NAVAYUGAnews An Inhouse Bimonthly Magazine November - December - 2011
Construction of Longest bridge of 9.2 Km over River Brahmaputra Between Dhola and Sadia Ghats in Assam State
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November - December - 2011
Vichara Dhara HOPE YOU DON'T 'MIND' " The Mind is like a trunk. If well packed, it holds almost everything; If ill - packed next to nothing” If the brain is mysterious, even more so is the mind, the living experience of the human brain in action. The mind is intimately bound up with the every aspect of being a person; Identity, Character, Intelligence, creativity, empathy, emotions, combination of thought, perception, memory, unconscious cognitive processes, Will, Imagination and action. Sound functioning of mind depends on the interaction of three equally important factors -biological, psychological and environmental. The mind is the real instrument of sight and observations. Actions involving to receiving, storing and recollection of information by the MIND relate to memory which is the power of reproducing in the mind former impressions or percepts. Recollection and Remembering are the exercise of that power. Memory Matrix is a reservoir of knowledge and shared experiences. Memory helps in creating bonds between Groups, Communities and Nations. Memory does not have specific age limit like that of Heart, it is intended to be there with you up to your last breath. But we still need to look after it, to exercise it all the time. The one thing that dulls memory is lack of use. Memory does not function in a vacuum; it is a system of vital interaction. Every intensively experienced moment of life stimulates memory. THE MIND'S EYE:- What can we say of Human Memory with its remarkable power to store information visually?.Long term memory is housed in two separate systems: a verbal memory system that contains networks of stored facts, and a visual memory system akin to a photographical library where information is stored in the form of images. The capacity of Human Memory for images is generally far greater than that for words. THE MIND'S EAR:- Hearing plays a special role in remembering because we primarily rely on the spoken word for communicating with each other. Specialized memory system for sounds has evolved in the brain, enabling us to recognize and respond to different sounds. Hearing, like every other sensation is produced by a particular firing pattern. The neurons (nerve cells) that respond to sound are situated mainly in the Temporal Cortex - the area of brain above and behind the ears. Sound triggers several different types of recognition - each one a form of memory. Each element of the message contained in the small sound is accounted in a different part of the brain’s memory system. The brain’s briefest memory for sounds is echoic memory - and instant replay that enables us to keep a short striking of sound as 'on hold' for a few moments. SMELL :- Odours and scents are very potent triggers of memory. Where scents seem to be most powerful is in the emotional intensity of the memory evoked. Episodic memories are the type we use to remember events. The
reason for strong link between smell, episodic memory and emotion seems to like in the structure of the brain. The sense of smell is directly linked to the Arnygdala - HIPPOCAMPAL Complex in the Limbic system of the brain, often called the 'seat of emotion' and also important for memory formation. This gives scent a stronger power to evoke memories. MEMORY AND EMOTION:- Every experience is potentially a memory, but in most cases what distinguishes experiences that endure in memory from those that pass without note is that when they occurred they either created, or coincided with higher than normal levels of emotion. Emotion is generated in a primitive part of the Brain carted the Limbic system, but it effects radiate to the areas of the Brain that process sensations and generate thoughts. One effect of emotional arousal is to direct attention to the events that provoke it, and attention inturn amplifies the brain activation associated with the event. Attention is effectively the first stage of laying down a memory. CHEMICALS IN THE BRAIN:- We understand intuitively that exciting events are more clearly recalled than routine occurrences. One reason for this is that emotion changes the chemical balance of the brain. Excitement pushes up the levels of brain chemicals Acetylcholine and noradrenalin in certain areas of the brain, while pleasure increases production of dopamine and disgust provokes the release of glutamate. These changes help to create links between whatever neurons happen to be firing together after time. MEMORY AND CONTEXT:- Everything that happens to you has a context not just circumstances and surroundings but also your internal state, emotions and physical feelings as you experience it. If the event is laid down as a memory, some of that context is laid down with it and becomes a hook for remembering. There are two types contextual information attached to memories of events. The first is the sensory back ground. The other is your internal state. Contextual elements can be valuable aids to recall because when one part of memory is retrieved, it often hooks out all the rest. Consciousness is inherently individual. It is not simply experiencing-there is always a 'me' at the centre doing the feeling, responding and interpreting. THE MIRACLE OF CONSCIOUSNESS:- Consciousness is the most remarkable product of the human brain. It is the medium of our thoughts, and gives meaning to our experiences. Without it we could not experience sight or sound, taste, touch or smell and from it comes our sense of identity. “The mind has its own place, and in itself can make a heaven of hell, a hell of heaven". JOHN MILTON " said Everything is based on mind, is led by mind, and is fashioned by mind"
He who is satisfied with gain which comes of its own accord, who is free from duality and does not envy, who is steady both in success and failure, is never entangled, although performing actions.
Happenings in NEC Recently awarded projects •
We have been awarded the work of “Regular Pile Works of Cuddalore 2X300MW ITPCL Power Project”. This work was awarded by M/s Shandong Teijun Electric Power Engineering Company Limited (STEPC). The value of the work is Rs. 18,10,91,500 /-.
Newly recruited personnel at various sites/offices •
The following personnel have been recruited recently in our various Sites/Offices to share their performance efficiency with us. S.No
Name of the site
Mr. K. Ravi Kumar Reddy
Mr. P. Upendra Reddy
Lohit River Bridge
Mr. Adapa Sreeram
Ganga River Bridge
Mr. D. Venkata Raghu
Brahmaputra River Bridge
Mr. A. Midhun Chakravarthy
Mr. G. Savara Naidu
Ganga River Bridge
Mr. Ch.V.V. Siva Ram Kumar
Site Engineer (Mech)
Stage II, Bihar
Mr. Avinash Gutta
Mr. Anoop Singh
Technical Advisor (Business Development)
Ganga River Bridge
Y. Gowri Prathyusha
Ram Moorti Tiwari
Deputy Manager (Projects)
Jahnavi Bridge, Bihar
Brahmaputra River Bridge
Brahmaputra River Bridge
Ajit Kumar Deori
Brahmaputra River Bridge
Brahmaputra River Bridge
Hiranya Nath Boruah
Brahmaputra River Bridge
Brahmaputra River Bridge
Brahmaputra River Bridge
Brahmaputra River Bridge
Brahmaputra River Bridge
Brahmaputra River Bridge
K. Govinda Rao
Sr. Supervisor (Fab)
Kakinada 5 & 6
Binay Kumar Singh
Sr. Deputy Project Manager (Tunnel)
D. Kishore Kumar
Sr. Site Engineer
NAVAYUGA news heartily welcomes them to our NAVAYUGA Group and wishes them a bright future. “Success is not the key to happiness. Happiness is the key to success. If you love what you are doing, you will be successful.”
November - December - 2011
Additional wealth of the company Mr. N.Suriyanarayanan joined M/S NEC as Vice President in June, 2011. He is a Civil Engineering graduate from College of Engineering, Guindy, Chennai. He has a rich & varied experience of 34 years in Power sector in Project execution. He was with NTPC in their various project sites like Ramagundam in AP, Kayamkulam in Kerala, Koldam in Himachal Pradesh, etc. with varied fuel sources like coal, naphtha & water. Before joining NEC, he was CEO of NTECL, a joint venture co. of NTPC & TNEB, entrusted with the responsibility of constructing 3*500 MW coal based thermal power station, at North Chennai, which is now on the verge of synchronisation. His wife, Ms. S.Bhanu is a home maker. His son Mr. S. Naganathan is a B.Tech & MBA, & is presently employed as Area Sales Manager with Madura Garments & Lifestyles, in Pune & his daughter Ms. S.Nithya is a B.Com graduate, employed as Senior Customer Relations Executive with R R Donnelley &Co. in Chennai. Mr. Anup Kumar Gupta joined M/s NEC as advisor in June 2011. He has a vast experience of 30 years in petrochemicals Industry, in which 20 years in Union Carbide India Ltd., Petro Chemicals Division, as head of Naphtha Cracker unit. Worked for 14 years in port Industry and port back-up Industry, Mundra Port & SEZ Ltd, Mundra, Gujarat as a president & CEO. His wife Ms Uma Gupta is a housewife and the couple are leading a happy married life since 40 years.
