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h u n g a r y th e

m ost

amazing

pl aces


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Parliament

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Gerbeaud

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Bridges

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Visegrád

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Buda Castle

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Szentendre

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Tata

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Karcag

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Castle Grassalkovich

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Miskolc

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St. Stephen’s Basilica

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88-91 84

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80

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Gellért Hotel and SPA 94 42

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Andrássy Avenue 64

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Széchenyi Bath

Gundel Restaurant

Váci Street

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Esztergom

Székesfehérvár

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Hortobágy

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Debrecen

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Tokaj

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Aggtelek, Baradla-Cave

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Eger

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Hévíz

Zsindelyes Distillery

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Pécs

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Pannonhalma

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Győr

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42 50

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86

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60 59 51

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Sárospatak

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Tihany

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Sopron

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Keszthely

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Fertőd

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Balaton

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The Fertőhanság

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Lillafüred

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Kalocsa

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Puskás Academy

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Mátra, Hollókő

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Mohács, Busó

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Herend


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• THE PARLIAMENT •

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THE PARLIAMENT

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ver centuries, the descendants of the conquering leader, Árpád, enacted laws without use of a permanent house for the Hungarian parliament. After the 1848 revolution, the dynamically altered nation began to feel the need to change this situation. Thus, in 1882 a competition was announced to design a building that would house the parliament, which was won by Imre Steindl. Three years later on the 12th of October, the works began on Lipótváros’ Tömlő square. This was the biggest investment of the time, and for seventeen years nearly a thousand people worked on it. As there was a wish to undertake the project with Hungarian materials and a Hungarian workforce if possible, entire branches of industry were revived by this initiative. In this building with an internal volume of 473 000 cubic metres, 90 exterior and 152 interior statues stand tall on the walls. The building has 27 doors, and inside 29 staircases enable movement between the levels. The building is 268 m long, 123 m wide and 96 m high, and there are more than 200 offices accommodated. It has become a structural representative of the capital of our homeland.

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Climbingthehugeornamentalstaircasefromthemain entrance, we reach the 16-sided domed hall. Looking aroundhere,thestatuesandescutcheonsofsixteenrulers are on display.The domed hall is the central point of the Parliament, serving as a home for the Holy Crown. The HolyCrownofHungaryisoneoftheoldestcrownsused for coronation in Europe which has survived intact to thepresentday.ThenobletaskofguardingthecoronationregaliaisperformedbytheHungarianArmyCrown Guard. Standing in the center of the great vaulted hall, onecanseethenorthernandthesouthernloungesonthe right and left. The picture depicts the southern lounge, whichusedtobelongtotheLowerHouse.Atpresentthis room is primarily the command post for the press.

Passing through the northern lounge, opposite the chamber/hall of the House (it once was the conference room of the Lower House) in the northern annex, we reach the conference room of the Upper House. This is often used for housing international conferences.

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CHAIN BRIDGE

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nce, István Széchenyi was forced to wait an entire week in December of 1820 until he found one brave boatman who would take him to the other side. After this incident, he initiated the building of “the Bridge” . Building this bridge had historical significance, since it was the first permanent bridge between Pest and Buda. The designer of the bridge was William Tierney Clark, and construction was supervised by Adam Clark. Added in 1852, The stone statues of the lions proudly standing at the bridgeheads were produced by sculptor János Marschalkó,. All the Danube bridges were destroyed in the Second World War, one of the last being the Chain Bridge. Reconstruction work was completed on 20 November 1949 and the new Chain Bridge was put into service on the 100th anniversary of the construction of the original bridge. After being taken over by local traffic in 1849, it became a national symbol of development. Both Hungarians and visitors enjoyed the use of this bridge.

In winter one used to be able to walk on the frozen surface of the Danube, but during ice drifts, commuting in this way between the two banks of the river became impossible.

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FREEDOM BRIDGE

During the Second World War-similar to other bridges of Budapest- it was demolished, but during the city’s rebuilding, it was the first one to be resurrected . It became a national emblem, the symbol of freedom. A distinctive decoration on the bridge is the historic Hungarian coat of arms on the portals and the turul birds landing on the top of the portals – these being mythological bird sfrom Hungarian origin legends. As the structure deteriorated in several places over the years, renovation could no longer be deferred . The renovated bridge of splendid appearance was once again opened to traffic in the May of 2009.

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riginally named Franz Jozef, the bridge was given to the public as a part of the Millenneum celebrationsBuilt between 1894 and 1896, the monarch himself hammered in the last nail.

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BUDA CASTLE

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he history of Buda Castle dates back to the Medieval period. Construction began in the mid 1300s, the golden age in the time of King Matthias Corvinus. The early central palace was severely damaged in the battles against the Turks, but later, thanks to the initiative of Maria Theresa, it was renovated in a majestic baroque style. Unfortunately, the palace fell victim to the Second World War, and at present it does not retain any parts which would reflect the luxury of the bygone kings.

