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Iruma RodrĂ­guez HernĂĄndez . Master Urban Design Master inin Urban Design Academie van Bouwkunst_Amterdam Academie van Bouwkunst_Amterdam


Towards a happier Havana. The Almendares area case. August 28th, 2018

Iruma RodrĂ­guez HernĂĄndez Master in Urban Design Academie van Bouwkunst te Amsterdam, 2018

Commission: Mentor: Riette Bosch, urbanist Gert Urhan, urbanist Wolbert van Dijk , landscape architect External consultant: Yociel Marrero


contents 0 INTRODUCTION 5

3.II. The New Great Havana Forest, a dream for Havana

94

0.I. Happy City 5

3.III. How to do it and with whom?

99

0.II. Havana 5

3.III.a. First actors map

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1 ELEMENTS FOR A HAPPIER HAVANA: URGENCIES, AMBITIONS AND DESIGN REALMS

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1.I. Urgencies for Havana 15 1.II. Four ambitions 16 1.III. The city and its design realms

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2 STUDY CASE: THE ALMENDARES RIVER AREA

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2.I. Inspiration 21 2.II. Reasons to work on the Almendares

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2.III. Historic functions of the Almendares river and its surroundings 29 2.IV. Perception of the river now-a-days. Survey 2.0

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2.V. The Almendares through the six design realms

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2.VI. 3 distinctive typologies of the Almendares

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2.VII. Qualities, opportunities and lacks per river typology

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3 DESIGN 91 3.I. The Havana Forest [concept]

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3.III.b. Workshop February 1st ‘18

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3.III.c. Governance in Cuba

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3.III.d. Updated actors map

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3.III. d.1. A selection of the actors

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3.III.e. Strategic Design Principles

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3.IV. The New Great Havana Forest Spatial Framework

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3.IV.a. With which actors to build the framework?

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4. THREE SECTIONS

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4.I. Where to start?

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4.I.a Where to start at The Almendares Urban Valley?

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4.I.b Where to start at The Hidden Casiguaguas?

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4.I.c Where to start at La Chorrera Waste & Knowledge Mountains?

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5. BACK TO HAVANA

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5.I. Dreaming the other (nine) rivers of Havana

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6 BIBLIOGRAPHY

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HAPPY CITY, C. Montgomery

“And what are our needs for happiness? We need to walk, just as birds need to fly. We need to be around people. We need not to be excluded. We need to feel some sort of equality”.

Major Peñalosa, Bogotá


0 introduction 0.I.

Happy City

A city in which people likes to live, for which people wants to work, to which’s society people wants to contribute, of which people will proudly say: —I am from or live in this city—; that is a happy city. If the residents of a city are happy, that’s a happy city. At the same time, that city should provide spaces and systems to make its people happy. That should be the highest purpose of every city: to help its residents achieve happiness. Some might think that wealth is what defines happiness. However, there are other factors, such as health, accessibility and equity, more joyful moments than painful ones, being around people and not being excluded. The design of the city can contribute to that.

0.II.

Havana

When I talk to non Cubans about Havana, most of the times they think of it as a beautiful city, musical and colorful, stuck in the past, full of old American cars, where everyone is smoking cigars and drunk with good rum all the time. If I ask them about its people they would say: yes, they are always laughing and dancing, they are happy people. This is a very romantic picture of Havana, and it is true… it exists! HAVANA IS A VERY HAPPY CITY. When I talk with Havanans I know, their happy speeches about the city fluctuate towards comments and complaints. In daily life, HAVANA IS ALSO A VERY UNHAPPY CITY. Let me draw you the picture:

Towards a happier Havana. The Almendares area case.

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Havana is beautiful, colorful, musical, vicious, moving, lucky with nature, happy. Towards a happier Havana. The Almendares area case.

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1960

surface 722km2

population 2,13mill

comparable to Hamburg (755km2)

comparable to the MRA (2,3mill) 1960

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2017

=

2017


Havana is a city of 727 km2 (like Hamburg 755km2); where 2,13 million live (like in the Metropolitan Region of Amsterdam 2,2 million.) Havana is a city that doubled its population since 1959, but that hasn’t considerably grown. Is has now the same population than in 1990 and it loses 6000 residents yearly. Half of Havana’s population has lived its conscious life during the Special Period. For most of them, living in Cuba means living in a permanent economic crisis. Havana is ruralizing due to the emigration of residents born in the city (young people between 15 and 34, half of them with a technical or university level), plus the immigration of populations of other provinces with an important rural component and low education levels. Havana is a city with 10 rivers, originally gallery-rivers. The urbanized areas use them as open sewages. Parts of the forest-belts get stolen and turned into agricultural land or slums, diminishing the infiltration areas. Havana is a city with a natural structure of gallery-streets planned before 1959 to contrast high tropical temperatures and the urban heat island effects. Due to lack of maintenance and bad decisions, this structure gradually disappears without reposition. Havana produces more waste than what it can pick up and it has no established recycling system. Garbage accumulates on the streets. Havana is a city where you can find a stinky chicken on the street or floating somewhere. Practitioners of Afro-Cuban religions dump their offers next to a tree or directly into superficial waters. Havana has an outdated and broken sewage system. Treated or not, sewage waters get dumped into superficial waters. Between waste and sewage, the rivers and their superficial basins are polluted. Havana drinks 89% of its water from hydrographic sheds and 11% from dams or rivers. The 7 hydrographic sheds overlap the hydrologic basins of the 10 rivers, contaminated in most of the cases, risking the quality of the water Havanans drink.

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Towards a happier Havana. The Almendares area case.

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Havana is raw, dirty, bad transport, forsake, homeless, for tourists, unhappy. Towards a happier Havana. The Almendares area case.

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goal:

i want to make of havana a happier city!

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Havana has weak accessibility to basic services: food and basic articles, uniform electricity and good internet. Most markets are out of supplies and people has to travel through the city to find food and goods. Havana’s public transportation is only on roads; it is insufficient, slow and overcrowded. Havana lacked, before Irma, 156051 housing units. Since the population doubled and the city didn’t, the housing structures existing since before 1959 are overloaded, are 50 years or older, and haven’t received adequate maintenance. With Irma, the city lost another 4288 dwellings, for a total of 160339. The State produces 2000-3000 units per year, mainly social housing, with no-parking and no-public space, looking the same everywhere. These are few desired living contexts and they don’t respond to the population demand. Thanks to remittances, lots of people build by themselves, and their building power is stronger than that of the government. Recreation in Cuba is a thing for tourists, not for nationals. Most investments are focused in making and maintaining touristic installations (access limited for locals), while all the places were nationals could historically and naturally recreate are left to abandon. In such a conflicted scenario, I still love my city more than any other. Looking from the distance, I don’t think of the problems, I miss the people and the cubanness, and I find a pity that the people from my generation leave the country because in spite of having been well educated, we are frustrated because we cannot find the means within the system to try to make our city a better place to live. I want to make OF Havana a happier city! This meaning that its people are happy, and that the city provides spaces and systems to make them happy.

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RVEY 1.0

WHAT MAKES YOU HAPPY ?

WHAT MAKES YOU UNHAPPY ?

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for a happier Havana: urgencies, 1 Elements ambitions and design realms The above description of Havana is the result of observation and research of specialists. I wanted to know how happiness was perceived in Havana. This is why I sought this by means of a survey, where I wondered whether people were happy or unhappy, and what makes them feel that way. The results of this survey, displayed diagrammatically on the left page, showed that most of the elements that make people happy are subjective. Among them are: family and friends, being able to share with them, personal realization, living in Cuba and the cubanness. On the opposite, the things that make people unhappy are objective, like: overcrowding, lack of accessibility, dirt, deterioration of the built environment, blackouts and lack of facilities. And this matches with the experts’ observations. If we put all this together, it is valid to stablish some ambitions for Havana. 1.I.

Urgencies for Havana

For my generation, Havana should: • maintain and increase the amount and quality of nature and landscape within the city; • be a clean the city, clean its rivers and stablish a system to keep them clean; • have a more efficient and multi-modal transport system and rescue and improve conditions for slow mobility; • improve the structures of production and provide sufficient public services; • have a system to build quality dwellings rapidly and efficiently, combining the efforts of state and population; and • have enough places where locals can healthily recreate. this means, to have a city that is:

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1.II.

Four ambitions

1. Clean city City aesthetics and hygiene play an important role in making people happy. If there’s garbage on the streets and the landscape, the city looks ugly. Waste also decomposes and brings bad smells, plagues and diseases. It gets in our clothes and makes our houses dirty. The very air we breathe gets polluted. If the city is clean, it is healthier and we are happier living in it. Residents of a city are happier if attention is paid to clean up efforts such as an established, accessible recycling program, landscaping and well-designed architecture.

