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2014 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies.

International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies http://TuEngr.com

Assessing the Efficiency of Functional Performance of Shopping Malls in the Kingdom of Bahrain a

Udai Ali Al-Juboori , Faris Ali Mustafa a b

b*

Department of Design and Art, University of Applied Sciences, BAHRAIN Department of Architectural Engineering, Salahaddin University, Erbil, KURDISTAN-IRAQ

ARTICLE INFO

Article history: Received 08 January 2014 Received in revised form 24 February 2014 Accepted 27 February 2014 Available online 03 March 2014

Keywords: Functional Efficiency; Spatial Configuration, Circulation; Space Syntax; Interior Design.

ABSTRACT

The functional efficiency of the internal spaces of shopping malls considered one of the most important criteria underlying the success of the interior design process for such complexes, as well as its success in economic terms that constitute a destination in itself. The process of distribution of internal activities and building a network connecting linkages between them are important factors that affect the properties of the spatial configuration and functional efficiency of malls. Study the impact of spatial configuration of shopping malls on the efficiency of functional performance of such complexes in the kingdom of Bahrain has formed a research problem sought to be solved through identifying the characteristics of the spatial configuration of malls to explore their ability in providing greater opportunities for optimal functional efficiency by applying the methodology of Space Syntax in measuring the syntactical properties concerning the functional efficiency for each of these malls. Results show that Giant mall offers better design solutions in terms of the functional efficiency in comparing with the rest of malls, in accordance to the indicators and measurements of space syntax methodology. Conclusion reveals variation in the spatial configuration characteristics of malls being studied led to variation in the level of functional efficiency of these malls. The data collected will be valuable in the design process of future malls in the Kingdom of Bahrain. 2014 INT TRANS J ENG MANAG SCI TECH.

*Corresponding author (Faris Ali Mustafa). Tel/Fax: +964-7504524659. E-mail address: farisyali@yahoo.com. 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0143.pdf.

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1. Introduction In recent years, the shopping malls imposed a civilized and cultural role it was impossible to imagine in the past. This is evidenced by the trend towards internal spaces in order to organize such complexes to achieve the desired objectives of the shopping malls in a real competitive environment. The “Urban Land Institute” defines the shopping malls as “a group of commercial establishments planned, developed, owned, and managed as a unit related in location, size, and type of shops to the trade area it serves; it provides onsite parking relating to the types and sizes of its stores” (ULI, 2002; Vernor et al., 1993). Shopping malls play the role of a monolithic commercial facility subject to a unified commercial and administrative system depends on the properties of the commercial area that serves it. It represents a closed space performs the function of merchandise trade (Dawson, 1970). The history of the first enclosed shopping malls linked to Greek civilization, where the structural composition built for the market appeared in city centers and has gained increasing importance with the passage of time (Mumford, 1971). In Islamic civilization, this kind of buildings can be returned to a form of Bazaars, as in the Grand Bazaar in Isfahan, Iran, the tenth century AD, and the Grand Bazaar in Istanbul, which includes under its roof 4000 shop and 58 street, in the fifteenth century. These examples represent the first covered markets in the modern history (Sedlmaier, 2005). The form of the market in the Islamic civilization has taken different patterns varied between an extended commercial bars within the fabric of the city, were sometimes covered to protect pedestrians from the external environment, and in other cases where the shops gather around an open courtyard. The emergence of commercial centers in the modern era goes back to the period after the Second World War, which devastated by the economic recession, led to the creation of new outlets for selling through organizing it in line with the concept of the new shopping; followed by the emergence of markets known (department store) which was characterized by wide and large areas, to display different merchandise within an environment fit with the shopping process (Beddington, 1991). In the mid-twentieth century with the spread of suburbs cities and cars in the United States, huge shopping centers have been built away from urban centers. Victor Gruen was one of the first centers created by Gruen; he built and developed many of them in America which began to grow and grow to include many diverse shops (Sedlmaier, 2005).

These centers contained a variety of indoor environments with a sophisticated

appearance along with fountains, trees and termination precious materials. Thus, these centers have evolved from one level to two levels, lower level was used for parking and then a third level added to serve the purposes of shopping; this in turn has led to the high cost of establishing such centers but it provided the possibility of the establishment of such centers in the cities in the other hand (Rybczynski, 2003).

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Thus, a new generation of these centers has emerged known under the title of shopping centers aims to attract the attention of consumers by providing a regulated environment climatically, visually, and psychologically allow the performance of the activities of shopping and jobs associated with them effectively, as well as serve evolution in the production and competition of modern propaganda (Beddington, 1991). Gruen has contributed through transferring the concept of shopping centers being established for the purposes of profit only to being represented community centers. He considered that the shopping mall is a place for the meeting includes interactive facilities provides an environment for social interactions as well as its marketing function. This concept has been inspired in many of the shopping centers established in Europe at a later time, where these centers included many sculptures, fountains and seating facilities. Its role is not confined only in trade but also extended to include social, cultural and entertainment at the same time (Sedlmaier, 2005). In the light of the changed perception of the concept of shopping centers, these centers have evolved to include among its walls, in addition to shopping function on other activities such as theaters, restaurants and post offices, banks, hotels, public libraries, health clubs and health centers. In the nineties, several shopping centers appeared which were marked by the architectural complexities and upscale constructions raised the cost to a large extent, accompanied by an increase in the number of shoppers and family gatherings enjoying in their meetings in these buildings; which in turn impact on the number of hours spent by people walking inside these buildings (Rybczynski, 2003). In general, the shopping malls have faced two major challenges: How can these centers to include the largest possible number of shoppers; and how to gather them in one building so as to achieve the best functional efficiency of the building.

2. Movement and Shopping in Shopping Malls The interior design of shopping malls showing great interest in the process of planning and organization of movement paths accompanied by visual effects and psychological impact lead the shopper to enjoy during the performance of the shopping activity, and pay for the survival of a longer period of time, achieving efficiency in the economic factor of the building (Gruen & Smith, 1965). The planning of shopping malls sees that the kinetic axis is the main generator of the system, as the clarity of gradient between the various axes that constitute the building is the basis for the visibility of these axes (Malnar and Vodvarka, 1992). As for the movement of shoppers, it contributes to enrich the experience of movement relay within the shopping spaces, *Corresponding author (Faris Ali Mustafa). Tel/Fax: +964-7504524659. E-mail address: farisyali@yahoo.com. 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0143.pdf.

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providing a relaxed atmosphere allows consumers to take decisions effectively without hesitation, and achieves success for its intended commercial activity (Maitland, 1991). The organization of the internal spaces of shopping malls incorporates several areas along the kinetic planning and the overall organization, including by understanding the act of shopping itself, where studies have indicated that the act of shopping is built on three different cases, including: 1. Non- intentionality: a lack of clarity of purpose as a result of not setting goals, and this results in the length of stay in order to gain experience and see the exhibits before purchase. 2. The clarity of purpose to some extent: where corresponds to provide a simple experience to the shopper; this type of shoppers are vulnerable to the surrounding environmental effects, which contribute to the strengthening or reverse what they were carrying of a mental image in their minds. 3. Spontaneous response: a shopper has clarity of intent, whether to buy or choose a shopping place, therefore, this type of shoppers will head to the specified location to pick and sell (Howard, 1973). Understanding the act of shopping in various cases offset by three perceptions of the kinetic configuration for users of the building: Firstly, the theory of kinetic determinism: it indicates that the spatial configuration determines the kinetic behavior within that space. This theory assumes that it is possible to achieve fundamental changes in human behavior and therefore his movement and method of interaction inside spaces through a change in the organizational pattern of space. Secondly, the theory of spatial possibility: it indicates that the internal environment provides possibilities and constraints on the behavior of users and their movement depending on other criteria. Thirdly, the theory of spatial probability: it assumes that the spatial environment provides the potential for multiple options for users' movement, which is non-binding, but some options are more likely to occur in a certain physical surroundings (Al-Hankawi, 1993). Based on the foregoing, it can be said that the sequence of movement on planned paths may expose the recipient to a greater number of physical effects which increases the sensory data as a result of the continuous reproduction of scenes and emotions. This in turn provides durability in the emotional sense, which is an effective element in attracting shoppers to their various destinations of the different parts in the shopping mall and thus contribute to the achievement of an efficient functional performance.

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3. The Shopping Process and Spatial Configuration The process of shopping refers to the meaning of a deeper and more comprehensive than shopping or buying process that is due to the need or demand. It is a process that includes everything can be practiced by human motives may be multiple instinctive exceed the motives of the need and demand (Beddington, 1982). Based on this understanding, we find that shopping complexes tend to be spaces for social gatherings where people congregate, and spend their leisure time and create friendships in these spaces increase the time spent by people inside the complex (Aktas, 2012). Thus, the act of shopping is a state of dynamic change over time, influenced by various humanitarian needs and social concepts (Beddington, 1991). In other words, the interior design of shopping malls plays an important role in interweaving various aspects, achieving high performance with a shopping trip through successful concepts (Northen & Haskoll, 1977). Thus, the purpose of the building is to organize the internal space, and the physical element is a way to reach that goal (Kent, 1993); where the space creates a special relationship between the function and the building, as the encapsulation of the relationship between things (Malnar and Vodvarka, 1992). Accordingly, the space can take its distinctive shape by doing two senses: firstly, organizing individuals (people) in space through the organization of their relations with each other, depending on the degree of separation or aggregation, and secondly, self organization of spaces through buildings, paths, zones and so on; thus, the physical environment of the society takes a particular style. In both senses, society acquires a definite and recognizable spatial order (Hillier, 1984). Spatial configuration of shopping malls has allowed convergence of many desires and humanitarian needs within a balanced and protected environment helps to perform the activities of shopping and allow the participation of consumers in the life of this environment (Gruen, 1973). It means that there is a social logic of space and spatial logic to the community, and through that we can realize and distinguish the presence of the cultural differences between social environment and others (Hillier, 1984). Bullough (1970) refers to five factors may affect the process of interior design and spatial configuration of shopping malls, namely: functional zoning of the mall's activities as a whole, effective facts and the responsiveness design to it, spaces allocated to the components of shopping mall, the organization of internal movement, and finally the internal environment and design styles that reflect the strength of business activity that takes place within the space of the building (Bullough, 1970). This process of organization invests the principle of cumulative attraction, which refers to the accumulation of activities similar to the shopping activities but not identical, such as the *Corresponding author (Faris Ali Mustafa). Tel/Fax: +964-7504524659. E-mail address: farisyali@yahoo.com. 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0143.pdf.

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activities of restaurants or fast food outlets or furniture shops near the shopping activities so that there is a relationship between consumer expectations and prospects for competition. This type of relationship invested for organizing internal activities and forming the attractions within the shopping mall (Vernor et al., 1993). Spatial configuration of the internal spaces of shopping malls includes the harmonization of the physical components and displays them more efficient and enjoyable within different design possibilities. On the other hand, the process of linking shopping spaces across the kinetic paths inside shopping malls constitutes an essential point in the spatial configuration. The process of formation and planning of circulation paths, which includes within them both necessary and optional activities for shoppers, based on linking kinetic routs starting from the point of entry to these activities with each other in an interconnected fabric to achieve the flow for shoppers from one place to another. Moreover, it provides a simple and balanced movement for shopper, enabling him to review the overall exhibits through the formation of visual breakpoints represented by attraction points that contribute to stimulate the shopper to pass multiple points slowly down to the end of the kinetic paths that can be reflected positively on the functional performance of any shopping mall (Northen & Haskoll, 1977).

3.1 Spatial Configuration and Functional Efficiency Configuration is defined in general as, at least, the relation between two spaces in any building layout taking into account a third, and at most, as the relation among spaces in the complex, taking into account all the other spaces in the complex. In other words, we can say: put simply, relations taking into account other relations (Hillier et al., 1987a; Hillier, 2007). The relations between the various interior spaces have an influential role on the nature of spatial configuration of the building layout in general. In addition, the method used in the treatment and the locating of the internal spaces also affect the nature of spatial relationships, which in turn affect the degree of the functional efficiency of these spaces (Rapoport, 1990; Hillier et al., 1984; Kent, 1993). A building achieves its function not through its built form but mainly within its layout spaces. Accordingly, buildings create and order the empty spaces in which their purpose and function take place. Social meanings in buildings take place within the spaces of the buildings, and the ordering of spaces in buildings is really about the ordering of relations between people (Zako, 2006; Reveron, 2009). The determinants of internal spaces in shopping mall layouts, including horizontal (floors) and vertical (walls) in particular, which contains the openings (doors and windows), create kinetic and visual axes, leading the space to possess functional and visual relationship.

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The functional relationships in the shopping mall layouts can be achieved through the physical elements that separate adjacent spaces. The visual relations can be determined through other spaces (transitional spaces) located between the main spaces.

Thus, the

functional relationships generated between the spaces reflect the existence of human, way of life and his pattern of thinking in dealing with such building spaces (Schulz, 1979; Nesbitt, 1996; Voordt et al., 1997). The functional relationships reflect the characteristics of spatial configuration of the building based on the characteristic of integration as an indicator to measure the degree of functional efficiency of space, because the structure of spatial relations of any building depends on the way of handling the determinants of space (walls and floors) which include joints of the kinetic links, on the one hand. On the other hand, the magnitude of kinetic penetrations in these parameters reflects the permeability of space within the spatial system (shopping mall layout), which in turn reflects the flexibility and accessibility of shopping spaces (Hillier and Hanson, 1988; Meiss, 1996; Nesbitt, 1996; Franz et al., 2005).

3.2 Functional Efficiency of Shopping Mall Layouts One of the most important approaches that carry the imprint of society is the manner by which space is organized for human purposes, which lies in achieving the appropriate and efficient functions of building layouts (Aspinall, 1993; Voordt et al., 1997). A product or process is considered functional when the product or process used is suitable for the purpose. For buildings, functionality may be defined as the degree in which activities are supported by the built environment. Functionality is related to the amount and form of space, the spatial relationship between spaces (functional zoning), and the routing through the building for the distribution of people (Voordt et al., 1997). In architectural design, function is approached mainly as a sequence of human actions coupled with equipment to satisfy specific practical requirements on a daily basis inside a given spatial unit (Reveron, 2009). Hillier defines functionality: “as the ability of a complex to accommodate functions in general and therefore potentially a range of different functions, rather than any specific function� (Hillier, 2007). Functional factors such as the relationships between spaces and activities, appropriate axes of movement, flexibility, suitability, and safety are the key aspects of a building layout design. These factors are closely related to the activities and organizational performance of the occupant. Functional considerations play an important role in the success of a building. Thus, incorrect configurational decisions will result in inefficient and unacceptable functions (Al-Nijaidi, 1985; Karlen, 2009). Therefore, functionality is the overall viability of a building in accommodating functions (multifunctionality and diversity) and achieving a range of different functions rather than a specific function (Hanson, 2003). The built space is considered *Corresponding author (Faris Ali Mustafa). Tel/Fax: +964-7504524659. E-mail address: farisyali@yahoo.com. 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0143.pdf.

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efficient when everyday users, shoppers, and visitors can participate in various activities without experiencing difficulties. The spatial–functional features that are relevant to efficiency include the spatial clustering of functionally related activities, short distances (spatial depth), and prevention of physical barriers between frequently used spaces in mall layouts. The degree of efficiency achieved by building layouts can be determined by indicators such as the availability of interior spaces for individual and communal use and the openness or closeness of physical partitions. Thus, the two following components are important: 1. Psychological Efficiency: refers to the extent in which a building “invites” the potential user or shopper to enter by using the appearance of and activities in a building. The relevant spatial aspects include a recognizable entrance; clear transitions and circulation from the public to private sectors; syntactical characteristics that facilitate spatial–functional orientations, such as a clear outline of a building layout, visual axes, points of recognition, and differentiation in the use of spaces. 2. Physical Efficiency: refers to the ease in which users and shoppers can reach, enter, and move through a building to use various spaces. A particular focal point is integral accessibility, that is, people with physical disabilities can also enter and move through the building independently. “Access for all” can be determined from the floor plans based on indicators such as the type of space, degree of integration of each space within the spatial layout, depth of space, manner of distribution of functional spaces into zones, and variety of internal arrangements of spaces in terms of flexibility, freedom, inclusiveness, and other design devices. These indicators provide opportunities to improve the physical efficiency of a building (Voordt et al., 1997; Habraken, 1998). Spaces are usually connected in ways that modify the distribution of integration throughout a structure, thus causing a number of areas to become more accessible than the rest. This sequence of integration regulates the interactions among users/shoppers and causes spatial–functional relationships to become efficient and flexible (Dawson, 2002).

4. The Sample and the Case Studies This part of the research aims to identify and measure the syntactic characteristics of different types of spatial configurations. For this purpose, five shopping malls in the Kingdom of Bahrain adopted as case studies to give the possibility of comparison and evaluation between spatial configurations. The methodology of space syntax and its parameters has been applied for analysing and measuring, due to its ability to analyze and describe the spatial systems as

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well as the process of assessing and modeling different patterns (layout design). The analysis included the following shopping malls (case studies): City Center: the largest and most modern shopping mall in the Kingdom of Bahrain, opened in 2008, located in downtown Manama, the most vital site in the Kingdom. The complex covers an area 140,000 square meters, provides enough space for more than 300 retail stores and international trading centers spread over three floors, as well as the largest water park in a roofed area, gymnasium and the largest cinema complex in the Middle East, a 20-screen cinema (Figure 1a).

a. City Center

c. Al-Aali Mall

b. Al-Saif Mall

d. Giant Mall

e. Dana Mall

Figure 1 (a, b, c, d, e): The sample of study consists of five shopping mall layouts (case studies) Al-Saif Mall: the second largest commercial complex in Bahrain. The complex located in the Al-Saif district to the north of Bahrain complex and to the west of the Al-Aali complex. It contains more than 200 shops, 2 cinema complexes, restaurants, entertainment center for children and adults, and hotel. It was opened in 1997 (Figure 1b). Al-Aali Complex: one of the biggest shopping complexes in the Kingdom of Bahrain after the Al-Saif Mall. This complex is characterized by unique architecture and beautiful form, contains a distinct complex for Bahraini and Gulf Heritage. It was opened in 1996, has added two expansions, the last expansion ended in April 2007. The complex includes many of the famous brands on an international level (Figure 1c). *Corresponding author (Faris Ali Mustafa). Tel/Fax: +964-7504524659. E-mail address: farisyali@yahoo.com. 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0143.pdf.

