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of] k':ts yfnf;]ldofsf la/fdLx多sf] cfjZostfnfO{ Wofgdf /fv]/ n]lvPsf] xf] . o; /f]u / o;sf] k|s[ltsf] af/]df ;/n efiffdf hfgsf/L lbg] / xfnsf jif{x多df yfnf;]ldof /f]usf] pkrf/ / /f]syfddf k|efjsf/L ;'wf/ Nofpg] ;a} gofF j}1flgs Pj+ pkrf/ k4ltdf ePsf] ljsf;nfO{ ;d]6\g] x/ ;Dej k|of; ul/Psf] 5 . ;+;f/e/sf yfnf;]ldofsf la/fdLx多nfO{ ;xL / gofF hfgsf/L pknAw u/fpg', yfnf;]ldof OG6/g]zgn k]m8/];gsf] :yfkgfsf] ;a}eGbf dxTjk"0f{ p2]Zo / sf/0fx多dWo] Ps xf] .

8f= PG8|'nf On]k\my]/Lof]

ISBN: 9963-623-40-9

Cover Thalasemia nepali.indd 1

yfnf;]ldof OG6/g]zgn k]m8/];g klAns];G;

1/3/2016 5:45:20 AM


wGojfb k':tsdf k|of]u ul/Psf ;a} AofVofx¿ / pbfx/0fx¿sf] >f]t pknAw u/fpg], of] lstfa tof/ kfg{ ;xof]u ug{ gSzf, lrq / tflnsfx¿ lbg] ;a} wGojfbsf kfq x'g'x'G5 . olb sxL+ st} wGojfbsf zAbx¿ JoQm ug{ 5'6]sf] eP yfnf;]ldof cGt/f{li6«o dxf;+3 / of] k':tssL n]lvsfn] o; k':tssf] cfufdL c+sx¿df pQm s'/fx¿nfO{ v'zL;fy pNn]v ug]{ g} l5g\ .

;dfKt

of] k':ts k|sfzgsf] nflu cfly{s ;xof]u pknAw u/fOlbg] ljZj :jf:Yo ;+u7g / Olk8]ldof]nf]lh tyf /f]u lgoGq0f dxfzfvf, :jf:Yo ;]jf ljefu, g]kfn k|lt xflb{s cfef/ JoQm ub{5f}+ .

Cover Thalasemia nepali.indd 2

1/3/2016 5:45:23 AM


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/]

8f= PG8|'nf On]k\my]/Lof]

yfnf;]ldof OG6/g]zgn k]m8/];g klAns];G; I


This book entitled "About Thalassaemia" authored by Dr. Androulla Eleftheriou is a publication of Thalassaemia International Federation. This book has been translated in Nepali by Professor Dr. Ajit Rayamajhi to create awareness and improve understanding about Thalassaemia to patients, parents and general public.

ISBN: 9963-623-40-9 © 2007 Team up Creations Ltd 14 Othonos str, 1016 Nicosia - Cyprus

;jf{lwsf/ ;'/lIft o; k|sfzgsf] s'g} klg c+zsf] k|ltlnkL, s'g} oGqdf e08f/0f, h;af6 o;nfO{ k'gM k|of]u jf :yfgfGt/0f ug{, s'g} klg ¿k jf s'g} tl/sfaf6 On]S6«f]lgs, oflGqs, kmf]6f]slk, k|ltlnkL, /]sl8{ª\u jf s'g} cGo tl/sfn] k|of]u ug{ yfnf;]ldof OG6/g]zgn k]m8/];g / n]vssf] lnlvt cg'dlt lagf ug{ kfOg] 5}g . sf7df8f}+, g]kfndf d'lb|t II


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/]

n]vssf] kl/ro 8f= PG8«'nf On]k\my]/Lof]n] n08g ljZjljBfnoaf6 dfOqmf]afof]nf]hL / efO/f]nf]hL ljifodf :gfts / :gftsf]Q/ tx k|fKt ul/g\ . pgn] ljZj :jf:Yo ;ª\u7g / k"mna|fO6 sld;gaf6 cg]sf}F 5fqj[lQx¿ kfOg\ / a]nfotsf] ljZjljBfno sn]h lrlsT;f ljBfnodf dfgfy{ cg';Gwfgstf{sf] kb k|fKt ul/g\ . pgsf] pQ/ ljBfjfl/lw k]mnf]l;km o"=P;=P= lh=P= P6\nfG6fdf /x]sf] /f]u /f]syfd s]Gb|x¿df k"/f eof] . 8f= On]k\my]/Lof] ;g\ !(() b]lv ;fOk|;sf] :jf:Yo dGqfnosf] efO/; l/km/]G; s]Gb|sf] k|d'v algg\ . pgL pQm s]Gb|sf] :yfkgfdf tgdng] ;+nUg /x]sL lyOg\ . pgn] cg]sf}F /fli6«o cGt/f{li6«o sfo{zfnf, ;Dd]ng / kl/of]hgfx¿sf] cfof]hgf ul/g\ / ltgLx¿df ;lqmo ¿kn] nflug\ . xfn pgL ljZj :jf:Yo ;ª\u7gsf] pgn] ljz]if1tf xfl;n u/]sf] ljifodf ;/;Nnfx lbg] ;Nnfxsf/ -sG;N6\ofG6_ sf] ¿kdf sfo{/t l5g\ . 8f= On]k\my]/Lof]sf] k|d'v rf;f] / cg';Gwfg yfnf;]ldof d]h/df x'g] efO/n ;ª\qmd0f ;DaGwL ljifodf 5 . cfk\mgf] cg';Gwfgsf] dfWodaf6 pgL ;+;f/ e/ /x]sf yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿, o; /f]usf] cg';Gwfgdf ;+nUg cg';Gwfg j}1flgsx¿ / lkmlhl;ogx¿sf] Jofks ;Dks{df cfOg . 8f= On]k\my]/Lof]n] ;g\ !((# b]lv yfnf;]ldof cGt/f{li6«o km]8]/];g -l6=cfO{=Pkm=_nfO{ Ps :jod\ ;]jssf] ¿kdf ;xof]u k'¥ofpFb} cfPsL l5g\ . cfk\mgf k|sfzgx¿sf] dfWodaf6 l6=cfO=Pkm= n] yfnf;]ldof /f]usf af/]df lrlsT;sLo -d]l8sn_ hfgsf/L ;'ne 5 eGg] s'/f ;'lglZrt ug{ rfxG5 . c´ dxTjk"0f{ 9Ën] l6=cfO=Pkm= n] z}lIfs sfo{qmdx¿dfkm{t lrlsT;sx¿nfO{ yfnf;]ldof /f]usf] af/]df l;ls/xg] cj;/x¿ pknAw u/fpF5 . ;g\ !((& df oL sfdx¿ x]g{sf] nflu l6=cfO{=Pkm sf] j}1flgs ;+of]hssf] gofF kb ;[hgf ul/of] . o;df lgo'Qm x'gsf] nflu 8f= On]k\my]/Lof]nfO{ ;j{;Ddt k|:tfj cfof] / pgn] v'zL;fy :jLsf/ ul/g\ . pQm ;dob]lv 8f= On]k\my]/Lof]n] j}1flgs ;+of]hssf e"ldsf cª\uLsf/ u/L ;/sf/L clws[t kbsf] st{Jo :jtGqtfk"j{s lgjf{x ub}{ cfPsL l5g\ . (TIF) l6=cfO{=Pkm sf] dfWodaf6 ;+;f/e/sf lkmlhl;ogx¿ / yfnf;]ldof;Fu ;DalGwt ;ª\u7gx¿sf] lgs6 III


;xof]udf 8f= On]k\my]/Lof]n] /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o :t/sf cg]s kl/of]hgfx¿ ;~rfng u/]sL l5g\ . pgn] l6=cfO{=Pkm=sf] k|sfzgsf] ;fy} ljZj :jf:Yo ;ª\u7g / cGo ;+:yfx¿sf] ;xof]u lnP/ lj:t[t j}1flgs ljifox¿df ;fdu|Lx¿ k|sfzg u/]sL 5g\ / pgL l6=cfO{=Pkm=sf] kflIfs klqsfsf] k|wfg ;Dkfbs klg /x]sL l5g\ .

IV


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/]

wGojfb d of] lstfa k9]/ cd"No l6Kk0fL, ;Nnfx, ;'´fjx¿ / s'zn dfu{bz{g k|bfg ug'{x'g] l6=cfO{=Pkm= sf d]l8sn ;Nnfxsf/ 8f= dfOsn PGuf;l6gL cf]l;Psf] of]ubfgk|lt wGojfb 1fkg ug{ rfxG5' . d o; k':tssf] cf–cfk\mgf] ljz]if1tf;DaGwL efu cWoog u/L l6Kk0fL ug'{eO{ dxTjk"0f{ ;'´fjx¿ lbg'x'g] l6=cfO{=Pkm=sf ;Nnfxsf/ ;ldltsf tn pNn]lvt ;Dk"0f{ ;b:ox¿sf] of]ubfgk|lt wGojfb JoQm ug{ rfxG5' . k|f= hf]g kf]6{/ x]df6f]nf]hL ljefu o'lgel;{6L sn]h, n08g 98 r]lg; ldph, n08g W6IC6HX 8f= dfNsd jfs/ d'6';DaGwL sG;N6\ofG6 Xof6/ O{G:6LRo'6 ;]l;n k\mn]ldË xfp; o'lgel;{6L sn]h n08g c:ktfn u|fkm6g dfu{ n08g WC1F6AW.UK k|f= lgsf Sofk]lngL cf]:k]8n Doflucf]/ kf]lnlSnlgsf] Kofl8lUncf]g u|fg]nL Via F :kmf]h{ 35 ldnfgf] 20122 O6fnL

8f= kfpn 6]Nkm/ x]df6f]nf]hL sG;N6\ofG6 yfnf;]ldof s]Gb| :jf:Yo dGqfno, lgsf]lzcf, ;fO{k|; 8f= lgsf]; :sf]l8{; k]l8cfl6«l;og, O08fqmfOgf]nf]lhi6 k]l8«ofl6s ljefu cfr{ dfsfl/o', III c:ktfn :jf:Yo dGqno, lgsf]lzcf, ;fOk|;

yfnf;]ldof s]Gb|df sfo{/t lkmlhl;og 8f= P;= lqm:6f], Nofa|]6f]/L j}1flgs P= s]/Ln] u/]sf] ;xof]u To;}u/L kmf]6f] / :nfO8x¿ pknAw u/fP/ ;xof]u ug]{ ;fO{k|; :jf:Yo dGqfnosf ;fyLx¿ clg o; k':tsdf ePsf] qm;j8{ v]n tof/ ug]{ 8f= ;L= sf]lsgf]; ;a} k|;+zfsf kfq x'g'x'G5 . l6=cfO=Pkm=sL ;b:o 8f= x]n]g k]/Ln] o; k':tssf] zAb—cy{sf] ;Dkfbgdf ug'{ePsf] s'zn ljz]if1Lo ;xof]u cToGt k|;+zgLo /x]sf] 5 . V


;dk{0f of] k':ts yfn;]ldofsf ;+;f/el/ /x]sf tL k|To]s /f]uLx¿k|lt ;dlk{t 5 h;nfO{ d lrGb5' / e]6]sL klg 5' / h;nfO{ d lrG5' t/ c´} e]6\g ;s]sL 5}g . ljZje/sf tL xhf/f}F xhf/ yfnf;]ldof lkl8tx¿nfO{ h;nfO{ d lhGbuLdf slxNo} klg e]6\g] df}sf kfpg] 5}g . tL g} /f]uLx¿sf] /f]unfO{ lhTg] / afFRg] ;fx;n] g} dnfO{ pgLx¿sf] /f]u;Fusf] n8fFO{df ;fy lbg] k|]/0ff / zlQm b'j} k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . pgLx¿sf] cbDo ;fx; / cGtxLg w}o{n] g} dnfO{ s;/L gxfl/sg n8\g'k5{ eGg] s'/f l;sfPsf] 5 .

VI


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/]

ljifoj:t' tflnsf e"ldsf n]vssf] egfO b'O{ zAb

cWofo != /ut / yfnf;]ldof /ut– hLjg gbL /utsf] sfd /utsf] agfj6 k"0f{ /ut -xf]n An8_ /utsf k|sf/÷;d"x /utsf /f]ux¿ yfnf;]ldof d]h/

cWofo @= cg'j+flzstf / yfnf;]ldof cg'j+z -hLgx¿_ /ftf] /Qmsf]ifdf x'g] vf]6n] x'G5 yfnf;]ldof d]h/ x]df]Unf]lag / kmnfd tTj Unf]lag ;+Zn]if0fnfO{ lgoGq0f ug]{ cg'j+z -hLgx¿_ yfnf;]ldofsf] Kofyf]lkmlhof]nf]hL, β r]gx¿sf] cefj / α r]gx¿sf] clwstf yfnf;]ldof /f]usf] lgbfg yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf] lgbfg ug{ ;j{q k|of]u ul/g] x]df6f]nf]lhsn ljlw β yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf] pkrf/

cWofo #= /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg pkrf/ ljlw 6«fG:k\mo'hg pkrf/ k4lt slxn] z'¿ ug]{ ;'/lIft 6«fG:k\mo'hg pkrf/ k4ltsf] ;'lglZrttf /Qm ;d"x h]gf]6fOk s] 6«fG:k\mo'hg ug]{ < 6«fG:k\mo'hg ljlwsf] lg0f{o /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg ljlwsf] k|efjsfl/tfsf] cf+sng 6«fG:k\mo'hg k|lts[ofsf] pkrf/

XI XIII XV

1 1 1 3 3 6 8 8

10 10 13 13 16 18 20 21 24

25 25 27 28 28 33 35 40 VII


cWofo $= kmnfd tTjsf] clwstf / To;sf] ck;f/0f -lrn];g_

45

:j:Yo z/L/df kmnfd tTj 45 yfnf;]ldofdf kmnfd tTj 46 cTolws kmnfd tTjn] s;/L z/L/ lauf5{ < 48 8]:k]ml/cf]ShfdfOg -l8=Pkm=cf]_ cyjf 8]:km]/n 49 kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ slxn] z'? ug]{ < 51 l8=Pkm=cf]= lbg] c¿ tl/sfx¿ 53 l8=Pkm=cf]= pkrf/sf] k|efjsfl/tfsf] d"NofÍg 57 l8=Pkm=cf]= sf] dfqf ldnfpg k]ml/l6g txsf] k|of]u 58 lk;fadf kmnfd tTjsf] dfqf 60 l8=Pkm=cf]= pkrf/ k4ltn] Nofpg] ;d:ofx¿ / ltgLx¿sf] ;dfwfgsf] ;Defjgf 61 ue{jlt cj:yf 65 8]:k]ml/cf]ShfdfOg pkrf/ k4lt;Fusf] ;fd~h:otf 66 kmnfd tTj x6fpg] c¿ cf}ifwLx¿ 67 l8k]ml/k|f]g -Pn !_ n] s;/L sfd u5{ < 68 l8k]ml/k|f]gsf cGo kfZj{ k|efjx¿ 71 l8k]ml/k|f]gsf] k|efjsfl/tf 73 kmnfd tTj x6fpg] gofF cf}ifwLx¿ 75

cWofo %= yfnf;]ldof;Fu ;DalGwt d]l8sn ;d:ofx¿ / ltgsf] pkrf/

76

lkmof] a9\g] ;d:of (Hypersplenism) lkmof] x6fpg] sfd / ;ª\qmd0f -:Kn]g]S6f]dL_ d'6' / cGt>fjL u|GyLsf ;d:ofx¿ d'6'sf ;d:ofx¿ cGt>fjL u|GyLsf ;d:ofx¿

76 78 80 80 84

cWofo ^= yfnf;]ldofdf ;ª\qmd0f /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgaf6 x'g] ;ª\qmd0f x]kf6fOl6; la efO/; -Pr=la=le=_ af6 x'g] ;ª\qmd0f x]kf6fOl6; ;L -Pr=l;=le=_ c¿ efO/;x¿ VIII

94 96 97 100 105


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] gofF Kofyf]hLgx¿ k'/fgf Kofyf]hLgx¿af6 hlGdPsf gofF lrGtfx¿ /utsf] ;'/Iff ljsf;zLn b]zx¿df /utsf] pknAwtf / ;'/Iff pkrf/ gul/Psf] yfnf;]ldof d]h/df cGTodf s] x'G5– ;f/f+z

106 106 107 108 110

cWofo &= yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8of / c¿ k|sf/sf yfnf;]ldofx¿ 111 /f]usf] lgbfg 113 yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofsf] Joj:yfkg 113 kmnfd tTjsf] ck;f/0f -lrn];g_ 114 yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofdf d]l8sn ;d:ofx¿ 115 yfnf;]ldof;Fu ;DalGwt c8afË] x]df]Unf]lag cyjf ;+/rgfut ¿kn] x]df]Unf]lag cGt/ kfg]{ tTjx¿ 118 la–yfn];]ldof;Fu ldl>t c8afË] x]df]Unf]lagx¿ 119 α yfnf;]ldof 120

cWofo *= :yflkt pkrf/sf ljlwx¿ / eljiosf ;Defjgfx¿ x•Lsf] dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ sf] k|Tof/f]k0f -la Pd 6L_ x•Lsf] dHhfsf] k|Tof/f]k0f eg]sf] s] xf] < hf]lvdx¿ s]–s] x'g\ < hf]lvdnfO{ s;/L Go"lgs/0f ug{ ;lsG5 < 7\ofSs ldNg] lsl;dsf] x•Lsf] dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ k|Tof/f]k0fsf c¿ tl/sfx¿ lgisif{ ;fn -s8{ An8_ sf] /ut k|Tof/f]k0f

cWofo (= pkrf/sf c¿ tl/sfx¿

121 121 121 122 123 125 126 127

129

kmf]P6n x]df]Unf]lag a9fpg d2t ug]{ 129 hLg pkrf/ ljlw -hLg y]/fkL_ 130 /f]kg sfo{ -ODKnfG6];g_ k"j{ Pr=Pn=P= ldnfP/ /f]usf] lgbfg ug]{ ljlw 130

cWofo !)= dgf]j}1flgs k|efjx¿

131

la/fdL cleefjs -cfdf–a'afx¿_

131 131 IX


la/fdL / ltgsf afa'–cfdfx¿ ;"rgf / ;xof]u kfpg' yfnf;]ldof d]h/ ePsf afn, jo:s / j[4x¿

cWofo !!= cltl/Qm hfgsf/L hLjgsf] arfO{ / hLjg:t/

cWofo !@= Plkl8ldof]nf]hL / yfnf;]ldofsf] /f]syfd Plkl8ldof]nf]hL -/f]usf] If]qut lj:tf/_ /f]syfd /f]syfdsf] dxTj yfnf;]ldof s;/L cfdfafa'af6 5f]/f5f]/Ldf ;5{ < yfnf;]ldofsf ;+jfxsx¿sf (Carriers) ljifodf cfk"mdf yfnf;]ldof x'g ;Sg] u'0f ljBdfg 5 – 5}g eg]/ hfGg lsg cfjZos 5 < c? c;fdfGo x]df]Unf]lagx¿ / x]df]Unf]lagsf u8a8Lx¿ a yfnf;]ldof cfk"m afxs eP gePsf] kQf nufpg cg'j+zLo ;/;Nnfx -sfplG;lnË_ /ut s;n] k/LIf0f u/fpg' k5{ < ;xuf]qtf -k'Vof}{nL ;DaGw_ hf]lvddf /x]sf hf]8Lx¿sf nflu pknAw ljsNkx¿ yfnf;]ldofsf] nflu e|'0fsf] k/LIf0f

137 137

142 142 144 144 145 145 146 146 148 149 152 153 153 154

zAb cy{ ;+u|x

158

pkof]uL hfgsf/L

171

vfgkfg clg yfnf;]ldof T2* n] d'6'df ePsf] kmnfd tTjsf] dfqf gfK5 k\mnf] rf6{ o; k':tsdf k|of]u ul/Psf ;+lIfKt ¿kx¿, OsfO / gfkx¿ qm;j8{;\ – a|]g l6h;{ pkof]uL j]a;fO6x¿ kqfrf/sf] nflu cfjZos 7]ufgf / hfgsf/L

X

132 133 134

171 180 182 187 188 198 200


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/]

e"ldsf ljZje/ yfnf;]ldof /f]usf] /f]syfd / plrt pkrf/fTds ;]jfsf] gLlt k|j4{g ug]{ p2]Zosf ;fy ;g\ !(*^ df yfnf;]ldof cGt/f{li6«o dxf;+3 -l6=cfO=Pkm=_ sf] :yfkgf eof] . /fli6«o yfnf;]ldof ;+u7gx¿sf] :yfkgf, j[l4 / yfnf;]ldof /f]usf] If]qdf sfd ug]{ ljz]if1x¿nfO{ lgoldt tflnd lbg Ps z}lIfs sfo{qmdsf] ljsf; g} l6=cfO=Pkm= sf cg]s dxTjk"0f{ sfo{qmdx¿ -;fwgx¿_ dWo] k|d'v x'g\ h;dfkm{t l6=cfO=Pkm=n] cfk\mgf p2]Zox¿ k"/f ug]{ nIo /fVb5 . o; ;Gbe{df l6=cfO=Pkm=n] /fli6«o:t/df /f]uLx¿ / tLgsf cleefjsx¿sf] ;d"xnfO{ alnof] agfpg] s'/fnfO{ plrt dxTj lbPsf] 5 lsgls of] ;d"xn] yfnf;]ldof /f]usf] k|efjsf/L /f]syfd / plrt lrlsT;sLo -d]l8sn_ ;]jf / pkrf/sf] nflu pko'Qm /fli6«\o gLlt th'{df ug{ :jf:Yo clwsf/Ldfly ultnf] bjfj l;h{gf ug{ ;S5 . yfnf]ldof ;ª\u7gx¿n] hgr]tgf hfu/0f cleofgdf lg;ª\sf]r ¿kn] s]Gb|Lo e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{ ;S5g\ h'g s'/f yfnf;]ldof /f]u lgoGq0f ug]{ s'g} klg sfo{qmdsf] Ps cË aGg ;Sb5 . l6=cfO=Pkm= n] pTkfbgd"ns z}lIfs sfo{qmdsf] ljsf;, /fli6«o, cGt/f{li6«o:t/df sfo{zfnf uf]i7L, ;]ldgf/ / ;Dd]ng cfof]hgf ug{ hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . /f]uLx¿, ltgsf cleefjx¿ / hg;fwf/0fnfO{ yfnf;]ldof /f]u, o;sf] /f]syfd / pkrf/sf] af/]df cfwf/e"t hfgsf/L lbg] ;fdu|Lx¿b]lv lnP/ o; /f]usf] lrlsT;sLo -d]l8sn_ Joj:yfkgdf ;+nUg j}1flgsx¿nfO{ rflxg] kf7\o;fdu|L;Fu} c¿ Jofks ljifox¿nfO{ ljleGg efiffdf cg'jfb u/L k|sfzg ug]{ sfdnfO{ l6=cfO=Pkm=n] plQs} dxTj lbPsf] 5. of] k':ts cfjZos lrqx¿;lxt ;/n ¿kn] k|:t't Ps tfhf hfgsf/L ePsf], /f]uLx¿ ltgsf cleefjsx¿sf nflu clt g} d"Nojfg\ >f]t aGg'sf ;fy} o;n] yfnf;]ldof /f]usf] sf/0f, XI


:jefj, pkrf/, ;fdflhs / ;+j]ufTds cfofdx¿h:tf ofjt s'/fx¿ a'´\gsf] nflu ultnf] of]ubfg lbg]5 . l6=cfO=Pkm= sf j}1flgs ;+of]hs 8f= P08««'nf Pn]k\my]/Lof]n] of] lstfa n]vgdf p7fPsf] r'gf}ltk"0f{ sbdk|lt d clt g} s[t1 5' . jf:tjdf of] gofF / ;Dk"0f{ ¿kn] ;dofg's"n s[ltn] yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿, ltgsf cleefjsx¿df /f]usf] ;fdgf ug{ / h'´\gsf] nflu Ps gofF cfzfsf] ;~rf/ u/L pgLx¿nfO{ lg/Gt/ ;xof]u k'¥ofO /xg]5 eGg] s'/fdf d ljZj:t 5' . Kofgf]; Pª\n]hf]; cWoIf, l6=cfO=Pkm=

XII


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/]

n]vssf] egfO Kof/f ;fyLx¿, hj yfnf;]ldof cGt/f{li6«o dxf;+3sf af]8{ cWoIfn] dnfO{ yfnf;]ldof /f]uaf/] o;sf /f]uL / ltgsf cleefjsx¿sf] cfjZostfdfly s]lGb|t x'Fb} Ps lstfa n]Vg] s'/fdf ljrf/ ug]{ xf] ls < eGg'eof], d cGsgfPF lsgls of] sfd r'gf}ltk"0f{ h:tf] nfUof] dnfO{ . yfnf;]ldof /]fusf] af/]df s'zn / pTs[i6 Ps j}1flgsåf/f s]xL jif{ cl3 g} o; ljifodf Ps cToGt ;kmn / ;j{lk|o lstfa n]lv;lsPsf] lyof] . ToxL ;dob]lv yfnf;]ldof /f]usf] /f]syfdsf] ;Dk"0f{ kIfx¿df ;fx|} w]/} / cToGt dxTjk"0f{ k|of;x¿ ePsf 5g\ . oL ;Dk"0f{ gofF k|ultx¿nfO{ ;d]6]/ lstfa n]Vg] r"gf}ltnfO{ zL/f]wfo{ ug]{ lg0f{o ug'{sf] k5fl8 c¿ y'k|} sf/0fx¿ klg 5g\ . k|ydtM l6=cfO=Pkm=;Fu d]/f] ;+nUgtf Hofb} ulx/f] 5 / d o;sf p2]Zox¿ k"/f ug{ sl6a4 5' . c´} dxTjk"0f{ s'/f t ljZj yfnf;]ldof kl/jf/sf] dnfO{ cToGt dfof nfU5 h;sf] Ps cË ;D´G5' d cfkm"nfO{ . yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uL / ltgsf cleefjsnfO{ k|fyldstf lbP/ of] /f]u, o;sf] /f]syfd / pkrf/sf] nflu ;fFrf] / ;dofg's"n hfgsf/L lbg] lstfa n]Vg d}n] cToGt s8f k|of; u/]sL 5' . of] hfgsf/LnfO{ :ki6 / ;/n efiffdf n]Vg cg]s k|of;x¿ ul/Psf 5g\ . t/ of] k|of; of] lstfasf tL cg'R5]bx¿df ;Dej ePsf] 5}g hxfF efiffsf] clt ;/nkgn] cy{sf] :ki6tfnfO{ lauf5{ eGg] s'/fdf d ;hu ePF . t/ h] xf];\, dnfO{ cfzf 5 ls lstfasf] cGTodf lbPsf] zAb— cy{ / To;/L g} efiffsf] clt ;/nLs/0f ;Dej gx'g] 7fpFx¿df lbOPsf gSzf / lrqx¿n] klg kf7sx¿nfO{ lstfa c´ k"0f{ ¿kn] a'´\g d2t ug]{5g\ . kf7sx¿n] yfxf kfpg' g} x'g]5 ls lstfjsf] vf;—vf; efux¿nfO{ w]/} dxTj lbOPsf] 5 . h'g efux¿n] /f]uLx¿sf] pkrf/ k|lqmof ;d]6]/ pgLx¿sf] arfj6 / hLjgsf] :t/k|lt a9L k/v /fVb5g\ eGg] dnfO{ nfUof] tL efux¿df lj:t[t hfgsf/L pknAw u/fpg] lg0f{o lnOPsf] 5 . h:t} d'6';DaGwL cWoog ug]{ v08df, lrlsT;sLo -d]l8sn_ / cGo k|fljlws zAbfjnLx¿sf] a9L k|of]u ug'{kg]{ x'gfn] of] v08nfO{ c´ lj:t[t agfpg ;lsPg . oxfF lbOPsf ;a} hfgsf/Lx¿ l6=cfO=Pkm=sf k|sflzt k|ltj]bg / ;ldIffaf6 lnOPsf 5g\ . XIII


olb kf7sx¿n] cg'/f]w u/]df o; k':tsdf 5nkmn ul/Psf ljifoj:t'x¿;Fu ;DalGwt k|sfzgx¿ l6=cfO=Pkm=n] pknAw u/fpg ;Sg]5 . of] k':ts ;Fu;Fu} æv]n / yfnf;]ldofsf af/]df l;sÆ eGg] v]n / æyfnf;]ldofsf af/]dfÆ eGg] sf6{'g lstfax¿ c´}klg tof/Lsf] r/0fd} 5g\ t/ klg oL s'/fx¿ k5\ofPsf] v08df ;a} pd]/ ;d'bfosf /f]uLx¿ / ltgsf cleefjsx¿n] yfnf;]ldof /f]u / o;sf] pkrf/sf] af/]df /dfO{nf] 9Ën] w]/} hfgsf/Lx¿ k|fKt ug]{5g\ . la/fdL / ltgsf cleefjsx¿n] :jf:YosdL{;Fu cGt/lqmof ubf{ ;'Gg] u/]sf y'k|} zAbx¿sf] cy{ of] k|sfzgdf lbOPsf] 5 To;}n] la/fdLx¿n] ;'g]sf t/ yfnf;]ldofsf] af/]df a}1flgs ¿kn] n]lvPsf lstfa / klqsfx¿df kfOg] cK7\of/f zAbx¿sf] cy{;d]t hfGg o; k|sfzgn] pgLx¿nfO{ d2t ug]{5 eGg] cfzf /flvPsf] 5 . yfnf;]ldof c¿ cf0f'jf+lzs -h]g]l6s_ :jf:Yo u8a8L / logsf] /f]syfd;DaGwL hgr]tgf hfu/0f ug]{ ;+:yfut gLlt ePsf b]zx¿df a:g] yfnf;]ldofsf bL3{ /f]uLx¿ /f]uaf/] w]/} hfgsf/ x'G5g\ clg o;sf] af/]df ePsf gofF k|ultx¿sf] tfhf ;"rgf / hfgsf/Lx¿ nuftf/ ¿kn] vf]lh/x]sf x'G5g\ t/ ljsf;f]Gd'v b]zsf /f]uLx¿nfO{ /f]usf] af/]df e/kbf]{ / ;dofg's"n ;"rgf k|fKt ug{ w]/} ;xof]usf] cfjZostf kb{5 . o:tf hfgsf/L / ;"rgfx¿ /f]uLx¿nfO{ cfk\mgf] /f]u JolQmut txdf ;fdgf ug{ d2t ug'{sf] ;fy} cfk\mgf] b]zsf] ;/sf/nfO{ yfnf;]ldofsf] pko'Qm pkrf/sf] af/]df gLlt lgod th'{df ug{ bjfj lbg] Jofks:t/sf] ;ª\3if{sf] nflu klg w]/} dxTjk"0f{ 5g\ . cGTodf, of] lstfadf Pp6f ;fgf] cWofo klg 5 h;df s;/L yfnf;]ldof /f]un] u|l;t aRrfsf] hGdaf6 hf]lug] eGg] ljifo ;d]6\5 . pQm ljifo hg:jf:Yosf] b[li6sf]0fn] ;fy} clxn]sf la/fdLsf] nflu s;/L u':t/Lo pkrf/ ;]jf ;'lglZrt ug]{ eGg] ;Gbe{df klg dxTjk"0f{ 5 . yfnf;]ldof /f]uaf6 u|l;t yk aRrfx¿sf] hGdn] clxn] eO/x]sf /f]uLx¿nfO{ k'¥ofpg' kg]{ lrlsT;sLo -d]l8sn_ ;]jfsf] >f]t / ;fwgx¿nfO{ uDeL/ ¿kn] ;Lldt kfg]{ sfd ub{5 .

8f= PG8|'nf On]k\my]/Lof]

XIV


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/]

b'O{ zAb yfn];]ldof eGg] 8f= PG8|'nf On]k\my]/Lof]n] n]v]sf] k':ts g]kfnL efiffdf cg'jfb u/L k|sfzg ug{ kfpFbf dnfO{ cToGt v'zL nfu]sf] 5 . yfnf;]ldof eGg] /f]u tyf To;sf lgbfg ;DaGwL pkfox¿ cFufn]sf] o; k':tssf] g]kfnL efiffdf k|sfzgn] lj/fdL, cleefjs, pkrf/sdL{, ;~rf/sdL{ tyf ;DalGwt lgsfosf k|zf;sx¿nfO{ s]xL xb;Dd o; /f]usf af/]df cjut u/fpg]5 eGg] cfzf lnPsf] 5' . of] k':ts cg'jfb u/L k|sfzg ug]{ lhDd]jf/L lbPsf]df yfn];]ldof cGt/f{li6«o dxf;+3nfO{ wGojfb lbg rfxG5' . cg'jfb ug{df cfˆgf] cd"No ;do pknAw u/fO{ ;xof]u ul/lbg'x'g] g]kfn yfnf;]ldof ;f];fOl6sf cWoIf b'uf{ kf7s tyf ldqx¿, afn/f]u ljz]if1x¿ tyf cGo ;Dk"0f{ ;xof]uL ;fyLx¿nfO{ wGojfb 1fkg ub{5' . k|f=8f= clht /fodfemL

XV


XVI


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/]

cWofo ! /ut / yfnf;]ldof

1a

/ftf] = clS;hgo'Qm /ut lgnf] = clS;hg/lxt /ut

yfnf;]ldof /f]ux¿sf] o:tf] Pp6f ;d"x xf] h;n] z/L/nfO{ k|z:t dfqfdf pRr:t/sf] :j:y /ut agfpg afwf u5{ . xfdLnfO{ yfxf 5, dfgj z/L/ /utn] ubf{ hLpFbf] /xG5 . To;}n] /utnfO{ c;/ k'¥ofpg] s'g} klg ;d:of / pQm ;d:ofnfO{ xfd|f] z/L/n] s;/L ;fdgf u5{ eGg] hfGg' cfjZos 5 .

/ut– hLjg gbL /ut Pp6f hLjGt t/n kbfy{ xf] h;n] z/L/sf k|To]s cË / tGt'x¿df kf]if0ftf k|bfg ug'{sf ;fy} ToxfF ePsf ljsf/ j:t'x¿nfO{ af]s]/ n}hfg] sfd u5{ . Pshgf :j:Yo jo:s JolQmsf] z/L/df % b]lv ^ ln6/ /ut x'G5 h'g xfd|f] z/L/sf] s"n jhgsf] & b]lv * k|ltzt x'g cfpF5 . /ut d'6'sf] ;xfotfn] z/L/el/ 3'D5 . d'6'n] /QmgnL elgg] ;fgf–;fgf /QmgnLx¿sf] ;~hfn dfk{mt /utnfO{ z/L/el/ k|jfx ub{5 . km/s cfsf/ / sfo{ ePsf /QmgnLx¿ hDdf # k|sf/sf x'G5g\ . ltgLx¿ wdgL, lz/f, /Qmsf]zLsfx¿ x'g\ -x]g'{xf];\ 1a, 1b_ . oL ;Dk"0f{ /QmgnLx¿sf] ;~hfnnfO{ /Qm;~rf/ k|0ffnLsf] gfdn] hflgG5 .

/utsf] sfd /utn] w]/} k|sf/sf dxTjk"0f{ sfo{x¿ u5{M != clS;hgsf] ;~rf/– z/L/nfO{ sfd ug{sf] nflu cfjZos kf]ifs tTjx¿ af]s]/ Nofpg] / z/L/n] aflx/ kmfNg'kg]{ ljiffQm ljsf/ j:t'x¿nfO{ af]s]/ n}hfg] h:tf sfdx¿sf] nflu xfd|f] z/L/ /utdf lge{/ ub{5 . pbfx/0fsf] nflu ;a} hLljt k|f0fL / sf]ifx¿nfO{ hLljt /xg / sfo{ ug{sf] nflu xfdLn] ;f; k]mg]{ clS;hg jfo'sf] cfjZostf kb{5 . of] jfo' -clS;hg_ /utn] kmf]S;f]af6 lnG5 / z/L/sf ljleGg cËx¿df k'¥ofpF5 .

1b

xfjfsf] y}nfdf hfFb} u/]sf] /ut

xfjfsf] y}nfaf6 aflx/ hfg] /ut PNe]n; /Qms]lzsfx¿

1


1c

/Qms]lzsfx¿sf] leQfdf /ut / tGt'x¿sf] t/n kbfy{lar x'g] cfbfg k|bfg

1d

sf]ifx¿sf] aLrsf] vfnL 7fpFdf x'g] tGt' Un'sf]h t/n kbfy{

5fnf— o'l/of / cGo nj0ftTjx¿ kl;gfsf] ¿kdf aflx/ lgsfN5

/ut aUg] lbzf

kmf]S;f]— sfa{g 8fOcS;fO{8 jfo' aflx/ ˆofFS5

tGt'sf]ifx¿

/utaf6 cfpg] Go'6«f]lkmn xdf]{G;

/Qms]lzsf Pldgf] Pl;8

sfa{g8fOcS;fO8 /ftf] /Qmsf]if

sn]hf]— /f;folgs ljsf/x¿nfO{ lkQsf] ¿kdf lj;h{g ub{5

tGt'n] ug]{ pTkfbgx¿ h:t}— xdf]{g

clS;hg

le6fldg ljsf/o'Qm kbfy{x¿

d[uf}nf— d'q / cgo nj0fx¿nfO{ lg:sfzg ub{5

ˆof§L Pl;8 vlgh tTj

/ut aUg] lbzf

/utaf6 cfpg] df]gf];fO6

@= sfj{g8fOcS;fO8 af]s]/ n}hfg] sfo{– z/L/sf sf]ifx¿n] lgsfn]sf] ljsf/o'Qm sfj{gcS;fO8 gfds jfo'nfO{ /utn] kmf]S;f];Dd af]s]/ n}hfg] sfd ub{5 . kmf]S;f]n] sfj{g8fO{cS;fO8nfO{ z/L/ aflx/ k|jfx u5{ . /utn] o'l/of / o'l/sPl;8h:tf ljsf/o'Qm kbfy{nfO{;d]t d[uf}nf / sn]hf];Dd k'¥ofpg] sfd ub{5 . cGTodf oL ljsf/o'Qm, z/L/sf] nflu cgfjZos j:t'x¿ /utaf6 cnu aGb5g\ / dnd"qsf] ¿kdf z/L/af6 aflx/ lg:sG5g\ (x]g'{xf];\ 1c)

#= /utn] xfdf]{gh:tf ljlzi6 lsl;dsf /;fogx¿nfO{ klg Ps 7fpFaf6 csf]{ 7fpFdf n}hfG5 . oL xfdf]{gx¿n] cGt>fjL 1e

kfrg k|0ffnL

vfgf rkfpgfn] lgNg / O~hfO{d ;lqmo agfpg d2t ldN5 PlkUnf]l6;\n] vfgfnfO{ Zjf;gnLlt/ hfgaf6 /f]S5 lkQ y}nLn] lkQ hDdf ub{5 Sofsdsf] dfgj z/L/df vf; sfd x'Fb}g t/ hgfj/x¿df o;n] 3fF; krfpg] u5{ . o;df ePsf AofS6]l/ofx¿n] :6fr{nfO{ Un'sf]hdf kl/0ft u5{g\ . u'2y}nLdf gkr]sf] vfgf lbzfsf] ¿kdf hDdf x'G5 / u'4f/af6 lgisflzt x'G5

2

jsn Sofle6L

¥ofn u|GyLx¿n] jsn Sofle6Ldf ¥ofn lgsfN5g\

tfn'

sn]hf]n] lgsfn]sf] lkQ lkQy}nLdf hDdf x'G5 / ;fgf] cfGb|flt/ hfG5

lha|f] 6«oflsof cf];f]k]mu;\ 8fok|mfd

cfdf;on] Uofl:6«s pTkfbg u5{ KofGqmLofhn] KofGqmLofl6s h'; lgsfN5, of] h'; ;fgf] cfGb|ftkm{ hfG5 ;fgf] cfGb|fn] O{G6]:6fOgn h'; lgsfN5 . kr]sf] vfgfnfO{ cjzf]if0f ug]{ sfd ;fgf] cfGb|fn] u5{ 7"nf] cfGb|f h;df k|z:t kfgL hDdf x'G5


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] k|0ffnL / of}g tyf k|hgg k|0ffnL h:tf z/L/sf dxTjk"0f{ k|0ffnLsf] sfo{x¿nfO{ ;"rf¿ agfpF5g\ . $= /utn] kfrg k|0ffnLdf xfdLn] vfPsf] vfgf 6'qm]/ aGg] k|f]l6g, af];f], sfjf]{xfO8«]8h:tf kf}li6s tTjx¿nfO{ z/L/sf ljleGg cËx¿df k'¥ofpg] sfd u5{ . (x]g'{xf];\ 1d, 1e) %= /utn] sf]ifx¿sf] dfWodaf6 z/L/df nfUg] ljleGg /f]ux¿ / ;ª\qmd0flj¿4 h'´\g ;xof]u k'¥ofpF5 . h;af6 z/L/sf] k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLsf] lgdf{0f x'G5 .

/utsf] agfj6

1g

sf]if

Go"lSno;

Go"lSno;n] sf]ifsf] sfo{nfO{ lgoGq0f ug]{ / gofF sf]if agfpg lgb]{zg lbg] sfd ub{5 .

xf8sf] lardf /x]sf] vf]qmf] efudf kfOg] x•Lsf] dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ elgg] Ps k|sf/sf] tGt'df /ut pTkfbg x'G5 (x]g'{xf];\ 1f) . afNocj:yfdf /Qmsf]ifx¿ z/L/sf ljleGg tGt'x¿df aGb5g\ . jo:s JolQmx¿df eg] vKk/, 9f8, s/Ë, k'¶fleq /x]sf] xf8sf] dHhfdf dfq /Qmsf]ifx¿ aGb5g\ .

k"0f{ /ut -xf]n An8_ k"0f{ /ut @ efu ldn]/ ag]sf] x'G5 . csf]ifLo– o;df /Qmsf]if x'Fb}g . sf]ifLo– o;df /utsf] sf]if x'G5 . xfd|f] z/L/ ;'Idbz{s oGqn] dfq b]Vg ;lsg] v/af}F OsfOx¿n] ag]sf] x'G5 . z/L/ lgdf{0f ug]{ o:tf ;'Id Ansx¿nfO{ sf]if elgG5 . sf]ifx¿ v'Nnf cfFvfn] b]Vg g;lsg] u/L ;fgf x'G5g\ . k|foM h;f] tGt'x¿df logLx¿ Ps cfk;df hf]l8P/ /x]sf x'G5g\ t/ /utdf eg] sf]ifx¿ jl/kl/ t}l/P/ /xG5g\ . k|To]s sf]ifsf ltg efu x'G5g\M Go"lSno; cyjf s]Gb|Lo efu, Go'lSno; jl/kl/ /xg] kbfy{ ;fO6f]KnfHd / sf]if jl/kl/sf] sf]ifnfO{ cfsf/ lbg] sf]if l´NnL u/]/ sf]ifsf d'Vo # efu x'G5g\ (x]g'{xf];\ 1g) . oL k|To]s efux¿leq ljlzi6 k|sf/sf] sfo{ ePsf] c¿ s}of}F ;+/rgfx¿ x'G5g\ t/ k|f]l6g, af];f], sfjf]{xfO8«]8, Go"lSns Pl;8, 3'lnP/ /x]sf c0f'x¿ / lghL{j cfogx¿sf] cnfjf sf]ifsf] d'Vo efu kfgL xf] . k|f]l6gx¿ xfd|f] sf]ifsf sfo{zLn 3f]8fx¿ x'g\ . o:tf nfvf}F lsl;dsf 3f]8fx¿ xfd|f] z/L/df 5g\ .

dfO6f]sf]lG8«og ;fO6f]KnfHd— of] h]nLh:tf] x'G5 . o;leq x'g] /f;folgs k|ltlqmofx¿n] sf]ifnfO{ hLljt /fVb5 .