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Reconstruction work on the palace started in 1959 on a rather tight budget. A simpler design was implemented and instead of reconstructing the ornate halls, modern and puritan architectural options were chosen. Today, it has an important role in the country’s culture since its chambers are used by the Hungarian National Gallery, the National SzÊchenyi Library, the Ludwig Museum of Contemporary Art and the Historical Museum of Budapest. It is home to numerous traditional events, including the Crafts Festival and the Buda Castle Wine Festival. The Buda Castle Palace as part of the Buda Castle Quarter has been designated as a world heritage site since 1987. Hundreds of thousands of tourists from all parts of the world visit every year. Numerous sights and points of interest are on offer for them. These include the Buda Castle Labyrinth, the old narrow streets and cosy restaurants of the Castle Quarter. Thanks to the location of the Palace, one can enjoy a wonderful panoramic view over the city of Budapest.

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• BUDA CASTLE •

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MATTHIAS CHURCH

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atthias Church, with the official name of Buda Castle Church of Our Lady, has occupied a prominent place in Hungarian history from the beginning. According to ecclesiastical tradition it was founded in 1015 by St Stephen. According to written records it was known in the 17th century as St Stephen’s church. The church had been standing for centuries when our King Matthias had a tower built onto it. During this period the church attained the peak of its mediaeval prosperity. King Matthias and the great historic figures following him had their weddings here, and Queen Elizabeth too and Charles I, the last crowned Hungarian king, also took their oaths in this holy place. The building suffered severe damage in World War II. Reconstruction work was begun in 1950 and the finishing touches were completed in 1984. For the first time in the history of the church, the state gave it into the possession of the Church in 1999, and even today this place of holy pilgrimage occupies a position worthy of its rank on Holy Trinity Square in the vicinity of Buda Castle Palace, providing a home for sung High Mass and welcoming visitors with open doors.

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FISHERMAN’S BASTION

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oday’s Fisherman’s Bastion was constructed on the site of an old fortification on the castle wall in NeoRomanesque style to designs by Frigyes Schulek. Besides the Parliament and the Opera House, it is one of the most treasured structures of Hungarian eclectic style. It was designed and constructed in connection with the restoration of Matthias Church and elaboration of the plan for recon-

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struction of the surrounding area. In accordance with the original plan it should have been completed for the millennium celebrations of the Magyar empire (1896), but timing of the work was delayed. Construction took place in several stages, and although one section was opened in 1902, the work was only completed in 1905. In contrast to its name, it has really never served defence purposes. The origin of the name is that at one time, part of the Buda Castle section was guarded by the fishermen’s guild, and the bastion bears the name of Fisherman’s Bastion in memory of this. The seven towers symbolise the seven chieftains who conquered the land. Since 1987 it has been a world heritage site as part of Buda castle quarter. Thousands of tourists are drawn here by the unequalled panorama from the observation terrace, so it became one of the most significant tourist attractions in Budapest soon after its construction, as it still is today.

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SAINT STEPHEN’S BASILICA

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s the church’s proud castle, this divine monument is the adornment of the Szent István tér (square). Although a collection had been launched as early as 1810, construction work on St Stephen’s Basilica began in 1851 to designs by József Hild, who worked on the completion of the church until his death in March 1867. Following this, one of the most acclaimed architects of the age, Miklós Ybl, was given the commission to construct the building. The year 1868 is memorable in the history of the construction of the church, when due to poor building methods and material quality issues, the walls and drum of the dome collapsed. Construction continued in 1871 after a lengthy break and a Neo-Renaissance building was erected on reinforced foundations. Construction was so important , even the monarch Franz Jozef came to see how the keystone would be set down. . Bombings during World War II caused significant damage to the walls, towers and roof structure of the building, so these have had to be reconstructed. Complete renovation of the Basilica began in 1983 and finished in 2003. The sanctuary is a frequently visited place by believers, but it is also a popular tourist sight of Budapest. The building itself is astonishing while the view of the city seen from the cupola is simply unforgettable. The building is 96 metres high, which is on record today as the third tallest building in the country. It is possible to access the circular viewing gallery by lift, or by climbing 364 steps for those of an enterprising spirit. The ceremonial opening of the treasury expanded by three additional rooms, took place on 18/03/2012 and houses the fullest legacy of Prince Primate Cardinal József Mindszenty.

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GELLÉRT HOTEL AND SPA

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he history of the Gellért Hotel and Baths goes back to ancient times. In the 13th century, Andrew II established medicinal baths and a hospital here. During the Turkish period a bathhouse named Acsik ilidzse stood here. Following the reoccupation of Buda it came into the possession of Leopold I’s family physician, then in 1718 the ownership passed to the city of

Buda. At that time it was known by the name of Sárosfürdő. In 1894 it was demolished when the Franz Joseph Bridge was built. When the concept of Budapest as a city of bathhouses was in formation in the early 20th century, construction of the baths and the hotel once more came to the fore. The building was completed in 1918 in breathtaking art nouveau style and entered public consciousness as the first luxury hotel and bath in the capital. It ranked among the most modern medicinal baths of the age . In line with requirements of the time, a a hospital was attached . Cuisine was provided by the world famous Gundel Restaurant until 1945. It now bears the name of Danubius Hotel Gellért, which is one of the best known hotels in Budapest. Preserving its traditions, guests are still welcomed by the polite and amiable staff, as they come to enjoy the pleasures of relaxation in magnificent surroundings.

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AVENUE ANDRรSSY

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udapest city centre was linked with the outlying areas and the City Park by the narrow tracked Kirรกly Street until the 19th century. Increased traffic demanded that part of the traffic in the overcrowded Kirรกly Street be diverted. In order to remedy the problem, then prime minister Count Gyula Andrรกssy Sr., proposed the construction of a new avenue and building work was commenced in 1871.