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Bahrain Mall (Giant Mall): The complex includes more than 120 global brand, and covers an area of 750,000 square feet, includes a Giant center, a division of a multinational corporation, specialized in a series of business centers, where the headquarters in France. Currently owns about 113 huge marketing centers around the world. The goal of this complex is to provide all supplies such as household utensils, food, computers, and home entertainment devices. This series is the fifth-largest chain retailer in the world and the second largest in France after the chain Carrefour (Figure 1d). Dana Mall: the complex is located directly opposite the City Center complex separated by Sheikh Khalifa Street in the city of Manama, the advantage of the complex that combines shopping, entertainment, and the best restaurants in the medium-sized compound (Figure 1e).

5. Space Syntax Method for Interpreting Shopping Mall Layouts Space syntax is a theory of space and contains a set of analytical, quantitative, and descriptive tools that can be used to analyze the spatial formations of building layouts, cities, and landscapes (Hillier & Hanson, 1988; Hillier, 2007). Space syntax reveals the relationship between human beings and their occupied spaces. The distinctive characteristics of societies exist within spatial systems and are conveyed through space and the organization of spaces (Osman & Suliman, 1993). Space syntax refers to this relational characteristic of space as configuration; this characteristic forms human behavior and contains social knowledge (Dursun, 2007). Space syntax research aims to develop strategies for describing the configurations of occupied/inhabited spaces to articulate underlying social meanings. This process allows the development of secondary theories or practical explanations regarding the effects of spatial configuration on various social or cultural variables. A related theme in space syntax research is the comprehension of configured/functioned space itself, particularly the formative process and social meaning of space (Bafna, 2003). Space syntax attempts to formulate a configurational theory in architecture by generating a theoretical understanding of how people create and use spatial configurations (such as mall layouts). Thus, space syntax attempts to identify how spatial configurations express a social or cultural meaning and how spatial configurations generate the social interactions in built environments. A considerable variety of research and publications have shown that previous space syntax studies focus on real environments and identify the intrinsic nature of man-made environments. By developing consistent techniques to represent and analyze spatial patterns, recent space syntax studies have attempted to simulate spatial designs in mall layout proposals and predict how these designs will work (Fong, 2005; Hillier et al., 1984, 1987a, 1987b; Hillier & Hanson,

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1988; Hillier, 1999; Hillier, 2007; Kuribayashi & Kishimoto, 2009; Min et al., 2012; Peponis & Wineman, 2002; Ratti, 2004; Steadman, 1983; Verdil, 2009). Space syntax research and application have demonstrated that the spatial arrangements in any building layout (such as mall layouts) have a discernible and measurable influence on human (shopper) behavior. Considering that these effects can be modeled, predicted, and improved prior to construction, designers must understand the relationship between layout design and human behavior (Bafna, 2003). The space syntax method is an approach developed to analyze spatial configuration. Space syntax aims to describe spatial models (mall layouts) and represent these models in numerical and graphical forms, thereby facilitating scientific interpretation (Franz et al., 2005; Hanson, 2003; Manum, 2009). This method was adopted in dealing with the syntactical characteristics of the spatial configuration of mall layouts because of the following reasons: i.

This method combines physical and social indicators in explaining the spatial– functional systems to identify configurations in terms of differences and similarities, thereby allowing the diagnosis of the strengths and weaknesses of structures (mall layouts), types, and patterning.

ii.

This method adopts the syntactical characteristics of spatial configuration (such as symmetry–asymmetry, distributedness–non-distributedness) in interpreting the structures of different mall layouts.

iii. This method facilitates the analysis, evaluation, and comparison of various spatial systems. iv. This method can assess, understand, describe, and model various formal and spatial systems, thus providing sufficient credibility and reality.

5.1 Space Syntax Analysis of Shopping Mall Layouts Space syntax indicates that the organization of architectural space in mall layouts can result from two keys syntactic characteristics, namely, symmetry–asymmetry and distributedness– non-distributedness, which are directly linked to the functionality of the mall layout. The symmetry–asymmetry property expresses the kinetic-visual depth of various spaces within the spatial system (mall layout) in terms of the main space (main gate/entrance). If the depth of the space within the mall layout is lower than the depth of the other spaces in the system, the space is more symmetric and vice versa.

Space segregation increases when the number of

kinetic-visual steps between the spaces in the mall layout increases, thus resulting in the weakening of the functional relationship (efficiency). This phenomenon is caused by the inverse relationship between segregation and functional efficiency. This relationship refers to *Corresponding author (Faris Ali Mustafa). Tel/Fax: +964-7504524659. E-mail address: farisyali@yahoo.com. 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0143.pdf.

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the degree of symmetry of any space in the spatial system. Thus, when any space in the mall layout moves away from the main space (for instance, the entrance) by one kinetic-visual step, space separation will not occur. However, the link will be direct, and the space will be symmetrical. Increasing the space symmetry decreases the space segregation, thus resulting in an efficient functional relationship.

When the space moves away by more than one

kinetic-visual step from the main space, the space will become asymmetrical (Fong, 2005; Hillier & Hanson, 1988; Hillier, 2007; Min et al., 2012). The distributedness–non-distributedness property reflects the available options for accessing all spaces in the system (mall layout). By increasing the number of methods of accessing a particular space, the distributedness of a space in a system will increase, thus suggesting that the kinetic permeability of a space is in a high level with little segregation and vice versa. A non-distributed space has simple permeability, thus suggesting the existence of one kinetic method

to

enter another space.

Permeability (i.e.,

distributedness–

non-distributedness) reflects the movement of shopper within the spatial system in terms of smoothness, efficiency, and flexibility and represents a certain organizational behavior of shoppers and its circulation. Thus, depth-maximizing plans (mall layouts) are functionally inflexible and unsuitable for most types of functional patterns compared with depth-minimizing plans, which allow the efficient function of a mall (Hillier, 2007).

5.2 Space Syntax Indicators and Measurements The syntactical characteristics of spatial interior configurations (symmetry–asymmetry and distributedness–non-distributedness), which affect the functional efficiency of the mall layout, can be measured by numerical values by the following benchmarks and indicators. 5.2.1 Indicator of Integration Degree (Real Relative Asymmetry-RRA) The integration degree of a space is an indicator that is related to the property of symmetry–asymmetry. This indicator reflects the relative depth of space in relation to the rest of the spaces in any spatial system (Hillier & Hanson, 1988). The mean depth of a space (MD) from all other spaces in the configuration (mall layout) is the integration (i.e., real relative asymmetry (RRA)) that describes the extent of permeability of that particular space. Low values correspond to high integration, whereas high values correspond to high segregation (Manum, 2009). The integration degree of space can be calculated as follows. a. Calculating MD i. A justified graph is created by designating the intended space as the key space (root space) at the base of a mall layout to measure the relative depth of the intended space.

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The


remaining spaces are then aligned above the root space according to the number of spaces that must be taken to arrive at each space from the root space. Each space in the system is represented by a small circle, whereas the permeability between spaces is represented by linked lines. ii. The depth of each space is calculated in the graph from the root space, wherein the depth of each space is represented by the number of spaces that is needed to transition from the root space to any space in the system (Figure 2). 1-Al-Aali Mall

2-Al-Saif Mall

4-Dana Mall

5-Giant Mall

Figure 2:

3-City Center

Justified permeability graphs (Gamma analysis method) of shopping mall layouts (5 case studies) in the kingdom of Bahrain

The least depth can be achieved when all spaces are directly connected to the original space (root space), whereas the greatest depth exists when all spaces are arranged in a linear sequence away from the original space. The space is symmetric in the former case with respect to the other spaces in the system, whereas the space is asymmetric in the latter case (Hillier & Hanson, 1988; Hillier, 2007), (Figure 3).

a- Spaces connect directly to the root space; minimum depth: symmetric system

b- Linear sequence of spaces; maximum depth: asymmetric system

Figure 3: (a)Symmetric spatial system; (b) asymmetric spatial system (Hillier et al., 1987a) *Corresponding author (Faris Ali Mustafa). Tel/Fax: +964-7504524659. E-mail address: farisyali@yahoo.com. 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0143.pdf.

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MD can be calculated as follows: M .D =

∑D

K −1

(1),

where M.D is the mean depth of space from the root space, ΣD is the total magnitude of depth for all spaces in the system from the root space, and K is the total number of spaces in the graph. b. Calculating the Integration Value of Space (Relative Asymmetry-RA) The relative depth of a space from all other spaces in the graph can be expressed as follows: R. A =

2( M .D − 1) K −2

(2),

where R.A. is the relative asymmetry integration value of space, M.D. is the mean depth of space, and K is the total number of spaces in the graph. Therefore, relative asymmetry (RA) numerically expresses a key aspect of the shape of the justified graph from that space. RA varies between zero and one; zero indicates maximum integration, that is, no depth (high functional efficiency), whereas one indicates maximum segregation, that is, maximum depth (low functional efficiency) (Hillier et al., 1987a; Zako, 2006). The measurements of integration and depth are obtained by using the exterior space (of the mall) as the root space in relation to the rest of the spaces in the spatial system (mall layout). The depth from the root is considered the number of steps that separate a determined space from the front the gate/main entrance. Describing the sequence of activities from the mall entrance is of particular interest because this sequence describes the primary experience in buildings, that is, movement from the entrance to any specific place in the structure. Therefore, RA is a useful measurement for understanding front and back notions, as well as the relationship between spaces that are open to shoppers and spaces that are specifically for shopping.

Figure 4: Diamond-shaped graph used to calculate integration of spaces (Hillier et al., 1987a; Hillier & Hanson, 1988; Asami et al., 2003) c. Calculating the RRA The RA value resulting from Equation (2) must be adjusted to facilitate the numerical comparison between spaces of different systems. The RA value for each space in the system is adjusted with its value in the depth graph with a diamond-shaped or pyramid-shaped pattern

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(Hillier et al., 1987a; Hillier & Hanson, 1988; Asami et al., 2003), (Figure 4). The depth of the diamond-shaped graph represents an intermediate situation between the maximum mean depth of space when the spaces are organized in a linear sequence with respect to the root space (as previously mentioned) and the least mean of depth when all spaces are linked directly to the root space (Hillier & Hanson, 1988). Thus, RRA can be calculated as follows:

R.R. A =

R. A DK

(3),

where R.R.A. is the real relative asymmetry of space, R.A. is the relative asymmetry of space, and DK is the RA of space from a diamond-shaped graph. RRA is a sensitive measure of building layouts. This value varies around the number one; values less than one correspond to the most integrated and least segregated spaces in the system, whereas values greater than one correspond to the most segregated spaces. The relations among functional activities are expressed in space through the spatial relationships between the spaces of any spatial system under the assumption that the properties of integration and segregation indicate space efficiency (Hillier et al., 1987a; Zako, 2006) and the type of functional use of spaces occupied by shoppers. 5.2.2 Difference Factor of Space (H*) Integration values indicate the permeability of a configuration in quantitative terms. Extensive research has demonstrated that integration values are highly predictive of the use of space. The degree of variance in integration values is considered an indication of the strength or weakness of social relations with respect to spatial ordering, that is, the amount of interchangeable space. The difference factor is used to quantify this difference as a proportion of the sum of integration values of spaces under consideration (Guney, 2005; Bellal, 2007). In most spatial complexes, different functions and activities are assigned to spaces, thus integrating complexes to different degrees (numerical values). If the integration values of these spaces are consistent across a sample, a cultural pattern is assumed to be expressing itself spatially. This particular type of consistency in spatial patterning is called “inequality genotypes.� The strength or weakness of the inequality between integration values expresses the degree of cultural importance placed on the integration or segregation (Hillier et al., 1987a; Al-Jaff, 1989; Hanson, 2003). An entropy-based measure called a difference factor is used to *Corresponding author (Faris Ali Mustafa). Tel/Fax: +964-7504524659. E-mail address: farisyali@yahoo.com. 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0143.pdf.

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quantify the degree of difference between the integration values of any three spaces (or more with a modified formula) or functional activities. This measure is essentially an adaptation of Shannon’s H-measure for transition probabilities, wherein the integration values of the spaces are substituted for transition probabilities (Zako, 2006):

(4), where H is the unrelativized difference factor for three spaces; a, b, and c are the integration values of any three spaces in the configuration (ma layout); t is the sum of the three spaces, that is, t = Σ (a + b + c). Thus, Equation (4) describes the variance in the integration within each spatial structure, and this variance may be a result of the functional differentiation in the use of space (Bustard, 1999). H can be “relativized” between Ln2 and Ln3 to obtain the “relative difference factor” (H*), which varies between zero and one. H* = 0 corresponds to maximum difference, that is, strong functional differentiation, which refers to the real functional efficiency of the space. H* = 1 corresponds to minimum or no difference, that is, no functional differentiation, thus indicating that no real difference exists in the values of integration and that no real functional efficiency exists for the space (Hillier et al., 1987a). Therefore, H* can be calculated according to the following modified formula: (5), A low H* value indicates the existence of a “strong” genotype. By contrast, values close to one indicate the existence of “weak” genotypes, thus suggesting that no functional differentiation and weakness exist in the functional efficiency of a space. These simple measures, as clarified by Zako (2006), can express culturally significant typological differences among various mall layouts over time, because such measures are based on concepts founded on intrinsic “social logic.” 5.2.3 Indicator of (Space - Link Ratio) of the Spatial System Integration has been proposed as a syntactical measure to assess the symmetry-asymmetry properties of a spatial system; whereas the relative “ringiness” measure was proposed to assess the distributedness–non-distributedness properties. Distributedness reflects the existence of more than one non-intersecting route from a given point in a system to another point. If only one route exists for any two points in the system, the system is considered a non-distributed system with a tree-like structure (Figure 5a). In a tree-like structure, p-1 lines connect the

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structure together, where p is the number of nodes in the spatial system (Guney, 2005; Bellal, 2007). Any increase in the number of lines in the system will indicate the existence of rings in the system, that is, such a system has a ringy structure (Figure 5b). Thus, this indicator is used to measure the distributedness–non-distributedness property of each space and the entire spatial system (mall layout). Measuring the degree of “ringiness” of a spatial system, i.e., space–link ratio R represents the extent of permeability of the spatial system. The space–link ratio is the ratio between the number of links located between the spaces plus one and the number of spaces in a spatial system of a mall. a

b

Figure 5: (a) Tree-like structure; (b) Ringy structure The R values vary around the number one, where the values greater than one correspond to a high degree of “ringiness” and distributedness of a spatial system (ringy structures). This distributedness property indicates a high degree of flexibility (functional efficiency) in using the space, thus enabling the user to change the layout to adapt to different circumstances by closing or opening doors. Values less than one indicate that the spatial system has a tree-like structure, thus suggesting the lack of distributedness and the increase in the depth of spaces within the layout (Guney, 2005; Bellal, 2007). R can be calculated as follows: R =

L +1 K

(6),

where R is the space–link ratio of spaces in a spatial system (mall layout), L is the number of lines of the link between spaces in the justified graph, and K is the number of spaces in the system.

6. Discussion of Results When the results of the analyses are examined, the following data are obtained. The MD

*Corresponding author (Faris Ali Mustafa). Tel/Fax: +964-7504524659. E-mail address: farisyali@yahoo.com. 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0143.pdf.

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value is 3.2 for Al-Aali mall, 3.02 for Al-Saif mall, 3.32 for City Center, 2.77 for Dana mall, and 2.21 for Giant mall. The overall spaces in the Giant mall layout are more integrated than the overall spaces in the remaining mall layouts. This finding is supported by the high mean value of RRA (0.18) for the Giant mall. This finding demonstrates the tendency of the system (layout) to be significantly integrated (more accessible, efficient, and flexible) compared with other cases that have low mean RRA values. Thus, the spatial configuration of layouts with low mean RRA values tend to be segregated, controlled, and less efficient in terms of function. The justified graphs (gamma maps) reveal that overall mall layouts having “ringy” structures (having a different numbers of rings within their configurations). The overall mall layouts having “ringy" structures; the mean value of R is greater than 1, suggesting that these layouts are spatially and functionally distributed structures. The mean R value is 1.04 for Al-Aali mall, 1.15 for Al-Saif mall, 1.04 for City Center, 1.07 for Dana mall, and 1.12 for Giant mall; these values suggesting that both layouts of Al-Saif mall and Giant mall are generally more distributed comparing with other mall layouts. The values of H* for all cases can be obtained from the values of RRA. These values are presented as follows: H* is 0.78 for Al-Aali mall layout, 0.86 for Al-Saif mall, 1 for City Center mall, 0.91 for Dana mall, and 0.64 for Giant mall. These findings indicate that the Giant mall layout has the lowest difference factor value among overall mall layouts (Table 1). Table 1: MD, RRA, R, H* values of the case studies (shopping malls).