1f

sf]if lemlNn -d]Da|]g_ —of] sf]if jl/kl/ /x]sf] sf]ifnfO{ cfsf/ lbg] kftnf] lemNnL xf] . sf]ifleq hfg] / cfpg] kbfy{nfO{ o;n] lgoGq0f ub{5 .

x8\8Lsf] dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_

3


1h

sf]ifdf lglxt k|f]l6gsf sfo{x¿

/utdf x'g] tTjx¿ / dfqf Go'6«f]lkmn

lnDkmf];fO6

/ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ Kn]6n]6\;\ df]gf];fO6

KnfHdf

• •

• • •

1f

x8\8L

k]l/cf]:6]od

sDKofS6 x•L ge{

:kf]~hL x•L

/QmgnLx¿

x•L dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_

;a}h;f] sf]ifLo ;+/rgfsf] nflu lgdf{0ffTds Ans pknAw u/fpg] . O~hfOdsf] ¿kdf sfd u/L hLjgnfO{ ;Dej agfpg] /;folgs k|lts[ofsf] pQ]hs -Sof6flni6_ sf] sfd ug]{ . sf]ifsf] ;txdf x'g] ;~rf/nfO{ lgoGq0f ug]{ hLg -c0f'j+z_ x¿sf] cleJoQmnfO{ lgoGq0f ug]{ . cf0f'jf+lzs kbfy{ -h]g]l6s kbfy{_ sf] k|lts[lt pTkfbg ug]{ .

!= /utsf] kx]Fnf] t/n kbfy{af6 ag]sf] csf]ifLo efunfO{{ KnfHdf elgG5 . o;n] k"0f{ /utsf] %% k|ltzt efu cf]u6\5 . KnfHdf kfgL / g"gsf] ;fy} dxTjk"0f{ k|f]l6gx¿n] ag]sf] x'G5 . o;n] ljleGg tTjx¿ z/L/el/ k'¥ofpF5 . h:t}– PNj'ldg– /utdf /x]sf] d'Vo k|f]l6g Unf]j'lng– ufdf Unf]a'lng;d]t /x]sf] of] k|f]l6g b;f}F xhf/ PlG6a8Lx¿n] ag]sf] x'G5 h;n] z/L/nfO{ ;ª\qmd0f / /f]ux¿;Fu h'´\g d2t ub{5 . kmfOa|Lgf]lhg– o;n] /utnfO{ hDg ;xof]u u5{ . h;n] ubf{ rf]6 k6s nfUbf z/L/af6 a9L /ut aUg kfpFb}g . @= /utsf] sf]ifLo efu c¿ # j6f sf]ifx¿af6 lgdf{0f x'G5 h;sf] /ftf] /Qmsf]ifnfO{ Pl/y|f];fO6, ;]tf]nfO{ No'sf];fO6 / Kn]6\n]6\;nfO{ y|f]Djf];fo6 elgG5 . (x]g'{xf];\ 1h) /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ cyjf Pl/y|f];fO6\; -cf/=la=;L=_ xfd|f] z/L/df ´08} $% nfvb]lv %) nfv k|lt 3g ld=ld=;Dd x'G5g\ h'g s'n /Qm 3gTjsf] $% k|ltzt efu xf] . c¿ sf]ifLo tTjx¿sf] t'ngfdf /ftf] /Qmsf]ifsf] ;fnfvfnf cfo' nfdf] x'G5 . oL /Qmsf]ifx¿ !)) b]lv !@) lbg;Dd hLljt /xG5g\ .

4


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] k|fylds sfo{ clS;hgnfO{ x]df]Unf]lag eGg] of}lus;Fu ldnfP/ z/L/el/ k'¥ofpg' xf] . To;}n] ubf{ dfq z/L/sf tGt' / sf]if;Dd clS;hg k'Ub5 . /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿df ´08} #) s/f]8eGbf a9L x]df]Unf]lagsf c0f'x¿ /x]sf x'G5g\ h;n] /utsf] /Ë /ftf] agfpF5 . jf:tjdf /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿df x]df]Unf]lag olt w]/} vfFlbP/ /x]sf x'G5g\ ls ltgLx¿df c¿ sf]ifx¿df kfOg] h:tf] cGo tTj g} x'Fb}g . h:t} Go"lSno; (x]g'{xf];\ 1h) .

1i

Go"6«f]lkmn

/ftf] /Qmsf]ifsf] aflx/L tx cyjf l´lNn ;fa'gsf] lkmFhh:t} w]/} skmNnf] x'G5 . ljz]ifu/L clS;hg cfk"lt{sf] nflu ha of] cToGt ;–;fgf /Qmsf]lifsfx¿af6 axg'k5{ o:tf] a]nf of] sf]ifsf] nrstfn] o;nfO{ ;a} lbzfdf g5'l§Osg df]l8g d2t u5{ .

1j

cf]l;gf]lkmn

1k

af;f]lkmn

1l

df]gf];fO6

/ftf /Qmsf]if;Fu sfj{lgs PGxL8«]; elgg] OGhfOd klg k|z:t dfqfdf x'G5 h;n] sfj{g8fOcS;fO8nfO{ tGt'x¿af6 kmf]S;f];Dd k'¥ofpgsf] nflu dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]N5 . ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿ cyjf No"sf];fO6— (x]g'{xf];\ 1h) ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿ s"n /utsf] ! k|ltzt dfq x'G5g\ . oL /Qmsf]ifx¿n] z/L/sf] cu|df]rf{df /x]/ JofS6]l/of, efO/;, kmGhfO{ / k/hLljh:tf ls6f0f';Fu h'´\g] / z/L/nfO{ /f]uaf6 arfpg] dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]Nb5g\ . ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿df sf]ifsf ljljw k|sf/x¿ ljBdfg /xG5g\ / ltgLx¿ k|To]sn] ljleGg tl/sfn] ;ª\qmd0fsf] lj¿4 n8\g] / tGt'x¿nfO{ lau|gaf6 hf]ufpg] sfddf of]ubfg k'¥ofpF5 . ltgLx¿nfO{ agfj6 / cfsf/sf] cfwf/df o;/L juL{s/0f ul/G5 . •

u|fg'nf];fO6\; jf kf]nf]dkmf]{Go"lSno/ sf]ifx¿— oL sf]ifx¿sf] :j¿k bfgfbf/ / uf]nfsf/ eO{ dflylt/ p7]sf] Go'lSn ePsf] x'gfn] lognfO{ u|fg'nf];fO6\; of kf]nf]dkmf]{Go"lSnP/ eg]/ lrlgG5 . k|of]uzfnfdf logLx¿n] lng] :6]lgª\sf] /Ësf] cfwf/df logLx¿nfO{ o;/L pkjlu{s/0f ul/G5— − Go"6«f]lkmN; (x]g'{xf];\ 1i) -;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] &@ k|ltzt_ — logLx¿ :6]lgª\df lgnf] b]lvG5g\ . − Ol;gf]lkmn (x]g'{xf];\ 1j) -;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] !=% k|ltzt_ — logLx¿ :6]lgªdf /ftf] b]lvG5g\ .

l;:d]S; kf]:6/af6

5


1m

Kn]6n]6\;n] s] sfd u5{ <

y'lgPsf /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿

Kn]6n]6\;

lkmla|g d];js{

!= 5fnf sfl6G5 / z/L/af6 /ut aUg yfN5 . @= /utdf lkmla|gf]lhg eGg] k|f]l6g x'G5 . ha Kn]6n]6\;x¿ xfjfsf] ;Dks{df cfpF5g\ ltgLx¿n] lkmla|nf]lhgnfO{ lkmla|g gfds /];f -wfuf]_ df kl/0ft ub{5g\ . oL /];fx¿ 3fpdfly hfnL ag]/ nfUb5g\ / /ut aUg lb+b}gg\ . #= of] hfnLdf /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ 6fFl;G5g\ / /ut hdfO{ 3fpnfO{ 6fN5g\ . $= hd]sf] /ut ;'S5 / kfk|f] aG5 . oxL kfk|f]d'lg 5fnf j[l4 x'G5 . :Sofa

6

jf;f]lkm; (x]g'{xf];\ 1k) -;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] )=% k|ltzt_ — logLx¿ :6]lgªdf j}hgL b]lvG5 .

cGo ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿ − df]gf];fO6 (x]g'{xf];\ 1l) -;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] $ k|ltzt_ − lnDkmf];fO6 (x]g'{xf];\ 1h) -;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] @$ k|ltzt_

;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿ /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿eGbf 7"nf x'G5g\ t/ ltgLx¿sf] ;ª\Vof sd x'G5 . logLx¿ /utsf] &))) k|lt 3g So"=ld=ld= x'G5g\ / logLx¿ !* b]lv #^ 306f;Ddsf] dfq 5f]6f] cfo' ePsf x'G5g\ . Kn]6n]6\;— 3fp, rf]6 nfu]/ /QmgnLx¿sf] 6'6k'm6 eO{ x'g] /Qm>fjnfO{ /f]Sgsf nflu /ut hdfpg] k|lqmofsf] ;'¿jft ug]{ Psdfq t/ Hofb} dxTjk"0f{ sfd Kn]6n]6; \ n] ub{5g\ . Kn]6n]6; \ x¿ xfd|f] z/L/sf ;fx|} ;fgf;fgf /Qmsf]ifx¿ x'g\ (x]g'{xf];\ 1h). logLx¿ /utdf @ nfv k|lt 3g=ld=ld= x'G5g\ / logLx¿sf] cfo' (& b]lv !)) lbg;Ddsf] x'G5 . ;]tf /Qmsf]if / Kn]6n]6\; -/ftf /Qmsf]if xf]Og_ b'a}sf] Go"lSno; eGg] s]Gb|Lo efu x'G5 / o;nfO{ ;fO6f]KnfHdfn] 3]/]sf] x'G5 . ;]tf, /ftf / Kn]6n]6\; ltg} j6f sf]ifx¿ Xofdf]kf]O6Ls :6]d sf]if elgg] Pp6} aLh sf]ifaf6 pTkGg x'G5g\ . aLhsf]ifx¿ clt lta| ultdf aG5g\ . vfnL rf/ xKtfsf] ;dodf s]jn !) j6f aLhsf]ifx¿ j[l4 eO{ #) va{ /ftf /Qmsf]if, #) ca{ ;]tf /Qmsf]if / !=@ va{ Kn]6n]6\;sf] ;ª\Vofdf k'Ub5g\ . logLx¿sf] of] j[l4 z/L/sf k|To]s /Qmsf]ifnfO{ k|lt:yfkg ug{ k|z:t x'G5 .

/utsf k|sf/÷;d"x k|f]l6gsf] k|sf/af6 lrlgg] P, aL, PaL / cf] u/L hDdf $ k|sf/sf /Qm;d"xx¿ 5g\ . oL ;d"xx¿nfO{ dfs{/ cyjf PG6LhLg eg]/ klg hflgG5 logLx¿ /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] ;txdf /x]sf x'G5g\ . k|To]s JolQmsf] /ut P, aL, PaL jf cf] ;d"xx¿dWo] s'g} Ps ;d"xdf kb{5 . o;sf] cy{ k|To]s JolQm;Fu oL ;d"xdWo]af6 s'g} g s'g} Pp6f /ftf] /Qmsf]ifsf] ;d"x x'G5 .


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] /Qm;d"x P– /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] ;txdf dfs{/ P ;d"x x'G5 . /Qm;d"x aL– /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] ;txdf dfs{/ aL ;d"x x'G5 . /Qm;d"x PaL– /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] ;txdf dfs{/ PaL ;d"x x'G5 .

1w

/Qm ;d"x -n]_ bfg ug{ ;S5g\ A P / PaL ;d"x B aL / PaL ;d"x AB PaL O ;a} ;d"x

lng ;S5g\ -nfO{_ P / cf] ;d"x aL / cf] ;d"x ;a} ;d"x cf] ;d"x

/Qm;d"x cf]– /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] ;txdf g t P dfs{/ x'G5 g t aL g} . /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿df /Qm;d"x;Fu c;DalGwt csf]{ k|sf/sf] PG6LhLg klg x'G5 h;nfO{ /];; -cf/= Pr_ PG6LhLg elgG5 . cf/=Pr= dfs{/ ePsf] /utnfO{ cf/=Pr kf]h]l6e elgG5 / cf/=Pr= dfs{ gePsf] /utnfO{ cf/=Pr= g]u]l6e eg]/ hflgG5 . @) eGbf a9L c¿ lsl;dsf /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ kQf nflu;s]sf 5g\ t/ dfly pNn]lvt ;d"xx¿ g} dxTjk"0f{ / ;a}n] hfg]sf /Qm;d"xx¿ x'g\ . Ps hgf JolQmn] cfk\mgf] /utsf] k|sf/ of ;d"xsf] af/]df hfGg' kgf{sf] sf/0f y'k|} 5g\ . Pp6f dxTjk"0f{ sf/0f t hxfF Ps JolQmaf6 csf]{ JolQmnfO{ /ut lng'kg]{ x'G5 cyjf /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg ug'{ kg]{ cj:yfsf] nflu xf] (x]g'{xf];\ 1w) . /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg ubf{ /Qmbftfsf] /ut / /ut lng] JolQmsf] /ut 7\ofSs} ldNg'k5{ tfls /ut lng] JolQmsf] z/L/n] lnPsf] /ut c:jLsf/ gu/f];\ . bftfn] lbPsf] /utsf] /Qm;d"x / /];;\ PG6LhLg /ut lng]sf] /Qm;d"x;Fu ldN5 ldNb}g eg]/ bfFh]/ hfFRg] sfd /ut a}Ísf] k|of]uzfnfdf x'G5 hxfF qm; DoflrË ug]{b]lv ldNg ;Sg] g;Sg] s'/fsf] ;d]t hfFr x'G5 . olb bftfsf] /utsf] /Qm;d"x / cf/= Pr= u'0f b'¿:t} ldn]gg\ eg] /ut lng] dfG5]sf] z/L/n] lnOPsf] /utnfO{ cfqmd0fsf/L of x:tIf]ksf/Lsf] ¿kdf lnG5 / To;nfO{ gi6 ug{] k|oTg ub{5 . olb t'¿Gt} lgbfg / pkrf/ ePg eg] z/L/n] ckl/lrt a]d]n /utsf] lj¿2 ug]{ ;ª\3if{sf] sf/0f /ut lng] JolQm l;ls:t ¿kn] la/fdL kg{ of dg{ ;d]t ;Sb5 .

7


/utsf /f]ux¿ w]/}h;f] /f]ux¿ /utdf x'g] c;fwf/0f of cg'lrt u8a8Lsf] sf/0fn] hlGdG5g\ . oL u8a8Lx¿sf] juL{s/0f u8a8Lx¿n] /utsf] s'g efu k|efljt ePsf] xf] To; cg';f/ x'G5 . o;k|sf/ /utsf /f]ux¿df /ftf /Qmsf]ifsf /f]ux¿, ;]tf /Qmsf]ifsf /f]ux¿ / /ut hDg] k|lqmofdf ;d:of;DaGwL /f]ux¿ kb{5g\ . /ftf] /Qmsf]ifsf] /f]udf yfnf;]ldof kb{5 . /ftf] /Qmsf]ifsf] Pp6f ;fx|} k|rlnt /f]u dWo] /QmcNktf -Plgldof_ Ps xf] . of] /f]u ePsfx¿sf] z/L/df /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] ;ª\Vof ;fx|} sd x'G5 / x]df]Unf]lagsf] tx Hofb} tn ´5{ . Plgldofsf] ;fdfGo nIf0f ysfj6 xf] lsgls o; /f]udf /utn] rflxFbf] dfqfdf clS;hg af]Sg / z/L/el/ cfk"lt{ ug{ ;Sb}g . /utdf kmnfd tTjsf] sldn] x'g] Plgldof ;a}eGbf a9L k|rlnt Plgldof xf] h;df xf8sf] dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ n] k|z:t dfqfdf /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] pTkfbg ub{ ;Sb}g . o; k|sf/sf] Plgldofsf] pkrf/ k|foM kmnfdo'Qm vfg]s'/f lbP/ ug{ ;lsG5 .

c¿ k|sf/sf Plgldofx¿ t/ c¿ k|sf/sf Plgldof w]/} uDeL/ k|s[ltsf x'G5g\ . x]df]nfO{l6s Plgldofn] z/L/df /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿nfO{ cToGt tLa| b/df gi6 ub{5 . yfnf;]ldof d]h/df x•Lsf] dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ n] /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ pTkfbg ug]{ ljlQs} gi6 x'G5g\ / xf8sf] dHhfn] pxL dfqfdf /ftf /Qmsf]ifsf] pTkfbg u/L ltgLx¿sf] k|lt:yfkg ug{ ;Sb}g . oL /f]ux¿ j+zf0f'ut x'g\ / cToGt s8f vfnsf 5g\ . w]/} jif{ cl3;Dd oL /f]ux¿sf] pkrf/ x'g ;Sb}g / /f]uLx¿ ckl/xfo{ ¿kn] slnnf] pd]/ d} d5{g eGg] ;f]lrGYof] . clxn] xfdLn] yfxf kfof}F ls olb la/fdLx¿n] ;xL pkrf/ kfP eg] pgLx¿ k"0f{ / ;d[4 hLjg afFRg ;S5g\ .

yfnf;]ldof d]h/ e"—dWo;fu/Lo /QmcNktfsf] /f]u -d]l86]l/og Plgldof_ cyjf s'n]s]f Plgldof eg]/ lrlgg] yfnf;]ldof d]h/ Psk6s e"dWo;fu/sf] jl/kl/dfq ;Lldt 5 eGg] ;f]lrGYof] . u|Ls efiffdf

8


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] Thalassa sf]

cy{ ;d'b| x'G5 / of] /f]u e"dWo ;fu/ jl/kl/ /x]sf b]zx¿df klxnf b]vf k/]sf] x'gfn] o;nfO{ ;d'b|L If]qdf x'g] Plgldof cyjf yfnf;f±PlgldofÖ yfnf;]ldof eGg yflnof] .

cd]l/sg afn/f]u ljz]if1 8f= 6d; s'n] / 8f= kn{ nLn] O6fnLsf] /f]uLx¿sf] cWoog ul/;s]kl5 ;g\ !(@& df of] /f]usf lSnlgsn ljz]iftfx¿sf] af/]df k|ltj]bg k|:t't u/L JofVof u/]sf] x'gfn] o;nfO{ "s'n]sf] Plgldof" klg elgG5 . yfnf;]ldof /f]ux¿dWo] ;a}eGbf s8f yfnf;]ldof d]h/ g} o; lstfasf] d'Vo ljifo xf] . of] /f]u ljZjsf] ;dzLtf]i0f xfjfkfgL kfOg] If]qdf a9L nfu]sf] kfOG5 . t/ dflg;x¿sf] e"d08nLo cfjt–hfjtsf] j[l4;Fu} of] /f]u klxnf gePsf] e"uf]ndf klg k'lu;s]sf] 5 . blIf0f o"/f]k / Pl;ofaf6 dflg;x¿sf] a;fFO ;/fOn] ubf{ ljz]if u/L pQ/ o'/f]k]nL b]zx¿ a]nfot, hd{gL To;}u/L Sofgf8f, cd]l/sfdf klg yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿ 7"nf] kl/df0fdf e]l6g yfn]sf 5g\ .

9


cWofo @ 2a

c0f'jf+lzstf / yfnf;]ldof (Genetics

l8 Pg P

xfO8«f]hg af]08

and Thalassaemia) yfnf;]ldof hLgx¿sf] dfWodn] afa'–cfdfaf6 ;Gtfgdf ;g]{ j+zf0f'ut /f]u xf] . of] /f]u xfjf, kfgL, /ut cyjf /f]uL;Fusf] zf/Ll/s Pjd\ of}g ;Dks{af6 ;b}{g . g t of] /f]u Go'g kf]if0f cyjf cGo d]l8sn cj:yfaf6 g} ;5{ .

hLgx¿ (Genes)

Iff/

2a

l8 Pg P e¥ofª\u

2b

lhgf]d

1 helical turn = 3.4 mm

;'u/ kmf]:k]m6 d]?b08

hLgx¿ k|To]s hLjsf] k"0f{ lrq x'g\ h;n] pQm hLjsf] j[l4 / ljsf;nfO{ hLjge/ lgoGq0f ug]{ ;Dk"0f{ h}ljs ;"rgf k|bfg ug]{ ub{5g\ To;}n} hLgx¿ j+zf0f'ut h}ljs OsfOx¿ x'g\ . k|To]s hLgsf] d'Vo efu l8clS;/fOaf]Go"lSns Pl;8 elgg] Pp6f /f;folgs tTj xf] h;nfO{ 5f]6s/Ldf l8=Pg=P= elgG5 .

l8=Pg=P= (DNA) -x]g'{xf];\ 2a_M l8=Pg=P= @ j6f ;dfgfGt/ ;+/rgf;Fu} y'k|} v'8\lsnfx¿sf] >[+vnf af]s]sf] Pp6f e¥ofËh:tf] agfj6 xf] . k|To]s v'8\lsnf Iff/ elgg] @ j6f /;fogx¿sf] hf]8f ldn]/ ag]sf] x'G5 . o;nfO{ cª\u|]hL cIf/x¿ C, G, A,/ T n] k|ltlglwTj u5{g\ h;df C n] ;fO6f]l;g, G n] u'jfgfOg, A l8=Pg=P= n] Pl8gfOg, / T n] yfOldg hgfpF5g\ . oL rf/ Iff/ tTjx¿ Ps csf{;Fu lglj{sNk ¿kn] hf]8L ag]/ /xG5g\ . n] T / G n] C ;Fu dfq hf]8L agfpF5 -x]g'{xf];\ 2a_ e¥ofËh:tf] b]lvg] ;+/rgfsf] k|To]s v'8\lsnfdf h'g qmddf oL Iffl/s tTjx¿ /xG5g\ ToxL qmdn] g} pQm hLjf0f'sf] c0f'jf+lzs ;ª\s]tsf] lgwf{/0f x'G5 . A

Pp6f hLjsf] l8=Pg=P= sf] ;du| ¿knfO{ lhgf]d elgG5 . dfgj lhgf]d xhf/f}F hLgx¿ ldn]/ aGb5 . Pp6f hLjsf] h}ljs sfo{ ;Dkfbg ug{sf] nflu cfjZos kg]{ ;Dk"0f{ c0f'x¿ -h:t} k|f]l6g_

10


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] lgdf{0f ug{sf] nflu l8=Pg=P= n] lgb]{z k|bfg ug]{ sfd ub{5 . x/]s sf]ifdf Pp6f h}ljs ;+oGq /xG5 h;n] hLgn] af]s]sf] ;"rgf u|x0f u/L c0f' agfpg] k|lqmofsf] ;'¿jft ub{5 . of] ;"rgf l8=Pg=P= c0f'h:t} cf/=Pg=P= -/fOaf]Go'lSns Pl;8_ df gSsn -slk_ x'G5 . l8=Pg=P=df h:t} cf/=Pg=P= df klg qmdzM G, A / T eg]/ lrlgg] u'jfgfOg, Pl8gfOg / yfOldg Iff/x¿ /x]sf x'G5g\ . t/ ;fO6f]l;gsf] 7fpFdf cf/=Pg=P= df rf}yf] Iff/sf] ¿kdf o"/fl;n (U) /x]sf] x'G5 . cf/=Pg=P= l8=Pg=P= eGbf of] cy{df klg km/s x'G5 ls o;sf] l8=Pg=P= df h:tf] e¥ofËh:tf] b]lvg] ;+/rgf geP/ Pp6fdfq /];f /x]sf] x'G5 . k|f]l6gh:tf] dxTjk"0f{ h}ljs pTkfbgsf] nflu sf]ifdf /x]sf] h}ljs ;+oGqnfO{ l8=Pg=P=sf] ;"rgf k'¥ofpg] ;Gb]zjfxs (messenger) sf] e"ldsf v]Ng' Pd=cf/=Pg=P= (mRNA) sf] d"Vo sfd xf] .

2c

qmf]df]hf]D;

dfgj z/L/df x'g] y'k|} hl6n h}ljs sfo{x¿sf] nflu w]/} hLgx¿sf] cfjZostf kb{5 . qmf]df]hf]d elgg] cToGt nfdf] l8=Pg=P=df oL hLgx¿ Ps csf{df hf]l8P/ /x]sf x'G5g\ . dfgjsf]ifsf] z'qmsL6sf]if / c08sf]if -Egg Cell_ b]lv afx]s c¿ ;a} qmf]df]hf]dsf @÷@ k|lt x'G5g\ / of] Psk|lt cfdfaf6 / Psk|lt a'jfaf6 k|fKt x'G5 . km/s km/s k|sf/sf hLjx¿df qmf]df]hf]dsf] ;ª\Vof km/s x'G5 . dfgj z/L/df @# hf]8L -$^ j6f_ qmf]df]hf]dx¿ x'G5g\ (x]g'{xf];\ 2c) . @@ hf]8L -$$ j6f_ qmf]df]hf]dx¿ dlxnf / k'¿if b'a}df Ps} k|sf/sf x'G5g\ h;nfO{ c6f]hf]d elgG5 / afFsL ! hf]8L -@ j6f_ qmf]df]hf]dn] lnË lgwf{/0f u5{ . k|To]s dfgj z/L/df ePsf] k|To]s hf]8L qmf]df]hf]ddWo] Pp6f cfdfaf6 / Pp6f afa'af6 cfPsf] x'G5 . w]/} jif{sf] cg';Gwfgn] w]/} hLgx¿ kQf nufPsf] 5 h;df kg]{ s'g} klg c;/n] y'k|} k|sf/sf c0f'jf+lzs u8a8Lsf /f]ux¿ hGdfpF5g\ . h]g]l6s u8a8LnfO{ $ efudf afF8\g ;lsG5 . != qmf]df]hf]dsf] c;fdfGokg -qmf]df]hf]d PAgdf{lnl6h_M qmf]df]hf]ddf 7"nf v08x¿ x/fPdf, bf]xf]l/Pdf cyjf otf ptf k/]df o:tf] cj:yf cfpF5 .

11


@= Psn hLg u8a8LM hLgsf] txdf cfpg] kl/jt{g cyjf ;+/rgfut ab\nfjsf sf/0fn] Psn hLg ;+:n]if0f k|lqmof kl/jt{g eof] cyjf cj¿4 eP of] /f]u nfU5 . #= ax'kflIfs u8a8LM of] u8a8L ax';ª\Vos hLgx¿df x'g] ;+/rgfut kl/jt{g / w]/} h;f] jftfj/0fLo kIfx¿;Fu ldn]/ x'g] sf/0fn] x'G5 . o;sf] dtna o; /f]usf] cj:yf b]lvgsf] nflu c¿ w]/} kIfx¿ Ps}k6s lhDd]jf/ x'G5g\ . 2d

dfO6f]sf]G8«]g Zjf;k|Zjf; v'lDrPsf leqL ;txn] lj:tfl/t lrgL / aflx/L ;tx agfpF5 clS;hg DTMs

sf]ifsf] zlQme08f/ kfgL / sfj{g8fOcS;fO8

sf]iflemlNndf vfFlbP/ a;]sf /f;folgs tTjx¿

$= dfO6f]sf]G8«LonM qmf]df]hf]d gePsf] l8=Pg=P= sf]ifsf] ;fO6f]KnfHddf /x]sf] zlQms]Gb| elgg] dfO6f]sf]G8«Lofdf cjl:yt hLgdf ;+/rgfut kl/jt{g eO{ x'g] u8a8LnfO{ dfO6f]sf]G8«Lon u8a8L elgG5 . yfnf;]ldof Psn hLg u8a8Laf6 x'g] /f]u xf] . Psn hLg u8a8Laf6 x'g] /f]ux¿ tn pNn]lvt s'g} d"ne"t k|s[ofx¿dWo]af6 cfdf–afa'af6 cfk\mgf ;Gtfgdf ;b{5 . of] l;4fGtnfO{ u|uf]/ d]08n eGg] Ps lqmlZrog leIf'n] ;g\ !*&% df JofVof u/]sf lyP . d"nd"t k|lqmofx¿M != c6f]hf]dn 8f]ldgG6 @= c6f]hf]dn l/;]l;e #= PS; ;Da4 8f]ldgG6 $= PS; ;Da4 l/;]l;e h]g]l6S;df oL s]xL zAbfjnLx¿ k|of]u x'G5g\ h;n] SnLlgsn kl/0ffdx¿ -k]mgf]6fOk_ hLgsf] u8a8L -h]gf]6fOk_ sf] sf/0fx¿af6 k}bf eO{ afa'–cfdfaf6 ;Gtfgdf ;/]sf 5g\ eg] logLx¿nfO{ lgDg 9Ën] a'l´G5 . != cfdf–afa'dWo] Ps hgfaf6 dfq ;/]sf] -c6f]hf]dn 8f]ldgG6_ @= cfdf–afa' b'j}af6 ;/]sf] -c6f]hf]dn l/;]l;e_ #= cfdf–afa' dWo] Pshfgfsf] lnË lgwf{/0f ug]{ qmf]df]hf]ddf ePsf] Pp6f c;fdfGokg sf] sf/0f -PS; ;Da4 qmf]df]hf]d 8f]ldgG6_ $= cyjf cfdf–afa' b'j}sf] lnË lgwf{/s qmf]df]hf]ddf x'g] ;d:ofsf] sf/0f x'g' -PS; qmf]df]hf]d ;Da4 l/;]l;e_

12


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof Psn hLg u8a8Laf6 x'g] j+zf0f'ut /f]u xf] h;nfO{ dflysf] 9fFrfd'tfljs j+zf0f'ut u'0fsf] c6f]hf]dn l/;]l;d 9fFrf eg]/ a'l´G5 . c6f]hf]dn /f]usf] dlxnf / k'¿if b'j}nfO{ plQs} c;/ ug{ ;S5 lsgls of] s'g} Pp6f c6f]hf]dsf] c;fdfGokgn] x'G5 . of] ;Gtfgx¿sf] lnË lgwf{/0f ug]{ qmf]df]hf]dx¿sf] sf/0f x'g] xf]Og . l/;]l;e eGg'sf] dtna yfnf;]ldof d]h/n] k"0f{ u|:t SnLlgsn cj:yf ljsf; x'g' xf] . o:tf] cj:yfdf aRrfn] afa'–cfdf b'j}af6 vf]6f] hLg kfPsf] x'G5 . cfdf–afa' b'j}af6 vf]6f] hLg k|fKt ug]{ JolQmx¿nfO{ xf]df]hfOuf]; elgG5 . β-yfnf;]ldof ePsf o:tf JolQmx¿nfO{ eg] xf]dfhfOuf]6\; β-yfnf;]ldof ePsf /f]uLx¿ eg]/ hflgG5 . pgLx¿nfO{ yfnf;]ldof d]h/, e"–dWo ;fu/Lo Plgldof jf s'n]sf] Plgldof ePsf /f]uLx¿ eg]/ klg lrGg ;lsG5 . oL /f]uLx¿df yfnf;]ldof /f]uLdf x'g] ;a} nIf0fx¿ ljBdfg /xG5g\ . cfdf–afa'dWo] Pshfgaf6 ;2] hLg / csf]{af6 vf]6f] hLg k|fKt ug]{x¿nfO{ x]6]/f]hfOuf]6\; elgG5 . β-yfnf;]ldofsf] ;Gbe{df o; cj:yfnfO{ x]6f]/f]hfOu6\; β-yfnf;]ldof elgG5 . csf]{ zAbdf yfnf;]ldof x'g;Sg] u'0f af]Sg] JolQmnfO{ yfnf;]ldofsf] ;+jfxs jf yfnf;]ldof dfOg/ ePsf] JolQm eGg] hgfpF5 . oL JolQmx¿ cfk}mdf /f]usf] nIf0fx¿ b]lvFb}gg\ t/ oLgLx¿n] cfk\mgf ;Gtfgdf vf]6f] hLg eg] ;fg{ ;Sb5g\ .

/ftf] /Qmsf]ifdf x'g] vf]6n] x'G5 yfnf;]ldof d]h/ cWofo ! df rrf{ ePh:t} yfnf;]ldof j+zf0f'ut ¿kn] x'g] -j+z k5\ofpg]_ cg'j+zLo /Qm /f]u xf] . c´ tf]s]/ eGg'kbf{ of] /f]u /ftf] /Qmsf]ifx¿df ePsf x]df]Unf]lagsf c0f'x¿sf] ;+Zn]if0f k|lqmofdf ePsf] ;d:ofsf] sf/0fn] k}bf x'g] u8a8L xf] .

x]df]Unf]lag / kmnfd tTj x]df]Unf]lag -x]g'{xf];\ 2e_ /ftf] /Qmsf]ifdf kfOg] Ps lsl;dsf] k|f]l6g xf] . c0f'x¿sf] of]un] ag]sf] of] k|f]l6gsf] sfd z/L/sf]

2e

x]df]Unf]lag Xofd

clS;hg

clS;hg

Unf]lag

Unf]lag

clS;hg

clS;hg Xofd

13


2f

hg'h'g efudf cfjZostf k5{ To; efudf clS;hg k'¥ofpg' xf] . k|To]s /ftf] /Qmsf]ifdf x]df]Unf]lagsf #) s/f]8 c0f'x¿ x'G5g\ . x]df]Unf]lagsf] Pp6f c0f'sf] b'O{ efu x'G5g\ . != Unf]ljg eGg] k|f]l6g hf]8f hf]8f eP/ ldn]/ a;]sf $ hf]8f k|f]l6g r]gx¿n] ag]sf] x'G5 -x]g'{xf];\ 2e+2f_ . ToxfF w]/} k|sf/sf hf]8fx¿ x'G5g\ h:t} α–r]gx¿ / α2–r]gx¿b]lv afx]s c¿ u}/ α–r]gx¿, β2, У2, δ2, ζ2, ε2, klg Pscfk;df hf]8f afFlwP/ a;]sf x'G5g . h:t} α2У2, α2β2, α2δ2, α2ζ2 / α2ε2 cflb . @= Xofd cfO/g sf]ifsf] ;fO6f];f]n cyjf dfO6f]sf]lG8«cg efudf ;+Zn]lift ePsf] /LËx¿ u'Hd'lhP/ a;]sf] h:tf] b]lvg] Pp6f ;+/rgf xf] . Xofd cfO/gdf /x]sf] kmnfdtTjsf] c0f' clS;hgnfO{ z/L/el/ k|jflxt ug{ ;Ifd x'G5 . kmnfdtTj clS;hg;Fu ;lhn} ldNg] / 5'l§g] ePsf]n] of] sf]if / tGt'tGt'df clS;hg ;~rf/ ug]{ dxTjk"0f{ ;fwg aGb5 . Pp6f ;fdfGo jo:s JolQmsf] z/L/df $ u|fd kmnfdtTj x'G5 . h;dWo] # u|fd cyf{t &% k|ltzt kmnfdtTj x]df]Unf]lag ;+Zn]if0f ug{ k|of]u x'G5 . x]df]Unf]lagsf] pTkfbg / ;+Zn]if0f s]xL hLgx¿af6 lgolGqt x'G5 . α hLgx¿n] qmf]df]hf]d !^ df / β-,У- / δ- hLgx¿ qmf]df]hf]d !! df lgolGqt x'G5g\ . $ j6f hLgx¿n] a r]gnfO{ OlËt u5{g\ eg] @ j6f hLgx¿n] β r]gnfO{ b]vfpFb5 . (x]g'{xf];\ 2g) α r]gx¿ / β r]gx¿sf] ;+Zn]if0fnfO{ lgoGq0f ug{ lhDd]jf/ hLgx¿sf] ;ª\Vof h'g;'s} eP tfklg of] @ j6f r]gx¿ 7\ofSs} a/fa/L dfqfdf pTkflbt x'G5g\ . 2g α

/ β Unf]ljg hLgx¿ qmdzM !^ / !! df hDdf x'G5g\

OlDa|of]

14

k]m6;\

jo:s


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] ljleGg k|sf/sf r]gx¿sf] d]naf6 x'g] km/s k|sf/sf x]df]Unf]lag / hLjgsf ljleGg ;dodf pTkflbt km/s k|sf/sf x]df]Unf]lagnfO{ tnsf] tflnsfdf o;/L b]vfOG5 . (x]g'{xf];\ 2h) α

r]g

α b]lv afx]s c¿

Hb

ζ

ε

ζ2ε2

α

ε

α2ε2

ζ

У

ζ2У2

α

У

α2У2

α

β

α2β2

α

δ

α2δ2

d]ufnf]Anf:6

sn]hf]

x]df]Unf]lagsf] hLjgsf ljleGg cj:yfx¿ gfd x'g] pTkfbg uef{j:yfsf] klxnf] cf7 uf]j/– ! xKtf uef{j:yfsf] klxnf] cf7 uf]j/– @ xKtf klxnf] xKtfsf] ue{fj:yf / x]df]Unf]lag xf]df]hfOuf]; α–yfnf;]ldof kf]6]{n]08 x'g] xfO8«f]k kmf]P6fln; ^ xKtfb]lv k"/f cj:yfsf] uef{j:yf;Dd x]df]Unf]lagsf] HbF k|wfgtf ;fdfGo jo:sdf ! k|ltzteGbf sd * xKtfsf] ;fdfGo e|'0fdf HbA !) k|ltzt;Dd, ;fdfGo jo:sdf Hb sf] k|wfgtf !÷#) :t/sf] HbA / o;};Fu ;DalGwtdf AbA2 -dfOg/_ Hb pTkfbg . ;fdfGo jo:s JolQmdf # k|ltzteGbf sd . Dofqmf];fO6

] lkmof

uef{wf/0f k5fl8sf] cj:yf -xKtf_

gdf]{;fO6

af]g Dof/f]

hGd

aRrf hGd]kl5sf] cj:yf -xKtf_

2h

2h

ljleGg pd]/x¿df pTkfbg x'g] ljleGg k|sf/sf Unf]ljgx¿ / ljsf;sf] cj:yfdf /x]sf] O/fyf]kf]Pl;;sf] ljleGg s]Gb|x¿

From TIF's "Guidelines for the Clinical management of Thalassaemia

15


Unf]lag ;+Zn]if0fnfO{ lgoGq0f ug]{ cg'j+z -hLgx¿_ x]df]Unf]lagsf] Unf]ljg efudf pTkfbg x'g] β–r]gx¿nfO{ lgoGq0f ug]{ hLgdf lglZrt q'l6sf] sf/0fn] β–yfnf;]ldof d]h/ x'G5 . h]g]l6s q'l6sf] kl/0ffd :j¿k of t β–r]gx¿ pTkfbg g} x'Fb}gg\ . olb ePklg yf]/} x'G5g\ / /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿df α–r]gx¿dfq /xG5g\ . α–r]g / β–r]gx¿sf] cfjZos dfqfsf] pkl:yltn] dfq /utn] /fd|/L sfd ug{ ;S5 . olb oL r]gx¿sf] c;Gt'ng ePdf x]df]Unf]lag cfjZos dfqfdf pTkfbg x'g ;Sb}g . kl/0ffd:j¿k Pl/y|f]k]Pl;; -Pl/y|f] eg]sf] u|Ls efiffdf /ftf] /Qmsf]if / kf]ol;; eg]sf] pTkfbg x'G5_ g/fd|/L k|efljt x'G5 . x]df]Unf]lagsf] β–r]gx¿sf] pTkfbg k|lqmofsf] nflu lhDd]jf/ dflgg] hLgx¿sf] v/faL -dfly pNn]v ul/P ´}F_ cfwf/ hf]8fdf Pp6f kl/jt{g cyjf hLgx¿sf] s]xL v08 x/fPsf] -l8n];g_ sf/0fn] pTkGg x'G5 . β–hLgx¿sf] ;fdfGo sfo{nfO{ c;/ ug{;Sg] @)) eGbf a9L k|sf/sf hLg ;+/rgf kl/jt{gx¿sf] klxrfg eO;s]sf] 5 . hLg ;+/rgf kl/jt{gsf] k|sf/sf] cfwf/df Unf]ljg ;+Zn]if0f cTolws of sd dfqfdf k|efljt x'G5 h;n] ubf{ sd k|efljt eP ;fwf/0f k|sf/sf] / a9L k|efljt eP r/d cj:yfsf] yfnf;]ldof x'G5 . vf; vfnsf hLg ;+/rgf kl/jt{gx¿n] β–r]gx¿sf] pTkfbgdf kfg]{ k|efj ;fdfGo (β++) b]lv lgs} dxTjk"0f{ (β+) x'G5 hasL c¿ vfnsf kl/jt{gx¿n] (β0) of] r]gx¿sf] pTkfbgnfO{ ;Dk"0f{ ¿kdf g} l;WofpF5g\ . o;/L j+zf0f'ut ¿kn] afa'–cfdf b'a}af6 β+ hLg kfPsf JolQmx¿nfO{ sd k|efjs yfnf;]ldof x'g] ;Defjgf x'G5 . o;sf] t'ngfdf cfdf afa' b'j}af6 β0 hLg kfPsf JolQmx¿df β-Unf]lagsf] w]/} sdL x'g] ePsf]n] pgLx¿nfO{ r/d cj:yfsf] yfnf;]ldof x'g] ;Defjgf Psbd a9L x'G5 t/ ldl>t lsl;dsf hLgx¿ k|fKt ug]{x¿sf] k]mgf]6fOk cGbfh ug{ ;lhnf] 5}g . h:t} β+ β+++ cyjf β+ β0 cyjf β++ β+0

16


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof x'g] ;Defjgfsf s]xL pbfx/0fx¿– β0 ÷ β0 –

yfnf;]ldof d]h/ β ÷ β – yfnf;]ldof d]h/ β++÷ β++– yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8of÷sd k|efjs β+÷ β++– yfnf;]ldof d]h/÷yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8of +

