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1. MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE

Climate change in a global context Scientific consensus and evidence Causes and effects Adaptation and mitigation Milano climatic conditions and natural resources

2. BIOMIMICRY IN ARCHITECTURE What is biomimicry? How can biomimetic design respond more efficienly to climate change? Biomimicry design approach Biomimicry application levels 3. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF BIOMIMICRY IN ARCHITECTURE

Efficient structures Material manufacturing Managing resources and waste systems Water management Thermal control of the environment Renewable energies

4. PROTOTYPE PROJECTS Corso XXII Marzo urban block Ex-Borletti factory


The main focus of the thesis is illustrating how strategies of biomimicry thinking can be successfully applied in the design process in order to obtain optimized design solutions that actively respond to the environmental issues through adaptation and mitigation to climate change. Biomimicry is defined as mimicking the functional basis of biological forms, processes and systems (ecosystems). The advantages of learning from biological examples are that they benefitted from over 3,8 billion years of research and testing through evolution, so they can provide a strong basis of new solutions for sustainable developments. Biological systems can be seen as embodying technologies that are equivalent to those invented by humans, and in many cases they have solved the same problems with a far greater economy of means. The intention is to study ways of translating adaptations in biology into solutions in architecture. Thus the theoretical background of the projects explores how ideas inspired by the natural systems can have real life applications: from structural efficiency, material manufacturing, rational resource use, zero waste systems, efficient water use, controlled thermal environment, energy supply management and how they are all interconnected. As many of the current approaches to environmentally sustainable architecture are based on mitigation and adaptation to climate change the purpose of biomimetic design is to create buildings that will cease to be static consumers and can become net producers of useful resources. The projects are developed as prototypes to implementing these strategies in different contexts and at different scales by working with the existing built environment and having a minimal intervention policy. The starting point of the projects is based on adaptive reuse of existing abandoned structures and urban residual spaces, the chosen sites are the Ex-Borletti factory and the urban block of Corso XXII Marzo, both indicated in the Ri-Formare Milano project. The proposal for the abandoned Ex-Borletti site is to revitalize the area through restorative design and development of an “industrial ecosystem� based on minimal intervention on existing structures, functional and technological symbiosis with the purpose of extending the building’s lifetime and creating adaptability for current and future context. The development project of the urban block of Corso XXII Marzo is based on adaptive reuse of abandoned structures, design of an urban platform that creates unity in the fragmented urban tissue and integration of systems, local interventions and functional programs in order to achieve self-sustainability and context adaptation. Both projects are depicting a general strategy of use and reuse of the existing built heritage through sensible design solutions for future sustainable development, a transformation of sites of abandonment and underutilization to autonomous productive places, going beyond environmental sustainability to restorative design.


MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE


CLIMATE CHANGE IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT

This graph, based on the comparison of atmospheric samples contained in ice cores and more recent direct measurements, provides evidence that atmospheric CO2 has increased since the Industrial Revolution. The industrial activities that our modern civilization depends upon have raised atmospheric carbon dioxide levels from 280 parts per million to 379 parts per million in the last 150 years. The panel also concluded there’s a better than 90 percent probability that human- produced greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide have caused much of the observed increase in Earth’s temperatures over the past 50 years. Multiple studies published in peer-reviewed scientific journals show that 97 percent or more of actively publishing climate scientists agree: Climate-warming trends over the past century are very likely due to human activities. “Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level.” “Most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations.” Temperature data from four international science institutions, all show rapid warming in the past few decades and that the last decade has been the warmest on record. SOURCE: NASA


SCIENTIFIC CONSENSUS

There is an overwhelming scientific consensus that: •The climate is changing • These changes are very likely due to increased global greenhouse-gas concentrations resulting from human activity, particularly from the use of fossil fuels • These changes will continue if we remain on our current path, with increasingly severe consequences for all life on the planet • “Scientific evidence for warming of the climate system is unequivocal.” • The current warming trend is of particular significance because most of it is very likely human-induced and proceeding at a rate that is unprecedented in the past 1,300 years. • Human-caused warming over the last 30 years has likely had a visible influence on many physical and biological systems. • Continued greenhouse gasses emissions at or above the current rates would cause further warming and induce many changes in the global climate system that would be very likely much larger than the ones observed in the previous century. • The heat-trapping nature of carbon dioxide and other gases was demonstrated in the mid-19th century. Their ability to affect the transfer of infrared energy through the atmosphere is the scientific basis of many instruments flown by NASA. There is no question that increased levels of greenhouse gases must cause the Earth to warm in response.

SOURCE : Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

Earth-orbiting satellites and other technological advances have enabled scientists to see the big picture, collecting many different types of information about our planet and its climate on a global scale. This body of data, collected over many years, reveals the signals of a changing climate. The evidence of rapid climate change is compelling through observed temperature rise, sea level rise, snow cover decrease, extreme weather events.


SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING

The graph to the right shows the global averages of surface warming (relative to 1980-99) for three different greenhouse-gas emissions scenarios, as well as a theoretical scenario where emissions are held at year-2000 values. To the side of the graph, the bars indicate the best estimate (solid line) and likely range of temperature change by 2090-99 for six emissions scenarios. The graph highlights two points: • the climate has already changed measurably since the baseline of 1990. We are not starting from zero • up to 2050, there is little real difference between the scenarios; however, beyond the 2050s, they diverge, demonstrating the paramount importance of reducing emissions.

SOURCE: IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report on Climate Change (2014)


MAP OF COUNTRIES BY GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS PER CAPITA

SOURCE : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_greenhouse_gas_emissions


CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE

EFFECTS • Global GHGs emission levels rise

CAUSES Global GHG emissions due to human activities have grown since preindustrial times, with an increase of 70% between 1970 and 2004. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most important anthropogenic GHG. Its annual emissions grew by about 80% between 1970 and 2004. The long-term trend of declining CO2 emissions per unit of energy supplied reversed after 2000. Global atmospheric concentrations of CO2, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have increased markedly as a result of human activities since 1750 and now far exceed pre-industrial values determined from ice cores spanning many thousands of years. Human influences have: • Very likely contributed to sea level rise during the latter half of the 20th century • Likely contributed to changes in wind patterns, affecting extra-tropical storm tracks and temperature patterns • Likely increased temperatures of extreme hot nights, cold nights and cold days •More likely than not increased risk of heat waves, area affected by drought since the 1970s and frequency of heavy precipitation events.

SOURCE: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

• Global temperature rise

• Sea level rise, warming oceans

• Shrinking ice sheets


CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE

EFFEXTS • Extreme weather events

CAUSES Most climate scientists agree the main cause of the current global warming trend is human expansion of the “greenhouse effect”— warming that results when the atmosphere traps heat radiating from Earth toward space. Certain gases in the atmosphere block heat from escaping. Longlived gases that remain semi-permanently in the atmosphere and do not respond physically or chemically to changes in temperature are described as “forcing” climate change. Gases, such as water vapor, which respond physically or chemically to changes in temperature are seen as “feedbacks.” On Earth, human activities are changing the natural greenhouse. Over the last century the burning of fossil fuels like coal and oil has increased the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). This happens because the coal or oil burning process combines carbon with oxygen in the air to make CO2. To a lesser extent, the clearing of land for agriculture, industry, and other human activities have increased concentrations of greenhouse gases. The panel also concluded there’s a better than 90 percent probability that human-produced greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide have caused much of the observed increase in Earth’s temperatures over the past 50 years. SOURCE: NASA after Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

• Decreased snow cover

• Heat island effect

• Ocean acidification


MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION reducing climate change

MITIGATION Mitigation involves reducing the flow of heat-trapping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, either by reducing sources of these gases (for example, the burning of fossil fuels for electricity, heat or transport) or enhancing the “sinks” that accumulate and store these gases (such as the oceans, forests and soil). The goal of mitigation is to avoid dangerous human interference with the climate system, and “stabilize greenhouse gas levels in a timeframe sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner” ADAPTATION Adaptation – adapting to life in a changing climate – involves adjusting to actual or expected future climate. The goal is to reduce our vulnerability to the harmful effects of climate change (like sea-level encroachment, more intense extreme weather events or food insecurity). It also encompasses making the most of any potential beneficial opportunities associated with climate change (for example, longer growing seasons in some regions).

SOURCE: IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report on Climate Change (2014)

ADAPTATION climate change impacts on the built environment


RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE Biomimetic design can help us develope more sustainable design solutions in terms of mitigation and adaptation to climate change. Since we are already committed to some level of climate change, responding to climate change involves an approach mainly characterized by mitigation and adaptation. MITIGATION Mitigation reffers to reducing climate change, it involves reducing and stabilizing the levels of the flow of heattrapping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. ADAPTATION Adaptation means adapting to life in a changing climate, adapting and adjusting to actual or expected future climate.


MILANO CLIMATIC CONDITIONS • Milan, Italy is at 45°26’N, 9°16’E, 103 m • Milan has a humid subtropical climate that is mild with no dry season, constantly moist (year-round rainfall). Summers are hot and muggy with thunderstorms. Winters are mild with precipitation from mid-latitude cyclones. Seasonality is moderate. • According to the Holdridge life zones system of bioclimatic classification Milan is situated in or near the cool temperate moist forest biome. • Total annual Precipitation averages 943.2 mm which is equivalent to 943.2 Litres/m². • On average there are 1900 hours of sunshine per year. Visit the sunshine and daylight section to check monthly details including how high in the sky the sun reaches each month. • Were you to burrow down through the centre of the Earth from Milan you would pop up nearest to the climate station at Castlepoint, New Zealand (Warm temperate thorn steppe biome). • The annual mean temperature is 12.5 degrees Celsius. • Average monthly temperatures vary by 21.75 °C. This indicates that the continentality type is continental, subtype subcontinental.