2. Accessible city Mobility is a human need. We move to work, to school, to meet friends, to recreate. Whether is by foot, by bike, by car or by bus, if moving is not comfortable it makes us unhappy. For example, if we have to walk or bike under no shades when it’s too hot; or if it takes us one hour to move from A to B because the public transport is not frequent enough. People are happier when they have a diapason of mobility options to choose from, when travelling is pleasant and when it doesn’t take so long. People are also happier when they are connected with others. The happiest places in the world are those where people are connected to the larger world outside their homes by bicycle and walking paths leading to parks, civic amenities, and transit nodes; but also, where streets are active and safe.

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3. Productive city A productive city is source of employment, is prosper and grows. It improves the urban environment by giving residents more possibilities of solving their problems and finding solutions quicker. Food, goods, housing, energy, transport, everything is more accessible and when this happens, people have more free time to dedicate to personal activities. There’s space for leasure and for personal growth, and this makes people happy.

4. City friendly to people and nature A city in harmony with nature is also a happy city. Planting plenty of trees, building with nature-friendly materials and architecture adapted to the place, and being closer to the landscape gives us a city where is not only climactically comfortable to be but that it is also pleasant at sight, beautiful. The design of our buildings, of our public space and how we deal with the landscape can, in this sense, make us happy.

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1.III.

The city and its design realms

There’s a chance to fulfill these ambitions, solve Havana’s issues and make people happier if we look at specific design realms. These realms have been summarized from the results of the survey and a broader research on the Happy City subject. At the same time, they are connected to one or more of the ambitions mentioned before. the design realms are: 1_ Nature and landscape: 2_Sewage and waste systems 3_Mobility systems 4_Production systems 5_Building and neighborhoods 6_Free time and Recreation

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“To the Almendares” This river with musical name it reaches my heart by a path of warm arteries and diastolic tremor ... He does not have Amazonas horizons nor Nile mystery, but perhaps none improve the clean sky nor the finesse of his foot and his waist. [...] How it stands in the spiral of winds Of the Cuban cyclone ...! How it doubles Under the curve of the Big Bridges ...! I will not say which hand pulls it from me, Nor of what stone of my breast is born: I will not say that he is the most beautiful ... But it is my river, my country, my blood! Dulce Maria Loynaz

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2 Study case: the Almendares river area 2.I.

Inspiration

Contradiction between the natural gallery-river and the opposition city vs river. gallery river: Forest formed as corridor along the banks of intertropical rivers. Its vegetation is deep and leafy, covers the river forming a sort of tunnel and shelters lots of animals. They keep humidity and lower temperatures than in the surroundings, creating a microclimate. city vs river: Havana city grew towards and beyond the Almendares river, but it was never connected to it: the buildings turned their backs; the river became an open sewage. Where nobody checks, parts of the forest-belt gets stolen and turned into agricultural land and slums.

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gallery river functioning ecosystem

city vs river broken ecosystem


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GEOGRAPHIC CENTER OF THE CITY

The Almendares as geographic center of the city

ALMENDARE

S-VENTO H

YDROGRAPH

IC SHED vs

POLLUTED

RIVER

Almendares-vento hydrographic shed and the area it feeds Towards a happier Havana. The Almendares area case.

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2.II.

Reasons to work on the Almendares

The Almendares is the most important river in Havana. The area in which it is embebed is representative of the issues that concern the city as a whole. Reasons to work on this area are: • The Almendares wedge constitutes a beautiful landscape in the middle of the city!!! Part of it is called the Great Metropolitan Park of Havana, but it is not well exploited. • Most of the city revitalization efforts in Havana are concentrated in the city center, where installations are mostly for tourists. In order to perform in an area actually significant for Havanans, efforts have to be made here, around the Almendares river, which is the geographic center of Havana. • The hydrographic shed of this river (the Almendares-Vento shed) is the most important potable water source of Havana; but the river is polluted and putting the shed at risk of pollution.

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Zanja Real (Royal Ditch) at the height of El Husillo. Archive image

La Tropical brewery, 1929-30

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Historic functions of the Almendares river and its surroundings 2.III.

From Casiguaguas to La Chorrera, from La Chorrera to Almendares. The river has been connected to the city of Havana since its foundation in 1519, with different functions: water supply, protection, production and tipping point in urbanisation. From the very beginning it provided water to the city, first carried by donkeys, afterwards via de Zanja Real (1566-1835), later through the Albear Aqueduct (1858-), which still today feeds the fifth part of Havana. La Chorrera fort has been watching over its delta since 1647; then protecting the city from enemy disembarkments through the river, now as part of the skyline. Since very early, the Almendares was a production backbone of the city. First, its adjunct areas were used for agriculture and the river itself for fluvial transport of basic goods. Later on, many looms were installed within the river banks, which would provide construction materials for the city. Since the XIX century, its banks have hold factories to produce paper, Portland cement, gin, animal coal, tiles, bricks, cooking oil and beer. Many of them disappeared in the northern part due to urbanisation, while other remained in the southern part like the ice-cream factory Coppelia, La Polar brewery, La Papelera Moderna and gas factories. Shipyards and fishing bases constitute also part of the riverbanks line. The modern Havana grew East-West towards the river and beyond, and expanding from North to South, and connecting with the nuclei that had being developed when the city still had walls. El Carmelo was the first neighbourhood (1859) made, with an orthogonal grid, on the East side of the delta of the Almendares. Then, the Columbus cemetery was built (1871-1886) in an ambiguous position. It conditioned, together with El Carmelo, the urbanization process of Vedado municipality. Nuevo Vedado (after 1949) didn’t continue the orthogonal grid; instead it has large and sinuous blocks, and buildings adapting to the topography of the terrain.

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Touristic map of Havana, 1951, showing evolving urbanizations

Puentes Grandes, 1900

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On the West, Almendares vicinity (1903) and Miramar (1918) assumed also an orthogonal grid. In the 20ies Kohly was developed with more sinuous streets, adapting to the topography, and interacting with the landscape. Alturas de Miramar and La Puntilla would “finish� Miramar in its conjunction with the delta; while Alturas del Bosque would step away from the river, settling next to La Tropical brewery and touching La Ceiba. La Ceiba is an extension of the Puentes Grandes hamlet (end of XVI century), one of the nuclei. Quemados de Mayanabo was another nucleus more to the West. Both nuclei grew more or less radially, until they conurbated with the growing modern Havana. In all this urbanization process, many areas were disconnected from the Almendares as industries and other large functions were in-between. Nevertheless, there has been a concern about the connection urbanizations - river. In 1928, the French urbanist J.C.N. Forestier made a Directive Plan for Havana where he introduced a Metropolitan Park for the city, although the plan was never realized. Other plans have come afterwards, which shows a recurrent concern about this city-landscape connection. The last Directive Plan for the Metropolitan Park was made by Jose E. Fornes, in 1994.

Forestier plan, 1928

FornĂŠs Plan, 1994 Towards a happier Havana. The Almendares area case.

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EY 2.0 PERCEPTION OF THE RIVER

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2.IV.

Perception of the river now-a-days. Survey 2.0

As part of the survey realized in the summer 2017, the interviewed were asked what did they liked or disliked of the Almendares, and what made them happy or unhappy about it. Many people were happy about the possibilities of recreating in the lower areas of the river, although they manifested they would like to be able to do many other activities: like camping, biking, bathing on it. They agreed in that the options were limited, not only due to programming but by matters of safety or “ugliness� of the environment.

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HAPPY CITY, C. Montgomery. Urban Design and Well-being workshop, Buenos Aires

“The city in its different design realms should be oriented to generate well-being. Once basic needs are met, the city should strive to maximize happiness, reduce the pain and contribute to better health. In addition, the city must offer us freedom to live, move and shape our lives. (‌) The cities have to be fair in its distribution of spaces, services, mobility, and costs. Moreover, cities must give us the opportunity to build and strengthen the links between peopleâ€?.

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2.V.

The Almendares through the six design realms

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NATURE & LANDSCAPE

focus on the last 13 km comparable in scale to Amsterd

hidden jewels Mordazo

gallery streets

the natural landscape no long Orengo

agriculture patchwork

Santoyo Marinero Paila

gallery river

Agriculture in the Towards a happier Havana. The Almendares area case.

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The Almendares is a 45 km long perennial river, that runs from South to North, from mountains to sea. It goes from a raw landscape, through rural, towards an urban one. The focus of this project lies on the +/-13 km of the river that run inside the city, the most urban part: from Toledo highway up to La Chorrera Mouth, the delta. In this portion, the river passes three very different areas: The highest section lies on a more or less undulated plain with some periodic streams. Here, the natural landscape no longer exists. It has been replaced by industry, agriculture, a landfill and a university campus.