Mosque layout pattern Al-Aali mall Al-Saif mall City Center Dana mall Giant mall

Mean Depth (MD) 3.20 3.02 3.32 2.77 2.21

Real Relative Asymmetry (RRA) 0.38 0.24 0.33 0.35 0.18

Space Link Ratio (R) 1.04 1.15 1.04 1.07 1.12

Difference Factor (H*) 0.78 0.86 1.00 0.91 0.64

7. Conclusion Results of analysis reveal that the indicators of the methodology of space syntax and its techniques adopted in this research have contributed effectively in identifying the preference of case studies (mall layouts). Based on these results, it can be concluded that the Giant mall layout represents the best among the mall layouts, in terms of functional efficiency with respect to the indicators of spatial depth (MD) and the degree of integration (RRA). The values of the indicator of difference factor (H*) reveal that a Giant mall layout has the highest difference, thus indicating strong distinction and functional differentiation compared with the other mall layouts. This finding confirms the need to adopt such layout and its interior spaces in any future

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mall layout designs, because the difference factor demonstrates the independence of space (for instance, the main lobby or the main part/space of the mall) with other spaces. A strong independence corresponds to a high level of functionality and efficiency. The R values reveal that the Al-Saif mall layout has a high distributedness, thus indicating the importance (efficiency) of this type of layout at the spatial – functional level. This high distributedness is due to the presence of large number of rings in its configuration, which provide high accessibility to the system. Based on justified graphs (Gamma maps), the study shows that (100%) of the mall layouts are “ringy” structures. This points that the entire case studies are distributed structures spatially and functionally (having different numbers of rings within their configurations). Despite the fact that all cases of study appeared distributed configurations (ringy structures), but it can be concluded that the Al-Saif mall layout and Giant mall layout appeared more integrated, accessible, and distributed spatially and functionally in comparison to other cases, which means that both of these cases are considered more efficient in terms of function. The results of analysis reported positively the relationship between the process of spatial configuration and the level of functional efficiency of mall layouts according to their different configurations and patterns, through an analytical comparative approach adopted in discussing and interpreting these resulted data. Overall indicators contributed effectively in defining the impact of the spatial configuration process on the mall layouts, which paved the way in determining and assessing its level of functional efficiency. The results clearly show that the efficiency of mall layout changes due to the change in the spatial configuration of these layouts. Conclusions reveal variation in the spatial configuration characteristics of mall layouts led to variation in the level of functional efficiency of the cases being studied. Consequently, this study confirms the following: •

Shopping is the integration between marketing strategies and design of shopping venues, in other words, the study in this regard is consistent with what has been inferred by (Bullough,1964,) and (Vernor,1993).

The process of spatial configuration for shopping malls is built on the basis of the zoning or the distribution of activities within a comprehensive spatial configuration to achieve functional and economic efficiency as well as encourage the provision of a fun activity performance.

*Corresponding author (Faris Ali Mustafa). Tel/Fax: +964-7504524659. E-mail address: farisyali@yahoo.com. 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0143.pdf.

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Meiss, P.V. (1996). Elements of architecture: from form to place. London: Chapman & Hall. Min, S.Y., KIM, C.J., and KIM, Y.O. (2012). The impacts of spatial configuration and merchandising on the shopping behavior in the complex commercial facilities. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Space Syntax Symposium, Edited by M. Greene, J. Reyes and A. Castro. Santiago de Chile: PUC. 8066, 1-15. Mumford, L. (1971). The city in history: its origins, its transformations, and its prospects. London: Penguin Books. Nesbitt, K. (1996). Theorizing a new agenda for architecture: an anthology of architectural theory 1965-1995. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Northen, R.I, and Haskoll, M. (1977). Shopping Centers: a developer’s guide to planning and design. Reading: Centre for Advanced Land Use Studies, College of Estate Management. Osman, K.M., and Suliman, M. (1993). The space syntax methodology: fits and misfits. Architecture & Comportment /Architecture & Behavior, 10 (2), 189-204. Peponis, J., & Wineman, J. (2002). “Spatial structure of environment and behavior.” In: Handbook of Environmental Psychology, edited by Bechtel, R., & Churchman, A. (Eds.), 271-291. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Rapoport, A. (1990). The meaning of the built environment: a nonverbal communication approach. University of Arizona Press. Ratti, C. (2004). Space syntax: some inconsistencies. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 31 (4), 501-511. Reveron, F.O. (2009). Developing spatial configuration abilities coupled with the space syntax theory for first year architectural studies. In: Proceedings of the 7th international space syntax symposium, Stockholm, Sweden, 082, 1-10. Rybczynski, W. (2003). The changing design of shopping places, Samuel Zell and Robert Lurie, Real Estate Center, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Working Paper # 439. Retrieved from http://realestate.wharton.upenn.edu/research/papers.php?paper=439. Accessed January 2, 2014. Schulz, C.N. (1979). Genius loci: towards phenomenology of architecture. New York: Rizzoli. Sedlmaier, A. (2005). From department store to shopping mall: translational history of large-scale retail. Berlin: Akademie Verlag. Steadman, P. (1983). Architectural morphology: an introduction to the geometry of building plans. London: Pion Ltd. ULI. (2002). Dollars & cents of shopping centers. Washington, DC: the Urban Land Institute. Verdil, A. (2009). Transformation of space behavior relation: a case study of shopping centers in Istanbul. In: Proceedings of the 7th international space syntax symposium, Stockholm, Sweden, 128, 1-12. Vernor, J.D., et al. (1993). Shopping center appraisal and analysis. 2nd. ed. Chicago: Appraisal Institute. Voordt, T., Vrielink, D., and Wegen, H. (1997). Comparative floorplan-analysis in programming and architectural design. Design Studies, 18 (1), 67-88.

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Zako, R. (2006). The power of the veil: gender inequality in the domestic setting of traditional courtyard houses. In: Courtyard Housing: Past, Present, and Future; Individual Chapters, edited by Edward, B., Sibley, M., Hakmi, M., & Land, P. (Eds.), 65-75. New York: Taylor & Francis Group. Dr. Udai Ali Al-Juboori is currently a senior lecturer (Assistant Professor) at the department of Design & Art, college of Arts & Science, in Applied Science University, Bahrain, Manama. He is Head of Quality Assurance Unit at the College of Arts & Science from 2011. He was appointed as consultant engineering Affairs for president University, 2008- present. He was also a consultant architect and the founding member of Al-Taqadum Co. for architecture in Mosul city in 1999. A registered architect in the Iraqi engineers union since 1994. His specialization is architectural design. His researches particularly address interior design. His research interests in Interior Design, Space Syntax, and Architectural Design. Dr. Faris Ali Mustafa is a senior lecturer and a member of post graduate studies committee at the Department of Architecture, College of Engineering, Salahaddin University, Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Erbil. He was Head of Quality Assurance Committee at the same department from 2011-2013. He is a member of the Commission on Certificate Equivalency in the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Kurdistan Region, Erbil, Iraq. He was appointed as a deputy head of the department of the architectural engineering, at the same university in 2004-2005. He was also a consultant architect and the founding member of Nvar center for architecture in Erbil city in 2000. A registered architect in the Iraqi engineers union (IEU) and Kurdistan engineers union (KEU) since 1994. His specialization is architectural design. His researches particularly address building design and its functional efficiency and performance applying space syntax theory and its techniques and methods. His research interests in Space Syntax, Interior Design, Building Performance Evaluation (BPE), and Architectural Design.

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Mud-Brick High-Rise Buildings Architectural Linkages for Thermal Comfort in Hadhramout Valley, Yemen Anwar Ahmed Baeissa

a*

a

Department of Architecture & Environmental Planning, Faculty of Engineering & Petroleum, Hadhramout University of Science & Technology, YEMEN

ARTICLEINFO

Article history: Received 05 August 2013 Received in revised form 20 January 2014 Accepted 04 March 2014 Available online 10 March 2014

Keywords: Sustainable building; Planning; architectural identity; Likert scale; Shibam City

A B S T RA C T

The Hadhrami master builders have successfully played a great role in sustaining architectural identity of their cities with linkage to the local culture. They could build up to eight storey’s high- rise mud buildings using local and traditional materials. Today, reestablishing this architectural identity is rather more challenging due to the modern, social, political and economical changes that created poor linkage to the present city’s identity. This paper investigates this issue and searches for guidelines for the sustainable city’s development in Hadhramout, Yemen. The paper analyses the qualitative values of the city planning and architectural linkage compared with the city’s development and how the past generations created and sustained it. Shibam city with its traditional five to eight storey’s buildings is one of the best examples for this study. All buildings in that city are linked from one to another through roads, doors and openings of the high rises facing these roads and passageways to form unique urban setting and to provide shades and ventilations to the roads and passages and reduces temperature in these areas. This study is important to guide us in the analysis to search for better definitions of the linkage. 2014 INT TRANS J ENG MANAG SCI TECH.

1. Introduction Planning and architectural linkages play a crucial role in providing the identity of the city settlement areas for the people who live in the city. Today, the city experiences a high growth economic development in Yemen. This can be seen in the urban development in most Yemeni *Corresponding author (Anwar Ahmed Baeissa). Tel/Fax: +967734066823. E-mail address: 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, dr.anwarbaesa@gmail.com. Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0167.pdf.

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cities due to the increasing population. The motivation of the government of Yemen to develop strategic master plan is manifested in the on-going governmental activities in the concerned areas. All geographical regions in Yemen (Figure1), including Shibam City, can be characterised by a diverse settlement of traditional houses from region to another due to the geographical variations, diversity of climate and topography which have influenced the use of the construction technique and materials. The city is the man's location in a specific geographical and social framework through which he expresses the ideologies he believes in and his opinions about the world. The city is the product of man's awareness, which he utilises to create civilisation and produces creative ideas to establish and develop cities in order to communicate with other civilisations. On the other hand, the city responds to man's social, political, and economical requirements bearing in mind that the city is the society's materialistic expression of beauty and local intellectual features that may be exhibited in its purposive special planning and organisation. Overtime, traditional housing and settlements have developed a unique design, planning, technology, and the use of available local construction materials for the traditional houses. This was possible by transferring the experience of one generation to another and applying trial and error method as well as developing the construction techniques.

Figure 1: Map of Yemen

2. Problem Statement Community is a part of the decision makers in creating forms of settlement.

The

community has arranged spaces for their activities based on mutual agreement, in order to

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accommodate these functions and its spatial termation on the arrangements. The Hadhrami is strongly bond to his land and city and at the same time, the city is bond to civilization that man produced. Some consider the city as the civilization itself. However, the man is the creator of civilisation and he establishes new elements and utilizes his creativity to contribute and to produce and develop the civilization's entire products in order to communicate with other civilisations. The old ancient Hadhrami realised the various functions of the housing units with thermal comfort and its relation to the outside neighbouring areas such as streets and public places; this in turn led to the fulfillment of the social integration, (Al-Shibany, 2000). The present private ordinary houses and public buildings (shops, mosques, offices, schools, etc) in the same vicinity enforce indirect security in the urban environment. Urban communication and development can generally be achieved when man succeeds in linking his past history and heritage to his present time. Based on the accumulation of architectural knowledge, the Hadhrami architects have sufficient experience, which qualifies them to deal with various circumstances of time, space and shape in functions of the spaces that suit Hadhramout environment, and architectural heritage.

Today, high-rise buildings are

deteriorating and the features of the cities are changing in Hadhramout valley, so this architectural identity is rather more challenging and difficult because this development is confronted by the modern, social, political and economic changes and challenges.

3. Study Methodology The methodology of the case study derives from the paper objectives. The study methods adopted on analysis method and case study to explain the relation between qualitative values of the city planning and architectural linkages with comparison to the stages of the city’s sustainable development. This methodology based on physical survey (which concerned with the layout of sample areas) and site observation (this measure adopted to record the physical conditions of the residential environment).

4. Shibam City and Houses There is an ancient city in the middle of Wadi Hadhramout called Shibam (Figure 2), It is existence is virtually comparable to the ancient Babylonian and Sumerian cities. It is located approximately 600–700 meters/1900–2300 feet above sea level. Villages and cities located in the valley are surrounded by tress. A clay-brick for trees wall (sur) ranging between 5 and 9 meters and 29 feet in height; was built along its southern part that runs through Wadi Hadhramout, which separates it from the coast (sahil) of the city Shibam. During the 4th *Corresponding author (Anwar Ahmed Baeissa). Tel/Fax: +967734066823. E-mail address: 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, dr.anwarbaesa@gmail.com. Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0167.pdf.

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century BC the city of Shibam played a key role as the capital of Wadi Hadhramout. In addition, it is distinguished by being an important commercial center in the area during the pre-Islamic period, having the wall (sur) of the city, being commercial capital, and a assembly-point for the caravans of the tribes of the valley as well as the tribes from the north. Today Shibam City enlisted to UNESCO heritage lists, (Lewcock, 1986).

Old Zone

Outer Zone

Figure 2: Map of Shibam City The architectural design of Shibami houses, which reflects its heritage, has succeeded in achieving this communication through the vicinity of urban utilities, housing units, and public facilities, which provides more security and prevents any threat to the urban area and its neighbouring regions. However, old houses that may collapse are abolished and then the new buildings are to be reconstructed it in the same location as per the original design. Other construction activities in the city are limited to repair and maintenance works, and to some extent modifying the existing buildings. Therefore, it is difficult to date precisely any of the houses in the city.

4.1 Shibam City Plans and its Architecture Among other features that make Shibam a unique city is that this city has huge concentrations of tall houses built upon the elevated mound that rises out in the valley floor; a fortified city wall around the city at its base surrounds the mound (Figure 3). There are many natural factors combined to mould the plan of Shibam into its present, mainly due to the nature of the ground on which it is built. Archaeological evidence has yet able to support the

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argument that this city was built on top of the ruins of an ancient Shibam. This would explain why it rises above the ground level of the surrounding valley. Furthermore, according to historian (Sabban), the area of land which Shibam occupied in the past was larger than the land it occupies now, since part of this site was eroded by the torrential flood streams (Suyul), particularly in the years AD 1298/ AH 698 ,1532 / AH 939 and 1562 / 970. The dimensions of its present site are 355 meters (388 yards) to the south of the center, and 295 meters (322 yards) to the north, with 230 meters (250 yards) to west and east. The city lies along rocky maintain of the south, making it expand to that direction. Moreover, on its northern, western and eastern borders, the city is surrounded by palm trees and fields reserved for cultivation. Hence, we find that the horizontal expansion of the city consisted merely of the construction of a few building outside its southern walls, (Damluji, 1992).

Figure 3: Map of Shibam City (Source: Aga Khan Award for Architecture, 2007) Therefore, the citizens of Shibam had to resort to the construction of close-knit, narrow but high buildings, rising up to seven or eight storey's, with ceiling-heights ranging from 2 to 6 meters / 6.5 to 19.5 feet. The tallest house rises 29.15 m above its entrance on street level and 36.5 meters above the Wadi bed. It has nine floors, mean while many others have eight, or seven storey's if they are on low-lying ground, but the average number of storey's is normally five. The highest houses are mostly found in the edge of the mound. They are composed of more or less solid for trees walls facing east, south, west and north. The north and south sides are the longest. The city is surrounded by the date plantations at east, west, *Corresponding author (Anwar Ahmed Baeissa). Tel/Fax: +967734066823. E-mail address: 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, dr.anwarbaesa@gmail.com. Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0167.pdf.

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and north sides, whereas, the south side, lies on the Wadi bed. The erection of several long houses on the Wadi bed outside the walls constructed during the last few years have marred the visual effect of the city. One of the proposals submitted to the plan of action of the international campaign for the safeguarding of Wadi Hadhramout is that the most recent buildings are to be demolished or reduced in height, to single-storeyed or at most double-storeyed buildings, so that will set off, rather than mar, the extreme height of the buildings within the town. Across the Wadi lies the suburb city, which was earlier a garden suburb, but has become concentrated into an urban area in the last twenty years. It is not intended that this garden suburb should be included in the conservation area. Amongst other reasons for the unfeasibility of horizontal expansion are the political unrest. The city had been through that had a negative impact on architecture and planning. In addition, a hot climate has made the houses to be close-packed, and the streets are to be shaded to avoid the scorching heat of the sun. Shibam, like other cities in the Wadi, has a dry desert climate; extremely hot in summer and moderate in winter, with a sharp fall in the temperature at night. In addition, due to its closeness to the equator, heavy seasonal rain falls sometimes during the summer, sometimes causing floods which may last for days.

Figure 4: City of Shibam – View Expansion

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4.2 The Effects of Population Growth and Architecture The official census carried out in 1973 shows contradictory figures between the population of Shibam and the low land of Shibam (Figure 4). However, according to the unofficial census carried out by the local 'Popular Defence Committee in 1976', the population of Shibam was 3491 and the number of houses 500, ten of which required reconstruction. The plan of the city is concentrated along a high rocky mountain and along its surrounding wall. This means that the design has a limited, fixing number of buildings, which can be constructed, on its ground, and thus limiting the possibilities of change in its basic architectural structure over years. Thus, we find that the number of buildings in the city, still 500, the same as recorded in the last century by the early western travellers. It may have been the same ever since the city and its walls were the first to be constructed. According to a report by the still outdated Ministry of Local Rule, the population of Shibam was estimated at around 5000 in 1980, putting the number of inhabitants per personal. On the other hand, in this study on Shibam Abdul Qadir al-Sabban estimated the population at around 6000 people making the ratio of inhabitants to each houses around 12 persons.