+

h]gf]6fOk÷k]mgf]6fOk dfly pNn]v ePe}Fm vf;vf; lsl;dsf h]g]l6s hLg ;+/rgf kl/jt{gx¿ -h]gf]6fOk_ yfnf;]ldof /f]usf] lSnlgsn l;ls:ttf;Fu ;DalGwt x'g] dxTjk"0f{ tYo kQf nflu;s]sf] 5 . # j6f hLgx¿sf] -β++, β+ / β_ ljleGg ;+of]hgx¿ yfnf;]ldof /f]u;Fu ;DalGwt 5g\ / of] ;+of]hgn] g} yfnf;]ldof /f]usf] l;ls:ttfsf] ljleGg cj:yfx¿nfO{ lgwf{/0f ub{5 . o;/L g} ljleGg b]zx¿df hLg ;+of]hg / hLg ;+/rgf kl/jt{g -Mutation_ sf cfk\mg} ljz]iftfx¿ 5g\ . hLg ;+/rgf kl/jt{gsf r/d k|efjs -0_ sd k|efjs -+_ / ;fdfGo -++_ cj:yfsf pbfx/0fx¿– β++

hLg ;+/rgf kl/jt{g

–!)!,–*&, –**, –@* IVS!–!)^

hLg ;+/rgf kl/jt{g IVS!–!!) IVS!!–&$% IVS!–% β+

hLg ;+/rgf kl/jt{g IVS!–! IVS!!–! IVS!–-–@%_ C#( β0

c¿ w]/} h]g]l6s cj:yfx¿n] /f]usf] tLj|tfnfO{ sd ug{ ;S5g\ . h:t}M != α-r]gx¿sf] 36]sf] ;+Zn]if0f– s'g} yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf /f]uLx¿n] j+zf0f'ut ¿kn] k|fKt u/]sf] hLg ;+/rgf kl/jt{g k|lqmofn] β- r]gx¿sf] ;+Zn]if0f k|lqmofnfO{ 36fpg'sf] ;fy} αr]gx¿sf] ;+Zn]if0f k|lqmofnfO{ klg 36fpF5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf α- r]gx¿ / β- r]gx¿aLrsf] c;Gt'ng sd x'g uO{ /f]un] ;fdfGo -sd k|efjs_ ¿k lnG5 . @= У-r]gx¿sf] a9\bf] ;+Zn]if0f– Pshgf ;fdfGo :j:y JolQmsf] /utdf ePsf] ! k|ltzt kmf]P6n x]df]Unf]lag cyjf -HbF_ PsPs hf]8f α- r]gx¿ / Ps hf]8f У- r]gx¿ -α2У2_ ldn]/ aG5 . yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿df hj z/L/n] HbA

17


pTkfbgsf] cefjnfO{ HbF sf] a9L pTkfbg u/]/ k"lt{ ug]{ k|oTg u5{ To;kl5 У- r]gx¿sf] pTkfbg a9\g hfG5 t/ of] j[l4 klg HbA sf] l/QmtfnfO{ k"/f ug{ k"0f{ ;Ifd x'g ;St}g . yfnf;]ldofsf s]xL /f]uLx¿n] j+zf0f'ut¿kn] kmf]P6]n x]df]Unf]lag -HPFH_ k|fKt u5{g\ . of] cj:yfdf HbF x¿ a9L dfqfdf pkl:yt x'G5g\ / of] cj:yf jo:s cj:yfe/ sfod /xG5 . /f]uLx¿n] У- Unf]lag hLgx¿sf] l;d'n]zg -УXmn kf]lndf]lk{mhd_ cyjf δβ yfnf;]ldofsf] cj:yfh:tf hLg ;+/rgf kl/jt{g k|lqmof j+zf0f'ut dfWodn] k|fKt u/]sf x'g ;S5g\ . logLx¿n] jo:sx¿df kmf]P6n x]df]Unf]lagsf] ;+Zn]if0fnfO{ %–@) k|ltzt n] a9fpFb} Unf]ljg r]gx¿sf] c;Gt'ngnfO{ sd u/L yfnf;]ldofsf] k|efjnfO{ sd ug{ ;S5g\ .

yfnf;]ldofsf] Kofyf]lkmlhof]nf]hL β- r]gx¿sf] cefj / α- r]gx¿sf] clwstf α r]gsf] clwstf

β

l8g]r'/];g÷ Ifo cf/=lj=;L= lk|s;{/ sf] Iflt

x]df]nfOl;;

lkmof]sf] j[l4 Plgldof Pl/y|f]kf]Pl6g

k|efjlxg Pl/y|f]kf]Ol;;

6«fG:k\mo'hg kmnfd tTjsf] clwstf kmnfd tTjsf] cjzf]if0fdf j[l4 cGt>fjL u|GyLsf] sfddf x•Lsf] s'¿ktf sdL, l;/f]l;;, d'6'sf df+;k]zLn] sfd ug{ 5f]8\g] af]g Dof/f]sf] j[l4

l6:o' xfOkf]ShLof

ue{jtL a]nfdf e|'0fsf] /ut kmf]P6n x]df]Unf]lag elgg] -dfly pNn]v eP ´}F_ ljz]if k|sf/sf] x]df]Unf]lag α- r]gx¿sf] Ps hf]8f / У- r]gx¿sf] Ps hf]8f -α2У2_ ldn]/ ag]sf] x'G5 . of] x]df]Unf]lagn] c¿ ;fdfGo x]df]Unf]lagn] h:t} z/L/sf] sf]ifsf]if / tGt'df clS;hg cfk"lt{ ub{5 . kmf]P6]n x]df]Unf]lagn] aRrf hGd]b]lv klxnf] ^ dlxgf;Dd sfd ub{5 . qmd};+u o;sf] 7fpFdf α- r]gx¿sf] Ps hf]8f / β- r]gx¿sf] Ps hf]8f ldn]/ -α2β2_ ag]sf] jo:s x]df]Unf]lag HbA n] lnFb} hfG5 . yfnf;]ldof d]h/df β- r]gx¿ pTkfbg g} x'Fb}gg\ / ePklg Psbd} sd dfqfdf x'G5g\ . o;sf] cefjn] :j:yjo:s x]df]Unf]lag ;+Zn]if0f k|lqmof cj¿4 x'G5 / /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] clS;hg cfk"lt{ ug]{ IfdtfnfO{ g/fd|/L laufb{5 . aRrfx¿sf] z/L/n] kmf]P6]n x]df]Unf]lag g} pTkfbg ug]{ sfd hf/L /fvL o; cefjk|lt k|ltlqmof hgfpF5 . t/ o;n] aRrfx¿sf] a9\bf] z/L/nfO{ rflxg] dfqfsf] x]df]Unf]lag pTkfbg u/L jo:s x]df]Unf]lagsf] h:tf] -α2β2_ kof{Kt dfqfdf z/L/nfO{ clS;hg cfk"lt{ ug{ ;Sb}g . r]gx¿sf] Go"gtf jf cefjsf] csf]{ Pp6f gsf/fTds c;/ klg 5 . z/L/n] cfjZos dfqfdf α- r]gx¿ pTkfbg ul//xG5 t/ β-

18


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] ;Fu;Fu} ldn]/ sfd ug'{kg]{ β- r]gx¿ pTkfbg gx'gfn] α- r]gx¿ a9L eO{ Ps 7fpFdf y'lk|g yfN5g\ . α- r]gx¿sf] clwstfn] /ftf] /Qmsf]ifsf] pTkfbgnfO{ g/fd|/L layf]nL o;sf] pTkfbgnfO{ (% k|ltzt;Dd 36fpF5 . /utdf cToGt yf]/} dfqfdf dfq kl/kSj /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ x'g] ePsf]n] z/L/df s8f lsl;dsf] Plgldof b]vfk5{ . of] eGbf klg a9L, z/L/el/ k|jflxt x'g] /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿df α- r]gx¿ hDdf eO{ ltgsf] l´NnLnfO{ laufb}{ /Qmsf]ifnfO{ gi6 ul/lbG5g\ . /ftf] /Qmsf]if 6'6\g] of] k|lqmofnfO{ x\ofdf]nfOl;; elgG5 -lu|s efiffdf x\ofdsf] cy{ /ut / nfOl;;sf] cy{ 6'lqmg' x'G5_ . x]df]nfOl;;n] x]df]Unf]lagsf] cGt/bxg -d]6faf]lnhd_ k|lqmofaf6 pTkfbg x'g] ljln¿ljg eGg] kx]Fnf] kbfy{nfO{ rflxg]eGbf a9L lgsfN5 . of] kbfy{ x]df]nfOl;;sf] k|lqmofdf /ftf] /Qmsf]ifx¿ 6'6]/ aflx/ cfPsf] xf] . ljnL¿ljgsf] a9L pTkfbgsf] sf/0f yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf /f]uLsf] 5fnf / cfFvf kx]Fnf] x'G5 -slxn] sfFxL o;nfO{ Os6]l/s eg]/ a'l´G5g\ . kmn:j¿k yfnf;]ldof d]h/af6 x'g] r/d cj:yfsf] Plgldofsf] sf/0f /f]uLx¿ kx]Fnf / ylst b]lvG5g\ . o;n] ubf{ cTolws l56f] d'6' 9's9's x'g] / xlNng] u5{ lsgls d'6'n] /utsf] clS;hg k|jfx ug]{ IfdtfnfO{ Ifltk"lt{ ug{ -a9fpg_ cTolws l56f] w8\sg' kg]{ x'G5 . o;n] ubf{ d'6'sf] cfsf/ j[l4 x'G5 . la/fdLx¿sf] zf/Ll/s j[l4sf] b/ sd eO{ pgLx¿nfO{ ;fdfGo zf/Ll/s s[ofsnfk ug{ klg ufx|f] x'G5 . pgLx¿df bL3{ Plgldof b]vf k5{ h;nfO{ s'g} klg pkrf/n] 5'Fb}g . aRrfx¿ b'AnfP/ lgGofp/f, lgbfp/f / ´u8fn' x'G5g\ . r/d cj:yfsf] Plgldofn] z/L/sf w]/} k|lt/Iff ;+oGqx¿nfO{ a9L ;lqmo agfpF5 . o;dWo] ;aeGbf dxTjk"0f{ xf8sf] dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ sf] cTolws k}mnfj6 -j[l4_ d'Vo xf] . klxnf pNn]v eP ´}F /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ x•Lsf] dHhf -af]gDof/f]_ df aGb5g\ . /ftf /Qmsf]ifsf] Go'gtfnfO{ k"lt{ ug{ /Qm ;~rf/ k|0ffnLdf w]/} /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ k"lt{ ul//xg' kg]{ x'gfn] x•Lsf] dHhfn] clws sfd ug'{k5{ / o;sf] cfsf/df ;fdfGoeGbf #) u'0ff j[4L x'G5 . af]g Dof/f]sf] cfsf/ a9\g] x'gfn] x•Lsf] klg cfsf/ a9\g uO{ vKk/ ljs[t aG5, dflyNnf bfFt pl5l§G5g\ . 9f8 / s/Ë c8jfË] b]lvg],

α

Unf]ljgsf] clwstf

• Plgldofsf] d'Vo sf/0f • x•L dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ df Go"lSnP6]8 ePsf] Pl/y|f]O6 k|f]h]lg6;{ z'?d} lk|l;lk6]6]8 x'G5 • ck|efjsf/L Pl/y|f]kf]Ol;; u/fpF5 . • kl/kSj /ftf sf]ifdf lk|l;lk6]8 x'G5 • x]df]nfOl;; x'G5 • k|f]l6cf]nfOl;; lt/ a9\5

19


;fdfGo ¥ofl6So'nf];fO6\;df x'g] α / Unf]ljgx¿sf] ;Gt'lnt ;+Zn]if0f

– PAhf]a]{G;

β+

0.. 0.. 0

/]l8of]PlS6le6L

yfnf;]ldofdf x'g] cTolws Unf]ljgx¿sf] ;+Zn]if0f

– PAhf]a]{G;

0.. 0.. 0

β

α

/]l8of]PlS6le6L

xft v'§fsf x•Lx¿ kftnf eO{ -cf]:6f]k]lgof_ ;lhn} efFlRrg] cj:yfdf k'U5g\ . /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ lkmof]df lkmN6/ x'G5g\ . of] cËn] /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿nfO{ logLx¿sf] hLjgrqmsf] cGTodf 6'qmfpF5 . t/ yfnf;]ldof /f]uLsf] lkmof]n] eg] af]g Dof/f]sf] clt lqmoflzntfsf sf/0fn] pTkflbt /ftf] /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] clt 7"nf] dfqfnfO{ ;fdgf ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . kl/0ffd:j¿k clt 7"nf] dfqfdf /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿nfO{ 5'§\ofpg' kg]{ sf/0fn] lkmof] ;'lGgG5 . o; cj:yfnfO{ xfOk/ :KnLlgHd elgG5 . clws s[oflzntfn] ubf{ lkmof]n] a'9f / o'jf /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿;+u} ;]tf /Qmsf]if / Kn]6\n]6\;x¿nfO{ klg tf]8\g k'U5 / Plgldofsf] cj:yfnfO{ ´g g/fd|f] agfpF5 . yfnf;]ldof /f]uLsf] /Qm/~rf/ k|0ffnLdf k|jflxt /utdf Hb c;fdfGo cfsf/sf] x'g] ePsf]n] clwst/ o:tf /Qm s0f lkmof]n] ;dfT5, kl/0ffdtM of] lkmof]df hd]/ /xG5 / lkmof]sf] cfsf/nfO{ c´ a9fpF5 . cGTodf PlgldofnfO{ /f]Sgsf] nflu lkmof] cfk}mn] /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ pTkfbg ug]{ sf]lzz u5{ o;nfO{ PS:6«fd]8'n/L Pl/y|f]kf]Ol;; elgG5 h;n] lkmof]nfO{ c´ 7"nf] kf5{ . o;/L α- r]gx¿sf] clwstfn] x'g] α- r]gx¿ / β- r]glarsf] c;Gt'ngsf] sf/0f g} yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf] d'Vo Kofyf]lkmlhof]nf]hL xf] . of] o:tf] sfo{ut kl/jt{g xf] h;n] of] /f]u lgDTofpF5 . z/L/n] cfGb|f / Uof:6«f]OG6]:6fOgn af6f] eP/ hfg] vfgfaf6 cTolws kmnfd tTj cjzf]if0f u/L Plgldofsf] Ifltk"lt{ ug]{ k|oTg u5{ . t/ o;n] ubf{ ;d:of ´g ljs/fn aG5 lsgls yfnf;]ldofdf z/L/df /ftf /Qmsf]ifsf] pTkfbgsf] c;Ifdtf of cs'zntfsf] sf/0fn] Plgldof x'G5 . of] kmnfd tTjsf] cefjsf] sf/0fn] ePsf] xf]Og . a9L kmnfd tTj cjzf]if0f u/L z/L/n] kmnfd tTjsf] clwstf -cfO/g cf]e/ nf]8_ x'g] csf]{ gofF vt/f lgDTofpF5 .

yfnf;]ldof /f]usf] lgbfg yfnf;]ldof /f]u lnP/ hlGdPsf] aRrfdf /f]usf] s'g} aflx/L ;ª\s]tx¿ b]lvFb}g . olb afa' cfdfsf] yfnf;]ldof ;DalGw k/LIf0f ul/Psf] 5}g / kl/jf/sf cGo aRrfx¿df yfnf;]ldof nfu]sf]

20


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] 5}g eg] k|of]uzfnf hfFraf6 klg of] /f]u lgbfg ug{ ufx|f] x'G5 . aRrfsf] slnnf] pd]/df yfn];]ldof eP–gePsf] kQf nufpg w]/} ufx|f] k5{ lsgls aRrfsf] z/L/df kmf]P6n (HbF) /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] k|r'/tfsf] sf/0fn] α / У Unf]ljg r]gx¿ -h;n] HbF agfpF5_ sf] ;Gt'ng /fd|/L ldn]sf] x'G5 / o;sf] sf/0fn] dfly JofVof ul/P h:tf] /f]u k|efljt /ftf /Qmsf]if pTkfbgaf6 x'g] ;d:of b]lv aRrfnfO{ hf]ufpF5 . aRrfn] j+zf0f'ut ¿kn] afa'–cfdfaf6 k|fKt ug]{ hLg ;+/rgf kl/jt{gnfO{ aRrfsf] slnnf] cj:yfdf g} klg cf0fljs k4ltaf6 klxrfg ug{ ;lsG5 . t/ o:tf] hfFr To;a]nf dfq ;Dej x'G5 ha afa' cfdfx¿n] aRrf hlGd;s] kl5 cfk"m;Fu vf]6f] hLg ePsf] yfxf kfpF5g\ / aRrfdf of] cfP gcfPsf] olsg ug{ rfxG5g\ . b'ef{Uoj; gjhft lzz'nfO{ :qmLlgË ug{ ;lsg] k4lt ljsl;t ePsf] 7fpFdf ;d]t yfnf;]ldofsf] lgbfgsf nflu ul/g] hfFrx¿n] z'¿sf] cj:yfdf s'g} lgisif{df k'¥ofpFb}gg\ t/ HbE / HbS h:tf e]bsx¿sf] -e]l/PG6_ pkl:yltsf] lgbfg ug{ eg] o:tf] :qmLlgË sfd nfUg ;S5 . w]/} h;f] @ jif{sf] pd]/eGbf cufl8 yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf] lgbfg x'g ;S5 t/ yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofsf] eg] nfdf] ;do;Dd lgbfg x'g ;Sb}g . tnsf] tflnsfn] o; ljifodf ePsf] k/LIf0fsf] glthf b]vfpF5 .

aRrfx¿df yfnf;]ldof d]h/ / OG6/d]l8of b]vf kg]{ pd]/ pd]/ ! jif{d'lg ! jif{b]lv @ jif{;Dd @ jif{dfly

yfnf;]ldof d]h/ &%–^@ k|ltzt #%–@( k|ltzt !!–( k|ltzt

yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8of $–!! k|ltzt !!–#) k|ltzt @@–%( k|ltzt

yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf] lgbfg ug{ ;j{q k|of]u ul/g] x]df6f]nf]lhsn ljlw != x]df6f]nf]lhsn ;ª\s]t – Pp6f /ftf] /Qmsf]if u0fs elgg] ljB'tLo oGqsf] k|of]u u/]/ x]df6f]nf]lhsn Kof/fld6/ gfk u/L /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] cfsf/, 3gTj / ltgLx¿df /x]sf

21


sf] cfFsng ul/G5 . /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] cfsf/, 3gTj / ltgdf x]df]Unf]lagsf] pkl:ylt ha :jfQ} 36]sf] kfOG5 / of] 36fOdf ha Hb sf] tx k|lt 8]l;ln6/ @–^ u|fd k|lt 8]l;ln6/ dfq b]lvG5 . clgdfq yfnf;]ldof /f]u nfu]sf] xf] egL ls6fg ug{ ;lsG5 . yfnf;]ldof /f]uLx¿df ;j{q kfOg] s]xL xdf6f]nf]lhsn ;"rsx¿ tnsf] tflnsfdf b]vfOPsf] 5. Hb

Hb –k|lt 8]l;ln6/ MCH-Pg MCV FL HCHC

k|lt 8]l;ln6/

dWos ^=* @)=( ^%=* #)=(

>]0fL #=(–(=# !%–@^ %&–&% @^–#$

ckl/kSj /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] pkl:yltnfO{ u0fsn] ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] a9]sf] pkl:ylt b]vfpg] ulNt ug{ ;S5 t/ of] unt u0fgfnfO{ k|of]uzfnfsf] cGo hFfrx¿n] :ki6 kfg{ ;S5g\ . 2k

@= /ut lkmNd / cf/=lj=;L= ;+/rgf ¿k– ;'Idbz{s oGqn] x]bf{ /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ kFx]nf b]lvG5g\ (x]g'{xf];\ 2k) o;nfO{ xfOkf]qmf]lgs / c´ ;fgf b]lvg]nfO{ dfOqmf];fO6Ls elgG5 . c´ dxTjk"0f{ s'/f t k|foM h;f] /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ a]9Ë cfsf/sf b]lvG5g\ . of] cj:yfnfO{ Plg;f];fO6f]l;; kf]Olsnf];fO6f]l;; elgG5 . #= x]df]Unf]lag On]S6«f]kmf]l;{;– of] x]df]Unf]lagsf] c0f' agfpg] ljeGg vfn] k|f]l6gx¿nfO{ 5'§\ofpg] k|lqmof xf] h:t} HbA, HbA2, HbF cflb . ha kmf]P6n Hb sf] tx ;fwf/0f :t/af6 dfly uO{ @) b]lv () k|ltzt b]lvG5, o;n] yfnf;]ldof ePsf] ;ª\s]t u5{ . ;fwf/0f jo:ssf] Hb df # k|ltzt x'g] HbA2 ;fdfGo l:yltdf klg 36]sf], x'Fb} gePsf] of yf]/} a9]sf] klg b]lvg ;S5 . $= cf0fljs ljlw– l8=Pg=P= sf] hfFr u/]/ x]g]{ ljlzi6 lsl;dsf ljwLx¿ /f]usf] lgbfgdf a9L e/kbf{ / c´ ljlzi6 ;"rgf lbg] vfnsf x'G5g\ . pbfx/0fsf] nflu hLgsf] ;+/rgfdf kl/jt{g eO{ /f]u nfu]sf] xf] ls xf]Og egL lgbfg ubf{ /f]usf]

22


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] lgbfg a9L e/kbf]{ x'G5 / /f]usf] l;ls:ttfsf] :t/ klg yfxf x'g ;S5 . x]df6f]nf]lhsn Kof/fld6/sf] hfFr h]g]l6s k|s[ltsf] ePsf]n] α, β / У hLgx¿sf] ;+/rgf kl/jt{gsf] hfFr /f]usf] lgbfgsf] ;fy} pkrf/sf] lgSof}{n ug{df ;d]t dxTjk"0f{ x'G5 . t/ β yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf] lgbfg eg] a9L ;/n / l;wf x'G5 . dn]l/ofsf] k|sf]k /x]sf] ljsf;zLn b]zx¿df eg] of] lgbfg sfo{ sl7g x'G5 . pbfx/0fsf] nflu dn]l/ofn] /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ 36\g] -Plgldof_ / lkmof] a9\g] -:k]gf]d]ufnL_ b'j} nIf0fx¿ b]vfpF5 . k|of]uzfnf hfFrn] u/]sf] 7x/ km/s kg{ ;S5 . To;sf/0f /f]uLnfO{ klxnf dn]l/of lgsf] kfg]{ cf}ifwL lbP/ dfq of] /f]usf] af/]df cfFsng / lgbfg ug{ ;lsG5 . Plgldof, :k]gf]d]ufnL / HbF sf] txdf r8fj h:tf cg]s cj:yfx¿n] ubf{ /f]usf] ;xL lgbfgsf] nflu cltl/Qm lSnlgsn / k|of]ufnf hfFrh:tf /f]u lgbfgsf cg]s k4lt÷ljlwx¿ k|of]u ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . yfnf;]ldofsf] pkrf/ yfNg'eGbf cl3 o;sf] ;xL lgbfg Psbd} cfjZos 5 .

x]df]Unf]lagsf d'Vo u8a8Lx¿ α–Unf]ljg

r]g u8a8Lx¿ β-Unf]lag r]g u8a8Lx¿

α yfnf;]ldofx¿

/f]ux¿ α–Yffnf;]ldof xfO8«f]k kmf]P6fln; -=Hb jf6{; xfO8«f]k kmf]P6fln;_ HbH

v'k]{ sf]if u8a8L -l;Ssn ;]n u8a8L_ v'k]{ sf]if -l;Ssn ;]n_ Plgldof (HbSS) HbS/ β- yfnf;]ldof HbSC /f]u HbSD /f]u c¿ lj/n} la/fdL kfg]{ u8a8Lx¿ β- yfnf;]ldof β- yfnf;]ldof d]h/ β- yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8of HbE/β- yfnf;]ldof

c¿ lj/n} b]lvg] yfnf;]ldof

23


β- yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf] pkrf/ # bzsb]lv ePsf cg]sf}F lSnlgsn hfFr / cg';Gwfgx¿n] yfnf;]ldof d]h/ pkrf/ x'g;Sg] /f]u xf] eGg] s'/fnfO{ :yflkt u/]sf] 5 . cWoogx¿n] b]vfPsf] 5 ls /fd|/L k|ltzf]wg ul/Psf] /ut lgoldt 6«fG:k\mo'hg ;Fu;Fu} k|efjsf/L 9Ën] kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ -cfO/g lsn];g y]/fkL_ h:tf ljlwx¿sf] k|of]un] /f]uLx¿sf] afFRg] pd]/ j[l4 ug'{sf] ;fy} hLjg:t/ pRr /fv]sf] 5. oxfF rrf{ ul/Psf] pkrf/ ljlw yfnf;]ldofdf x'g] Plgldof / o;sf kl/0ffdx¿dfly s]lGb|t 5 . To;} u/L of] ljlwn] of] /f]usf] cfk\mg} sf/0fn] x'g] nuftf/ ¿kn] tGt'df kmnfd tTj y'lk|Fb} hfg] ;d:of -k|f]u|]l;e l6:o" cfO/g nf]l8Ë_ / Plgldof lgsf] kfg{ ul/g] /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg pkrf/ ljlw;Fu klg plQs} dxTjk"0f{ 9Ën] ;/f]sf/ /fVb5 .

24


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/]

cWofo # /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg pkrf/ ljlw lg/Gt/ ¿kn] ul/g] /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgn] yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf /f]uLx¿sf] bL3{ / :t/o'Qm hLjgsf] nflu 7"nf] of]ubfg lbPsf] 5 . of] pkrf/ ljlw ;g\ !(^) b]lv yfnf;]ldof d]h/ /f]usf] pkrf/sf] s]Gb|Lo kIf /xL cfPsf] 5 . olb ;xL 9Ën] Joj:yfkg ug{ ;lsPg eg] yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf] ljz]iftfsf] ¿kdf lrlgg] x•L dHhfsf] cTolws j[l4 / s8f Plgldofn] lgDg ;d:ofx¿ lgDTofpF5 . • • • • •

zf/Ll/s j[l4 /fd|f] gx'g] . cg'xf/ / cGo efusf x•Lx¿ ljs[t aGg] . x•L sdhf]/ aGg] / 6'6\g] . sn]hf] / lkmof] ;'lGgg] -cuf{gf]d]ufnL_ ;fdfGo zf/Ll/s ultljlw ug{ ufx|f] x'g] .

lg/Gt/ hLjgel/ ul/g] /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgn] yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf] /f]u d'Qm pkrf/ k|fKt ug'{ cl3 oL nIf0fx¿nfO{ /f]syfd u5{ . t/ /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg pkrf/ k4lt z'¿ ug'{ cl3 y'k|} s'/fx¿df ljrf/ k'¥ofpg' kb{5 .

of] cWofon] lgDg ;jfnx¿df 5nkmn ug]{ 5 . • • • •

6«fG:k\mo'hg pkrf/ k4lt slxn] z'¿ ug]{ < ;'/lIft 6«fG:k\mo'hgnfO{ s;/L ;'lglZrt ug]{ < s] 6«fG:k\mo'hg ug]{ < pko'Qm /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg pkrf/ k4ltsf] k|lqmof s;/L to ug]{ <

6«fG:k\mo'hg pkrf/ k4lt slxn] z'¿ ug]{ < yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf] lgbfg kSsf eO;s]kl5 dfq 6«fG:k\mo'hg pkrf/ k4lt z'¿ ug'{ k5{ . cufl8 pNn]v eP e}Fm yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf] ;lx lgbfg lgDg s'/fx¿df cfwfl/t x'G5 .

25


!= k|of]uzfnf hfFrx¿ h:t} x]df6f]nf]lhsn, df]n]So'n/ cyjf x]df]Unf]lag On]S6«f]kmf]/]l;;, pRr rfk t/n qmf]df6f]u|fkmL -Pr=lk=Pn=l;_ h:tf cGo hfFrx¿ . @= aL / P yfnf;]ldof hLg ;+/rgf kl/jt{gsf] k|s[lt klxrfg ug{ c0f'jf+lzs ljZn]if0fM— To;/L g} Xmn1 /]l:6«S;g O~hfOd :yfgsf] pkl:yltsf] klxrfg ug]{ of] o:tf] Pp6f ;"rs xf] h;n] /f]usf] l;ls:ttfsf] cg'dfg ug{'sf] ;fy} k|To]s /f]uLsf] nflu ;lx pkrf/ k|lqmof lgSof}{n ug{ d2t u5{ . k|fo h;f] Plgldofsf] l;ls:tLkg /utdf /x]sf] x]df]Unf]ljsf txsf] cfwf/df cf+sng ul/G5 . of] /utsf] k|lt 8]l;ln6/ slt u|fd 5 eg]/ hfFlrG5 . -l8=Pn=!÷!)) cf}F c+z k|lt ln6/_ sf]if u0fs elgg] dl;g k|of]u u/L x]df]Unf]lag k|of]uzfnfdf ;lhn} hfFRg ;lsG5 . k'/fgf] ljlw dflgg] ;fxnL k|ljlwaf6 klg x]df]Unf]lag e/kbf]{;Fu hfFRg ;lsG5 . x]df]Unf]lagsf] tx ;fdfGot k'¿ifdf k|lt 8]l;ln6/ !# b]lv !^ u|fd / dlxnf / aRrfx¿df !! b]lv !$ u|fdsf] aLrdf /xg' /fd|f] dflgG5 . :qL / k'¿ifx¿ b'j}df x]df]Unf]lagsf] tx k|lt 8]l;ln6/ * b]lv !! u|fd /x\of] eg] ;fdfGo Plgldof / of] tx 36]/ * u|fdeGbf tn ;¥of] eg] r/d cj:yfsf] Plgldof ePsf] dflgG5 . dfly pNn]v eP ´}F k|of]uzfnf hfFr / cf0fljs cWoogaf6 yfnf;]ldof /f]u lgbfg kSsf ePkl5 dfq /f]uLx¿n] 6«fG:k\mo'hg pkrf/ k4ltsf] z'¿jft ug'{k5{ . t/ slxn] ug]{ <

26

@ xKtfsf] km/s kf/]/ nuftf/ @ k6s x]df]Unf]lagsf] tx hfFr ubf{ k|lt 8]l;ln6/ & u|fdeGbf sd bh{ ePdf . w]/}h;f] x]df]Unf]lagsf] :t/ ^ b]lv & u|fd k|lt 8]l;ln6/;Dd /xFbf klg /f]uLx¿ /fd|/L a9\g / ljsl;t x'g ;S5g\ t/ o:tf] a]nfdf /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg ug]{ ls gug]{ eGg] lg0f{o ug{ lgSs} 7"nf] lSnlgsn cg'ej Pjd\ cToGt} ;fjwfgLk"0f{ hfFr k8\tfnsf] cfjZostf k5{ .

x]df]Unf]lagsf] tx k|lt 8]l;ln6/ & u|fdeGbf a9L /x]klg tnsf ljz]iftfx¿ b]lvPdf – cg'xf/df kl/jt{g – sdhf]/ zf/Ll/s j[4L / sd tf}n


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] – –

x•L 6'6\g] ;d:of cltl/Qm d]8'n/ x]df6f]kf]Ol;; eO{ P]h]? knfpg] ;d:of .

oL pNn]v ul/Psf s'/fx¿ hfFr c'gudgaf6 b]lvP eg] /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg l9nf] ug'{ x'Fb}g .

;'/lIft 6«fG:k\mo'hg pkrf/ k4ltsf] ;'lglZrttf kof{Kttf / pknAwtf •

yfnf;]ldof /f]uLx¿sf] nflu /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg hLjge/sf] pkrf/ k4lt ePsf]n] :jf:Yo;Da4 clwsf/Lx¿n] :j:Yf / kof{Kt x'g] u/L cfk"lt{sf] lg/Gt/tfsf] nflu /Qmbfgsf] gLltnfO{ k|j4{g ug'{kb{5 .

;ª\qmd0fhGo ls6f0f'x¿ ;g{;Sg] vt/fsf] /f]sfj6 •

/ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg pkrf/ k4ltnfO{ /f]uLx¿sf] nflu ;s];Dd ;'/lIft agfpg'k5{ . o;sf] cy{ efO/;, AofS6]l/of, k/hLljh:tf ;ª\qmd0fhGo ls6f0f'x¿ /Qmbftfaf6 /f]uLdf ;g{;Sg] hf]lvdnfO{ ;s];Dd lg/k]If ¿kn] Go'g agfpg'k5{ . /Qmbftfaf6 ;ª\qmd0fhGo ls6f0f'x¿ /ut lng] JolQmdf ;g{;Sg] vt/fnfO{ sd ug{ ;fj{hlgs :jf:Yo clwsf/Lx¿n] lgDg s'/fdf Wofg lbg'kb{5 . – :jo+;]jL /Qmbfg ;]jfx¿ lgoldt agfpFb} :j:Yo /Qmbftfx¿sf] 5gf}6nfO{ nlIft u/L gLltx¿ k|jw{g ug]{ . /ut lsGg] s'/fnfO{ TofUg''k5{ . la/fdLx¿n] lnPsf] /utsf] k"lt{ ug{ cfkmGt / ;fyLefOx¿af6 /ut lng] ug'{x'Fb}g -o;nfO{ ;§fdf ul/g] /Qmbfg elgG5_ . – lSnlgsn ¿kn] dxTjk"0f{ ;ª\qmd0fhGo ls6f0f'x¿, h:t} x]kf6fOl6; la / ;L sf] efO/;, P8\; nufpg] Pr=cfO{= 1 / 2 sf] efO/; / eL¿ËLsf] ls6f0f' cflb 5g\ 5}gg\ lgSof}{n ug{ bftfsf] /ut :qmLlgË u/L hfFRg' k5{ . – s'g} b]zdf -dn]l/of ePsf] d'n's_df bfg ul/Psf] /utdf dn]l/ofsf] ls6f0f' 5 5}g ;f]sf] klg :qmLlgË hfFr ug'{kb{5 .

27


/fli6«:t/df /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg ;]jfnfO{ ;'lglZrt ub}{ k|of]uzfnf, /utsf] ;~ro, ;~rf/h:tf An8 a}ª\sn] k|bfg ug]{ ;]jfx¿nfO{ cGt/f{li6«o:t/sf] agfpg'kb{5 .

/Qm ;d"x h]gf]6fOk /f]uLx¿sf] ;Dej ePhlt ;a} dxTjk"0f{ /Qm;d"x k|0ffnLsf] hfFrsf] ;'lglZrttf ;'/lIft /ut;Fu ufFl;Psf] csf]{ ;jfn xf] . pbfx/0fsf] nflu /f]uLx¿sf] /utdf /];; kf]lhl6e 5 ls g]u]l6e 5 cflb x]g'{sf] ;fy} cGo /Qm ;d"x k|0ffnLx¿ h:t} s}n, ls8 / 8kmLsf] hfFr ug'{k5{ / oL s'/fx¿sf] lgS{of}n ug'{k5{ . Psk6s /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg z'¿ eO{;s]kl5 of] /Qm;d"x lglZrt ug{ ufx|f] x'g;S5 . To;sf/0f klxnf] 6«fG:k\mo'hgeGbf cufl8 g} /ftf] sf]if h]gf]6fOksf] k"0{f ¿kn] hfFr ug'{ clt cfjZos 5 . /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg z'¿ eO;s]kl5 cGo ;a} /Qm;d"x lglZrt ug{ ufx|f] x'g;S5 . To;sf/0f klxnf] 6«fG:k\mo'hgeGbf cufl8 g} /ftf] sf]if h]gf]6fOk k"0f{ ¿kn] hfFr ug'{kb{5 . ;Dej eP tL /Qmbftf / /ut lng] JolQmx¿sf] /Qm;d"x k|0ffnL ldN5÷ldNb}g hfFr ug'{ k5{ . x/]s 6«fG;ˆo'hg cufl8 lj/fdLsf] /ftf] /Qmsf]ifdf gofF PlG6a8Lx¿ 5g\ 5}gg\ eg]/ ;s];Dd /Qm kl/If0f ug'{k5{ . o;n] a]d]n /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgaf6 x'g;Sg] k|ltlqmofnfO{ 36fpF5 . /ftf] /Qmsf]ifdf @^ j6f /Qm ;d"x k|0ffnL / ^)) j6f ljleGg lsl;dsf PG6LhLgx¿ x'G5g\ . of] ;a} ;d"xx¿nfO{ ldnfP/ ldN5 ldNb}g x]g]{ ;+oGq x'Fb}g t/ sd;]sd ;a}df kfOg] Placf], /];; / s]nk|0ffnLh:tf s'/fx¿ bfFh]/ x]g'{k5{ .

s] 6«fG:k\mo'hg ug]{ < /utbftfaf6 lnOPsf] /utnfO{ k"0f{ /ut elgG5 lsgls of] /utdf /ftf /Qmsf]ifb]lv lnP/ KnfHdf, ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿ / Kn]6\n]6\; klg x'G5g\ . -/ut;DaGwL v08 x]g'{xf];\_ k|To]s bftfaf6 ´08} $%) ld=ln= /ut l´lsG5 h;nfO{ ! o"lg6 /ut elgG5 . KnfHdf / ;]tf] /Qmsf]ifx¿ / cGo tTjx¿ x6fO;s]kl5 @%) ld=ln= /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ cyjf ! o"lg6 KofS8 /Qmsf]ifx¿ 6«fG:k\mo'hgsf] nflu af+sL /flvG5 . /utnfO{ hDg glbg] tTj ePsf] t/n kbfy{ -PG6Lsf]u'n]G6_ kf]ifs tTj h:tf t/nkbfy{ klg of] kf]sfdf

28


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] ld;fOG5 . /utsf] kf]sfdf slt cGo t/nkbfy{x¿ ld;fOof] eGg] s'/f /ut o"lg6nfO{ s;/L k|zf]lwt ul/of] eGg] s'/fdf e/ kb{5 . yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf la/fdLx¿df /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ x'Fb}gg\ . To;sf/0f /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg pkrf/ lnO/x]sf] /f]uLn] /ftf] /Qmsf]ifx¿ dfq lng'k5{ h;df k"0f{ /utsf Kn]6n]6\; ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿ / KnfHdf h:tf cGo tTjx¿ x'Fb}gg\ . olb la/fdLnfO{ k"0f{ /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg ul/of] eg] /Qm;~rf/ k|0ffnLnfO{ ef/ kg{ uO{ x[bof3ft / 5ftLdf kfgL hDdf x'g] ;d:of -kNdf]g/L cf]l8df_ h:tf eoÍ/ 8/nfUbf ;d:ofx¿ x'g;S5g\ . k"0f{ /utaf6 ;]tf /Qmsf]if / Kn]6\n]6\; x6fpgfn] /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgsf] cjlwdf / To;kl5 /f]uLnfO{ cgfjZos Hj/f] cfpg] h:tf hf]lvd sd x'G5 . oBlk o:tf nIf0fx¿sf] pkrf/ ug{ t ;lsG5 t/ klg oL ;d:ofx¿ x'g glbgsf] nflu /f]uLnfO{ /utsf] h'g tTj lbg' kg]{ xf] ToxLdfq lbgsf] nflu ;a} k|oTgx¿ ug'{kb{5 .

Kofs ul/Psf] /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ s;/L k|fKt ug]{ < k|of]uzfnfdf 3'dfpg] k|lqmofdfkm{t -;]G6«Lˆo'u];g_ k"0f{ /utaf6 /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ 5'§\ofOG5 h;n] /utaf6 &) k|ltzteGbf a9L KnfHdf / ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿ 5'§\ofpF5 . 3'dfP/ 5'§\ofpg] of] k|lqmofdf -;]G6«Lˆo'u];g_ /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ c¿ tTjx¿;Fu 5'l§P/ lkFwdf uP/ lylu|G5g\ eg] KnfHdf, ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿, yf]Da|f];fO6 /utsf] ;txlt/ cfpF5g\ To;sf/0f ltgnfO{ ;lhn} x6fpg ldN5 . /ut hDg glbg] t/n 3'ngzLn tTj -PG6Lsf]u'n]G6_ 3'ngzLn kf]ifs tTjx¿ / cGo cf}ifwLtTjx¿nfO{ /ftf /Qmsf]ifdf ld;fOG5 h;n] /utsf] sf]ifx¿nfO{ Ps csf{df 6fFl;g glbO{ /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] cfo' a9fP/ ;hLj / u'0f:t/o'Qm /fVb5g\ . P;=P=hL=Pd= -;nfOg, Pl8gfog, Un'sf]h, u'gf];fOg, ;nfog Dof6«f]g, P P;–# -Go"l6«;]n l;:6d_ clg P=l8=P;=Pn= -Pl8gfOg, 8]s:6«f];, :nfOg–dflg6f]n_x¿ c¿ /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿df ld;fOg] 3'ngzLn ld;fj6 x'g\ . To:t} u/]/ l;=lk=l8= -;fO6«]6, kmf]:k]m6, 8]S;\6«f];_ l;=lk=l8=P=! -;fO6«]6, kmf]:s]6, 8]S;\6«f];, Pl8gfOg_ / l;=lk=@l8= -;fO6«]6, kmf]:k]m6, 8an 8]S;\6«f];_ cflb tTjx¿ /utnfO{ hDg glbg] tTjx¿ x'g\ .

29


o'/f]kdf /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿nfO{ $@ b]lv $* lbg;Dd lhpFbf] hfUbf] /fVg l;=lk=l8÷P;=P=hL=–Pd= sf] ld;fj6 ul/G5 eg] cd]l/sfdf l;=lk=l8=P—!÷P=P;=—# cyjf l;=lk=@l8=÷P=P;=—# sf] k|of]u ul/G5 . yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿nfO{ /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg ubf{ /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ kf]sfdf /flvPsf] & lbgeGbf a9L gePsf] /ut lbg' /fd|f] x'G5 . olb dfly pNn]v ul/Psf kf]ifstTjx¿ ldnfOG5 eg] klg kf]sfdf /flvPsf] @ xKtf eGbf k'/fgf] /ut oL /f]uLx¿nfO{ lbg'xF'b}g lsgeg] 5f]6f] cjlweGbf nfdf] cjlw e08f/ ul/Psf /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿nfO{ pko'Qm x'G5g\ eGg] s'/f 7f]s'jf ug{ c´} klg e/kbf]{ cWoog ePsf] kfOFb}g . /utsf] u'0f:t/tf / lg/fkbtf a9fpg] c¿ k|lqmofx¿ Kofs ul/Psf] /ftf] /Qmsf]ifx¿nfO{ w'g]— 6«fG:k\mo'hg ul/Psf] /utdf x'g] k|f]l6gn] la/fdLx¿df ;fdfGob]lv s8f lsl;dsf] k|ltlqmof pTkGg u/fpg ;S5 . dfly pNn]v ul/Psf] :qmLlgËsf] dfWodåf/f /ftf /Qmsf]if 5'§\ofpg] k|lqmof -;]G6«Lk'mu];g_ n] k"0f{ /utaf6 &) k|ltzt KnfHdf / k|f]l6g x6fpg ;S5 . t/ olb oL /Qmsf]ifx¿nfO{ :nfOg 3f]ndf jf; u/]/ logdf /x]sf KnfHdf / k|f]l6gnfO{ clwstd\ ¿kdf x6fpg] xf] eg] kf]sf]df /x]sf /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] u'0fdf c¿ ;'wf/ x'g;S5 . w]/} h:tf] lj/fdLx¿sf lglDt o:tf] k|s[of cfjZos kb}{g . t/ o;/L w'nfO{ ul/Psf /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿nfO{ w'nfO{ ul/Psf] @$ 306fleq 6«fG:k\mo'hg ul/;Sg' kb{5 . No'sf];fO6\; 36fP/ /ftf] /Qmsf]if Kofs ug]{— No'sf];fO6\;n] pTkGg ug{;Sg] cjflG5t k|ltlqmofnfO{ ;s];Dd 36fpgsf] nflu /ftf] /Qmsf]ifdf ;]tf] /Qmsf]ifsf] ;ª\Vof !x!)^ k|lt o"lg6 /ftf] /Qmsf]ifeGbf sd x'g' kg]{ k|fjwfgnfO{ cGt/f{li6«o lgb]{lzsfn] l;kmfl/; u/]sf] 5 . k|fo h;f] la/fdLdf Hj/f] pTkGg u/fpg] o:tf k|ltlqmofx¿ ;]tf] /Qmsf]ifx¿af6 lg:sg] r]df]sfOG; eGg] /;fogsf] sf/0fn] x'G5 eGg] ljZjf; ul/G5 . o;sf] cnfjf ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿nfO{ 36fpFbf, ;]tf] /Qmsf]ifdf /x]sf c¿ ;ª\qmd0fhGo JofS6]l/ofx¿ klg x6\b5g\ . ofl;{lgof OG6]/f]sf]lnl6sf JofS6]l/of, l;=Pd=eL=, O=lj=eL= la !( / Pr=P=eL= -;+lIfKt zAbfjnL x]g'{xf];\_

30


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] / c¿ o:t} An8 a}Ídf /fd|/L :qmLlgË x'gg;s]sf ls6f0f'x¿n] g/fd|f] ;ª\qmd0fsf] l:ylt k}bf u/fpg ;S5g\ .