In order to construct road, numerous residential buildings had to be demolished (the homes of close to ten thousand people were knocked down). New buildings were therefore also featured in the construction plans . Meanwhile the plan for building another road came to the fore, namely the Grand Boulevard project. The two new broad roads met at the Octogon, still a gaping pit at the time.

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Although the road was soon completed, construction slowed down due to the economic crisis of 1873 and a large part of the investment by the building contractors was taken over by the upper middle class and the upper class. As the construction of an above ground railway line had been opposed from the beginning, the line for the Millennium Underground Railway was laid beneath the 2310 metre long Andrássy Avenue.

The continent’s first underground route was opened to the general public on 2 May 1896. In 2002 Andrássy Avenue became a world heritage site, together with Heroes’ Square and the Underground Railway. To this day it is the broadest and most imposing thoroughfare in the capital. A delight to the eyes, rows of trees run all along both sides of the road. The Hungarian State Opera, numerous famous restaurants, the Artist Coffee House, the Paris Department Store, shops offering world renowned luxury brands, salons and numerous galleries are all found here. It is therefore understandable why thousands of tourists choose Andrássy Avenue as a destination for their visit. 25


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DOHÁNY STREET SYNAGOUGE

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he biggest synagogue in Europe built between 1855-1859 according to the plans of Figyes Feszl and Ludwid Förster, is still a major factor in today’s vibrant Budapest lifesytle. Its neologist style is a mixture of Moorish, Byzantine and Turkish elements. The services are in Hebrew in the spacious interior is capable of accommodating 6000 people. At its opening ceremony, the original organ-pipe, with its 5000 pipes, came to life by the hands of Ferenc Liszt. The synagogue was renovated in 1996 and on this occasion, the organ was also replaced by an almost completely new organ. The Heroes’ Synagogue may also be found here, raising a worthy memorial to the Jewish soldiers who fell in World War I. The lines of the Star of David painted on the wall of the modern building seating 120 are made up of the letters of quotations from the Scriptures. The doors of the Synagogue are open to tourists with multilingual guided tours available, either for individual visitors or groups.

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HEROES’ SQUARE

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ll the lamp posts are facing a peculiar monument on the Hősök tere (Heroes’ square). It is the millennial monument which commemorates the thousandth anniversary of the original settlement of the Hungarians. The monument depicts the heroes who made Hungarian history with their deeds. A Gloriette designed by Miklós Ybl stood here in 1894, which also incorporated a drinking fountain. The Gloriette was short lived, as in the year following its placement the decision was made to build a Pantheon on its site for the Millennium celebration. Sculptor György Zala and architect Albert Schickendanz were commissioned with implementing the task. Statues of 14 Hungarian rulers stood in the original monument. The square was later named Heroes’ Square in 1932. During the communist dictatorship following World War II, the statues were refashioned in accordance with the political views of the age, so the statues of the Habsburg monarchs were replaced. Although the country has been liberated from the dictatorship, the statues of the Habsburgs have still not been returned to their original positions.

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SZÉCHENYI BATH

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his magnificent building is Europe’s largest thermal bath complex and was Pest’s first bath. Thanks to mining engineer Vilmos Zsigmondy’s discovery, the bath was in partial operation in 1881. Later, it was rebuilt according to the plans of Győző

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Czigler to meet the age’s requirements and it became well-known as the SzÊchenyi Bath. The popularity of the baths grew rapidly and in order to meet increased demands, a plan for developing the baths came to the fore. As a result of this, extension of the public baths wings was competed in 1927 and the beach swimming pool was constructed. This was the first swimming pool in Pest. Although it was heavily damaged in World War II, partial operation continued unchanged. Heating was provided for the changing rooms in 1963, and since then the open air pools have been open throughout winter. The complex was renovated once more recently, the renovation and modernisation developments on the building being completed in 2006. Since then it has always been a popular place.

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GUNDEL RESTAURANT

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he word Gundel is synonymous with tradition and quality in the area of hospitality. The founder of the restaurant, Kรกroly Gundel felt it was his goal to gather the values and specialities of Hungarian gastronomy and to amalgamate these with modern gastronomic techniques used in other parts of the world. With his persistent, popularising work he succeeded in putting Hungarian cuisine on the world gastronomy map. Looking back on a past of more than 100 years, the Restaurant has survived the storms of history, the world wars and the changes of regime, and at present is

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proudly continuing the work of the founder. It has won numerous national and foreign accolades. The Gundel Restaurant is popular with both Hungarians and foreigners, the secret of which is the milieu surrounding the guests, the inimitable hospitality, the tradition which radiates from the building and environment, and the food compositions prepared from outstanding quality ingredients. The Gundel Artistic Prize was created at the turn of the millennium, which is assigned each year in 14 categories for the purpose of acknowledging the best in various branches of the arts and in order to support their work. Since 2010 the chairman has been Miklรณs Szinetรกr, Kossuth prize winner, twice Mari Jรกszai prize winner and director of theatre, opera, TV and film.