Mr. Dwaraka Prasad Nema joined M/s NEC as General Manager in August 2011. He did his 1) Diploma in Civil Engineering, Govt. Polytechnic, Jabalpur, MP, 2) B.SC. Power Engineering in BITS, PILANI, 3) MBA, HR (Project Management), SMU. He has a vast experience of 29 years in various NTPC Projects (viz) I)
Korba, Chattisgarh from 1981-1992
Jhanor, Gujarat form 1992-1995
Vindhya Nagar, Madhya Pradesh from 1995-2007
Korba, Chattisgarh from 2007-2011
He was associated in construction works of Thermal & Gas based Power Projects mainly execution of fabrication and erection of structural steel works, construction of RCC chimney (275 m) and civil works of main Power House. He is married to Ms. Sunita and the the couple is blessed with a son Mr. Shivam (22 years) and daughter Ms. Sheetal (19 years).
Ms. G. Vidya joined M/s NEC as head of H.R in November 2011. She is graduated from GITAM, Vizag in Electronics and Communications and did MS in Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. She has a vast experience of more than 20 years as consultant in American companies such as American Airlines, Verizon, Pepsico and Morgan Stanley. She has led many large teams successfully. She is married to Dr. Kumaran, B.E (Mechanical Engineering), M.S (Mechanical Engineering), Phd in Industrial Engineering. The couple is blessed with son Mr. Siddharth Kumaran pursuing Business School in Univertsity of Berkeley, California & daughter Ms. Shreya Kumaran studying 5th grade at Indus International School, Sankarpally.
â€œHonesty is the first chapter in the book of wisdom.â€?
Vessel Generated Waves (Harbour Engineering Series: Part - 7)
Dr Ir P.V. Chandra Mohan
1. General It is not often that a pile is subjected to wave action. Jetties and berths are often constructed in protected waters. Purpose of these structures is for ships to come along side and do cargo handling operation. These operations require a certain tranquility condition. So, piles of these structures are subjected to minimal wave action only and so, are not specially considered for design purposes. But when tranquility requirement for a particular type of vessel is such that it can tolerate higher waves, then wave forces on the piles become important. Cooling water intakes for power plants are usual structures that jet into coastal waters for distances up to a kilometer or more. Piles of these structures are directly open to waves. From hydrodynamic point of view, this is in either transitional or shallow waters for normal waves. There are oil drilling platforms in deeper waters. Wave action on their legs falls under deep water waves. This is also true for the mono-pile foundation of the wind mills that are presently springing up all over the sea. 2. Relevant Parameters It was already discussed in previous sections of this series that when waves from deep waters enter shallower waters, during their propagation towards the coast, they undergo deformation. Deep water waves exhibit linear characteristics and closed form solutions are available for their dynamics. A depth of L/2 is considered to be the lower limit to identify deep water for a wave. Now let us take an example case of a wave of period, 10 seconds and height 5m. Its deep water wave length will be 156m. This means that transitional water begins at a water depth of 78m. We will never have a coastal or harbour structure at that water depth. In transitional waters, linear wave theory is not applicable. Accurate method to check nonlinearity of a wave at a certain water depth is to find out the Ursell parameter (Ur). Now, consider that the front row of piles of the jetty is in a water depth of 8m. Wave parameters at this water depth are found out using a program. Wave length (L) comes to 83.36m and wave height (H) is 5.09m as per linear wave theory. Ursell parameter works out to 69.03. Since this value is more than 25, the finding is that linear theory is not applicable. Now, a separate program will be used to calculate the relevant parameters. The basic parameters are kept the same. But, Water particle velocities and accelerations increase substantially. For example, at SWL, horizontal max velocity of flow which was 2.99m/s in the linear computations becomes 5.48m/s in Stoke’s second order. Horizontal displacement of particle at the same location is 2*4.72mfor linear against 2*6.28m for Stoke’s second order. In general closed form solutions are not possible for nonlinear waves. Linear wave theory is not applicable in water depths where structures are constructed. Please see fig 1 for the definition of parameters to be considered.
Fig 1 Definition sketch for pile and wave 3. Linear solutions For making a beginning in the study of forces on piles, it is better that one proceeds with linear calculations first. This is in spite of the fact that the theory is not applicable in the example case. While computing wave forces on piles, first thing to be ascertained is that the flow field is not affected by the body of the pile itself. This is true only for slender piles. Large bodies (for example, wells) will interfere with the flow field and will change the assumptions taken in the theory. It has been found that the following derivations are valid only when D/L < 0.05, where D is the diameter of the pile and L is the wave length. In the example case, L=83, so, computations are applicable up to a pile diameter of 4.15m. This shows that generally, computations are valid for piles but not for caissons. Wave force on unit length of pile is given by Morisson et al. (1950) as below.
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November - December - 2011
where, fi – inertial force per unit length of pile fD – drag force per unit length of pile ρ – mass density of fluid = 1000kg/m3 D – pile diameter = 1.5m u –horizontal water particle velocity at the axis of the pile (calculated as if the pile were absent) CM – inertia or mass hydrodynamic force coefficient Cd – drag hydrodynamic force coefficient
for 5(10) <Re
for 5(10) < Re
where, Reynold’s number where, Um – maximum horizontal water particle velocity ν – kinematic viscosity of the fluid = 9*10-7 m2/s
Fig 2 Variation of particle horizontal velocity and acceleration with depth Please see fig 2.Um varies (reduces) from 3.35m/s at free surface to 2.52m/s at the bed. The variation is not linear. Average of these values were taken and is used for computing Re. Um (average) comes to 2.648m/s. Re works out to 4.4126*(10)6. CM and CDare evaluated as 1.5 and 0.7 respectively. Equation (1) shows that inertia force is proportional to the horizontal acceleration of particles whereas drag force is proportional to the square of the horizontal particle velocity. Since this is a transient quantity, to identify the direction of force, u2 is written as u*ІuІ. If fundamental expressions for the horizontal velocity and acceleration are substituted for u and in equation (1), one gets the following expressions for inertia and drag force. … (2)
… (3) where, z – vertical distance from the SWL as shown in fig 1 t – time elapsed till that instance in a wave cycle T – wave period Above values of inertia and drag force are instantaneous values in a wave cycle. This is evident from the last terms, sin θ and cosθ. Maximum value of both cosθ and sinθ are 1. But they are out of phase by T/4. In this case, its numerical value is 2.5s. This 6
“Failure is not falling down, but refusing to get back up.”
means that the instantaneous maximums will not coincide. Since these forces are to be algebraically added, the resultant maximum and minimum will not coincide with the individual ones. Fig 3 gives the instantaneous water particle velocities and accelerations at the SWL.
Fig 3 Variation of horizontal velocity and acceleration with time As shown in fig 2, horizontal particle velocity and acceleration reduce towards the bed. In the case of force on unit length of the pile, the same pattern is true. But for drag force, the reduction factor inside the bracket is squared. This factor hence reduces more rapidly and so, drag force reduces faster towards the bed than inertia force. This has been demonstrated in fig 4.
Fig 4 Variation force on unit length of pile with depth It will be interesting to see the instantaneous forces on unit length of the pile during a wave cycle. It is already seen from fig 3 that velocity and acceleration are sinusoidal. From equation (2), it is clear that the only variable with time is sin(-2πt/T) and so it is bound to be sinusoidal. But drag force varies with cos(2πt/T)*Іcos(2πt/T)І. This term will not have a smooth curve. Total force per unit length of pile also will be distorted similarly due to this. Please see fig 5.