/utsf] lkmN6/

;]tf] /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] ;ª\VofnfO{ 36fpg] ljlwx¿ -No"sf]l/8S;g / No"sf]l8Kn];g_

5fGg] k|lqmof /utsf] kf]sfdf ljz]if lsl;dsf] lkmN6/ hf]8]/ bftfaf6 lnPsf] /utdf ePsf ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf ;ª\qmd0fhGo ls6f0f'x¿nfO{ s'zntfk"j{s x6fpg ;lsG5 . /ut ;Íng u/]sf] ;doaf6 $ b]lv * 306fsf] ;dosf] cGt/fndf /utnfO{ lk|mhdf /fv]/ 5fGg] sfdnfO{ cGt/f{li6«o lgb]{lzsfn] lgb]{lzt ub{5 . 5fGg] k|lqmofsf] l9nfOn] ubf{ ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿df /x]sf] O~hfOd -k\mofuf];fO6\;_ n] k\mofuf];fO6f]l;; / Pl;{lgof OG6/f]sf]lnl6of h:tf JofS6]l/ofx¿nfO{ gi6 ug]{ df}sf kfpF5g\ . oL AofS6]l/ofx¿ ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿df ;lhn} k|j]z u/L ;Gtfg j[l4 ug{ ;S5g\ . /ut 5fGg] sfd An8 a}+s jf la/fdLsf] a]8sf] 5]pd} /ut lbg] ;dodf klg ug{ ;lsG5 . t/ la/fdLsf] la5f}gf 5]pd} 5fGg] k|ljlw -lkmN6/_ k|of]u u/]/ ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿nfO{ x6fpg ;kmn eP klg /utsf] u'0f:t/ ;'lglZrt ug]{ s'/f eg] lgs} cK7\of/f] 5 .

AofS6]l/ofn] el/Psf] kmfuf];fO6 AofS6]l/of

xf8sf] dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ k|Tof/f]k0f ul/;s]sf jf ug]{ tof/L ul//x]sf aL yfnf;]ldofsf ljz]if u/L hjfg /f]uLx¿sf] nflu No'sf]lkmN6«];g elgg] ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿ 5fGg] of] ljlw xfn}sf jif{x¿df c¿ k|efjsf/L ag]sf] 5 . lsgsL, /f]uLx¿sf] ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿df kfOg] ;fO6f]d]ufnf] efO/; -l;=Pd=eL_ n] sdhf]/ k|lt/Iff k|0ffnL ePsf /f]uLx¿df cToGt s8f / 3fts lsl;dsf] ;ª\qmd0f u/fpg ;S5 – ljz]ifu/L xf8 dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ k|Tof/f]k0f u/fPsf /f]uLx¿df . hxfFsf An8 a}Íx¿ dfly elgP cg';f/sf tl/sfx¿ ckgfP/ KnfHdf 5'§\ofpg, w'nfO{ ug{ cyjf lkmN6/ ug{ ;Ifd 5}gg\ tL 7fpFx¿df k"0f{ /ut ;ª\sng u/]kl5 lk|mhdf $) ;]= tfkqmdf @$ b]lv $* 306f;Dd e08f/ ug'{k5{ . o;f] u/]kl5 /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ kf]sfsf] lk+wdf lylu|g hfG5g\ eg] KnfHdf, ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿, Kn]6\n]6\; / akmLsf]6 elgg] 6'6]k'm6]sf kbfy{x¿ /utsf] ;txdf

31


cfpF5g\ h;nfO{ k|of]uzfnfsf ;fdfGo cf}hf/x¿ k|of]u u/]/ ;lhn} x6fpg ;lsG5 . t/ of] k|lqmof 5fGg] ljlw -lkmN6«]zg_ eGbf xhf/ u'0ff ck|efjsf/L 5 .

;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿ x6fpg] ljleGg tl/sfx¿sf] k|efjsfl/tf •

• •

lk|mhdf k|fs[lts ¿kn] 5'l§gsf] nflu l:y/ /flvPsf] /utaf6 akmLsf]6 x6fPkl5 klg k|lt o'lg6 /ut !=@x!)( eGbf sd ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿ /xG5g\ . /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿nfO{ 3'dfpg] -;]G6«Lk\mo'h];g_ k|lqmofaf6 5'6ØfP/ :nfOg 3f]ndf w'g] k|lqmofaf6 wf]Pkl5 klg k|lt o'lg6 /ut !x!)& eGbf sd ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx/ /xG5g\ . la/fdLsf] la5f}gf 5]pd} 5fGg] k|ljlw -lkmN6/_ k|of]u u/]/ 5flgg] /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] Kofsdf k|lt o'lg6 /ut %x!)^ eGbf sd ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿ /xG5g\ . An8a}Í k|of]uzfnfdf 5fg]/ Kofs ul/Psf /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿df k|lt o'lg6 /ut %x!)^ eGbf sd ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿ /xG5g\ . ;~ro ug'{k"j{sf] 5flgPsf] /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿df k|lt o'lg6 /ut %x!)^ ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿ /xG5g\ .

:jefljs ¿kn] yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf /f]uLx¿n] /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgdf kfpg] /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ e08f/ cl3 g} 5flgPsf], wf]OPsf] /Qm;d"xx¿ ldnfOPsf] / /ut hDg glbg] tTj / kf]ifs tTjx¿ /flvPsf] x'g'k5{ . t/ hxfF oL ;a}s'/fx¿ ;Dej 5}gg\ vf; lsl;dsf /f]uLx¿sf nflu ljz]if lsl;dsf] /utsf] tof/Ldf Wofg lbg'k5{ . hf] o:tf] x'g;S5– != /utdf cfO{=lh=P= eGg] ljz]if lsl;dsf] k|f]l6g gePsf / /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg pkrf/k|lt uDeL/ lsl;dsf] Pnlh{s k|lqmof bzf{pg] /f]uLx¿sf] nflu wf]OPsf] cf/=la=;L= tof/ kfg'{k5{ . s]xL o:tf /f]uLx¿ x'G5g\ h;sf] /utdf cfO{=lh= P= gfds k|f]l6g x'G5 t/ 5flgPsf] /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg ubf{ klg pgLx¿nfO{ jf/Djf/ Hj/f] cfpF5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf 6«fG:k\mo'hg ug'{cl3 /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] w'nfO{ ug{ cfjZos kg{;S5 .

32


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] @= lj/n}dfq kfOg] cf/=la=;L= PG6LhLg ePsf /f]uLx¿sf] /ut hf] ;'s} bftfsf] /tu;Fu ldnfpg -qm; Dofr_ Psbd ufx|f] x'g] ePsf]n] o:tf /f]uLx¿sf] nflu hd]sf jf ;fx|} lr;f]df ;'/lIft cf/=la=;L=x¿ ljz]if lsl;dsf d]l8sn s]Gb|x¿df /flvPsf] /ut lbg'k5{ . o"/f]k, cd]l/sfdf o:tf] cf/=la=l;=nfO{ ljz]if :jf:Yo s]Gb|df –^)) ;]G6Lu|]8 tfkqmddf $) k|ltzt Unf;]/f]n 3f]ndf /flvG5, of] Pp6f o:tf] cj:yf xf] h;df cf/=la=;L= !) jif{;Dd e08f/0f ug{ ;lsG5 . #= af]g Dof/f] k|Tof/f]k0f ul/;lsPsf of ug{ nfu]sf /f]uLx¿df bftfsf] tGt' / /f]uL;Fu ePsf] tGt'sf] ljrdf x'g] k|ltlqmof :j¿k x'g] c;fWo /f]unfO{ /f]Sgsf] lglDt ljls/0f k|lqmofaf6 k|zf]lwt cf/=la=;L= lbg'k5{ . $= /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg kl5 ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] lj¿4 af/Daf/ k|ltlqmof b]vfpg] /f]uLx¿nfO{ No"sf];fO6\; 36fOPsf] -No"sf]l/8\o";8_ /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ lbg'k5{ . yfnf;]ldofsf] ev{/} lgbfg eO{ xf8dHhf -af]gDof/f]_ k|Tof/f]k0fsf] tof/L ul//x]sf] /f]uLnfO{ x'g] ;fO6f]d]ufnf] efO/; -l;=Pd=eL_ sf] ;ª\qmd0f /f]Sg No"sf];fO6\; 36fOPsf] cf/=la=;L= g} lbg'k5{ . To;} u/]/ x•L dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ k|Tof/f]k0f ul/ ;s]/ /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgsf] cfjZostf ePsf /f]uLx¿df klg ;fO6f]d]ufnL efO/;af6 x'g] ;ª\qmd0f bf]xf]l/g glbg No'sf];fO6\; 36fOPsf] /ut lbg'kb{5 .

6«fG:k\mo'hg ljlwsf] lg0f{o cfjZos /utsf] dfqfsf] u0fgf Pp6f /f]uLnfO{ cfjZos /utsf] dfqf / 6«fG:k\mo'hgsf] b/ /f]uLsf] pd]/ / lSnlgsn cj:yfdf e/k5{ . o;/L g} 6«fG:k\mo'hg ul/g] /utsf] ;+/If0f ug{ ld;fOPsf 3f]nx¿, /Qmbftfsf] /ftf] /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] x]df6f]lqm6 -x]df]Unf]lag h:t} gfkf]_ / nlIft x]df]Unf]lag tx h:tf tYox¿n] klg /utsf] dfqf / 6«fG:k\mo'hgsf] b/nfO{ lgwf{/0f u5{g\ . dWod cj:yfdf -r/d jf pRr cj:yf ljk/Lt_ /ut 6«fG;ˆo'hg ljlwdf -clwsf+z yfnf;]ldofsf lj1x¿n] lgb]{z ug]{ u/]sf]_ – la/fdLx¿n] k|fo cfk\mgf] z/L/sf] jhgsf] lx;fan] k|lt lsnf]u|fd

33


3a

lxdf6f]lqm6df e/ k/L la/fdLsf] x]df]Unf]lagnfO{ k|lt 8]l;ln6/ ! u|fd a9fpg rflxg] bftfsf] /utsf] dfqf

-yfnf;]ldof lSnlgsn Joj:yfkgsf] nflu l6=cfO=Pkm=sf] lgb]{lzsfaf6_

3b

/ut 6«fG;ˆo'hgsf] dfqf

x]df]Unf]lagsf] j[l4sf] nlIft tx

!) b]lv !% ld=ln= yfnf;]ldof lj/fdLsf lglDt tof/ ul/Psf] /ftf] /Qmsf]if lnG5g\ . /Qmbftfsf] cf/=lj=;L=sf] &% k|ltzt x]df6f]lqm6df cfwfl/t eP/ # b]lv $ 306f nufP/ 6«fG:k\mo'hg ul/G5—-b/_ . of] 6«fG:k\mo'hg @ b]lv % xKtfsf] cGt/fndf ul/G5— -cGt/_ . Pshgf lkmof] gl´lsPsf] la/fdLnfO{ k|ltjif{ cfk\mgf] jhgsf] k|lts]hL ´08} !*) ld=ln= z'4 /ftf] /Qmsf]if cfjZostf k5{ eg] lkmof] x6fOPsf] la/fdLnfO{ k|ltjif{ k|lts]hL— -z/L/sf] tf}n_ sl/j !## ld=ln6/ z'4 /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ 6«fG:k\mo'hg ug'{kb{5 . olb la/fdLnfO{ d'6'sf] ;d:ofx¿ 5g\ cyjf la/fdLsf] x]df]Unf]lagsf] tx k|lt 8]l;ln6/ % u|fdeGbf tn eP/ /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg ug'{kg]{ cj:yf 5 eg] Psbd} ;':t b/df k|lt 306f k|lts]hL @ b]lv % ldlnln6/ cf/=la=;L= 6«fG:k\mo'hg ug'{k5{ .

/f]uLx¿nfO{ rflxg] ;xL dfqfsf] /ut lgwf{/0f ug{sf] nflu d]l8sn :6fkmx¿nfO{ w]/} lsl;dsf tflnsf / u|fkmx¿ (3a, 3b) pknAw 5g\ . bftfsf] /ftf] /Qmsf]ifsf] x]df6f]lqm6 6«fG:k\mo'hg ljlwsf] p2]Zo /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg ug'{eGbf cl3 la/fdLx¿sf] x]df]Unf]lagsf] tx (–!)=% u|fd÷8]l;ln6/ /fVg] / 6«fG:k\mo'hg kl5 !% u|fd÷8]l;ln6/eGbf a9\g glbg] x'g'kb{5 .

-yfnf;]ldof lSnlgsn Joj:yfkgsf] nflu o:tf] ljlw l6=cfO=Pkm=sf] lgb]{lzsfaf6_

cGtu{t ul/Psf] 6«fG:k\mo'hgdf la/fdLn] o:tf] cg'ej

u5{g\ – • xf8 dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_sf] yf]/} dfq lj:tf/ • ;fdfGo zf/Ll/s j[l4 / zf/Ll/s zlQmdf j[l4 • lkmof] a9\b} ga9\g] cyjf sd a9\g] • /utsf c0f'x¿ cfk;df 6fFl;P/ cfpg] ;d:of -le:sf]l;6L_ / /QmgnLx¿df /ut hd]/ cfpg] ;d:of -y|f]Djf]PDaf]lns_ 36\g]

34


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] • •

6fpsf] b'Vg] / gfy|L k'm6\g] ;d:of 36\g] . cËx¿df y'lk|g] kmnfd tTjdf x|f; .

/ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgsf] ljrdf slt cGt/fn /fVg] eGg] s'/fnfO{ oxfF pNn]v ul/Psf afx]s c¿ tYox¿n] klg k|efj kfb{5 . oL tYox¿df /f]uLn] ug]{ sfd, k9\g] ljBfnosf] sfo{;"rL / /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg s]Gb|df k'Ug nfUg] b"/L / ;do kb{5g\ . hlt;Dd ;Dej x'G5 /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgsf] ;donfO{ la/fdLsf] hLjgz}nL / d]l8sn cfjZostfg';f/ Jojl:yt ug'{k5{ .

/ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg ljlwsf] k|efjsfl/tfsf] cf+sng /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg sfo{qmdsf] k|efjsfl/tf /utsf] x]df]Unf]lagsf] tx s'g b/df v:sG5 To;sf] cfwf/df gflkG5 . of] tx lkmof] x6fOPsf] /f]uLx¿sf] xsdf xKtfdf k|lt 8]l;ln6/ ! u|fdeGbf tn hfg' x'Fb}g eg] lkmof] gx6fOPsf /f]uLx¿sf] xsdf xKtfdf !=% u|fd k|lt 8]l;ln6/eGbf v:sg' x'Fb}g . olb x]df]Unf]lagsf] tx pRr b/df v:s]sf] kfOPdf tnsf sf/0fx¿sf] hfFr ug{ ;lsG5 . •

/ftf] /Qmsf]ifsf PlG6a8Lx¿ -Pnf]ODo"gfO{h];g_ -x]g'{xf];\– 6«fG:k\mo'hg;Fu ;DalGwt k|ltlqmof_

pbfx/0fsf nflu lkmof]sf] cfsf/df lj:tf/ -xfOk/:Kn]lgHd_ cyjf sn]hf]sf] j[l4 -x]kf6f]d]ufnL_ eO{ la/fdLnfO{ k|ltjif{ k|lts]hL @)) ldlnln6/sf] b/n] cf/=la=;L=sf] cfjZostf kb{5 eg] lkmof]sf] cfsf/df j[l4 u/fpg ;Sg] sf/0fx¿sf] k/LIf0f ug'kb{5 .

Go"g u'0f:t/sf] /ut, o;sf] cy{ /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] cfo' 5f]6f] x'G5 / sd k|efjsf/L 9Ëun] sfd u5{g\ .

/Qm>fj -cfGb|f cflbaf6_

l/eflel/gh:tf cf}ifwLx¿sf] ;]jgsf] sf/0fn] j[l4 ePsf /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] d[To'b/df j[l4 .

;+qmd0fsf] sf/0f j[l4 ePsf /ftf /Qmsf]ifsf] d[To'b/df j[l4 . -dn]l/of cflb_

35


of] pkrf/ ljlwsf] k|efjsfl/tf ;xL n]vfhf]vf ug{ k|To]s k6s /ut lbg'eGbf cl3 / kl5 la/fdLsf] x]df]Unf]lag txsf] gfk lng'k5{ . olb of] ;Dej geP xKtfsf] Psk6s Tof] klg ;Dej geP !% lbgsf] Psk6s cyjf la/fdLn] 6«fG:k\mo'hg lng] a]nfdf x]df]Unf]lag txsf] hfFr cjZo ug'{kb{5 .

6«fG:k\mo'hg;Fu ;DalGwt k|ltlqmofx¿ /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgn] la/fdLdf 6«fG:k\mo'hg l/ofS;g elgg] cjfl~5t / hl6n lsl;dsf k|ltlqmof pTkGg u/fpg ;S5 . 6«fG:k\mo'hg k|ltlqmof -l6=cf/=_ eg]sf] la/fdLdf /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg eO/x]sf] ;dodf cyjf 6«fG:k\mo'hg kl5 b]lvg] k|lts"n 36gf xf] . ´08} $ k|ltzt /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgx¿ -Go"g u'0f:t/sf] /ut eP of] ;+Vof ce}m a9L x'g ;S5_ s'g} g s'g} cfjl~5t / k|lts"n k|ltlqmofx¿;Fu hf]l8Psf 5g\ . /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg eg]sf] jfx\oj:t' cyjf bftfsf] /ut la/fdLsf] z/L/df k|j]z u/fpg' xf] . To;sf/0f /ut lng] la/fdLsf] k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLn] o;k|lt k|ltlqmof hgfpg' o'lQm;Fut b]lvG5 . o:tf k|ltlqmofx¿ c¿ s'g} cË k|Tof/f]k0f of x•L dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ k|Tof/f]k0fdf klg b]lvG5g\ . jf:tjdf k|To]s lrlsT;sLo pkrf/sf kmfObfx¿ klg 5g\ / la/fdLnfO{ kg]{ cK7\of/fx¿ klg 5g\ . oL ;Dk"0f{ s'/fx¿nfO{ d]l8sn :6fkmx¿n] /fd|/L d"NofÍg ug'{k5{ . /utsf] 6«fG:k\mo'hg lnO/x]sf la/fdLx¿df b]lvg] k|ltlqmofnfO{ @ efudf afFl8Psf] 5 s= k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLn] b]vfpg] k|ltlqmofx¿– o;df la/fdLsf] k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLn] 6«fG:k\mo'hg ul/Psf] /ut k|lt k|ltlqmof hgfpF5 . v= k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLafx]s c¿ s'/fx¿n] b]vfpg] k|ltlqmof– o;df b]lvPsf k|ltlqmofx¿ k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLn] hgfPsf k|ltlqmof xf]Ogg\ .

36


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] b'j} lsl;dsf k|ltlqmofx¿ /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg ubf{ ub}{ -tLj| k|ltlqmof_ klg b]lvg ;S5g\ cyjf s]xL ldlnln6/ /ut k|j]z ul/;s]kl5 cyjf 6«fG:k\mo'hg u/L ;lsg] ljlQs} klg k|ltlqmof b]lvg ;S5 . s'g} k|ltlqmof b]lvg l9nf eO{ s]xL lbg, xKtf / c´ Tof]eGbf klg nfdf] ;do nfUg ;S5 . tn lbOPsf tflnsfx¿ !,@,# n] s / v k|ltlqmofx¿sf k|sf/x¿ / ltgsf cfa[lQnfO{ b]vfpF5g\ . (x]g'{xf];\ 3c, 3d, 3e) -of] v08df y'k|} k|fljlws d]l8sn zAbfjnLx¿ k/]sf 5g\ h'g ;fdfGo kf7sx¿sf] lglDt cK7\of/f x'g;S5g\ . of] cfzf ul/Psf] 5 ls of] zAbfjnL ;"rL tyf ltgsf] cy{x¿sf] k|of]un] /f]uLx¿ / ltgsf cleefjsx¿n] d]l8sn :6fkmx¿;Fu ug]{ 5nkmnx¿df a9L ljZj:t eO{ k|:t't x'g ;S5g\ ._ k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLn] e"ldsf v]Ng] 6«fG:k\mo'hg k|ltlqmofx¿ tLj| -t'¿Gt}_ Xofdf]lnl6s -/QmgnLx¿ leq_ PgflkmNofS6Ls -k|f]l6gsf] sf/0fn] x'g] cf3ft_ k\ma|fOn gg Xofdf]lnl6s -Hj/f] cfpg'_ Pnlh{s -o"l6sfl/on_

cfa[lQ

3c

tflnsf !

l9nf] ePsf]

!÷@%,))) Pnf]ODo"g Xofdf]lnl6s -/QmgnL !÷%),))) aflx/_ Kn]6\n]6\; -pTk|]/s k|lt !÷!)) c;+j]bgzLn_ !÷!)) aflx/af6 k|j]z u/]sf] lj/f]wdf ToxL ePsf] /f]u

cfj[lQ !÷!)) !÷@%,))) !÷!) lj/n}

6«fG:k\mo'hg;Fu ;DalGwt tLj| ¿kn] x'g] !÷!),))) kmf]S;f]sf] rf]6

37


3d

tflnsf @

u}/ k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLn] v]Ng] e"ldsfsf sf/0f x'g] 6«fG:k\mo'hg k|ltlqmof tLj| -t'¿Gt}_ Xofdf]lnl6s

cfj[lQ lj/n}

cGt/bxg k|lqmof -d]6faf]lnHd_ /ut hDg] k|lqmofnfO{ c;/ ug]{ /f]u -sf]u'nf]KofyL_ z/L/sf] tfkqmd 36\g] /f]u -xfOkf]ydL{of_ ;fOl6«s Pl;8sf] ljiffSttf SoflN;od Go"gtfsf] /f]u /utdf clt w]/} kf]6fl;od x'g] /f]u -xfOk/ Sofn]dLof_

/QmgnLsf] cj/f]w -ODjf]lns_ /Qm;~rf/nfO{ a9L ef/

lj/n} lj/n} lj/n} lj/n} lj/n}

l9nf] x'g] cGt/bxg kmnfd tTjsf] clwSotf ;ª\qmd0f != AofS6]l/ofaf6 x'g] u|fd g]u]l6e u|fd kf]h]l6e @= efO/;af6 x'g]* Pr=lj=eL= Pr=;L=eL= Pr=cfO=eL= ! / @ Pr=l6=Pn=eL= ! / @ l;=Pd=eL= O{–aL= lj !( #= lk|cf]G;M -q'mhk]mN8 Hofsf]a_ $= Kof/f;fOl6s** -dn]l/of cflb_

cfj[lQ nfdf] ;do

!÷!%,))) !÷@,))) !÷^),))) !÷!)),))) !÷&)),))) !÷^%),))) &÷!)) !÷@)) lj/n} < lj/n}

lj/n} !÷!),)))

*

efO/n ;ª\qmd0fsf] cfa[lQ b]z cg';f/ km/s k5{ . of] ;ª\qmd0f ;fj{hlgs :jf:Yosf] :t/, /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgsf] :t/ / of] /f]usf] :yfgLo k}mnfj6h:tf tYodf klg e/ k5{ . dflysf] tflnsfdf b]vfOPsf] tYo xfnsf jif{x¿df o"/f]kdf lnOPsf] k|ltj]bgdf cfwfl/t 5 .

**

Kof/f;fO6n] Nofpg] ;ª\qmd0f / ;/fOsf] cfj[lQ ljsf;zLn b]zdf a9L 5 .

tflnsf g+= #M o;n] /ut 6«fG;ˆo'hg;+u ;DalGwt s]xL l/ofS;gx¿sf sf/0fx¿, o:tf l/ofS;g af/Daf/ bf]xf]l/g] cj:yf / ltlgx¿sf] nIf0fx¿nfO{ b]vfpF5 .

38


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] 3e

tflnsf #

sf/0f, b]vf kg]{ ;do / 6«fG:k\mo'hg;Fu ;DalGwt k|ltlqmofsf nIf0fx¿ k|ltlqmofsf k|sf/ tLj| /ftf /Qmsf]if 6'qmg] k|lqmof h;df Pr= lj= 5'6\5

;do s]xL ldlnln6/ /ut z/L/df uPkl5

k|f]l6g k|ltsf] s]xL ldlnln6/ clt ;+j]bgzLntf /ut z/L/df uPkl5 / o;n] Nofpg] wSsf

sf/0f P=lj=cf] /Qm;d"xsf] a]d]n

Pn=hL=P=df x'g] hGdhft sld -sGh]G;n l8lkm;]G;Lx¿ cfO=hL=P_

-PgflkmNofS6Ls_ ==== /f]sfj6 -Po/ s]xL ldlnln6/ xfjfsf] k|j]z ODaf]lnHd_ /ut z/L/df uPkl5 AofS6]l/ofsf] /utsf] lbOPsf] /utsf] dfWodaf6 z/L/df k|b'if0f -;]K;L;_ 6«fG:k\mo'hg AofS6]l/ofsf] k|jz ] ;lsg] a]nflt/ jf ;lsPkl5 /utsf] 6«fG:k\mo'hg ;lsg] a]nflt/ jf ;lsPkl5 6«fG:k\mo'hgsf /utsf] sf/0f kmf]S;f]df 6«fG:k\mo'hg x'g] rf]6 (Trali) ;lsg] a]nf lt/ jf ;lsPkl5 Pkm=Pg=Pr=l6=cf/ /utsf] -/Qmsf]if g6'qmg], 6«fG:k\mo'hg Hj/f] cfpg] ;lsg] a]nflt/ jf 6«fG:k\mo'hg ;lsPkl5 k|ltlqmof_

/Qm;~rf/ k|0ffnLdf clws ef/

6«fG:k\mo'hg k|lqmof ;fx|} l56f] x'g'

nIf0fx¿ ;f; k]mg{ ufx|f] x'g], 5flt v'Drg], Hj/f] cfpg], hf8f] x'g], 9f8 b'Vg], /Qmrfk 36\g], cf3ft, d[uf}nfn] sfd ug{ 5f]8\g] . 5fnf /ftf] b]lvg], af]Nbf 3fF6L b'Vg], lrnfpg], ;f; k]mg{ ufx|f] x'g], jfGtf, kvfnf, 5ftL b'Vg], /Qmrfk a9\g], a]xf]; x'g], ´6\sf nfUg] . vf]sL, ;f; k]mg{ ufx|f], 5ftL b'Vg], 3ft Hj/f], hf8f] x'g', jfGtf, kvfnf, /Qmrfk sd x'g', ´6\sf nfUg', ls8\gLn] sfd ug{ 5f]8\g', l8=cfO{=;L= ;f; k]mg{ ufx|f] x'g', 5fnf lgnf] x'g', /Qmrfksf] gfkdf tnsf] gfk a9\g'

6«fG:k\mo'hg ul/Psf PG6L No'sf];fO6\, PG6La8L / la/fdL;Fu ePsf] u|fg'nf];fO6\;aLrsf] k|ltlqmof

;f; k]mg{ ufx|f] x'g', vf]sL, /Qmrfk 36\g', 5fnf lgnf] x'g'

6«fG:k\mo'hg ul/Psf] /utdf ePsf] No"sf];fO6 PG6LhLg / la/fdLsf] /utdf ljBdfg PG6LNo"sf];fO6 / PG6La8Lljrsf] k|ltlqmofx¿ ;fO6f]sfOg elgg] k|f]l6g -h;nfO{ /ut e08f/0f ul/Psf] a]nf No'sf];fO6\;n] pTkfbg u5{_ sf] sf/0f klg pTkGg x'g] ljZjf; ul/G5

s'g} d]l8sn JofVof ug{ g} g;lsg] u/L la/fdLsf] ! l8u|L ;]= jf a9L tfkqmd j[l4 x'G5

39


3e

tflnsf # qmdzM

k|ltlqmofsf k|sf/ Pnlh{s -ljleGg k|sf/sf u8a8Lx¿_

;do /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgsf] cGTolt/ cyjf ;ls;s]kl5

lh=le=Pr= l8 -u|fk\m6 Vs xf]:6 /f]u_

# b]lv #) lbg

s]xL lbg cyjf Pnf]ODo"g k|ltlqmof -6]an $ xKtf k5fl8 x]g'{xf]nf_

Xofdf]lnl6s l9nf] # b]lv & lbg x'g] / Pgfdg]:6Ls k|ltlqmof

sf/0f bftfsf] /utdf ePsf] jfx\o Pn/hLG; h;n] la/fdLsf] PG6L8aL;Fu k|ltlqmof u5{ cyjf bftfsf] /utdf ePsf] PG6La8L h;n] la/fdLsf] Pn/hLG;;Fu k|ltlqmof u5{ . bftfsf] Pr=Pn=P= PG6LlhGn] lj/fdLsf] ljz]if u/]/ l6= lnDkmf];fO6 pQ]lht u/fpF5 != k|lt/Iff k|0ffnL bljPsf la/fdLx¿df @= OG6«fp6/fOg 6«fG:k\mo'hg lnO/x]sf e|'0fx¿ #= ev{/} hGd]sf] aRrfn] kfO/x]sf] ;§f 6«fG:k\mo'hg $= cfkmGtx¿sf] /ut lnO/x]sf la/fdLx¿df la/fdLn] s]xL cf/=lj=;L PG6LhLgsf] lj¿2 PG6Lj8L tof/ u5{ h;] ubf{ 6«fG:k\mo'hg ul/Psf sf]ifx¿ 6'lqmg yfN5g\ -Xofdf]nfOl;;_

nIf0fx¿ o"l6sf/Lof -ljleGg u8a8Lx¿_ /ftf] wAaf b]lvg', vf; 7fpFdf kfgL hDg' Hj/f], cfGb|fsf] sf]nfO6L;, kftnf] kvfnf, 5fnf etelt kf]Ng], 5fnf /ftf] x'g], /ut 36\g]

dGb Hj/f], hf8f] x'g], dGb h08L;, sf/0f yfxf gePsf] x]df]Unf]lagsf] 36\g] k|lqmof -# jif{eGbf cufl8 g} /ut lbg z'? u/]/ o:tf] ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg ug{ ;lsG5

dfly h:t} 6«fG:k\mo'hg ug{'eGbf cufl8 ul/g] k|of]uzfnf hfFrdf PG6La8L gb]lvg ;S5 t/ 6«fG:k\mo'hg z'¿ u/]kl5 z/L/sf] k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLn] 7"nf] kl/df0fdf PG6La8L agfpg yfN5g\ .

6«fG:k\mo'hg k|lts[ofsf] pkrf/ /f]usf] lgbfg / ult 6«fG:k\mo'hg;Fu ;DalGwt k|ltlqmofsf] l;ls:ttfdf e/ k5{ . tnsf a"Fbfx¿n] k|ltlqmofx¿nfO{ s;/L pkrf/ ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] b]vfpF5g\ . uDeL/ l/ofS;g • tLa| lsl;dsf Xofdf]lnl6s 6«fG:k\mo'hg k|ltlqmof -P=Pr=l6=cf/_ k|f]l6gk|ltsf] clt ;Dj]bgzLntf -PgflkmNofS6Ls_, JofS6]/Lof k|b"if0f -;]K;L;_ xfjfsf] cj/f]w

40


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/]

• •

-ODaf]lnHd_ h:tf k|ltlqmofx¿df 6«fG:k\mo'hg /f]Sg'k5{ . gzfjf6 t/n kbfy{x¿ lbg ;lsG5 . ljleGg lsl;dsf d]l8sn cj:yfx¿ h:t} /QmgnLx¿df /ut hDg] k|lqmofdf x'g] ;d:of -l8=cfO=;L=_ ls8\gLn] sfd ug{ 5f]8\g], cf3ft h:tf s'/fx¿nfO{ pkrf/ ug{sf] nflu cf}ifwL lbg z'¿ ug'{k5{ . /Qm ;~rf/ k|0ffnLdf x'g] clws ef/nfO{ sd ug{ la/fdLnfO{ clS;hg / d"qjw{s cf}ifwL lbg ;lsG5 . h;n] w]/} lk;fa nufP/ ;d:of sd u5{ . 6«fG:k\mo'hgn] Nofpg] kmf]S;f]sf] tLj| cf3ftnfO{ Zjf;k|Zjf;sf] k|lqmofnfO{ plrt ;xof]u lbP/ pkrf/ ul/G5 . l9nf] ePsf] Xofdf]lnl6s Pgfdg]:6Ls k|ltlqmof / Pnf]Do'gfOh];gsf] c;/x¿nfO{ sfl6sf]:6]/f]O8\; lbP/ pkrf/ ul/G5 . /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgsf] sf/0f z/L/df eO{ /x]sf] /f]u aflx/af6 cfpg] /f]u sf] ljr x'g] k|lts[of -lh=le=Pr=8L_ sf] pko'Qm lsl;dsf] d2t pkrf/ lbg'k5{ . efO/;af6 x'g] ;ª\qmd0f k|b"if0fnfO{ efO/;sf] k|sf/ cg';f/ pkrf/ ug'{k5{ .

sd xflgsf/s d]l8sn ;d:ofx¿ != Hj/f] cfpg] t/ /utdf s'g} c;/ gkg]{ k|ltlqmof -FNHTR_ nfO{ Hj/f] sd ug]{ cf}ifwL lbg ;lsG5 . @= PnhL{ x'g] -c6Lsf/;Lof_, 5fnfdf bfu b]lvg], lrnfpg]h:tf ;d:ofnfO{ PG6Llx:6fdfOg lbg ;lsG5 .

6«fG:k\mo'hg k|ltlqmofsf] /f]syfd /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg ;]jfx¿ / cGo ljefux¿n] s8f gLltx¿ agfpFb} 6«fG:k\mo'hgsf ;jf]{Ts[i6 k|lqmofx¿ ckgfOg] / la/fdLx¿sf] :jf:Yosf] ;Fw} ;'/Iff ug]{ s'/fnfO{ ;'lglZrt ug'{k5{ . d]l8sn sd{rf/Lx¿ /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgsf :yflkt u'0f:t/ gLlt lgodx¿k|lt sl6a4 /xg'k5{ . 6«fG:k\mo'hgn] l;h{gf ug]{ y'k|} 3fts ;d:ofx¿ w]/}h:tf] la/fdLx¿ / /Qm ;d"xsf] unt klxrfgsf sf/0fn] cfPsf] b]lvG5 .

41


!= /Qm;d"x 5'§\ofpg] gd"gf /ut / o;nfO{ csf]{ /ut;Fu ldN5 ldNb}g bfFh]/ hfFr ug]{ sfo{sf] :ki6 ¿kn] klxrfg x'g'k5{ . gd"gf /ut tfGg'eGbf cufl8 /ut /flvg] gnLdf 6fFl;g] n]andf la/fdLsf] hGdldlt, k"/f gfd :ki6 n]Vgsf nflu la/fdLn] e/]sf] /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg cfj]bg kmf/fdsf] /fd|f];Fu cWoog / hfFr u/]/ 6fF:g'k5{ . @= d]l8sn clkm;/n] 6«fG:k\mo'hg ug{ k|of]u ul/g] ;Dk"0f{ oGq pks/0fx¿nfO{ oL oGqx¿ lgdf{0f ug]{ sDkgLn] u/]s]f l;kmfl/; cg';f/ g} k|of]u ul/Psf 5g\ eGg] s'/fnfO{ ;'lglZrt ug'{k5{ . #= s'g} /utsf] o'lg6 -kf]sf_nfO{ oGq pks/0fdf hf]8\g'eGbf cufl8 d]l8sn clkm;/n] An8sf] o'lg6df s'g} k|b'if0f ePsf] 5 5}g, /utsf] /Ë uf8f lkmsf ePsf] 5 ls, hd]sf] kmf6]sf] of Dofb ;lsPsf] 5 5}g cflb s'/fsf] /fd|/L lg/LIf0f ug'{k5{ . $= la/fdLnfO{ lbg l7s kf/]sf] /utsf] kf]sfdf o;sf] sfuhdf n]lvPsf] /Qm;d"xdf dfq e/ gk/L la/fdLsf] /Qm;d"x k|df0fkq x]/]/ la/fdLsf] /Qm;d"x / 6«fG:k\mo'hg ug{ nluPsf] /utsf] ;d"x ldN5 ls ldNb}g eGg] lgSof}{n ug'{k5{ . %= 6«fG:k\mo'hg ul/Psf] /utsf kf]sfx¿sf] ;Dk"0f{ kl/ro / klxrfgnfO{ la/fdLsf] clen]v vftfdf /fd|/L n]Vg' k5{ tfls cfjZos kbf{ /QmbftfnfO{ e]6\g ;lsof];\ . ^= /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg z'¿ u/]kl5 s]xL ;do la/fdLnfO{ ;fx|} /fd|/L x]/ljrf/ ug'{k5{ ljz]if u/L /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg k|ltlqmof 6«fG:k\mo'hg z'¿ u/]sf] s]xL l5g\ d} b]lvg] ;Defjgf a9L x'g] x'gfn] . &= /utnfO{ l;kmf/L; ul/Psf] ;doleqg} lbg'k5{ o;f] ubf{ /utn] lbg'kg]{ lSnlgsn k|efjsfl/tf, ;'/IffnfO{ a9fpF5 / /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgnfO{ ;lhnf] klg agfpF5 . *= lr;f] /utnfO{ ltq| ultdf 6«fG:k\mo'hg ug]{ sfd eo°/ 8/nfUbf] x'g;S5 . hd]sf] /utsf] o'lg6 ;fx}| xf];k"j{s rnfpg'k5{ lsgls o;sf] efF8f] ;fx|} skmNnf] x'G5 / sd tfkqmddf ;lhn} k'm6\g ;S5 .

42


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] (= /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg ug'{eGbf cufl8 / ul/;s]kl5 kfngf ug'{kg]{ ;Dk"0f{ sfd s'/fx¿sf] tof/Ln] /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgsf] k|efjsf/LtfnfO{ ;'lglZrt ub{5 . !)= olb k|ltlqmofsf nIf0f b]lvP eg] To;nfO{ n]Vg'k5{ / l/kf]6{ ug'{k5{ . ;a} uDeL/ lsl;dsf cK7\of/fx¿nfO{ t'¿Gt} hfFr ug'{k5{ / 6«fG:k\mo'hg k5fl8 gd"gf /ut l´sL Tof] :ofDkn, k|of]u gePsf] /ut / Tof] /ut ;DalGw ljj/0f ;lxt To;nfO{ /ut a}Ídf k7fpg' k5{ / ToxfF ;]/f]nf]lhsn d]n / a]d]nsf] hfFr ug'{sf ;fy} JofS6]l/ofsf] sNr/ u/]/ hfFr ug'{k5{ . !!= olb 6«fG:k\mo'hg k|ltlqmof jf/Djf/ bf]x]fl/of] eg] P=lj=cf]= ;d"xsf] aflx/ clgoldt lsl;dsf PG6la8Lx¿sf] pkl:ylt / /];; k\mofS6/sf] lg/LIf0f ug'{k5{ . Pkm=Pg=Pr=l6=cf/= ;d:of bf]xf]/L /xG5 eg] sdhf]/ No'sf];fO6 tTj k|of]u ug'{k5{ . !@= of] s'/f ljrf/ k'¥ofpg' kb{5 ls s'g} lsl;dsf k|ltlqmof / c¿ ;d:ofx¿ cfpg ;do nfUb5 h:t} 6«fG:k\mo'hg ul/Psf] /utn] ;f/]sf] /f]u l9nf] b]vf k5{ . ha /ut bftf /f]uL ePsf] kQf nfU5 ltgn] /ut lbPsf la/fdLx¿sf] d]l8sn hfFr nuftf/ ug'{kb{5 . An8 a}Ín] /utsf] :t/Lo k/LIf0f / e08f/0f u/L u'0f:t/Lo /utsf] k|of]usf lglDt lgDg s'/fx¿ ;'lglZrt ug'{k5{ M •

/Qmbftfsf] 5gf}6, /ut lng] k|lqmof, agfpg] k|lqmof, k|of]uzfnfdf ul/g] hfFr, /utsf] ;~ro / ljt/0f, pRr u'0f:t/o'Qm ;fdfgsf] agfj6—cEof;sf] l;4fGt cg';f/ ug'{k5{ .

a}Ídf sfd ug]{ sd{rf/Lx¿sf] sfd / lhDd]jf/L :ki6 ¿kn] tf]lsPsf] x'g'k5{ .

pko'Qm ;fdu|Lx¿sf] k|of]u ug'{k5{ .

cfGtl/s ¿kn] n]vf / u'0f:t/ hfFr ug'{kb{5 h;n] ubf{ u'0f:t/ lgoGq0fsf] Jojxfl/stf / k|efjsfl/tfnfO{ dfkg ug{ ;lsof];\ .

43


ePsf uNtLx¿nfO{ /fd|/L eGg'k5{ / uNtLaf6 kf7 l;Sg'k5{ .

o'/f]k / cd]l/sfh:tf b]zx¿sf c:ktfnx¿df /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg ;ldltx¿ x'G5g\ . tL ;ldltx¿df /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg ;]jf / /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg ultljlwx¿;Fu ;Dj4 lSnlgsn OsfOx¿sf k|ltlglw;d]t /xG5g\ . o:tf ;ldltx¿n] 6«fG:k\mo'hg cEof;sf] s'zntf / k|efjsfl/tfnfO{ a9fpg lgDg s'/f u5{g\M != :yfgLo lSnlgsn ultljlwx¿df ckgfpg' kg]{ /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg gLltx¿nfO{ kl/eflift ug]{ . @= /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg cEof;sf] lg/Gt/ d"NofÍg ug]{ . #= /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg;Fu ufFl;Psf k|To]s cg'ko'Qm / cjflG5t 36gfx¿sf] ljZn]if0f ug]{ / cfjZos ;'wf/fTds pkfox¿sf] cjnDjg ug]{ .