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GREAT / CENTRAL MARKET HALL

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iming at ceasing the noisy and dirty outdoor markets, the City Council established the Central Market Hall. The stately neogothic building was handed over to the traders in 1897, and almost at the same time, four other

market halls were built on the Pest side. The building is one of the finest creations of historicism in Hungary, built to the designs of architect Samu Pecz together with the neighbouring University of Economic Sciences. The building has a ground space of 10 000 square metres, the roof is adorned with building ceramics from the famous Zsolnay works, the stone entrance gates represent the Neo-Gothic style. The building was declared a monument in 1977, which was magnificently renovated at the end of the 20th century. In 1999 it was awarded the most prominent accolade of the Chamber of Hungarian Architects. This wonderful building is still in operation as a market hall today, welcoming thousands of local and foreign shoppers and visitors with a colourful selection.

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VÁCI STREET

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áci Street is a busy pedestrian precinct located in district 5, linking Vörösmarty Square with Customs House Boulevard. It is one of Budapest’s most famous shopping streets, which thousands of tourists love to

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visit. Numerous famous restaurants are to be found here, including the world renowned Gerbeaud. Shoppers are welcomed by a broad selection of wares in elegant stores and folk art shops. The doors of the Pest Theatre open onto this street, and the István Csók Gallery is also located here. While walking, it is worth observing the buildings, as many wonderful architectural masterpieces can be spotted here, some of which were built in Classisist, Ecletic, Baroque and Art Nouveau styles. On this street stand the former church and convent of the Sisters of Loreto, as well as the Town Hall, the site of the Metropolitan Assembly. Interesting decorative elements can be observed, delighting the eyes. Statues, Zsolnay porcelain ornamentation and wrought iron gates make this street, beloved by so many, intriging and enthralling.


GERBEAUD

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he legendary Gerbeaud (Cafe) is in the heart of Budapest in the Vörösmarty Square. It takes pride in being mentioned among Europe’s oldest, greatest and most famous confectionaries/sweet-shops. It was opened in 1858 and later, thanks to co-owner Emil Gerbeaud’s work, it became world famous. The new owner had an outstanding business sense. He mechanised his plant and increased the staff to 150, a significant proportion of whom had come from abroad to specifically be trained at the Gerbeaud. The varied products were sold in artistically fashioned boxes of his own design. Hungarian confectionery began a new direction, acquiring numerous accolades for Hungarian industry. A process began in the life of the confectionary in 2009, in terms of a new image and a new product range, which besides preserving excellent quality, is produced using the latest techniques. Gerbeaud is a place for those who are fond of old-fashioned and tarnished confectioners.

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VISEGRÁD

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his picturesque town which celebrated its millennium last year was the capital of Hungary under King Charles Robert. The construction of the Upper Castle was initiated by the wife of King Béla IV, Queen Mary in the 1250’s, and later it was enlarged by King Sigismund and King Matthias. The Tower named Solomon is situated on the hillside beneath the castle. A fortified military camp once stood here, where King

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Solomon was held between 1081-1083 at the command of King Saint Ladislaus. Visegråd and the Upper Castle are now tourist attractions. The town attracts thousands of tourists from in- and outside of Hungary annually because there are great opportunities for excursions, visiting historic monuments, reliving the past, and taking pleasure in the beautiful sight of the Danube Bend. Visegråd has also hosted the popular summer palace games for several decades ; a unique spectacle in the country. The games are staged in the in the dress of the times of King Matthias’. In the programme spectacular jousts are performed and the visitor can even try archery.

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SZENTENDRE

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t the junction of the mountains and the plain land, on the bank of the Danube, lies the city of museums and art, the cultural paradise of tourists, Szentendre with its more than two thousand years of history. Its museums, galleries, and cozy cafes can be approached via streets of cobblestone, and through narrow alleyways. Szentendre houses the Open Air Museum of Ethnography, which presents folk architecture, and the life of Hungary’s most characteristic regions.

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ESZTERGOM

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rand Prince GĂŠza chose Esztergom as his kingdom in 972, making it the first capital of our country. King Saint Stephen was crowned here on 1 January 1001; he founded the archdiocese of Esztergom as the centre of the Hungarian church. The Basilica of Esztergom, the largest church in Hungary, was built on the castle hill. This masterpiece was consecrated in 1869, and for that occasion Franz Liszt composed his Esztergom Mass.

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SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR

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zékesfehérvár was a settlement of Chief Árpád’s tribe in the time of the Settlement of the Magyars in the Carpathian Basin. It was later the coronation, wedding and burial centre for kings for centuries. In 1222, it was the place of the announcement of the Golden Bull (Aranybulla). Numerous beautiful and interesting sights await the visitor. A stroll through the streets of the city centre are a like travel back in time, evoke atmosphere of the past.

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TATA

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ata was given its name nearly a thousand years ago. In the time of the Grand Prince Géza, the future ruler, Vajk used to call his monk teacher Tata. The teacher was given this land in return for proividing educational services and he later founded a Benedictine monastery here, named after him. It was always a popular place as the nearby forests were unsparing in game and the waters abound with fish. In 1397 a fortress was built on the bank of the Old Lake, which, however, never served protective purposes. It was in fact built as a hunting castle, as a place of entertainment for kings. When József Esterházy later took over the leading of the fortress, he made several changes. He had the moors drained and had mills built on the streams. Miklós Esterházy had a castle built on the bank of the lake by Jakab Fellner, near the fortress. Ferenc I emperor and king, and his wife found refuge here for several weeks f leeing from the Napoleon wars, and it was here that the ruler signed the Vienna Peace Treaty in 1809 which ended the war. Tata is rich also in natural resources. The visitor today can take pleasure not only in the extant treasures of past times, but also in the current beauty of nature.