Figure 5: Map of Walled City of Shibam

4.3 The City Wall and Entrance (Sur and Siddah) The old walled city of Shibam is located on an elevated land to the north of the main wadi bed, which is quite close to the point where a number of tributary wadis converge. Mud*Corresponding author (Anwar Ahmed Baeissa). Tel/Fax: +967734066823. E-mail address: 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, dr.anwarbaesa@gmail.com. Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0167.pdf.

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brick wall (sur) surrounds the city (Figure 5). The height of the wall varies between 6 and 9 meters (19 to 30 feet). There exists only one main gate to the city. When closed during the night and wartime, it isolates the city from the outside world. It occupies a non-central position at a distance of a few meters from the main road of the valley on the southern edge of the city near to its eastern facade. The roads surrounding the southern and eastern sections of the city wall are separated from the public commercial centre of the city by the wall. It also separates the road from the fortress (husn) from the administrative centre of the city and the place of the Sultan. A few mud buildings have been constructed between the (sur) and its (siddah) and the main road. These buildings, which ones upon a time served as commercial and public places, are currently utilized to serve other purposes such as stores, cafes, inns, garages, etc. The dimension and style of these buildings are different from those of the typical Shibam ones. They are either one or only a few storey’s high. The siddah represents the main defensive position in Shibam. Its southern and northern facades are congruous. It is prominent from the rest of sur’s structure because of its dimensions and characterised by three arches: the main central arch and two smaller arches. The central arch contains a large wooden gate that is used at present by cars whereas it was used by caravans and camels in the past. The smaller arches are located one on each sides of the main arch, each having a gate smaller than the main and are used by the pedestrians.

Figure 6: Public Squares and City Wall of Shibam

4.4 The Public Squares (Sahat) The plan of the city of Shibam with its narrow sheets with limited available land area incorporates five public squares (Figure 6). Closed packed houses with public buildings are located around these squares. The main square is called (Sahat al Husn) and covers an area of 39 x 79 meters (43 x 86 yards). Sahat al-Rashid Mosque is the second largest square with an

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area of about 79 x 24 meters (87 x 26 yards). This mosque has been founded at the time of the Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid, hence carries his name. The other three squares function as residential public squares are relatively concealed in the street plan. These squares are known as Ma’ruf, Braham, 27.3 x 21.3 meters (30 x 23.3 yards) and Badhib, 22.3 x 18.8 meters (24.4 x20.5 yards). These names are given after the names of the neighbouring mosques. High buildings surround these squares with open spaces that function as communal centers that attract visitors and the immunity on many social and commercial occasions. Moreover, there are small shops in the narrow streets and alleys forming the façades with commercial activities. These are known as (al-dayqah) that are characterised by narrow entrances on the ground floors of the houses next to their main entrances.

5. Traditional Layout and Climate in Shibam City In designing and planning dry, wet and hot regions, architecture encounter two major problems: 1- Securing protection from heat, 2- Providing sufficient air conditioning. The sun, a main source of light and heat, forms certain secondary element of climate such as winds and humid which have a significant effect on man’s physiological wellbeing and comfort. Undoubtedly climate is a determining factor in Shibam traditional planning. Thus, it is noticed that there is a sort of systemization in the urban structure of all dry and hot regions; the traditional planning of the town is characterized by: 1 - Narrow zigzag roads, 2 - Vast open Squares.

Figure 7: Monthly Average of Temperature (Al-Saggaf, 2004) *Corresponding author (Anwar Ahmed Baeissa). Tel/Fax: +967734066823. E-mail address: 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, dr.anwarbaesa@gmail.com. Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0167.pdf.

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The city plan usually has large squares that function as a storage of pure moderate cold air. The narrow zigzag roads, which are open into vistas with closed end, do the same function of the squares. They store the moderate cold air at night and do not let it leak at the first blow of air (Figure 7). This occurs in the case of network planning of large streets. It becomes clear here that the traditional planning is better than the vertical network planning in the large street. However, the traditional planning does not assimilate traffic cars, but there are some solutions to this problem. For instance, a ring road from which internal streets with closed ends are branching can surround the housing area. Another solution is concept suggested by Doxiadis (1968); it puts forward the idea of preserving the characteristic traditional layout inside the public square.

Figure 8: Running of Current Breeze at Day and Night in Clay Building

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5.1 The Needs of Ventilation Performance of mud clayed buildings in Wadi Hadhramout within the hot and dry environment takes place through its adherence with the urban planning of the single constructed mass through which the narrow shaded alleys pass like in Shibam city. The outside surface of these buildings is least exposed to the external environment surface are painted with Lime that possesses high reflective property compared to other materials (Figure 8). Response of the thermal traditional building to the high temperature difference of day and night occurs through the heavy massed walls and roofs of high thermal insulation and high thermal storage capacity,(Fathy,1986). The clay building elements absorb the short wave radiation of the solar energy preventing heat from passing to the inside of the building. The heat is absorbed in these elements during the day and released to the outside atmosphere during the night. Moreover, lime painted surfaces are highly heat-emissive. Clayed walls are distinguished with walls of other materials in many aspects, e.g. the time lag in conducting heat of clay walls is double to that of concrete walls and the decrement factor is quarter of that in concrete walls. This is caused by the low thermal conductivity of clay that results from its low density due to the air voids that are dispersed in clay after evaporation of water during the drying process. Moreover, specific thermal heat of clay is relatively higher than other building materials. In clayed buildings, much of the heat is released during late night hours to the outside atmosphere where it gets cooler and denser. The high air density causes it to lower into the narrow streets and the open yards where it remains until morning. As such these air masses work like cold storages that supply the buildings, specially the lower levels, with cold breeze that flows to the inside pushing the warm air upwards by the convection process through the top windows,( Leslise,1991). From the temperature comfort requirement of shading and sun lighting, it is observed that the ideal shape between the masses in the rectangle which longer side extends between the East and the West and which height is not less than any of its horizontal dimensions. The geometrical ratios of space is much important than its orientation, a conclusion that conforms to the field survey of the residential complexes in Shibam city. The idea that rose in designing the building along with the achievements they accomplished from the needs for the dwellers *Corresponding author (Anwar Ahmed Baeissa). Tel/Fax: +967734066823. E-mail address: 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, dr.anwarbaesa@gmail.com. Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0167.pdf.

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has positive effects in treating the weather problems that can be summarized in the following: 1- The limitation of using the external holes and the smallness of its size has effected in preserving the internal suitable heat and without its effectiveness by the increase in the outside temperature in the morning or decreasing it at night. 2- Covering some holes using the oriels has secured the element of the privacy for the dwellers inside the house as long as it restrains from the strength of the nature light and the reduction of the penetrating sunrays into the inside in addition to the beauty aspect concerning the ornamentation of these holes. 3- Using thick walls in the buildings in addition to the construction reason helped in preserving the degrees of temperature inside them in equilibrium way away from the unsteadiness of the outside temperature. 4- Using the protruding for some upper parts of the frontages that extended along the alleyways has formed another way of frontage-wall breakers for the house and gives plastic dimension from the visual point of view. 5- Gathering the buildings in accordance with architectural convenient adjacent system resulting less exposure of the external walls to sunrays, also it resulted shadowing the building to neighbouring areas and protecting the building from the sunrays. 6- The building style is a unique Hadhrami one. It is functional, and formal, (masses, elements and ornaments) distinguished. There is also some overlapping with ancient Hadhrami architecture and the Islamic arts. 7- The mode of the designing of the Hadhrami buildings and its planning and forming characteristics is a sealed mode and vertical in big families expanding and formed with other buildings quarters participated in functional service such as the mosque and the public square. 8- The specifications that distinguished the frontages, which are high and overlook the street (square). The ornaments represented by the oriels. The buildings plastered with lime from the bottom to the top for protection. 9- The wall singularity; hierarchy gradation of the external walls. 10- The architecture structure: the structure in the city is clearly observed homogeneous and symphonic in altitudes and masses and formed the verandas and the beams that connected the buildings, in addition to the minaret (of a mosque) as direction landmarks.

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11- The similarity: the buildings are similar in the horizontal structure; the external frontages do not rely on the similarity in the masses or in forming their architectural elements. 12- The symphonic: a continuous horizontal and vertical rhythm in the main frontages. 13- The proportionateness: in the generic formation, masses and superficies, holes in the main frontages. 14- The harmony and compatibility: the simplicity ornamental of the formation in the inside and the outside, and the gradation in the altitudes. The variation in the shape of the holes in the surfaces of the frontages in accordance with the rectangle shape of the holes. 15- The external ornamentation: the ornaments are simple frames around the windows. These ornaments concentrated on wooden leaves for the windows and the doors. This kind of building is established for the spiritual and social characteristic architecturally and ability to create a sensation and a feeling of the beauty and psychologically content of the softness to touch and creates consonance harmony with surrounding besides the simplicity and flexibility of shaping it (structural and ornamental) with the possibility of making architectural big holes relatively and the varied vacuum shaping masses (dome, cone, adorn‌etc). This study has discussed several thermal properties and heat transfer parameters for various building materials made from mud clay’s natural soil. Based on the outcome of the study it may be concluded that: 1. Adobe walls and roofs gain less heat than concrete walls and roofs, 2. Adobe peak’s heat gain is also low and takes place when outside temperature declines, 3. Adobe construction enjoys higher thermal features than concrete. When comparing concrete with the perforated red clay construction we find the second has superior thermal features and, hence, may be its manufacturing is recommended particularly to Hadhramout region as it has superior thermal qualities and can compete with concrete construction.

*Corresponding author (Anwar Ahmed Baeissa). Tel/Fax: +967734066823. E-mail address: 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, dr.anwarbaesa@gmail.com. Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0167.pdf.

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6. Advantages of Mud Buildings The study can summarize the main advantages of using this kind of building construction to the following main advantages: 1. The material are available in large quantities, 2. Low cost materials, so low-income families can afford it, 3. Simple construction techniques may be used when constructing with this system, 4. It is suitable for the construction to most parts of the building, 5. It is non-a flammable material-resistance to fire, 6. It has high thermal capacity, low thermal conductivity, and can maintain comfortable internal temperature, 7. It is a material of low energy usage. Subsequently, it saves biomass fuel and as a result, it conserves the environment.

7. Recommendations of the Sustainable City’s Development in Hadhramout Valley 1. Exert efforts to improve the quality of mud-bricks and investigate the feasible and applicable methods to introduce a material that may protect the brick's external surface from the effect of water and sand born winds. 2. Assess the scientific field experiments that use mud-bricks to construct modern houses. This will help realize mistakes and avoid them in the future. 3. Co-operate efforts with research centers and concerned bodies in the field. 4. Utilize existing information to solve any hygienic problem may be found in mudbricks constructed buildings and study their different impacts. 5. Investigate the interaction between mud and other construction materials such as wood, insulation materials, water, paint, ceramic, etc. bearing in mind that these elements require further investigation to ensure quality performance when used in mud-bricks constructed buildings. 6. Carry out thorough studies in order to establish and develop standardizations for mudbricks constructed buildings and pass the outcome to the concerned parties. Furthermore, convince decision makers in each country to include these results into the national standardization documents.

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7. Provide official support as well as protection to mud-brick constructions, which proved quality and durability when serving local residents. In addition, encourage governments to construct some of its projects using mud-bricks. 8. Provide official and private financing to specialized studies that are aimed at developing this material. This will encourage researchers to announce the outcome of their research and publicize the characteristics of mud such as fire proof and sound insulation. Moreover, such studies will find solutions for some unfavourable elements such as weak resistance to earthquakes and other issues that may be of different interest from one country to another.

8. Conclusion The urban planning of the city is harmonious and rhythmic in heights, objects, and the morphology of minarets, in addition to the bridges, which connect the buildings, and the minarets. The elements of the urban composition consist of market, shops, Al-Jamea AlKabeer (the big mosque), mosques, buildings, public squares, and the castle. The type of building design and characteristics of planning, is enclosed and vertically directed in building. It forms with the other buildings zones sharing similar public services functions, mosques, and squares. The composition type of religions service building is different in plan. The form of the building is square and rectangular opening in the outside e.g. the open part in the mosque, the coverall part (corridors), the distinctive general characteristics of facades, the main facades of the buildings generally lookout on the streets or squares. Patterns are represented by windows (Mashrabiya).

The buildings are painted with limestone for

protection. The external walls are generally pyramided. There is simplicity of similarity and difference element, in the pattern morphology inside and outside and gradual heights. There is also a variety in the openings forms on the surface of the facade, by changing the size and the position of rectangular form of the openings, along with the harmonious colour distribution. The environmental control of climate; the architectural type is also rich in its experiences of the ability to endues environmental climatic control in creating heat given comfort the direction of building and functions, selection of building materials having thermal isolation ability, volume control of acquired heat, air movement activation through narrow low and high openings. Make it out standing in design and construction. The overall the researcher concludes that the Hadhrami, Yemeni city model is unique and characteristic morphologically *Corresponding author (Anwar Ahmed Baeissa). Tel/Fax: +967734066823. E-mail address: 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, dr.anwarbaesa@gmail.com. Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0167.pdf.

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and functionally objects, elements, and pattern. It shows interrelation of ancient Hadhrami, Yemeni architectural and Islamic art along with the perpetuating experience laden with knowledge accumulation.

9. References Aga Khan Award for Architecture, (2007). Intervention Architecture Building for Change. London: 1.B. Tauris & Co Ltd 6 Salem Road, W2 4BU, printed and bound in Singapore by K.H.L. printing Co. Pte. Ltd. Al-Saggaf, M.A (Dec 2004): The Thermal Performance in Valley Architectural and Desert in Hadhramout. Hadhramout University Journal, Volume III, December 2004. Al-Shibany, Abdul Raqeeb & Al-Madhajy, Mohmaed. (Feb 2000). Behaviour of the Architectural Spaces Composition in the Yemeni Clay Architectural. First Scientific Conference Clay Architecture on the Threshold of the 21st Century 2000. Aden: Hadhramout University. Damluji, S.S. (1992). The Valley of Mud Brick Architecture Shibam, Trim and Wadi Hadhramout. (1992). London: Garnet Publishing Doxiadis, C.A. (1968).Ekistics: An Introduction to the Science of Human Settlements (New York): Oxford University Press. Fathy, H. (1986). Natural energy and vernacular architecture. The University of Chicago Press, Ltd., London. Publishing. Leslise, J. (March 1991). Edited by Ahmed Abad. Building with Earth in South Arabia. MIMAR. Reading: Garnet publishing Limited, pp. 38-39. Lewcock, R (1986). Wadi Hadhramawt and the walled city of Shibam. (1986).UK: UNESCO Publishing. Dr. Anwar Ahmed Baeissa is an assistant professor at Department of Architecture & Environmental Planning, Faculty of Engineering & Petroleum, Hadhramout University of Science & Technology (HUST), Yemen. He earned a Bachelor and Master of Architecture (B. Arch & M. Arch) degrees in 1998 from the Odessa State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Ukraine, USSR. He worked from 1999-2003 as instructor at department of Architecture & Environmental, Planning and he had been awarded a PhD degree in 2009 from the University of Science Malaysia (USM), Penang, Malaysia. His research is focused on evaluations of space planning towards habitable house designs for low-income group.

Peer Review: This article has been internationally peer-reviewed and accepted for publication according to the guidelines in the journal’s website. Note: Original version of this article was accepted and presented at the International Workshop on Livable Cities (IWLC2013) – a joint conference with International Conference on Sustainable Architecture and Urban Design (ICSAUD2013) organized by the Centre of Research Initiatives and School of Housing, Building & Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia from October 2rd to 5th, 2013.

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2014 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies.

International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies http://TuEngr.com

Rainfall and Chemical Weathering of Basalt Facade at Puebla Cathedral, Mexico Margarita Teutli

a*

, and Elizabeth Le贸n

a

a

Department of Engineering, Engineering and Technology Division, Benem茅rita Universidad Aut贸noma de Puebla (BUAP), MEXICO ARTICLEINFO

ABSTRACT

Pollutant emissions from anthropogenic activities have modified frequency, amount and chemical quality of rainfall at a specific site. Interactions of atmospheric dust with rainfall have induced weathering at Puebla Cathedral basalt facade. Chemical damage in exposed construction materials becomes evident as crusts, color bleaching, or salt deposits either into the stone or onto Keywords: its surface. This work presents data on atmospheric dust (2012), Environmental Pollution; rainfall (2009, 2011, 2012 years) and weathered basalt samples atmospheric dust; collected at downtown Puebla. Samples were characterized by rainwater; Bernard calcimeter method; gravimetric and spectrophotometric techniques for anions and Alkalinity; metals. Results have provided evidence that atmospheric dust Atmospheric chloride; contains carbonates (>300 mg g-1), sulfate and chloride (<10 mg Atmospheric nitrate; g-1); otherwise main anions in rain samples are Atmospheric Phosphate bicarbonate>chloride>sulfate, this order is reproduced in the results of most weathered basalt samples.

Article history: Received 04 August 2013 Received in revised form 24 January 2014 Accepted 09 March 2014 Available online 12 March 2014

2014 INT TRANS J ENG MANAG SCI TECH.

1 Introduction It is known that weathering of stone facades in ancient buildings is result of the climatic conditions at the place where they are located. For instance, it has been observed that limestone is prone to being deteriorated by the transformation of calcium carbonate into calcium sulfate, which is visible as white crusts; these become detached by contour scaling, multiple flaking or blistering. Other types of crusts can exhibit variations in color, morphology or thickness *Corresponding author (Margarita Teutli). Tel: 01 (222) 229 5500 ext 7618. E-mail address: teutli23@hotmail.com. 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0183.pdf.