Valley and gallery river seen from a hill in the lowest section

The middle section has three perennial tributaries (Santoyo, Orengo & Mordazo) running through a hilly topography. Some of the hills were used as limestone pits. They have been reforested but are illegally still active. Partly due to this anthropic intervention, there are slums settled in this area. Here there´s also a patchwork of urban and semi-urban agriculture. Some agricultural areas steal wetlands and forest belts to plant bananas, destroying these ecosystems. In the middle and lowest sections, the river flows through an amazing gallery forest In the lowest section, the river runs through a very steep valley with urbanization on both sides. From the top of the mountain this amazing valley can be appreciated (but basically only by privates, or from the Almendares bridge). The landscape wedge here is narrow and with hard edges at the end. The river finally leads to La Chorrera, in a dry coastal and urban landscape. In the first half of the XX century, some rich men owners of factories and developers of the new urbanizations, built in these last two sections, gardens within the natural landscape. The Almendares Park, Josephine’s Island, La Tropical Gardens and La Polar Gardens. To beat the high tropical temperatures, in the first half of the XX century the city developed a general plan for gallery streets, which would perform as an urban street forest.

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Ex: Directive Plan, Jose Luis Sert, 1956 (not realized)


focus on the last 13 km of 45km, 1250ha; where 700ha are the Great Metropolitan Park of Havana

Area comparable in scale to Amsterdamse Bos-scheg

The natural landscape no longer exists in the highest section

Agriculture in the middle section

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Towards a happier Havana. The Almendares area case.

La Tropical gardens, one of the jewels hidden in the landscape

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SEWAGE & WASTE

religious offers

Sewage pipes d Colombus cemetery

Industries (like Coppelia)

Spontaneous dumps

Waste on streets

Wast

Landfill

Spontaneous dumps

In the back, the w

Waste on streets

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Polluting spots (GPMH database 2017)

The river and its hydrologic basin are contaminated. The Almendares-Vento hydrographic shed is the most important potable water source of Havana and it’s at risk of getting polluted as well. The river gets polluted in three ways: 1. large institutions like industries, the hospitals and the cemetery have inefficient sewage systems that dump directly into the river;

Shape of Sewage system

2. most of the sewage infrastructure is in bad condition and it leaks eventually into the river or dumps directly into it without sufficiently cleaning its black waters. 3. with garbage: by dumping waste directly into it (including religious offers), on the streets, leaving waste outside garbage containers and creating spontaneous street dumps. On a larger scale, the biggest dump of the city lies next to the river, with 104ha. It is badly sealed, it leaks leachates into the river, therefore the Almendares has an elevated eutrophication process.

Surface of the elimination site_ 104ha Left Life Expectancy_ 2 years (from 2018) Volume of residuals received_ 1692 ton/day 1015 ton is organic Type of residuals_ Domestic Administration_DPSC (Dir.Prov.Serv.Comunales)

≈

*The dump is not well sealed *It produces lots of leachates that filter into the underground water; and lick into the Almendares. *The Almendares has an elevated eutrophication process (enrichment of an ecosystem with nutrients at a rate such that it can not be compensated for by its natural elimination forms) *It is next to the Vento underground water shed

Shape of Aqueduct system

Havana: - produces 23000m3 of solid waste daily (domestic waste + construction debris) ≈ 4000m3 cannot be picked up - has 40 collecting brigades in total of 92 required - has 18000 waste containers of 30000 required *source: news clip, National Noticiary, March 24th, 2017. Interview to Maria T. Reyes, provintial director of waste picked-up of Havana.

City landfills


Sewage pipes dumping directly into the river

Waste on the street

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In the back, the waste hill of the 100st landfill

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MOBILITY SYSTEMS

n

le

Ma

ea

Lín

1

e4

av

a

ave 31

alz ad ad

eP

u

5t

Ca

lz ad a de Puentes Grand

es

ave

41

C

114

100

Entronque de la CUJAE

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entes

s de Gr a n


The river splits the city in two sides. The public transportation is focused between the coast and Puentes Grandes, where the urban structure from both city sides is there mostly connected. The urban structure to the south of Puentes Grandes is barely linked; the landscape performs as a barrier. The travel times are longer for people who have to travel from one side to the other, also due to the low frequency of the public transportation. Havana is mainly addressed to car mobility. There´s a suburban rail network, with a daily frequency of 2 to 5 trips per route. There are no good conditions for walkability and bikeability. In Cuba it is important to be on the shade, otherwise it is too hot. That’s why the public space went from piazzas, through calzadas, to gallery streets. In the location there’s Puentes Grandes as a calzada, and the rest were conceived as gallery streets. The calzada gets blocked and the trees on the gallery-streets are cut or overgrown. The continuity of the landscape is blocked at points by large barriers in the shape of industries and military zones; and by walls and fences on the perpendiculars. Puentes Grandes calzada

Suburban train system; the frequence per route is 2-5 times per day

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large barriers block the continuity of the landscape


Evolution of the public space

Narrow streets for shade

Piazzas with portals for shade

Calzadas: streets with portals for shade

Gallery streets: huge trees for shade

Main city connections

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Highways


Gallery on 10th street

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PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

bike factory

C

art factory chullima

la tropical factory

paper factory compote factory glue factory

la polar factory

semi-urban agriculture

former hippodrome

open-air landfill

landfill CUJAE

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Since very early, the Almendares was a production backbone of the city. Initially, for agriculture, fluvial transport of basic goods and providing construction materials for the city. Since the XIX century, its banks have hold many factories (for paper, cooking oil, ice cream, beer, etc.). Many disappeared due to urbanization, but a beautiful industrial landscape remained within the landscape. Many of these industries are now-a-days obsolete. Some are being used for storage; others are falling apart.

Production areas

The lowest section of the river holds shipyards and fishing bases on the riverbanks. The middle section contains the open limestone pits and a patchwork of urban and semi-urban agriculture. Some agricultural areas steal wetlands and forest belts to plant bananas, destroying these ecosystems. Part of the highest section is declared as productive area in the General Plan for the city. This section contains the 104ha landfill, which is being planned to close in 2020 and so far, it doesn’t produce anything. It also contains a university, traditional agriculture and working industries, some over the forest-belts

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Production areas in Urban General Plan for Havana to 2030. See in purple productive areas aroud the Almendares


Organopรณnico in the area

The technical university, CUJAE


Cuban Art Factory (F.A.C), in Vedado

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BUILDINGS & NEIGHBORHOODS

Historic center

Vedado Miramar “El Fanguito”

=)

50,4% preferes housing of before 1959

Nuevo Vedado

happy t high ris

Kohly Almendares

Aldecoa

La Ceiba Puentes Grandes

Santa Catalina

“El Husillo”

38% preferes self-construction

Martí

Casino Deportivo

=)

Alturas de Belén

self-c

Finlay Altahabana Pogolotti

there´s a lot of space within existing urban fabric to build housing: in empy plots, demolitions, unfinished areas and conflicted areas (““)

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=(

1,6% is satisfied with micro-brigade buildings where they live

micro-briga


self-construction

self-construction

=(

satisfied with -brigade buildings e they live

happy typologies & high rise in Vedado

happy typologies & high rise in Vedado

=)

eferes onstruction

=)

eferes housefore 1959

micro-brigade buildings

micro-brigade buildings

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na

From North to South, from happy to unhappy typologies. See also inside- outside relationship with portals and colommnades, lost in the last typology.


Before the ‘50’s, Havana would develop in 3 main expansion axes. The high class would settle in front of the sea, the middle class and low class subsequently behind it. The building typologies on these axes respond to the standards of the class originally settled on it. After 1959, the state filled in the vacant plots/ areas with micro-brigade buildings. Now-a-days, Havanans long for single-family houses or big flats of the former bourgeoisie, symbols of quality living. These I call “happy typologies”. 50,4% of people prefers those typologies of before 1959; 38% prefers self-construction and only 1,6% is happy with the micro-brigade neighborhoods where they live. The state only builds social housing, therefore to live in a happy typology, or you move to an existing one, or you build one. The edges between the landscape and the built areas have never been defined; but the urban areas have adapted to them in different ways. In the lowest section the bourgeoisie colonized the coastal plain; and settled on the top of the mountains privatizing views. In the middle section they settled along the historical axes and away from the forest; which lead to unfinished areas and then to slums. In the highest section, the infrastructure dictates where the housing areas are. Due to the age of the buildings and the impact of hurricanes, there are here many vacant plots and buildings in ruins.

The city was borned next to the bay and walled; a few nuclei were placed outside the city for agricultural development; connected to the city though main roads (calzadas) for supply.