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CASTLE GRASSALKOVICH

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ntal Grassalkovich, born in Nyitra, established an influential Family Empire. His life’s most difficult period was probably 11 of September 1741 when Maria Theresa got into trouble due to the war of Austrian Succession (1741-1748). Emperor CHARLES VI. (in German : Karl VI.) had no male heir. In order to ensure his daughter MARIA THERESIA inherited all the Habsburg possessions, the PRAGMATIC SANCTION was established. Austrian diplomacy, by making a number of concessions, achieved the recognition of this document by most of the powers, including France. The French court, however, was determined to use the opportunity of

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Charles VI.’ death in 1740 to weaken the Habsburg monarchy. While France herself did not take any action against Austria, she supported those who declared their candidacy for the Imperial crown (Charles of Bavaria; Charles Emmanual III. of Savoy, Augustus III. of Saxony) and those who were to use the opportunity to conquer and annex a part of the Habsburg territories. Since 1737, Austria, in alliance with Russia, was involved in another war with the Ottoman Empire. In 1739, peace was achieved, at the expense of the cession of Serbia and Little Wallachia to the Ottoman Empire, to free Habsburg forces in the event of Emperor Charles’ death. During the Diet in Pozsony, Grassalkovich applied for help to the Hungarian noble order against the Germans. The Queen asked Grassalkovich to assist due to his powerful connections and they plotted the scene well before the play. He was awarded swiftly; the Queen gave him the rank of count. They undertook construction work as early as in 1735 and had already finished the five inner wings with the apartments, chapel, stables, and the arena by the middle of the century.

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HORTOBĂ GY

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he largest park in Hungary was designated a national park in 1973. It features the largest grassland in Central Europe, and is part of the World Heritage. HortobĂĄgy is the perfect plain developed from the planation of the River Tisza, which preserves its character even today. The ancient Hungarian Grey Cattle, the managalica swine, and the Hungarian herd-dogs: the puli and pumi are

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held here with the purpose of gene preservation. The symbol of the National Park is the famous Nine-holed Bridge, which was the longest public road bridge in 1833 when it was finished. The herds of the Debrecen cattle merchants traveled to Vienna using this bridge in the times of the Tisza f loods. Its unique f lora and fauna, the endless horizon are a genuine spectacle and great experience for those who like harmony and nature itself.

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KARCAG, WORLD FAMOUS LAMB STEW Nagykunsรกg is located in the middle of the Great Plains. Its capital is Karcag, which is the old name for the plains fox. It is an independent, natural, and cultural ethnic group with more than 800 years of tradition. Among the outstanding aspects of its folk culture are livestock farming, gastronomy, and pottery. Shepherds have always had access to the best foods due to their work, and so over the course of decades

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and centuries a gastronomy has developed for these. So there is a very typical mutton stew that is common, cooked the same as in Kazakhstan, which shows that it has a tradition going back several thousand years. The Karcag lamb stew rightfully has entered the collection of Hungarian folk history. The modern and elegant Nimrรณd Bio hotel and Bio restaurant is located in the heart of the city, where there is always food of exceptional quality and quiet, spacious rooms await visitors.

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MISKOLC

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iskolc, the third largest city of Hungary, was granted town status in 1365. Erzsébet Bath and the Cave Bath in Miskolctapolca are popular resorts. The foundations of the castle in Diósgyőr were already standing in the 13th century. The castle houses the Castle Games twice a year where jousts and other performances are held evoking reminders of the Middle Ages.

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DEBRECEN

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ebrecen, also called the civic city (cívis våros), is the largest and most significant city of the TransTisza region. At the same time it is the cultural, intellectual, economic, tourist and transport centre of Eastern Hungary. In 1361, Debrecen was granted the status of market town, and in 1683, it was elevated to free royal town status. Its name was known all over the continent thanks to its famous markets and protestant school which was considered excellent even to European standards. Debrecen was deemed the capital of Hungary twice in history, from 1848-1849 and in 1944. The Great Calvinist Church (Nagytemplom) is the most characteristic building of Debrecen, and with its ground-space of 1,500 square metres, it is the largest Calvinist church in Hungary. A church has stood in the place where it stands currently since the Middle Ages, and three of them were subsequently damaged by fire. Building of the present church was completed in 1824; its height is some 61 metres. Debrecen is one of the largest university centres of the country, and boasts one of the longest standing universities in Hungary. The city of Debrecen presented the university with a large territory in the Big Forest (Nagyerdő). Charles IV inaugurated the central building of the newly founded Faculty of Medicine in 1918. The main building of the university can be seen in our picture.

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TOKAJ

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ccording to the written sources, Tokaj was a vine-growing region in 1067. In 1823 Ferenc Kölcsey includes the wine region of Tokaj in his poem – …Tokaj szőlővesszein Nektárt csepegtettél… (…You were trickling Nectar on the vines of Tokaj…) – , the poem which later became the national anthem of Hungary.