• In the winter time records indicate temperatures by day reach 6.1°C on average falling to -0.9°C overnight. • In spring time temperatures climb reaching 17.5°C generally in the afternoon with overnight lows of 7.2°C. • During summer average high temperatures are 27.6°C and average low temperatures are 16.3°C. • Come autumn/ fall temperatures decrease achieving average highs of 17.4°C during the day and lows of 8.5°C generally shortly after sunrise.

SOURCE: SOURCE: http://www.milan.climatemps.com/


WHAT ARE THE MAIN RISKS OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT? The key risks identified for buildings due to climate change were: • overheating • increasing impact from the urban heat island effect • subsidence. Other risks directly relevant to the built environment included: • water supply shortage • increased water demand for energy generation • higher energy demand for cooling • flood risk to energy infrastructure • heat damage/disruption to energy infrastructure. Heat island effect TURNING RISKS INTO OPPORTUNITIES On average there are 1900 hours of sunshine per year. Total annual Precipitation averages 943.2 mm which is equivalent to 943.2 Litres/m². Solar input and rainfall are important natural resources that can be used efficiently. It is very important to understand the climatic characteristics and how they can change. Some climate characteristics like solar radiation, wind or rainfall can be input for renewable energies or resource management strategies. A deep understanding of GHG levels is also important for future development, also identifying effects of climate change like : urban heat island or groundwater management is important. SOURCE: Design for Climate Change - Bill Gething, Katie Puckett


BIOMIMICRY IN ARCHITECTURE


WHAT IS BIOMIMICRY?

Biomimicry is defined as mimicking the functional basis of biological forms, processes and systems to produce sustainable solutions. Biomimicry involves learning from and emulating biological forms, processes, and ecosystems tested by the environment and refined through evolution. Biomimicry can be applied to solve technical and social challenges of any scale. The development of a methodological framework for translating biological strategies into design innovations is a recent one. American inventor, Otto Schmitt, coined the term “biomimetics” in the 1960s to describe the transfer of ideas from biology to technology.

HIPOTHESIS Climate change is now widely viewed as the main challenge facing our environment nowadays. Biomimicry has a huge potential to tackle some major issues raised by this global climate change. Since it is evident that human interventions are main causes for climate change, maybe turning back to nature and biology might be a solution. Inovation through natural inspiration is the core concept of of biomimicry. Engineers, scientists, architects and designers are often humbled, and then excited, when they discover how nature already has solutions to their challenges, and how it generally outperforms their traditional solutions, showing them creative alternatives. ‘Nature knows what works, what is appropriate, and what lasts here on Earth.’


WHY BIOMIMICRY? The advantages of learning from biological examples are that they benefitted from over 3,8 billion years of research and testing through evolution, so they can provide a strong basis of new solutions for sustainable developments. Biomimicry is an emerging paradigm that can help launch designers into their new role as sustainability interventionists. Biomimicry forces a new set of questions that can be applied to the design process as well as the outcome. Biological designs are, for instance, resilient, adaptable, multifunctional, regenerative, and generally zero-waste. When deeply informed by biology, design thinking shifts away from an anthropocentric model and considers product life cycles and earth system limitations. The table on the right comapres human-made systems to biological systems with the scope of pointing out how in biology the natural response to environmental conditions and changes are an inherited trate, they are by default responding in a sustainable way being based on evolutionary survival and natural optimisation processes.

WHY BIOLOGYCAL SYSTEMS ARE MORE RESPONSIVE TO THE ENVIRONMENT? HUMAN-MADE SYSTEMS

BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

Simple

Complex

Linear flows of resources

Closed loop flowssof resources

Disconnected and mono-functional

Densely interconnected and symbiotic

Resistant to change

Adapted to constant change

Wasteful

Zero waste

Long-term toxins frequently used

No long-term toxins frequently used

Often centralised and mono-cultural

Distributed and diverse

Fossil-fuel dependent

Run on current solar income

Engeneered to maximise one goal

Optimised as a whole system

Extractive

Regenerative

Use global resources

Use local resources


BIOMIMETIC DESIGN STRATEGY AND GOALS

Biological organisms can be seen as embodying technologies that are equivalent to those invented by humans, and in many cases they have solved the same problems with a far greater economy of means. The intention of biomimetic design is to study ways of translating adaptations in biology into solutions in architecture. There are 3 major challenges that we can address through biomimicry thinking in order to acheive design solutions that respond through mitigation and adaptation to climate change:

1. Acheiveng radical increases in resource efficiency.

2. Shifting from a fossil-fuel economy to a solar economy.

3. Transforming from a linear, wasteful and polluting way of using resources to a completely closed-loop model in which all resources are stewarded in cycles and nothing is lost as waste.


HOW CAN BIOMIMETIC DESIGN RESPOND MORE EFFICIENTLY TO CLIMATE CHANGE?

BIOMIMICRY THINKING - DESIGN APPROACH

Biomimicry is a source of possible new innovation and because of the potential it offers as a way to create a more sustainable and even regenerative built environment. Natural organism have allways evolved through adapting to the enviromental conditions.

Biologists are key players in the biomimicry design process, as it relies heavily on biological knowledge; however, the role of the designer remains central. This is particularly true when it comes to abstracting biological strategies into more broadlyapplicable design principles, and implementing them to solve human challenges. The aim of biomimicry is not to create an exact replica of a natural form, process, or ecosystem; it is to derive design principles from biology and use those principles as stimulus for ideation. That said, a final biomimetic solution should clearly evidence a transfer of functional or organizational principle from biology. After all, the whole purpose of biomimicry is to tap the knowledge embodied by nature’s 3.8 billion years of research and development and that is not possible if the functional analogy between the natural model and the final design is lost in translation. Designers who want to use biomimicry to create more sustainable designs must strive to emulate biological lessons on three levels - form, process, and ecosystem.This multilevel approach is most effective for achieving solutions that awe in terms of sustainable performance.

Biomimicry is an inspirational source of possible new innovation and because of the potential it offers as a way to create a more sustainable and even regenerative built environment. The widespread and practical application of biomimicry as a design method remains however largely unrealised. It is posited that a biomimetic approach to architectural design that incorporates an understanding of ecosystems could become a vehicle for creating a built environment that goes beyond simply sustaining current conditions to a restorative practice where the built environment becomes a vital component in the integration with and regeneration of natural ecosystems.

Approaches to biomimicry as a design process typically fall into two categories: Defining a human need or design problem and looking to the ways other organisms or ecosystems solve this, termed here design looking to biology, or identifying a particular characteristic, behaviour or function in an organism or ecosystem and translating that into human designs, referred to as biology influencing design.


DESIGN LOOKING TO BIOLOGY The approach where designers look to the living world for solutions, requires designers to identify problems and biologists to then match these to organisms that have solved similar issues. This approach is effectively led by designers identifying initial goals and parameters for the design.

An example of such an approach is DaimlerChrysler’s prototype Bionic Car. In looking to create a large volume, small wheel base car, the design for the car was based on the boxfish (ostracion meleagris), a surprisingly aerodynamic fish given its box like shape. The chassis and structure of the car are also biomimetic, having been designed using a computer modelling method based upon how trees are able to grow in a way that minimises stress concentrations. The resulting structure looks almost skeletal, as material is allocated only to the places where it is most needed.


BIOLOGY INFLUENCING DESIGN When biological knowledge influences human design, the collaborative design process is initially dependant on people having knowledge of relevant biological or ecological research rather than on determined human design problems.

In the 1940s, Swiss inventor George de Mestral found that, upon returning home for a walk with his dog one day, his pants and the canine’s fur were covered with cockleburs. He studied the burs under a microscope, observing their natural hook-like shape, which ultimately led to the design of the popular adhesive material,Velcro. Velcro is a two-sided fastener – one side with stiff ‘hooks’ like the burrs and the other side with the soft ‘loops’ like the fabric of his pants.The result was VELCRO brand hook and loop fasteners.


BIOMIMICRY APPLICATION LEVELS

ORGANISM LEVEL

Within the two approaches discussed, three levels of biomimicry that may be applied to a design problem are typically given as form, process and ecosystem (Biomimicry Guild, 2007).

Species of living organisms have typically been evolving for millions of years. Those organisms that remain on Earth now have the survival mechanisms that have withstood and adapted to constant changes over time. Humans therefore have an extensive pool of examples to draw on to solve problems experienced by society that organisms may have already addressed, usually in energy and materials effective ways.

In studying an organism or ecosystem, form and process are aspects of an organism or ecosystem that could be mimicked. Ecosystem however is what could be studied to look for specific aspects to mimic. A framework for understanding the application of biomimicry is proposed in this paper that redefines these different levels and also attempts to clarify the potential of biomimicry as a tool to increase regenerative capacity of the built environment. By defining the kinds of biomimicry that have evolved, this framework may allow designers who wish to employ biomimicry as a methodology for improving the sustainability of the built environment to identify an effective approach to take. The framework that will be described here is applicable to both approaches (design looking to biology, and biology influencing design). The first part of the framework determines which aspect of ‘bio’ has been ‘mimicked’. This is referred to here as a level.

BEHAVIOUR LEVEL A great number of organisms encounter the same environmental conditions that humans do and need to solve similar issues that humans face. As discussed, these organisms tend to operate within environmental carrying capacity of a specific place and within limits of energy and material availability. These limits as well as pressures that create ecological niche adaptations in ecosystems mean not only welladapted organisms continue to evolve, but also well-adapted organism behaviours and relationship patterns between organisms or species.

ECOSYSTEM LEVEL The mimicking of ecosystems is an integral part of biomimicry as to mean a sustainable form where the objective is the wellbeing of ecosystems and people, rather than ‘power, prestige or profit’. Proponents of industrial, construction and building ecology advocate mimicking of ecosystems and the importance of architectural design based on an understanding of ecology is also discussed by researchers advocating a shift to regenerative design.


ORGANISM LEVEL ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2015

BIOMIMETIC LEVEL: ORGANISM This stunning pavilion is the result of an investigation series on biomimetic study made in order to build a structure imitating the one of beetle’s elytra. This corded structure is also closer to the insect’s shell and abdomen.