44


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/]

cWofo $ kmnfd tTjsf] clwstf / To;sf] ck;f/0f -lrn];g_ o; lstfasf] cl3Nnf v08x¿df JofVof ul/Ph:t} yfnf;]ldofn] kmnfd tTjnfO{ z/L/df y'kfg]{ -Psfu| agfpg]_ sfd ub{5 . yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿n] kmnfd tTj vfgfaf6 / 6«fG:k\mo'hg ul/Psf] /utaf6 u/]/ @ j6f dfWodaf6 k|fKt ub{5g\ . olb of] a9L ePsf] kmnfd tTjnfO{ z/L/af6 x6fOPg eg] o;n] sn]hf] / d'6'h:tf z/L/sf dxTjk"0f{ c+ux¿nfO{ laufg{ ;S5 . To;sf/0f yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿n] lrn]6/ eGg] Pp6f dxTjk"0f{ cf}ifwLsf] k|of]u ug'{kg]{ x'G5 h;n] kmnfd tTjnfO{ z/L/af6 x6fpF5 .

:j:y z/L/df kmnfd tTj Pp6f :j:y jo:s dfG5]sf] z/L/df $ u|fd kmnfd tTj x'G5 h;dWo] # u|fd /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿df x]df]Unf]lag agfpgsf] nflu vkt x'G5 . cufl8 pNn]v ul/Ph:t} ha /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ l5lkG5g / d5{g ltgLx¿df /x]sf] x]df]Unf]lag x\ofd / Unf]lag eGg] @ j6f 36s c+ux¿df 6'lqmG5 . x\ofdaf6 lgl:sPsf] kmnfd tTjnfO{ 6«fG;k]ml/g eGg] k|f]l6g afxs c0f'n] lnP/ k'gM sfddf NofO{ gofF /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] nflu rflxg] cem w]/} x\ofdx¿ agfpF5 . Pldgf] Pl;8 eg]/ lrlgg] Unf]lag k|f]l6g agfpg] /f;folgs tTjx¿ k'gM k|of]u eO{ gofF Unf]lagx¿ aGb5g\ .

4a vfgfdf kfOg] kmnfd tTj 8'8]gd -k|To]s lbg ! ldlnu|fd_ pkof]u

pkof]u

KnfHdf 6«fG:k]ml/g -# ldu|f_

df+;k]zL -dfof]Unf]ljg #)) ld=u|f=_

af]g Dof/f] 3'ld/x]sf -#)) ld=u|f_ Pl/y|f];fO6x¿ -x]df]Unf]lag !*)) ld=u|f_

;l~rt /ut sn]hf] Kof/]lGrdf -!))) ld=u|f=_

/]l6So"nf] O08f]y]lnPn Dofqmf]k]mu;\ -^)) ld=u|f=_

TofluPsf Do"sf];n sf]ifx¿ 8]:Sjfd];g /h:jnf /utsf] c? Iflt -x/b/ !–@ ld=u|f= k|lt lbg_

/utsf] r'xfj6

o; k|s[ofaf6 a'lemG5 ls Pp6f :j:y jo:s z/L/n] cfk"m;Fu ePsf] k|fo ;Dk"0f{ kmnfd tTjnfO{ k'gk|of]u u5{, ;f¥x} yf]/} efu dfq z/L/af6 la;h{g x'G5 . Pp6f :j:y jo:s dfG5]sf] z/L/n] ! u|fd kmnfd tTjnfO{ dfq lbzf, lk;fa, kl;gf / dlxnfx¿df /hZjnfsf] dfWodaf6 aflx/ kmfN5 . cfGb|fn] z/L/af6 aflxl/Psf] kmnfd tTjsf] lgl/If0f u5{ / vfgfaf6 To;sf] cfk"lt{ u5{ . (x]g'{xf];\ 4a)

45


yfnf;]ldofdf kmnfd tTj yfnf;]ldof d]h/ / yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8of b'j}sf] pkrf/df olb /ut 6«fG:k\mo'h ul/Psf] 5}g eg] la/fdLdf b]vfkg]{ s8f Plgldofsf] Ifltk"lt{ ug{ z/L/n] k|z:t /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ agfpg' kg]{x'G5 / z/L/n] cfGb|faf6 cTolws dfqfdf kmnfd tTj kmnfdtTjsf] ;Gt'ng ;f]:5 -k|ltjif{ @ b]lv % u|fd kmnfd tTj ;f]:g' G.I. cjzf]if0f kg]{x'G5 hals :j:y JolQmdf k|ltjif{ )=))!% ;fdfGo— ! ld=u|f=÷8]l;= ln= z/L/df yn— !=% ld=u|f=÷8]l;=ln= u|fd cjzf]if0f u/] k'U5 ._ slt kmnfd tTjsf] lb;f lk;fa kmnfdtTjsf] c¿ Iflt ef/ cjzf]if0f x'G5 eGg] s'/f Plgldof slt s8f 5 ! ld=u|f÷8]l; ln= 6«fG:k\mo'hg ul/Psf] /ut eg] tYodf lge{/ u5{ . Plgldof hlt w]/} s8f 5 @)) ld=u|f=÷o'lg6 %=!% ld=u|f=÷8]l;=ln= x•Lsf] dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ n] w]/} /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ lgdf{0f u5{ h;sf] sf/0fn] x•Lsf] dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ w]/} k}mlnG5 / ;+u;+u} kmnfd tTjsf] pd] / ;F u } a9\ g ] 6« f G:ˆo' h gaf6 lnOg] /ut / cfjZostf a9fpF5 . cfGb|faf6 cjzf]lift 4b kmnfd tTjsf] cfjZostfdf j[l4 x'g] kmnfd tTjsf] dfqfsf] lgwf{/0f ug{ cGo 6«fG:k\mo'hg ul/Psf] kmnfd tTj -u|fddf_ s'/fx¿n] klg e"ldsf v]Nb5g\ . pbfx/0fsf] nflu z/L/df le6fldg l;=sf] pkl:yltn] cjzf]lift x'g] kmnfd tTjsf] dfqf a9fpF5 eg] lrof / cGgx¿n] of] dfqf 36fpF5g\ . t/ cfGb|faf6 kmnfd tTjsf] cjzf]if0fsf] dfqf sd ug]{ ;aeGbf pko'Qm tl/sf la/fdLsf] z/L/df x]df]Unf]ljgsf] txsf] /fd|f] Joj:yfkg ug'{ g} xf] . To;sf/0f la/fdLx¿n] /utsf] 6«fG;k\mo'hg nuftf/ lng' / x]df]Unf]lagsf] tx k|lt 8]l;ln6/ ( u|fd eGbfdfly -6«fG;k\mo'hg pd]/ -jif{df_ eGbf cufl8 gflkPsf]_ /fVg' cfjZos 5 . /utsf] sf]xg / :jf6{haf6–bL3{ ¿kn] kmnfd tTjsf] clwstf ePdf kmnfd tTj x6fpg] -lrn];g_ pkrf/ –!(&& ;Dd]ng sd dfqf 6«fG;k\mo'hg ul/Psf /f]uLx¿sf] z/L/n] ljz]if1, cfO=Pg=;L= aS; ^!)#(& ldofdL, k\mnf]l/8f cfGb|faf6 k|ltlbg ! b]lv % ldln u|fd -k|lt jif{ )=$ b]lv % u|fd_ kmnfd tTj cjzf]if0f ug{ ;S5 . /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg lnO/x]sf] la/fdLx¿df x'g] kmnfd tTjsf] clwstfsf]] k|d'v >f]t 6«fG;k\mo'hg ul/Psf] /ut g} xf] . jf:tjdf la/fdLx¿n] /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hgaf6 kfpg] kmnfd tTjsf] dfqf vfPsf] vfgfnfO{ cfGb|fsf] dfWodaf6 cjzf]if0f u/L kfpg] kmnfd tTjeGbf cTolws a9L x'G5 . o;sf/0f nuftf/ /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg lng] /f]uLx¿n] kmnfd tTj x6fpg] cf}ifwL -cfO/g lrn]6/_ lng'

46


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] k5{ . h'g cf}ifwL kmnfd tTj;Fu ldN5 / o;nfO{ lbzf lk;fa cflbsf] dfWodaf6 aflx/ lgsfNb5 . ! ldlnln6/ /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿df em08} !=!^ ldln u|fd kmnfd tTj x'G5 . ;fdfGot ! o'lg6 /utdf @%) ldln ln6/ Pslqt eP/ a;]sf /ftf sf]ifx¿ x'G5g\ . o;sf] cy{ @%)×!=!^ jf @)) b]lv @() ldln u|fd kmnfd tTj x'G5 . log} /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ 6'6]/ lg:sg] kmnfd tTj g} /utsf] 6«fG;k\mo'hg lnO/x]sf /f]uLx¿sf]] z/L/df 6'lqmP/ y'lk|g] kmnfd tTjsf] d'Vo >f]t xf] . pbfx/0fsf] nflu /f]uLn] k|lt jif{ lng] #) o'lg6 /utdf k|lt jif{ ^ u|fd kmnfd tTj a9L x'G5 -@))×#)=^))) ld=u|f=^ u|fd_ cyjf k|ltlbg !% b]lv !^ ldlnu|fd a9L x'G5 . z/L/n] olt 7"nf] dfqfdf /x]sf] kmnfd tTjnfO{ lgisfzg k|0ffnLsf] dfWodaf6 aflx/ kmfNg ;Sb}g To;sf/0f of] kmnfd tTj z/L/sf c+u / tGt'x¿df y'k|f] nfU5g\ . olb of] kmnfd tTjnfO{ d]l8sn x:tIf]k u/L x6fOPg eg] aL—yfnf;]ldof d]h/ ePsf la/fdLx¿sf nflu of] cTolws ?kn] xflgsf/s x'G5 / eo+s/ 8/ nfUbf ;d:ofx¿ Nofpg ;S5 . kmnfd tTjsf] clwstfsf lSnlgsn nIf0fx¿ ;fdfGot !) jif{ hltsf] pd]/b]lv b]lvg z'¿ u5{, tyflk sn]hf]df kmnfd tTjsf] ljiffQmk"0f{ c;/x¿ of]eGbf ;fgf pd]/sf aRrfx¿df kfOPsf] 5 . kmfOj/f]l;; elgg] sn]hf]sf] Iflt /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg lng yfn]sf] @ jif{leq d} b]lvG5 . ;xL pkrf/åf/f clws kmnfd tTjsf] dfqfnfO{ a]n}df x6fOPg eg] !) jif{eGbf cufl8 g} sn]hf]sf] 3fts /f]u l;/f]l;; x'G5 . ljz]if u/]/ o;sf] ;+efjgf x]kf6fOl6; la= jf ;L= ePsf /f]uLx¿sf] nflu cem a9L x'G5 . yfnf;]ldof d]h/df d[To'sf] Pp6f d'Vo sf/0f dflgg] d'6'/f]u /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg ljlwsf] z'¿cft u/]sf] !) jif{ leq}df ePsf] kfOPsf] 5 oBkL x[bo3ft eg] !% jif{sf] pd]/eGbf cufl8 ;fdfGot x'Fb}g . yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿df x'g] of}g kl/kSjtf l9nfO{sf] Pp6f k|d'v sf/0f klg kmnfd tTj clws dfqfdf x'g' g} xf] . o;n] e08} cfwf hlt dlxnf / k'¿if b'j} /f]uLx¿nfO{ lk/f]n]sf] 5 . o;sf] cnfjf, kmnfd tTjsf] clwstfn] ue{wf/0f ug{ vf]Hg] dlxnfnfO{ klg cK7\of/f] kf/]sf] 5 . -em08} @%Ü o:tf pbfx/0f 5g\_ oL dlxnfx¿df x'g] dw'd]x -8fOa]l6h d]]ln6;_ w]/} b]lvg] sf/0f klg ag]sf] 5 .

47


kmnfd tTjsf] clwstf nfdf] ;dodf x•Lx¿df cfpg] ;d:ofx¿sf] sf/0f aG5 / o;n] yfO/fO8 Kof/fyfO/f8 h:tf z/L/sf dxTjk"0f{ c+unfO{ ;d]t xfgL k'¥ofpF5 . ctM la/fdLx¿n] kmnfd tTjsf] clwstfnfO{ x6fpg pkrf/ z'¿ ug}{ k5{ cGoyf of] z/L/sf c+ux¿df y'lk|G5 / hLjg k|0ffnL / cfo'df g} uDeL/ c;/ k'¥ofpF5 .

cTolws kmnfd tTjn] s;/L z/L/ lauf5{ <

4c

k]ml/l6gsf c0f'x¿

/ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg pkrf/ ljlw cyjf yfnf;]ldofsf] sf/0fn] cyjf b'j} sf/0fx¿n] z/L/df kmnfd tTj y'lk|g yfN5, 6«fG;k]ml/g elgg] /utdf kmnfd tTjsf] d'Vo afxs k|f]l6g kmnfd tTjn] k"/f el/G5 . ha z/L/df kmnfd tTjn] gel/Psf 6«fG;k]m/]gx¿ Pp6} klg x'Fb}g, :jtGq kmnfd tTj h'g cj:yf z/L/sf] nflu cTolws xflgsf/s x'G5, /utdf ;+rfl/t x'g yfN5 . of] kmnfd tTj k|f]l6go'Qm k]ml/l6g x\ofdf]l;8]l/g elgg] c0f'x¿;Fu afFlwP/ -gfl/P/_ tGt'x¿df ;d]t hDdf x'g yfN5 (4c) . oL k|f]l6gx¿;Fu aflwPsf] kmnfd tTj c¿ hlt xflgsf/s cln x'Fb}g . t/, z/L/n] k]ml/l6g / x\ofdf]l;8]l/gnfO{ af/Daf/ 6'6fpgfn] kmnfd tTj oL k|f]l6gx¿af6 :jtGq x'G5 . /f]uLnfO{ la/fdn] Rofk]sf] ;dodf klg kmnfd tTj oL :6f]/]h k|f]l6gx¿af6 5'l§G5g\ . 6«fG;k]ml/g;Fu gafFlwPsf] kmnfd tTj cyjf afFsL /x]sf] kmnfd tTj -h;nfO{ afFWg 6«fG;lkml/g g} afFsL x'Fb}g_ Psbd} cl:y/ x'G5 . o;sf] cy{ o;n] On]S6«f]g elgg] g]u]l6e rfh{nfO{ ;lhn} lng / 5f]8\g ;S5 . ha kmnfd tTjn] On]S6«f]g lnG5 of] # j6f ;sf/fTds rfh{ ePsf] l:ylt -#+ cyjf k]ml/s kmnfd tTj eg]/ lrlgg] Ps k|sf/sf] kmnfd tTj_ af6 @ j6f ;sf/fTds rfh{ ePsf] l:ylt -@+ cyjf k]m/f]; cfO/g eg]/ lrlgg] Ps k|sf/sf] kmnfd tTjdf_ kl/jt{g x'G5 . ha kmnfd tTj @+ / #+ sf] l:ylt aLr otf ptf ljr/0f u5{ o;n] :jtGq ¥ofl8sn; eGg] xflgsf/s tTjx¿sf] pTkfbg u5{ . h'g tTjx¿n] z/L/sf tGt'x¿nfO{ Jofks ¿kn] eTsfpg ;Sb5g\ . :jtGq ¥ofl8sN; pTkfbg ug]{ of] ;j{k|rlng k|s[ofnfO{ æk]mG6f]g k|lts[ofÆ sf] gfdn] hflgG5 . of] /f;folgs k|lts[ofnfO{ o;/L b]vfOG5 .

48


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] xfO8«f]S;Ln ¥ofl8sn (HO) h]g]/];g O2 +Fe+→ O2 + Fe2+ H2O2 + Fe2 → OH- + Fe3+

8]:k]ml/cf]ShfdfOg -l8= Pkm= cf]=_ cyjf 8]:km/n z/L/;Fu a9L ePsf] kmnfd tTjnfO{ x6fpg] s'g} k|efjsf/L ;fwg 5}g . Pp6} dfq pkfo eg]sf] cfO/g lrn]6/ -cfO/g afOG8/_ eGg] cf}ifwLsf] k|of]u xf] . of] cf}ifwLn] /utdf ePsf] kmnfd tTj;Fu ldn]/ -afFlwP/_ of}lus agfpF5 / pQm of]lus lbzf, lk;fasf] dfWodaf6 z/L/af6 aflx/ lg:sG5 . 8]:k]ml/cf]ShfdfOg eGg] cf}ifwL g} ;a}eGbf klxnf] kmnfd tTjnfO{ x6fpg] cf}ifwL xf] . klxnf] k6s ;g\ !(^) df pTkfbg ePsf] of] cf}ifwL -l8=Pkm=cf]=_ yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf] pkrf/sf] cflu ;g\ !(&) df dfq ahf/df cfo]f . (x]g"{xf];\ 4d) l8=Pkm=cf]= n] @ k|sf/n] sfd u5{ . klxnf] tl/sf l9nf] tl/sf xf] o;df l8=Pkm=cf]= kmnfd tTj;Fu aflwG5 -ljn];g_ / k]ml/cf]ShfdfOg eGg] tTj agfpF5 / (4e) ljleGg dfWodaf6 aflx/ hfG5 . bf];|f] tl/sf l8=Pkm=cf]= sf] e"ldsf :jtGq -5f8f_ ¥ofl8sN;x¿nfO{ lgoGq0f u/]/ kmnfd tTjsf] laiffQmtfnfO{ 36fpg' xf] / of] l56f] x'g] k|s[of xf] . l8=Pkm=cf]= n] kmnfd tTjnfO{ o;sf] dfgj z/L/df ePsf] @ j6f t/n >f]tx¿af6 x6fpF5 . klxnf] t/n >f]t /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ 6'6]/ lgdf0f{ x'G5 . o; t/n >f]tdf /x]sf] &)Ü kmnfd tTj l8=Pkm=cf]=;Fu afFlwG5 / lk;fasf] ¿kdf z/L/af6 aflx/ hfG5 . l8=Pkm=cf]=n] x6fpg] kmnfd tTjsf] bf];|f] t/n >f]t sn]hf]af6 cfpF5 h'g z/L/sf] kmnfd tTj ;+ro ug]{ ;aeGbf 7"nf] c+u xf] .

4d

8]:k]ml/cf]ShfdfOg aL l8:km/nsf] ;lqmo tTj

4e

k]ml/cf]ShfdfOg aL

ha sn]hf]sf] sf]ifx¿df k]ml/l6g / x\ofdf]l;8]l/g 6'6\5g\ -x]kf6f];fO6\;_ sn]hf]df ;l~rt kmnfd tTj aflx/ lg:sG5 . l8=Pkm=cf]= x]kf6f];fO6\;sf] k|s[ofaf6 kmnfd tTj;Fu ldNg k'U5 / lbzfsf] dfWodaf6 aflx/ lg:sG5 . 6«fG;k]ml/g;Fu ldln;s]sf] kmnfd tTj;Fu eg] l8=Pkm=cf]= ldNb}g .

49


l8=Pkm=cf]= sf k|To]s c0f' kmnfd tTjsf] Ps k/df0f';Fu ldn]/ k]ml/cf]ShfdfOg aGb5 . (x]g'{xf];\ 4e) o;sf] cy{ olb l8=Pkm=cf]= ztk|ltzt k|efjsf/L lyof] eg] l8=Pkm=cf]= cf}ifwLsf] k|To]s u|fdn] em08} (# ldln u|fd kmnfd tTj pT;h{g u/fpg] lyof] t/ jf:tljstf o:tf] 5}g . o;sf] k|efjsfl/tfsf] :t/, cf}ifwLsf] dfqf lng] tl/sf, kmnfd tTj ;+lrtLsf] cfsf/, z/L/df le6fldg l; sf] tx / la/fdL of] lrn]6/ lnFbf kfngf ug'{ kg]{ lgodx¿ k|lt slt uDeL/ 5 h:tf y'k|} tYox¿df lge{/ /xG5 . le6fldg ;L sf] dxTjM le6fldg l; n] klg kmnfd tTj 36fpg ;xof]u u5{ . o;n] kmnfd tTjnfO{ cfO/g #+ af6 @+ sf] l:yltdf ablng ;xof]u u5{ . kmnfd tTj @+, #+ sf] t'ngfdf z/L/el/ ;lhn} 3'Dg ;S5 / l8=Pkm=cf]= h:tf cf}ifwL;+u ;lhn} ldNg ;S5 . o;sf/0fn] kmnfd tTj @+ nfO{ æk]m/; ¿kÆ ePsf] x6fpg ;lsg] kmnfd tTjsf] ¿kdf lrlgG5 eg] #+ kmnfd tTj æk]ml/s kmd{sf] ¿kdf z/L/sf] w]/} kmnfd tTj hDdf eP/ /xg] c+u h:t} sn]hf]df l:y/ eP/ a:5 / k]ml/6Lg / Xofdf];L8]l/g h:tf afxs k|f]l6gx¿;Fu ldN5 . k|f]l6gx¿n] lgsfNg] of] kmnfd tTjsf] dfqfnfO{ a9fpg] Pp6f pkfo l8 Pkm cf] sf] ;fy} le6fldg æl;Æ lbg' klg xf] . ljz]if1x¿ yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿n] l8=Pkm=cf]= lnPsf] ;dodf le6fldg æl;Æ klg lng' kg]{ ;'emfj lbG5g\ t/ ;fdfGotof /f]uLx¿n] l8=Pkm=cf]= lng yfn]sf] s]xL xKtfkl5 le6fldg l; lng' /fd|f] dflgG5 . bz jif{ d'lgsf aRrfx¿n] %) ldln u|fd / bzjif{eGbf dflysf aRrfx¿n] !)) ldln u|fd le6fldg ;L lng'kg]{ ;Nnfx lbOG5 . ! lbgdf @)) ldlnu|fdeGbf a9L le6fldg ;L lng' x'Fb}g . hf] la/fdLx¿n] k|ltlbg ;'Gtnf of tfhf h'; lnG5g pgLx¿n] cltl/Qm le6fldg æl;Æ lng' kb{}g . Pp6f 7"nf] ;'Gtnfsf] bfgf df &% ldlnu|fd le6fldg ;L x'G5 eg] !)) ldln ln6/ tfhf h';df %) ldlnu|fd x'G5 . cf}ifwL / o;;Fu lnOg] cltl/Qm vfg] s'/fx¿ lrlsT;ssf] ;Nnfx cg';f/ ldnfP/ lbg'k5{ . of] hfGg' h¿/L 5 ls a9L dfqfsf] le6fldg l;n] clt w]/} kmnfd tTjnfO{ x6fO{ z/L/df ljiffQm c;/

50


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] kfg{ ;S5 . l8=Pkm=cf]= glnO /x]sf /f]uLx¿sf] nflu le6fldg l; xflgsf/s x'g ;S5 lsgls le6fldg l; n] vNanfPsf] kmnfd tTj 5f8f x'g hfG5 / tGt'nfO{ lauf5{ .

kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ slxn] z'¿ ug]{ yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿n] /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg lng z'¿ u/]kl5 dfq l8=Pkm=cf]= lng] pkrf/ yfNg'k5{ . l8=Pkm=cf]= n] Plgldof x•Lsf] kl/jt{g, lkmof] / sn]hf] j[l4h:tf ckof{Kt /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hgsf sf/0f pTkGg ;d:ofx¿sf] ;dfwfg ub{}g . /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg glnPsf cyjf kmnfd tTjsf] clwstf ePsf] k|df0f gePsf !) jif{ d'lgsf la/fdLx¿nfO{ l8=Pkm=cf]= lbg} x'Fb}g . ;fdfGo lgod o:tf] 5ls !) b]lv @) k6s /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg lnPsf cyjf k]ml/l6gsf] tx !)))μg eGbf dfly ePsf la/fdLx¿nfO{ dfq kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ z'¿ ug'{k5{ .

8]:k]ml/cf]shfdfOg s;/L agfpg], ;l~rt / k|of]u ug]{ w]/} cf}ifwL lbFbf x'g] ljiffQmtf x'g glbOsg s;/L k|efjsf/L tl/sfn] l8=Pkm=cf]= lbP/ z/L/af6 kmnfd tTj x6fpg] eGg] pkfosf] af/]df ;xdt x'g lkmlhl;og / j}1flgsx¿nfO{ #) jif{eGbf klg a9L ;dosf] cg'ejsf] cfjZostf k¥of] . l8=Pkm=cf]= sf] k/df0f'sf] 7"nf] cfsf/n] ubf{ z/L/n] cfGb|faf6 yf]/} dfq l8=Pkm=cf]= cjzf]if0f ug{ ;S5 . To;sf/0f l8=Pkm=cf]= lbg] ;aeGbf /fd|f] pkfo 5fnfd'lg lbg] cyjf g;faf6 lbg] g} xf] . l8=Pkm=cf]= nfO{ /utn] rfF8}g} gi6 u5{ -5f]6f] hLjg %.!) ldg]6sf] cfwf_ To;sf/0f of] cf}ifwL nfdf] ;do nufP/ Psbd l9nf] k7fpg' k5{ tfls o;sf] jfSnf]kg / 3lge"ttfnfO{ nfdf] ;do;Dd /utdf /fVg ;lsof]; . l8=Pkm=cf]= nfO{ Pp6f ljz]if 9+un] agfOPsf] kDkn] * b]lv !@ 306f nufP/ lj:tf/} 5fnf d'lg k7fOG5 . of] k|s[of xKtfsf] sDtLdf klg ^ lbg ug'{k5{ . la/fdLnfO{ rflxg] ;xL dfqf la/fdLsf] pd]/, z/L/df ePsf] kmnfd tTjsf] dfqf, lSnlgsn cj:yfnfO{ u0fgf u/]/ lgwf{/0f ul/G5 . ;fdfGotof, aRrfx¿sf] ;/b/ dfqf z/L/sf] tf}nnfO{ x]/]/ @) b]lv $) ldln u|fd xf] . o;sf] a9L dfqfn] z/L/sf] j[l4nfO{ l9nf]

51


agfpF5 . 7"nf dfG5] -jois_ x¿sf] dfqf z/L/sf] tf}n cg';f/ #) b]lv %) ldln u|fd xf] .

l8=Pkm=cf]= sf] tof/L l8=Pkm=cf]= %)) ldlnu|fd cyjf @ u|fdsf] o'lg6df kfOg] ;]tf] ;'Vvf w"nf] xf] . k|To]s o'lg6 Pp6f ;fgf] sfFrsf] af]tndf cyjf ;'Vvf ;]tf] w"nf]sf] ¿kdf kfOG5 . h;nfO{ k|of]u ug'{ cl3 !)Ü 3f]ndf lanfpg' k5{ . pbfx/0fsf] nflu %)) ldln u|fdsf] w'nf]nfO{ !)Ü 3f]ndf lanfpgsf] nflu % ldln ln l8l:6N8 kflg ld;fpg' k5{ . -of] cf}ifwL k;nx¿df kfOG5_ of] 3f]nnfO{ s]xL ldg]6 grnfO{ /fVg'k5{ h;n] ubf{ kfp8/ /fd|/L ldl;G5 . w"nf] /fd|/L w'nfpgsf] nflu xNnfpg' x'bF g} a¿ xTs]nfdf /fvL lj:tf/} csf]{ xTs]nfn] a]Ng] of 6]andf /fv]/ klg xftn] xNsf a]Ng ;lsG5 . w"nf] /fd|/L lanfO;s]kl5 l;l/Ghdf 3f]nnfO{ tfGg'k5{ / Aof6«L hl8t kDkdf /fVg'k5{ . kDkn] l;l/Ghsf] Kngh/nfO{ lj:tf/} 7]N5 / cf}ifwLnfO{ cfjZostf cg';f/ * 306fb]lv !@ 306f nufP/ lj:tf/} z/L/df k7fpF5 . slt 306f tf]s/] /flvPsf] x'G5 Tolt g} 306f nufP/ l;l/Gh l/lQG5 . w]/} h;f] kDkdf cfGtl/s ¿kn] hl8t r]tfjgL 306L x'G5 ; l;l/Gh rNg /f]lsof] eg] of l;l/Gh l/lQof] eg] of] cfk}m aH5 .

l8=Pkm=cf]= ;~ro l8=Pkm=cf]= tof/L 3f]nnfO{ sf]7fsf] tfkqmd -@#° l;_ df a9Ldf @$ 306f;Dd /fVg ;lsG5 . udL{ xfjfkfgL ePsf] 7fpFdf olb of] k|of]u ul/xfNg' kg]{ 5}g eg] lk|mhdf $° ;] sf] tfkqmd agfP/ /fVg'k5{ . lk|mhdf /flvPsf] of] 3f]nnfO{ % lbg;Dd k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . olb of] 3f]n wldnf] eof] of /+u ablnof] eg] t'¿Gt} kmfNg'k5{ . lk|mhdf /fv]sf] cf}ifwLsf] 3f]nnfO{ k|of]u ug'{eGbf @ 306f cufl8 aflx/ lgsfNg' k5{ / z/L/sf] tfkqmdsf] xb;Dd tfltg lbg'k5{ . 5fnf d'lg of gzfdf l8=Pkm=cf]= lbg o;nfO{ kmdf{l;:6n] ljz]if lsl;dsf] lg;+qmds cj:yfdf lk|ldS; ug{ ;S5g\ . lk| ldS:8 l8=Pkm=cf]= $° ;] tfkqmddf @ xKtf;Dd u'0f:t/Lo /xg ;S5 t/ o;nfO{ kmfdf{l;:6n] lk| ldS:8 gu/]/ la/fdL cfk}mn] u/]sf] 5

52


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] eg] o;nfO{ !, @ lbgeGbf a9L /fVg' x'Fb}g olb o:tf] lg;+qmd0f gu/]sf] 3f]nnfO{ ;"O xflgof] eg] uDeL/ k|lts[of b]lvg ;S5 .

5fnf d'lg l8=Pkm=cf]= lbg] k|s[of l8=Pkm=cf]=nfO{ 5fnf d'lg lbgsf] nflu l;l/GhnfO{ kDkdf hf]l8G5 . l;l/GhnfO{ gnLdf hf]l8G5, of] gnLsf] 6'Kkf]df ;fgf] 5fnfdf k;fOG5 . o;/L lbFbf l8=Pkm=cf]= aLrdf /x]sf] af];f]df k5{ .

l8=Pkm=cf]= ePsf] kftnf] Knfli6ssf] l;of] x'G5 h;nfO{ 5fnf / dfF;k]zLsf]

y'k|} jif{sf] bf}/fgdf o:tf kDkx¿ ;fgf, xNsf / s'g} cfjfh glgsfNg] kfOg yfn]sf 5g\ logLx¿ k'/fgf df]8neGbf /fd|f 5g\ . To;}n] o;nfO{ ;lhn};Fu lbpF;f] g} n'uf d'lg n'sfP/ k|efjsf/L 9+un] k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . t/ w]/} h;f] la/fdLx¿ lbpF;f]sf] sfddf afwf gcfcf];\ eg]/ klg /ftL g} k|of]u ug{ ¿rfpF5g\ . l8=Pkm=cf]=sf] lgoldt k|of]un] yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿sf] :jf:Yo /fd|f] /fVg cToGt dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]N5 . t/ klg l8=Pkm=cf]= lbP/ kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ ;do nfUg], kL8fbfos, b}lgs hLjgdf uf¥xf] x'g] vfnsf] 5 . To;sf/0f /f]uLsf] x]/ljrf/df ;+nUg 8fS6/x¿ g;{x¿ cleefjsx¿ / la/fdLn] cfk}m pkrf/nfO{ hlt ;Sbf] ;lhnf] agfpg'k5{ . ljz]ifu/L @) jif{eGbf d'lgsf l6gPh/n] o;sf] k|of]u ljlzi6 agfpg] k|of;sf] k|z+;f u5{g\ . l8=Pkm=cf]=n] Nofpg ;Sg] s'g} ;d:ofx¿ / k|lts[ofx¿nfO{ sd agfpg k|oTg ul/g' k5{ . -o;af/]df kl5 x]g'{xf];\_

l8=Pkm=cf]= lbg] c¿ tl/sfx¿ dfly pNn]v u/] cg';f/ l8=Pkm=cf]= 5fnd'lgaf6 lbg] b]lv afx]s cf}ifwL lbg] c¿ y'k|} tl/sfx¿ 5g\, h;sf cfˆg} kmfObf / a]kmfObfx¿ 5g\ .

nuftf/ @$ 306f nufP/ gzfaf6 lbg] of] lz/fsf] dfWodaf6 l8=Pkm=cf]= lbg] ljlw xf] . kmnfd tTjsf] dfqf cTolws a9L ePsf o;n] ubf{ d'6'sf] ;d:of ePsf /f]uLx¿nfO{ o;/L l8=Pkm=cf]= lbFbf z/L/df pTkGg ljiffQmtfnfO{ t'¿Gt} sd ug]{ / 7"nf] dfqfsf] kmnfd tTj klg c¿ ljlweGbf

53


rfF8} x6fpg ;Sg] ePsf]n] of] ljlw hLjgbfos 5 . t/ lgoldt gzfsf] dfWodaf6 ul/g] k|If]k0fsf] cfk\mg} hf]lvdx¿ klg 5g\ . ljz]if u/]/ gzfaf6 cf}ifwL k|If]k0f ubf{ gzf vf]Hg] qmddf ag]sf] 3fp kfSg] / /ut hDg] h:tf ;d:of b]lvG5g\ . x]g'{xf];\ -gzfsf] dfWodaf6 nuftf/ l8=Pkm=cf]= sf] k|If]k0f_ To;}n] of] ljlw vfnL ljlzi6 lsl;dsf] cj:yfdf dfq k|of]u ug'{k5{ . h:t}M !_ kmnfd tTjsf] clwstf -dfqf_ Psbd a9L ePdf pbfx/0fsf] nflu k]ml/l6gsf] tx @%)) μg k|ltln6/ 36\6} g36]df sn]hf]df kmnfd tTjsf] afSnf]kg ePdf jfof]K;L u/L x]bf{ sn]hf]df tf}nsf] !% μg k|lt u|fd kfOPdf . @_ kmnfd tTjsf] clwstfn] ubf{ d'6' ;DaGwL ;d:ofx¿ b]lvPdf #_ ue{jtL x'g] tof/L ul//x]sf dlxnfx¿df ;]/d k]ml/l6gsf] tx pRr /x] jf sn]hf]df kmnfd tTjsf] Psfu|tf tx a9L eP -Pn=cfO;L_ $_ k]ml/l6g jf Pn cfO l; sf] tx hlt;'s} ePklg x•Lsf] dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ sf] k|Tof/f]k0f ug'{ cl3 / x]kf6fOl6; æl;Æ sf] bL3{ /f]uLx¿ h:tf kmnfd tTjnfO{ ;3g ¿kdf x6fpg' kg]{ /f]uLx¿sf] nflu eg] gzfsf] dfWodaf6 l8=Pkm=cf]=sf] k|If]k0f lbg'kg]{ x'g;S5 . l8=Pkm=cf]= sf] lgoldt gzfaf6 k|If]k0f ug'{ eg]sf] k|ltlbgsf] k|lts]hL z/L/sf] tf}n %) ldln u|fd cf}ifwL & lbg;Dd nuftf/ lbg' xf] . la/fdLsf] d'Vo lz/fdf Pp6f Sofy]6/ gnL hf]l8G5 / ToxL gnLsf] dfWodaf6 cf}ifwLsf] 3f]nnfO{ k|If]k0f ug{ ldNg] u/L z/L/df gzfsf] dfWodaf6 cf}ifwLsf] ljz]if cfk"lt{sf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] x'G5 . of] lsl;dsf] Sofy]6/ lgs} dxFuf] x'G5 / of] gnL /fv]kl5 lgs} uDeL/ x]/ljrf/sf] cfjZostf k5{ . uDeL/ lsl;dsf ;+qmd0f / /ut hDg] -y|f]Daf]l;;_ h:tf ;d:ofx¿ o; k|sf/sf] kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/;Fu ;DalGwt uDeL/ ;d:ofx¿ x'g\ . /ut hDg glbg ljz]if lsl;dsf] cf}ifwL -PG6Lsf]z'n];g_ lbg' k5{ / gzfdf Sofy]6/ hf]l8Psf] 7fpFsf] jl/kl/ ;kmf /fv]/ ;+qmd0faf6

54


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] arfpg' k5{ . la/fdLnfO{ Sofy]6/ /flvPsf] 7fpF jl/kl/sf] 5fnf ;kmf /fVg / olb 3fp x'g], 5fnf /ftf] x'g], Hj/f] cfpg] cyjf cToGt hf8f] x'g] h:tf uDeL/ ;d:ofx¿ b]lvPdf t'¿Gt} 8f= nfO{ b]vfpg l;sfpg'k5{ .

* b]lv !@ 306f nufP/ gzfaf6 l8=Pkm=cf]= k|If]k0f ul/g] ljlw . nuftf/ ¿kn] * b]lv !@ 306f nufP/ gzfaf6 lbOg] -dfly pNn]v ul/Psf] @$ 306f lg/Gt/ lbg] ljlwsf] ljk/Lt_ 5fnfsf] dfWodaf6 ul/g] k|If]k0fsf] ljsNk xf] . of] ljlwnfO{ 5fnfsf] dfWodaf6 l8=Pkm=cf]= k|If]k0f ubf{ x'g] uDeL/ vfnsf] :yfgLo k|lts[ofaf6 aRg ljsNk ljlwsf] ¿kdf k|of]u ul/G5 . k|ltlbg * b]lv !@ 306f, $) b]lv %) ldlnu|fd÷s]hL÷% lbgeGbf a9L nufP/ g;fsf] dfWodaf6 ul/g] l8=Pkm=cf]= k|If]k0f 5fnfsf] dfWodaf6 ;'O{ nufO{ ul/g] k|If]k0f hlt g} k|efjsf/L x'G5 . t/ kmnfd tTj clt a9L ePsf] cj:yf / d'6' /f]u;Fu ;DalGwt ;d:ofx¿ ePsf] v08df of] ljlweGbf @$ 306f lg/Gt/ gzfdf lbg] ljlw g} a9L k|efjsf/L x'G5 . gzfaf6 l8=Pkm=cf]= k|If]k0f ul/g] pkrf/ ljlw ;f¥x} xf]l;of/sf ;fy ckgfpg'k5{ / hxfF clt h¿/L 5 ToxL dfq lbg' k5{ lsgls nfdf] ;do k|of]u ubf{ of] ljlwn] gzfdf Iflt k'¥ofpg ;S5 / /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hgdf ;d:of k5{ . of] ljlwdf ;+qmd0fsf] hf]lvd klg Psbd pRr /xG5 .

/ut 6«fG;km\o'hgsf] ;dodf gzfsf] dfWodaf6 lbOg] 8]:k]ml/cf]ShfdfOg . s'g} s'g} d]l8sn s]Gb|x¿df la/fdLnfO{ /ut lbO/x]s} a]nf l8=Pkm=cf]= klg gzfaf6 k|j]z u/fOG5 . t/ la/fdLnfO{ lbOFb} u/]sf] /utdf l8=Pkm=cf]= ;f]em} ld;fpg' x'Fb}g lsgls o;n] /utnfO{ k|b'lift agfpg ;S5 / k|lts[of pTkGg u/fpg ;S5 . ;fdfGotof, j}1flgs ¿kn] g} xflg/lxt k|dfl0ft geOsg la/fdLnfO{ 6«fG;k\mo'hg ul/g] /utdf s'g} klg s'/f ld;fpg' x'Fb}g .

55


/ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg ul//x]sf] a]nf gzfaf6 l8=Pkm=cf]= lbgsf] nflu cfjZos dfqfsf] l8=Pkm=cf]= 3f]n ;fdfGo ;nfOg kfgLdf ld;fpg' k5{ . l8=Pkm=cf]=sf] 3f]n ePsf] kf]sfaf6 lgl:sPsf] l;of]nfO{ /utsf] kf]sf;Fu hf]l8Psf] afO sg]S6/df k;fpg'k5{ / $ 306fsf] ;do nufP/ la/fdLnfO{ lbg'k5{ . cfjZos k¥of] eg] kDk klg k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . k|fo h;f] /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg ug]{ ;doeGbf k|efjsf/L 9+un] l8=Pkm=cf]= lbg] ;do nfdf] rflxG5 . of] Wofgdf /fVg' h¿/L 5 ls /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hgsf] a]nf dfq @ b]lv $ xKtfdf ! k6s lbOg] l8=Pkm=cf]= sf] k|efj Psbd Go'g x'G5 . t/ l8=Pkm=cf]=sf] cfk"lt{ g} sd x'g] 7fpFdf eg] of] g} dfq} Pp6f ljsNk x'g ;S5 . csf]{tkm{ sltko c:ktfnx¿df, lgoldt pkrf/sf] cnfjf, kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ -cfO/g lrn];g_ nfO{ cem k|efjsf/L agfpg /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg lbO/x]sf] a]nf klg gzfsf] dfWodaf6 l8=Pkm=cf]= lbg] ul/G5 .

l8=Pkm=cf]= cGt/ df+zk]zL ;'O{ ha l8=Pkm=cf]=nfO{ klxnf] k6s yfnf;]ldofsf] pkrf/sf] nflu k|of]u ul/of] To;a]nf o;nfO{ leqL df+;k]zLdf ;"O{åf/f lbOg] ul/GYof] . t/ To;}a]nf yfxf eof] ls of] tl/sf gzfaf6 k|If]k0f ul/g] cyjf 5fnfd'lg ;'Oaf6 lbOg] tl/sf hlt k|efjsf/L 5}g . 8]:k]ml/cf]ShfdfOg Psbd} dxFuf] ePsf]n] ;f¥x} yf]/} dfqf dfq lsGg ;lsg] x'G5 / hxfF kDk klg kfOFb}g tL b]zx¿df of] cf}ifwL ;"Oåf/f leqL dfz+k]zLdf g} lbOG5 . la/fdLx¿n] cf}ifwL kfpFb} gkfpg'eGbf h;/L klg yf]/} g} dfqf kfP klg w]/} /fd|f] x'g;Sg] k|df0fx¿ kfOPsf 5g\ . o;y{ ljsNk 5}g eg] l8=Pkm=cf]= nfO{ leqL df+zk]zLdf ;"O{af6 lbg'k5{ . csf]{ tl/sf eg]sf] %)) ld u|fd l8=Pkm=cf]= % ldln ln= l8l:6N8 kfgLdf 3f]Ng' / kfv'/f of v'§fsf] df+zk]zLdf ;"Oåf/f /fVg' xf] . of] dfqfnfO{ @ efu nufOG5 / lbgsf] @ k6s lbOG5 . s]xL cg';Gwfgx¿af6 ev{/} kQf nufPsf] of] ljlw lgs} k|efjsf/L x'g] dflgPsf] 5 .