Planning before 1959was done through 3 main class axes: high class next to the sea, and the axes for middle and workers classes respectively behind it Towards a happier Havana. The Almendares area case.

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FREE TIME & RECREATION

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La Tropical a n d i ts

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gardens

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La Polar and its gardens

Former hip pd ro

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Former Central Toledo & CUJAE

Old roads to the countryside

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Most recreational facilities of Havana are concentrated in the center and in the highclass expansion axe. The rest has mainly basic services, therefore, to recreate people have to move to more centric areas. The river and its water are the most valuable assets of this wedge. In spite of it, it is really hard to access the water, besides that it is polluted. There are some recreational areas within the wedge, but very insufficiently exploited>> the parks and the gardens. Formerly it was also possible to navigate in some areas of the river but that is limited right now. Most sport facilities are private. In the highest section there’s a former hippodrome, used now as storage of auto-parts. There’s a trails-system within the landscape, but it is not clear nor maintained. The different recreational units within the landscape are barely connected.

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It is possible to navigate in some areas but the water is polluted and in general hard to access

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The Malecรณn is where Havanans go freely recreate

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RIVER

...CASIGUAGUAS_ name given by the natives ... LA CHORRERA (the ruffle)_ name referring to its function as water source for the incipient Spanish city ... ALMENDARES_ current name, given in honor of the bishop Almendariz

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2.VI.

3 distinctive typologies of the Almendares

In conclusion, the area is split by the main roads in three typologies. The lowest one, between the sea and Calzada de Puentes Grandes; the middle one, between Puentes Grandes and 100th street, and the highest one, between 100th and Toledo Highway.

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Lowest section: The Almendares Urban Valley - narrowest section of the wedge along the river, lots of forest landscape with hidden gardens, blocked by military use - highly urban, high & middle class building typologies & some semicompact blocks

Middle section: The Hidden Casiguaguas - the wedge opens up due to some hills and abrupt topography. topography & big obstacles are first stone to informal neighborhoods - the built areas are highly urban, with low class building typologies in compact blocks; filled up with microbrigade housing typologies in semicompact blocks. left & right sides are disconected from each other

Highest section: La Chorrera Waste & Knowledge Mountains - heavy infrastructure, industrial and agricultural areas, dump & university. productive character. river highly polluted, hidden & inaccessible


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2.VII.

Qualities, opportunities and lacks per river typology

The Almendares Urban Valley_LACKS 1- Well qualified & accessible public space along the water

2 1

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2- Continuation/ connection between small park units and other public spaces, as part of a whole

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3- Well qualified viewing points

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The Almendares Urban Valley_QUALITIES & OPPORTUNITIES 1-Strong presence of the river and its delta, within a welldefined urban fabric. The strong height differences make the appreciation of the beauty of the valley possible.

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2-Existing road infrastructure in regular to good shape, with gallery streets, and the possibility of connecting with the Malecรณn and Miramar waterfront.

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3- Possibilities of navigation up to Josefine’s Island

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4 - Almendares Park, Havana Forest, La Tropical gardens & Papelera: keys to expand the landscape and frame it by programming

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5- Happy typologies and possibilities of adding more: 1300 dw in empty plots or demolishions, 500 dw in Fanguito & up to 1351 in Chullima [3150 dw in total] ~1300 dw 1351 dw

495 dw

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The Hidden Casiguaguas_LACKS 1- Definition of the borders of the landscape

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2- Direct contact with the water (river)

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3- Quality pathways and East-West connections

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4- Well qualified/ defined special places

2 1

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The Hidden Casiguaguas_QUALITIES & OPPORTUNITIES 1- Confluence of rivers (Almendares, Santoyo, Orengo & Mordazo)>> more or less wild landscape in river valleys

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2- Special hidden places (La Polar and its gardens, abandoned industries). By reprogramming them, the river could be unvealed

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3- Historic navigation area, possible to recover area for navigation & space for wildlife (in wetlands & other ecosystems)

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4- Puentes grandes node: key area for the definition and continuation of the landscape; and orientation of the buildings to become part of the landscape instead of bottleneck

1

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5- Possibility of (claiming) delimiting the landscape by: Building unfinished areas, adding >18564 dw (average 70m2) Adding >16000 dw in scenario where the gpmh is limited within the almendares valley, and housing (green typologies) is built in the area where slums are already settled (husillo) 34564 Dwellings in total & Using the new building structure to unveal the river by facing the landscape

2855 dw 11992 dw

3717 dw

18564 dw

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La Chorrera Waste & Knowledge Mountains_LACKS 1- (Abused landscape); lack of defined or qualified public spacelandscape

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2- Lacks accessibility

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3- Lacks hygiene

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La Chorrera Waste & Knowledge Mountains_QUALITIES & OPPORTUNITIES 1- The technical university (CUJAE) as the physical delimitation of the almendares wedge within the urban (end) and the rural (start) havana [hidden behind landfill]

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2- 104Ha landfill: possibilities of creating missing piece of landscape (by soil-remediating the landfill) and of producing energy (276 065 920 kwh/y) (125000 dw)

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3-Possibility of connecting CUJAE with the city through the wedge (via existing roads through landfill)

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4- Direct connection with “the city” (through the wedge)

9,4 KM

10,3 KM

12,3 KM 9,27 KM

9 KM

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5- Historic features with possibilities for reuse: Former hippodrome: 19,6ha. Possibilities for producing energy (52 027 808kwh/y) or for holding wetlands Toledo sugar factory, oldest of the country, piece of a larger scale cultural landscape (sugar cane plantations)

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The Jungle, Wifredo Lam, 1943, MoMa


3 Design 3.I.

GMPH

The Havana Forest [concept]

To make Havana happier, the landscape of the Almendares needs to have a stronger presence within the city. I think the FOREST OF HAVANA should come back, in a more modern way; and the urban gallery-streets system as well, as the urban forest of Havana. This, to put Havana on the map again (like the Emscher park; or like Madrid Rio); and to turn this landscape, in interaction with the urban environments, into a motor that can help solve the issues of the city: economic; productive; recreational. Going from some parks, badly connected nor integrated with the surroundings, to one large well-defined landscape entity with destination units in it, in harmony with new and existing housing areas, well connected inside and with the city; green, natural and clean. This Forest would be administered by the Great Havana Forest Administration, an updated insitution in substotution of the Great Metropolitan Park of Havana administration.

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GHFA Great Havana Forest Administration


going from: some parks, badly connected nor integrated with the surroundings

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Echeverria Malecón-1830

La Punta

Chullima- F.A.C.

Miramar “hills”

Fanguito Almendares park Nuevo Vedado “hills”

El Bosque

the Nursery

La Tropical brewery & stadium

La Tropical Gardens Forestal Park & skating park

Puentes Grandes

La Polar brewery & gardens The Green Island The Old Paper Factory Telar The Old Recycling factory The Green Village

The Energy Hill

technical university, CUJAE Toledo sugar factory site

to: one large landscape entity (the Great Havana Forest) with the Almendares, clean, as spine ; well defined & in harmony with built areas, well connected within and with the city, & with garden- and heritage units in it


3.II.

The New Great Havana Forest, a dream for Havana

I dream of: A clean river, running through a beautiful, compact clean forest, with lots of biodiversity; embraced/ framed by the city. And in this forest, there are beautiful “hidden” gardens connected through trails. I imagine that the river, with a restored ecosystem, is able to clean itself (with a hydroregulatory strip, wetlands and phyto-regeneration areas). I envision that it is possible to bike along the Malecón or Miramar, though the forest and up to CUJAE and beyond; and not only because it is a direct connection but also because it is beautiful and fresher than Boyeros or 31st street. And of course, it would not be only about coming from the center: perpendicular gallery streets would be linking the surrounding urban areas with and through the forest as well, allowing shorter travelling times, with comfort and in all directions. I believe that, in the absence of a stronger public transport system, the infrastructure that already exists in place, can be made efficient and exploited up to the maximum. Increasing the frequency of the trains and adding stops on radius between 800 and 1200 meter would also shorten the travelling times and serve as entrances to the Forest. In my vision there’s space for at least 41000 dwellings, built by habaneros, by young people, in empty plots or demolitions and unfinished areas, and a big island of housing in between the valleys of the Almendares and the Santoyo tributary. This would unlock

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Havana’s potential of growth by giving space to 25% of the housing shortage. Besides that it would formalize areas where there are slums now, and it would contribute to demarcate the limits of the Forest. In the housing and neighborhood typologies foodscapes are integrated. In this way food would be closer to people, and the neighborhoods would be fresher. There are also tree plantations, of for example: poplar trees and majagua; which would help clean leachates from the soil and water while producing wood. And the landfill, instead of polluting would be productive. Once the water is clean, many existing hidden jewels will reappear as the future hotspots along the river, where people enjoy to spend their free time. For example: - a big park or garden in the space of the Chullima shipyard - rescue of Josephine’s island. It would be possible to navigate from the delta and anchor on the island and vice versa. - rescuing the Almendares canal would reestablish the island which reforested would serve as space for biodiversity, besides that it would be possible to navigate there again. - the university itself would be directly connected to the river. I imagine that there’re open views on the tops of the hills, and direct access from the city into the landscape and the riversides And finally, I envision that the beautiful historic industries that are contained in the Forest will be reborn with new functions. With socio-cultural, educational and even productive program, these ensembles will dive into the future and will perform as destinations, economic catalysts and enhance the identity of the whole area.