Architects: Prof. Achim Menges (ICD), Prof. Jan Knippers (ITKE) Location: Stuttgart, Germany Project Year: 2015 This is helpful for humans, particularly as access to resources changes, the climate changes and more is understood about the consequences of the negative environmental impact that current human activities have on many of the world’s ecosystems. In total 36 individual elements were fabricated, whose geometries are based on structural principles abstracted from the beetle elytra. Each of them has an individual fiber layout which results in a material efficient load-bearing system. The biggest element has a 2.6 m diameter with a weight of only 24.1 kg. The research pavilion covers a total area of 50 m² and a volume of 122 m³ with a weight of 593 kg.

SOURCE: http://www.itke.uni-stuttgart.de/entwicklung.php?id=71#projekt_bilder

#carbon-fibre structures #robotic fabrication #lightweight_structures #structural_efficiency #structural_manufacturing


BEHAVIOUR LEVEL Council House 2 (CH2)

BIOMIMETIC LEVEL: BEHAVIOUR In the termite mound, the cool wind is drawn into the base of the mound, via channels and the ‘coolth’ is stored using wet soil. Also the façade is composed of an epidermis (outer skin) and dermis (inner skin).

Architects: Mick Pearce Location: Harare, Zimbabwe Project Year: 1996 Organisms that are able to directly or indirectly control the flow of resources to other species and who may cause changes in biotic or abiotic (non living) materials or systems and therefore habitats are called ecosystem engineers. Ecosystem engineers alter habitat either through their own structure (such as coral) or by mechanical or other means (such as beavers and woodpeckers). Humans are undoubtedly effective ecosystem engineers, but may gain valuable insights by looking at how other species are able to change their environments while creating more capacity for life in that system. Comparing to a building with a Five Green Star rating, CH2’s emissions will be 64% lower. When compared to the existing Council House next door, it is expected to: reduce electricity consumption by 85% reduce gas consumption by 87% produce only 13% of the emissions reduce water mains supply by 72%

SOURCE: http://www.archdaily.com/185128/interview-michael-pawlyn-on-biomimicry

#LCD_computer_monitors #T5_light_fittings #solar_panels #gas-fired_cogeneration_plant #natural_convection #ventilation stacks #thermal_mass #phase_change_material #water_for_cooling #north_south_orientation


ECOSYSTEM LEVEL

BIOMIMETIC LEVEL : ECOSYSTEM This highly effective watering system functions on the basis of wetland ecology water filtration.

Living Machine water filtration system Company: Living Machine Systems Project Year: 2012

An advantage of designing at this level of biomimicry is that it can be used in conjunction with other levels of biomimicry (organism and behaviour). It is also possible to incorporate existing established sustainable building methods that are not specifically biomimetic such as interfaced or bio-assisted systems, where human and non-human systems are merged to the mutual benefit of both. A further advantage of an ecosystem based biomimetic design approach is that it is applicable to a range of temporal and spatial scales and can serve as an initial benchmark or goal for what constitutes truly sustainable or even regenerative design for a specific place. Based on the principles of wetland ecology, Living Machine Systems’ patented tidal process cleans water, making the Living Machine the most energy-efficient system to meet high quality reuse standards. This system is based on biomimicry to convert black water to non-potable water, which can be reused for irrigation systems.The system incorporated a number of wetland cells filled with a special gravel that facilitates the development of micro-ecosystems These cells are integrated in the greenhouse, underground gardens and the green platforms on the ground floor The watre moves through the system, flooding and draining the cells to create multiple tidal cycles each day, like in the natural wetlands, resulting in high quality reusable water The micro-ecosystems within the cells efficiently remove nutrients and solids from the wastewater, resulting in high quality effluent. The final polishing stage, which involves filtration and disinfection, leaves water crystal clear and ready for reuse.

SOURCE: http://www.livingmachines.com/About-Living-Machine/Tidal-Flow-Wetland-Living-

#water_filtration #water_reuse #wetland_ecology #natural_ecosystem #grey_water #black_water #recycling #bio_utilisation #water_for_irrigation


ECOSYSTEM LEVEL SUSTAINABILITY : LIFE’S PRINCIPLES

ECOSYSTEM LEVEL SUSTAINABILITY 6 MAJOR PRINCIPLES: The highest level of biomimicry, emulating the ecosystem, is most difficult because it requires skilled systems thinking to make sure the design fits seamlessly within the biosphere. Biomimicry 3.8 (the 3.8 stands for 3.8 billion years of evolution) developed a creative commons tool called Life’s Principles that helps evaluate a biomimetic design’s ecosystem-level sustainability. Life’s Principles summarizes repeated patterns and principles embodied by organisms and ecosystems on earth. These patterns and principles are thought to support a sustaining biosphere. In total, the tool outlines six major principles and 20 sub-principles . Life’s Principles is a system thinking tool that contains common principles embodied by most species on Earth. Its purpose is to help practitioners create designs that fit seamlessly with the larger natural system. Design affects how we interface with the world, so we should balance the profound innovation possible through biomimicry with a lens of environmental and social scrutiny. This requires effort on the part of the designer to selectively transfer desirable aspects of the natural model to the final design and advocate for it being used for positive ends. That said, the lofty ideal of net social and environmental contribution should not dissuade designers from using the biomimicry approach. A biomimetic design that does not achieve net positive impact but does improve environmental or social performance by any increment versus the status quo is worth pursuit. Every biomimetic design is at least one pace in the marathon towards a better relationship with each other and our natural environment.


PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF BIOMIMICRY IN ARCHITECTURE


PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF BIOMIMICRY IN ARCHITECTURE

The key to successfully implementing biomimicry principles is whether the design engages with the function delivered by a particular natural adaptation. This is the core concept for biomimetic design. Evolution could be summarized as a process based on genetic variability, from which the fittest are selected over time. The pressures of survival have driven organisms into some almost unbelievably specific ecological niches and into developing astonishing adaptations to resource-constrained environments. The relevance of this to the constraints that humans will face in the future is obvious. The practical applications of biomimicry in architecture are reflected on several levels that need to be acheived in the design process for mitigating and adapting our built environment to current climate change patterns and future changes. Each level should become a paradigm for future design strategies.


STRUCTURAL EFFICIENCY

WASTE MANAGEMENT

MATERIAL MANUFACTURING

THERMAL CONTROL

WATER MANAGEMENT

RENEWABLE ENERGIES


STRUCTURAL EFFICIENCY Julian Vincent has observed that in nature “materials are expensive and shape is cheap” as opposed to technology where the opposite is the case. Thus in nature efficient structures can be created by acheiving the same results (resistance) but with a fraction of the material.In nature structures evolve like self-optimising systems. The strength in most natural structures is derived from form rather than mass, for example: Pier Luigi Nervi-Palazetto dello Sport, Grimshaw-The Eden Project. In natural structures: in locations of stress concentration of material is built up until the forces can be sustained, while in unloaded areas there is no material. Other innovations through biomimicry can be found in webs and tensioned structures like Frei Otto-German Pavilion; pneumatic structures like Exploration-Douglas River Bridge; woven, fastened and reciprocating structures mimicking some complex structures of birds’ nests; inflatable structures and, finally, deployable structures like Chuck HobermanAdaptive Shading Esplanade (just to name a few examples). Adaptive structures are the perfect examples of biomimicry because it allows buildings to adapt just like living organisms do: by modifying their behavior in response to changing environmental conditions. ‘Many of the examples outlined above demonstrate the potential to achieve radical increase in resource efficiency by using biological structures as a model: manipulations of planar surfaces, Nervi’s ability to out-compete through lightness, domes and shells achieving factor -10 increases in efficiency and thin pressurized membranes taking this even further to factor -100 increases in resource efficiency. With access to ever improving scientific knowledge, designers will be able to draw on the many examples of ruthless refinement in nature, as well as the processes that led to that level of refinement, in order to create structures with beauty and efficiency.’


STRUCTURAL EFFICIENCY ICD/ITKE ResearchPavilion14-15

BIOMIMETIC LEVEL: BEHAVIOR The spider builds a horizontal sheet web, under which the air bubble is placed. In a further step the air bubble is sequentially reinforced by laying a hierarchical arrangement of fibers from within.

Architects: Prof. Achim Menges (ICD), Prof. Jan Knippers (ITKE) Location: Stuttgart, Germany Project Year: 2015 The ICD / ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15 serves as a demonstrator for advanced computational design, simulation and manufacturing techniques and shows the innovative potential of interdisciplinary research and teaching. The prototypical building articulates the anisotropic character of the fiber composite material as an architectural quality and reflects the underlying processes in a novel texture and structure. The result is not only a particularly material-effective construction, but also an innovative and expressive architectural demonstrator.

SOURCE: http://www.itke.uni-stuttgart.de/entwicklung.php?id=69

#fiber-reinforced structures #ETFE #pneumatic formwork


MATERIAL MANUFACTURING “Structural color”- made by microstructure that refracts light. ‘Given our existing challenges of resource depletion, peak oil and climate change, it seems a worthy goal to try to emulate nature’s efficiency in our manufacturing processes.’ For the purpose of eliminating the concept of waste, through following natural systems principles, all materials must be kept two cycles: biological and technological. 1. Biological cycle: will include natural fibers, all materials are grown and used in a way that they can be fully biodegraded at the end of use. 2. Technological cycle: includes all minerals and metals, the goal is that once they have been processed they should remain permanently in the system. The technologies of rapid manufacturing show that there is a scope to develop more materials from the biological cycle with the potential of much lower energy processing than the technical cycle. The same energy and resource depletion pressures will drive our use of materials from the technological cycle towards models of cyclical stewardship that mimic natural systems. It is readily conceivable that making construction elements using cellulose in rapid manufacturing could achieve -100 savings in energy compared to conventional approaches. The shift from a linear, wasteful and pollutant way of using resources to a closed loop-model is one of the essential transformations that we will need to undergo to arrive to a truly sustainable architecture. Notions of closedloop stewardship of resources and biomimetic manufacturing are inextricably linked, as Julian Vincent neatly summarized: “Our materials are rendered biologically inert through the introduction of high energy bonds (necessarily using high temperatures). Biological materials have evolved to be recycled, and their molecules are stabilized by bonds that are only just strong enough for the expected conditions of temperature and mechanical function.”