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This charming historic city which has been attracting tourists for decades is now part of the World Heritage. Boldogkő Castle was buiild as a fortress after the Mongol invasion, with the aim of protecting the Kassai road and Hernåd valley. Today it is a tourist attraction, where a military history exhibition including soldiers made out of lead await tourists. In summer it is home to castle games, where visitors are transported back in time with horsemen, musical parade, military exercises and an archery competition.

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SÁROSPATAK

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árospatak was already inhabited in Palaeolithic times; it was given town status in 1201 by King Emeric of Hungary. Saint Elizabeth of Hungary (Árpádházi Szent Erzsébet) was born here – she was the daughter of King Andrew II of Hungary. King Sigismund gave Sárospatak the status of free royal town, and in 1460 it received the right for markets by King Matthias. Its Calvinist School is famous

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nationwide. Several famous persons studied here, among others Mihály Csokonai Vitéz and Lajos Kossuth. Péter Perányi began building the castle in 1534, and it was possessed by several famous noble families in the centuries to come. Among the owners were István Dobó and Ferenc Rákóczi II, whose name hallmarks the castle today The Rákóczi Museum of the National Museum functions among its walls at present. Sárospatak is a starting point for numerous tourist routes and the River Bodrog offers sporting opportunities as well.

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AGGTELEK’S BARADLA CAVE

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UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Baradla Cave is found in the Aggteleki National Park, and is one of Hungary’s best-known and most beautiful natural phenomena. The 25 kilometer long cave, a 7 km section of which extends into Slovakia, has many interesting and exciting features. Based on artifacts that have been discovered, it was already inhabited 7,000 years ago, and later the caves served as a burial site. The water that seeped through cracks in the limestone pooled up and over thousands of years etched out corridors and halls as it flowed. The walls have breathtaking gleaming stalactite and stalagmite formations, which have gorgeous red, yellow, and white colors. he tallest chambers is called the Giants Hal, and is 200 m long and 60 m high. The unique acoustics of the “Concert Hall” seen on the photo is used to hold concerts and performances there. In the caves tour guides guide visitors through long and short trips, which offer many interesting, exciting, and unforgettable experiences for both children and adults. 56


LILLAFÜRED

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illafüred was founded in 1892 in the valley of the Stream Szinva, which belongs to the city of Miskolc. Its pearl is the Palace Hotel on the bank of the Hámori Lake. This highland resort offers the opportunity for excursions such as cave hikes, boating on the lake where visitors can enjoy fresh trout.

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MÁTRA, HOLLÓKŐ

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ollókő is the only village in Hungary which is a World Heritage site. This tradition- preserving village with a total of 380 residents is not in operation as a museum or a skanzen, but it is a living village, where functional handicraft workshops are to be found in the depths of the whitewashed houses with verandas. The families in the friendly, welcoming guesthouses invite visitors to their tables, where they can find out what real Palóc soup and rösti taste like. The village is surrounded by the picturesque Hollókő Landscape Protection Area, which offers numerous opportunities for relaxation and excursions.

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EGER

T

his thousand-year-old small town with a glorious past is famous for its monuments, good wine and thermal waters. Although almost everything was destroyed in the time of the Tartars, the town later played an important role in the time of the struggle against the Turks when Istvรกn Dobรณ and his handful of soldiers heroically defended the castle for 38 days in 1552,

against an army forty times larger. Eger was part of the Ottoman Empire for 92 years, until 1687. The most spectacular monument of Eger, the minaret, is still standing. The town centre of Eger is often called the Baroque pearl of Europe. The third largest church of Hungary can be seen here, among others. Besides the numerous monuments, many interesting programmes and experiences await the visitor. 59


ZSINDELYES DISTILLERY

I

n 1984 Jรณzsef Papp founded the family business, with deals with traditional fruit brandy (pรกlinka) production and bottling using traditional methods. The fast-growing company is getting a larger and larger share of both the domestic and foreign markets. Its popularity is mainly due to its reliable quality. Its spirits have won high rankings and recognition in numerous national and international competitions.

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EGER

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TIHANY

T

ihany is the only peninsula on Lake Balaton and it is unique in its historical and natural richness. King Andrew I (Andrรกs) in the 11th century had the burial place for his family and a monastery built here. He brought Benedictine monks into the monastery. The best-known sight and symbol of Tihany today is the abbey church, which has been standing since 1752.

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KESZTHELY

K

eszthely is one of the most populous and frequented towns of Lake Balaton, situated in the north-western corner of the lake. It is a cultural centre rich in traditions as well as a university town. Christopher (Kristóf) Festetics set to build his pompous castle here in the mid 1700’s. Today it can be visited as a castle museum and it houses the oldest and one of the most beautiful libraries in the country.

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BALATON

L

ake Balaton is the largest lake in Central Europe and it is often referred to as the ’Hungarian sea’. Tourists from within Hungary and abroad enjoy visiting the lake thanks to the numerous recreation activities offered, including bathing and swimming. Kayak, windsurfing, water-skiing, fishing and sailing enthusiasts also share the water. For those who are more adventurous, there is the adventure park of Lake Balaton. The towns and villages surrounding the lake also offer many

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interesting sights and activities for visitors. In some towns there are spa baths and thermal springs to the great pleasure of those hoping to find cure. In the hills of the northern side of the lake, in the Balaton Uplands one will find the home of renowned wine growers, who offer, famous and delicious wines. After sunset when the beaches clear, the reflection of night lights billow on the surface of the water. This is the time when restaurants, cafes, bars, and nightclubs become alive.