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The New Great Havana Forest, a dream for Havana


3.III.

How to do it and with whom?

Now, this is a beautiful dream and everything could be designed, but never get realized. Havana is a different context, let’s say, than Amsterdam. What’s my real role in all this? How can I, as an urban designer, make this dream (or a similar one) come true?

3.III.a.

First actors map

I needed to check with whom was possible to do what. This is why I built an actors map, where I identified actors that could be connected to any possible project to realize on the area. I checked how they were related and what were their powers (be money, legislation, knowledge, time or skills) [according to the method described in the book “Play the City”]. By researching I found lots of information about on what type of projects they could intervene, and in which projects where they working on already. For example, there’s a project for a Low Carbon Transport System, supported by UNDP. I also realized that for this dream, the Great Metropolitan Park is the spider in the middle of the web, and to that actor one I got associated.

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ACTORS MAP

First actors map

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3.III.b.

Workshop February 1st ‘18

With their help I prepared a workshop inHavana, where I could gather 42 people from the above map. The goal of the workshop was to identify key action/ projects/ areas on the location that could contribute to make of Havana a happier city. On the back of my mind I also had a sub-goal: to have a reality check: what can be really done and by whom? We debated about common values and in the top 5 where, for example, the needs to restructure the vehicular system and link the design of neighborhoods & their typologies to the “park”. We also discussed about smaller interventions, like the need of smaller waste trucks or wider proper paths within the landscape so waste can be picked up. One of the tables looked deeply into who and how could things be done, and their conclusion was: it doesn’t matter that it is a socialist state, that doesn’t mean that it has to do everything by itself. It is wiser to combine efforts with the population.

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The people says what should change, on a large scale, that is common to all.

Decrease POLLUTION>> integral shed management system. Improve mobility: restructure vehicular system Declare the river and its hydro-regulatory wedge a protected area Improve neighbourhoods & its typologies; link their design to the park* Integrate the different levels: state actions, with communitarian actions and small businesses. Create a framework where microscale projects are potentiated

5 P O T

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The people mentioned what key actions should be taken, per realm Truck>> access roads Wetlands

North-south connection and crossings

Improve paths and trails

habilitate abandoned objects

Streets and crossings friendly to pedestrians and bikers

Arborization with fruit trees

Arborization of roads and green building typologies Community trainning & transformation of key areas

W2E plant & landfill remediation

Housing areas with resilient & nature friendly typologies

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Governance Classic Cuban Way State

The State mandates but doesn’t have enough money for everything. only for “priorities”

people

Governance Suggested Way State

The State offers structures, steers, facilitates

people

The people waits and hopes for the government to do what they expect

The people fill-in structures with their own resources, commit, innovate and give feed-back


3.III.c.

Governance in Cuba

So, how does it work in Cuba? The State dictates but doesn’t have enough money for everything, only for priorities. While the people waits and hopes for the government to do what they expect. I suggest the state to offer structures, to steer, to facilitate. And then people can fill-in these structures with their own resources, commit, innovate and give feedback.

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Updated Actors Network


3.III.d.

Updated actors map

In the workshop I realized there were many individual powers, with their own projects and initiatives. I updated the actors map and gave them faces. In this map, the GHFA is still the spider in de web. This institution is in a middle position, it is connected to big decision makers, while it works directly with communities. So, it is in the center, and it is here where I can help, as an uban designer, mediating and looking to the top (making a framework) and down (designing fill-ins, or strategic design principles).

3.III.d.1.

A selection of the actors

In the next following pages, zoom-ins into the actors map, to show some of the of actors and their networks. The selected actors are mainly those that are performing or willing to perform bottom-up (except for the Metropolitan Park and the Antonio Núùez JimÊnez Foundation).

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CREDENTIALS: Institution that realizes the General Plan for the Metropolitan Park (Fornés Plan ‘94). It is an urban, social and environmentalist project, focused on the last 9,5 km of the Almendares river, and an area of 700 ha. PROJECTS: As institution, it administers the “park” and its different areas, including forest ganger actions. It realizes different actions to decontaminate the river. Due to its negotiations, many industries have stopped dumping on it. It gives environmental education, especially focused to communities directly connected to the “park”. Issue: it is not a decision maker POSSIBLE CONTRIBUTION TO THIS VISION: It is well connected to ministries and governmental institutions, as well as to communities.

Great Metropolitan Park of Havana, administrative institution

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CREDENTIALS: Environmentalist and singer, director of the reggeaton group “Cubanos en la Red”. Since 2010 all the repertoire of the group is environmentalist. Promoter of FAO and World Health Foundation, a.o. PROJECTS: Director of the Green Island project, a social, environmental and educative network. From it emerged the “Water”, “Earth”, “Oceans” festivals. Among their activities, they gather professionals and schools to clean rivers, sea and communities. POSSIBLE CONTRIBUTION TO THIS VISION: As city maker and connector between formal institutions and people Osmel Francis Tuner, engineer and environmentalist singer

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CREDENTIALS: Piano and bass player, arranger and composer; he comes from a family of musicians (Sintesis group). He won a Latin Grammy in 2002. UNICEF’s Ambassador of Good Will in 2010. PROJECTS: He founded the “Cuban Art Factory” (F.A.C.) at the former El Cocinero cooking oil factory, on the East Almendares riverside. F.A.C. is an art gallery, that stands out for the diversity of its artistic activities. POSSIBLE CONTRIBUTION TO THIS VISION: He has the possibility of connecting a piece of the city to the water through the plot contiguous to F.A.C., (which the factory already uses) and being a catalyst for the development of the area

X Alfonso, singer, composer and director of F.A.C.

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CREDENTIALS: Architect, teacher at the Faculty of Architecture at CUJAE on the discipline Architectonic and Urban Design. Part of the curatorial team at the Cuban Art Factory, where he gives spaces to art and design students to present their work and interact with public and professionals. PROJECTS: He realizes workshops with kids of the neighboring communities, about the values of the city and the environment. He also links the architecture students to the Factory, placing curricular activities there; and extra- curricular activities to experiment on diverse design realms. POSSIBLE CONTRIBUTION TO THIS VISION: Link between F.A.C., young people, communities, the Faculty of Architecture and students.

Nguyen RodrĂ­guez, young architect

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CREDENTIALS: Autodidact plastic artist. Founder of the “Green Hand” (Mano Verde) project. PROJECTS: This project has two main streams. 1: to plant all the seeds of everything the people of the project eat. 2: to rescue all the baby- trees, born from street trees, before they get cut, and find them a new place. Dream: to have a space (s) where they can find a place for all the trees they have collected. POSSIBLE CONTRIBUTION TO THIS VISION: She (the group) can help in the reforestation of given areas.

Marnia Briones André, plastic artist

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CREDENTIALS: Plastic artist, renown mainly because of his installations, objects and performances. PROJECTS: His studio is settled in an old industrial building located on the West riverside of the Almendares, next to the Street Opera building. This was repaired, mainly, with the personal resources of the artist. The studio has also taking action in dragging the park of the river connected to it. POSSIBLE CONTRIBUTION TO THIS VISION: The studio has the ambition of realizing an artistic project on the “gardens� of the plot, with special emphasis on the landscape. If realized and extended, this would give the possibility of connecting a piece of the city to the water, through the plot where the studio is settled.

Wilfredo Prieto, plastic artist

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CREDENTIALS: Professor at Faculty of Architecture at CUJAE, Head of the research group “Research and Urban Action” (INVACURB), Head of the discipline Architectonic and Urban Design V. PROJECTS: Jorge does research in Urban issues. His current project are: Productive Urban Landscapes; Urban Atlas of Havana; Knowledge in Action for Urban Equity; Mobility and Accessibility in disadvantaged communities in Havana; and “Cero emission transport system for Havana” project. POSSIBLE CONTRIBUTION TO THIS VISION: Anchor for gathering and sharing knowledge, and putting it into practical uses.