“Cradle to Cradle”- material manufacturing concept


MATERIAL MANUFACTURING ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2012

BIOMIMETIC LEVEL: ORGANISM The research focused on the material and morphological principles of arthropods’ exoskeletons as a source of exploration for a new composite construction paradigm in architecture.

Architects: ICD/ITKE/IIGS University of Stuttgart in Stuttgart, Germany Location: University of Stuttgart, KeplerstraĂ&#x;e 7, 70174 Stuttgart, Germany Project Year: 2012

At the core of the project is the development of an innovative robotic fabrication process within the context of the building industry based on filament winding of carbon and glass fibres and the related computational design tools and simulation methods.The integration of the form generation methods, the computational simulations and robotic manufacturing, specifically allowed the development of a high performance structure: the pavilion requires only a shell thickness of 4 millimetres of composite laminate while spanning 8 metres.

SOURCE: http://www.itke.uni-stuttgart.de/entwicklung.php?id=30

# fibre-reinforced_materials #carbon_and_glass_fibres


WASTE MANAGEMENT By shifting from linear to closed-loop model in waste management, waste can offer huge potential through the prospect of deriving much more value from the same resources while moving towards zero-waste ways of operating. Mimicking ecosystems: A number of organizations have created industrial networks that mimic natural systems and, by doing so, radically increase the amount of useful outputs from the same inputs. ‘Remarkable solutions emerge from reinterpreting the nature and function of energy and nutrients, allowing us to achieve greater resource efficiency, to build competitive industries, and to adopt innovations that generate jobs and create added value. This is how ecosystems evolve to ever more efficient systems, requiring ever less energy expenditure for ever more species. The connection between ecosystems and architecture: ‘Models based on ecosystems involve complex interactions between different processes that require design input if they are to be optimized. New building types will emerge from the transition to a zero-waste society, and the potential exists to celebrate these as great works of architecture. Designing a sustainable built environment is not just about architecture, it’s also about strategic planning and infrastructure that embraces food, transport and energy as well as health and well-being. If waste is seen as a nutrient or an underutilized resource, then a new economic paradigm emerges and wealth can be created by consuming fewer resources. Many of the examples based on ecosystem thinking reflect values, being restorative to the immediate environment and helping to build local resilience through re-engaging marginalized groups of people. There will be an urgent need in the future for designers to work more closely with industrialists and biologists to create forms of industrial symbiosis that are integrated into mixed-use communities with the benefits that arise from combining residential and employment areas. Instead of the inherent risk involved in basing communities around mono-functional industries, models based on ecosystems thinking would involve a diversity of functions.

Closed loop recycling


WASTE MANAGEMENT Biokunststoff-Fassade/ Moosmodul Hannover Messe

BIOMIMETIC LEVEL: BEHAVIOR The moss takes on particulate matter as fertilizer and converts it into plant biomass. In addition, has 1cm³ moss on a surface of 0,17m².

Architects: Yordan Domuzov (push the envelope - WS 12/13) Location: University of Stuttgart, Keplerstraße 7, 70174 Stuttgart,Germany Project Year: 2011

Panels of bio-based raw materials are extruded, which are suitable without further coatings for exterior applications and can therefore be less of added additives CO2 neutral recycle and dispose of. The panels can also be thermally shaped threedimensionally, so that in the future a sustainable façade cladding of freeform surfaces is possible.

SOURCE: http://www.itke.uni-stuttgart.de/entwicklung.php?id=52#projekt_bilder

#agro-fibres #agro-based_particles_from_the plant


WATER MANAGEMENT Minimizing water loss: All creatures adapted to living in arid conditions have some means of reducing water loss. This often involves using non-living matter to create shade, trapping a layer of air next to the organism’s surface to reduce the evaporative gradient or a combination of the two. Water storage: Some plants have adapted to intermittency by storing their water below ground in large, swollen roots. Water storage in buildings is almost without exception in the form of rigid tanks, often built underground with considerable cost and embodied carbon. There could be potential for expandable storage vessels made from lightweight membranes to be incorporated into walls or landscape features. Water harvesting: The Namibian fog-basking beetle has evolved a way of harvesting its own fresh water in the dessert. It’s remarkable adaptation to a resource-constrained environment, and consequently very relevant to the kind of challenges we are going to be facing over the next few decades. Over-abundance: There are more imaginative approaches to managing surplus water that offer multiple benefits – lower construction costs, minimizing flood risk, creating water habitats rich in biodiversity, limit run-off, enhance infiltration, recharging ground-water and so on. Waste-water treatment: there is a strong case of transforming our food production and water treatments systems from linear, wasteful, polluting flows to closed-loop solutions. Water transport: studies show that bifurcating vessels of around 77 degrees, suggesting that this also represents a minimum energy solution. Studying adaptations in biology can reveal solutions to some of the most intractable of problems, like harvesting water in the desert, a greenhouse that reduces water usage by factor of 8. Rethinking our wastewater-treatment methods could help restore the fertility of our soils, and re-plumbing buildings and cities with energy-optimized systems could deliver further increases in resource efficiency.


WATER MANAGEMENT Sahara Forest Project - Seawater cooled greenhouse

BIOMIMETIC LEVEL: BEHAVIOR The seawater-cooled greenhouses developed by the Sahara Forest Project essentially mimic and enhance the conditions in which the Namibian fog-basking beetle harvests water in a desert.

Architects: Exploration Architecture Location: Qatar Project Year: 2012 There are a number of key biomimicry ideas that have been a source of inspiration throughout the project. The Namibian fog-basking beetle, which has evolved a way of harvesting its own fresh water in a desert, was important in developing the design of the seawater-cooled greenhouse. The characteristic of ecosystems being regenerative was a powerful driver for the team to strive for solutions that went beyond ‘sustainable’ to ‘restorative’. Sahara Forest Project much of the inspiration for tackling this challenge came from studying the organisms that have already adapted to life in deserts. In addition to this, a core biomimicry principle on the scheme was to combine proven technologies and to explore the potential symbiosis between them. Evaporation of seawater is increased to create higher humidity and then a large surface area is created for condensation. Saline water is turned into fresh water just using the sun, the wind and a small amount of pumping energy.

SOURCE: http://saharaforestproject.com/qatar/

# exploration # water harvesting # synergetic technologies # saltwater


THERMAL CONTROL Homoeostasis, the tendency for living organisms to maintain steady conditions, is one of the features that most closely link the buildings we create with biology. The energy implications for thermo-regulation in the built environment are huge. Keeping warm: The two main sources of heat for organisms are both based on solar energy: firstly direct solar gain and secondly indirect, through metabolizing food. Keeping cool: Heat is transferred in 4 ways: radiation, evaporation, conduction and convection. Many organisms that live in hot regions go to great lengths to avoid picking up heat. Some of them avoid radiative gain by staying out of the sun altogether or by minimizing absorbing heat through conduction. We have to develop buildings that adapt to changing conditions if we are to truly mimic the low energy ways in which biology works. Evaporation is an extremely effective means of cooling because water’s specific heat capacity is relatively high and therefore large amounts of heat can be dissipated with small amounts of water. It is in the area of thermal control that I would argue that we have lost most in terms of historical intelligence, and still have the greatest strides to make in learning from biology. So far, fairly limited solutions have been derived from nature, but the ones that have been are promising, for example the termite-inspired Eastgate Centre that stays cool near the equator without any air conditioning – shows the radical potential that is emerging. We are likely to see building skins evolving into complex systems that increasingly resemble living organisms. As Rupert Soar has argued, the direction in which we need to be heading is “toward buildings that are extended organisms, where function and structure melt, and are controlled by overriding demands of homeostasis.”

homeostatic adaptations in bird’s feathers and polar bears fur


THERMAL CONTROL Self-regulating Homeostatic Facade System

BIOMIMETIC LEVEL: BEHAVIOR Smart materials regulate the building’s climate, just as many organisms maintain their own temperatures through homeostasis.

Architects: Decker Yeadon Project Year: 2011 Glass facade system for large buildings that opens and closes itself in response to the internal temperature of the building. When sunlight warms the interior of a building during part of the day, the elastomer expands, creating shade inside the building. When the interior cools, contraction occurs allowing more light to penetrate the building’s interior. As environmental conditions change, the charge in the silver layer causes motion using a sensitive actuator. An artificial muscle is created by wrapping the dielectric material over a flexible polymer core. Increased charge causes the elastomer to expand, making the core bend and pulling the elastomer material to one side. This in turn causes the paired halves of the ribbon to bend. The effect is that the façade closes up, with the opaque construction blocking out light.

SOURCE: http://materia.nl/article/homeostatic-facade-system/

#homeostatic facade #dielectric_elastomers #gaining_solar_heat


RENEWABLE ENERGIES We have generally tried to meet our perceived needs by simply creating more and more energy rather than thinking about how we could develop solutions that, just as in nature, need far less energy in the first place. Energy is one of our greatest challenges, partly owing to the increasingly urgent realities of climate change and partly to a failure to strategic planning. It is important to have a plan for how we will decarbonize our economies over the course of the next few decades and to understand what that implies for designing buildings and cities. Applying biomimetic principles to energy planning inevitably leads to the notion of a “solar economy”, which means that energy needs are met with renewable forms of generation (like photovoltaics and concentrated solar power; indirect forms of solar energy like wind, wave, biomass, tidal or geothermal) The same contrast between human-made systems and biology suggest that a biomimicry solution to energy would involve the following 4 principles: 1.Demand reductions through radical increases in efficiency as the first priority 2.A source of energy that would last indefinitely (renewable) 3.Resilience through diversity and distributed networks 4.Resource flows that are non-toxic and compatible with a wide range of other systems 1.Demand reduction is the area in which innovation through biomimicry offers huge potential. A study concluded that many of the biggest and easiest reductions in greenhouse gas emissions can be found in the built environment. The fastest and cheapest way of cutting greenhouse gas emissions is to aim is for a steep change in the energy performance of buildings, and then supply the remaining energy from low or zero carbon sources. 2.If we look at the energy flows in nature, we find that biological organisms run entirely on solar ‘income’. The energy received from the sun every year represents approximately 10000 times more as much as we currently use.