Fig 5 Variation of instantaneous force on unit pile length with time What is more important from design point of view is the total force acting on the pile. This varies with time, but the maximum value should be arrived at. This is done by first integrating equations (2) and (3) over the full length of the pile under SWL. The expressions are given below. … (4) … (5) “The size of your success is measured by the strength of your desire; the size of your dream; and how you handle disappointment along the way.”
November - December - 2011
where, … (6) Time varying forces on the full pile are plotted in fig 6.Qualitatively, the total force behaves in the same manner as force on unit length. But the magnitude is higher as it is over the entire length of the pile. Maximum resultant force occurs at 4s and 9s into the wave period. Design of the pile is governed by bending moment which it is subjected to. When a horizontal load acts at any point on the free stand of the pile, the bending moment is equal to the force multiplied by its lever arm from the level of fixity.
Fig 6 Variation of instantaneous force on full pile with time Distance of the centre of gravity of inertia force from the bed is given by: …(7)
Distance of the centre of gravity of drag force from the bed is given by: …(8) The above lever arm is from the bed. Fixity depth of pile has been taken as 8.5m. There is no time or spatial varying factors in the above equations. The lever arms were evaluated as 4.117m and 4.236m. For total force, lever arm works out to 4.174m from bed and 12.674m from fixity level for the resultant force. This yields a resultant moment of 513.2kNm for a free end pile, at the point of fixity. Please see fig 7 for illustration of the forces.
Fig 7 Force and Moment on a free standing pile Variation of the above with time in a wave cycle is plotted in fig 8 below.
Fig 8 Variation of moment with time 8
“Impossible, when spelled out, stands for ‘I’m possible’.”
A free standing pile has only a rare application. In normal case, a pile will be part of large structure like a jetty. Invariably, it will have a fixed head at the top. The force diagram in that case is shown in fig 9. The bending moment is half of that in the previous case.
Fig 9 Force and Moment on a fixed head pile So far, the discussion had been on inertia and drag forces that act in the direction of wave propagation. Of course they are transient in nature and act in the opposite direction as well. But there exists a force that acts in the direction transverse to that of wave propagation. This is caused by vortex of eddy shedding. This is similar to Karman vortices formed on the downstream side of a slender obstruction in a unidirectional flow. It is a common sight in river streams where flexible wooden stakes driven into the bed oscillate at high frequencies. In the case of wave induced transient currents, eddies will be formed not alone on both sides transverse to the direction of wave propagation, but as the flow direction reverses, also on both upstream and downstream sides of the pile. This is a transversely oscillating force. This is also known as lift force as it is similar to the aerodynamic lift acting on airfoils.The directional regime of various forces with respect to that of the wave approach is given in fig 10. An expression similar to Morison equation was put forward by Chang (1964) for computation of maximum lift force.
…(9) where, CL – Lift coefficient 2 KDm = a parameter that varies with d/gT
Fig 10 Directional regime of inertia, drag & eddy forces From graph VI-5-127 of Coastal Engineering Manual, for d/gT2 = 0.00815, KDm is obtained as 0.22. For rigid piles, CL is approximately equal to CD. So, CL = 0.7. Using this value, FLm comes to 29.3kN for the full pile. Please note that this is comparable to the resultant force from inertia and drag force together. The consequent moment on the fixed head pile goes up to 186kNm. This is all the more reason that this force is also a critical factor for design. The force diagram is shown in fig 11.
Fig 11 Force and moment due to eddy force The time varying Eddy force FL has a frequency that is double that of the wave. FL = FLm cos2θ, where θ = 2πx/L-2πt/T. Putting x=0, as the pile is stationery, one can find the transient values of eddy force. Fig 12 illustrates the variation of FLwith time and compares it with the resultant of inertia + drag force. “Greatest success comes just one step beyond the point at which defeat overtakes you.”
November - December - 2011
Fig 12 Variation of eddy force with time As mentioned earlier, pile will be part of a larger structure like a jetty. Figure of a jetty with a number of rows of piles is shown in fig 13. The rows have been numbered 1 to 10. Spacing between the rows is 8.3m, which is one tenth of the wave length. This jetty projects into the sea from the coast. Assume that the wave approach is perpendicular to the coast. This assumption is justified as waves after refraction becomes almost perpendicular to the coast at a water depth of 8m, even in case they are inclined. At any particular instant of time, phase of wave of incidence on any row will be different from the other. Consider that the wave is incident on row-1 at instant 9s in the wave cycle. Row-1 will be subjected to maximum force of 40.5kN. At the same instant, row2 will be at an earlier moment of 8s in the cycle and force is 36.8kN. Similarly, Row-3 will be at 7s with a force of 31.0kN. Row-4 will be at 6s with 1.4kN. Further rows will be at earlier instants in the cycle and direction of forces turns to negative after Row-5. In this instant case of 10 rows of piles, net force on the jetty comes to 0. This is because at any instant, the forces will cancel out.This suggests that once a single pile is designed for the maximum moment on it, the jetty need not be checked for overall stability under the action of full force on all the pile rows. The diagram illustrating the above is given below.
Fig13 Phase lag on various pile rows of a jetty Since the pile spacing 8.3m, ie, one tenth of the wave length, each pile fits into a spot of a tenth of the wave length. One will get an idea of how the force on the pile changes with the phase as illustrated in fig 14. Water levels are also shown. Oscillating wave forces are marked on each pile. Net force in the diagram is zero.
Fig 14 Simultaneous inertia +drag force on piles in a jetty As the next step, eddy force which is perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation is added to the scenario. The transient nature of the force can be seen in fig 15. Please see that the frequency of the eddy force is double that of the inertia + drag force. Since the points are taken at one second intervals to suit these forces, the zero force points of the eddy force are not visible. These will fall at 1.5, 3.5, 6.5 and 8.5 seconds and so is not seen in this figure.
Fig 15 Simultaneous forces on piles in a jetty Bending moments act on the pile simultaneously in orthogonal directions. Pile has to be designed for the resultant moment. It is interesting to note that the maximum resultant force on the pile ie, resultant of total of longitudinal and transverse forces will be 46.1kN acting at an angle of 39o45’ to the direction of wave propagation. This force is not at the instant maximum of neither the longitudinal forces nor transverse forces but at 2.5 and 7.5 seconds into the wave period. The resultant maximum of 46.1kNmay be compared to the individual maximum of (Fi+Fd) 40.5kN and (FL) = 29.3kN. As mentioned earlier, computations have been made using Airy’s wave theory for a nonlinear wave though this particular wave at this location is nonlinear. The purpose is to get a perception of the process. Nonlinear computations will follow in the next issue. 10
“To be successful you don’t need to do extraordinary things, you just need to do ordinary things extraordinarily well.”
Sri Komaram Bhim Irrigation Project Hon’ble Chief Minister Sri. N. Kiran Kumar Reddy Inaugurated the Komaram Bhim Project Near Ada Village, Asifabad Mandal, Adilabad District on 19th Nov 2011 Saturday, Memories of Komaram Bheem, who led a rebellion against the Nizam seven decades ago from forests seeking a better deal for his Gond tribals, came alive. The Komaram Bhim project has been built across peddavagu, a tributary of Pranahita river to irrigate more than 45000 acres In Asifabad, Wankidi, Kaghaznagar, and Sirpur mandals. Sri. Kiran Kumar Reddy released water into the left canal which has been built to length of 35 KM against the proposed 65 KM (The Land for balance 30 Km not clear due to Reserve Forest Area) initially serve 20,000 Acres and finally 45,000 acres. Project Cost: 275 Crores. Reservoir Capacity: 11 T.M.C.