Jorge Peña Díaz, urbanist

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CREDENTIALS: Yasser González leads the project “Pedaling Havana” (Bicicletear La Habana), where cyclists gather the first Sunday of every month to cycle a given or spontaneous route. PROJECTS: The goal of the project is to promote the use of bikes in Havana and to call the attention to the corresponding authorities to improve the conditions for biking in the city. POSSIBLE CONTRIBUTION TO THIS VISION: This is a “soft” actor that by using specific spaces of the city in a specific way, can call for transformations. Yasser González, software developer and bike promoter

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CREDENTIALS: Studied industrial engineering at CUJAE. She went by bike to the university everyday of the 5 years career. She worked 10 years as engineer at the navy. PROJECTS: She has an atelier to repair bikes: VéloCuba is a company, where only enterprising women work. They are dedicated to the repair and rent of bicycles. By this mean they also promote a life with bikes. POSSIBLE CONTRIBUTION TO THIS VISION: This is a “soft” actor that by using specific spaces of the city in a specific way, can call for transformations. Nayvis Díaz, industrial engineer

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CREDENTIALS: Featured baritone, founder and general manager of the group Street Opera (Ópera de la Calle). PROJECTS: Ópera de la Calle, is settled at “El Cabildo”, located on the West riverside of the Almendares, in an old industrial building. This was repaired, mainly, with the personal resources of the artists that work on it. POSSIBLE CONTRIBUTION TO THIS VISION: It has the possibility of connecting a piece of the city to the water, through the plot where the company is settled on the riverside.

Ulises Aquino, lyric singer and theater director

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CREDENTIALS: She has a store and bike renting business called BuenaBici. PROJECTS: She’s willing to stablish a business of selling bikes in Cuba but hasn’t find the way. POSSIBLE CONTRIBUTION TO THIS VISION: She could stablish the headquarters of her business at the former Pipian bike factory, and contribute to the increase of the bike culture in Havana.

Alejandra Ferrari, freelance HR consultant and director of BuenaBici

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CREDENTIALS: Non-governmental civil organization, non-profit, continuing the legacy of Dr. Antonio Núñez Jiménez through research and development programs and activities that promote values towards a culture of nature at the local, national and international levels. PROJECTS: The foundation has diverse programs: Geohistoric Investigation Program; Heritage Conservation and Cultural Services; Sustainable Localities; Nature and Community; and Responsible Consumption and Economics. In some areas they work together and advice the Metropolitan Park of Havana institution. POSSIBLE CONTRIBUTION TO THIS VISION: They have a network of 1001 NGO’s that share expertise and skills. They could be the link to acknowledge these and gather funds for specific actions on the area.

Antonio Núñez Jiménez Foundation for Nature and Men (FANJ)

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STRATEGIC DESIGN PRINCIPLES

Strategic Design Principles ingredients for a framework and infills

Nature & LANDSCAPE

Sewage and waste systems

Mobility systems

Production systems

Building and neighborhood

FREE TIME & Recreation

S

S

S

S

S

S

Smoothen transition between housing and park areas by removing barriers and making greener neighborhoods

Increase access to water by removing barriers; with quays and jetties, adding landscape stairs, creating circuits for water recreation

Integrate nature into building & neighborhood typologies & street profiles (Ex: green roofs, facades, gallery streets…) (S-M)

Education & campaings for a clean river/ city (S-XL)

Humanize street profiles by adding bike lanes, shade, widers sidewalks and zebra paths (SXL)

Plant gallery streets with fruit trees

M

M Regulate industries and other institutions (ex: hospitals) from dumping residuals in the river

INTEGRATE ORGANoPONICOS IN URBAN AREAS

Connect streets to river by removing barriers and adding landscape stairs

M

Add train/ bus-stop in strategic places for multi-modality and entrance to landscape Create physical links of the landscape between the three zones that allow the continuity of the landscape (S-M)

Create wetland areas

M

Accommodate production on housing and neighborhood typologies where possible (S-M)

Design new neighborhoods with landscape and agriculture integrated into them (Ex: C. Cienfuegos, Arboledas, Terrazas, V. Panamericana )

Fill-in empty plots and plots with buildings in ruins with new housing buildings

Build resilient housing typologies: adapted to climate and location (Ex: Buildings in U; buildings on pilotis)

Incorporate pop-up projects to recreation system of the park (Ex: Wilfredo Prieto; Green island)

(Re-) habilitate abandoned/ obsolete buildings for culture, sports and other recreational/ leisure purposes

M

L Install local sewage treatment plants ($$$) Respect hydro-regulatory strip; create space for it; permeabilise hard surfaces in areas within it (50m) (S-M)

Improve paths and trails by adding nice soil cover materials and adding shade

Make street profiles suitable for logistics (S-L)

Build structures for evolutive housing, for inhabitants to complete (Ex: Elemental)

L

M

Landfill mining: bio-gas recovery from leachates, reuse of surface for solar and wind energy generation Connect and finish unfinished urban structures. Integrate volumes that interrupt urban fabric with this one Define spaces for wildlife within the landscape and improve habitats’ quality by defining units within landscape entity

Improve logistic access to park (S-L), by adding new roads and re-profiling existing ones

Design new neighborhoods with landscape and agriculture integrated into them (Ex: C. Cienfuegos, Arboledas, Terrazas, V. Panamericana )

L

Rescue and (re)activate leisure and recreational areas (Ex: Josephine’s island, Tropical and Polar Gardens)

L

L Improve access and mobility through landscape. Create physical and evident connections through different facilities of the park (S-L) Eliminate and remediate landfill site (phytoremediation cover system incl. trees)

Define landscape entity by creating housing and mix-use areas framing it and designing the edges between them (M-XL)

Restore nature to, in first instance, eliminate threat to biodiversity (Ex. Chullima, landfill, Puntilla) (M-L)

Improve access and mobility though city and landscape by adding perpendicular gallery streets and entrances to the landscape (S-L)

XL

XL

XL

Define landscape entity within natural valley

Renew city sewage system

Improve general transport system: low carbon, multi-modal, friendly and smart

XL

Introduce city recycling system with feasible solutions of classification, recovery and reutilization (S-XL)

Introduce city recycling system with feasible solutions of classification, recovery and reutilization (S-XL)

Create an integral shed manage system for the Almendares-Vento water basin (UMBRELLA PROJECT)

MAINTAINANDINCREASE

CLEANTHE CITY, ITS

THE AMOUNTANDQUALITY

RIVERS ANDESTABLISH A

OF NATUREWITHINTHE

SYSTEM TO KEEP THEM

CITY

CLEAN

CREATE A SYSTEM TO

ESTABLISHA MORE EFFICIENT

ANDMULTI-MODALTRANSPORT

BUILDQUALITYDWELLINGS

SYSTEM ANDRESCUEAND

IMPROVE THE

RAPIDLYANDEFFICIENTLY ,

IMPROVE CONDITIONS FOR

STRUCTURESOF

COMBININGTHE EFFORTSOF

PRODUCTION

STATE ANDPOPULATION

SLOWMOBILITY

AMBITIONSFORHAVANA Ambitions for Havana

CREATE PLACES WHERELOCALSCAN HEALTHILYRECREATE.


3.III.e.

Strategic Design Principles

The strategic design principles are a set of suggested interventions on each realm, on different scales: from S to XL, answering to the ambitions for Havana. On XL, there are solutions to be applied on city scale, for example, to renew the whole city sewage system. On the smaller scales there are infills, for example: humanizing street profiles or building with typologies resilient to tropical climate. Some of the solutions are on different scales, like different ways to create space for the hydro-regulatory strip of the river. These are, in sum, Ingredients for a framework and infills. See full table on left page and the details on the subsequent pages.

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Strategic Design Principles for Nature and Landscape

S

Integrate nature into building & neighborhood typologies & street profiles (Ex: green roofs, facades, gallery streets‌) (S-M)

M

Integrate organoponicos in urban areas

Respect hydro-regulatory strip; create space for it; permeabilise hard surfaces in areas within it (50m) (S-M) Towards a happier Havana. The Almendares area case.

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Create physical links of the landscape between the three zones that allow the continuity of the landscape (S-M)

Define spaces for wildlife within the landscape and improve habitats’ quality by defining units within landscape entity


Ambition for Havana>> Maintain and increase the amount and quality of nature and landscape within the city.

L

XL

Define landscape entity within natural valley

Restore nature to, in first instance, eliminate threat to biodiversity (Ex. Chullima, landfill, Puntilla) (M-L)

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Strategic Design Principles for Sewage & Waste Systems

S

M

Education & campaings for a clean river/ city (S-XL)

Create wetland areas

Regulate industries and other institutions (ex: hospitals) from dumping residuals in the river

Install local sewage treatment plants ($$$)

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L

Improve logistic access to park (S-L), by adding new roads and re-profiling existing ones


Ambition for Havana>> Be a clean city, clean its rivers and stablish a system to keep them clean.