Renewable energies

This bountiful source of energy has sustained life on earth for billions of years, and it could supply all of our needs. Building concentrated solar power plants over roughly 5%of the world’s deserts would be enough to provide for all of our energy needs. 3.Resilience is often defined as the capacity of a system to survive disturbance. In nature, systems have evolved resilience through complex, interconnected networks and a high degree of diversity, such that critical ecosystem functions can be delivered by a number of organisms. Translating this into a discussion about human energy needs would suggest that a resilient system would be one that can provide the required quantities of energy from a diversity of interconnected generation forms. 4.Elements of a biomimetic system should be compatible with a wide range of other systems in terms of their physical presence and resource flows. In conclusion, a biomimetic solution would be resilient, non-toxic, restorative and based on an inexhaustible energy source. Detailed studies by David MacKay have proved that creating the solar economy is practically achievable, although we should not fool ourselves that it will be easy. A vital part of the solution will be concentrated solar power installed on a massive scale.


RENEWABLE ENERGIES Strawscraper

BIOMIMETIC LEVEL: BEHAVIOR Smith and Gill built upon their Pearl River Tower to develop a marvel of biomimicry that takes advantage of site specific sun-rays and air-streams to drive a bevy of power producing dynamos.

Architects: Adrian Smith and Gordon Gill Project Year: 2008

Harnessing an atrium of wind turbines beneath a roof-top solar shell, the building “utilizes advanced technologies and climate-appropriate building systems to foster a symbiotic relationship with its local environment.” More than just a showy face, the tower’s aerodynamic front funnels wind through turbines that are strategically located at the corners and roof of the structure. These placements maximize wind velocity, which drives the turbines to generate power and ventilate the tower’s interior. A transparent solar roof tops the structure off, ready to soak up the southern sun. The tower is set to cover over 1.8 million square feet of office space in addition to a 300,000 square foot hotel, a spa, and street-level retail space.

SOURCE: http://inhabitat.com/smooth-operator-the-clean-technology-tower/

#aerodynamic_front #wind_turbines #passive_ventilation#roof_solar_shell


PROTOTYPE ROJECTS


PROTOTYPE PROJECTS EX-BORLETTI FACTORY

CORSO XXII MARZO URBAN CLUSTER

The projects are developed as prototypes to implementing these strategies in different contexts and at different scales by working with the existing built environment and having a minimal intervention policy. The starting point of the projects is based on adaptive reuse of existing abandoned structures and urban residual spaces, the chosen sites are the Ex-Borletti factory and the urban block of Corso XXII Marzo, both indicated in the Ri-Formare Milano project. The proposal for the abandoned Ex-Borletti site is to revitalize the area through restorative design and development of an “industrial ecosystem” based on minimal intervention on existing structures, functional and technological symbiosis with the purpose of extending the building’s lifetime and creating adaptability for current and future context. The development project of the urban block of Corso XXII Marzo is based on adaptive reuse of abandoned structures, design of an urban platform that creates unity in the fragmented urban tissue and integration of systems, local interventions and functional programs in order to achieve self-sustainability and context adaptation. Both projects are depicting a general strategy of use and reuse of the existing built heritage through sensible design solutions for future sustainable development, a transformation of sites of abandonment and underutilization to autonomous productive places, going beyond environmental sustainability to restorative design.


EX-BORLETTI FACTORY Founded in the last years of the nineteenth century, the Borletti born as an industry related to the production of watches. After the interlude of the First World War, during which the production is linked to the military, its industrial history is linked to the world of precision engineering and in particular the assembly of mechanical devices, tachometer and odometer for cars, machines sewing and measuring instruments. The Art Nouveau building in Piazza Carlo Irnerio, who is now in a state of neglect, was part of a larger industrial complex that consisted of a series of buildings located near Washington Street. If long Washington’s way factories were one of the places of production of the working Milan, since the seventies began a decline that led quickly to the closure of the factory and its transformation to parties. The building in Via Costanza, the last witness of the original architectural features, can be taken as a measure of the time elapsed since that time until today with its condition of suspension, abandonment and at the same waiting time, which is accompanied by time to obvious phenomena of degradation. The other buildings which made up the Washington Street industrial complex have been concerned over the last few decades by transformations: a hotel, a department store and offices they have now replaced now modified the buildings of the Borletti.

CORSO XXII MARZO URBAN CLUSTER In the consolidated and dense fabric of the city outside the circle constructed on the route of the Spanish walls, along the shaft of Corso XXII Marzo, they have detected several cases of specific buildings in a state of neglect in addition to corner an area not built, including via Bezzecca and via Morosini. All between Piazza Five Days and Piazza Santa Maria del Suffragio, these areas are degraded and broken tiles designs with respect to which a general strategy for the use and reuse of built heritage can only act a design point. The goal of stimulating the planning of exploration students and young architects to the existing redevelopment, proposing to ÂŤbuild on the constructedÂť rather than consuming new land - the beginning of the initiative fund Re-form Milan - take precise body in unfinished pieces of the urban mosaic of this urban sector. The attempt to provide through the architectural design, spatial concrete physical scenarios of restructuring, re-use and recovery of abandoned and vacant properties, but also of new interventions, acted much on the system built since the system of open spaces involved. Then it is also developed from work on small fragments of unfinished dense and layered city on the Beruto urban design, which forms a new urbanity take on specific configurations.


SITE ANALYSIS - PRIMARY READING EX-BORLETTI

The buildings spatial characteristics are dictated by a regular grid system that can be speculated as a 3 dimensional matrix as a base for new spatial and functional typologies. The former factory allows flexible and adaptive spatial configurations that can support multiple functions.


CORSO XXII MARZO

The main interventions will be developed inside an urban block that is characterezed by the fragmentation of the urban tissue. The subject of interest are the in-between spaces, internal courtyards and abandoned buildings present on site. In this area there is a high potential of reconnecting these lost spaces that are at the moment underutilised or degrading.


RESOURCE EFFICIENCY ADAPTIVE REUSE Adaptive reuse is the process of changing a building’s function to accommodate the changing needs of its users. In the cities, working with the existing buildings will continue to assume greater importance: basically, the city for the coming decades is already built. Furthermore, in the interest of sustainability, we should in fact make every effort to preserve these buildings and reuse them, rather than building new ones.

They were built to serve their purpose. They are functional in the purest sense of the word. The forms these buildings take are nothing more than the expression of the processes and mechanisms that they once held. One could say the same is true in nature to a certain degree. All organic forms are reduced to their most essential, necessary form. The beauty of the design one could say is the purety of the expression. Their forms are nothing more than the realizatioin of what they are and what they do.

ADAPTABILITY These industrial buildings are highly adaptable. Given that they were built to house large scale processing systems and industrial machinery, they provide vast spaces within their interiors to be adapted for various uses, they provide a unique opportunity. Additionally, as these buildings were designed prior to indoor environmental conditioning, they are maximized in their designs to take advantage of natural properties of ventilation and shading, so as to create as comfortable as possible environments. Considering all of these things, it is clear that these buildings offer great potential for adaptability. Given the fact that in most parts of the world our built environment is still largely determined by already existing buildings and constructions rather than new developments, one of the greatest tasks faced by today’s architects is the creative handling and inspiring transformation of such architectural remains.

Architectural reuse processes include adaptive reuse, conservative disassembly, and reusing salvaged materials. This definition is broad and inclusive permitting many different interpretations; however, the underlying objective is that architectural reuse be understood as an evolutionary process occurring over time. Adaptive reuse of whole buildings conserves natural resources and the energy required to extract, process, and transport building materials. The physical and social fabric of the community is strengthened. Adaptive reuse should always be investigated, because it is the highest form of recovery. Salvaged materials are inherently durable and adaptable; symbols of the beauty and necessity of natural decay over premature destruction. From an environmental standpoint, reuse conserves all of the embodied energy required to extract, transport, and process the raw materials, whereas recycling requires additional energy inputs for recovery, transportation, and re-manufacturing.


CRADLE TO CRADLE These nutrients should be reused in continuous loops through their lifetime. This is probably the most important trademark and the face of the concept itself as put in McDonough book “Re-making the way we make things” Waste=Food. Most of recycling is, in fact, downcycling, as McDonough described it, this process reduces the quality of the material over time. Plastics, for example other than those found in bottles are recycled, they are mixed with other kind of plastics to produce a hybrid and lower quality product which is then modeled into something cheap and amorphous.

The Cradle to Cradle concept (abbreviated as C2C) is considered to be a biomimetic (the study of the structure and function of biological systems as models for the design and engineering of materials and machines) approach in the design of systems as explained in Michael Braungart’s book. In this certain concept materials are viewed as nutrients that are circulating in healthy and safe metabolisms. Cradle to Cradle design suggests that the industry must enrich and protect the ecosystems together with the nature’s biological cycle; by doing so it also must maintain a safe and productive technical metabolism for the use and circulation of synthetic and organic compounds. Following the model of Cradle to Cradle design all materials are falling into two big categories: “technical” and “biological” compounds.Technical compounds are defined solely by non-toxic and non harmful synthetic materials that have no bad effects on the environment. They can be used in continuous cycles as the same product without losing any quality or integrity. To put it simply this materials can be used over and over again instead of being downgraded and down cycled into lower quality materials or products. Humans need to adapt to local conditions rather than making local ecosystems “adapt” to the unhealthy lifestyle of nowadays civilization. The main goals to this concept is that every compound and material should be considered as either a technological or a biological nutrient that can be used for something else.