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It is known that engines combustion release SO2 and NOX in the air. The SO2 provides sulfide from anthropogenic sources, which can be absorbed through several routes such as absorption into the stone or in binding materials, as well as being transported by rising water as the phreatic level is modified in the site. Reported studies have pointed that major weathering contributions come from rain and atmospheric dust, as example can be cited a Budapest study (Siegesmund et al, 2007) in which authors mapped two walls at the Citadella with different exposure conditions to wind and rainfall, they found that weathered samples, in respect to the unweathered reference, exhibit white crusts which have sulfur ranging between 0.5-5.6 wt %, and they exhibit a gradual increase from the ground level upward. Also they found that granular disintegration took place in low lying rows. Black crusts were found in those places sheltered from rainfall, and the percentage of covered areas slightly decreases from the ground level upwards. A report about black crusts on travertine (Tรถrรถk, 2008), refers that there are laminar and framboidal crusts with variations in thickness and gypsum content; compound which is absent in fresh travertine; crusts mineralogical analysis shown that gypsum occurs in all crusts and even in atmospheric dust, the last one is rich in quartz and contains 28% gypsum and 5% calcite. Another report on black crusts (Ortiz et al, 2010) agrees in statement that the main weathering product is gypsum, which is

related to sulphur oxides in the atmospheric

environment; also, surface alteration and the depth of the damage is clearly defined by the stone porosity, as well as deposits of dust and anthropogenic particles, which are producing surface alteration. Another approach in heritage preservation is to estimate the impact of gaseous air pollutants (Kontozova-Deutsch, 2008) findings indicate that indoor most abundant particles can be classified as: soil dust, organic, carbonate, ammonium nitrate. Also, it is considered that chemical composition of indoor particles is more dangerous than the one of particles sampled outdoors. About atmospheric dust characterization, some reports (Kyotani and Iwatsuki, 1998; Bourotte et al, 2005) agree that dust particles should be characterized considering the water and acid soluble components, applied extraction techniques range from the simple approach of preparing an analytical sample with distilled water up to sophisticated methods like Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). Reported results for metals have

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provided evidence that the higher soluble concentration is obtained within the first extract; also, in order of abundance sequence of extracted main anions should be SO4>Cl>NO3; while main metals abundance corresponds to the sequence Ca>Na>Mg. Finally, anthropogenic activities make that urban dust chemical composition raises in sulfate concentration, while dust from the rural areas become high in chloride from marine source; also Boogaard et al (2011) has provided evidence on how particle composition, black carbon and NO2 presence can be considered as indicators of non-exhaust emissions In this report it is presented main findings in atmospheric factors taking place at downtown Puebla such as rainfall and atmospheric dust, chemical properties of both are correlated with chemical composition found in weathered basalt at the Cathedral of Puebla.

2 Methodology Samples of rainwater, weathered basalt and atmospheric dust were collected, the last two were mixed with water to get the soluble ions, and acid digested to get the total metal concentrations.

2.1 Rainfall chemical analysis Rainfall was collected during three seasons (2009, 2011, 2012); samples of 2009 were exhaustively characterized for pH, conductivity, anions (chloride, hardness, alkalinity, sulfate, nitrate and phosphate) and metals (sodium, iron, cobalt, lead, nickel, copper, manganese, cadmium, zinc, magnesium and calcium), results were used to build an statistical analysis matrix, finding that rainwater composition has an input from atmospheric dust (Teutli et al, 2010). From chemical results of the 2009 season, it was possible to establish the main ions to be determined, and so far to shorten the number of parameters.

2.2 Weathered basalt chemical analysis From historical records it is known that Cathedral facade basalt was extracted from the Bethleem quarry at Puebla; from this place it was possible to get an unweathered sample which is included as reference.

Visual inspection of the Cathedral facade was used to detect

weathered sites, and scrap samples that were mixed with water (1:2 ratio) and chemically characterized for the following parameters: pH and conductivity; carbonate determined by the Bernard calcimeter method; gravimetric techniques were used for hardness, alkalinity, and chloride; otherwise, spectrophotometric techniques were applied for sulfate, nitrate and *Corresponding author (Margarita Teutli). Tel: 01 (222) 229 5500 ext 7618. E-mail address: teutli23@hotmail.com. 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0183.pdf.

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phosphate.

2.3 Atmospheric dust chemical analysis Atmospheric dust was collected inside of the Cathedral of Puebla, and outside at the roofs of three buildings at downtown Puebla (Civil Engineering Board, Colonial Hotel and Saint Agustin Temple); these samples were mixed with distilled water (1:2 ratio) and analyzed for pH, conductivity, carbonates, chloride, hardness, alkalinity, sulfate, nitrate, and sulfide. Also metal concentration soluble and total (from acid digestion) were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy; determined metals comprise aluminum, copper, manganese, lead, zinc, calcium and iron.

3 Results and discussion Considering that reported data comprise liquid samples (rainwater), and two kind of solid samples (atmospheric dust and weathered basalt), is considered to present chemical composition of each kind of samples, and after that set up the correlation between them. Data presented in this paper are the synthesis of three sets of experimental data.

Figure 1: Cumulative rainfall registered at downtown Puebla.

Figure 2. Rainfal pH values at downtown Puebla.

3.1 Rainfall chemical characterization Figure 1 present the cumulative rainfall of the three years 2009, 2011, 2012 data were obtained from a government meteorological page (Comisi贸n Nacional del Agua) and corresponds to an average of the precipitation that took place at downtown Puebla, but not necessarily rain felt at the place where the collection was done. As it can be observed, in 2011 and 2012, similar quantities of rain were obtained, otherwise 2009 was an almost dry year since the season started very late and cumulative volume was less than 25% with respect to the other seasons; also, this year exhibit a long period of dryness and rainfall stops about to the 260th day, while 2011 stopped at the 300th day, and 2012 about the 320th day.

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Figure 2 presented data for pH. It can be observed strong variations of pH took place at the beginning of the 2012 season, in which the 100th day sample exhibit an acid pH (<3), but after the 140th day pH started to oscillate between 5.5 and 8.0, so far rainwater has not strong acidic characteristics.

Figure 3: Rainfal conductivity values for downtown Puebla.

Figure 4: Rainfall alkalinity values at downtown Puebla

In Figure 3 are presented results of the electrical conductivity in this plot it is clear that higher conductivity values took place at the beginning of the rain season, and it happens that both 2011 and 2012 exhibit a rising trend before the 160th day, except for the 100th day of the 2012 (with lower pH), where it happens that conductivity exhibits a drop to a value closer to the one registered at the beginning of the season. It is after the 160th day that conductivity drops to values below 150 mS cm-1. At this time is considered that rainfall has been enough to wash out the pollutants in the downtown atmosphere, the amount is about 100 mm of rain. In Figure 4 are presented results for total alkalinity, this parameter includes HCO3, CO3, OH, this set of data mainly represents an estimation of the ability to neutralize acidic pollution. As it can be observed 2011 was the year with higher values, around the 140th day concentration was close to 500 ppm, and a similar value is observed at the 280th day. A lower amount was observed for rain in 2012 since values never get higher than 280 ppm; also most values oscillate between 50-150 ppm; otherwise, 2009 was the year with the lower alkalinity since a maximum registered on the 160th day was less than 150 ppm. In general for the three years most of the values were smaller than 200 ppm.

*Corresponding author (Margarita Teutli). Tel: 01 (222) 229 5500 ext 7618. E-mail address: teutli23@hotmail.com. 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0183.pdf.

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The second anion in order of importance was chloride (Cl-), results are shown in Figure 5, as it can be observed most of the values are between 20 and 80 ppm. A separate analysis indicates that top values for 2011 were about 200 ppm at the 140th and 300th days; otherwise, 2012 only reached two top concentrations around the 100th and the 130th days, and a minimal almost at the end of the season. Finally 2009 was a year with the lowest concentration and a top value happened almost at the end of the season, this was a consequence of heavy precipitation, fact which is in agreement with the statement that Cl presence mainly comes from marine source.

Figure 5: Rainfall chloride values at downtown Puebla

Figure 6: Rainfall sulfate data for downtown Puebla

Figure 6 shown the data for sulfate (SO4-2) and as it can be observed most values are between 5- 20 ppm, but between the 140th and the 170th days higher sulfate concentrations were registered for 2009 and 2011, and even though that 2009 was the year with low precipitation. Sulfate values are really high in the first precipitations. Also there is another period with high concentrations between 260th and 280th days, the one for 2009 even get a higher value than the observed at the beginning if the season. Otherwise, 2012 was a season that started very early (40th day), therefore the early atmosphere wash out did not allow concentration to exceed the 20ppm. Figure 7 presented the nitrate (NO3) results. As it can be observed most of the values lie between 0.5-3 ppm, this anion does not follow a consistent pattern since in 2009 higher values occured at the beginning and end of the season, as it happened with sulfate; otherwise, for 2011 highest concentrations took place between the 140th and the 160th days and exhibit another raise almost at the end of the season but in magnitude less than 50% of the one registered at the beginning. An anomalous behavior occurs with the 2012, since higher values were registered

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after the 160th day, and values at the end of the season are even higher than the ones from the other years.

Figure 7: Rainfall nitrate data at downtown Puebla.

Figure 8: Rainfall phosphate data at downtown Puebla

In general, phosphate (PO4-3) concentrations are lower than the ones observed for nitrate, results are presented in Figure 8. As it can be observed most of the values are below 1 ppm; also, trends are completely different for all years, since 2009 exhibit a maximum at the beginning of the season; and another peak, of lower intensity before the end of the season; in opposite way 2011 exhibit only one maximum and this occurs almost at the end of the season, while 2012 exhibit a maximum at the middle of the season which is not greater than 2 ppm., although, there is presence of some peaks in concentration.

3.2 Weathered basalt chemical characterization Basalt samples were collected at the main faรงade (west side, low rainfall impact), at the lateral facade (north side, high rainfall impact), also in the north tower (faces oriented north, east, south and west). Chemical characterization results are reported in Table 1. Collected samples were 19, and it is included a sample of unweathered basalt as reference. From data in Table 1, it can be observed that pH values in general are more acid than the reference; also, the higher observed pH is about 80% of the reference. Electric Conductivity (E. C.) results can be grouped as follow: 3 samples with lower concentration in respect to the reference, and a higher one which is about 7 times the reference (558 ppm). Total carbonate in all samples is higher than the reference content, the lower value observed is about 4 times the reference and the higher value is about 25 times the reference. From these results it can be *Corresponding author (Margarita Teutli). Tel: 01 (222) 229 5500 ext 7618. E-mail address: teutli23@hotmail.com. 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0183.pdf.

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assumed that higher ionic content can derive in fragility of the stone. Table 1: Data of weathered basalt. Sample #

Location

Orientation

Height, m

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Reference Main Facade North Tower North Tower Main Facade Main Facade Main Facade North Tower North Tower North Tower North Tower North Tower North Tower North Tower Main Facade Main Facade North Tower North Tower North Tower North Tower

West North North West West West North North South South East South East West North East West East West

18.00 30.00 42.00 1.50 1.50 1.35 30.00 42.00 42.00 42.00 42.00 30.00 30.00 0.10 0.50 30.00 30.00 42.00 42.00

pH

8.62 5.78 4.48 3.83 3.62 6.81 4.01 5.89 6.02 6.19 6.44 6.48 6.39 3.82 6.81 6.93 6.44 6.89 6.89 5.91

E.C. 碌S cm-1 80 70 186 242 558 82 93 120 106 177 180 175 71 162 57 382 227 153 92 389

CaCO3 g Kg-1 11.00 296.67 204.69 160.58 40.00 233.55 212.06 170.00 251.71 136.34 173.35 151.18 180.95 135.41 64.90 196.87 173.00 194.97 134.39 169.00

Table 2 presented data of soluble anions found in the basalt samples, these data were restricted to the main anions found in the rainfall chemical data. From these data it is obvious that anions contribution in weathering basalt can be arranged in order of importance such as: carbonate>sulfate>chloride>alkalinity>nitrate>phosphate; in this sequence only nitrate and phosphate match with the rainfall data. Also, it is worthy to point out how each parameter behaves in respect to the reference. For total alkalinity all values are above the reference, the lower value is almost 25 times, while the higher one is almost 63 times; chloride is absent in the reference and the higher value in samples is 14.2 g Kg-1; sulfate is present in the reference but weathered basalt exhibits values lower (2/19), and only two exhibit really high concentrations, the maximum one is almost 100 times the reference; nitrate exhibit a singular response since 8/19 samples have lower values, and 10/19 have higher values with a maximum which is about 8 times the reference; about phosphate 2/19 samples are lower than the reference and the maximum reached up to 10 times the reference. In general it can be said that order has been traslocated in respect to the rainfall since in order of abundance, the sequence is sulfate>chloride>alkalinity.

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Table 2: Main water soluble anions in weathered basalt. Sample #

Location

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Reference Main Facade North Tower North Tower Main Facade Main Facade Main Facade North Tower North Tower North Tower North Tower North Tower North Tower North Tower Main Facade Main Facade North Tower North Tower North Tower North Tower

Alkalinity g Kg-1 0.02 0.84 1.10 0.53 0.79 0.55 0.51 0.56 0.53 0.78 0.55 0.54 0.56 0.54 0.81 0.80 0.80 1.26 0.56 0.54

Chloride g Kg-1 0 10.60 3.67 9.98 3.71 14.02 9.72 7.07 3.70 0.00 3.46 10.30 3.52 6.84 3.41 6.79 0.00 10.59 3.51 3.43

Sulfate g Kg-1 1.50 7.58 127.93 2.72 169.40 2.87 6.86 4.98 2.76 7.04 7.42 6.97 7.54 5.98 0.67 0.19 2.10 2.84 2.87 7.36

Nitrate g Kg-1 0.08 0.11 0.49 0.02 0.15 0.05 0.00 0.32 0.28 0.37 0.64 0.38 0.33 0.09 0.06 0.06 0.18 0.16 0.04 0.05

Phosphate g Kg-1 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.17 0.08 0.09 0.03 0.12 0.04 0.12 0.02 0.09 0.06 0.11 0.01 0.13 0.09 0.04 0.19

It is important to focus on location of collection points taking as reference orientation and height, then a comparison is done for samples #2 (north, 30 m), #4 (west, 1.5 m) and #10 (south, 42 m) for the parameters carbonate, pH, alkalinity and sulfate. These samples are compared in function of its position and exposure to rain and wind. Samples #2 and #10 were collected at an horizontal place but different height and orientation, then there is high probability that dust become accumulated and by rainfall action being dissolved and penetrate into the basalt matrix; otherwise, sample #4 was collected in a vertical place almost at the ground level, so far it is possible that dust and rainfall approach the wall, and slip downwards; in this path dust will be solubilized and carried on to the floor level. Data are presented in table 3 Table 3: Weathered basalt comparison as function of its orientation Sample # 2 4 10

CaCO3 g Kg-1 204 40 173

pH 4.48 3.62 6.44

Alkalinity g Kg-1 1.10 0.79 0.55

Sulfate g Kg-1 127.00 169.00 7.42

As it can be observed sample#4 (vertical position) has a low carbonate content in respect of samples #2 and #10, and so far is expected a lower pH, favoring sulfate accumulation which could come from solubilization of gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO2) . Focused on sulfate content *Corresponding author (Margarita Teutli). Tel: 01 (222) 229 5500 ext 7618. E-mail address: teutli23@hotmail.com. 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0183.pdf.

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pH of sample #2 should be more acid, but both alkalinity and carbonate are higher than the ones in sample #4, and so far a neutralization could take place increasing the pH. Otherwise, sample #10 was collected at the south side of the north tower, so far this side has lower exposition to rain and wind than the north side and that fact could explain why pH is higher correlating well with the low sulfate content.

3.3 Atmospheric dust Samples to determine chemical composition were collected at two environments: samples #1-5 come from the interior of the Cathedral; while samples #7-9 were collected at the roofs of three buildings with different vehicular density. Data are reported in Table 4.

Sample # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Table 4: Atmospheric dust data. 5.56 6.14 6.83 7.23

CaCO3 g Kg-1 278 346 343 278

Chloride g Kg-1 1.44 10.07 0.33 0.31

Sulfate g Kg-1 11.25 46.72 5.93 5.47

Nitrate g Kg-1 0.97 3.85 0.003 0.27

Phosphate g Kg-1 0.00 0.01 0.1 0.00

6.6 6.2 7.84

299 302 364

1.65 0.00 5.48

29.38 16.82 5.9

1.04 0.37 0.30

0.00 0.00 0.00

6.36

359

8.91

0.50

0.54

0.00

6.62

304

4.45

3.40

0.19

0.00

Location

pH

Sacristy Candle soot Main entrance Choir, Southeast Choir South Choir west Eng Board Roof Colonial Hotel roof Saint Agustin roof

From these data it can be observed that pH exhibit moderate values which fall between 5.5 and 8. But most of the values are close to the average in weathered basalt which is 5.78. Carbonate content is between 270 and 370 g Kg-1, values which are above the ones detected in weathered basalt, since the higher value was 296 and the average was 170 g Kg-1. In respect of chloride it becomes evident that dust at inner spaces has very low content except the sample of the candle soot, otherwise samples collected outdoors are closer to the average value of weathered basalt (6.2 ppm). Sulfate data show a higher value in the candle soot, and the sample collected at the Choir, and all others are below the average value in weathered basalt. Nitrate values are higher in respect to the average found in weathered basalt (0.2 ppm) and again the candle sooth exhibit the higher concentration. Phosphate presence is almost null and only the candle soot and the sample from the main entrance are higher than the average value of weathered basalt (0.08 ppm).