XL

Create an integral shed manage system for the Almendares-Vento water basin (UMBRELLA PROJECT) Eliminate and remediate landfill site (phytoremediation cover system incl. trees)

Renew city sewage system

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Introduce city recycling system with feasible solutions of classification, recovery and reutilization (S-XL)


Strategic Design Principles for Mobility Systems

S

Humanize street profiles by adding bike lanes, shade, widers sidewalks and zebra paths (S-XL)

M

Connect streets to river by removing barriers and adding landscape stairs

Make street profiles suitable for logistics (S-L)

Connect and finish unfinished urban structures. Integrate volumes that interrupt urban fabric with this one

Add train/ bus-stop in strategic places for multi-modality and entrance to landscape

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Ambition for Havana>> Have a more efficient and multi-modal transport system and rescue and improve conditions for slow mobility.

L

XL

Improve general transport system: low carbon, multi-modal, friendly and smart

Improve access and mobility through landscape. Create physical and evident connections through different facilities of the park (S-L)

Improve access and mobility though city and landscape by adding perpendicular gallery streets and entrances to the landscape (S-L)

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Strategic Design Principles for Production Systems

S

M

Accommodate production on housing and neighborhood typologies where possible (S-M)

Plant gallery streets with fruit trees

Design new neighborhoods with landscape and agriculture integrated into them (Ex: C. Cienfuegos, Arboledas, Terrazas, V. Panamericana )

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Ambition for Havana>> Improve the structures of production and provide sufficient public services.

L

XL

Introduce city recycling system with feasible solutions of classification, recovery and reutilization (S-XL) Landfill mining: bio-gas recovery from leachates, reuse of surface for solar and wind energy generation

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Strategic Design Principles for Production Systems

S

Smoothen transition between housing and park areas by removing barriers and making greener neighborhoods

M

Fill-in empty plots and plots with buildings in ruins with new housing buildings

Build structures for evolutive housing, for inhabitants to complete (Ex: Elemental)

Design new neighborhoods with landscape and agriculture integrated into them (Ex: C. Cienfuegos, Arboledas, Terrazas, V. Panamericana )

Build resilient housing typologies: adapted to climate and location (Ex: Buildings in U; buildings on pilotis)

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Ambition for Havana>> Have a system to build quality dwellings rapidly and efficiently, combining the efforts of state and population

L

Define landscape entity by creating housing and mix-use areas framing it and designing the edges between them (M-XL)

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Strategic Design Principles for Free Time & Recreation

S

M

Increase access to water by removing barriers; with quays and jetties, adding landscape stairs, creating circuits for water recreation

Incorporate pop-up projects to recreation system of the park (Ex: Wilfredo Prieto; Green island)

(Re-) habilitate abandoned/ obsolete buildings for culture, sports and other recreational/ leisure purposes

Improve paths and trails by adding nice soil cover materials and adding shade

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Rescue and (re)activate leisure and recreational areas (Ex: Josephine’s island, Tropical and Polar Gardens)


Ambition for Havana>> have enough places where locals can healthily recreate.

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THE NEW GREAT HAVANA FOREST SPATIAL FRAMEWORK To strengthen city, nature & heritage, to connect people and inspire Havana to grow in a healthy way

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3.IV.

The New Great Havana Forest Spatial Framework

River [condition] Integral management of the Almendares-Vento hydrographic shed Landscape [condition] Reservation for hydroregulatory strip and buffer of 50m for main river and 20m for tributaries Demarcation of the Great Havana Forest Basic landscape zones River cleaning wetlands Mobility structure [condition] North-South connections from Malecón and Miramar sea-front to Havana’s Technical University (CUJAE) (ca 15 km, of which 3 km are new roads) Perpendicular streets with entrances to the Forest (ca 14 km, of which 7,5 km are new roads) Boundary boulevards (formal delimitation between urban areas and the Forest)

For the Almendares (ca 10 km of new road)

For Santoyo tributary (ca 5,5 km of new road)

Change of concept of transport on railroad: from suburban train system to tram system, using the same infrastructure.

New suburban-train (tram) stops (every 0,8-1,4 km)

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To strengthen city, nature & heritage, to connect people and inspire Havana to grow in a healthy way

The New Great Havana Forest Spatial Framework

Change of concept of transport on railroad: from suburban train system to tram system, using the same infrastructure. New suburban-train (tram) stops (every 0,8-1,4 km) Higher frequency of trips

Boundary boulevards (formal delimitation between urban areas and the Forest) For the Almendares (ca 10 km of new road) For Santoyo tributary (ca 5,5 km of new road)

Perpendicular streets with entrances to the Forest (ca 14 km, of which 7,5 km are new roads)

North-South connections from Malecón and Miramar sea-front to Havana’s Technical University (CUJAE) (ca 15 km, of which 3 km are new roads)

MOBILITY STRUCTURE [CONDITION]

River cleaning wetlands

Basic landscape zones

Demarcation of the Great Havana Forest

Reservation for hydro-regulatory strip and buffer of 50m for main river and 20m for tributaries

LANDSCAPE [CONDITION]

RIVER [CONDITION] Integral management of the AlmendaresVento hydrographic shed


Historic industrial or leisure ensembles, reprogrammed with contemporary functions (socio-cultural, recreational or other)

Intensively programed leisure gardens

Production land for waste processing for wood production and agriculture

Space for 41214 dwellings in: Areas edging the Great Havana Forest Areas filling-in empty plots or replacing buildings in ruins Areas inside the Forest demarcation, integrating nature into building and neighborhood typologies

PROGRAM [FILL-INS]


To build the framework we need the network of mainly governmental institutions

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Program [fill-ins] Space for 41214 dwellings in:

Areas edging the Great Havana Forest

Areas filling-in empty plots or replacing buildings in

ruins

Areas inside the Forest demarcation, integrating nature

into building and neighborhood typologies

Production land

for waste processing

for wood production and agriculture

Intensively programed leisure gardens Historic industrial ensembles, reprogrammed with contemporary functions (sociocultural, recreational or other)

3.IV.a.

With which actors to build the framework?

In the next following pages, zoom-ins into the groups of actors that coud realize each one of the interventions of the framework. To build the framework we need the network of mainly governmental institutions

Integral management of the Almendares-Vento hydrographic shed 141


Integral management of the Almendares-Vento hydrographic shed LANDSCAPE Integral management of the Almendares-Vento hydrographic shed

Integral management of the Almendare

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Reservation for hydro-regulatory strip and buffer (of 50m for main river and 20m for tributaries) LANDSCAPE Reservation for hydroregulatory strip and buffer of 50m for main river and 20m for tributaries

Reservation f (of 50m

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Reservation for hydro-regulatory strip and buffer (of 50m for main river and 20m for tributaries) LANDSCAPE Demarcation of the Great Havana Forest

Demarcation o

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Reservation for hydro-regulatory strip and buffer (of 50m for main river and 20m for tributaries) LANDSCAPE Basic landscape zones

Basic landscap

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River cleaning wetlands LANDSCAPE River cleaning wetlands

River cleaning

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Boundary boulevards (formal delimitation between urban areas and the Forest) MOBILITY STRUCTURE

For the Almendares (ca 10 km of new road) North-South connections; Perpendicular streets. Boundary boulevards

For Santoyo tributary (ca 5,5 km of new road)

North-South c to Havana s

km are new road

Perpendicular of which 7,5 km

Boundary bou and the Fores For the

For Sant

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Change of concept of transport on railroad: from suburban train system to tram system, using the same infrastructure.

New suburban-train stops (every 0,8-1,4 km) MOBILITY(tram) STRUCTURE Higher frequency of trips Change of concept of transport on railroad

Change of concep system to tram s

New suburban-train (tr Higher frequency of t

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Areas edging the Great Havana Forest Areas filling-in empty plots or replacing buildings in ruins Areas inside the Forest demarcation, integrating nature into building and neighborhood PROGRAMtypologies Space for dwellings

Space for (at lea

Areas edging t Areas filling-in Areas inside th neighborhood t

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Production land for waste processing PROGRAM for wood production and agriculture Production land

Production land

for waste pro for wood prod

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Intensively programed leisure gardens PROGRAM Historic industrial or leisure ensembles, reprogrammed with contemporary functions (socio-cultural, recreational or others) Reprogrammed historic industrial ensembles and leisure gardens

Intensively progr

Historic industria contemporary fun

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4 Three sections 4.I.

Where to start?