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KALOCSA

T

he town of Kalocsa is as old as the Hungarian state and was one of the archbishoprics founded by King Saint Stephen in 1009. Kalocsa is the second archbishopric in the country. The Cathedral beside the compelling building of the Archbishop’s Palace gained its present form in 1754. Today the town is the centre of national paprika growing and production; its history can be explored in the Hungarian Red Pepper Museum. The famous Kolcsa embroidery, which has become a part of Hungarian culture, has patterns and motifs that ref lect the painted walls of houses. The f lower ornamentations are very well-known, and show the f lowers of the fields and gardens: violets, star f lower, tulips, bluebells, roses, and the famous red peppers of Kalocsa.

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MAHÁCS, THE BUSÓJÁRÁS CELEBRATION

T

he “busójárás” (Hungarian for Busó-walking) is a fun carnival which is the folk tradition of the Sokác of Mohács. The traditional Buso dress is the same as it is today: made of a fur coat with a painted mask carved out of wood. They are accompanied by the Jankels, whose role is to keep the people of the street away from them, which they accomplish by sprinkling ash, flour, and sawdust at the passers-by who jeer at them – primarily children. The women with veiled faces and the witches are an inevitable part of the parade. Every year thousands of visitors view the festivities, the festival, the crossing of the Danube, and the huge bonfire in the main square, which symbolizes winter, and in which a coffin is burned, and the dance that is danced in a circle around it. The special winter carnival did not escape the attention of many foreigners, and every year the festivities are visited by people from abroad, while street vendors help make the festival even more lively. As a deserved recognition, the busójárás was inducted in 2009 into the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.

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HÉVÍZ

T

he history of Hévíz spa and the therapeutic effects of the lake were already known to the Romans, but the earliest written reference dates from 1328. The development and revival of bathing in Hévíz is linked with the name of Count György Festetics, who purposefully built up the bathing resort. Its popularly has grown so much that today several hundred thousands of tourists visit the place every year, which provides opportunity for comfortable relaxation not only for those looking for healing, but for anyone at all. Besides the baths, visits to promenades, parks, wine bars, churches and statue parks can make a trip here more colourful.

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PÉCS

T

he city of Pécs, at the foot of the mountain Mecsek, was founded by the Romans in the 2nd century AD. After the Settlement of the Magyars in the Carpathian Basin in 1009, King Saint Stephen chose the settlement as one of ten bishoprics he founded. In the place of today’s cathedral, there was a chapel stand-

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ing in the 4th century, which was rebuilt several times, gaining its present form as a result. The 4th century building of the Early Christian Mausoleum is an unparalleled sight of the city. The Early Christian necropolis is part of the World Heritage. From the 18th century the city saw great development, and to acknowledge this, Queen Maria Theresa declared it a free royal town in 1780. In the 1850’s and 1860’s factories of nationwide fame were established in the city, which still function today. Pécs with its unique past is a cultural centre today. Numerous beautiful and interesting sights await the visitor. Wonderful buildings, houses with Zsolnay-roofs and foliage ornaments, interesting museums all welcome those wishing to see this pearl with their own eyes.

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PÉCS, EARLY CHRISTIAN CEMETERIES

T

he predecessor of the city of Pécs in Roman times was the city of Sopianae. This city’s more affluent residents left behind a number of tomb monuments. A particularity of the late Roman and early Christian cemeteries and mausoleums is that these tombs are built out of stone and their interiors are decorated with murals depicting biblical scenes. This unique burial ground was inducted into the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2000.

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PANNONHALMA ABBEY

T

he history of the Pannonhalma Abbey goes back more than a thousand years. The Benectine monks are to thank for introducing Christian beliefs and current European culture to the Hungarians who had settled in the eastern parts of Europe. The Benedictine monasteries have always held important cultural and public functions, and behind their walls operated the first school in Hungary. Even today it plays a very important role, since besides its student dormitory and high school, the abbey operates both a college and a nursing home for the elderly. 80


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PANNONHALMI ABBEY

The main abbey is considered a unique monument by the more than one hundred thousand visitors that seek it out every year. The basilica with its classical towers is a popular place for young couples to have weddings. To the left of the basilica is the library, which besides books is also decorated with stunning frescoes and sculptures. Devotees of St. Benedict obey the Benectine rule of supporting themselves not from donations, but by their own labor. The Pannonhalma Abbey is successful both abroad and at home, and markets premium products. The herbal tea recipes are three hundred years old, their soaps are made from lavender they grow themselves.

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GYŐR

A

significant castle had stood here by the time the settler Magyars arrived. In 1009, King Saint Stephen chose Győr as one of the ten bishoprics he founded , and one part of the quartered body of the pagan Koppány was put out here. Today it is known for its waters, museums, beautifully renovated Baroque buildings and palaces that can be accessed via the narrow surrounding streets.

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SOPRON

T

he written mention of this town comes from 859. Sopron was a popular residence of noble families, the memory of which is preserved in the Esterházy Palace, the Széchenyi Palace, and others as well. The town successfully resisted the Tatars, Turks, the Kuruc movements and the battles of the 1848 revolution and war of independence. Thus there are many medieval churches and houses standing in the town today. The symbol of the town is the Fire-tower (Tűztorony) built in 1676.