56


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] l8=Pkm=cf]= pkrf/sf] k|efjsfl/tfsf] d"Nofª\sg la/fdLsf] pkrf/ ljlwsf] k|efjsfl/tfsf] d"Nofª\sg ug]{ Pp6f tl/sf la/fdLsf] sn]hf] / cGo tGt'x¿df hDdf ePsf] kmnfd tTjsf] cfFsng / gfk ug'{ xf] . z/L/df hDdf ePsf] kmnfd tTjsf] &)Ü kmnfd tTj sn]hf] PSn}n] ;+lrt ug{ ;S5 h'g dfqf em08} @) u|fd xf] . olb kmnfd tTjn] sn]hf] el/of] eg] of] cGo tGt'x¿df hDdf x'g yfN5 . h;/L /utdf ePsf] kmnfd tTj k|f]l6g afxs 6«fG;k]ml/g;Fu ldN5 To;/L g} sn]hf] / c¿ tGt'x¿df hDdf ePsf] kmnfd tTj k]ml/l6g / x\ofdf]l;8]/Lg eGg] k|f]l6g;Fu ldN5 . sn]hf]af6 yf]/} dfqf k]ml/l6g pDs]/ /Qm k|jfxdf ldNg k'U5Ù k]ml/l6gsf] of] txsf] gfk g} z/L/df slt kmnfd tTj clws 5 ;f] lgwf{/0f ug{ ;xfos aG5 . /utdf /x]sf] k]ml/l6g -;]/d k]ml/l6g_ sf] ;fdfGo tx k'¿ifdf @%) μg÷k|ltln6/ xf] eg] dlxnfdf !) b]lv !@) μg÷k|lt ln xf] . /utdf ePsf] ! μg k]ml/l6gn] * ldlnu|fd kmnfd tTj ;+lrt ePsf] 5 eGg] ;+s]t u5{ . To;}n] yfnf;]ldof d]h/df z/L/df kmnfd tTjsf] tx pRr ePsf] dflgPsf] la/fdLx¿df k]ml/l6gsf] tx klg pRr ePsf] dflgG5 . oBkL k]ml/l6gsf] tx sn]hf]df hDdf ePsf] kmnfd tTjsf] tx hfGgsf] nflu Pp6f e/kbf]{ gfkf] xf] t/ of] ;"rs d'6' / cGo c+u tyf k"/f z/L/df hDdf ePsf] kmnfd tTj gfKgsf] nflu e/kbf]{ cfwf/ aGg ;Sb}g . a¿ hLp kf]Ng] /f]u, efO/; / JofS6]l/ofsf] sf/0fn] x'g] ;+qmd0f, sn]hf]sf] bL3{ /f]u, jfy / le6fldg l; sf] sld h:tf ;d:ofx¿n] t/n k]ml/l6g -;]/d k]ml/l6g_ sf] txnfO{ k|efj kfg{ ;S5g\ / o; txnfO{ ;xL ;"rs dfGg] xf] eg] o;n] z/L/df ePsf]eGbf a9L of sd kmnfd tTjsf] tx b]vfpg ;S5 . t/ s]xL kmnfd tTj;Fu ;DalGwt ;d:of of /f]ux¿sf] nflu t/n k]ml/l6g -;]/d k]ml/l6g_ sf] tx g} d'Vo / Jojxfl/s ;"rs x'g;Sg] cWoogx¿n] b]vfPsf 5g\ . ha w]/} jif{;Dd Ps} ¿kn] k]ml/l6gsf] tx @%)) μg k|lt ln /xG5 To:tf la/fdLx¿nfO{ d'6' ;DaGwL /f]u nfUg] hf]lvd sd /xG5 . To;sf/0f k]ml/l6gsf] tx

57


!))) b]lv @))) μg k|lt ln6/ /fVg] p2]Zo x'g'k5{ / la/fdLsf] kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ ljlwsf] ;dfof]hg ug{sf] nflu k|To]s # dlxgfdf o;sf] hfFr x'g' h¿/L x'G5 . ;fy} l8=Pkm=cf]=n] lgDTofPsf ;Dk"0f{ ljiffQmtfsf nIf0fx¿nfO{ lgu/fgL /fVg' klg Psbd h¿/L x'G5, o:tf] ;d:of l8=Pkm=cf]=sf] dfqf a9L rnfPsf] a]nf / k]ml/l6gsf] tx !))) μg k|lt ln6/eGbf tn em/]sf] a]nf b]lvG5 .

l8=Pkm=cf]=sf] dfqf ldnfpg k]ml/l6g txsf] k|of]u vf; la/fdLx¿nfO{ lbOg] l8=Pkm=cf]=sf] ;xL dfqf lgwf{/0f ug{ k]ml/l6g txsf] k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . o;sf] nflu pkrf/Tds ;+s]t -y]/fk]l6s OG8]S; II_ eGg] of] ;dLs/0f k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . ! = ;Fw} k|of]u ug]{ ;aeGbf sd dfqf -ldlnu|fd k|lt lsnf]uf| d_* t/n k]ml/l6g –ldlnu|fd÷k|lt ln6/ -l6=cfO{=Pkm=sf] lgb]{lzsfaf6_

o;sf] nIo y]/fk]l6s OG8]S;sf] gfk ;w} )=)@% eGbf tn /fVg' xf] . Go'gtd ¿kdf k|To]s lbg k|of]u ul/g] dfqf lgsfNg k|To]s k6s pkrf/sf nflu lbg] dfqf / xKtf el/df ul/g] dfqfnfO{ u'0fg u/L & n] efu u/]kl5 kQf nfUb5 . *

kl5Nnf jif{x¿df y'k|} k|sf/sf hfFrsf tl/sfx¿ ljsl;t ePsf 5g\ h;n] kmnfd tTjsf] dfqfnfO{ cem e/kbf]{ 9+un] gfKg ;S5g\ . z/L/sf] ljz]ift sn]hf] / d'6'df ePsf] kmnfd tTjsf] ;xL ef/ -clwstf_ sf] 7Ls gfk gS;f pknAw u/fpg oL hfFrx¿ t/n k]ml/l6g -;]/d k]ml/l6g_ sf] gfkx¿sf] hfFr ;Fu;Fu} ul/G5 .

sn]hf]df kmnfd tTjsf] y'k|fO -Psfu|tf_ sn]hf]df kmnfd tTjsf] Psfu|tf gfKg sn]hf]sf] s]xL sf]ifx¿ lemlsG5 / tL sf]ifx¿df slt kmnfd tTj 5 Tof] hfFlrG5 . of] k|s[ofnfO{ sn]hf]sf] jfoK;L elgG5 . k]6sf] efunfO{ dfq n7\ofpg] cf}ifwL lbP/ cG6«f;fp08sf] ;xf/f lnFb} k]6af6 sn]hf]lt/ Pp6f ljz]if k|sf/sf] l;of] k;fOG5 / Tof] l;of]sf] 6'Kkfsf] ;xfotfn] sn]hf]sf s]xL tGt'x¿nfO{ lemlsG5 . kmnfdsf] ef/ -clwstf_

58


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] sf] dfqfsf] ;xL cfFsng ug{ s]xL xb;Dd o;sf] dfqfsf] -h:t} 8«fO{ tf}ndf sDtLdf ! ldlnu|fd x'g'k5{_, of] lnOPsf] gd"gf tGt'sf] u'0fsf] -o;df l;/f]l;; / kmfOa|f]l;; h:tf /f]u gnfu]sf] cj:yfdf_ / of] hfFr ug]{ d]l8sn sd{rf/Lx¿sf] ljz]if1tf / zLksf] oxfF 7"nf] dxTj /xG5 . c:ktfnx¿df cN6«f;fp08sf] d2tn] ul/g] jfof]K;Lsf ;d:ofx¿ / cK7\of/fx¿ Psbd yf]/} ePtf klg of] la/fdLsf] z/L/df 3fp kfl/g] ljlw ePsf]n] jfof]K;L ul/g] la/fdL / cleefjssf] :jLs[lt lng' h¿/L x'G5 . cg';Gwfgx¿n] b]vfPsf 5g\ ls kmnfd tTjsf] tx 8«fO{ sn]hf]df k|lt u|fd & ldlnu|fd Psgf; /x]sf] 5 eg] d'6' / sn]hf] ;+aGwL /f]usf] hf]lvd sd /xG5 . 8«fO{ sn]hf]sf] k|ltu|fd !% ldlnu|fdeGbf dfly /x]sf] kmnfd tTjn] d'6'sf] ;d:ofaf6 x'g] hf]lvd al9 x'G5 . t/ cg';Gwfgx¿n] vf]hL ul//x]sf 5g\ ls kmnfd tTjsf] Psfu|tfsf] pRr÷Go"g txn] d'6' /f]usf] pRr of lgDg vt/f b]vfpF5 < t/n k]ml/l6gsf] hfFr ;DaGwdf j}1flgsx¿ k|Zg u5{g\— of] ljlwn] z/L/df ePsf] k"/f kmnfd tTjsf] ef/ -clwstf_ / cem ljz]if¿kn] d'6'df ePsf] kmnfd tTjsf] lgIf]knfO{ ;xL 9+un] b]vfpF5 ls b]vfpFb}g < xfn;fn} ul/Psf] cg';Gwfg cg';f/ z/L/sf] kmnfd tTjsf] ;xL clwstfsf] l:yltsf] gfk lgsfNg sn]hf]df y'lk|Psf] kmnfd tTjnfO{ !)=^ ldlnu|fd k|lt s]hL z/L/sf] tf}nn] u'0fg ug'{ k5{ . sn]hf]sf] jfof]K;Ln] sn]hf]sf sf]ifx¿sf] jLrdf ePsf] kmnfd tTjsf] ljt/0f x]kf6f];fO6\; / skm/ sf]ifx¿df ePsf] hfgsf/Lsf ;fy} sn]hf]df ePsf] hng / Iflt -h:t} kmfOa|f]l;; / l;/f]l;;_ h:tf cj:yfx¿ af/] hfgsf/L u/fpF5 .

4f

sn]hf]sf] kmnfd tTj gfKg] d]l;g (SQUID)

s'g} rf]6 gnfOsg kmnfd tTjsf] clwstf ;xL 9+un] gfKg] gofF k4ltx¿sf] ljsf; ePsf 5g\ tL dWo] -P; So'o'cfO8L_ ;'k/s08S6Lª SjfG6d OG6f/k]m; l8efO; Ps xf] . P;So'o' cfO l8 n] kmnfd tTjsf] k/fr'DasLo u'0fx¿sf] cfwf/df z/L/df ePsf] kmnfd tTjsf] Psfu|tfnfO{ gfK5 . o; oGqn] z/L/df ePsf] r'Dalso If]qsf] k|of]u u5{ h'g efG;f3/df /flvg] /]lk|mh]/]6/df ePsf] r'Das hlt g} zlQmzfnL x'G5 . o;f] ug'{eGbf cufl8

59


la/fdLnfO{ cf/fdn] lj:tf/fdf ;'tfP/ cN6«f;fp08sf] dfWodn] sn]hf] ePsf] 7fpF s]xL ldg]6d} kQf nufOG5 . lj:tf/fnfO{ To;kl5 7]n]/ z/L/nfO{ P;So'ocfOl8sf] 7Ls d'lg /flvG5 . d]l;gsf] Tof] efun] dfq z/L/nfO{ 5'G5 h'g efudf tftf] kfgLn] el/Psf] an'g x'G5, pQm an'gnfO{ la:tf/} dflyNnf] k]6df /flvG5 . d]l;gn] kmnfd tTjsf] gfk lnO/x]sf] ;dodf la/fdLn] s]xL ;]s]08sf] nflu ;f; /f]s]/ a:g' k5{ . ^ jif{eGbf sd pd]/sf aRrfx¿nfO{ l:y/ /fVgsf] nflu n7\ofpg] cf}ifwL lbg'kg]{ x'G5 . !) s]=hL= eGbf sd tf}n ePsf of ;f¥x} df]6f dfG5]x¿nfO{ of] ljlw k|efjsf/L x'Fb}g . b'ef{Uoj;\ of] k|ljlw w]/} dxFuf], k|fljlws b[li6sf]0fn] s7Lg ePsf] x'Fbf o'/f]k / cd]l/sfsf] % j6f d]l8sn s]Gb|x¿df dfq pknAw 5 . t/ olb pgLx¿nfO{ x]l//x]sf lkmlhl;ogx¿n] cfjZos 7fg] eg] P;So'o'cfO 8L s]Gb|x¿df la/fdLx¿nfO{ e|d0f ug]{ Joj:yf ldnfpg ;lsG5 . z/L/df kmnfd tTjsf] ef/ kmnfdsf] k/fr'DasLo u'0fx¿df cfwfl/t /x]/ k/LIf0f ug]{ csf]{ k|ljlw DofUg]l6s l/;f]gG; Od]lhª -Pd=cf/=cfO=_ cem} k/LIf0f s} qmddf 5 . -Pd=cf/=cfO=, l6 @*_ k|ljlwaf6 kmnfd tTjsf] ef/sf] kl/0ffd / gd"gf lems]/ jfof]K;Lsf] /f;folgs ljZn]if0faf6 cfPsf] kl/0ffddf l:y/ lsl;dsf] Ps¿ktf / ;dfgtf kfOPsf] 5 . Pd=cf/= cfO= k|ljlwsf] ;DefJo kmfObf of] w]/} 7fpFdf kfOg' / k|of]u ug{ ;Sg' xf] . Pd=cf/=cfO{= k|ljlw d'6'df ePsf] kmnfd tTjsf] ef/ -clwstf_ sf] d"Nofª\sg ug{ klg pkfof]uL k|ljlw dflgG5 .

lk;fadf kmnfd tTjsf] dfqf l8=Pkm=cf]= lbP/ kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ k4ltsf] k|efjsfl/tfsf] cfFsng ug{ w]/} nfdf] ;dob]lv :yflkt ljlw @$ 306f el/sf] lk;fadf /x]sf] kmnfd tTjsf] pkl:ylt hfFr]/ z/L/df kmnfd tTjsf] clwstfsf] :t/ kQf nufpg] tl/sf xf] t/ l8=Pkm=cf]= pkrf/ ljlwsf] sf/0fn] lk;fadf pT;h{g ePsf] kmnfd tTjsf] dfqf lbg k|ltlbg km/s x'g] ePsf]n] of] ljlwsf] lSnlgsn dxTj ;Lldt 5 .

60


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] l8=Pkm=cf]= pkrf/ k4ltn] Nofpg] ;d:ofx¿ / ltgLx¿sf] ;dfwfgsf] ;Defjgf 5fnfsf] cf+lzs k|lts[of o; pkrf/ ljlwn] 5fnfsf] cf+lzs k|lts[of :j¿k lrnfpg] /ftf] x'g], ;'lgg], ufF7fu'7L aGg], 3fp aGg], h:tf ;d:of NofpF5 . tn lbOPsf ;'emfjx¿n] o;nfO{ 36fpg d2t u5{g\ . !_ Iflt / /Qm>fj sd ug{ dxTjk"0f{ / ;+j]bgzLn /QmgnL / gzfx¿sf] 5]p–5fpdf l;of] guf8\g] . @_ l8=Pkm=cf]= sf] w'nf] 7Ls dfqfsf] l8:6LN8 kfgLdf -%)) ldlnu|fd w'nf] % ldlnln6/ kfgLdf_ 3'nfOPsf] 5÷5}g /fd|/L x]g]{ . cfjZos k/] emf]nnfO{ kfgL yk]/ kftnf] agfpg] . #_ ;"O xfGg] 7fpFdf kl/jt{g ul//xg]; k]6 k|fo ;"Osf] nflu pko'Qm 7fpF xf] . s'g} /f]uLx¿n] lt3|fdf / kfv'/fsf] dflyNnf] efudf nufpg dg k/fpF5g\ . t/ ;dosf] qmddf 5fnfdf cfFlzs k|lts[of b]lvG5 g} To;sf/0f z/L/sf] pko'Qm km/s km/s 7fpFdf /fVg h¿/L x'G5 . nfdf] ;do kl5 l8=Pkm=cf]=sf] ;"O uf8]sf] 7fpFdf ufF7f] cfpg ;S5 . o;nfO{ sd ug{ kfnf] kfnf] u/L km/s 7fpFdf ;"O lbg' k5{ . cyjf Knfli6ssf] gnLdf xfOn'/f]lg8]; eGg] /f;folgs kbfy{sf] yf]/} dfqfnfO{ kDk h8fg ug'{eGbf cl3 g} eg'{k5{ / k|If]k0f ug{ ;lsG5 . t/ ;a} cj:yfdf of] t/Lsf sfd gnfUg ;S5 .

/ut 6«fG;ˆo'hg ug]{ 7fpFx¿sf] kl/jt{g

$_ l6lksn Pgf:y]l6s -b'vfO{ sd ug{]_ PDnf h:tf] lqmdnfO{ l8=Pkm=cf]= pkrf/ u'¿ ug'{eGbf #) b]lv ^) ld cufl8 g} k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . l8=Pkm=cf]= lbPkl5 c;/ k/L ;'lGgPsf] 7fpFdf tftf]n] ;]s]/ sd ug{ klg ;lsG5 . /ftf] 3fp ePsf], ;'lGgPsf] / lrnfpg] ;d:ofsf] nflu s]xL 8fS6/x¿ x]/flkg, lqmd jf k'ml;s/ nufpg] ;Nnfx lbG5g\ . %_ l8=Pkm=cf]= l56f] lb+bf klg a9L ;'lGgg] ;d:of x'g] ePsf]n] cf}ifwL k|If]k0f ug]{ ultnfO{ Wofg lbg'k5{ . ^_ 8fS6/n] l8=Pkm=cf]= nufpg cl3 la/fdLnfO{ PG6Llx:6fldg lbg] lg0f{o ug{ klg ;S5g\ jf tLj| k|ltlqmof -l/ofS;g_ ePsf]

61


cj:yfdf l8=Pkm=cf]=df %–!) ldlnu|fd xf88«f] sf]l6{hg /fv]/ nufpg] lg0f{o klg ug{ ;S5g\ . &_ ahf/df ljleGg lsl;dsf k|If]k0f kDkx¿ kfOg] x'gfn] la/fdLx¿n] cfk\mgf] cfjZostf cg';f/sf] kDk lng ;S5g\ . a]n'g kDkx¿ ahf/df ev{/} cfPsf 5g\ . logLx¿ k'/fgf] df]8]neGbf cln ;fgf xNsf / cfjfh sd ug]{ -zfGt_ lsl;dsf 5g\ . k|of]u ul/g] l8=Pkm=cf]=nfO{ cufl8af6 g} kmfdf{l;i6x¿n] lg;+qmd0f cj:yfdf tof/L ug'{ kg]{ x'gfn] oL kDkx¿ ;lhnf / ;dosf] art ug]{ lsl;dsf 5g\ . oL kmfObfx¿n] ubf{ la/fdLx¿ kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ -lrn];g_ k|lt ;sf/fTds klg x'g ;S5g\ . t/ oL kDkx¿ ;f¥x} dxFuf x'g] x'gfn] ;a}n] logLx¿sf] k|of]u ug{ uf¥xf] 5. *_ la/fdLx¿n] cfk\mgf 8fS6/x¿, g;{x¿ / cGo la/fdLx¿;Fu kmfObf a]kmfObfx¿sf] Aff/]df 5nkmn u/]/ ljleGg lsl;dsf l;of]x¿ k|of]u ug{ klg ;S5g\ . 5fnfdf $%) 9NsfP/ 3';fg{ ldNg] @% u]h of Tof] eGbf klg ;fgf a6/kmnfO{ elgg] l;of]x¿ k|of]u ug{ la/fdLx¿ w]/} ¿rfpF5g\ . sf]xL lj/fdLx¿ ;fgf ;fgf yDkLg h:tf -yDj6\ofs_ a'9L cf+}nfn] 7]Ng ldNg] l;of]x¿ k|of]u u5{g\ h;nfO{ 7f8f] kf/]/ a"9Lcf+}nfsf] ;xfotfn] ;f]e}m k;fpg ;lsG5 / ljz]if k|sf/sf] 6]k 6fn]/ grNg] ug{ ;lsG5 . Dffly lbOPsf ljlwx¿n] klg l8=Pkm=cf]=;Fu ;DalGwt k|lts[ofnfO{ 36fpg ;s]gg\ eg] gzfaf6 k|If]k0f ul/g] ljlw of c¿ s'g} a}slNks ljlwsf] af/]df ;f]Rg'k5{ .

l8=Pkm=cf]=sf] r/d PnhL{ l8=Pkm=cf]= sf s8f lsl;dsf PnhL{x¿ sd 5g\ . t/ klg PnhL{sf nIf0fx¿, c:jYo cg'ej x'g', emdemdfpg', l/ª\u6f nfUg', /ftf] x'g', ;'lGgg' ;f; k]mg{ uf¥xf] x'g', df+zk]zL b'Vg' cflb x'g ;S5g . oL s'g} nIf0fx¿ b]lvPdf l8=Pkm=cf]= lbg /f]Sg' k5{ . oL ;fdfGo k|lts[ofsf nIf0fx¿ l8=Pkm=cf]= pkrf/ ev{/} yfn]sf la/fdLx¿df PSsf;L b]lvg ;S5g\ . t/ lgoldt ¿kn] pkrf/

62


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] ul//x]sf la/fdLx¿df oL k|lts[of nIf0fx¿ lj:tf/} b]lvG5g . h'g;'s} cj:yfdf klg l8=Pkm=cf]= s8fvfnsf] PnhL{sf] pkrf/ c;+j]bgzLntf -l8;]G;L6fOh];g_ eGg] k|s[ofaf6 ul/G5 . o;df klxnf xfO8«f]sf]l6;f]g / l8=Pkm=cf]=sf] yf]/} dfqfnfO{ ld;fP/ ;"O lbOG5 / lj:tf/} dfqf a9fpFb} nluG5 . of] pkrf/ :jf:Yo sfo{stf{sf] pkl:yltdf ;3g ¿kn] xf]lzof/Lk"j{s ug'{k5{ . of] pkrf/ nIf0fx¿ x/fP/ ;kmn gx'Gh]n;Dd k|fo bf]xf]¥ofpg] ul/G5 . olb of] pkrf/ klg c;kmn eof] eg] la/fdLx¿n] l8=Pkm=cf]= /f]Sg'k5{ / kmnfd tTj x6fpg] csf]{ j}slNks cf}ifwL 8]kml/k|f]g lng]tkm{ ljrf/ ug'{k5{ . -x]g'{xf];\ 8]kml/k|f]g pkrf/ ljlwdf_

l8=Pkm=cf]=sf] unt dfqfsf] sf/0f x'g] cK7\of/fx¿ ljz]ifu/L t/n k]ml/l6g -;]/dk]ml/l6g_ sf] tx sd ePsf -kmnfd tTj Go'g /x]sf_ la/fdLx¿ / sd pd]/sf la/fdLx¿df l8=Pkm=cf]= sf] dfqf a9L lngfn] lgDg lsl;dsf ;d:ofx¿ x'G5g\— •

;'Ggdf ;d:of -cf]6f]6S;Ll;6L_— sfg aHg], sfg sd ;'Gg] h:tf ;d:ofx¿ l56f]l56f] x'g ;S5 .

cfFvfsf] ;d:of -cf]s'n/6S;Ll;6L_— o;df /ftL cfFvf gb]Vg], cfFvf lt/ld/fpg], 7Dofpg g;Sg], /ª\u 5'§fpg g;Sg], cfFvfdf k'mnf] kg]{ / c¿ ;d:ofx¿ x'g ;S5 .

w]/} -pRr_ dfqfdf l8=Pkm=cf]= lbOof] eg] ;'Gg / b]Vgdf ;d:of k5{ lsgeg] l8=Pkm=cf]=sf c0f'x¿ kmnfd tTj;Fu gafFlwO{ -gldnL_ :jtGq ?kn] /utdf 3'D5g\ . dw'd]xsf /f]uLx¿ / dfgl;s /f]usf] cf}ifwL lnO/x]sf /f]uLx¿nfO{ klg oL k|sf/sf ;d:ofx¿ x'g ;S5g\ . l8=Pkm=cf]=sf] ;xL dfqf lnP klg o:tf la/fdLx¿df oL ;d:ofx¿ cfpg ;S5 lsgls oL cj:yfx¿n] ;]/]a|n uf]nfw{ l8=Pkm=cf]= nfO{ s]Gb|Lo :gfo' k|0ffnLlt/ a9fpF5g\ . -;+of]hg If]q_ ;Demgf / ljrf/ b[li6 / >j0f ;d:of ef]Ug' k/]sf la/fdLx¿n] lgoGq0f l8=Pkm=cf]= lng aGb ug'{ k5{ / oL ;d:ofx¿ lqmofTds If]q x/fPkl5 jf ;'wf/ ePklg k'Mg yf]/} dfqfdf lng yfNg'k5{ . z'?d} b]lvP oL ;d:ofx¿nfO{ Joj:yfkg ;+of]hg If]q ug{ of pN6fpg ;lsG5 . To;sf/0f l8=Pkm=cf]=sf] pkrf/ lnO/x]sf la/fdLx¿n] af/Daf/ :jf:Yo

4g

dlitissf ljleGg efux¿n] ljleGg sfdx¿ u5{g\ :kz{ uGw :jfb

b[li6 ;]/]a]nd

>j0f d]8'nf

63


k/LIf0f ug{, cfFvf / sfgsf] k"0f{ d]l8sn hfFr u/fpg' cToGt h¿/L 5 . ;':t zf/Ll/s j[l4 / xf8x¿df kl/jt{g — k]ml/l6gsf] tx sd ePsf la/fdLx¿nfO{ olb l8=Pkm=cf]=sf] dfqf a9L eof] eg] pgLx¿sf] zf/Ll/s j[l4 ;':t x'g ;S5 . ;fgf] pd]/df of] pkrf/ z'¿ ubf{ -# jif{eGbf tn_ / l8=Pkm=cf]= sf] dfqf l;kmfl/; ul/P eGbf a9L x'Fbf of] ;d:of b]lvG5 -;fgf gfgLx¿df #% ldlnu|fd÷s]hLeGbf dfly_ . l8=Pkm=cf]= lng aGb u/]kl5 k]ml/ zf/Ll/s j[l4b/ cf}ifwL lng yfNg'eGbf cl3s} b/df z'¿ x'G5 . l8=Pkm=cf]= n] zfl/l/s j[l4df c;/ ubf{ xft kfv'/f, v'§fx¿ gldNg] u/L 5f]6f nfdf x'g] xf8 / xf8hf]gL{x¿ lvOg], 6'qmg] -d]6flkmlhsn l8:Knf;Lof_ x'G5 . o;nfO{ PS;–/] u/]/ x]/L ;lhn} lgbfg ug{ ;lsG5 . yfnf;]ldofdf x'g] kmnfd tTjsf] clwstfn] klg zf/Ll/s j[l4df k|efj k5{ . l8=Pkm=cf]=sf] a9L dfqfn] ubf{ zf/Ll/s j[l4 /f]lsPsf] xf] xf]Og ;lhn} yfxf kfpg ;lsG5 lsgls o;/L zf/Ll/s j[l4 ;':t ePsf] /x]5 eg] zf/Ll/s j[l4 u/fpg] xdf]{gx¿sf] pkrf/n] klg s'g} c;/ ub}{g . o:tf ;d:ofx¿ ;'N´fpg g;lsg] lsl;dsf ePsf]n] nuftf/ k/LIf0f u/]/ x]g'{k5{ . o]l;{lgof OG6]/f]sf]lnl6sfaf6 x'g] ;+qmd0f— of;]{lgof OG6]/f]sf]lnl6sf eGg] JofS6]l/ofn] k}bf ug]{ ;+qmd0fx¿ klg l8=Pkm=cf]=sf] k|of]u;Fu ;DalGwt ;j{k|rlnt ;+qmd0f xf] . JofS6]l/of, k/hLlj, c¿ ls6f0f'x¿ nufot ;a} k|f0fL hutnfO{ a9\gsf] nflu kmnfd tTj rflxG5 . logLx¿ dWo] w]/}df o:tf] ljlzi6 lsl;dsf] ;+/rgf x'G5 ls h;sf] sf/0f ltgLx¿n] cfFk}m kmnfd tTj k|fKt u5{g . t/ o]l;{lgof o:tf] JofS6]l/ofsf] ;d"xdf k5{ h;df cfk}Fm kmnfd tTj k|fKt ug]{ zf/Ll/s ;+/rgf 5}g . logLx¿ kmnfd tTjn] l8=Pkm=cf]=;Fu ldn]/ agfPsf] of}lus k]ml/cf]ShfdfOgdf e/ k5{g\ . u|Ls efiffdf ;fO8/kmf]/ -;fO8/f] eg]sf] kmnfd tTj / kmf]/f] eg]sf] afxs_ elgg] l8=Pkm=cf]= kmnfd tTjsf] :jfefljs

64


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] afxs xf] . To;}n] o;n] o]l;{lgofnfO{ kmnfd tTj pknAw u/fP/ a9\g d2t u5{ . kmnfd tTj a9L ePsf la/fdLx¿df o]l;{lgofn] x'g] ;+qmd0f uDeL/ lsl;dsf] x'G5 / of] hf]lvd l8=Pkm=cf]= lbFbf cem ab\5 . To;sf/0f o]l;{lgof ;+qmd0f t'¿Gt} lgbfg x'g' / pko'Qm lsl;dsf] PG6Ljfof]l6s rnfpg' cToGt cfjZos 5 . -x]g'{xf];\ ;+qmd0f efu_ o;sf] ;+qmd0fsf nIf0fx¿ k]6 b'Vg], kvfnf nfUg], hf]gL{ b'Vg], hf]/f] cfpg] / 3fF6L b'Vg] x'g\ . olb oL nIf0fx¿ b]lvP eg] l8=Pkm=cf]= lbg t'¿Gt} aGb u/]/ k"/f dfqf -sf];{_ PG6Ljfof]l6s cf}ifwL v'jfpg' k5{ / nIf0fx¿ k"0f{ ¿kn] x/fPkl5 dfq l8=Pkm=cf]= z'¿ ug'{k5{ . cGo lsl;dsf JofS6]l/ofx¿af6 h:t} Sn]jl;Pnf / kmGhfO{ h:t} Do'sf]df{Osf]l;;af6 x'g] uDeL/ lsl;dsf] ;+qmd0f klg l8=Pkm=cf]=sf] k|of]u;Fu ;DalGwt x'g ;Sg] kfOPsf] 5 t/ of] ;+qmd0f o]l;{lgof JofS6]l/ofx¿n] x'g] ;+qmd0f h:tf] ;j{Jofks 5}g . la/fdLx¿sf] hfFr cToGt xf]l;of/ ;fy x'g'k5{ / la/fdLx¿nfO{ csf/0f Hj/f] cfPdf t'¿Gt b]vfpg' k5{ eGg] s'/f ;Demfpg' k5{ . o:tf] cj:yfdf ;d:ofsf] lgbfg geP;Dd l8=Pkm=cf]= lbg aGb ug'{ /fd|f] x'G5 .

l8=Pkm=cf]= sf sf/0f lj/n} x'g] cK7\of/fx¿ l8=Pkm=cf]=sf] 3f]nnfO{ l56f] l56f] z/L/df k|If]k0f ug'{ x'Fb}g lsgls o;n] hLp /fFlsg], /Qm rfk 36\g] -xfOkf]6]G;g_ d'6'sf] 9's9'sL ab\g] -6\oflssfl8{of_ / ;+3ft -;s_ klg x'g ;S5 . gzfaf6 cToGt w]/} dfqfdf -k|lt306f !) ldlnu|fd_ s]hL b/df l8=Pkm=cf]= k|If]k0fn] d[uf}nf lau|g], uDeL/ lsl;dsf] 5ftLsf] ;d:of -P8N6 /]:kL/]6/L l8:6]«; l;G8«f]d_ h:tf ;d:ofx¿ ePsf] kfOPsf] 5 .

ue{jtL cj:yf clxn];Dd ul/Psf] cf}krfl/s cWoogx¿n] ue{jtL dlxnfx¿nfO{ s;/L ;'/lIft 9+un] l8=Pkm=cf]= lbg ;lsG5 kQf nufPsf] 5}g . xfnsf lglDt z/L/af6 kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/df klxnf] # dlxgfsf] nflu l8=Pkm=cf]=sf] k|of]u gug]{ ;Nnfx lbg' /fd|f] x'G5 .

65


kmnfd tTjsf] ef/ clws ePsf / d'6'sf] ;d:of ePsf ue{jtL dlxnfx¿nfO{ clGtd dlxgflt/ ;fgf] dfqf -k|ltlbg @) b]lv #) ldlnu|fd÷s]hL_ l8=Pkm=cf]= lbg ;lsG5 . o;n] w]/} v/fa c;/ lgDTofpFb}g . aRrfnfO{ b"w r';fO/x]sf cfdfx¿nfO{ klg of] cf}ifwL z'¿ ug{ ;lsG5 .

8]:k]ml/cf]ShfdfOg pkrf/ k4lt;Fusf] ;fd~h:otf 8]:k]ml/cf]ShfdfOg pkrf/n] cg]s b'Mv si6x¿ lbPklg la/fdLx¿nfO{ of] pkrf/ lnO/xg x/ lsl;dsf] ;xof]u lbO/xg' k5{ . lrlsT;sx¿, g;{x¿, dgf]j}1flgsx¿ / ;fdflhs sfo{stf{ / cleefjsx¿n] la/fdLx¿nfO{ l8=Pkm=cf]=sf] pkrf/ hf/L /fVgsf] lglDt ;Fw} pT;fx, k|]/0ff / 9f8; lbO/xg' k5{ . o:tf] r'gf}ltk"0f{ pkrf/df w}o{tf sfod /fVgsf] lglDt la/fdLx¿n] af/Daf/ :j:Yo hLjg To; dfly klg ;d[4 hLjg k|ltsf] cf:yf / ljZjf;nfO{ la;{g x'Fb}g . 8]:k]ml/cf]ShfdfOgaf6 ul/g] pkrf/ sl7g, nfdf] ;do nfUg], si6bfos / dxFuf] 5 / hLjg e/ ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . of] pkrf/ hLjgbfos 5 t/ /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg u/]kl5 t'¿Gt} tGb'¿:tL cg'ej u/] h:tf] o; pkrf/df cg'ej x'Fb}g . o;sf] abnf, kmnfd tTjsf] clwstf;Fu ;DalGwt ljleGg lsl;dsf ;d:ofx¿nfO{ /f]s]kl5 of pkrf/ u/]kl5, kmnfd tTj x6fpg] of] pkrf/sf] kmfObfx¿ cg'ej ug{ nfdf] ;do rflxG5 . l8=Pkm=cf]= pkrf/ k4ltsf] kl/0ffd l56f] / :ki6 gx'gfn] of] pkrf/ ;lhn} kfOg] ljsl;t b]zx¿df ;d]t y'k|} la/fdLx¿ kmnfd tTjsf] clwstfn] Nofpg] ;d:of kfn]/ a:5g\ lsgls of] pkrf/ k4lt;Fu ;fdGh:otf sfod ug{ Psbd uf¥xf] 5 . ha la/fdL !# jif{dfly nfU5g\ / k|f}9fj:yfdf k|j]z u5{g To;a]nf pgLx¿sf] z/L/n] a9\bf] dfqfdf pkrf/ lj¿4 k|lt/f]w ug{ yfN5 . To;a]nf pgLx¿sf] zf/Ll/s, Jojxfl/s, ;fdflhs / JolQmut ultljlwx¿ tx;gx; x'g ;S5g\ . ljsf;zLn b]zx¿df cf}ifwLk|lt kx'Frsf] cefj sf] sf/0fn] of] /f]u nfu]kl5 afFRg] b/ Psbd sd 5 eg] ljsl;t d'n'sx¿df of] pkrf/ k4lt ckgfO/xg dg gug]{ ;d:of a9L 5 . rfx] Tof]

66


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] la/fdLx¿nfO{ cf}ifwL / kDk ;lhn}l;t pknAw u/fpg] r'gf}lt xf];\ of pkrf/ ljlwnfO{ lg/Gt/ ckgfO/xg] ;'lglZrttfsf nflu xf];\, la/fdLx¿nfO{ yfnf;]ldof ;+:yf, :jf:Yo;]jL, cleefjs clg cg'ejL la/fdLx¿n] lg/Gt/ ;xof]u / xf};nf lbO/xg'k5{ . l6=cfO=Pkm= o;sf] nflu Ps dxTjk"0f{ >f]t aGg ;S5 . o;n] ;DalGwt b]zsf] ;/sf/nfO{ yfnf;]ldof /f]usf] pkrf/ / /f]syfdsf] nflu gLlt lgdf{0f ug{sf] nflu ;xof]u ug{ ;S5 .

kmnfd tTj x6fpg] c¿ cf}ifwLx¿ 8]k]ml/k|f]g -!=@ l8d]lyn # xfO8«f]s;LkfOl/8 $ Pn !_ w]/} h:tf] ærSsLÆ -cfsf/_ nfO{ a'emfOg] 8]k]ml/k|f]g jf L1 vfg] c? cf}ifwL h:t} lglng] lrn]6/ xf] . z'?df o;sf] ljsf;;Fu j}1flgsx¿ ;xdt lyPgg\ . kl/If0f k|lqmof cw'/f] ePsf]n] cf}ifwLsf] b"/ufdL k|efjk|ltsf] lrGtf tyf hgfj/df kl/If0f k|of]u / kl/0ffd cWoogsf] cefjn] ubf{ o;sf] pTkfbg cg'dlt ljjflbt / l9nf] eof] . yfnf;]ldofsf la/fdLx¿n] l8=Pkm=cf]= laiffQmtfsf] sf/0f k|of]u ug{ cK7\of/f] eP/ of t l;kmfl/; ul/Psf] cf}ifwL;Fu ljleGg sf/0fn] k|of]u ug{ g;Sg]x¿sf lglDt ;g\ !((% df 8]k]ml/k|f]gsf] pTkfbgnfO{ ef/tdf cg'dlt lbOPsf] lyof] . o:t} :jLs[lt o"/f]kdf …ljz]if cj:yfsf] lgltÚ elg cf}ifwLsf] k|efj ;DalGw c? cWoog, cg';Gwfg ug]{ zt{ ;lxt ;g\ @))) df lbOPsf] lyof] . ha Pkf]6]S; eGg] cf}ifwL lgdf{0f sDkgLn] cf}ifwL dfly yk cWoog ug]{ ljz]if afWotfnfO{ k"/f u¥of] To;kl5 8]km] l/k|f]gn] ;g\ @))@ df ahf/df ljqmL ug]{ k"0f{ clwsf/ kfof] . t/ cd]l/sfsf] cg'dlt lbg] ;F:yf -vfB tyf cf}ifwL k|zf;g_ FDA n] o; cf}ifwLsf] pTkfbgsf] nflu cem} cg'dlt lbOPsf] 5}g . o'/f]lkog o'lgogn] 8]k]ml/k|f]gnfO{ bf]>f] bhf{sf] cf}ifwLsf] ¿kdf dfGotf lbPsf] 5 / of] cf}ifwL 8]:k]ml/cf]ShfdfOgsf] k|of]u ug{ g;Sg] cyjf k|of]u k|efjxLg b]lvPsf la/fdLx¿nfO{ dfq lbg kfOG5 .