“All our dreams can come - if we have the courage to pursue them .”
November - December - 2011
Four laning of Armur to Adloor Yellareddy section on Nagpur Hyderabad of NH-7 from Km 308.00 to Km 367.00 - NAVAYUGA Dichpally Tollway Pvt Ltd .
W Beam Crash Barrier completed from Km 312.600 to Km 312.950 BS
Median Plantation Completed from Km 313.200 to Km 314.800
Quazigund to Banihal in Jammu & Kashmir Project Tunnel Photos
Wire mesh fixing
Tunnel at North Portal
Road Under Bridge
“Management is efficiency in climbing the ladder of success; leadership determines whether the ladder is leaning against the right wall.”
PICTORIALS Construction of Bridge [9.2 Km Length] across Brahmaputra River-Assam
Load test under progress
View of South Viaduct (Dhola Side)
Pier segment lifting in progress
Approach road for concreting between Bay 1 & 2
Casting yard top view
â€œThere are no secrets to success. It is the result of preparation, hard work, learning from failure.â€?
November - December - 2011
Quazigund to Banihal Tunnel project in Jammu & Kashmir
Chief Minister Omar Abdullah, Union Minister for Road Transport and Highways, Dr. C.P Joshi, Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare, Ghulam Nabi Azad and Union Minister for New and Renewable Energy, Dr Farooq Abdullah during foundation stone laying function of 8.45 Km long tunnel at Qazigund on Monday.
Scope of work;- Rehabilitation, strengthening and four laning of Quazigund to banihal section of NH – 1A from km 189.350 to Km 204.700 including 2 Tunnels (2-lane) of 0.69 km & 8.45 km length on D B F OT ( A n n u i t y ) b a s i s i n t h e s t a t e o f Jammu & Kashmir
The twin –tube tunnel – each of 8.45 KM is part of the 15.25 km National Highway which will be converted into four lanes at a cost of Rs 1987 crore. This stretch will also have another tunnel of 600 meters and nine bridges.The Quazigund – Banihal tunnel, located in the PirPanjal mountain ranges, will be the longest tube tunnel in the country Tw i n t u b e o f 8 . 4 5 K M t u n n e l s b e t we e n QuazigundandBanihal are being built by Indian major infrastructure companyNavayuga Engineering Company at 1,790m above the mean sea level by adopting New Australian Tunneling Method (NATM) technique.. Each of the tubes will have a 7 Meter carriageway with 3.75 Meter traffic lane & 3.25Mete will be set aside as emergency lane. The two tubes will be interconnected for pedestrian crossing at a distance of every 500m& vehicular crossing at 1500M. The tunnel will have modem amenities, including provision to make emergency calls and a state of the art ventilation system. Oxygen will be released into the tunnels, and there will be facility for removal of polluted air. Since the tunnel will provide uniform gradient, the average speed of vehicles would be about 50-60kmph. Dedicated tubes will also make the travel smoother.
The Foundation Stone for the length of 8.45 Km tunnel connecting Quazigund and Banihal was laid by Hon’bleUnion Minister for Roads, Transport and High ways Mr. C.P.Joshi on 25th July 2011. Hon’bleChief Minister of J&K Mr.Omar Abdullah, Hon’ble Union Minister Mr. Farooq Abdullah and Hon’ble Union Minister Mr. GhulamNabi Azad were also graced the function. It is set to become the precursor for more tunnels across the State to increase connectivity, reduce travel time, add more places in the tourism package and develop Jammu & Kashmir as a more attractive destination. There was a clamor for more tunnels in the mountain range not just from speakers but also from the public. It will be the pathway from Jammu to Srinagar taking in its stride the dynamic geo activities, snowfalls, avalanches and landslides that disrupt traffic at least for 40 days every year. That won’t be a problem when the tunnel comes into place in five years. It will make a return journey possible the same day between Jammu and Srinagar. An amount of Rs. 10,000 crore is being allocated for the entire length. The work includes four and six laningof the stretch. Tunnels to cut Jammu – Srinagar travel time by 5 hours by 2016 The tunnels will not only make the journey less risky, but will also help boost tourism in the boarded state that saw a revival of the industry this year after a long gap. The stretch is also of immense strategic importance. There will be toll plazas at the end of both tunnels which will also regulate the entry of vehicles.
“Worrying does not take away tomorrows’ troubles, it takes away todays’ peace.”
THE GREAT GESTURE
“It is because of its tangible contributions in changing the lives of the people that “Education “ becomes the most important social instrument for developing human resources and for human capital formation as well as for empowering people towards social wellbeing”. Our Chairman being a staunch believer of the above fact, wanted to establish an educational institute for giving a quality education free of cost to the poor. Accordingly on 05.12.2011 the Chinta Visweswara Rao Educational Society performed “Bhoomi Pooja” for establishing a modern school at the CVR complex in Gopalapuram near Krishnapatnam Port. This school is named as NAVANEETA Public School with an aim to provide free quality education to the poor students of the Port area. An approximate amount of Rs. 40 Crores is allocated for establishing this school.The school caters the needs of two thousand students in the beginning and will be extended to Ten Thousand gradually. Speaking on the occasion Sri Anil Yendluri, CEO, KPCL informed that the school is being built in an area of 10 Acres and will have all the modern facilities. Sri B. Mahender Reddy, Group Director of St. Mary's Institutions is extending his cooperation to establish this mega project. He said that the school will have 40 class rooms, 2 science laboratories, a communication library, large playground and would also provide tasty food along with the free education. Sri. C.V.Rao, our Chairman, Sri C. Sasidhar, Managing Director, KPCL are also present on this auspicious occasion alongwith other officials of the port and local dignitaries. This noble and magnanimous gesture of our Chairman was applauded by one and all especially by the people living in and around Muthukur Mandal, Nellore District.
“Make your life a mission - not an intermission.”
November - December - 2011
Know Your Stalwarts Mr. Allam Sankar Rao, has joined the company in 1993 on a local basis as a Crane Operator at Vizag Port. With his committed work in HPCL Site and Vizag Port he was confirmed in the Company. After that he has worked in Calcutta, Tadi (Vizag), Madhya Pradesh, Noida, Yanam Bridge, Delhi Metro Project, HPCL Site and now working in Krishnapatnam Port site in the operation of TFC Crane, 955 Crane, 320 Crane & Sany Cranes in the execution of Piles, Diaphragm Walls & other major Infrastructures. Though he has no educational qualification, with his consistent performance & hard work he was promoted as Jr. Foreman in 2007 and Foreman (Cranes) in 2010 at Krishnapatnam Port and given a charge to handle all the Cranes. He is married to Ms. A. Kanaklakshmi and the couple are blessed with two children, Mr. A. Naresh 25yrs of age and Ms. A. Bharathi who got married 4 Years back. He takes leave once in an year to visit his old mother along with his family. Mr. Sankar Rao says “ I am very thankful for the Support and encouragement given by the company from time to time and very much satisfied of my present position and financial status”
Mr. Kolla Manmadha Rao, has joined the company in 1996 as a Welder at Vizag Estates. He worked at Bangalore Building Section in 1997, Chennai M.R.L Project in 1998, Mumbai DGNP & JNPT Site in 1999, Simhadri Power Project, Tikkavani Palem in 2000, Kandla port Gujarat from 2001 to 2004, Mangalore Jetty in 2004, Plastic Diaphragm walls at Ongole during 2005-2006 and is now at Krishnapatnam Port Project, Nellore. He bagged a Promotion as Chargant (Welding) in 2008 and as a Jr. Foreman in 2009 with his good performance in Krishnapatnam site. Mr. Manmadha Rao comes from a Farming background and his educational qualification is S.S.C. His parents live in Kottakota, Srikakulam District. He is a very much & thankful to the company for the help he has been receiving from time to time. He is married to Ms. SuryaKumari and the couple are blessed with two boys Mr. K. Ashok Kumar (19Yrs), Studying B.Tech Civil Engg. and Mr. K. Anil Kumar (18yrs) studying Diploma(Mech Engg.) He takes leave once in 3 months to spend time with his wife and Children who stay at Visakhapatnam and also visits his old parents at Srikakulam.