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FERTŐD

A

s our king’s and our nation’s honor whished, that Esterhaza must to be a miracle itself. The demand for magnificence originated in Paris and London can be reproduced in Hungary as well. And it will bless our country’s honor. Quote from György Besenyei – Esterházy jollifications. The rank of the family had been based by Miklós Esterhazy (15821645) who stepped higher and higher on the carrier of the state Honourables (government people who are honored in general). He would thanked it to his outstanding abilities and his unshakable loyalty to the Habsburg court. By the crowning of II Ferdinand he carried the national f lag. In 1622 he’s a state judge, in 1625 he was elected to be a palatine (justice

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minister in old times in Hungary) by Sopron’s (name of a city) parliament and deserving of his rank he had been presented with Kismarton (presently city in Austria). His son Pal (1635-1713) following the family traditions had occupied high governmental jobs.

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FERTŐ-HANSÁG NATIONAL PARK

T

he Fertő region is unique in Europe thanks to the diversity of its flora and fauna. In the western part of the area there is a high salt-content steppe lake, which stretches into Austria, where hills and mountains rise around the lake. On the Hungarian side of Lake Fertő there is a network of reeds, the nesting place for the great egret, the great crested grebe and herons. A 240 km long system of canals has been cut into the reeds to provide access to the

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inner lakes as well. Shorter or longer trails let visitors observe the animal life on the water and dry land. They can also see the region’s birds of prey: the white-tailed eagle, peregrine falcon, harrier, and the Hungarian Grey cattle and racka sheep grazing on the meadow grass surrounding the lake. On the areas covered with water there live anatidae and black-headed gulls, which can be observed from a high viewpoint.

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PUSKÁS ACADEMY

F

erenc Puskás is one of the best-known Hungarians, and left behind a life work which is recognized and honored throughout the world. In 1943 – at the age of 16 – he officially began his football career with the Kispest NB team 1. In 1952 the Hungarian team led by Ferenc Puskás won an Olympic title. At the World Cup a year later, which has passed into history as the match of the century, they defeated the English national team in their own home. Following this the team won numerous matches, a streak that only the revolution of 1956 interrupted, when Ferenc Puskás left the country. After a short break he was invited to play for Reál Madrid and he managed to stay at the world forefront for nearly ten years, on one of Europe’s most successful teams. The 84 goals he scored in 85 matches playing in Hungary stands as a world record to this day, and after this he won the most goals for Spain four times. Overall he is the highest scorer of all time. Later he worked on every continent as a coach, and at the end of his career returned home and represented his country for several years, until he became ill. The Puskás Football Academy was founded on his 80th birthday. Construction of the building was started in 2012, and included a 3500 capacity stadium, which the UEFA classifies as a category 2 stadium.

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HEREND PORCELAIN

F

ounded in 1826, the Herend Porcelain Manufactory really started to f lourish under Mór Fischer in 1839. In 1842 it was awarded the Imperial royal porcelain title, then in 1843 won the gold medal in the 1843 national exhibition. At this time porcelain was called white gold, because it represented great wealth and was a privilege to own. Queen Victoria ordered a f loral pattern Herend dinnerware for the 1851 world fair, and this pattern, called the “Victoria” pattern, has been well-known ever since. One recognition followed another, as a

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result of which Mรณr Fischer received a title of nobility. In 1874 Mรณr Fischer handed the factory over to his sons, who did not consider exclusivity to be important, and so began the dark days of the factory, and in the end it had to declare bankruptcy. From 1896 on the manufactory again f lourished, once Jenล‘ Farkashรกzi took over leadership. The second world war was not kind to the manufactories, and in its aftermath they were taken over by the state, before being again privatized in 1992. The owners are in large part its workers, and one quarter is owned by the state. Among manufactories, it was the first to win the Hungarian Heritage title. The extensive range of the beautiful handmade products is shown by the fact that there are nearly 16,000 pieces. There is strong demand for the unique, high-end porcelain, and a testament to this is the fact that Herend Porcelain is available in 50 countries around the world. 95


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I’d like to thank a handful of very special people, for without their help this book wouldn’t be the book it is today. Thank you very much. Chris Tutunzis, István Ottó Hajni István Tutunzis

PHOTO CREDITS Text copyright © Ildikó Kolozsvári Photographs copyright © István Tutunzis, p58 Hollókői Világörökség-kezelő Nonprofit Kft, p66-67 Zoltán Balogh, p75 Ivanhoe, p94-95 Herendi Porcelánmanufaktúra Zrt. Printed in China All rights reserved Designed and edited by Bear Books Publishing PO BOX 2339, Bedfordview 2008, South Africa Tel.: +27 81 572 4014 www.bearbooks.co.za info@bearbooks.co.za ISBN 978-615-5148-63-7

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Hungary the most amazing places  

Könyvünk Magyarország Hungarikumait, leglátványosabb helyeit, természeti kincseit, érdekességeit és építészeti remekeit mutatja be. A leírás...

Hungary the most amazing places  

Könyvünk Magyarország Hungarikumait, leglátványosabb helyeit, természeti kincseit, érdekességeit és építészeti remekeit mutatja be. A leírás...

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