EX-BORLETTI - INTERVENTION SITE AND CONTEXT


EXISTING BUILDINGS SPATIAL TYPOLOGIES


SITE ANALYSIS AND PRIMARY INTERVENTIONS


STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF EXISTING BUILDING


PROJECT STRATEGIES: -Propose functions that can include job generation and social reintegration program for the people lacking a home and / or job, thus creating social suctainability -The functional program of the proposed project can include offering tempoary asylium and minimum wage in exchange for working in the productive areas -The productive functions can work together with the public ones, proposal of public functions that can bring in economic capital - All of the functions will work together with the waste produced form every process, turning it into an energy generation source through the anaerobic digester, producing heating and electricity for the building.


PROGRAM / FUNCTIONS / ACTIVITIES


EX-BORLETTI FACTORY INTERVENTION STRATEGY -The general strategy of intervenytion is: restoration, minimal modification, addition (internal), optimisatiomn of technological instalations and building envelope, reconfiguration of space, new functions that ca sustain socially, economically, envinromentally the former factory transforming it into a industrial ecosystem functioning as a biomimetic ecosystem operating by cradle to cradle principles. - Functional program: the building will be a multi-functional center based on food production, including a research and education center, social/community center and public functions. - The entire project will ffunction at zero waste, zero energy standards (self-sustaining)


FIRST FLOOR

ALTRA PROPRIETA'

ALTRA PROPRIETA'

FIRST FLOOR

+6.50

+6.50


SECOND FLOOR

THIRD FLOOR

OND FLOOR

ALTRA PROPRIETA'

+11.00

ALTRA PROPRIETA'

THIRD FLOOR

+11.00

+15.30


BUILDING SYSTEMS AND INTERVENTIONS

MS AND INTERVENTIONS

UCTURE

PLANTERS ON ROOFS OF METAL BOXES

THUS CONVERTING SOLAR INPUT INTO ENERGY M AREA

-THE HANGING METAL BOXES HAVE PLANTERS WITH VEGETATION ON TOP, THE PLANTS GROWING HERE CONTRIBUTE TO THE AIR PURIFICATION OF THE BUILDING

NT ROOF STRUCTURE

CONVERTING SOLAR INPUT INTO ENERGY

-The roof glazing is made of photovoltaic cells glass, thus converting solar input into energy and facilitating light filtration to the vertical atrium area MEETING ROOMS PERFORATED METAL BOXES -THE MEETING ROOMS ARE OVERHANGING IN THE ATRIUM AREA, THEY ARE SPACES OF INERACTION AND EDUCATION ABOUT HOW THE PROTOTYPE PROJECT IS WORKING, TECHNOLOGIES WORKING IN THE BUILDING AND PRODUCTIVE PROCESSES -THE STRUCTURE OF THE BOXES IS LIGHTWEIGHT METAL STRUCTURES THAT ARE SUSPENDED FROM THE NEW BEAMS THAT CONNECT THE ORIGINAL BEAMS AND PILLARS STRUCTURE OF THE BUILDING WITH THE PERIMETRAL LOAD BEARING WALLS -THE ENCLOSURE OF THE BOXES ALOWS VISIBILITY TOWARDS THE ATRIUM, PERIMETRAL PASAREL SYSTEM AND TOARDS THE PRODUCTIVE AREA OF AQUAPONIC FARMING

GREENHOUSE NEW TRANSPARENT ROOF

FACADE SYSTEM

FACADE IS COATED WITH A SUPERFINE THAT IS ACTIVATED BY DAYLIGHT IR THAT ABSORB POLLUTANTS IN THE AIR.

NEW TRANSPARENT ROOF STRUCTURE

AQUAPONIC SISTEMS -AQUAPONIC FARMING IS A SUSTAINABLE FARMING METHOD THAT UTILIZES THE WASTE FROM FISH TO FERTILIZE PLANTS -WATER FROM THE FISH TANKS, RICH WITH WASTE IS PUMPED AND IRRIGATED INTO HYDROPONIC GROWING BEDS, WHERE THE FISH WASTE BACTERIAS ARE CONVERTED INTO USABLE NUTRIENTS -THE WATER FILTERED BY THE PLANTS RETURNES TO THE FISH TANKS CLEANSED AND READY FOR REUSE IN THE CYCLE

-The roof glazing is made of photovoltaic cells glass converting solar input into energy -The new roof structure is made of metal trusses -The transparency is regulated to avoid over-heating

URAL OPERABLE SYSTEM

RTYARD ALOWS THE FACADE ELEMENTS TO OR SPACE SHADING ELEMENTS AND THE LOWER PART IS ET FIGURATIONS

MAIN VOLUME OF AQUAPONTICS PRODUCTIVE AREA -THE MAIN PRODUCTIVE AREA, THE STRUCTURE AND ENCLOSURE ARE REALISED WITH STRUCTURALLY INSULATED PANELS, A MODULAR SYSTEM OF POLYSTRYRENE INSULATE DPANELS SANDWICHED BETWEEN TWO SHEETS OF METAL, REINFORCED BY METALIC PROFILES -THE PANELS ARE EASY TO ASSEMBLE AND DISASSEMBLE, WHICH MAKES IT POSSIBLE FOR THE CONSTITUTIVE MATERIALS (STEEL AND INSULATION )TO BE SEPARATED AND REUSED INDIVIDUALLY

MS VENTS INTEGRATED IN THE NORTH AND SOUTH

ECTION WITH THE WATER FILTRATION SYSTEM,

URES DURING THE COLD SEASONS, MAINTAING

LINA PRODUTION, THE SOLAR ORIENTATTION IS

STER AS WELL AS PRODUCTS FOR NUTRITIONAL

ED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM

SE OF ENERGY FOR THE BUILDING , GENERATING ELECTRICITY AND CALORIC POWER WHICH DINGS RE NATURAL GAS, LIQUID FERTILISER AND COMPOST,

MICROBREWERY -THE MICROBREWERY PRODUCES LIMITED AMOUNTS OF SPECIALISED BEERS, IT IS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR EMPHASIS ON QUALITY, FLAVOUR AND BREWING TECHINIQUE -THE WHOLE PROCESS CAN BE VIEWED ON THE GROUND FLOOR AND THE PRODUCTS ARE SERVED IN THE BEERHOUSE -THE SPENT GRAINS FROM THE BREWING PROCESS ARE GOING TO BE REUSED AS FISH FEED IN THE AQUAPONICS AND AS MUSHROOM SUBSTRATE IN THE GREENHOUSE

GREENHOUSE INTERNAL SYSTEMS -ventilation system with fans for air circulation, and vents integrated in the north and south openings, facilitating natural air flows -irrigation system for the internal plantations, connection with the water filtration system, and the clean water reception reservoirs -heating system that regulates the internal temperatures during the cold seasons, maintaing an appropriate temperature for the growing crops

GREEN MOVABLE PLATFORMS -THE PLATFORMS ON THE GROUND FLOOR ARE BOXY MODULES ON WHEELS, THEY CREATE A HIGH FLEXYBILITY AND OPORTUNITY OF VARIOUS RECONFIGURATION OF THE GROUND FLOOR AREA -EACH PLATFORM HAS AIR PURIFYING PLANTS GROWING INSIDE (MONEY PLANT, ARECA PALM AND ‘MOTHER-IN-LAW TONGE’) -UNDER THE GROUND FLOOR THERE IS THE PIPING SYSTEM OF THE LIVING MACHINE WATER FILTRATION SYSTEM WHICH HAS OUTLETS FOR INPUT AND OUTPUT FOR EACH PLATFORM, IN EACH MODULE OF THE GRID IT COULD BE POSITIONED, SO NO MATTER THE SPATIAL CONFIGURATION, THE PLATFORMS CAN BE PLUGGED IN TO THE WATER SYSTEM

NATURAL GAS -NATURAL GAS IS A BYPRODUCT OF THE ANAEROBIC DIGESTER SYSTEM, FROM THE BASEMENT IT IS BEING DISTRIBUTED TO THE GREENHOUSE AND ALL THE KITCHENS IN THE EX-BORLETTI BUILDING

CENTRAL HEATING -CENTRAL HESTING SYSTEM IS ALSO ALIMENTED BY THE CALORIC POWER FROM THE ANAEROBIC DIGESTER, IT IS BEING DISTRIBUTED FROM THE BASEMENT TO THE GREENHOUSE AND EX-BORLETTI

CENTRAL ELECTRIC SYSTEM -ELECTRIC POWER IS COMING FROM THE GENERATOR OF THE ANAEROBIC DIGESTER SYSTEM, AFTER IT’S BEING DISTRIBUTED AND CONTAIN IN BATTERY STORAGE FOR BACK-UP POWER AND PEAK LOADS

COMPOSTING SYSTEM -compost is created by the decomposition of the organic matter collected from the greenhouse, yard waste from the landscape and underground gardens -compost systems confine compost so that it can receive air and create suitable temperatures for proper decomposition into fertiliser (for the solar greenhouse farming)


PLANTERS ON ROOFS OF METAL BOXES -the hanging metal boxes have planters with vegetation on top, the plants growing here contribute to the air purification of the building

MEETING ROOMS PERFORATED METAL BOXES -the meeting rooms are overhanging in the atrium area, they are spaces of interaction and education about how the prototype project is working, technologies working in the building and productive processes -the structure of the boxes is lightweight metal structures that are suspended from the new beams that connect the original beams and pillars structure of the building with the perimetral load bearing walls -the enclosure of the boxes alLows visibility towards the atrium, perimetral pasarel system and towards the productive area of aquaponic farming

MAIN VOLUME OF AQUAPONTICS PRODUCTIVE AREA -the main productive area, the structure and enclosure are realised with structurally insulated panels, a modular system of polystyrene insulate panels sandwiched between two sheets of metal, reinforced by metallic profiles -the panels are easy to assemble and disassemble, which makes it possible for the constitutive materials (steel and insulation) to be separated and reused individually

NATURAL GAS -natural gas is a by-product of the anaerobic digester system, from the basement it is being distributed to the greenhouse and all the kitchens in the Ex-Borletti building CENTRAL HEATING -central heating system is also alimented by the caloric power from the anaerobic digester, it is being distributed from the basement to the greenhouse and Ex-Borletti CENTRAL ELECTRIC SYSTEM -electric power is coming from the generator of the anaerobic digester system, after it’s being distributed and contain in battery storage for back-up power and peak loads


-THE SOUTH PART OF THE GREENHOUSE IS RELATED TO SPIRULINA PRODUTION, THE SOLAR ORIENTATTION IS APPROPRIATE FOR THIS FUNCTION -THE END PRODUCTS ARE BIOMASS FOR THE ANAEROBIC DIGESTER AS WELL AS PRODUCTS FOR NUTRITIONAL PURPOSES

MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES

BIOMIMETIC LEVEL : ORGANISM

Biogas is a gas that is formed by anaerobic microorganisms. These microbes feed off carbohydrates and fats, producing methane and carbon dioxides as metabolic waste products. This gas can be harnessed by man as a source of sustainable energy. NATURAL GAS Biogas is considered to be a renewable fuel as it originates from organic material -NATURAL GAS IS A BYPRODUCT O DISTRIBUTED TO THE GREENHOUS that has been created from atmospheric carbon by plants grown within recent CENTRAL HEATIN growing seasons.