EDITOR’S DESK NAVAYUGA news has completed 8 years of successful completion since its inception. Started as an Inhouse monthly publication with the main intention to serve as a vehicle of communication to our employees to convey their/their family members’ experiences/achievements with the other colleagues, now it has been transformed into an In house Bi-Monthly Magazine covering details of ongoing projects and other illustrative and interesting topics. Time and again we have been requesting our august readers to send any articles of interest including any small and tangible achievements of self and family members for the proud publication in our esteemed Magazine. Though the response is encouraging, we are not receiving the expected number of articles. We once again remind you to participate more enthusiastically, considering the fact that the variety of the Magazine depends on the various contributions received from our sites/office employees. In this connection NAVAYUGA news heartily thanks all the contributors of various articles from time to time and especially Mr. K.M. Boloor, our Vice President for his valuable guidance since the inception of our Magazine and Dr Ir P.V.Chandramohan, our President(Technical) for his illustrious technical articles and presentations. N. Viswanath email@example.com 16
“There are no secrets to success. It is the result of preparation, hard work, learning from failure.”
Unbelievable Engineering Marvels (Sinking Airport)
Ms G. Rekha Devi
Unbelievable Engineering - Sinking Airport "Kansai International Airport" is also known as Sinking Airport. The important factor is that it is built on manmade Island (Osaka, Japan). It is located 5 km off the coast of Osaka, Japan. The airport is built 4 km long and 1 km wide. The only link between the island and Osaka is by the world’s longest 2-tiered bridge.Although the airport is built to withstand earthquakes and typhoons, the artificial island itself is sinking faster than anticipated. Various measures are taken by Airport authorities to keep the airport ‘afloat’. I really believe that this is a Civil Engineering Monument of the millennium. Courtesy : Internet
Built on manmade Island.
Bridge connecting main land to Kansai Airport Built on manmade Island.
Airport hanger at the manmade Island.
Aerial View looking like a floating Airport.
“Why compare yourself with others? No one in the entire world can do a better job of being you than you.”
November - December - 2011
Roman Aqueducts: An Engineering Brilliance
Mr. V. Chaitanya Sekhar Transportation of water is a very important obstacle the world has taken on. Water is a necessity to live; therefore control of water in and out of towns has been going on for thousands of years. Many different ways of moving water from one spot to another have been tried over the years. One example is the building of dams, not only to generate electricity, but also to create an abundance of water that can be transported to farmers to water their crops. The water from the dam is sent through underground conduits, aqueducts, to its final destination. Aqueducts were used by Greeks, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians and Egyptians for water transportation. These early civilizations provided the vision for the Roman Empire to perfect the use of the aqueduct. HISTORY In 97 AD, Sextus Julius Frontinus, the city official in charge of the water supply, is recorded as saying: “I ask you! Just compare this vast array of indispensable structures carrying so much water with the idle Pyramids or the world-famous but useless monuments of the Greeks. ( ) In 97 AD, 300 gallons of water per person a day flowed into Rome through nine aqueducts. The Romans had succeeded in their vision of an aqueduct system supplying Rome with water. Many people, including Frontinus, thought that the Roman aqueduct system was the greatest invention in the world because of what it brought to the people of Rome. In the early days of Rome, the water supply came from the River Tiber. The Tiber however is a very muddy river, and Rome’s sewer system also contaminated it. By the 4th century the Roman population was growing rapidly and Rome urgently needed an alternate water supply. In 312 BC the Roman Senate ordered Adile Appius Claudius to find a new source of water for the city. Claudius undertook the mission and started construction of the first aqueduct into Rome (Carr). Aqua Appia was successfully completed and over the next 500 years, ten more aqueducts were constructed in Rome. At completion of the last aqueduct into Rome, an estimated 38 million gallons of water flowed into Rome everyday! The Roman Empire also built many other aqueducts in Greece, Italy, France, Spain, North Africa, and Asia Minor. Even today some of the beautiful arches of the aqueducts can be seen. Construction of the Roman Aqueduct started with finding a suitable source of water fairly close to the town that needed the water. This source usually came from underground springs for which the Romans had to search. After water was found, the aqueduct was commissioned to be built and a surveyor was hired to find the most practical route. The aqueduct’s gradient was usually around one foot drop per two hundred feet in length. By choosing the gradient and maintaining it along the entire length of the aqueduct, the water could be made to flow fast enough to ensure a good supply, yet not so fast that the force of the rushing water washed out the aqueducts and pipes. Getting this precise gradient required measurements by the surveyor. After the surveyor calculated the length of the aqueduct, and the overall fall, construction could then start. Underground Aqueducts Work on the aqueduct would begin concurrently at various points along the route. Once a channel had been dug, a chorobate would be lowered into the trench to check the slope. The chorobate was a ten-foot long wooden trough with a long grove running down its middle where water was poured; the water indicated when something was level. Once the route was the right gradient the water channel was lined with concrete or a pipe was put into the ground. Underground aqueducts made up about 90% of the 313 total miles of aqueduct into Rome. Above Ground Aqueducts When an aqueduct came to a valley, it was no longer possible to keep the required gradient 18
underground; therefore the Romans designed a bridge like structure of arches that spanned over the valley. When you think of the Roman aqueducts, you think of these beautiful structures, but only about 10% of all aqueducts leading to Rome were above ground. These aqueducts were engineering feats. The structure was a series of arches that were built together. Sometimes, when a very high aqueduct was needed, there were three courses of arches, one on top of the other, with the arches becoming smaller toward the top. This stacking of arches was done because of stability reasons and it proved to work because some of the aqueducts are still standing today. The Arch One of the Roman’s greatest engineering feat is the design of the arch. Before the Romans, the bridges that were built were usually a flat piece of stone spanned over a space between two upright supports. The problem with this design is that a heavy weight on the middle of the span put too much stress on the stone and broke it. The Romans solved this problem by designing the arch. When a heavy weight is on the arch, the stones compress into each other and into a solid foundation, thus making the structure stronger. The Romans used the arch in their designs of aqueducts, bridges, and buildings, many of which are still standing today. The Romans were the first civilization to make a mortar that did not disintegrate when exposed to water. They found natural cement near the Italian town of Pozzuoli and mixed the cement with lime, sand, and water to form the mortar. The mortar was used by Roman Engineers in aqueducts, as a binder in piers and arches, and for foundations. In the arch, stones were held together with the mortar. The arch sat on a solid foundation and the stones were stacked up and mortared together so the axial forces between the stones would transfer the load into the foundation. Therefore the arch could withstand a large amount of force. The top of the aqueduct was lined with cement and covered by stones to protect the aqueduct from contamination and poisoning from enemy troops. When the water reached the city, it was held in tanks. The tanks were then tapped to 1200 public fountains, eleven large-scale public baths, 867 smaller baths, and two artificial lakes. The aqueducts of Rome created the original public works system. Water was regulated and taxed to private and public homes. The 38 million gallons of water that went through Rome everyday had to go somewhere, so a sewer system was created to get rid of the excess waste. The sewer in some places was large enough for a good-sized boat to travel through. The excess water from the aqueducts ran through the sewer and into the Tiber River, completing the public works cycle. Civil Engineering has been greatly influenced by the Romans. Their civilization was the first to recognize what could be done with water, and they utilized their knowledge to create aqueducts to transport that water. Their engineering feats are still remarkable today, as many bridges and aqueducts are still standing utilizing the arch and cement. Many of their ideas are still put to use today. Aqueducts are still used to transport water, even though California’s extensive aqueduct system which yields 3 billion gallons of water per day, the Romans accomplished their system 2000 years before a comparable system was created (Crystal). The arch was also a brilliant design as it was used as the main structure for bridges until the 17th century. Even today the arch is still a reliable source for bridge building. The Romans were ahead of their time with their brilliant aqueducts. (Courtesy: Internet)
“Our greatest glory is not in never falling but in rising every time we fall.”