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o;/L g} o"/f]k / cd]l/sfdf 8]k]ml/k|f]g cf}ifwLx¿sf] k|of]u u/]/ y'k|} lSnlgsn k/LIf0f / hfFrx¿ ePsf 5g\ . ;g\ !(() sf] dWob]lv cf}ifwL lgdf{tf sDkgLx¿n] k|fof]hg u/]sf oL k/LIf0fx¿sf] p2]Zo of] cf}ifwLsf] ;'/lIftkg / k|efjsf/Ltfsf] d"Nofª\sg ug'{

67


/x]sf] 5 . ef/t h:tf ljsf;zLn b]zx¿df ;/sf/L sfof{nodf btf{ x'g'eGbf lgs} cufl8b]lv of] cf}ifwL k|of]udf cfO{/x]sf]5 . l8=Pkm=cf]= cToGt dxFuf] ePsf] sf/0f ;do ;dodf 8]k]ml/k|f]g s'g} lSnlgsn k/LIf0f ljgf g} k|of]udf cfPsf] 5 lsgls l8=Pkm=cf]= w]/} dxFuf] 5 . clwsf+z la/fdLx¿sf] l8=Pkm=cf]= lsGg] x}l;ot 5}g . otf 8]k]ml/k|f]g :yfgLo lgdf{tf sDkgLx¿af6 l8=Pkm=cf]=sf] t'ngfdf w]/} ;:tf]df laqmL x'G5 .

l8k]ml/k|f]g -Pn !_ n] s;/L sfd u5{ < sf # j6f c0f'x¿ kmnfd tTjsf] Pp6f k/df0f' -lj8]G6]6_ ;Fu ldN5g / sDKn]S; agfpF5g\ . 8]:k]ml/cf]ShfdfOgh:tf] of] sDKn]S; lbzfaf6 aflx/ lgisf;g x'Fb}g; lk;faaf6 dfq x'G5 . o;sf] ;fgf] cfsf/sf] sf/0f o;nfO{ k]6n] cToGt l56f] cjzf]if0f u5{ / of] cf}ifwL lnPsf] $% b]lv ^) ldg]6df g} /Qmk|jfxdf Psfu| x'g k'U5 . l8= Pkm cf]sf] t'ngfdf of] sd b/df /utaf6 gi6 x'G5 . w]/} h;f] la/fdLx¿sf] /utdf of] cf}ifwL nfdf] ;do ;s[o /xG5 . cf}ifwLsf] ()Ü efu aflx/ lgisf;g x'g nueu % b]lv ^ 306fsf] ;do nfU5 . L1

8]k]ml/k|f]g (L1) sf] k|of]u k|foh;f] la/fdLx¿nfO{ &% ldlnu|fd÷s]hL z/L/sf] tf}n lx;fan] of] cf}ifwL lbgsf] # dfqf agfP/ lng'kg]{ l;kmfl/; ul/G5 . 8]k]ml/k|f]gsf] k|of]usf] nfdf] cg'ej ;Fufn]sf ljz]if1x¿sf] ljrf/df o;/L lbOPsf] of] cf}ifwL cfO/g tTjsf] ef/ x6fpg l8=Pkm=cf]= sf] ^%Ü k|efjsf/L 5 t/ of] b/ la/fdL lkR5] g} km/s k5{ . o;/L lbOPsf] L1 sf] k|efj /utdf k]ml/l6gsf] tx pRr ePsf t/ cufl8 l8=Pkm=cf]= k|of]u sd ePsf la/fdLx¿df k]ml/l6gsf] tx sd ePsf -@%)) μg k|lt lneGbf tn_ la/fdLx¿sf] t'ngfdf /fd|f] b]lvPsf] 5 .

l8=Pkm=cf]=;Fu ldnfP/ 8]k]ml/k|f]gsf] (L1) k|of]u Pp6f xfn;fn}sf] lSnlgsn cWoogn] b]vfPsf] 5 ls l8=Pkm=cf]=/ Pn ! sf] ;+o'Qm k|of]un] z/L/af6 pT;h{g x'g] kmnfd tTjsf] kl/df0fnfO{ a9fpg ;S5 lsgls oL cf}ifwLx¿n] z/L/sf] leGg

68


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] leGg efuaf6 kmnfd tTjnfO{ x6fpF5g\ . k]ml/l6gsf] tx ;dfg ePsf la/fdLx¿nfO{ @ ;d"xdf afF8]/ cWoog ul/of] h;dWo] Pp6f ;d"xnfO{ l8=Pkm=cf]= lbO/x]sf] lyof] eg] csf]{ ;d"xnfO{ L1 lbO/x]sf] lyof] . b'j} ;d"xsf] d'6'sf] Pd cf/ cfO ;+s]tsf] t'ngf u/]/ cWoog ul/of] . kl/0ffdx¿n] ;'emfj lbPcg';f/ L1 n] d'6'df Pslqt ePsf] kmnfd tTj w]/} /fd|/L 36fPsf] kfOof] eg] l8=Pkm=cf]= n] sn]hf]df hDdf ePsf] cfO/g tTjnfO{ /fd|/L x6fPsf] kfOof] . Dfflysf cWoogx¿sf] kl/0ffdn] s]xL k/LIf0fstf{ -cg';Gwfgstf{_ x¿nfO{ kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/sf] k|efjsfl/tf a9fpg] cfzfdf l8=Pkm=cf]= / 8]k]ml/k|f]g Ps};fy k|of]u ug{ pT;flxt u/fof] . ljz]if u/]/ d'6'af6 kmnfd tTjnfO{ l56f] / k|efjsf/L 9+un] x6fpgsf lglDt . vfgf / /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hgaf6 slt kmnfd tTj z/L/df hDdf x'G5 clg lbzf / lk;faaf6 slt dfqfdf pT;h{g x'G5 eGg] ljifodf la/fdLx¿sf] ;fgf] ;+Vof dfly ul/Psf] cf}krfl/s cWoogn] @ k|sf/sf] cf}ifwL lnO/x]sf la/fdLx¿df kmnfd tTj pT;h{g x'g] s'/fdf j[l4 ePsf] b]vfof] . n] l8=Pkm=cf]=;Fu ldn]/ s;/L sfd u5{ eGg] af/]sf] k|f/lDes JofVofn] o:tf] b]vfPsf] 5 ls t'ngfTds ¿kn] ;fgf c0f' ePsf] 8]k]ml/k|f]g ;f¥x} b|'t ultdf bf}8G5 / x/]s sf]ifx¿df k:5 / o:tf] efudf klg k'U5 hxfF k'Ug l8=Pkm=cf]=sf] 7"nf c0f'x¿nfO{ ;Dej x'b}g . 8]k]ml/k|f]gn] sf]ifleq /x]sf kmnfd tTjnfO{ cfk"m;Fu afFW5 / leqaf6 aflx/ lgsfN5 . o;/L aflx/ lgsfn]kl5 l8=Pkm=cf]=n] l:y/ lsl;dsf] kmnfd tTj x6fpg] cf}ifwLnfO{ pQm kmnfd tTj pknAw u/fpF5 o; k|lqmofnfO{ l;ª\s elgG5 ToxfFaf6 of] lbzf lkQ lk;fasf] ¿kdf z/L/af6 aflx/ ;l~rt cfpF5 . o:tf] k|s[ofnfO{ ;§n FE Labile Fe Fe k|efj elgG5 . t/ 8]k]ml/k|f]g / Fe Fe Fe Fe l8=Pkm=cf]=n] s;/L leGgf leGg} x]kf6f];fO6 Fe ¿kdf sfd u5{g\ / z/L/sf s'g Fe Fe s'g 7fpFaf6 kmnfd tTjnfO{ aflx/ Fe lgsfN5g\ eGg]s'/f k"0f{ ¿kdf a'em\g lb;f cem} afFsL 5 . L1

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xfn}sf jif{x¿df L1 / l8=Pkm=cf]= k|of]u ;DaGwdf o"/f]k / ljsfzlzn b]zx¿sf y'k|} d]l8sn s]Gb|x¿df lgodx¿ k|of]udf cfPsf 5g\ / s]xL lSnlgsn cWoogx¿ klg k|sflzt ePsf 5g\ . oL cWoogx¿n] @ j6f cf}ifwL Ps;fy k|of]u ubf{ kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/df lgs} dxTjk"0f{ k|efjsfl/tf /x]sf], o;sf kfZj{ k|efjx¿ ck|Tofl;t g/x]sf] / pkrf/nfO{ slDtdf ! jif{ / Tof] eGbf s]xL a9L hf/L /fVg /fd|} x'g] s'/ftkm{ ;+s]t u/]sf 5g\ . oL kl/0ffdx¿n] ;+o'Qm cf}ifwLsf] k|of]usf] nfdf] ;do;Dd cWoog x'g'kg]{ cfjZostf b]vfPsf 5g\ . h;df oL cf}ifwL PSnf PSn} k|of]u ubf{sf] t'ngfdf ;+o'Qm ¿kdf k|of]u ubf{ cfpg] gofF / yk ljiffQmtfsf] d"Nofª\sg ug'{kg]{, oL cf}ifwLx¿nfO{ ;+o'Qm ¿kdf s;/L ;aeGbf /fd|f] u/L k|of]u ug]{ cflb s'/fx¿sf] lgSof}n ug'{kg]{ / oL cf}ifwLx¿ Ps}rf]6L lbP/, Pskl5 csf]{ lbP/ cyjf j}slNks ¿kn] lbP/ ltgsf] kl/0ffd x]g'{ cfjZos 5 . L1

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cf}ifwLsf] cjflG5t / ;a}eGbf uEdL/ c;/ ;]tf /Qmsf]ifsf] ;+Vof To;df klg ljz]ifu/]/ Go"6«f]lkmN;sf] ;+Vof 36fpg' xf] . h;n] z/L/nfO{ s'g} klg ;+qmd0faf6 arfpg] sfd u5{ . L1

pkl:yt Go"6«f]lkmnsf] txdf x'g] ;fdfGo vfnsf] sld -%)) b]lv !%)) k|lt JolQm ldln_ nfO{ Go"6«f]k]lgof elgG5 eg] s8f vfnsf] sld -/utdf k|lt JolQm %)) ldln eGbf klg sd pkl:ylt_ nfO{ Pu|fg'nf];fO6f]l;; elgG5 . L1 cf}ifwLsf] k|of]usf] k|efjsfl/tfsf] cWoog ug{ ul/Psf cg]s k|of;x¿ cg';f/ Go'6«f]k]lgof Psbd w]/} kfOPsf] 5 eg] Pu|fg'nf];fO6f]l;; sd ;+Vofdf 5 . olb la/fdLx¿n] 8]k]ml/k|f]g lng aGb ug]{ xf] eg] of] l:ylt plN6g ;S5 . To;sf/0f, olb of] cf}ifwL -L1_ lnO/fVg] xf] eg] la/fdLsf] ;Dk"0f{ ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] ;+Vof z/L/df x'g] c¿ ljleGg k|sf/sf ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] ;+Vof / k|ltzt -km/s km/s tl/sfaf6 ;]tf/Qmsf]ifsf] ;+Vof /fVg] k|s[of_ olsg ug{ @–# xKtfdf Ps k6s k|of]uzfnf k/LIf0f ul//xg'k5{ .

70


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] la/fdLx¿n] ;+qmd0fsf s'g} nIf0fx¿ b]vfP eg] pgLx¿sf] hfFr tf/Gtf/ ul//xg'k5{ . Hj/f] cfpg], 3fF6L b'Vg] h:tf ;+qmd0fsf klxnf] ;+s]tx¿ b]lvgf ;fy 8]k]ml/k|f]g lng tTsfn aGb ug'{k5{ . /utsf] ;Dk"0f{ lsl;dsf] k|of]uzfnf k/LIf0f u/fpg'k5{ / PG6Ljfof]l6s cf}ifwLsf] sf]if{ k"/f lng'k5{ . w]/} la/fdLx¿df ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] ;+Vof klxnfs} 6'ª\uf]df kms{g ;S5 / 8]k]ml/k|f]g pkrf/ k4lt klg rfn' ug{ ;lsG5 . t/ ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] ;+Vof klxnf g} hlt g} cyjf -k|lt 3g ldld# #))) eGbf a9L_ Go"6«f]lkmnsf] ;+Vof !)))÷ldld# eGbf a9L Kn]6\n]6\;sf] ;+Vof klxnfsf] hlt g} cyjf -k|lt 3g ldld !))))) eGbf a9L_ k'u]sf] 5}g eg] L1 cf}ifwLaf6 pkrf/ ug]{ ;Nnfx lbg ldNb}g . d]l8snsf] x:tIf]ku/L pkrf/sf] cfjZostf ePsf yfnf;]ldof d]h/, x]kf6fOl6; aL / l; af6 klg ;+qmldt /f]uLx¿nfO{ L1 cf}ifwL lng] ;Nnfx lbg' cl3 o;sf v/fj c;/x¿sf] cToGt ;fjwfgLk"j{s n]vf hf]vf ug'{ cfjZos 5 .

8]k]ml/k|f]gsf cGo kfZj{ k|efjx¿ !_

cf}ifwL vfO/x]sf w]/} la/fdLx¿nfO{ hf]gL{ ljz]ifu/]/ 3'F8f, uf]nLufF7f, s'lxgf, sDd/, 9f8sf] tNnf] efu ;'lGgg] / b'Vg] / c/l/g] rNg g;Sg] l:ylt x'G5 . k|ltlbg &% ldlnu|fd÷s]hL eGbf a9L L1 cf}ifwL vfO/x]sf jf t/n k]ml/l6g -;]/d k]ml/l6gsf]_ tx klg pRr ePsfx¿df hf]gL{x¿ ;'lGgg] ;d:of kfOPsf] 5 . of] kfZj{k|efjsf] sf/0faf/] ;xL hfgsf/L geP klg L1 cf]}ifwLn] z/L/sf cGo t/n >f]tx¿af6 kmnfd tTjnfO{ hf]gL{x¿tkm{ ;fbf{ o; k|sf/sf] hng pTkGg x'g;Sg] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . L1 sf] dfqf 36fP/ jf k'/} /f]s]/ of] ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg ug{ ;lsG5 . hf]gL{ b'Vg] ;d:ofsf] nflu b'vfO sd ug]{ cf}ifwL –PgfNh]l;s lbg ;lsG5 . ha;Dd 36fOPsf] L1 sf] dfqf / b'vfO{ sd ug]{ cf}ifwLx¿n] oL dflysf ;d:ofx¿nfO{ sd ub}{gg\ tj;Dd oL cf}ifwLx¿ Vffg 5f]8\g' h¿/L 5}g . t/ olb b'vfOsf] ;fy} hf]gL{x¿ ;'lGgPsf 5g\ eg] la/fdLx¿nfO{ k|fMoh;f] cf}ifwL 5f]8\g] ;Nnfx lbOG5 . la/fdLx¿df k]ml/ klg hf]gL{x¿ b'Vg] ;'lGgg] vt/f bf]xf]l/g ;Sg] x'gfn] cToGt glhsaf6 x]/ljrf/ / L1

71


k/LIf0f ub{{} ;fgf] dfqfsf] ;lsG5 . @_

L1

cf}ifwLsf] k|of]u k'g rfn' ug{

vfO/x]sf s]xL la/fdLx¿df l/Ë6f nfUg], jfsjfsL nfUg], jfGtf x'g], kvfnf rNg] / k]6 b'Vg] h:tf k]6sf ;d:ofx¿ -Uof:6«f]xG;6]6fOgn ;d:of_ b]vf k5{g . nIf0fx¿ ;fdfGo x'gklg ;S5g\, h;nfO{ pkrf/sf] cfjZostf kb}{g . PG6f;L8 / PG6LOd]l6S; h:tf cf}ifwLx¿n] oL ;fdfGo c;/x¿ k|fo 36fpg ;S5g\ . vfgf ;+u;+u} L1 lnof] eg] klg jfsjfsL nfUg] vfg dg gx'g] ;d:ofaf6 aRg ;lsG5 . L1

#_ 8]k]ml/k|f]g cf}ifwL vfO/x]sf la/fdLx¿df hLÍsf] sld x'g ;S5 . of] cf}ifwLn] z/L/df ePsf] kmnfd tTj afx]s hLÍ h:tf c¿ tTjx¿;Fu klg ldN5 / pT;h{g x'g ;3fpF5 . hLÍ Pp6f o:tf] tTj xf] h'g 5fnfsf] j[l4 / ljsf; ug]{b]lv lnP/ c¿ y'k|} zf/Ll/s sfo{x¿sf] nflu cfjZos 5 . la/fdLx¿df lhÍsf] tx 36\g]sf] hf]lvd dw'd]x ePsf /f]uLx¿df a9L kfOPsf] 5 . L1 lnO/x]sf la/fdLx¿nfO{ lhÍ ePsf vfg]s'/f of hLÍ lbP/ of] ;d:ofnfO{ sd ug{ ;lsG5 . L1 cf}ifwL vfPkl5 z/L/sf] sfo{;'rf¿ ug{ cfjZos cGo lsl;dsf vlgh tTjx¿ z/L/af6 36]sf 5g÷5}g To;af/] ;'lglZrt ug'{ h¿/L x'G5 . yfnf;]ldofsf /f]ux¿df kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ ug'{sf] dtna z/L/df y'lk|Psf] ljiffQm / clws kmnfd tTjnfO{ aflx/ k7fpg' dfq xf] . o;f] ubf{ z/L/nfO{ rflxg] cGo vlghtTjx¿ z/L/d} /xg' cfjZos 5. $_ w]/} d]l8sn s]Gb|x¿df sn]hf]sf] a9\bf] sfo{x¿sf] hfFr -P Pn 6L_ ubf{ yfxf kfOPsf] 5ls sn]hf]sf] ljiffQmtf x]kf6fOl6; ;L -#_ ePsf /f]uLx¿df w]/} 5 . sn]hf]sf] clgoldt sfo{sf] hfFrn] s]xL la/fdLx¿df L1 cf}ifwL vfg /f]Sg' kg]{ cfjZostf klg b]vfPsf] 5 . Pp6f sfo{kqn] ;'emfj lbPsf] 5 ls l8=Pkm=cf]= lng] la/fdLx¿ eGbf Pn ! vfg] la/fdLx¿df sn]hf]sf] tGt'x¿df cgfjZos j[l4 x'g] -lne/ lkma|f]l;;sf_ ;d:ofx¿ a9L b]lvPsf 5g\ .

72


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] ev{/} ul/Psf cg]s k/LIf0fx¿dWo] -hf] of] p2]Zosf] nflu lyPgg\_, O6fnLsf] ax's]Gb|x¿df yfnf;]ldofsf %^ hgf /f]uLx¿sf] >[+vnfa2 ¿kdf ul/Psf] sn]hf]sf] jfof]K;Lsf] kl/0ffdnfO{ # hgf :jtGq Kofyf]nf]lhi6x¿n] u/]sf] d'Nofª\sgx¿n] klg o:tf] sn]hf]sf] tGt'df j[l4 x'g] k|s[of -kmfOa|f]l;;_ lsg a9\of] eGg] s'g} klg k|ltj]bg lbg c;kmn ePsf 5g\ . t/ eljiodf of] ;d:ofnfO{ ;dfwfg ug{ cg]s k/LIf0fx¿ ul/g'kg]{ b]lvG5 . sf] k|of]un] Nofpg ;Sg] cjflG5t c;/x¿nfO{ !# b]lv #) k|ltzt;Dd /f]Sg ;lsg] k|ltj]bg y'k|} cWoogx¿n] lbPsf 5g\ .

L1

8]k]ml/k|f]gsf] k|efjsfl/tf of] cf}ifwLn] slt /fd|/L sfd ul//x]sf]5 Tof] hfFRg / L1 ;Fu ;DalGwt ;Dk"0f{ cfjflG5t c;/x¿sf] ljsf;nfO{ lgoGq0f ug{ tn lbOPsf pkfox¿ ckgfpg' k5{ . !_ k|To]s #÷# dlxgfdf t/n k]ml/l6g -;]/d k]ml/l6g_ gfKg'k5{ . @_ k|To]s xKtf of @. # xKtfdf Psk6s k"/f /ut hfFr]/ To;sf ljleGg efux¿df kfOg] tTjx¿sf] ;+Vof yfxf kfpg' k5{ . #_ k|To]s # dlxgfdf @$ 306] lk;fasf] hfFr ug'{k5{ . L1 cf}ifwL lng] ;jfndf of] dxTjk"0f{ 5 lsgls, 8]:k]ml/cf]ShfdfOg h:tf] geP/ of] cf}ifwLn] x6fPsf] ;Dk"0f{ kmnfd tTj lk;fasf] dfWodaf6 aflx/ cfpF5 . $_ jfof]s]ldsn -hLj /;fog_ ljZn]if0f / sn]hf]sf] sfo{sf] hfFr k|To]s dlxgf ug'{k5{ . %_ z/L/df ePsf] lhGssf] tx k|To]s # b]lv ^ dlxgfdf Psrf]6L hfFr ug'{k5{ . la/fdLx¿nfO{ hfFlr/x]sf] lkmlhl;ogn] la/fdLsf] lSnlgsn cj:yfaf/] yfxf kfpg] ePsf]n] p;n] g} la/fdLnfO{ ug'{ kg]{ hfFrsf] cfj[lQ / k|sf/af/] lg0f{o ug{ ;S5 . sn]hf]sf] ;+efJo jfof]K;L -!_ P;So"o"cfO8L dl;gsf] k|of]u -@_ Pd cf/ cfO hfFr -#_ h:tf k/LIf0fx¿n] sn]hf]df

73


/x]sf] kmnfd tTjsf] ;xL dfqf -!+@_ / d'6'sf tGt'x¿df Pslqt kmnfdsf] dfqf -#_ yfxf kfpg ;xL ;xof]u ug{ ;S5g\ . l8k]ml/k|f]g cf}ifwLsf] k|efjsfl/tf / ;'/lIftkgsf] cWoog ;DaGwL tYofª\sx¿ !% jif{b]lv nuftf/ ¿kn] cfO/x]sf 5g\ / yfnf;]ldofsf] pkrf/df ;+nUg w]/} j}1flgsx¿n] cf}ifwLsf] k|of]u ;DaGwL pknAw oL ;"rgfx¿sf] ljZn]if0f ug]{ sfo{ ul//x]sf 5g\ . oL tYofª\sx¿sf] cjnf]sgn] b]vfPsf] 5 lsM 8]k]ml/k|f]gaf6 ul/Psf] pkrf/n] s]xL la/fdLx¿df t/n k]ml/l6g -;]/d k]ml/l6g_ sf] tx / kmnfd tTjsf] Psfu|tfnfO{ 36fpF5 . of] cf}ifwL ;'/lIft 9+un] la/fdLnfO{ ;fjwfgLk"j{s lgu/fgLdf /fv]/ $ jif{;Dd rnfpg ;lsG5 . tYofª\sx¿ cg';f/ lk;fadf pT;h{g eP/ hfg] kmnfd tTjnfO{ a9fpg / ;]/d k]ml/l6gsf] tx 36fpg lgDg s'/fx¿ ug'{k5{ . z/L/sf] tf}nsf] &% ldlnu|fd÷s]hL;Dd k|ltlbg lbOg] 8]k]ml/k|f]gsf] dfqf a9fpg], of] ;fdfGot k|of]u ul/g] dfqf xf] . 8]k]ml/k|f]g / 8]:k]ml/cf]ShfdfOgnfO{ ;+o'Qm ¿kdf lbO pkrf/ ug]{ . t/ yf]/} dfqfdf eGbf w]/} dfqfsf] of] cf}ifwL l8=Pkm=cf]=;Fu ;+o'Qm ¿kdf lbFbf x'g] ljiffQmtfsf] cf}krfl/s / nfdf] cWoogx¿ x'g'kg]{ s'/fdf yfnf;]ldof /f]usf] pkrf/df ;+nUg ;Dk"0f{ j}1flgsx¿ ;xdt 5g\ . lj:tf/} lj:tf/} oL cf}ifwLx¿ s;/L / slxn] k|of]u ug]{, s:tf vfnsf la/fdLx¿nfO{ al9 k|efjsf/L x'G5 eGg] :ki6 hfgsf/L klg k|fKt x'g]5 . To;a]nf;Dd d]l8sn ;"rsnfO{ k5\ofpFb} la/fdLx¿, lkmlhl;ogx¿ / cleefjsx¿n] l8=Pkm=cf]= / L1 pkrf/df ;fd~h:otf sfod ug]{ af/]df x/]s k|of;x¿ ug'{kb{5 . b'ef{Uojz l8=Pkm=cf]= / 8]k]ml/k|f]g b'j}sf] d"Nosf] sf/0fn] logLx¿sf] k|of]u ax';+Vos ljsf;zLn b]zx¿df cToGt uf¥xf] x'g k'u]sf] 5 .

74


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] kmnfd tTj x6fpg] gofF cf}ifwLx¿ ;a}n] lsGg ;Sg], k|of]ustf{sf] nflu ;lhnf], vfg ldNg] h:tf ljz]iftfx¿dfly s]lGb|s[t eP/ kmnfd tTj x6fpg] cf}ifwLx¿sf] cWoog cg';Gwfg eO/x]sf] 5 . t/ 8]:k]ml/cf]ShfdfOgsf] lgdf{tf sDkgL gf]efl6{; kmdf{n] pTkfbg u/]sf] ICL760 nfO{ dfq dflg;df k|of]u u/]/ k/LIf0f ug]{ cg'dlt lbOPsf]5 . of] cf}ifwL k|of]usf] dfgj dflysf] ;'/lIftkgf, k|efjsfl/tf / plrt dfqf nueu :yflkt eO;s]sf] 5 . o;sf lSnlgsn cWoogx¿klg clGtd cj:yfdf k'lu;s]sf 5g\ . -t]>f] r/0fdf_ clxn];Ddsf kl/0ffdx¿ -@))@_ cToGt pT;fxk|b 5g\ . of] cf}ifwL (LCL670) k|ltlbg @) ldlnu|fd÷s]hL z/L/sf] tf}n lbFbf 36]sf] sn]hf]sf] kmnfd tTjsf] Psfu|tf / k|ltlbg $) ldlnu|fd÷s]hL z/L/sf] tf}n 8]:k]ml/cf]shfdfOg lbFbf 36]sf] sn]hf]sf] kmnfd tTjsf] tx a/fa/L kl/df0fsf 5g\ . ;g\ @))% ;Dddf btf{ u/L la/fdLx¿;Dd k'¥ofpg] cfzf ul/Psf] of] cf}ifwL ljt/0f ug'{cl3 o"/f]k / cd]l/sfsf clwsf/Lx¿;dIf :jLs[ltsf] nflu l;kmfl/; ul/g]5 -*_ . yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿sf] pkrf/df ;'wf/ Nofpgsf] nflu c¿ w]/} k|sf/sf vfP/ kmnfd tTj x6fpg ldNg] cf]/n lrn]6/x¿ lSnlgsn k|of]usf] nflu pknAw x'g]5g\ eGg] cfzf ul/Psf] 5 .

4k ICL670A

c0f'

OH O

N

N N

OH

HO

75


cWofo % yfnf;]ldof;Fu ;DalGwt d]l8sn ;d:ofx¿ / ltgsf] pkrf/ kl5Nnf b'O{ bzs leqdf yfnf;]ldof /f]usf] pkrf/df gf6sLo kl/jt{g cfPsf] 5 . ljz]iftM klZrdL d'n'ssf la/fdLx¿sf] yfnf;]ldof /f]u nfu]klg afFRg] b/df lta| j[l4 ePsf] 5 / la/fdLx¿sf] hLjg klg ;d[4 ag]sf] 5 t/ klg yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿nfO{ w]/} lsl;dsf d]l8sn ;d:ofx¿n] ;tfpF5g\ . s]xL ;d:ofx¿ /f]usf] cfk\mg} sf/0fn] cfpF5g\ eg] c¿ y'k|} ;d:ofx¿ cg'lrt / lgDg :t/sf] pkrf/ ljlw, cg'lrt lsl;dsf] /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg pkrf/ ljlw, ;'/lIft /utsf] cefj l8=Pkm=cf]= sf] ;j clK6dn k|of]usf] sf/0fn] cfpF5g\ .

lkmof] a9\g] ;d:of sn]hf] k]6

sn]hf]

lkmof] 8'8]gd

yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf w]/} /f]uLx¿n] lkmof]sf] ;d:ofsf] ;fdgf u/]sf x'G5g\ . lkmof] g/d df+;k]zLx¿n] ag]sf] xftsf] d'7L hq} cfsf/sf], z/L/sf] afofF xft tkm{sf] s/Ësf] tn 8fok|mfd d'lg ;'/lIft /x]sf] Ps cË xf] . -x]g'{xf];\ 5a_ Pp6f ;fdfGo lkmof]df @) b]lv #) ldln= ln6/ /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ x'G5g\ . t/ lb3{ ¿kn] ;fdfGob]lv s8f vfnsf] PlgdLof ePsf /f]uLx¿sf] -cg'lrt /ut 6«fG:km\o'hgsf] kl/0ffd :j¿k_ lkmof]df ! ln6/eGbf klg a9L /ut hDdf x'G5 . of] cltl/Qm d]8'n/L Pl/y|f]kf]Ol;; elgg] ;d:of lkmof]n] cltl/Qm /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] pTkfbg ug]{ k|lqmofsf] sf/0fn] x'G5 . lkmof]n] z/L/nfO{ Plgldof x'g glbg sf nflu ;xfotf ug]{ k|oTg u5{, kmn:j¿k /utsf] sf]ifx¿ aGg] :jefljs 7fpF -af]g Dof/f]_ eGbf aflx/ /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ ;+Zn]lift x'G5g\ / lkmof]df /Qmsf]ifx¿ a9L x'g k'U5g\ . ;'Id ls6f0f'x¿, AofS6]l/ofx¿ / kl/hLljx¿nfO{ z/L/df k:g glbO{ ;ª\qmd0faf6 z/L/nfO{ arfpgsf] nflu /ut 5fGg] nufot lkmof]n] c¿ w]/} dxTjk"0f{ sfdx¿ ub{5 . lkmof]n] /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿nfO{ ltgLx¿sf] hLjg rqmsf] cGTolt/ /Qm

76


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] k|jfxaf6 5'§\ofpg] dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]N5 . o;/L 5'l§Psf /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿df ePsf] x]df]Unf]lagaf6 Unf]lag / kmnfd tTj 5l'§O{ lg:sG5g\ / k'gM k|of]u eO{ gofF /Qmsf]ifx¿ aGb5g\ . t/ yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf /f]uLx¿df of] k'gM k|of]u eO{ gofF sf]ifx¿ aGg] k|lqmofn] /fd|f];Fu sfd ub}{g . o;sf] abnf a¿ kmnfdtTj lkmof]df y'lk|G5 of /Qm k|jfx lt/ l55{ / lkmof] lt/ g} kms{G5 . o;sf] cnfjf, yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿df pTkfbg ePsf /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ c;fdfGo cfsf/sf x'gfn] ltgLx¿ lkmof]df g} c8\s]/ a:5g\ . kl/0ffd :j¿k lkmof] a9\b} hfG5 . lkmof]n] ws]n]sf] sf/0f k]6 klg a9\5 . cfk"m dfly a9]sf] a9L dfusf] bjfjnfO{ k"/f ug{ lkmof] k|foM a9L ;lqmo -xfOk/ PS6Le_ x'G5, o; cj:yfnfO{ xfOk/:Kn]lgHd elgG5 . o; k|lqmofdf /f]uLn] /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg dfkm{t k|fKt u/]sf :jefljs lsl;dsf /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿nfO{ klg gi6 ug{ k'U5 . kl/0ffd :j¿k x/]s k6s /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg ubf{ la/fdLnfO{ a9L /ut lbg'kg]{ x'G5 t/ hlt /ut lbP klg la/fdLsf] Plgldofsf] cj:yfdf ;'wf/ cfpFb}g . pu| ¿kn] ;lqmo lkmof]n] /utsf c¿ tTjx¿ h:t} ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿ / y|f]Daf];fO6\;nfO{ klg gi6 ul/lbG5 . lkmof] a9\g] ;d:of -xfOk/:n]lgHd_nfO{ ;'wf/ ug{ ;lsFb}g . To;sf/0f dfly pNn]v ul/P h:t}, lkmof]n] z/L/nfO{ xflg k'Ug] 9Ën] sfd ul//x]sf] 5 eGg] yfxf kfpgf;fy o;nfO{ zNolrlsT;f u/]/ kmfNg' kb{5 . of] k|lqmofnfO{ :Kn]g]S6f]dL elgG5 .

5b

AofS6]l/ofn] el/Psf] kmfuf];fO6 AofS6]l/of

glhs} /x]sf AofS6]l/ofx¿nfO{ kQf nufpg] Go"6«f]lkmn

lkmof]nfO{ zNolqmof u/L l´Sgfn] yfnf;]ldofsf] pkrf/ x'Fb}g . o;n] lkmof] a9gfsf] sf/0fn] x'g] ljlzi6 lsl;dsf ;d:ofx¿dfq xn x'G5g\ . lkmof]nfO{ zNolqmof dfkm{t x6fpg] lg0f{o lng' cufl8 y'k|} d]l8sn kIfx¿dfly /fd|f] ;f]r ljrf/ ug'{kb{5 hf] o;k|sf/ 5g\— != cfjZostfeGbf 7"nf] cfsf/sf] Pp6f lkmof] -nDjfO{ ^ ;]dLeGbf a9L_ sf] sf/0fn] cK7\of/f] dx;'; eO/x]sf] x'g'k5{ . @= c¿ s'g} klg d]l8sn ;d:ofx¿ geOsg klg la/fdLnfO{ 6«fG:k\mo'hg ug]{ /utsf] dfqf a9fO/xg' kg]{ x'G5 . cfjZos k/]sf] /utsf] kl/df0f !=% u'0ffn] j[l4 x'Fb} hfG5 . cyjf z/b/ x]df]Unf]lagsf] txnfO{ sfod /fVg k|ltjif{ @)) b]lv

77


@@) ldlnu|fd÷s]hL KofS8 /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] cfjZostf b]lvG5 . #= t];|f] ljrf/ ug'{ kg]{ s'/f pd]/ xf] . :Kn]g]S6f]dL ug'{kg]{ dfG5] % jif{ dflysf] x'g'k5{ . dfly g} pNn]v ul/of] ls lkmof]n] z/L/nfO{ ;ª\qmd0faf6 arfpg 7"nf] e"ldsf v]N5 . lkmof] x6fPkl5 ;ª\qmd0f x'g] hf]lvd pRr /xG5 . % jif{eGbf d'lgsf aRrfx¿sf] k|lt/Iff k|0ffnL sdhf]/ x'g] x'gfn] of] vt/f c´ a9L pRr /xG5 . lkmof] x6fpg] k|lqmofnfO{ cfhefl]n a9L ;lhnf] / l;wf zNolqmofsf] tl/sf dflgG5 / klxnf klxnf b]lvPsf hf]lvdx¿ klg b]lvg 5f]8]sf 5g\ . lkmof]sf] k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLnfO{ /Iff ug]{ k|oTg :j¿k cfwfdfq lkmof] x6fpg] kl;{on :Kn]g]S6f]dL cyjf o;sf] sfdnfO{ cj¿4 ul/lbg] -ODaf]nfOh];g_ h:tf k|ljlwx¿ klg ljsl;t ePsf 5g\ .

lkmof] x6fpg] sfd / ;ª\qmd0f -:Kn]g]S6f]dL_ lkmof] x6fpg' k5fl8sf] uDeL/ rf;f]sf] ljifo o;af6 x'g] cToGt uDeL/ lsl;dsf] ;ª\qmd0fsf] vt/f klg xf] . lkmof] lgsflnPsf] /f]uLnfO{ JofS6]l/ofn] u/fpg] ;ª\qmd0fsf] vt/f cfjZostfeGbf a9L x'G5 . of] ;ª\qmd0f uDeL/ lsl;dsf] b]lv lnP/ Hofg} hfg] -3fts_ klg x'g;S5 . oL AofS6]l/ofx¿n] :6«]k6f]sf]sn ;ª\qmd0f / d]g]GhfOl6; h:tf /f]ux¿ klg lgDTofpF5g\ . olb lkmof] l´lsPsf] /f]uL % jif{d'lgsf] eP ;ª\qmd0fsf] vt/f pRr x'G5 / @ jif{ d'lgsf] eP clt pRr x'G5 . lkmof] l´s]sf] /f]uLnfO{ hLjg e/g} ;ª\qmd0fsf] vt/f /xG5, To;df klg :Kn]g]S6f]dL u/]sf] ! b]lv $ jif{;Dd t clt w]/} vt/f x'G5 . lkmof] x6fpg] k|lqmof z'? ubf{ ;+qmd0faf6 aRg lgDg k|lqmof ckgfpg' k5{ . != ODd'gf]k|f]lkmNoflS;;– lgdf]sf]sn, Xofdf]lsn;, OGk\mn"PGhf / d]lgg hf]gf]Ssn eGg] ;"Ox¿ nufpg' k5{ . oL ;"Ox¿ nufpg zNolqmof ug'{eGbf ´G8} @ xKtf cufl8af6 yfNg'k5{ / zNolqmof ul/;s]kl5 klg l;kmfl/; ul/Psf] lgb]{zg cg';f/ nufpg' k5{ .

78


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] @= s]df]k|f]lkmNoflS;;– of] vfg] k]lgl;lng PG6LafOl6s xf] . of] @ jif{d'lgsf aRrfx¿nfO{ !@% ldlnu|fd lj=cfO=8L= @ jif{ dflysfnfO{ @%) ldlnu|fd lj=cfO=8L lbg'k5{ . olb la/fdLn] k]lgl;lng PG6LafOl6s lng ;Sb}g eg] j}sNkLs PG6Lafof]l6s lbg'k5{ . slt ;do lng'k5{ eGg] s'/f la/fdL cg';f/ km/s k5{ . s'g} 8fS6/n] lkmof] l´lsPsf la/fdLx¿nfO{ hLjge/ PG6Ljfof]l6s lng] ;Nnfx lbG5g\ eg] s;}n] !* jif{;Dd lng] eG5g\ . s;}n] t lkmof] l´lsPsf] @ jif{;Dd lnP k'Ug] klg ;Nnfx lbG5g\ . h] ;'s} eP tfklg o;af6 x'g] vt/fnfO{ ;s];Dd sd ug{ la/fdLx¿nfO{ lgoldt k/LIf0f / d"NofÍgsf] cfjZostf k5{ . #= lzIff– la/fdLx¿ / ltgsf cleefjsx¿nfO{ ;ª\qmd0fsf] vt/f af/]df lzIff lbO{ x'g;Sg] ;ªqmd0fsf ;Í]tx¿ of nIf0fx¿ h:t} Hj/f], df+zk]zLsf] b'vfOk|lt cToGt rgfvf] /fVg' h¿/L x'G5 . ofqf ug]{ la/fdLx¿ / ltgsf cleefjsx¿n] cfk"m hfFb} u/]sf] 7fpFdf s'g lsl;dsf ;ªqmd0f /f]ux¿ nfUg ;Sb5g\ To;sf] af/]df cufl8af6 g} ;r]t x'g' h¿/L x'G5 . $= j[l4 ePsf] Kn]6\n]6\;sf] ;ª\Vofk|ltsf] ;hutf– :Kn]g]S6f]dL u/]k5fl8 KN]6\n]6\;sf] ;ª\Vof a9]/ k|lt So"ljs ld=ld= *)),))) ;Dd k'Ug;S5 . of] cj:yfnfO{ k|ltlbg %) b]lv !)) ldlnu|fd Pl:k/Lg lbP/ Kn]6\n]6\;sf] ;ª\Vof 36fpg ;lsG5 . ha yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf] lgbfgsf] ls6fgL x'G5 To;kl5 x]df]Unf]lagsf] tx k|lt8]l;ln6/ ( b]lv !) u|fdeGbf dfly /fVg' ;'/lIft / /fd|/L k|zf]wg ePsf] /ut la/fdLnfO{ lbg' lkmof]sf] s'g} lsl;dsf klg ;d:ofaf6 aRg] klxnf] / ;a}eGbf /fd|f] tl/sf xf] . o; tl/sfaf6 lkmof] j[l4 x'g] qmdnfO{ ;':t agfpg cyjf /f]Sg ;lsG5 / lkmof] sf6]/ kmfNg'kg]{ cfjZostf 6fg{ ;lsG5 . o;sf] cnfjf lkmof]nfO{ ;fdfGo cfsf/df sfod /flv/fVg] s'/fn] /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgsf] k|efjsf/Ltf a9fpg klg ;xof]u u5{ .

79


d'6' / cGt>fjL u|GyLsf ;d:ofx¿ yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf /f]uLx¿n] ;w}F d'6', sn]hf] / cGt>fjL u|GyLx¿df ;d:of ePsf] cg'ej u5{g\ . oL ;a} ;d:ofx¿ kmnfd tTjsf] clwstf;Fu ufFl;Psf 5g\ . d'6'sf /f]uLx¿nfO{ 5f]8]/ /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgaf6 sd /ut kfO/x]sf cyjf /ut lnFb} glnPsf la/fdLx¿df sn]hf] / cGt>fjL u|GyLx¿sf] ;d:of lj/n} x'G5 lsgls o:tf] ;d:of /utsf] Psbd} w]/} 6«fG:k\mo'hg lng] t/ kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ ljlw sd ug]{ la/fdLx¿df x'G5 / ;fy} cfjZostf cg';f/ /ut gkfPsf la/fdLx¿ o:tf] cj:yf ljsf; x'g nfUg] nfdf] ;do:dd afFrL /xg ;Sb}gg\ . kmnfd tTj a9L x'Fbfsf kl/0ffdx¿ d'6' lk6'6/L OG8f]qmfOg u|GyL sn]hf]

afOe]G6«Ls'n/ k]mn/ -@ e]G6«Lsnn] sfd ug{ 5f]8g]_ P¥xLy\ldof xfOkf]ufgf8f]6«f]lkms–xfOkf]ufgfl8Hd cf]:6Lof]kf]/f]l;; -xl•df Kjfn kg]{ /f]u_ dw'd]x xfOkf]yfO/fO8– xfOkf] Kof/fyfO/fO8 lkmj|f]l;; l;/f]l;; -ljz]iftM x]kf6fOl6; ;L ;lqmof ePsf] a]nfdf_

d'6'sf ;d:ofx¿ 7"nf] e]gfsfef kNd'g/L lz/fx¿

bflxg] cfl6{Pd 6«fOsl:k8 eNe

sd /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg lnPsf / 6«fG:k\mo'hg lnFb} glnPsf /f]uLx¿df d'6'sf] ;d:of a9L kfOG5 . kNd'g/L wdgL oL /f]uLx¿nfO{ bL3{ Plgldof x'G5 / d'6'df kNd'g/L eNe lj:tf/} kmnfd tTj klg y'lk|Fb} hfG5 . oL b'j} ;d:ofx¿n] d'6'df tgfj u/fpg] x'gfn] x[bof3ft b]a|] cfl6{Pd x'g] ;Defjgf x'G5 . /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg glnPsf cfcf]l6{s eNe cyjf sd lnPsf la/fdLx¿ @) jif{klg gk'uL ld6« eNe d'Vo u/L d'6'sf] /f]usf sf/0f d5{g\ . Pcf]6f{

e]lG6«sN; ;fgf] e]gfsfef

80

/ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg /fd|/L kfPsf t/ k|efjsf/L ¿kn] kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ glnPsf /f]uLx¿ klg 5g\ . logLx¿dWo] l8=Pkm=cf]= clt dxFuf] ePsf]n] k|fKt ug{ g;Sg] klg 5g\ / csf{yl/ cf}ifwL k|fKt


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] u/]/ klg cfjZos dfqf k|of]u ug{ grfxg]x¿ klg 5g\ . oL b'j} y/LnfO{ kmnfd tTj clws x'g] ;d:ofn] hGdfpg] d'6'sf] ;d:ofx¿ x'G5g\ . dfly g} pNn]v ul/;lsof] ls /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgsf] sf/0fn] k|z:t dfqfdf cltl/Qm cfO/g z/L/df k:5 . o;nfO{ ;dod} x6fOPg eg] d'6' nufot cGo cËx¿df y'lk|g hfG5 . d'6'df hDdf x'Fb} uPsf] cltl/Qm cfO/gn] d'6'sf] :jefljs sfo{ ;~rfngdf afwf pTkGg u5{ / clt bjfjsf] sf/0fn] d'6' ;ª\qmd0f x'g] cGo /f]ux¿nfO{ klg ;xg ug{ g;Sg] cj:yfdf k'U5 . cGttf]uf]Tjf, d'6'sf df+;k]zLx¿ sdhf]/ aG5g\ / d'6'n] z/L/el/ k'Ug] u/L /ut kDk ug{ ;Sb}g -x]g'{xf];\ 5c_ . /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg /fd|/L kfPsf t/ kmnfd tTjnfO{ x6fpg /fd|f];Fu pkrf/ gkfPsf la/fdLx¿ k|fo u/]/ @) jif{sf] pd]/df d5{g\ . k]/Lsfl8{od, dfof]sfl8{od, eNe h:tf d'6'sf ljleGg efux¿ kmnfd tTjsf] clwstfsf sf/0f k|efljt x'G5g\ . oL efux¿sf cfk\mgf cfk\mgf sfo{x¿ 5g\ / a9L kmnfd tTjsf] sf/0f tL k|efljt eO{ ljleGg lsl;dsf nIf0fx¿ pTkGg u/fpF5g\ . d'6'sf] 9's9'sLdf tndfly x'g] -Pl/yldof_ d'6'sf df+zk]zLn] cf/fd ug{ g;Sg] cj:yf -8fO:6f]lns 8fOkmª\S;g_ /utnfO{ /fd|/L kDd ug{ g;Sg] cj:yf -l;:6f]lns 8fOkmª\S;g_ d'6'sf] tGt'x¿df kfgL hDg] -Kn]o"/n Ok\mo"hg, k]l/sfl8{on Ok\mo'hg, P:;fO6\;, k]l/k]m/n cf]l8df_ / d'6'n] sfd ug{ 5f]8\g] cGo nIf0fx¿ cflb d'6';Fu ;DalGwt /f]ux¿ x'g\ . s'g} nIf0fx¿ b]vf gk/Lsg} klg kmnfd tTjsf] clwstfsf] kl/0ffdn] x'g] uDeL/ k|sf/sf] d'6'sf] /f]u nfUg ;S5 . To;sf/0f la/fdLx¿n] !@÷!# jif{b]lv g} s'g} ;d:of gePklg lgoldt / ;Dk"0f{ ¿kn] d'6'sf] hfFr u/fpg' cfjZos x'G5 . d'6' a9L 9's9's ug]{, ;fOgsf]K; -d'R5f{ kg]{_ :jfF :jfF x'g], k]6sf] dlyNnf] efudf b'Vg], yf]/} Jofofd ubf{ klg w]/} yfSg] / uf]nLufF7f / z/L/sf] cGo efudf st} ;'lGgg] h:tf nIf0fx¿ b]lvgf;fy hfFr u/fOxfNg' k5{ . oL nIf0fx¿ b]lvg] a]nf;Dd d'6' /f]u uDeL/ cj:yfdf klg k'lu;s]sf] x'g ;S5 t/ kmnfd tTjsf] clwstfsf] sf/0f d'6' uDeL/ 9Ën] k|efljt ePsf] /x]5 eg] ;3g ¿kn] ul/g] kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ ljlw -lrn];g_ n] klg o;nfO{ ;fdfGo cj:yfdf kmsf{pg ;S5 .