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4 Conclusion From rainfall data, it was observed that anions in order of abundance follow the sequence: alkalinity>chloride>sulfate>nitrate>phosphate,

while the corresponding sequence for

weathered basalt is being traslocated as sulfate>chloride>alkalinity>nitrate>phosphate, and in atmospheric dust it is observed the sequence sulfate>alkalinity>chloride>nitrate>phosphate. Also this sequence agrees with findings reported by Kiotani and Iwatsuki (1998), and Bourotte at al (2005). It can be affirmed that main contribution in rainfall is alkalinity, which is high enough to avoid acidic pH occurrence in most of the collected samples. For diagnosis of weathering in heritage buildings is important to account for location, orientation and height. In this study, results have shown that incorporation of sulfate is highly dependent of how the stone structure is located (horizontal, vertical), its orientation in respect of main incidence of rain and wind, as well as it height since lower sites are more prone to accumulate soluble compounds.

5 References Boogaard, H., Kos, G. P. A, Weijers, E. P., Janssen, N. A. H., Fischer, P. H, Van der Zee, S., Hartog, J. J., Hoek, G. (2011). Contrast in air pollution components between major streets and background locations: Particulate matter mass, black carbon, elemental composition, nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particle number. Atmospheric Environment, vol 45(3), pp. 650-658. Bourotte, C., Forti, M. C, Melfi, A. J., Lucas, Y. (2005). Morphology and solutes content of atmospheric particles in an urban and a natural area of Sao Paulo State, Brasil. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, vol 170(1-4) pp. 301-316. Comisión Nacional del Agua (CNA). Metereological stations. www.smn.cna.gob.mx › Climatología Kyotani, T., Iwatsuki, M. (1998). Determination of water and acid soluble components in atmospheric dust by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, ion chromatography and ion-selective electrode method. Analytical Sciences, vol 14(4), pp. 741-748. Kontozova-Deutsch, V.,Moreton Godoi, R. H., Worobiec, A., Spolnik, Z., Krata, A., Deutsch, F., Van Grieken, R. (2008). Investigation of gaseous and particulate air pollutants at the Basilica Saint Urban in Troyes, related to the preservation of the medieval stained glass windows. Microchimica Acta, vol 162(3-4), pp. 425-432. *Corresponding author (Margarita Teutli). Tel: 01 (222) 229 5500 ext 7618. E-mail address: teutli23@hotmail.com. 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0183.pdf.

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Ortiz, P.,Vázquez, M. A., Ortiz, R., Martin, J. M., Ctvrtnickova, T., Mateo, M. P., Nicolas, G. (2010). Investigation of environmental pollution effects on stone monuments in the case of Santa maria La Blanca, Seville (Spain). Applied Physics A. Materials Science & Processing, vol 100(3), pp. 965-973. Siegesmund, S., Török, A., Hüpers, A., Müller, Chr., Klemm, W. (2007). Mineralogical, geochemical and microfabric evidences of gypsum crusts: a case of study from Budapest, Environmental Geology, vol 52(2), pp. 385-397. Teutli León, M., Jiménez Suárez, G., Peláez Cid A. A., Lozano Mercado, J., Posada Sánchez A. E. (2010). Rainfall chemical composition at Puebla, México. Enlace Químico, vol 2 (9), December 2010. Török, A. (2008). Black crusts on travertine: factors controlling development and stability. Environmental Geology, vol 56(3-4), pp. 583-594. Dr.Margarita Teutli is professor at the Engineering Department, of the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (BUAP). She received her B. Chem. Eng. From the same University. She obtained a master degree in Chem Eng, from the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana (UAM), and a M.Sc. Degree at Tulane University, while her Ph.D degree was obtained at the UAM in the Electrochemical Engineering area. Her current research is focused on Heritage building preservation and Environmental Engineering. Elizabeth León earned a Bachelor degree in Architecture, and a Master in Patrimony Preservation at the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (BUAP).

Peer Review: This article has been internationally peer-reviewed and accepted for publication according to the guidelines in the journal’s website. Note: Original version of this article was accepted and presented at the International Workshop on Livable Cities (IWLC2013) – a joint conference with International Conference on Sustainable Architecture and Urban Design (ICSAUD2013) organized by the Centre of Research Initiatives and School of Housing, Building & Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia from October 2rd to 5th, 2013.

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2014 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies.

International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies http://TuEngr.com

Impact of Flexibility Principle on the Efficiency of Interior Design Oday Q. Abdulpader a b

a, b*

, Omar A. Sabah

a, b

, and Hussien S. Abdullah

a, b

Department of Architectural Engineering, College of Engineering, Mosul University, IRAQ Currently at School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA

ARTICLEINFO

Article history: Received 04 August 2013 Received in revised form 31 March 2014 Accepted 04 April 2014 Available online 09 April 2014

Keywords: Flexible space; Spaces efficiency; sustainability; Integrating building.

ABSTRACT

The flexibility in architectural design can solve the area problems and multi-use plan. It could provide many possibilities to change the shape and size of internal space in addition to the economic and social impacts on the housing system. The increasing of moving from the rural and suburban to the main city offset router by new and creative designs and experiences that seek to solve the problems associated with immigration, as these non-deliberate immigration led to make the city as a template of ice in the vicinity of hot water and cause the melting of this city and ending the efficiency of the economically live, housing and social. Because of these necessary needs, designers have started new and creative ideas to design skyscrapers and multi-storey buildings to cover the housing and economic needs. These solutions vary mechanism from one area to another mismatch of vertical buildings and uses them depends on the reduced space. This research studies the possibilities of flexible designs and the impact on the efficiency of interior design in addition to the using of integrated serves to get a creative and sustainable design to make our city more livable. The principles interior design of the housing unit has a significant effect in increasing or decreasing economic and housing building. In this paper the principle of flexibility design is studied in two line: line 1: Flixibility plan (space, wall, floor, ceiling ), and line 2: Flixibility details (furniture). 2014 INT TRANS J ENG MANAG SCI TECH.

*Corresponding author (Oday Q. Abdulqader). Tel/Fax: 0060178298660 / 009647701622788. 2014. International Transaction Journal of E-mail address: odaychalabi@gmail.com. Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0195.pdf.

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1. Introduction Livability depends on how sufficient services, energy and enough area for every person in additional to economics that considered the most important factor that helps immigration from city to suburbs and makes unbalanced budgets. But at the same time people stay connected with the cities by workplace, as an example; in Iraq, we considered low cost housing is the best solution for this problem as we can build low initial cost housing with less areas 100-250 square meters, but the problem of selecting building sites stills as the most of housing facilities locates at suburbs which helps leaving the mother city and as a result that will increase transportation costs. So, people invented other odd solutions by dividing the plot area for building as some reaches lower than 50 square meters for each housing unit with very low living spaces efficiency. This paper will study how to find optimum methods for reaching an economic, functional, psychic and aesthetic efficiency in a small area spaces by using flexibility principles, which makes the city a livable place.

Flexibility also helps finding new

architectural solutions to get the maximum benefits and functional use of small areas. Flexibility is one of the physical properties of materials and geometrical forms used in interior design, that property depends on the physical shape in additional to its compositional and other structural properties, so that repetition, balance, similarity can be used for making flexible space, which means that we can use that geometrical properties in order to gain a flexible space that can be transformable and multi-uses in the same plot area. The social and environmental pollution is the main reason why people emigrate from rural areas to main cities in additional to living cost at city as compared with the suburbs. And that's what makes the study of possibilities of making the city a place that able to live properly by using all designable means that connected directly with people and society life is very necessary. This is the reason why we must study environment surrounds people starting with living space and then the whole city space. Some architectural engineers apply several means to reach flexibility in the designed space, which used in the whole composite, detail levels and relationship between them depending on flexible structure that shapes space and the possibilities of changing it as needing to, with the furniture flexibilities and possibilities of its arrangement and transforming an additional to use some forms that allow free formations. There are several principles of geometrical designs that are using flexibility and the flexibility assisting properties as basics for thoughts and these are under three main points:

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1.1 Flexibility in Vertical Partitions Some designers used vertical partitions that are movable and reshaping space for aesthetic, functional and economical uses in the same time in order to make best and maximum use of plot area that responds increasing peoples' needs.

1.2 Flexibility in Horizontal Planes and Levels Flexibility in horizontal planes and levels is used for getting appropriate interior spaces that responds people demands, so that it makes possible to control space levels and the economical efficiency that reached from responding multiple needs in the same space as it reduces demanded plot area. As we can use vertical partitions and horizontal planes and levels flexibilities together, as we can change the vertical partition to horizontal one and verse versa, to reach maximum flexibility at minimum space and materials.

1.3 Flexibility in Furniture This term is used for describing nowadays furniture as a physical property of furniture itself, so as a chair can be converted to a bed or table... etc.. Despite of that, there is another design ideas that depends on the relationship between furniture and space so that (as an example) the bed can be hide into a wall or ground, or raise it to the ceiling to be part of design, as well as, the furniture can have some shape properties that add another type of flexibility which gained from repeating the furniture piece with changing the arrangement or adding other pieces without decreasing the aesthetic and functional efficiency of space (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Flexible used on tables in the classroom.

2. Litterateur Review There are a lot of geometrical and artistic studies that focused on several geometrical shape properties in interior design, with tat properties we can produce many interior spaces that have an aesthetic, functional and economical functions at the same time. *Corresponding author (Oday Q. Abdulqader). Tel/Fax: 0060178298660 / 009647701622788. 2014. International Transaction Journal of E-mail address: odaychalabi@gmail.com. Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0195.pdf.

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Some of these studies suggested that interior design depends on client rules and demands (functional, psychic and aesthetic), at the first place we can reach the appropriate space for people with the structure as it is an interactive process between designer and user (Silverstein & Lorinda, 1993). Using shape construction principles is necessary in interior design because space perception and sense depend on it, as some studies mentioned that balance and scale as basic principles in interior and furniture design that is the shape balance lead to a better space perception in additional to better abilities to reach functional demand (Qasim, 2005). Some other studies focused on space form and how its composite and its generation fundamentals which should be depended on aesthetic sense and imagination, and information process from user to designer must be clear so that is design reaches the client demand of design (Silverstein & Lorinda, 1993). Good design cannot be produced if it didn't reach client psychic, expressive and aesthetic demands in additional to function which is designed for in order to get comfortable, moving flow, good seeing and needs of thermal comfort (Qasim, 2005).

2.1 Environmental Basic Parts System Interior design process is an innovative process of an object or idea and putting it functionally in our life, Interior design locates in the bigger field which is the environmental design, and this environmental system has two basic parts as referred by Environment design Research Association (EDRA): Physical Environment: this can be measured and described by visual in real like thermal and dimensional. etc. Spatial Environment: This can be aware and measured by size, number, type and shape in additional to aesthetic and formal relationships which connect it.

2.2 Element of Design and Form Studying form and its relationship with space is so important because the elements are organized in groups and do not act as parts in space, but they define space that could be percept through several relationships as (Qasim, 2005): Shape and Background: The contrast between shape and background leads to strength form and can be considered a unique form in space, contrast case gives shape legibility, importance and identity within the space. Continuity: Continuous relations between elements through keeping same shape, colour,

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texture & pattern. Sequences: Continuity of organized elements perception within space and ensure that any change will not cause any cut but increase effects and intense space. Repetition: A kind of sequence that can achieved by repeating an element and gives more flexibility to space, repetition does not condition to be in shape and structure of interior space but can be in furniture and additional elements in space. Rhythm: Sequence of repeated elements in certain periods within one composition. Dominance: Giving more importance to one element within space, that can be possible by increasing size or selecting a focus point, etc. Similarity: The repetition of one element around a point or axis, similarity provides order and legibility for elements that it contains and ease its perception. Proportion: Proportion is one of the most properties that used in interior and exterior design and it is the basic reason that effects of form shapeliness perception, the relation between human and space proportion makes the space more efficient (M. & M, 2008). Using Modular in design helps space to be more flexible and that causes easier and faster modelling and arrangement possibility of space. There is many definitions for proportion; some of them defined ratio as numeric quantities shapes mathematical relation between two objects or more among whole group parts, and the fracture formula used for expressing ratio like the ratio of length to width of rectangle, proportion

in architecture is the consistency of architectural form dimensions and

architectural elements among each other and between them and the whole architectural composition, proportion linked by functional, aesthetic and structural sides of architectural form as it helps of presenting the building certain architectural character and its compositional structure. And it is a process aimed adjustment and balancing architectural composition by certain principles. At the beginning of architectural interactive architect usually can not adjust proportion directly as he proceed the general logical composition counting on his experience and aesthetic sense then comes the adjustment of proportion and balancing the composition an advanced stage (Ching & Binggeli, 2012). *Corresponding author (Oday Q. Abdulqader). Tel/Fax: 0060178298660 / 009647701622788. 2014. International Transaction Journal of E-mail address: odaychalabi@gmail.com. Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0195.pdf.

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2.3 Interior space and livable Some studies suggest that the main reason of reversed immigration from rural areas to cities is the environmental and social pollution in additional to economical cost in the city as compared with suburbs, which makes the study the possibilities of making the city a livable place is a basic priority (Philips, 2010). The study of (Newman, 1999) (role in delivering city live ability) refers that one of the sustainability fundamentals is flexibility and variety, and the main standards of sustainability are: capacity, fitness, resilience, diversity, and balance. ( Newman, 1999). There are variables related to sustainability, including the flexible shape of the building and has the following characteristics: Scalability, modification and adaptation of functional variables, the possibility of multiple use and saving on space and energy, compacted the building for more than one function with less size, and consolidation method that allows for flexibility in services and a reduction in operating costs. There are many examples of using the principle of flexibility to achieve sustainability, as in the windows for BMS building which can opened a two-way and high levels of adoption of natural ventilation. The roof has also been used in the interior design waveform to be interacting with cooling services in order to integrate the methods of ventilation and avoid problems as well as the impact of audio waveform in increasing the capacity of space in addition to aesthetically sense. Aggregates of cooling and heating pipes was also used in the division office spaces in this building, In addition to the use of hollow glass tubes containing a water chute is working to isolate and divide spaces, and in this case, it's used as functional object and interior element in addition to achieve sustainability because the recycled water is the same water-cooling and heating. In another study Ecological buildings, it means the internal environment of health as it is used less energy as possible for the air conditioning systems and cooling to achieve energy efficiency and systems operation and maintenance, services and events, either the types of the construction materials indicate the study to the importance that the materials are good quality to reduce the destruction of the internal environment, some studies have indicated that good design is tested by use of space efficiency standards, regulations and construction technology as well as the symbolic and its relationship with the beauty of the design, either environmental form is a relationship between the formal design process Active in climatic terms (Hui, 2002). The environmental form is a relationship between the formal design process Active in climatic terms (Hui, 2002). The relationship must be flexible as to achieve sustainability linked to green

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building standards, which depend on reducing energy and environmental pollutants used in addition to the conservation of non-renewable energy, which could be achieved through flexible space as in which you can achieve energy savings and space (Edwards, 2001). The study discussed the Theo Van Doesburg, a founder of "De Stijll" ideology who expresses his theories in a paper titled “toward a flexible architecture” as follows; “Modern architecture is an open one. A unique space constitutes the whole house that is partitioned according to required application and performance. Such partitioning takes place through internal divider walls and external supporting ones. The former divide the house space in accordance with performance and application which could be portable (in contrast to traditional dividing walls), that is such walls could be designed in a way that frames and handy plates could be replaced” (Emamgholi, 2011).

Figure 2: Using Flixibilaty in furniture design. Some of studies pointed to the residential complex, which designed by Mies van der Rohe that the interior walls can move to change the interior space as the owner wants – rooms without door between it to keep the area for each person (Poldma, 2013). By trying to create the perfect flexible space, there are many problems with the cost and functional properties because each designer creates his flexible space without a serious study for the cost and efficiency of space. In the first time flexible building design without a real method, but at this time there are so many methods to create flexible space and depended on the new material and technology method (Poldma, 2013). There two kinds of using flexibility to create a multi-used space – the first one is used with furniture (Figure 2), and the second is used with building construction like wall and floor, each has many branches as the researchers mentions. Maximum & optimum utilization of the interior space require the flexible design of furniture in the space as combined. Many furniture pieces are designed using folding patterns or drawer included with mechanical or electrical features and this furniture can make from the interior space maximum efficiency takes place through ergonomic and human fitness (Emamgholi, 2011). *Corresponding author (Oday Q. Abdulqader). Tel/Fax: 0060178298660 / 009647701622788. 2014. International Transaction Journal of E-mail address: odaychalabi@gmail.com. Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0195.pdf.

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Figure 3: Idea of flexible structure and volume. Other studies pointed on the properties of flexibility which were used in most flexible building and its idea. There are many properties for flexibility, but the most five used are: assembling and disassembling, folding and unfolding, adapting, combining, transporting, wearing, and carrying. Figure 3 shows idea of flexible structure and volume.

3. Conclusion from previous studies and identify element research After reviewing the previous studies, some of which are concentrated form and flexibility, and some flexibility in general, and others of the importance of sustainability and the ability to adapt and livable. Studies show that there is a strong relationship between flexibility and structural characteristics of the form as well as the relationship between sustainability and form and function. As studies indicated the possibility of achieving flexibility through using of formal characteristics as follows:

3.1 Repetition There are three levels (partial, whole, both) and in contain three main variables as follows: Type of Repetition: As the previous studies there are two type the first one is Linear repetition (horizontal X, Y and Vertical Z) and the second one is Central repetition (round point, radiant). Repetition's Method: Involving transformation in shape, size or direction. Ratio of Obviousness: Sometimes using repetitions in interior design lead to monotony, so the architect makes the repetition unclear to cover the monotony which causes of lost the repetition properties.