ANAEROBIC DIGESTER COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM The Anaerobic Digester Combined Heat and Power Sysytem is implemented in both sites at different scales -The anaerobic digester is working like the main source of energy for the buildings. -The produced biogas goes into the turbine generator, which converts it into electricity and caloric power which goes into the heating and cooling systems of the buildings. -Other output elements from the fermentation tank are natural gas, liquid fertiliser and compost, also utilised throughout the buildings systems. Benefits of anaerobic digestion: -Production of renewable power through combined heat and power cogeneration -Disposal of problematic wastes -Diversion of waste from landfill -Production of a low-carbon fertiliser -Avoidance of landfill gas escape and reduction in carbon emissions

-THE PLATFORMS ON THE GROUN FLEXYBILITY AND OPORTUNITY OF -EACH PLATFORM HAS AIR PURIF ‘MOTHER-IN-LAW TONGE’) -UNDER THE GROUND FLOOR THE SYSTEM WHICH HAS OUTLETS FO GRID IT COULD BE POSITIONED, S PLUGGED IN TO THE WATER SYST

ANAEROBIC DIGESTER COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM -THE ANAEROBIC DIGESTER IS WORKING LIKE THE MAIN SOURSE OF ENERGY FOR THE BUILDING -THE PRODUCED BIOGAS GOES INTO THE TURBINE GENERATOR, GENERATING ELECTRICITY AND CALORIC POWER WHICH GOES INTO THE HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS OF THE BUILDINGS -OTHER OUTPUT ELEMENTS FORM THE FERMENTATION TANK ARE NATURAL GAS, LIQUID FERTILISER AND COMPOST, ALSO UTILIZED THROUGHOUT THE BUILDING SYSTEMS

COMPOSTING SYSTEM -COMPOST IS CREATED BY THE DECOMPOSITION OF THE ORGANIC MATTER COLLECTED FROM THE GREENHOUSE, YARD WASTE FROM THE LANDSCAPE AND UNDERGROUND GARDENS -COMPOST SYSTEMS CONFINE COMPOST SO THAT IT CAN RECEIVE AIR AND CREATE SUITABLE TEMPERATURES FOR PROPER DECOMPOSITION INTO FERTILISER (FOR THE SOLAR GREENHOUSE FARMING)

-CENTRAL HESTING SYSTEM IS A DIGESTER, IT IS BEING DISTRIBUT

CENTRAL ELECTR

-ELECTRIC POWER IS COMING FR BEING DISTRIBUTED AND CONTAI

‘LIVING MACHINE

-THIS SYSTEM RELIES ON BIOMIM REUSED FOR IRRIGATION SYSTEM -THE SYSTEM INCORPORATED A N DEVELOPMENT OF MICRO-ECOSY -THESE CELLS ARE INTEGRATED I PLATFORMS ON THE GROUND FLO - THE WATER MOVES THROUGH T TIDAL CYCCLES EACH DAY, LIKE IN


WATER FILTRATION PLANTERS

-ELECTRIC POWER IS COMING FROM THE GENERATOR OF THE ANAEROBIC DIGESTER SYSTEM, AFTER IT’S BEING DISTRIBUTED AND CONTAIN IN BATTERY STORAGE FOR BACK-UP POWER AND PEAK LOADS

MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES NATURAL GAS

BIOMIMETIC LEVEL : ECOSYSTEM This highlyREUSE effective watering FILTRATIONsystem PUMP NON-POTABLE WATER TANK on the AND functions basis of wetland ecology water filtration.

WATER FILTRATION PLANTERS ‘LIVING MACHINE’ WATER FILTRATION SYSTEM POTABLE WATER RESERVOIR

CENTRAL HEATING

STAGE

NON-POTABLE WATER TANK

STAGE 1,2 PUMP AND TANK

DISINF

REUSE AND FILTRATION PUMP WETLAND CELLS

WATER RESERVOIR

‘LIVING MACHINE’ WATER FILTRATION SYSTEM REUSE AND NON-POTABLE

FILTRATION WATER FILTRATION PLANTERS -THIS SYSTEM RELIES ON BIOMIMICRY TOWATER CONVERTTANK BLACK WATER TO NON-POTABLE WATER, WHICH IS POTABLE WATER RESERVOIR NON-POTABLE WATER TANK PUMP REUSED FOR IRRIGATION SYSTEMS -THE SYSTEM INCORPORATED A NUMBER OF CELLS FILLED WITH A SPECIAL GRAVEL THAT FACILITATES THE DEVELOPMENT OF MICRO-ECOSYSTEMS -THESE CELLS ARE INTEGRATED IN THE GREENHOUSE, UNDERGROUND GARDENS AND THE GREEN PLATFORMS ON THE GROUND FLOOR - THE WATER MOVES THROUGH THE SYSTEM FLOODING AND DRAINING THE CELLS TO CREATE MULTIPLE ecology, REUSEINAND PUMP TIDAL CYCCLES EACH DAY, LIKE IN NATURAL WETLANDS, RESULTING HIGH FILTRATION QUALITY REUSABLE WATER

-Based on the principles of wetland POTABLE WATER RESERVOIR NON-POTABLE WATER TANK Living Machine Systems’ patented tidal process cleans water, making the Living Machine the most energy-efficient system to meet high quality STAGE 1,2 PUMP AND TANK reuse standards. -This system is based on biomimicry to convert NON-POTABLE WATER TANK REUSE AND FILTRATION PUMP black water to non-potable water, which can be DISINFECTATION AND FILTRATION TANK reused for irrigation systems -The system incorporated a number of wetland STAGE 1,2 PUMP AND TANK REUSE AND FILTRATION PUMP cells filled with a special gravel that facilitates the development of micro-ecosystems PRIMARY EQUALIZATION TANK -These cells are integrated STAGE 1,2 PUMPinANDthe TANKgreenhouse, DISINFECTATION AND FILTRATION TANK underground gardens and the green platforms on the ground floor -The watre moves through the DISINFECTATION AND system, FILTRATION TANKflooding COMPOSTING SYSTEM and draining the cells to create multiple tidal PRIMARY EQUALIZATION TANK cycles each day, like in the natural wetlands, resulting in high quality water PRIMARYreusable EQUALIZATION TANK -The micro-ecosystems within the cells efficiently remove nutrients and solids from the wastewater, ANAEROBIC DIGESTER AND CHP SYSTEM COMPOSTING SYSTEM resulting in high quality effluent. COMPOSTING SYSTEM -The final polishing stage, which involves filtration and disinfection, leaves water crystal clear and ready for reuse. ANAEROBIC DIGESTER AND CHP SYSTEM

ANAEROBIC DIGESTER AND CHP SYSTEM

DISINFECTATION

STAGE

PRIMARY

AND FILTRATION EQUALIZATION PRIMA 1 PUMP STAGE 1,2 PUMP AND TANK DISINFECTATION AND FILTRATION TANK REUSE AND FILTRATION PUMP TANK TANK AND TANK

DISINFECTATION AND FILTRATIONPRIMARY TANK EQUALIZATION TANK

STAGE 1,2 PUMP AND TANK

COMPO

PRIMARY EQUALIZATION TANK

DISINFECTATION AND FILTRATION TANK

COMPOSTING SYSTEM

ANAER

COMPOSTING SYSTEM

PRIMARY EQUALIZATION TANK

ANAEROBIC DIGESTER AND CHP SYSTEM

ANAEROBIC DIGESTER AND CHP SYSTEM

COMPOSTING SYSTEM

ANAEROBIC DIGESTER AND CHP SYSTEM


ADAPTATION TECHNOLOGIES

BIOMIMETIC LEVEL : BIO-UTILIZATION The vegetation on the green platforms is specialized in air purification processes, the plants are more effective than others at filtering out pollutants and toxic chemicals in the air.

AIR FILTERING AND WATER FILTERING GREEN MOVABLE PLATFORMS -The platforms on the ground floor are boxy modules on wheels, they create a high flexibility of configuring the ground floor area space -each platform has air-purifying plants growing inside (Areca palm, Boston fern, Kimberly queen fern, English ivy ) -Under the ground floor there is the pipeing system of the Living Machine water filtering system which has outlets for input and output for each platform, in each module of the grid it could be positioned in, so no matter the spatial configuration, the platforms can be plugged into the water system. -The natural characteristics of the species of plants growing on the platforms inproves significantly the quality of the air, needless to say, the air coming out of the building is cleaner than the air coming inside.