Saving the Environment, Cement And Water By Using Water Reducers Saving the Environment, Cement and Water By Using Water Reducers In India 0.93 kg of CO2 is emitted in the production of one kg of cement. In the financial year 2009-10 India produces 200 million tonnes of cement. In the production of this cement 186 million tonnes of CO2 was emitted in the atmosphere during financial year of 200910. The availability of water in India per person per year in 1950 was 5177 cu.m. In the year 2009 it is reduces to 1700 cu.m. If 50 million tonnes cement in making concrete uses water reducers 7500000 tonnes of cement can be saved. 3750000 kl of potable water will be saved and the saving of Rs. 3300 crores per year to construction industry. This amount is worked out after adjusting the cost of water reducers. Less cement used means less cement required to be produce by the cement factories resulting 6975000 tonnes of CO2 will be prevented to be emitted to the atmosphere. These are worked out with an average saving of 15% cement and 15% water. CO2 emission is world problem, but for India in addition to CO2 it has problems of Air, Water, Soil, Food and Noise pollutions. Less density populated countries may cope with these problems but for India it is of the top concern. The population figures of 2009 is, India 350 person per sq.km, China 132 person per sq.km and USA only 34 person per sq.km. The figures of 2006 CO¬2 emissions are USA 658.60 tonnes per sq.km, China 611.76 tonnes per sq.km and India 459.35 tonnes per sq.km. Everyone should contribute his or her efforts to save the environment from pollution. MIX DESIGNS: MIX-A With PPC (Portland Pozzolana Cement) (Flyash based) conforming to IS:1489-part-I-1991. 7 days strength 38.5 N/mm2. Specific Gravity : 3.00 MIX-B With OPC-43- Grade conforming to IS: 8112-1989. 7 days strength 40.7 n/mm2. Specific Gravity : 3.15 MIX-C With OPC of Mix-B and Fly ash conforming to IS:3812 (Part-I)-2003 Specific Gravity : 2.25 Fly ash replacement: 30% Fly ash is required to be replaced with the total cementitious materials. Chemical admixture: Super plasticizer conforming to IS:9103-1999. With the given requirements and materials, the manufacturer of Normal Super plasticizer recommends dosages of 17 gm per kg of OPC, which will reduce 24% of water without loss of workability .
Mr. V. Rama Mohan
M-30 Grade of concrete quantity of material per cu.m of concrete on the basis of saturated and surface dry aggregates of Mix ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘c’ are given below: Materials
MIX. ‘A’ Mix. ‘B’ Mix. ‘C’ with PPC with OPC with OPC+Flyash Water kg/m3 145 145 138 PPC kg/m3 330 – – OPC kg/m3 – 330 259 Flyash kg/m3 – – 111 Fine Agg. kg/m3 658 663 592 10mm Agg. kg/m3 510 515 515 20 mm Agg. kg/m3 767 772 772 Normal Super- plasticizer kg/m3 6.6 5.61 7.5 W/Cementations ratio 0.44 0.44 0.373
Note:1. For exact W/C ratio the water in admixture should also be taken into account. 2. The W/C ratio of PPC and OPC is taken the same assuming that the strength properties of both are the same. If it is found that the PPC is giving the low strength then W/C ratio of PPC have to be reduce, which will increase the cement content. For getting early strength and in cold climate the W/C ratio of PPC shall also be required to be reduced. 3. PPC reduces 5% water demand. If this is found by trial then take reduce water for calculation. 4. If the trial mixes does not gives the required properties of the mix, it is then required to be altered accordingly. However, when the experiences grows with the particular set of materials and site conditions very few trials will be required, and a expert of such site very rarely will be required a 2nd trial. CONCLUSION 1. For M-30 grade concrete having same material and requirement, but without water reducer, the PPC and OPC required will be 190/0.45 = 422kg/m3 2. With the use of Super plasticizer the saving in cement is 92 kg/ m3 and water 45 lit/ M3 for PPC and OPC. 3. In the Fly ash concrete the saving in cement is 163 kg/ m3 and water 52lit/ m3 including utilization of 111 kg/ m3 of fly ash which is a waste material
“What most people need to learn in life is how to love people and use things instead of using people and loving things.”
November - December - 2011
Why do I want to be a Civil Engineer???? I have asked myself why do I want to be a civil engineer? I did not know the answer to this question myself. I was lost when choosing a career. Then, I read about civil engineering, an occupation involving the construction of buildings, roads and bridges. As I looked farther into civil engineering, I liked many of the farther aspects involved with the career. Although the education will be difficult, I have determined that civil engineering is the career what I want to pursue.
engineering pays the lowest salary of all engineering fields. Those who pursue a career in civil engineering do not make their decision based on salary. Instead, they derive satisfaction from the good done by helping meet the social and economic needs of the people Aiding the public’s most common needs is what interests me the most. An ambitious, young, and qualified engineer should seek advancements both personally and professionally.
What is civil engineering? This career cannot be defined using just a few words.The many obstacles that civil engineers must overcome cover a vast area of responsibilities.”Civil engineers conceive, plan, construct and operate facilities that meet basic human needs and reach out towards the realization of society’s most noble goals”. Civil engineering has a significant role in the life of every human being, though one may not truly sense its importance in our daily routine.
The desire of new challenges, the longing to help the overall public, and the need to do something positive with my life are three main reasons that I wanted to be a civil engineer. After extensive research, I have concluded that civil engineering is an ideal field for me. I believed that I have the personal attributes and intelligence required to be a civil engineer.This is why I have chosen to pursue this as a career.
The function of civil engineering commences with the start of the day when we take a shower, since the water is delivered through a water supply system including a well designed network of pipes, water treatment plant and other numerous associated sources. Civil engineers solve real world problems with the combination of applying mathematics and natural sciences. Upon deciding to pursue a career in civil engineering, I must have many attributes that help me decide for myself if I am right for this career. Probable civil engineers can be found occupying their childhood time with mechanical toys and structural sets instead of traditional toys. These people get enjoyment from planning, designing and constructing works or facilities.
Ms. M. Maanasa Choudary
I am happy to realize my dream and I am proud to be a civil engineer. I am really fortunate to have a great opportunity to find a job at NECL which is an esteemed organization noted for nurturing young budding engineers in to expert at their job. Civil Engineering" was the original engineering field. These professionals use their analytical abilities and knowledge of the physical world to design and figure out how to build things. Without proper civil engineering, we would not have many of the amenities that make civilization possible: Water piped to our homes and businesses.
They also have the ability to see how intelligent use of nature has made our civilization today possible and have the desire to want to improve it.
Sewage taken away to treatment plants.
Civil engineers use their knowledge of material science, engineering theory, and economics to devise, construct and maintain our physical surroundings. The work duties depend on many different areas of specialization in engineering. A structural engineer, who is concerned with loads to which the structure is exposed, must calculate the maximum load that the structure can hold. A company will start a young, inexperienced engineer out with few responsibilities. As the engineer gains experience, he or she will also gain additional responsibilities. The practice of civil
Bridges that connect people who formerly were divided by water.
Roads that make easy driving possible and reduce the likelihood of accidents.
Layout and construction of schools, public buildings and parking lots that make the best use of land. Coordination of the requirements of architects, city planners, utility companies and property owners so that construction will work.