3.2 Proportion and Scale It's considered from the important geometric characters which related to flexibility. As the

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adoption of non-standard ratios in the design of interior space leads to a wrong perception of space in addition to the difficulty of performing the function. It can make the space more flexibility through the adoption of measures to achieve a good fit for space and greater flexibility. This involves three variables (numerical, fractional, and with scale).

3.3 Axiality The Axiality property has a real impact on applying flexibility, as it depends on the type of the increase in axial space or repetition in design elements without affecting the perception of form efficient functions, but could have a positive impact, and axial types are: linear, radical, point, and interaction (Ching & Binggeli, 2012), see Figure 4.

Interaction

Point

Radica

Linear

Figure 4: Types of Axiallity.

3.4 Flexibility The studies, which focused on the concept of flexibility can be the conclusion of some vocabulary which is on three levels (Partial, Whole, Both), which are two main types. Furniture and flexibility are divided into (flexible furniture, flexible furniture with anthers, flexible furniture with the structure of space) and its impact on the aesthetics of the interior space. Flexible structure is divided into (horizontal flexible, vertical flexibility, flexibility in both directions) and its impact on the aesthetics of the interior space. Michael Hollander designed room with movable levels in New York in 1970 which considered from the first applicable idea. Another early idea was applied in residential building near Osaka around 16th-17th century by Shigeru Ban which named â&#x20AC;&#x153;Curtain Wall Houseâ&#x20AC;?. (Jones, 2001)

Figure 5: The figure shows flexible level within one space.

*Corresponding author (Oday Q. Abdulqader). Tel/Fax: 0060178298660 / 009647701622788. 2014. International Transaction Journal of E-mail address: odaychalabi@gmail.com. Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0195.pdf.

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3.5 Sustainability variables Studies on the efficiency of space and the and sustainability can use the following variables: • •

• •

• •

Area savings. Size savings. Ability to adapt at using the space. Materials savings. Energy savings. Division and increasing portability.

Selecting the variable form is designed to measure the variables.

Figure 6: Basic model of the housing unit.

4. Practical Study After selecting the variable related with the flexibility and livability in cities, one models of housing in the city of Mosul-northern Iraq was selected, As the value of land is too high, residents in the city were able to find individual solutions in the residential land use, They divide the land into more than one section, in some areas to 50 square meters for residential unit, But with low efficiency in terms of spaces and functional, aesthetic and economic Different dimensions proportional, In this paper, the adoption of the shape of a rectangle with proportionality 1 to 2 and an area 50 m2 (5 m×10 m), using the variable resulting from previous studies had been producing alternatives design depends on the flexibility and as a form of measurement, as shown in Figure 6. Because of the large number of measurement table will be the inclusion of a single model for each case.

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Figure 7: Furniture and space can transform as the functions.

Figure 8: Different models of 10m X 5m area. This work attempts to find the best strategy of a compact space design but with full efficiency in term of economic and functionality performance of the building. Plan and sections of Figures 7 and 8 shows some samples of 10m x 5m area designed by using the element of flexible space.

*Corresponding author (Oday Q. Abdulqader). Tel/Fax: 0060178298660 / 009647701622788. 2014. International Transaction Journal of E-mail address: odaychalabi@gmail.com. Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0195.pdf.

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Table 1: Measurement form variables for sample A1. A1

Sample No.

Secondary variables

Main Variable

Repetition

X2

Proportion & scale

Numerical Fractional With scale

Axiality

Linear Radial Point Interaction

Whole level

Both

Linear

X3

X4

Flexibility

Flexibility types

X1

Horizontal Vertical Repetitions type Central Around point Radiant With In shape transformation In size Repetitions method In direction Without transformation Clear Ratio of Medium clear obviousness Unclear

Partial level

Furniture Structure

Method

X5

Furniture self Furniture with anthers Furniture with space Horizontal Vertical Both Transformations Flexibility in material

Area savings Size savings Ability to adapt at using the space Space efficiency Materials savings Energy savings Division and increasing portability

Table 1 is to measure the efficiency in term of economic and functionality performance of sample A1 which designed by fix structures and furniture, to make comparative process with other samples that depended on flexibility in its design. The table contained the main variables which found out from previous studies.

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Table 2: Measurement form variables for sample B1.

B1

Sample No.

Secondary variables

Main Variable

Repetition

X2

Proportion & scale

Numerical Fractional With scale

Axiality

Linear Radial Point Interaction

Whole level

Both

Linear

X3

X4

Flexibility

Flexibility types

X1

Horizontal Vertical Repetitions type Central Around point Radiant With In shape Repetitions transformation In size method In direction Without transformation Clear Ratio of Medium clear obviousness Unclear

Partial level

Method

X5

Furniture Structure

Furniture self Furniture with anthers Furniture with space Horizontal Vertical Both Transformations Flexibility in material

Area savings Size savings Ability to adapt at using the space Space efficiency Materials savings Energy savings Division and increasing portability

Table 2 also is to measure the efficiency in term of economic and functionality performance of sample B1 which designed with flexible partitions only. The measurement process included the possibility models from this sample after editing the flexible partitions. *Corresponding author (Oday Q. Abdulqader). Tel/Fax: 0060178298660 / 009647701622788. 2014. International Transaction Journal of E-mail address: odaychalabi@gmail.com. Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0195.pdf.

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Table 3: Measurement form variables for sample B2.

B2

Sample No.

Secondary variables

Main Variable

X1

Repetition

Horizontal Vertical Central Around point Radiant With In shape Repetitions transformation In size method In direction Without transformation Clear Ratio of Medium clear obviousness Unclear

X2

Proportion & scale

Numerical Fractional With scale

Axiality

Linear Radial Point Interaction

Partial level

Whole level

Both

Linear

X3

X4

Flexibility

Flexibility types

Repetitions type

Method

X5

Furniture Structure

Furniture self Furniture with anthers Furniture with space Horizontal Vertical Both Transformations Flexibility in material

Area savings Size savings Ability to adapt at using the space Space efficiency Materials savings Energy savings Division and increasing portability

Table 3 is to measure the efficiency in term of economic and functionality performance according to the main variables which were found out from previous studies, to test sample B2 and the possibility models for the same sample which contained furniture that designed with flexible principles moreover flexibility in furniture positions.

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Table 4: Measurement form variables for sample B3.

B3

Sample No.

Secondary variables

Main Variable

Repetition

X2

Proportion & scale

Numerical Fractional With scale

Axiality

Linear Radial Point Interaction

Whole level

Both

Linear

X3

X4

Flexibility

Flexibility types

X1

Horizontal Vertical Repetitions type Central Around point Radiant With In shape transformation In size Repetitions method In direction Without transformation Clear Ratio of Medium clear obviousness Unclear

Partial level

Method

X5

Furniture Structure

Furniture self Furniture with anthers Furniture with space Horizontal Vertical Both Transformations Flexibility in material

Area savings Size savings Ability to adapt at using the space Space efficiency Materials savings Energy savings Division and increasing portability

Table 4 measures the efficiency in term of economic and functionality performance according to the main variables learnt from previous studies, to test sample B3 and the possibility models for the same sample which depended its design on flexibility principles for *Corresponding author (Oday Q. Abdulqader). Tel/Fax: 0060178298660 / 009647701622788. 2014. International Transaction Journal of E-mail address: odaychalabi@gmail.com. Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0195.pdf.

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partitions and furniture , sample B3 is a mix situation form sample B2 and B1.

5. Results After completing the practical study that measured efficiency designs and functional requirements and residential and measuring the economic efficiency solutions, has been found that the use of flexibility in planning and details (B-3, Table 4) leads to savings in space and costs dramatically with the efficiency to meet the functional need in ratio 76% by comparative with the other samples. The models B-2 (Table 3) and B-1 (Table 2) are incompetent, but also by 53% for model B-3 (Table 4). Diagram 1, the results showed that the model A1 was the least efficient, while model B3 gives highest efficiency element. This design makes a city more livable and sustainable, we can conclude that the small detail in design like furniture and the integrating of design are the important element in developing the life in our cities.

Diagram 1: Efficiency element four models.

6. Conclusion Using flexibility in interior design offers many functional and formal alternatives which can help to increasing livability in city and reduce the reverse migration, The use of the principle of flexibility and shape properties In furniture design and space structure to achieve efficiency in the exploitation of horizontal space in addition to the space size efficiency and the adoption of flexibility in the floors and recoverable levels of movement and expansion, The use of modern techniques in furniture manufacturing self flexibility provides efficient economic and space as the use of the same furniture for more than one function it helps to sustain the internal space and thus bring us scalability more to live in cities, these cities that use this style of designs related to the concepts of sustainability space which is considered the most important criteria (capacity, fitness, resilience, diversity, and balance)(Newman, 1999).

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The ability to live in cities depends on the efficiency of a smaller space in the city (interior design for living space)and also depends design method based on sustainability criteria and flexibility in order to be economically efficient space and aesthetic, this help a citizen to live inside the city and thus keep cities alive.

7. References Bokeloh, M., Wand, M., Seidel, H.-P., & Koltun, V. (2012). An Algebraic Model for Parameterized Shape Editing. ACM Transactions on Graphics , p. 31(4). Ching, F. D., & Binggeli, C. (2012). Interior Design Illustrated. John Wiley & Sons. Edwards, B. (2001). Architecture design " Green Architecture". Wiley Academy. Emamgholi, A. (2011). Flexible Spaces in Architecture. 5thSASTech 2011, Khavaran Higher-education Institute (pp. 1-8). Mashhad, Iran: Khavaran Higher Education Institute. Feldman, J. (2013). Interior Elements. USA: JANUS et Cie. Ferwati, S., & Mandour, A. (2008, May). Proportions and human scale in damascence courtyard house. Iternational Journal of Architecture reaserchs , pp. 247-263. Grobler, F., & A. Aksamija, H. K. (2008). Ontologies and Shape Grammars: Communication between Knowledge-Based and Generative Systems. USA: pringer Science. Grussenmeyer, P., Alby, E., Meyer, E., & Rampazzo, M. (2006). 3D building model as an interface for a Web Information System. Case study of the Pontonniers high school in Strasbourg. Arch. of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences ISPRS Comm. V Symposium, (pp. 1682-1750). Dresden. Hui, S. C. (2002, Aug 10). Sustainable Architecture. Sustainable Architecture and Building Design (SABD) , pp. 1-19. JISC eSpaces Study. (2006). Introduction to Designing Spaces for Effective Learning. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_documents/Ros%20Smith.ppt http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_documents/JISClearningspaces.pdf Designing Spaces for Effective Learning(A guide to 21st century learning space design) (JISC eSpaces Study) , 36. Birmingham, England: HEFCE Jones, W. (2001). LIVING IN MOTION Design and architecture for flexible dwelling. UK: Vitra Design Museum. Newman, M. (1999). The compact city fallacy (278 ed.). Texas, USA: A & M university. Philips. ( 2010). Liveable Cities Challenges and opportunities for policymakers. UK: The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited. *Corresponding author (Oday Q. Abdulqader). Tel/Fax: 0060178298660 / 009647701622788. 2014. International Transaction Journal of E-mail address: odaychalabi@gmail.com. Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0195.pdf.

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Poldma, T. V. (2013). Meanings of designed spaces. New York, USA: Bloomsbury Publishing Inc. Qasim, N. (2005). alphabetical Interior design (Vol. 1st ). Diyala, Iraq: Diyala university. Silverstein, M. A., & Lorinda, K. (1993, may). Interior design theory and action. Journal of interior design , 18 (11-12), pp. 79-86. Oday Q. Abdulqader is a Lecturer in the Department of Architectural Engineering at Mosul University. He is studying Ph.D in interior design at Universiti Sains Malaysia. He received his B.Eng. and M.Sc from Architectural Engineering Dept. from University of Mosul – Iraq. He is interested in applying shapes in architectural designs. Omar A. Sabah is an Assistant Lecturer of Department of Architectural Engineering at Mosul University. He received his B.Eng. in architectural engineering from University of Mosul – Iraq. He continued his M.Sc study at the University of Mosul, Iraq. He is now in an integration Ph.D program with architecture at Universiti Sains Malaysia. Hussein S. Abdullah is a Lecturer of Department of architectural Engineering at Mosul University. He received his B.Eng. in architectural engineering from University of Mosul – Iraq. He continued his M.Sc study at the University of Baghdad, Iraq. He is now studying Ph.D with emphasis in sustainable architecture at School of Housing, Building and Plannning (HBP), Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Peer Review: This article has been internationally peer-reviewed and accepted for publication according to the guidelines in the journal’s website. Note: Original version of this article was accepted and presented at the International Workshop on Livable Cities (IWLC2013) – a joint conference with International Conference on Sustainable Architecture and Urban Design (ICSAUD2013) organized by the Centre of Research Initiatives and School of Housing, Building & Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia from October 2rd to 5th, 2013.

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2014 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies.

International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies http://TuEngr.com

Slum Upgrading Without Displacement at Danukusuman Sub-District Surakarta City Sunarti

a*

b

, Joesron Alie Syahbana , and Asnawi Manaf

b

a

Doctoral Program of Architecture and Urbanism Engineering Faculty of Engineering Diponegoro University INDONESIA b Department of Urban and Regional Planning Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University INDONESIA ARTICLEINFO

Article history: Received 01 August 2013 Received in revised form 31 March 2014 Accepted 28 April 2014 Available online 02 May 2014 Keywords: Livable; Upgrading form; Slum upgrading process; Indonesia;

A B S T RA C T

The displacement of dwellers has often been included in slum upgrading schemes; creating problems even more complex than the ones they were trying to solve (UNESCAP, 2008). This has lead to thinking of slum upgrading without displacement; an successfully effort carried out in Danukusuman Sub-district, Surakarta City-Indonesia. This study examined and described the form of upgrading using qualitative methods. Data collected through interview, field observation, and document review is analyzed using qualitative descriptive technique. Analysis showed that the upgrading process was carried out through bottom-up planning, involving the local community throughout the process starting from finding the problems, planning the program, construction and maintenance process. The process included legal certification of land ownership; giving them a better legal standing. The upgrading included physical improvements of houses and infrastructures. Without displacing, it was found that people felt more comfortably and safely. By upgrading, it was for them to improve their economy. 2014 INT TRANS J ENG MANAG SCI TECH.

1. Introduction Usually slum upgrading is carried out through top-down approach (Das and Takahashi 2009). Such approach according to UNESCAP (2008) has been used because governments *Corresponding author (Sunarti). Tel/Fax: +62-24-7460054, E-mail addresses: 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, narti08@gmail.com. & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0213.pdf.

213


wanted to improve the conditions of the slums to meet certain standards and norms (Payne, 2005). Top-down approach has a weakness in that it may fail to absorb values and aspirations coming from the slum inhabitants. Upgrading is often carried out to merely serve government interests or to profit the private sectors; the local communities are often viewed as the source of problems (UNESCAP, 2008). One of the main causes of displacement (or eviction) is the strong role of capital interest in the planning of cities (Uitermark and Loopmans, 2013; UNESCAP, 2008). Lands which previously had been planned for settlements may have been developed into commercial uses; not serving the social interest of the communities (UNESCAP, 2008). The displacement often caused new and more complex problems leading to large-scale urban poverty. The new poor would then increase in numbers and had to live in not livable places (Boonyabancha, 2009; UNESCAP, 2008). In top-down planning the local communities could not speak for their interest and express their aspirations to stay in their lands. All this have lead to the thinking of bottom-up approach in slum upgrading; a process based on the aspirations of the local community, rarely does it involve displacement of the inhabitants. The Surakarta City administration has successfully carried out such upgrading process and gained an award from the central and provincial governments on slum management. The upgrading was legalized through Mayor Regulation Number 13 Year 2007 titled â&#x20AC;&#x153;Pedoman Pelaksanaan Pemberian Bantuan Pembangunan/Perbaikan Rumah Tak Layak Huni Bagi Masyarakat Miskin Kota Surakartaâ&#x20AC;? a form of a manual for slum upgrading for the area. The administration did not displace the inhabitants which already have legal ownership of the land and is in compliance to the city plan; this is an effort to respect the rights of the people as stated in the Agrarian Law Number 5 Year 1960. The success has lead to the awarding of the BSP2S program from the ministry of housing (Kemenpera) in 2008 and 2009 (BSP2S: Bantuan Stimulan Pembangunan Perumahan Swadaya - a form of stimulus package for home improvements). The ministry also provided grants for home and infrastructure improvements in 2010 through the BSP2S and PKP program for 200 houses. The location was set in Danukusuman Sub-District by the city government, namely in RW IX and RW X for several reasons: (1) it has the worst condition of houses, (2) many of the lands are legally owned, and (3) the location is in compliance to

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the city plan, and (4) the houses are built in close proximity therefore increasing efficiency of the infrastructures being built or repaired. This study examined and described the form of upgrading which have been carried out in Danukusuman Sub-district in Surakarta City Indonesia.

