UNIT 9: THE REBIRTH OF CITIES 2nd ESO
ISABEL GARCÍA-VELASCO teachermsisabel.com
WHAT ARE WE GOING TO STUDY IN THIS UNIT? 1. Time of changes: the 12th and the 13th centuries. 2. The new society. 3. Medieval towns. 4. The Black Death. 5. Towards the Modern Age.
Glossary Remember to add the terms that we explain along the unit. The glossary should be at the end of the notebook. WORDS FOR THE GLOSSARY WILL BE IN PINK.
1. TIME OF CHANGES: THE 12th AND THE 13th CENTURIES
1.1 Agricultural changes Between the 12th and the 13th centuries, the High Middle Ages (1000-1250), many and important changes occurred: âœ— The population grew thanks to the advances in agriculture and that growth made necessary to clear new areas of land for farming, forests were cut down and marshes were drained. 5
âœ— The three-year crop rotation system was introduced: it consisted on cultivating each year two different crops and leaving one in fallow, it means without being cultivated. Usually winter crops were grew in one of the plots and summer ones in the other. By this way peasants had always food and crops for selling.
âœ— A new type of heavy plough was introduced, since it was heavier it made deeper furrows in the soil. âœ— Horseshoes and a new type of collar were invented and horses begun to be used to pull ploughs instead of oxen. Horses plough faster and could worked for longer periods of time so more land could be cultivated.
Summarizing: Which were the technical innovations introduced in agriculture?
1.2 Changes in trade. ✗ Thanks to those changes, the fiefs produced a surplus that could be sold, that led to an increase in trade. ✗ Trade routes by sea, river and road, developed to transport products throughout Europe. ✗ Trade fairs were celebrated to sell and buy products. One of the biggest ones were Champagne in France. 11
1.3 Towns One of the consequences of the agricultural advances, was that less people were needed to work on the fields, so they could develop different jobs, and left the countryside to go to the towns where they worked as artisans or merchants. Towns celebrated weekly markets where peasants went to buy and sell their products.
The abandoned cities were rebuilt, kings, noblemen and the Church increased the taxes building new towns all along the trade routes.
Investigate why these places received their names: ● ● ● ●
Edinburgh. Burgos. Newcastle. Cambridge. 16
2. THE NEW SOCIETY
The artisans and merchants who lived in the towns were peasants who moved on from the countryside. Now they were apart from the feudal system and some of them became rich and powerful, they formed a new class, the bourgeoisie, a middle class that tried to made arrange marriages with the nobility to increase the position in society.
Artisans had their own workshops within their houses. Few people worked in each one, they sold their products through a shop at the front of their workshops. Artisans from the same trade joined in associations called guilds, that fixed prices and and controlled the quality of products. All the artisans should belonged to the right guild.
In the guilds worked three types of artisans: ● ● ●
Apprentices: were young men, even children learning how to do the job. They received food and a place to life. Journeymen: were experienced artisans that received a salary. Masters: had their own workshop that passed from fathers to sons. To become a master, the journeymen had to pass an exam, the had to create a masterpiece showing their expertise.
In the cities guilds from the same trade were located in the same street. Find 5 streets in the old part of Madrid with the name of a guild. 24
Are these sentences true or false? 1.The medieval cities were a center of artisanal production. 2.The craftwork was done in small workshops. 3.The nobles who lived in the cities were called bourgeois. 4.All medieval cities had a complex sewer system. 5. Peasants came to the cities to sell their products in the market. 25
3. MEDIEVAL TOWNS
Medieval cities were small by our standards. The streets were narrow and unpaved; mud was common. Cities and larger towns were usually surrounded by a wall, organized around a central square where churches were the largest buildings especially in cathedral cities. Houses were tiny made of wood, just the important buildings such as the town hall and the cathedral were made of stone. Streets were filthy, streets were covered with mud, rubbish that people threw out of the window and even excrements because there were no sewers.. The most commonly consumed beverages were not water but wine and beer. 27
Cities had their own laws and taxes, their governed themselves through a town council, formed by the councillors,, members of the nobility and the bourgeoisie.
4. THE BLACK DEATH
The Black Death was a devastating global epidemic of bubonic plague that struck Europe and Asia in the mid-14th century. The plague arrived in Europe in October 1347 when 12 ships from the Asia docked at an Italian port. ✗ It was called Black Death because ill people had black marks , swollen and painful nodes (buboes). ✗ The disease was transmitted by the rats’ fleas. ✗ It killed a third of the European population, it killed families and towns. ✗
Do you know what this drawing represents? What do you think is he wearing that costume?
âœ— Apart from the devastation caused by the Black Death, Europe suffered a huge crisis, the climate affected the crops and there were bad harvests that provoked famine. âœ— There were fewer workers that demand higher wages, while noblemen wanted to rise their rents and that led to conflicts between them.
After studying the medieval cities, which of their characteristics do you think that promoted the expansion of the illness?
5. TOWARDS THE MODERN AGE
When the Black Death became less a problem in the late 14th (Late Middle Ages), the population started growing again and the towns became bigger and more important. Cities supported the king and the noblemen and in exchange they gave them more independence so their inhabitants hadnâ€™t to obey a feudal lord, the main consequence was that noblemen became less important and the kings didnâ€™t need their armies, they could afford their own one thanks to the money that came from taxes.
✗ The weak monarchies became authoritarian, centralised their power and created new institutions such as the parliament, formed by noblemen, members of the clergy and the bourgeoisie. ✗ The kings strengthened bureaucracy which was composed of officials directly under their control, who supervised the kingdom's affairs. ✗ The first universities were created, which weren’t controlled by the Church and where art, medicine, laws and theology were taught. The first universities were in Bologna, Oxford, Paris and Salamanca. 39
Now create a diagram with the causes and the consequences of the 14th century crisis.
HOW MUCH YOU KNOW ABOUT THE REBIRTH OF CITIES? Letâ€™s play Plickers!!!
That’s the end of this unit!
Any questions? You can find me at: ✗ ✗
Published on Apr 16, 2018
From the rebirth of cities to the crisis of the 14th century. A review of High Middle Ages and LAte Middle Ages with videos and activities.