“Yesterday is history, tomorrow is a mystery. And today? Today is a gift. That’s why we call it the present.”
Down - Turn (Recession) in the World Economy: Now-a-days, we keep hearing the terms ‘Downturn’ “Recession” during every conversation, debates, conventions, government policies, etc., What is this ‘Downturn’?How did it start? What are the attempts made by the policy makers to set right the situation and bring back life to normal? Let us try to understand. The entire commercial activity of a country comprises manufacture, agriculture and services. This is called “Economy of the country”. The country produces goods and services. Its citizens buy the goods and utilize the services for their living. Ex: Tatas manufacture Nano cars which are purchased by the people across the country. Similarly, BhartiAirtel provides mobile connectivity which people utilise by paying a price. Also, crops are grown in each country.The overall production of goods, agricultural produce and the servicesrendered in ayear, collectively, is called “Gross Domestic Product (GDP)”. Everycountry aims for growth in its economy (measured in terms of growth in GDP) over the years, so that the country prospers.There will be growth in the manufacture of goods and services. Simultaneously, there will be consumption of these goods and utilisation of services for a cost by its citizens. On the other hand, the growth provides better job opportunities. So, more people get jobs.This further increases the spending power of the people, resulting in the movement of the economic cycle in the desired direction. The above situation depicts normalcy in the economy. Due to certain adverse circumstances, the economic activity comes down. Typically, in India, we see this situation whenever there is less than expected rains in the Monsoon season. About 70% of Indian population depends on agriculture as its main occupation. Whenever there is insufficient rain, it affects the economy resulting in slow and low growth. This is known as “Downturn” in the economy. This means that the economic activity has taken a turn towards no growth. The downturn mentioned above is normally for a short term. But, there are certain adverse events, which result in the entire world economy being affected and could last long. Recently, in the year 2008, such a downturn started. The whole world is shattered by this. Even after a period of 3 years, there is no reversal. Instead, the difficulties appear to be spreading all over and for an indefinite period.
Mr. J.B. Chandradhara So, how did the downturn start? In 1988, the American housing loan was at its peak. Two of the biggest American mortgage houses, Fannie May and Freddy Mac, are the lenders for housing loans with houses being mortgaged in their favour. The housing loans were extended to citizens at sub-prime rates (i.e., the borrower who has less repayment capacity would be given loans at higher than the normal interest rates). These mortgage banks floated commercial papers (tradable instruments like bonds) with the properties financed by them as underlying security. These tradable instruments were AAA rated, (best investment avenue). They were sold to almost all the banks in USA and Europe. Meanwhile, the housing cost had reached its peak and eventually the real estate bubble burst and the housing cost fell. With the result, the investors in the commercial papers, mainly leading banks all over the world, had to make huge provisions on these investments, resulting in collapse of the banking sector. The major blow and the beginning of the signs of downturn was closure of a large, famous and one of the oldest banks called “Lehmann Brothers”. On the other hand, the rates of interest went up. The sub-prime lending became bad loans as the borrowers defaulted on the loan. This also led to collapse of banking sector. Once the banks were affected,they could not afford to lend for productive purposes namely, manufacturing and services sectors resulting in lower production in the economy. The manufacturers, in order to cut down their losses, resorted to reduction of staff. This led to huge unemployment, bringing down the purchasing power of consumers. Thus, in 2008, downturn set in, in the US economy. DOWNFALL IN ECONOMY OF EUROPE: Western Europe (Britain, France, Germany, Spain etc.,) is by and large a developed economy. These countriesin Western Europe traditionally behave like allies to USA and have huge dealings with USA. So, when the economy of US was affected, they also had to bear the brunt. The derivative instruments i.e., bonds with underlying security of housing loans of American banks, which were purchased widely throughout banks of
“The positive thinker sees the invisible, feels the intangible, and achieves the impossible.”
November - December - 2011
European countries also,suffered losses just like the American Banks did. The losses were so huge, that most of the banks could not sustain and hence ran the risk of closure. Once the downturn set in, some of the countries, namely, Portugal, Greece, Ireland and Spain had resorted to huge borrowings from the banking sector, to run the economy. This borrowing from the banks by the government is called “Sovereign debt”. The sovereign debt increased to such a high level in case of Greece, that the banks were unable to do further business. While the Government of Greece was unable to repay the debt, the unlikely but only option left to the Banks was to writeoff the debt which eventually would result in closure of the banks. Now, the situation became so grave, that the government was not able to manage the economy. It had to borrow from other countries and pay Banks. Consequent upon the downturn in the economy, the people became intolerant towards austerity measures. London resorted to looting and arson. Massive strikes were experienced in Greece. There were severe political fallouts. Italian and Greece Prime Ministers had to resign. Remedial measures for recovery US Government took up prudent measures and gave money to the banks as equity so that they can keep functioning instead of closing down. Also, money was given to some of the giants like General motors. This helped them to turn around. But the situation did not improve. The damage had been done. Already there were job losses which led to low production and thereby deflation in their economy. American government wanted to boost growth and bring vibrancy to the economy. How do they do it? Boosting the economy means bringing activity back into the economy,i.e, increase production and provides incentives for increasein consumption spending by public. This required more money to be put in the economy. This is known as “Quantitative Easing” (QE). The government printed about $500Bn. Out of this money, it purchased government bonds from the banks. The banks have now more money (“Liquidity)”. This money is used to lend to people, in the form of industrial and personal loans, purchase of house hold utilities such as fridge, TV, camera etc. Loans were also made available for travel, car loan etc. Theoretically, these measures would in turn create demand for goods. Then more manufacture happens. To manufacture more, companies have to employ more people, thus solving the unemployment problem. But in reality the deflation was so deep rooted, QE was not sufficient to set things right. Second tranche of QE also was tried,but did not have desired effect.
economy and increase jobs opportunities by spending on improvement of infrastructure. He planned for a massive $400 Billion expenditure. The opposition party, i.e. the Republicans did not allow him to implement. Neither have they allowed him to increase taxes of rich people. Consequently, the situation of USA still remains uncertain. Of and on, we get some information that its economy is slowly improving. Meanwhile, the European banks, which had purchased more of the derivatives, had to be closed down due to losses, or had to make huge provision. Some countries, like Britain, France, and Germany somehow managed to survive. But, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Ireland could not. Greece was the worst hit. Though Germany and France have come to the rescue of Greece to a certain extent, much needs to be done. What is the story with countries like India, China, Korea etc. which are called emerging economies? Well, these countries have been able to maintain their finances quite satisfactorily. India’sGDP was growing consistently at 8-9% since the past decade. China was much faster at the rate of 15-20%,but, these countries are not isolated in the open economy of the world. They cannot sustain by producing for domestic consumption alone. They have to necessarily export their goods to other countries. Substantial exports have to go to USA, and other developed countries in Europe. India’s software exports to USA alone are60% of the total software production of over $ 90 Bn. This has taken a beating. But despite the hiccups, the software industry has been performing decently. Nevertheless, the downturn in the west has been gradually affecting the Indian market. Hence the downturn effect of USA and Europe on rest of the world economy is due to what is known as “Contagion Effect”. So, where is this situation heading to? Does it become so bad, that we have to struggle to live, or is there a hope to turn towards active economy situation all over the world? Economists believe that the current situation is solvable. But it needs lot of sacrifice. First of all, Greece, Italy and Portugal who are worse affected than others, cannot expect luxuries provided from their respective governments to continue. They have to sacrifice sops, aid, subsidy, etc. On the other hand, it is not the responsibility of the ruling party alone to resolve the issue. It has to be the collective effort of all the political parties to come together and strengthen the ruling party in coming out of the mess. What these countries need is the political will, which is difficult to garner. However, there is hope. As Warren Buffett says, “We're still in a recession. We're not gonna be out of it for a while, but we will get out.”