2. Literature Review 2.1 Aspects in Slum Upgrading Without Displacement Displacement, according to UNESCAP (2008), is the moving, be it temporary or permanent, which is involuntary and against the will of the individuals, families, or communities, from the place that they have inhabited, without provision or access to any form of protection. Displacement is not desired by the displaced, because it causes despair and poverty (Uitermark and Loopmans, 2013). It was often carried out without agreements from the community of the company of legal order from the government. It was also considered to be against the international law because it breaches the rights of the citizens. This has lead to the emergence of slum upgrading without displacement, especially in locations which are in compliance to the city plan. The process while including improvements of the physical, social and economic environment of the area, may be the most inexpensive and humane choice in the provision of low-income housing direly needed by urban areas. Commonly the community focused on the technicalities such as road, drainage, clean water, sanitation, and waste system improvements in the upgrading program; however, other aspects such as the house, land, income, public facilities and access to public services should also be considered (UN Habitat, 2003; Davis, 2006; UNESCAP, 2008; Karanja, 2010). The first aspect is the house, as the physical structure the families dwell in. The second aspect is land in terms of its long term ownership, which in turn will guarantee their existence. The third aspect is income, which includes the ability to access better jobs and income or create small businesses. The fourth aspect is public facilities, which includes improvements of spaces used together by the community such as playgrounds and markets. The sixth aspect is access to public service which included improving access roads to public facilities. The seventh aspect is welfare which is the establishment of a communal welfare system, managed by the people and may help the poorest members of their community (Usavagovitwong and *Corresponding author (Sunarti). Tel/Fax: +62-24-7460054, E-mail addresses: 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, narti08@gmail.com. & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0213.pdf.

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Posriprasert, 2006; UNESCAP, 2008). There are many reasons for the approach; not only that it promotes participation in the following processes, letting people stay where they are keeps them together and consolidated, maintains the social stability and builds a support mechanism (Uitermark and Loopmans, 2013). The first step included planning and implementation of the project, it continues with the communal management of the social and economic activities in the community. This will stimulate the population to invest in the rehabilitation of their homes and the neighborhood. The improvements of the houses and living environment will also improve the quality of life of the population while removing the threat of eviction. Setting legal ownership of the land also means building assets and improves value of the land. Having owned the land and the house, the population may use it as collateral for loans, be rented or sold in times of needs (Davis, 2006; Boonyabancha, 2009). In the process of upgrading, the rearrangement of space for infrastructures, schools, playgrounds, health clinics or places of worships is possible, this builds the communityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s morale and pride. Upgrading also allows the population to use their houses to develop more income through creating small shops, renting rooms or building workshops. Lastly, having a legal address also means an easier access for jobs in the formal sector which would guarantee better payment (Davis, 2006; UNESCAP, 2008).

2.2 Drawbacks of Common Slum Upgrading The imposition of the top-down approach has been the main weakness of the common slum upgrading; it has lead to the failure of replication to increase the scale, scope and affectivity of the strategy (Cities Alliance 1999; World Bank 2001 in Das 2009). The increasing number of slums may have been caused by, among others, lack of standards in the buildings, high price of land, regulatory hassles, and incompetence. In community based programs, regulatory blunders, institutional disconnection, and lack of political will have hindered the potential to increase standards (Nitti and Dahiya 2004 in Das and Takahashi 2009). Imparato and Ruster (2003, in Das and Takahashi 2009) suggested that such program will only be meaningful when covering at least 10% of the urban poor. They also considered political sustainability as an important aspect in raising the standards

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Sunarti, Joesron Alie Syahbana, and Asnawi Manaf


besides strategies involving cost recovery. City-wide upgrading policies must be supported by locally and nationally conducive regulatory framework, strategic cooperation with private sector and individuals, and transparent development of institutional management (Das and Takahashi 2009).

3. Method This study employed case study method which according to Denzin (2005) explores best learning practices through examination of the case being studied. The exploration may include the core problem of the case, the relationship to its scientific environment and context, the embedded theories it may contain, and the correlation of issues in the case, and ultimately what may be learned from the experience to better humanity. Groat and Wang (2002) explained that case study may combine explanatory, descriptive and exploratory methods in a research. Data collection was completed through interviews, field observations and document reviews. Interviews were carried out with key persons such as local officials, public figures and members of the community. Observations were completed to capture the change in the physical form of the settlement based on photos and construction drawings. Planning document regarding the upgrading of the slum was reviewed. Qualitative descriptive analysis was carried out by describing data extracted from document reviews, interviews, and field observations and explorations.

4. Sub-District Danukusuman Danukusuman sub-district is located 1.5 km south of Surakarta city center, with 5.08 Ha area. It is located in a flat area and mostly used as settlements along with other uses such as commercial and governmental. Administratively it is divided into 15 RWs (Rukun Warga community) and 58 RTs (Rukun Tetangga - neighborhood). This study area consisted RW IX and RW X which are mostly inhabited by poor people living in slums. The study area is in Danukusuman Sub-district, Surakarta City Indonesia. One of the advantages of the area is being located in a strategic location on the main Solo-Wonogiri road, with high land value due to commercial uses around the area. RW IX has 3 RTs while RW X has 4 RTs, totaling at 1,423 people in 422 households. The details map of *Corresponding author (Sunarti). Tel/Fax: +62-24-7460054, E-mail addresses: 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, narti08@gmail.com. & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0213.pdf.

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Danukusuman Sub-district is shown in Figure 1.

Legend: Surakarta City Danukusuman Sub-district

Figure 1: Surakarta City and the Study Area (courtesy of Planning Agency of Surakarta) Most of the inhabitants are native locals living by generations, only a small number are immigrants. Most of those immigrants are males taking local females as their wife. Most of the inhabitants have low education level (only finishing elementary school) work as merchants, force labors, and industrial or construction workers. There are 256 houses in the study area; however only 200 houses categorized as notlivable received aid as much as 5 million Rupiahs per house unit from Kemenpera, the aid for infrastructure improvement amounted at 4 million Rupiahs per unit. The total of aid was 1,8 billion Rupiahs, this amount was added with money owned by the people in order to improve their own houses. Table 1 describes about population and households in the study area of Danukusuman Sub-district. Table 2 shows the data on the condition of the house in the study

218

Sunarti, Joesron Alie Syahbana, and Asnawi Manaf


area divided in livable and not livable house. Table 1: Population and Households in the Study Area (Monografi of Danukusuman Sub-district, 2013). Population (people) Number of RW/RT households Male Female Total RW IX : RT 01 104 125 229 53 RT 02 123 107 230 74 RT O3 121 112 233 73 Sub-total 348 344 692 200 RW X : RT 01 83 87 170 45 RT 02 86 91 177 56 RT O3 89 106 195 63 RT O4 94 95 189 58 Sub-total 352 379 731 222 Total 700 723 1,423 422 Table 2: Housing Condition in the Study Area (KSM Danukusuman 2010) House (units) RW/RT Livable Not-livable Total RW IX : RT 01 9 19 28 RT 02 6 31 37 RT O3 10 26 36 Sub-total 25 76 101 RW X : RT 01 20 25 45 RT 02 4 29 33 RT O3 6 35 41 RT O4 1 35 36 Sub-total 31 124 155 Total 56 200 256 Before the rejuvenation process, the lands in Danukusuman Sub-district were owned either by the Keraton or the people. In 1997 the lands were starting to be acquired by private owners, in 2007 all of the lands are stated as privately owned (HM). Legal ownership of the land had been related to increased welfare, reduced poverty, improved housing and infrastructure,

reserved

social

stability

and

better

economy

(Payne,

2005;

Boonyabancha,2009), this drove Surakarta government to rejuvenate the area without displacing the people. *Corresponding author (Sunarti). Tel/Fax: +62-24-7460054, E-mail addresses: 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, narti08@gmail.com. & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0213.pdf.

219


The area often suffered from flooding due to lack or absence of good drainage. It also suffered from disordered arrangement of housing plots, deteriorating infrastructure such as unaccommodating roads, lack of access to clean water, low sanitation, and waste management. These were compounded with health and nutritional problems, along with low income and high crime rate.

5. Discussion 5.1 Stage in the Upgrading Slum upgrading in Danukusuman Sub-district has been carried out since 2010, conforming to Kemenpera’s budget year. It was preceded by data collection by Surakarta City government of people who are poor and living in legally-owned houses categorized as ‘not livable’, as specified by Kemenpera. The survey found 200 houses which met the criteria but 2 houses were not approved as it was considered as ‘livable’. However, the community voted the two houses as ‘not livable’ and therefore eligible for the program. The decision was approved by the government. The first step was socialization to the community. The government contacted several political figures because the area was highly influential in the area (Das and Takahashi 2009). The program ran smoothly as the figure already possessed close relationships with the government as grant provider. Socialization was carried out in 4 stages; 1st about the data collection, 2nd about slum upgrading, 3rd about the construction and 4th about the implementation mechanism. Right after the first socialization and the community agreed on the beneficiaries, a team was established known as KSM (Kelompok Swadaya Masyarakat). It coordinated the upgrading in small groups therefore absorbing all aspiration from the community. The group consisted of 25 people representing every household. There were 8 KSMs representing 200 low-income households in the area. The next step was planning with the assistance from the government; plans were prepared by the government based on the data collected in the year prior to the program. A planning document containing designs for infrastructures and housing prototypes was made. Upon completion of the planning document, the next step is socialization of the program to the communities.

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Sunarti, Joesron Alie Syahbana, and Asnawi Manaf


The next step is the construction, done by the people accompanied by PNPM and contractor as quality controller. Construction processes were carried out according to the plans and prototypes agreed therefore the people already knew how the improvements should be made. The improvements included changing roof panels, wall repairs, floor works, painting, and also windows and doors repairs. Community infrastructure improvements included provision of clean water, along with drainage, sanitation, and waste, and open space improvements.

5.2 Slum Upgrading Without Displacement The upgrading process which took place at Danukusuman Sub-district had been in the form of building quality and neighborhood infrastructure improvements, no eviction whatsoever. People stayed where they used to live, in the very same house, however, the physical condition of the houses were improved. The re-arrangement of housing plots only included tidying up the form of several plots as to conform to the data at BPN (National Land Bureau) and another 8 plots to provide additional space for road improvement which increased accessibility to the area. The form of upgrading without displacement by improving the physical condition of the environment (Davis, 2006; UN Habitat, 2003, Karanja, 2010) was chosen by Surakarta City for being inexpensive and humane in providing housing for low income population. It was also chosen because it gave the community the opportunity to stay in their lands and helped create social stability. Displacing slum inhabitants will only create new problems and worsen poverty without actually solving any problem in the urban area (UNESCAP, 2008; Das and Takahashi 2009). By upgrading without displacement the community may feel more comfortable, safer, and quieter, have healthier environment, and have better accessibility thus improving their economy (Payne, 2005; Boonyabancha, 2009). It may also reduce poverty in the urban area therefore helping governments in improving overall quality of life of the community. Forms of the upgrading which took place at the study area are upgrading without displacement. Table 3 explained how upgrading without displacement served the rights of the people already having legal ownership of the land thus allowing them to employ their full *Corresponding author (Sunarti). Tel/Fax: +62-24-7460054, E-mail addresses: 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, narti08@gmail.com. & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0213.pdf.

221


capacity for improvement. Interview with Mr.Topo, a local figure, indicated improvements in both physical and non-physical aspects of the neighborhood, however; he warned that without proper maintenance the neighborhood may regress into a slum. Item

Objects

Table 3: Forms of upgrading in the Study Area. Problems Improvements

1

House plots

Roadside lots are not properly aligned reducing the road width.

2

House structure

Unhealthy house construction

3

Roads

Deteriorated dirt and gravel roads

4

Clean water

5

Drainage

- Lack of clean water - Water is dirty and foul-smelling. Trapped drainage and service disparity

6

Sanitation

Lack of sanitation

- Well improvements - Communal clean water supply - Construction and repair of primary and secondary canals - Making of biopores - Construction of water infiltration boxes - Communal toilets

7

Open Space

- Absence of empty land for park, parking and street vendors - No public space for socializing

- Plantation in the river banks - Plantation of productive plants - Building of fences - Provision of parking areas for cars and carts

8

Waste

No waste disposal system

9

Economics

- Low income - Lack of capital

10

Health

- Undernourished children - Frequent occurrence of dengue fever, diarrhea and typhus.

- Waste management establishment - Socialization for cleaner living - Training for home industry - Loans to home industry owners - Provision of nutritional foods - Treatment for dengue, typhus and diarrhea

222

Plot rearrangement: - Conforming the plots to IK BPN - Reducing certain plots for infrastructure improvement : - Roofline - Rainwater drainage - Addition of windows and ventilation - Door repairs - Construction of the house - Wall repairs & paintings - Re-pavement of the roads using pavement blocks

Sunarti, Joesron Alie Syahbana, and Asnawi Manaf

Benefits

Main road is now accessible to cars (for example ambulance and fire trucks) - Better house facades - Protection from the sun and the rain - Stronger houses - Better interior conditions

- Better function of the roads - Cleaner roads and less floods - The use of clean well water communally - Less flooding - Cleaner environment

- Better and cleaner toilets for everyone - Better housing environment - Cleaner river environment - Better parking for carts and vehicles - Places for the community to socialize - Less visible waste - Better behavior - Extra income for the population - More job opportunities - Better nutrition - Healthier environment and less disease


Figure 2: Slum Upgrading in the Study Area (courtesy of Planning Agency of Surakarta City)

0 % development

30 % development

100 % development

Figure 3: Improved Houses and Roads.

0 % development

30 % development

100 % development

Figure 4: Renovation of Houses (facade, floor and roof). *Corresponding author (Sunarti). Tel/Fax: +62-24-7460054, E-mail addresses: 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, narti08@gmail.com. & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0213.pdf.

223


6. Conclusion Slum upgrading without displacement is an alternative to appreciate the legal ownership of the lands and whenever the location conforms to the urban development plan. Development without displacement will reduce poverty in the urban areas, provide investment opportunities in the provision of low income housings, improve livability and environmental sustainability, stabilize the communities socially and economically, and build better morale and pride. Political factor played an important role in the upgrading because the community believed a certain political figure in the area. The form of the upgrading included housing improvement, infrastructure improvement, opening access and promotion of healthy living arrangements. The outcome has been the better tie between the community and the place it occupies. The challenge has been how to prevent the environment from returning into slum, and whenever possible to improve its condition even better. The presence of a key figure was needed to ensure sustainability and prevent environmental degradation. The community needs to have initiative in managing the quality of the environment, as opposed to waiting for another government grant or improvement program. There was a need for housing environment management team which may be established comprising the people involved in the early stage of the upgrading.

7. Acknowledgements The author would like to thank leader and staff of Danukusuman Sub-District and Danukusuman Local Figures who have given information about this study, Planning Agency of Surakarta City who have given permission for the research and data collection, and PNPM of Surakarta City who have given data collection.

8. References Boonyabancha, Somsook. (2009). Land for Housing the Poor â&#x20AC;&#x201C; by the Poor: Experiences from the Baan Mankong nationwide slum upgrading programme in Thailand. Environment & Urbanization Vol. 21(2): 309â&#x20AC;&#x201C;329 Davis, Mike. (2006). Planet of Slums. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Das Ashok K. and Lois M. Takahashi. (2009). Evolving Institutional Arrangements, Scaling Up, and Sustainability Emerging Issues in Participatory Slum Upgrading in Ahmedabad, India. Journal of Planning Education and Research Groat, Linda N and Wang, David C. (2002). Architectural Research Methods. Published

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Sunarti, Joesron Alie Syahbana, and Asnawi Manaf


Simultaneously in Canada. Karanja, Irene. 2010. An Enumeration and Mapping of Informal Settlements in Kisumu, Kenya, Implemented by Their Inhabitants. Environment and Urbanization 2010 Vol. 22(1):217-239 Payne, Geoffrey. 2005. Getting Ahead of the Game: A Twin-Track Approach to Improving Existing Slums and Reducing the Need for Future Slums. Environment & Urbanization Vol. 17:135 UNESCAP, UN-HABITAT. (2008). Perumahan bagi kaum miskin di Kota-Kota Asia. Masalah Penggusuran: Upayakan alternatif lain yang lebih berpihak kepada kaum miskin. Panduan ringkas untuk pembuat kebijakan. UN-HABITAT. (2003). The Challenge of Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements 2003. Earthscan Publications Ltd London and Sterling, VA. Usavagovitwong, Nattawut and Prayong Posriprasert. (2006). Urban poor housing development on Bangkok’s waterfront: securing tenure, supporting community processes. Environment & Urbanization Vol 18(2): 523–536 Uitermark, J. and M. Loopmans. (2013). Urban Renewal without Displacement? Belgium’s ‘housing contract experiment’ and the risks of gentrification. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment 28. Sunarti is a student in Doctoral Program of Architecture and Urbanism Engineering Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University-Semarang-Indonesia. She is also a lecturer in Department Program of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University. She received her master degree from Bandung Technology Institute in 2001. Sunarti current interest are in areas of housing and settlement planning. Joesron Alie Syahbana is associate professor in Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University-Semarang-Indonesia. He also as the Promotor (Dissertation Supervisor) of Sunarti. He has research focused on Community Based Management, Qualitative Method And Urban Planning.

Dr. Asnawi Manaf is an associate professor in Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University-Semarang-Indonesia. He is received his doctoral degree from Urban and Community Planning, Kassel University, Germany in 2005. He is focusing on housing and settlement planning, urban management, and community development. He is also as head of Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Diponegoro University.

Peer Review: This article has been internationally peer-reviewed and accepted for publication according to the guidelines in the journal’s website. Note: Original version of this article was accepted and presented at the International Workshop on Livable Cities (IWLC2013) – a joint conference with International Conference on Sustainable Architecture and Urban Design (ICSAUD2013) organized by the Centre of Research Initiatives and School of Housing, Building & Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia from October 2rd to 5th, 2013.

*Corresponding author (Sunarti). Tel/Fax: +62-24-7460054, E-mail addresses: 2014. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, narti08@gmail.com. & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 5 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online available at http://tuengr.com/V05/0213.pdf.

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