I have a suggestion of where to start in each one of the three river typologies of the river: The Almendares urban valley 1- FAC- starting situation 2- Expansion of the FAC’s garden and activities into abandoned industrial buildings

a. GHFA: Hydrological strip, incipient park and part of

gallery street

3- Wilfredo Prieto and Ulises Aquino open up their building fronts towards the river making them more accessible, and their functions to the public

a. GHFA: filling-up gallery street on this side

4- State housing corporations build half houses/ buildings, and people fill in

i. GHFA: 6th and 30th streets, connection with MalecĂłn and

Miramar, street profiles with space for bikers

ii. GHFA rescues Josephine island, navigation gets there

iii. Alessandra Ferrari>> bike factory

iv. Yasser and Nayvis>> first bike tour from factory- to

factory The Hidden Casiguaguas 1- obsolete factory, starting situation (GHFA>> MINDUS>> gives it to Osmel) 2- Osmel fixes and activates the factory and the garden for his educational project of the green island; with help of Marcia and the GHFA. In the process, education campaign

a. GHFA restores hydro strip.

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gallery, adding space for bikers, pedestrians and logistics

3- Osmel, Marcia, GHFA> extend their work towards the green island, restoring forest, hydro regulatory strip , biodiversity

a. Green island round

b. Perpendicular streets, and entrance to the landscape

c. Transport project adds one stop

4- plenty of housing have been created here for young people and families with half house/ half building strategy. 70% occupation in extension areas, 30% in housing island

a. Other industries and gardens were also activated and

integrated to the landscape

b. More tram stops, with forecourts as doors to the forest

and bridges between landscape and urban areas

c. Edge boulevard

La Chorrera waste & knowledge mountains 1- GHFA intercedes so Network of Enterprises for Recycling can mine and remediate landfill 2- Network of Enterprises for Recycling starts mining

a. GHFA & CNAP reforest hydro strip

b. GHFA bike road reactivation

c. Peùa’s students start working in projects in the area

of the GHFA

3- UERMP adds layers of phytoremediation

a. GHFA> completes N-Z route and landfill perpendicular

b. GHFA>> wetlands Towards a happier Havana. The Almendares area case.

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c. Fac Arq keeps working on exercises

d. Existing tram stop gets a foursquare

e. Nayvis opens another workshop at CUJAE

f. Yasser + Nayvis>> first Vedado to CUJAE tour, to promote

biking 4- The landfill becomes a park

a. ACPA>> tree nurseries, with poplars and majaguas

b. More perpendicular gallery streets

c. As part of Peùa’s student’s projects, architecture

and urbanism projects have a test ground here. Many

students live here closer to the university, in contemporary

resilient buildings, filling in empty plots in areas with 50%

occupation. The urban typologies integrate agriculture in

their design.

d. More tram stops with entrances to the landscape e. Also, CUJAE gets a landscape definition, the perpendicular structure connects with the historic site of Toledo, students build student house closer to the river

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Where to start at The Almendares Urban Valley?

4.I.a

Start with X Alfonso and the Cuban Art Factory. This place has turned in a very short time in the hipster place of Havana, attracting kids, young and old, also involving them in learning and making in the surrounding community. By extending its activities to the adjacent plot and buildings, he can gradually activate the surroundings and catalyse other developments. 1- obsolete factory, starting situation (GHFA>> MINDUS>> gives it to Osmel)

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first...

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then...

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eventually, it could develop like this...

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Young guy takes his girlfriend on a boat, from the Almendares Park pier to the jetty at CHullima. The river is clean and wildlife is coming back to it. People bath, & spend free time on the riverbanks. From the balconies of houses on both sides, expectators see their happiness


Where to start at The Hidden Casiguaguas?

4.I.b

Start with Osmel Francis Turner establishing the headquarters of his Green Island project in one of the obsolete factories. In time he can repair the building and use it for environmental education activities and for events and festivals where he involves the community in making and learning. Gradually he can activate the surroundings and catalyze other developments. z

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first...

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then...

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eventually, it could develop like this...


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We are inside the factory of Green Island Project. In the center, Osmel explains his ideas about the next edition of the River Festival. This is an educative place, that holds events that support the environment. Its is totally accessible by bike and tram


Where to start at La Chorrera Waste & Knowledge Mountains?

4.I.c

Start by remediating the landfill, and using the knowledge concentrated at the Technical University to activate and restore the surroundings and catalyze other developments.

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first...

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then...


eventually, it could develop like this...

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Years ago this was the road to access the landfill. Now it’s a beatiful gallery street. The best is the shade and the happier The Almendares freshness. Years ago I wouldn’t have thought of comingTowards by bike,a but nowHavana. it is totally fine. From area herecase. I can already 185 see CUJAE, the technical university.


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5 Back to Havana 5.I.

Dreaming the other (nine) rivers of Havana

This is just the beginning. A framework and vision such as these, will put Havana in the map again. Havana “has it” and the other Cuban cities don’t. But also, if it’s done well enough, it is worth of imitation. The other 9 rivers of Havana, one by one, could follow. And as such, the other rivers of Cuba which have the same conditions. And to have clean rivers and cities, beautiful landscapes, more efficient transport, enough housing for everyone, and places to go to spend the free time, can only make the Cuban population happier.

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Dreaming the other (nine) rivers of Havana

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6 Bibliography Aravena, Alejandro, and Andrés Iacobelli (2012). Elemental Manual De Vivienda Incremental y Diseño Participativo. Hatje Cantz. Baum, M. (2014). City as loft: Adaptive reuse as a resource for sustainable urban development. Zürich: GTA Verlag. Birkenmaier, A., & Whitfield, E. K. (2011). Havana beyond the ruins: Cultural mappings after 1989. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Broekmans, T., Feenstra, S., Urhahn, G. B., & Ernsten, C. (2012). The spontaneous city: Urhahn Urban Design. Amsterdam: Bis. Burgos, F., Garrido, G., & Porras-Isla, F. (2015). Landscapes in the city: Madrid Rio: Geography, infrastructure and public space. Madrid: Turner. Hebel, D. (2014). Building from waste: Recovered materials in architecture and construction. Basel: Birkhäuser. Mathey, K. e. (2014). Profile of housing in Cuba. Full version. (orig: Perfil de la vivienda en Cuba). ONU Habitat. Havana: ONU Habitat. Miazzo, F., & Minkjan, M. (2013). Farming the City.: Food as a tool for today’s urbanization. Amsterdam: Valiz. Mitchell, A., & Cuttle, S. (2013). The rurbanite: Living in the country without leaving the city. London: Kyle. Montgomery, C. (2015). Happy city: Transforming our lives through urban design. London: Penguin Books. ONE, N. S. (2017). Anuario Estadístico de Cuba, 2016. Havana: ONE. Pedroso Herrera, Ida Inés et al. (2007). Cuadernos del Almendares. CISP-GPMH. La Habana

Philips, A. (2013). Designing urban agriculture: A complete guide to the planning, design, construction, maintenance and management of edible landscapes. Hoboken: Wiley. Phong, L. H. (2015). The relationship between rivers and cities: influences of urbanization on the riverine zones – a case study of Red River zones in Hanoi, Vietnam. WIT Transactions on Ecology and The Environment, 193, 27-43. Pont, M. B., & Haupt, P. (2010). Spacematrix. Rotterdam: NAi. Proksch, G. (2017). Creating urban agricultural systems: An integrated approach to design. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. Rosa, M. L. (2014). Handmade urbanism Mumbai, São Paulo, Istanbul, Mexico City, Cape Town: From community initiatives to participatory models. Berlin: Jovis. Scarpaci, J. L., Segre, R., & Coyula, M. (2002). Havana. Two faces of the Antillean metropolis. North Carolina, U.S.A: The University of Noth Carolina Press. Chapel Hill and London. Tan, Ekim (2017). Play the City: Games Informing the Urban Development. Jap Sam Books. Torres, A., & Fernández de Alaiza, S. (2012). The urban axis Almendares River. Approaching its public space. (orig: El eje urbano Rio Almendares. Acercamiento al espacio publico). Instituto Superior Politécnico “José Antonio Echeverría”, Faculty of Architecture of Havana. Havana: CUJAE. Viera, F. (2017, July 07). Interview with Frank Viera, geologist of the Geology and Palaeontology Institute of Cuba. (I. Rodriguez, Interviewer) Zardoya, M. V. (2008, May). Almendares river and Havana city (original: El río Almendares y la Ciudad de La Habana). URBANO (17), 63-75.

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Profile for Iruma Rodríguez

Towards a happier Havana: the Almendares area case.  

Analysis, vision and framework on the Almendares area, with the goal of making of Havana a happier city.

Towards a happier Havana: the Almendares area case.  

Analysis, vision and framework on the Almendares area, with the goal of making of Havana a happier city.

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