The president of USA, Barack Obama, tried to boost the
“A leader is one who knows the way, goes the way, and shows the way.”
Krishnapatnam Port Company Limited a Group Company of Navayuga Group has sponsored 53rd Winter National Bridge Championships 2011 held at Jawaharlal Nehru Indoor Stadium, Chennai from 4th to 10th December 2011. Sri Anil Yendluri, Chief Executive Officer, Krishnapatnam Port Company Limited, was the guest of Honor at the inaugural function. In his address to the Bridge fraternity gathered at venue he stated that “Sri C.V. Rao Garu, Chairman of Krishnapatnam Port Company Limited has always stood for and encouraged all of us to subscribe to the core values of courage, confidence, consistency, creativity, commitment and competence, the characteristics that are bound to propel Krishnapatnam Port to become one of the largest port in the world. The game of Bridge requires all the skills that have been mentioned above and that which is why Krishnapatnam Port Company Limited encourages the promotion of this intellectual game of Bridge and has come forward to sponsor the National Bridge Championships. May be sometime in future if given an opportunity by Bridge Federation of India (BFI) and our chairman is willing, we may come forward to have National Bridge Championships in Krishnapatnam itself.” Around 120 Teams from all over India have taken part in the Championships. The Bridge Fraternity have conveyed their sincere appreciation to Krishnapatnam Port Company Ltd., for their kind patronize extended towards promotion of the Intellectual Game of Bridge.
Navayuga news wishes all its readers a
Very Happy and Prosperous
“You will not do incredible things without an incredible dream.”
November - December - 2011
History traces that high quality steel like the one used in the swords was produced in India by 300 BC itself. That's the greatness of this land. The technological development that we see or hear today was written by our maharishis in the Vedic period itself. I believe the most profound truths ever presented to the world are in the Sanskrit Vedas. The contents of the ancient texts referred to as Vedas can be summarized with the single Sanskrit word dharma (that which evolves into omniscience). Vedas are vast and comprehensive body of knowledge, properly known in its entirety as Shruti. Though generally referred to as simply Vedas, they encompass literally tens of thousands of texts of many classifications, including those properly called Vedas, as well as collections called Brahmanaas, Aranyakaas, Upanishads, Prathisakhyas, Shroutha Suthraas, Gruhya Suthras, Samhithas, Puranas, UpaVedas, Vedaangaas, Darshanas, etc Veda means knowledge. The Vedas are perhaps the oldest written text on our planet today. They date back to the beginning of Indian civilization and are the earliest literary records of the whole Aryan race. They are supposed to have been spread through oral tradition for over 10,000 years. They came to us in written form between 4000 - 6000 years ago. Aryan beliefs and daily life practices are described in the four Vedas. Divisions of the Vedas The Vedas are divided into four great books: the Rig-Veda, the Yajur-Veda, the Sama- Veda, and the Atharva -Veda. The Yajur- Veda is again divided into two parts, the Sukla and the Krishna. The Rig-Veda is divided into twenty-one sections, the YajurVeda into one hundred and nine sections, the Sama-Veda into one thousand sections, and the Atharva-Veda into fifty sections. In all, the whole Veda is thus divided into one thousand one hundred and eighty sections. Each Veda consists of four parts: the Mantra-Samhitas or hymns, the Brahmanas or explanations of Mantras or Rituals, the Aranyakas, and the Upanishads. The division of the Vedas into four parts is to mark the four different stages in a man's life. RIGVEDA Rigveda means the Veda of Adoration and mostly contains verses adoring or adulating deities. However, it also dealt with other subjects, like the procedure of wedding, the folly of gambling. About two-thirds of Rigveda is about the Gods Agni (Fire) and Indra (Ruler of the gods). Other Rig Vedic Gods include Rudra, the two Ashvins, Savitar and Surya, Varuna, the Maruts and the Ribhus. Rigveda contains a sense of intimate communion between Nature and the Rishis or visionaries. According to some, the concerns of Rigveda are those of simple, nomadic, pastoral Aryans. According to others, the people in the times of the Rigveda had a settled home, definite mode of life, developed social customs, political organizations, and even arts and amusements. Rigveda is the oldest, largest, and most important of the Vedas, containing ten thousand verses forming 1017 poems in 21 groups. YAJURVEDA Yajurveda is the Veda of Yajana or Worship. It refers to acts of worship such as oblations made into Agni or Fire. It has two branches, Krishna or Black and Shukla or White. While both contain mantras or incantations to be chanted at rituals, Shukla Yajurveda also has many explanations. The sections of Krishna Yajurveda are Tottery, Katthaka, Maitrayani, and Kapishtthala and those of Shukla Yajurveda are Madhyanadina and Kanva. The literary value of Yajurveda is mostly for its prose, which consists of short terse sentences full of meaning and cadence. 24
SAMAVEDA Samaveda consists of a selection of poetry mainly from the Rigveda, and some original matter. It has two parts, Purva-Archika (First Adoration) and Uttar-Archika (Later Adoration), containing verses addressed to the three gods Agni (Fire), Indra (King of Gods) and Soma (Energizing Herb). The verses are not to be chanted anyhow, but to be sung in specifically indicated melodies using the seven swaras or notes. Such songs are called Samagana and in this sense, Samaveda is really a book of hymns. ATHARVAVEDA Atharvaveda means the Veda of the Wise and the Old. It is associated with the name of the ancient poet Atharvan (The Wise Old One). It is also called Atharva-Angirasa, being associated with the name of another rishi, Angiras. Although later in age, the Atharvaveda reveals a more primitive culture than the Rigveda. Atharvaveda contains about six thousand verses forming 731 poems and a small portion in prose. About one seventh of the Atharvaveda text is common to the Rigveda. Atharvaveda contains first class poetry coming from visionary poets, much of it being glorification of the curative powers of herbs and waters. THEARANYAKASAND THE UPANISHADS The Aranyakas are the forest books, the mystical sylvan texts which give philosophical interpretations of the rituals. The Aranyakas are intended for the Vanaprasthas or hermits who prepare themselves for taking Sannyasa. The Upanishads are the most important portion of the Vedas. The Upanishads contain the essence or the knowledge portion of the Vedas. The philosophy of the Upanishads is sublime, profound, lofty, and soul stirring. The Upanishads speak of the identity of the individual soul and the Supreme Soul. They reveal the most subtle and deep spiritual truths. The Upanishads are useful for the Sannyasins. THE ESSENCE OF THE VEDAS The essences of the teachings of the Vedas are as follows: Learn to discriminate between the permanent and the temporary. Behold the Self in all beings, in all objects. Share what you have. Remove all barriers that separate man from man. Love thy neighbour as thyself. Fix the mind on the Self when you work. The Vedas teach us how to conduct our daily life. It is always wise to follow the path prescribed by our elders and ancestors. The daily practice of one’s duties, if adhered to faithfully, can also lead one to enlightenment. It is not necessary for all to know the Vedas, to be able to lead good lives, or to obtain enlightenment. According to Sringeri Jagadguru, His Holiness Sri Sri Bharathi Tirtha Mahaswamiji, the foremost duty of a human being is the faith in God. It does not matter by what name the God is addressed. Just the thought, “I am but the instrument of the Divine”, will channelise one’s energies in the right direction. Second, the person must do his duty. Doing one’s duty means one must do what is enjoined upon one to do – or follow one’s nitya karma or daily routines. Third, the person must develop a compassionate and helpful attitude, and view all others as one views him or her self. One must do what’ll that one can to ease the plight of those less fortunate than he is. Fourth, he must mix with good people who will influence him for the better. Thinking of good things and being with good people will help him live a good life.
“Your life does not get better by chance, it gets better by change.”
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