OPEN FLOOR PLAN SPATIAL CONFIGURATIONS FLEXIBILITY AND ADAPTABILITY OF GROUND FLOOR OPEN PLAN SPATIAL CONFIGURATIONS LINEAR SPACE CONFIGURATION

PERIMETRAL SPACE CONFIGURATION

CENTRAL SPACE CONFIGURATION

RANDOM SPACE CONFIGURATION

PERIMETRAL SPACE CONFIGURATION


ADAPTATION TECHNOLOGIES ‘SMOG-EATING‘ OPERABLE FACADE

OPERABLE SYSTEM -The structure of the new facade that is facing the open courtyard allows the facade panels to fold, rotate and pivot in order to open up the space towards the outside. -Tthe facade panels are folded into upper part as a shading device and in the lower part they are transformed into tables for the local farmers market. -This feature of the facade allows funtional flexibility and various spatial configurations

AIR-PURIFYING FACADE SYSTEM -The external perforated metal finishing of the new facade is coated with a superfine Titanium dioxide (TiO2), a pollutant-fighting microtechnology which is activated by daylight. -This chemical compound releases free radicals into the air, these free radicals absorb pollutants and toxins in the air.

BIOMIMETIC LEVEL : ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Micro-technology that makes materials coated with titanium dioxide effectively purify the air of toxins by releasing spongy free radicals that could eliminate pollutants. As air filters around the sponge-shaped structures, UV-light-activated free radicals destroy any existing pollutants, leaving the air clean.


PRODUCTIVE PLACES AQUAPONIC FARMING SYSTEM -Aquaponic farming is a sustainable farming method that utilizes the waste from fish to fertilize plants. -Water from the fish tanks, rich with waste is pumped and irrigated into hydroponic growing beds, where the fish waste bacterias are converted into usable nutrients. -The water filtered by the plants returns to the fish tanks cleansed and ready for reuse in a new cycle.

BIOMIMETIC LEVEL : ECOSYSTEM The system’s functional basis is ecosystem symbiosis and it’s working through bio-utilization. It’s includes 3 actors that present in natural ecosystems : consumers (fish), producers (plants) and decomposers (worms).


PRODUCTIVE PLACES

SOLAR GREENHOUSE FARMING

SPIRULINA ALGAE PRODUCTION

MICROBREWERY

-The greenhouse is a space for groeing a large range of crops. -The internal configuratiin and the technologies implemented are highly effective and compatible. -since the plants are growing directly in the soil, the area under the greenhouse benefitts from soil regeneration. -The crops grown in the greenhouse are supplying the restaurant and also provi de fresh produce for the local farmers market, all this with 0 km.

-The south part of the greenhouse is related to spirulina algae production, the solar orientation is proper to sustain this type of culture. -The final products are biomass, which is going into the anaerobic digestion process, and products for nutritional purposes

-The microbrewery produces limited amounts of specialised beers, it is characterised by high quality, flavour and brewing technique. -The whole process can be viewed on the ground floor and the products are served in the beerhouse. -The spent grains from the brewing process are going to be reused as fish feed inthe aquaponic farms and as mushroom substrate in the greenhouse.


INDUSTRIAL ECOSYSTEM - FUNCTIONS, TECHNOLOGIES, PROCESSES AND PRODUCTS - SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS


CORSO XXII MARZO - INTERVENTION SITE AND CONTEXT


ANALYSIS OF THE AREA AND EXISTING BUILT HERITAGE CLUSTER EXISTING COURTYARDS The urban cluster of Corso XXII Marzo is characterized by fragmented spaces, mainly private courtyards and inaccessible areas. A very noticeable feature are the strong phisical and visual borders. The site is a piece of fragmented urban tissue, inside the cluster there are abandoned structures and buildings, zones of abandonment, lacking accessibility and highly underutilised. The primary approach is based on recovery of these areas, assigning functions and timeline of use with the scope of reconnecting and unifying the potential spaces.

URBAN CONTEXT


SITE ANALYSIS RESIDENTIAL AREAS

EX-CINEMA LUCE - ABANDONED BUILDING


SITE ANALYSIS IED ACADEMY CAMPUS BUILDINGS

AREA SCESA 3 - EX-ATELIER FENDI


SITE ANALYSIS RESIDENTIAL AREAS

CONCEPT PROPOSAL The complex of the accurate interventions under existing structures, which would provide the sustainability of the area Re-use of abandoned structures with different biomimetic strategies Creating of new facilities and annex-functions which would identfy the cluster as a biomimetic organism The organisation of the waste managment (together with reuse)


EXISTING SITUATION Cluster in the historical center of Milan, which is represented by a mixture of historic urban fabrics, which are not balanced with each other high percentage of the territory, which stays abandoned for years and has the potential to be taken by a new system of functions very strict isolation between different territories by physical borders like fences or small abandoned areas the usage of courtyards is not dictated in a proper way and has been occupied by local garages, storages, outdoor garbage rooms.

DETAILED ANALYSIS


CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT


MASTERPLAN


GROUND FLOOR PLAN


EXISTING BUILDING SITUATION

FUNCTIONAL PROGRAM


EXISTING STRUCTURE OF THE BUILDING EX CINEMA LUCE

auditorium

backyard

green roof

open-air cinema uban farming

transitional functions+staircase caffeteria library bar stores

ground floor

access to the whole area

vertical circulation


MULTILAYER COURTYARD


MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES ANAEROBIC DIGESTER COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM

BIOMIMETIC LEVEL : ORGANISM Biogas is a gas that is formed by anaerobic microorganisms. These microbes feed off carbohydrates and fats, producing methane and carbon dioxides as metabolic waste products. This gas can be harnessed by man as a source of sustainable energy. Biogas is considered to be a renewable fuel as it originates from organic material that has been created from atmospheric carbon by plants grown within recent growing seasons.


COLLAGES


In conclusion, the undeniable reality is that the built environment is increasingly held accountable for global environmental and social problems with vast proportions of waste, material and energy use and green house gas emissions attributed to the habitats humans have created for themselves. It is becoming increasingly clear that a shift must be made in how the built environment is created and maintained. Mimicking life, including the complex interactions between living organisms that make up ecosystems is both a readily available example for humans to learn from and an exciting prospect for future human habitats that may be able to be entwined with the habitats of other species in a mutually beneficial way. Living organisms, because of the ruthless refinement of evolution, are remarkable models from which we can learn to achieve radical increases in resource efficiency. By using a framework as suggested by this paper it is anticipated that distinctions between the different kinds of biomimicry and their regenerative potential can be more easily made. Although this discourse tends to be theoretical at present with many ideas related to ecosystem based biomimicry and architectural biomimicry in general yet to be tested in built form, design that mimics how most ecosystems are able to function in a sustainable and even regenerative way, has the potential to positively transform the environmental performance of the built environment. This may be enhanced if a systems based biomimicry that mimics how mature ecosystems function, is included in initial design parameters and is used as an evaluation benchmark throughout the design process. By using the theoretical framework this is what we tried to achieve in the prototype projects implementation, mimicking of mature and complex ecosystems at various scales, in different contexts.

In each case we have learned that a valuable treat is to learn how to apply the theoretical framework to the site and project, because while many solutions and approaches might be similar, there are no universal solutions and every time the development emerges from the specific context, just like natural adaptations. By using biomimetic principles, we can retain the many wonderful things that civilization has developed but rethink the things that have proved to be poorly adapted to the long term. Design affects how we interface with the world, so we should balance the profound innovation possible through biomimicry with a lens of environmental and social scrutiny. This requires effort on the part of the designer to selectively transfer desirable aspects of the natural model to the final design and advocate for it being used for positive ends. Given our ecological plight, now is the time for designers to broaden their purpose beyond just shaping commodities according to client specifications. Designers have a unique opportunity to act as sustainability interventionists. To do so, designers must adopt new forms of practice that yield sustainable solutions. One such emerging practice is biomimicry, which involves re-purposing biology’s best ideas to solve human challenges. There is still much to be investigated and learned about biomimicry in order for the paradigm to mature. Through trial-and-error, biomimetic design practitioners will evolve optimised practices. Similar to nature’s way, maladapted strategies should rapidly disappear or transition into better-adapted ones. Every attempt at biomimicry provides value in the form of lessons learned and regular practice will encourage a sense of responsibility to care for nature, as mentor and source of inspiration for innovative solutions.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Benyus, J. (1997) „Biomimicry - Innovation Inspired by Nature”, New York, Harper Collins Publishers. Biomimicry Guild (2007) „Innovation Inspired by Nature Work Book”, Biomimicry Guild. McDonough, W. & Braungart, M. (2002) „Cradle to Cradle - Remaking the Way We Make Things”, New York, North Point Press. Pedersen Zari, M. & Storey, J. B. (2007) „An Ecosystem Based Biomimetic Theory for a Regenerative Built Environment”, Lisbon, Portugal. Vincent, J. F. V., Bogatyrev, O. A., Bogatyrev, N. R., Bowyer, A. & Pahl, A.-K. (2006) „Biomimetics - its practice and theory”. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, April 2006. Vincent, J. F. V., „Biomimetics: a review”, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Centre for Biomimetic and Natural Technologies, University of Bath. Stern, N. (2009) A Blueprin for a Safer Planet: how to manage climate change and to create a new er aof progressand prosperity, London, Bodley Head. Pawlyn, M. (2011) „Biomimicry in Architecture”, London, Riba Publishing. Droege, P. (2010) „Climate:Design: Design and Planning for the Age of Climate Change”, ORO Editions. Rabun, J.S. & Kelso, R. (2009) „Building Evaluation for Adaptive Reuse and Preservation”, New Jersoy, John Wiley & Sons Inc. Smith, P.F., (2009) „Building for a Changing Climate – The Challenge for Construction, Planning and Energy”, Taylor and Francis. Gethering, W. & Puckett, K. (2013) “Design for climate change ”, London, Riba Publishing.


Biomimicry in Architecture - Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change  

Master of Architecture thesis University: Politecnico di Milano Co-author: Svetlana Normantovich

Biomimicry in Architecture - Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change  

Master of Architecture thesis University: Politecnico di Milano Co-author: Svetlana Normantovich

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