81


d'6'sf] sfo{x¿sf] lg/LIf0f yfnf;]ldofsf la/fdLx¿n] jif{sf] Psk6s d'6'sf] k"0f{ ¿kn] lg/LIf0f / hFfr u/fpg'k5{ . olb s'g} nIf0f b]lvPsf 5g\ eg] w]/} k6s k"/f hfFr u/fpg' kg]{ x'g;S5 . tn lbOPsf hfFrx¿ jflif{s k/LIf0fsf dxTjk"0f{ cËx¿ x'g\ . • /f]usf] Oltxf;;lxt zf/Ll/s hfFr -s'g} nIf0f b]lvPsf] 5 eg] To;sf] ljj/0f_ • 5ftLsf] PS;—/] c¿ w]/} ;"rgf lbg] k|ljlwx¿ ljsf; eO;s]sf 5g\, d'6' /f]u ljz]if1x¿n] k|of]u ug{;Sg] t/ hl6n lsl;dsf oGq pks/0f gkfOg] 7fpFx¿df PS;–/] Pp6f dxTjk"0f{ ;fwg dflgG5 . PS;–/]]n] d'6'sf] cfsf/, kmf]S;f], To;/L g} s'g} cltl/Qm d]8'n/L Xofdf]kf]O6Ls df; aGb} 5 5}g To;sf] ;"rgf klg lbG5 . • O=;L=hL= -On]S6«f]sfl8{of]u|fd_ zf/Ll/s cEof; ;Fu;Fu} of] o:tf] hfFr xf] h;n] Pl/yldofsf] ljsf;sf] k|a[lQ, d'6'sf sf]7fx¿sf] sdhf]/ sfo{zLntfh:tf ;d:ofnfO{ b]vfpF5 . • @$ 306] O=;L=hL=– of] hfFr ubf{ la/fdLsf] z/L/df ljz]if lsl;dsf] xfN6/ elgg] df]lg6/ @$ 306f /flvG5 . 5f]6f] ;dosf] O=;L=hL= ubf{ klxrfg x'g g;s]sf c;fwf/0f lsl;dsf d'6'sf nox¿ o;af6 klxrfg x'G5g\ . • Osf]sfl8{of]u|fd– of] d'6'sf sf]7fx¿sf] cfsf/ / ltgLx¿n] slt /fd|/L sfd ub}{5g\ Tof] b]vfpg] Pp6f dxTjk"0f{ ;fwg xf] . • Pd=o'=hL=P= :Sofg– of] /]l8of]O;f]6f]k hfFr xf] h;n] d'6'sf] sfo{sf] af/]df cltl/Qm hfgsf/L lbG5 . of] hfFr la/fdLn] cf/fd u/]sf] a]nfdf klg lng ;lsG5 t/ olb la/fdLn] zf/Ll/s cEof; ub}{ u/]sf] a]nf of] hfFr ul/of] eg] ;xL kl/0ffd kfpg ;lsG5 .

82

yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿df d'6' /f]usf] Joj:yfkg ug{ c¿ w]/} pkfox¿ cjnDjg ug{ ;lsG5 . d'6'sf] /f]usf] ;d:of gePsf la/fdLx¿df klg pgLx¿sf] x]df]Unf]lagsf] tx (=% b]lv !) u|fd k|lt8]l;ln6/ /fVg l;kmfl/; ul/Phlt /ut lbg'k5{ .


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] •

d'6'sf] ;d:of ePsf /f]uLx¿n] /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg lng'eGbf cufl8 sfod ug'{kg]{ x]df]Unf]lagsf] tx -!)–!! u|fd k|lt8];Lln6/_ sf nflu k|z:t /ut lng'k5{ . d'6'sf 5c d'6'sf] x\ofdf]:6\ofl6s lgoGq0fsf] ¿k/]vf df+zk]zLx¿nfO{ kof{Kt clS;hg -clS;hg]zg_ k'¥ofpgsf lglDt d'6'df clws ef/ kg{ (Overloading) /ut pH af6 hf]lug la/fdLx¿nfO{ k6s k6s u/]/ Plslqt eP/ vfFlbP/ /x]sf /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] 6«fG:k\mo'hg ;fgf];fgf] OsfOdf lbg'k5{ . olb d'6'n] sfd ug{ 5f]8]sf] cj:yf dlitisdf ePsf] d'6'sf] kfOPsf] 5 eg] o:tf /f]uLx¿df 8fS6/sf] ;Nnfxdf s]Gb| d'6'n] kmf]S;f]df d'6'n] lj:tf/} l56f] /ut kmfN5, kmf]S;f]lt/ /ut x/]s 6«fG:ˆo'hgdf d"qaw{s cf}ifwL lbg'k5{ . c? k\mofFS5, yf]/} sfj{g8fOcS;fO8 g8fOcS;fO8 d'6'sf] ;d:of / kmnfd tTjsf] pRr ef/ -clwstf_ sfj{ kmf]S;f]af6 kmflnG5, aflx/ kmfN5 /ut /ut PH a9\5 PH tn em5{ klg ePsf /f]uLx¿n] ;3g vfnsf] kmnfd tTj d'6' 36fpg] pkrf/ yfNg'k5{ . o:tf] pkrf/df ;DejtM nuftf/ @$ 306f l8=Pkm=cf]= lbg'kg]{ x'G5 . o;nfO{ ult a9\5 ult 36\5 -5fnfd'lgaf6 jf gzfdf OgJx]lnË Sofy]6/ /fv]/ %)– ^) Pd=hL÷k|lts]hL z/L/sf] tf}n÷k|ltlbg l8=Pkm= cf]= sf] k|If]k0f ul/G5_ . o;/L pkrf/ k|lqmofn] d'6'sf] df+;k]zLdf kmnfd tTjsf] clwstfn] x'g] Iflt /f]Sg'k5{ / o;nfO{ lk|m ¥ofl8sN;af6 x'g] nuftf/sf] xdnfaf6 klg hf]ufpg'k5{ . ev{/}sf cWoogx¿n] ;ª\s]t u5{g\ ls 8]:k]ml/cf]ShfdfOg / 8]k]ml/k|f]g;Fu} lbOP/ ul/g] pkrf/ -;+o'Qm pkrf/ k4lt_ n] b|'t ultdf d'6'df y'lk|Psf] kmnfd tTjnfO{ x6fO{ d'6'sf] sfo{nfO{ ;'wf/ ug{;S5g\ .

clxn] of] ;To :yflkt eO;s]sf] 5 ls ;3g ¿kn] ul/g] kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ ljlwn] yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿df x'g] s8f lsl;dsf] d'6' /f]unfO{ klg pN6\ofpg ;lsG5 . d'6'sf] /f]u Psk6s klg b]vf kb}{ gk/L ul/g] kmnfd tTjx¿ x6fpg] pkrf/ d'6'sf] /f]un] ufFlh;s]kl5 ul/g] pkrf/ eGbf w]/} /fd|f] x'G5 . d'6'df y'lk|Psf] kmnfd tTjsf] kl/df0fsf] cfFsng ug{ ufx|f] 5 t/ ev{/} ljsl;t ePsf] Pd=cf/=cfO{ k|ljlw d'6'df y'lk|Psf] kmnfdsf] kl/df0fnfO{ ;f]´} gfKg w]/} g} pkof]uL x'g ;S5 . ;f/fz+df eGbf yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf /f]uLx¿df x'g] d'6'sf ;d:ofx¿sf] k|efjsf/L pkrf/ ug{, tGt'x¿df y'lk|Fb} uPsf] kmnfd tTjx¿nfO{ ;3g

83


¿kn] x6fpg, c;kmn x'Fb} u/]sf d'6'sf df+zk];L arfpg ljz]if cf}ifwL, pkrf/ k4lt ckgfpg' k5{, h:t} k/Dk/fut cf}ifwLx¿– s= d'6'sf] /ut kDk ug]{ sfo{nfO{ ;'wf/ ug]{ cf}ifwL– oL cf}ifwLx¿ P=l;=O= OGxLlj6/ cyjf Plhgf]6]gzLg sGd/Lª OGhfOd -Plhgf]6]gzLgnfO{ abNg] OGhfOd_ ;d"xsf eg]/ lrlgG5g\ . v= sGh]:6Le ¿kn] d'6'n] sfo{ ug{ 5f]8\g yfn]sf la/fdLx¿nfO{ lbOg], :jfF:jfF sd ug]{ d'qjw{s cf}ifwLx¿ . u= d'6'sf] nosf] cldNbf]kgnfO{ l7s ug]{ cf}ifwLx¿ -PG6L Pl/b\lds Ph]G6_ •

c¿h:t} cGt>fjL ;d:ofx¿n] Nofpg] /f]u xfOkf]yfO/f]l8Hd, xfOkf]Kof/fyf/f]l8Hd / le6fldg P sf] sld cflbn] klg d'6's]f df+;k]zLsf] /f]u NofpF5g\ . t/ o;df cfwf/e"t sf/0fx¿sf] pkrf/ -h:t} cGt>fjL k|0ffnLsf] pkrf/ / le6fldg ;L lbP/_ u/]/ d'6'sf] of] cj:yfnfO{ pN6fpg ;lsG5 .

cGt>fjL u|GyLsf ;d:ofx¿

yfO/fO{8n] yfO/f]lS;g agfpF5, o;n] cGt/bxg k|s[ofnfO{ ;'rf? u5{, of] xd{g sd eof] eg] / f;folgs k|ltlqmof 36\5

c08sf]ifn] k'?ifx¿df 6]:6]:6]/f]g agfpF5, o;n] of}jg cj:yfdf k'?ifsf] ljz]iftfx¿ lgdf{0f u5{

84

cGt>fjL k|0ffnLcGtu{t lk6'6/L, yfO/fO8, Kof/fyfO/fO8, Pl8«gn KoflGqmofl6s, j]6f;]n, k'¿ifx¿df x'g] c08sf]if / dlxnfx¿df x'g] l8Daf;o kb{5g\ . oL u|GyLx¿sf] lk6'6/L dlitissf] cfwf/df /x]sf] u|GyL xf], o;n] w]/} xd{g agfpF5 d'Vo sfd xd{g pTkfbg ug'{ xf] . / j[l4, kfgLsf] ;Gt'ng, ljo{ / c08 pTkfbg lgoGq0f u5{, oL xdf]{gx¿ sf]ifx¿df kmnfd tTj xdf]{gn u|GyL lgoGq0f ug]{ xd{g klg agfpF5 y'lk|P/ pTkfbg ePsf] ljiffSttfaf6 KoflGqmofhn] OG;'lng / Un"sfhf]g ;lhn} k|efljt x'G5g\ / o;n] agfpF5, OG;'lngn] /utsf] lrgLnfO{ UnfOsf]lhgdf kl/jt{g ubf{ xdf]{g pTkfbg d} afwf kg{ u/]/ /utsf] lrgL 36fpF5, Un'sfuf]gn] /utdf lrgL a9fpF5 hfG5 . To;sf/0fn] kmnfd tTj dlxnfx¿df c08fzon] cf]:6«f]lhg x6fpg] pkrf/ ljlw hLjgsf] z'¿ / k|f]h]:6]/f]g agfpF5, o;n] /h:jnf rqm lgoldt ug]{ / of}g cj:yf d} z'¿ u/]sf yfnf;]ldof cj:yfdf dlxnfsf] ¿k lbG5 /f]uLx¿df ;d]t cGt>fjL k|0ffnLn] pTkfbg ug]{ xfdf]{gsf] sf/0f x'g] ;d:of w]/} 5g\ . cGt>fjLx¿n] Nofpg] u8a8Ldf ;':t j[l4, k|f}9fj:yfdf k'Ug] l9nfO{, dw'd]x, xfOkf]yfO/f]l8Hd, Kof/fxfOkf]yfO/f]l8Hd / k|f}9df of}g sfo{sf] lzlyntf cflb kb{5g\ .


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] zf/Ll/s j[l4 yfnf;]ldofsf #) b]lv %) k|ltzt /f]uLx¿ zf/Ll/s j[l4 sd x'g] ;d:ofaf6 k|efljt 5g\ . bL3{ PlgdLof, lkmof] a9\g] ;d:of, /utdf kmnfd tTjsf] clwstf, 8]:kmf]l/cf]ShfdfOgn] pTkfbg ug]{ ljiffSttf, yfO/fO8n] sd xfdf]{g pTkfbg, ;':t of]jgfj:yfdf k|j]z, of}g;Fu ;DalGwt u|GyLx¿sf] Go"g xdf]{g pTkfbg -xfOkf]uf]gfl8Hd_ sn]hf]sf] bL3{ /f]u cflb ;a}n] zf/Ll/s j[l4nfO{ gsf/fTds k|efj kf5{g\ . o;;Fu} zf/Ll/s j[l4 ug]{ xdf]{gsf] pTkfbgdf sdL, o;sf] sfo{k|ltsf] cj/f]w, cg'jf+lzs k|jl[Q, s'kf]if0f / ;+j]ufTds :6«]; cflb klg xdf]{g;Fu hf]l8Psf ;d:ofx¿ x'g\ . OG8f]qmfOg u|GyL yfO/fO8 u|GyL Kof/fyfO/fO8 u|GyL cfO;n]6\; ckm NofË/xfg NofË/xfgsf] cfO:n]6\; / :yfg Pl8«gn a8L Pl8«gn a8L c08sf]if c08fzo uef{;o lk6'6/L u|GyL lk6'6/L u|GyL lk6'6/L u|GyL

pTkfbg x'g] xdf]{g yfO/f]lS;g Kof/fyfO/fO8 xdf]{g OG;'lng Un'sf]h PN8f:6/f]g Pl8«gnfOg 6]:6f]:6]/f]g cf]:6«f]hLg k|f]h]:6]/f]g 6«f]lkms xdf]{g kf]NoflS6g j[l4 ug]{ xdf]{g

xdf]{gn] ug]{ sfd j[l4 / cGt/bxg k|lqmof lgoGq0f /utsf] SofN;Loodsf] lgoGq0f /utsf] lrgL lgoGq0f /utsf] lrgL lgoGq0f /utsf] ;f]l8od Snf]/fO8 -g'g_ sf] lgoGq0f tgfj ´]Ngsf] nflu z/L/nfO{ tDtof/ ug]{ k'¿ifx¿df bf]>f] bhf{sf] of}g ljz]iftfx¿ Nofpg] dlxnfx¿df bf]>f] bhf{sf] of}g ljz]iftfx¿ Nofpg] e|'0fsf] nflu kf7]3/sf] tof/L c¿ gnLljlxg u|GyLh:t} uf]gf8 / yfO/fO8sf] lgoGq0f Eofdf/L u|GyLdf b'w pTkfbg j[4Ldf lgoGq0f u5{ . ldof d]h/df h'g b]zx¿df la/fdLx¿n] kof{Kt pkrf/ kfpFb}gg\ tL 7fpFx¿df 5d yfnf;] OG8f]qmfOg u|GyLn] Nofpg] s'kf]if0f / bL3{ PlgdLof zf/Ll/s j[l4 gx'gfsf k|d'v sf/0f x'g\ ;d:ofx¿

eg] wgL / ;DkGg b]zx¿ hxfF la/fdLx¿n] /fd|f] /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg kfpF5g\ t/ kmnfd tTjsf] cTolwstf x6fpg] pkrf/k|lt ;fdGh:otf sfod ug{ ;Sb}gg\ tL 7fpFdf kmnfd tTjsf] clwstf g} zf/Ll/s j[l4 ;':t x'g] k|d'v sf/0f xf] t/ /fd|f];Fu /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg kfPsf / To;af6 k|fKt kmnfd tTjsf] clwstfnfO{ klg /fd|/L x6fpg] pkrf/ ;kmn ePsf la/fdLx¿df klg 8]:k]ml/cf]ShfdfOg cf}ifwLn] x•Ldf g} c;/ ug]{ x'gfn] cGttf]uf]Tjf zf/Ll/s j[l4df ;':ttf cfpF5 .

/h:jnfdf clgoldttf 5f]6f] sb xfOkf]uf]gf8f]6«f]lks–xfOkf]uf]gflnHd Un'sf]h ;xg] Ifdtfdf sdL OG;'lngdf lge{/ /xg'kg]{ dw'd]x k'?ifx¿df x'g] bf]>f] bhf{sf] xfOkf]uf]gf8f]6«f]lkmHd– xfOkf]uf]gfl8Hd k|fylds xfOkf]yfO/f]l8Hd xfOkf]Kof/fyfO/f]l8Hd

0

25

50 %

75

100

(from De Sanctis et al 1995 multicentre study on endocrine complications in thalssaemia major. Clin Endocrinol 42:581-86)

85


zf/Ll/s j[l4df x'g] u8a8Lx¿sf] k|efjsf/L pkrf/ o;sf] sf/0fsf] ;xL cfFsngdf e/ kb{5 . To;sf/0f o;sf] lgbfg k|lqmofn] jfNofj:yfsf z'¿sf r/0fb]lv k|f}9fj:yf;Ddsf] lgoldt / cToGt xf]lzof/Lk"j{s ul/Psf ;Dk"0f{ k|of]uzfnsf hfFrx¿nfO{ ;d]6\g' k5{ . zf/Ll/s j[l4 ug]{ xdf]{gx¿sf] pTkfbgsf] d"NofÍg / o;sf] kl5 ul/g] pkrf/fTds sfo{n] ljjfbf:kb glthfx¿ lgsfn]sf 5g\ . of] ljjfbn] j[l4jw{s xdf]{gx¿sf] sld ePsf] k|dfl0ft ePsf /f]uLx¿nfO{ lbOg] pkrf/fTds j[l4jw{s xdf]{gsf] ;sf/fTds k|efj / pkrf/k|lt ;sf/fTds ;Gtf]ifhgs k|efj pTkfbg x'g] cj:yfnfO{ klg l;ldt ul/lbPsf] 5 .

;':t cfpg] of}jgfj:yf / xfOkf]ufgfl8Hd k'¿ifx¿

of}jgfj:yf z'¿ ePkl5 lk6'6/L u|GyLsf] 5]pdf /x]sf] dlitissf] Pp6f efu xfOkf]yfnfd;n] uf]gf8f]6«f]lsg pTkfbg u/fpg] xdf]{g -lh=Pg=cf/=Pr=_ sf] >fj z'¿ u5{ . of] >fjn] lk6'6/L u|GyLnfO{ pQ]lht u5{ . pQm u|GyLn] uf]gf8f]6«f]lsg;sf] >fj z'¿ u5{ / @ k|sf/sf] xdf]{gx¿sf] pTkfbg u5{ . dfOsf]lnsn :6]d'n]l6Ë xdf]{g -Pkm=P;=Pr_ / No"l6gfO{lhË xdf]{g -Pn=Pr_ gfd u/]sf oL xdf]{gx¿ lgs} dxTjk"0f{ 5g\ . oL xdf]{gx¿n] k'¿ifx¿sf] of}g u|GyL c08sf]if / dlxnfx¿sf] of}g u|GyL l8Djf;odf k|efj kfg{ z'¿ u5{ tfls ltgLx¿sf] j[l4 xf];\ / of}g xdf]{gx¿sf] >fj / pTkfbg z'¿ xf];\ . o;k|sf/ s]6fx¿df 6]:6f]:6]/f]g / s]6Lx¿df k|f]h]:6]/f]gsf] pTkfbg z'¿ x'G5 . oL of}g xd{gx¿ z/L/el/ afFl8G5g\ / s]6fs]6Lx¿sf] of}gfËx¿sf] j[l4 / ljsf;df ;xof]u ug'{sf ;fy} k|hgg\ Ifdtf a9fpF5g\ . Pkm=P;=Pr= / Pg=Pr lk6'6/L u|GyLdf pTkfbg x'G5g\ h'g u|GyL :jtGq /x]sf] kmnfd tTjsf] xflgsf/s c;/k|lt cToGt ;+j]bgzLn x'G5 / kmnfd tTjn] oL @ j6f xdf]{g pTkflbt x'g] IfdtfnfO{ g/fd|/L 36fpF5 .

bfx|L h'Fuf cfpF5 . :j/ wf]b|f] x'G5 . sfFw km/flsnf] x'G5 . df+;k]zLx¿ a9\5g\ . sfvLdf / 5ftLdf /f}F cfpFb5 . of}gfË jl/k/L /f}F pd|G5g\ . dlxnfx¿ :tgx¿ a9\b5g\ . 5fnfsf] ;txd'lg c;dfg af];f] a9\5 . z/L/sf] cg'kft÷cfsf/ a9\5 . sfvLdf /fF} pd|G5g\ . lgtDa a9\5 . of}gfË jl/k/L /f}F pd|G5g\ .

l9nf] cfpg] of}jgfj:yf / of}g Ifdtfsf] sld -xfOkf]uf]gfl8Hd_ kmnfd tTj;Fu ;DalGwt cGt>fjL ;d:ofx¿ x'g\ eGg] s'/f k|foM

86


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] ;a} b]zx¿df ePsf cWoogx¿n] b]vfPsf 5g\ . l9nf] u/L cfpg] of}jgfj:yfnfO{ ;Dk"0f{ ¿kn] of}g ljsf;sf] cefjsf] cj:yf dflgG5 . !# ji{fdf s]6Lx¿sf] :tgsf] j[l4 / s]6fx¿df !$ jif{df c08sf]ifsf] cfsf/df a[4L x'g'kg]{ x'G5 t/ Tof] x'Fb}g . ha !^ jif{;Dddf klg s]6fs]6Lx¿sf of}jgfj:yfsf] nIf0f b]lvFb}g o; cj:yfnfO{ xfOkf]ufgfl8Hd eg]/ hflgG5 . h;df s]6fx¿sf] c08 / lnË gal9sg ;fgf g} /xG5g\ eg] s]6Lx¿sf] :tg a9b}g / dfl;s>fjsf] rqmklg z'¿ x'Fb}g . o:tf] cj:yfn] k|foM h;f] hl6n dgf]j}1flgs tgfjsf] cj:yf lgDTofpF5 . l9nf] z'¿ ePsf] of}jgfj:yfsf] plrt pkrf/ o;sf] sf/0fsf] plrt klxrfg / cg'udgdf lge{/ /xG5 . z/L/df cTolws kmnfd tTjsf] pkl:yltn] dfly pNn]v ul/Psf of}g ljsf;sf ljleGg cj:yfx¿nfO{ g/fd|/L vNaNofpF5 t/ of] c;/ JolQmlkR5] km/s k5{ . k|To]s ;d:ofsf] lj:t[t lSnlgsn hfFrx¿df cfwfl/t /x]/ plrt lgbfg ug'{k5{ . kmnfd tTj x6fpg] plrt lsl;dsf] pkrf/ k4ltn] oL ;d:ofx¿df ;'wf/ ug{ dxTjk"0f{ ;xof]u ug{ ;S5 . of}g Ifdtf j[l4 ug]{ cf}ifwL -s]6fx¿nfO{ 6]:6f]:6]/f]g clg s]6Lx¿nfO{ cf]O:6«f]lhg_ lbP/ of}jgfË tyf of}g ultljlwsf] j[l4 u/fpg ;lsG5 . la/fdLn] ;fdfGo of}jgfj:yf k|j]zsf] cg'ej u/]klg z/L/df pkl:yt clws kmnfd tTjaf6 cGt>fjL k|0ffnL ;Fw} k|efljt /xG5 . kl5 uP/ z/L/df h'g kmnfd tTj y'lk|G5 To;n] klg lk6'6/L / of}g u|GyLnfO{ xflg k'¥ofpF5 . o:tf cj:yfx¿df dlxnfx¿sf] dfl;s >fj /f]lsg ;S5 -bf];|f] bhf{sf] Pldgf]xf]l/of_ / k'¿ifx¿n] bf];|f] bhf{sf] gk'+;stf, 36\bf] jLo{ pTkfbg / aLhf/f]k0f gx'g] dx;'; ug{ ;Sb5g\ . KoflGqmofh

xfOkf]yfO/f]Ol8Hd 3fF6Ldf cjl:yt yfO/fO8 u|GyLn] hLjgsf z'¿sf jif{x¿df dlitissf] :jefljs j[l4nfO{ ;'lglZrt lk6'6/L agfpg e"ldsf v]N5 eg] kl5 uP/ zf/Ll/s j[l4 / ljsf;df klg d2t ub{5 . yfO/fO8 eGg] u|GyLn] pTkfbg ug]{ yfO/f]lS;g xdf]{gn] z/L/df zlQmsf] ;l~rltsf] :t/ / cGt/bxg k|lqmofdf dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg u5{ t/ ha kmnfd tTjx¿ oL u|GyLx¿df y'lk|g yfN5 logLx¿sf] xdf]{g

Fe

x•L

yfO/fO8 Kof/fyfO/fO8

87


pTkfbg Ifdtf 36\5 / k|fylds xfOkf]yfO/f]l8Hd eGg] cj:yfsf] ljsf; x'G5 . xfOkf]yfO/f]l8Hdn] ;tfPsf la/fdLx¿n] ;fx|} hf8f]sf] cg'ej ug]{, ´'Dd x'g], df]6fpg] / zf/Ll/s / dfgl;s nf];]kg b]vfpg yfNb5g\ . kmnfd tTjsf] clwstfn] ubf{ yfO/fO8 g/fd|/L Iflt x'g hfG5 / o;n] d'6'sf] sfo{nfO{ klg c;/ u5{ t/ of] cj:yf ;Fw} el/ lSnlgsn nIf0fsf ;fy cfpFb}gg\ . To;sf/0f !) jif{ k'u]kl5 l6=P;=Pr=, l6 # / l6 $ sf] lgoldt ¿kn] hfFr ug'{k5{ . ha k|of]uzfnfsf] hfFrn] xfOkf]yfO/f]l8Hdsf] pkl:ylt lglZrt ub{5 -h;df l6=P;=Pr= a9\b5 / l6 $ :jefljs ¿kdf 36]sf] kfOG5_ lSnlgsn nIf0fx¿ b]vf k/]klg gk/]klg la/fdLnfO{ pkrf/sf] nflu yfO/f]lS;g lbOG5 .

xfOkf]Kof/fyfO/f]Ol8Hd yfO/fO8 u|GyL;Fu hf]l8Psf $ j6f Kof/fyfO/fO8 u|GyLx¿ x'G5g\ . oL u|GyLx¿n] Kof/fydf]{g eGg] xdf]{g >fj pTkfbg u5{g\ . h;sf] d'Vo sfd z/L/df SoflN;odsf] tx ;"rf¿ /fVg' / Joj:yfkg ug'{ xf] . z/L/df kmnfd tTjsf] dfqf clws eof] eg] of Plgldof eof] eg] Kof/fyfO/fO8 k|efljt x'G5 / xfOkf]Kof/fyfO/fOl8Hdsf] l:ylt pTkGg x'G5 . o;n] ubf{ z/L/df SoflN;odsf] tx tn v:sG5 h;nfO{ xfOkf]SoflN;dLof elgG5 . xfOkf]SoflN;dLofn] csf]{ dxTjk"0f{ /f;folgs tTj kmf]:kmf]/;sf] tx dfly g/fd|f] k|efj kf5{ . SoflN;od / kmf]:kmf]/;sf] tx y'k|} lSnlgsn cj:yfx¿;Fu ;DalGwt x'G5 . z/L/df SoflN;odsf] tx tn ´¥of] eg] xft uf]8f 3f]Rg], ´d´dfpg]b]lv lnP/ df+;k]zL c/l/g], afpFl8g] klg x'G5 . ;fdfGot d'R5f{ kg]{, a]xf]; x'g] d'6'n] sfd ug{ g;Sg] lSnlgsn ;d:ofx¿ SoflN;odsf] sldsf] clGtd nIf0fx¿ x'g;S5g\ . ;]/d SoflN;od kmf]:kmf]/; / Kof/fydf]{gsf] txsf] k|of]uzfnf hfFrx¿n] of] /f]u lgbfg ug{df d2t u5{g\ . pkrf/sf] nflu lbOg] SoflN;od / le6fldg l8 n] cGt/bxg -d]6faf]lnHd_ sf] c;fdfGokgfnfO{ ;'wf/ ug{ ;S5 . :ki6 vfnsf] xfOkf]SoflN;dLof b]lvof] / z/L/ afFpl8of] eg] gzfaf6 SoflN;od lbg'kg]{ klg x'g;S5 .

88


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] dw'd]x

Nofª\u/ygsf]

a9fpF5

36fpF5

a9fpF5

36fpF5

:yfg bL3{¿kn] kmnfd tTjsf] clwstf a9L/xg], bL3{ sn]hf]sf] /f]u, efO/;sf] ;ª\qmd0f, cg'j+lzs cj:yfx¿ o:tf hl6n ;d:ofx¿ x'g\ h;n] z/L/sf] Un'sf]hsf] txdf Un'sfuf]g u8a8L NofpF5g\ / dw'd]x /f]u lgDTofpg ;S5g\ . OG;'lng vfgf gvfPsf] a]nf xfOk/UnfOs]ldof k|lt 8]l;ln6/ !@^ u|fdeGbf a9L eof] / cyjf h'g;'s} a]nf hfFRbf /utdf lrgLsf] dfqf k|lt 8]l;ln6/ @)) eGbf a9L eof] eg] o; cj:yfnfO{ dw'd]x elgG5 . of], z/L/n] /utdf Un'sf]hsf] Psfu|tf Un'sf]hnfO{ ;xg ug]{ Ifdtfs]f sld, KoflGqmof6Ls j]6f sf]ifx¿n] cfjZos kl/df0fdf OG;'lng pTkfbg ug{ g;s]/ x'G5 cyjf z/L/df Un'sf]h h'g kl/df0fdf aGb5 To;nfO{ sfddf nufpg kof{Kt OG;'lng pTkfbg geP/ x'G5 . yfnf;]ldofsf ´08} cfwf hlt /f]uLx¿ Un'sf]h ;xg ug]{ Ifdtfsf] cefj -Un'sf]h OG6f]n/G;_af6 kLl8t 5g\ eg] !) b]lv #) k|ltzt /f]uLx¿nfO{ hLjgsf] s'g} g s'g} a]nf dx'd]x x'G5 . kfl/jf/sf klxnf] >]0fLsf cfkmGtx¿ h:t} afa', cfdfaf6 5f]/f5f]/Ldf dw'd]x cfpg] 7"nf] vt/f ;w}F /xG5 .

ha z/L/n] Un'sf]hnfO{ cGt/bxg -d]6faf]lnHd_ ug]{ k|lqmof vNalnG5 To;kl5 sf]ifx¿nfO{ sfd ug{sf] nflu cfjZos Un'sf]h sf]ifx¿df k|j]z ug{ ;Sb}g / dw'd]x x'G5 . cfdf;osf] 5]pdf /x]sf] KoflGqmofh eGg] cËn] a]6fsf]ifsf] dfWodaf6 OG;'lng eGg] xdf]{g pTkfbg u5{; lkQ gnL lkQ y}nL o;n] Un'sf]hsf] cGt/bxg KoflGqmofhsf] d'Vo efu -d]6faf]lnHd_ u5{ t/ kmnfd tTjsf] clwstfn] oL ljlzi6 cltl/Qm KoflGqmofhsf] clGtd efu a]6f sf]ifx¿nfO{ ljufb{5 / KoflGqmofl6{s gnL cfGb|fdf l/lQg] KoflGqmofhsf] z/L/sf] lrgLnfO{ ;b"kof]u d'Vo gnL KoflGqmofhsf] cu| efu ug{;Sg] Ifdtfdf sld lkQ / KoflGqmcfl6s gnL 8'8]gd ldNg] 7fpF cfpF5 lrgL /utdf hDdf x'g yfN5 . ;fdfGo lsl;dsf] dw'd]xnfO{ Un'sf]h ;xg ug]{ Ifdtfsf] cefj -;'u/ OG6f]n/G;_ klg elgG5 . o;df s'g} k|sf/sf lSnlgsn

89


nIf0fx¿ b]vf kb}{gg\ . k|of]uzfnfdf hfFr u/]kl5 dfq lrgLsf] dfqf a9]sf] yfxf x'G5 . cg';Gwfgx¿n] b]vfPsf 5g\ ls dw'd]x nfUg'clw yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿nfO{ Un'sf]h ;xg ug]{ Ifdtfsf] cefj x'G5 . o:tf] a]nfdf 36]sf] lqmofsf] k|ltlqmof lbg a9L OG;'lng pTkfbg x'G5 . …OG;'lngÚ k|lt/f]w eGg] of] cj:yfdf la/fdLx¿n] plrt ef]hg ug]{ / tf}n 36fpg]h:tf sfd z'? ug'{k5{ / cfjZostf k/] ;3g ¿kn] kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ k|lqmof z'¿ ug'{k5{ . Un'sf]h bxg ug]{ Ifdtfsf] cefj / dw'd]xsf] vfgf vfg'eGbf cl3 / kl5sf] ljleGg r/0f u/L /utdf Un'sf]hsf] tx gfk]/ dw'd]xsf] ;lhn} lgbfg ug{ ;lsG5 . pbfx/0fsf] nflu ljxfg vfgf / k]o kbfy{ lng'eGbf cl3 /utdf Un'sf]hsf] tx k|lt8]l;ln6/ !@^ u|fd of ;f]eGbf a9L b]lvof] eg] dw'd]x lgbfg eof] . To;/L g} vfgf, eft cflb lnPsf] b'O{ 306f kl5 x]bf{ /utdf Un'sf]hsf] tx k|lt8]l;ln6/ @)) ld=u|f=eGbf a9L eof] eg] klg dw'd]xsf] ePsf] 7x5{ . To;/L g} &% u|fd Un'sf]h vfPsf] @ 306fk5fl8 /utdf Un'sf]hsf] tx !$) b]lv @)) u|fd k|lt8];Lln6/ kfOof] eg] o; cj:yfnfO{ Un'sf]h ;xg ;Sg] Ifdtf 36]sf] dflgG5 / o; cj:yfnfO{ …Un'sf]h OG6f]n/G;Ú elgG5 . Un'sf]h ;xg ug{ ;Sg] Ifdtfsf] hfFr !) jif{dflysf ;a}n] jif{sf] Ps k6s ug'{k5{ . dw'd]x d]ln6; eGg] dw'd]xsf] s8f lsl;dsf] /f]udf KoflGqmofhsf] OG;'lng pTkfbg ug]{ Ifdtf g/fd|/L 36\5 / z/L/df Un'sf]hsf] tx 7Ls 7fpFdf /fVg /f]uLn] lbg}lkR5] 5fnfd'lg OG;'lngsf] ;'O{ lng'k5{ . dw'd]x pkrf/ ug{ ;lsG5 t/ klg of] Pp6f 7"nf] ef/ x]f . o;df lrlsT;s, kl/jf/ / ;fyLx¿ ;j}af6 ;xof]usf] cfjZostf k5{ . dw'd]xsf /f]uLx¿n] Un'sf]ld6/ k|of]u u/]/ 3/}df lbgsf] #÷$ k6s /utdf Un'sf]hsf] tx hfFRg'k5{ . o;/L 3/}df hfFlrPsf] Un'sf]hsf] txn] 8fS6/nfO{ la/fdLsf] cfjZostfg';f/ OG;'lngsf] dfqf ;dfof]hg ug{ ;lhnf] x'G5 . k|of]uzfnfdf c¿ lsl;dsf hfFrx¿ u/]/ dw'd]xsf ;d:ofx¿ / o;n] kfg]{ c;/sf] d"NofÍg ug'{k5{ . d[uf}nfsf] sfo{x¿sf] k/LIf0f / kmG8fO{sf] Od]lhË ug'{ cfjZos 5 lsgls oL @ j6f cËx¿ dw'd]xsf] sf/0f ;fx|} l56f] lju|g ;S5g\ . yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿nfO{ nuftf/ 8]:k]ml/cf]ShfdfOg pkrf/ ljlw cjnDjg ul//xg pT;flxt

90


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] ug'{k5{ lsgls o;sf] ;xL dfqfsf] k|of]un] dw'd]x ljsf; x'g] vt/fnfO{ klg lgs} sd u5{ .

x8\8L Kjfn kg]{ ;d:of -cf]:6Lcf]kf]/f]l;;_

5e

cf]l:6cf]kf]/f]l;;af6 x8\8L 6'qmg] z/L/sf d'Vo efux¿

x•Lx¿ kftnf] / sdhf]/ x'g' yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿df w]/} x'g] ;d:of xf] . PlgdLof, clt lqmofzLn x•Lsf] dHhf, vfgfdf sd SoflN;od, x•Ldf kmnfd tTjsf] pRr tx, sdhf]/ kf]if0ftf, ;':t cfpg] of}jgfj:yf c¿ cGt>fjL u|GyLsf ;d:ofx¿ / cg'jf+lzs /f]ux¿ cflb ;a}n] cf]:6Lcf]kf]/f]l;; x'g of]ubfg u5{g\ . (5e) x•Lsf] /f]u ePsf] la/fdLx¿df sdhf]/ zf/Ll/s ultljlw, xft v'§fx¿sf] x•Ldf Kjfn kg]{ /f]u, jfËf]l6Ëf]kg / af/Daf/ xf8 efFlRrg] ;d:ofx¿ x'G5g\ . x•Lsf] /f]ux¿sf] lgbfg k|fo h;f] DEXA k|of]u u/L d]¿b08 / lgtDjsf] x•Lsf] 3gTj gfk]/ ul/G5 . cfjZos 7flgPdf c¿ lsl;dsf k|of]uzfnf k/LIf0fx¿ klg ul/G5 . x•Lsf] 3gTj 36]/ ! b]lv @=% ;Dd k'u]sf] cj:yfnfO{ ljZj :jf:Yo ;Ë7gn] cf]l:6k]lgof kl/eflift u/]sf] 5 . o;/L g} x•Lsf] df; 36]/ @=% eGbf tn k'u]sf] cj:yfnfO{ cf]:6Lcf]kf]/f]l;; elgG5 . (5f)

5f

DEXA sf] cf]l:6cf]kf]/f]l;; /f]usf la/fdLdfly kg]{ k|efjsf] pbfx/0f

x•Lsf] /f]usf] pkrf/ o; /f]usf] /f]syfddf s]Gb|Lt /xG5 . o;sf] /f]syfd lg/Gt/ /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg, kmnfd tTjsf] plrt lgisf;g, cGt>fjL u|GyLsf /f]ux¿sf] pkrf/ / b}lgs Jofofd cflbaf6 ug{ ;lsG5 . cf]:6Lcf]kf]/f]l;;sf] /f]syfdsf nflu h'g la/fdLx¿nfO{ cf]:6f]k]lgof eO;s]sf] 5 pgLx¿n] SoflN;od w]/} ePsf] vfg]s'/f vfg], le6fldg 8L w]/} lng], r'/f]6 vfg aGb ug]{ / kof{Kt Jofofd ug]{ ug'{k5{ . o;sf] cltl/Qm xfOkf]uf]gfl8Hd -;':t of}jgfj:yf_ cflb /f]u ePsfx¿nfO{ cf]:6Lcf]kf]/f]l;; x'g;Sg] x'gfn] pgLx¿n] of}g xdf]{g lng'k5{ . Psk6s cf]:6Lcf]kf]/f]l;; eO;s]sf] 5 eg] jfOsf]:kmf]g]6\; -Kofld8«f]g]6, Pln8«f]g]6_ cflb cf}ifwLx¿n] kmfObf k'¥ofpF5g\ .

pj{/fzlQm / k|hgg\ Ifdtf yfnf;]ldof ePsf dlxnfx¿n] ;'/lIft 9Ën] ue{ af]Sg ;S5g\ t/ ue{wf/0f ug'{eGbf cl3 bDkltn] 8fS6/;Fu a;]/ kof{Kt 5nkmn ug'{k5{ . ue{jtL x'g rfxg] dlxnfx¿n] pgLx¿sf] cfˆgf]

91


hDdf

BMD

lSnlgsn / dgf]j}1flgs d"NofÍg /fd|/L ug'{kb{5 .

pd]/ of] se{ / :sf]/ ;]tf j0f{sf k'?if;Fu d]n vfG5 >f]]t –xf]nf]lus

dfl;s>fj lgoldt ePsf yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uL dlxnfx¿n] ;lhn} ue{wf/0f ug{ ;S5g\ t/ k|fylds / bf]>f] bhf{sf] Pldgf]xf]l/ofaf6 lkl8t dlxnfx¿nfO{ c08 pTkfbg ug]{ / c08 lgz]rg k|lqmofnfO{ ;xof]u ug{ xdf]{gn pkrf/ ug'{k5{ . cg':dldofaf6 lkl8t k'¿if -yfnf;]ldofsf_ /f]uLx¿df Ps jif{;Dd lbOg] xdf]{g pkrf/ k4ltn] /fd|f] k|efj b]vfPsf] 5 . la/fdL ue{jtL ePsf] kSsf ePkl5 lgDg pkfox¿ ckgfpg' k5{ .

!= ue{jtL ePsf] lgbfg x'gf;fy l8=Pkm=cf]= lng aGb ug'{k5{ lsgls o;sf] c;/ e'|0fdf s:tf] k5{ eGg] s'/f :ki6 5}g . hgfj/x¿df ul/Psf] k|of]un] e|'0f g/fd|/L Iflt ePsf] b]lvPsf] 5 . t/, olb ue{jtL la/fdLdf kmnfd tTj clt w]/} 5 / s8f lsl;dsf] d'6'sf] ;d:of klg 5 eg] ue{jlt ePsf w]/} kl5Nnf dlxgfx¿df @) b]lv #) DXA kl/0ffdsf] ;+lIfKt ¿k ldlnu|fd÷z/L/sf] tf}n÷lsnf]u|fd Region Area BMC BMD T - PR Z - AM (cm ) (g) (g/cm ) Score (%) Score (%) l8=Pkm=cf]= lbg ;lsG5 . 2

L3 L4 Total

13.78 5.93 14.83 7.30 28.61 13.23

Total BMD CV 1.0%

ljZj :jf:Yo ;+u7gsf] juL{s/0fM cf]l:6cf]kf]/f]l;;sf] hf]lvdM pRr

2

0.430 0.492 0.463

-6.1 -5.9 -6.0

39 43 41

-5.9 -5.7 -5.8

40 44 42

@= ue{jtL dlxnfx¿df x]df]Unf]lagsf] tx ;Gtf]ifhgs /fVg -!)—!% u|fd÷8]l;ln6/_ sd dfqfdf lgoldt 6«fG:k\mo'hg ug'{k5{ .

#= d'6'sf sfo{x¿nfO{ /fd|/L cg'udg ug'{k5{ . cWoogx¿n] b]vfPsf 5g\ ls k]ml/l6gsf] tx sd /fv]/ ue{wf/0f u/]sf dlxnfx¿df k]ml/l6gsf] tx pRr /fv]/ uef{wfg u/]sf] dlxnfx¿dfeGbf d'6'sf] sfo{ /fd|f] b]lvPsf] 5 . $= la/fdLnfO{ dw'd]x ePsf] 5 5}g x]g'{k5{ / c¿ lsl;dsf cGt>fjL u|GyLsf /f]ux¿sf] klg cg'udg ug'{k5{ . pj{/fzlQm a9fpgsf] nflu pkrf/ u/]sf yfnf;]ldofsf] w]/} /f]uLx¿n] xfnsf jif{x¿df :j:y aRrfx¿ hGdfPsf 5g\ . klt / kTgL b'j} yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uL 5g\ / pgLx¿n] :j:y aRrf hGdfpg

92


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] rfxG5g\ eg] :j:y bftfx¿n] bfg u/]sf] z'qmsL6 jf c08nfO{ k|of]uzfnfdf lgz]rg u/fOG5 / of] lgz]lrt l8DjnfO{ ue{wf/0f ug{ rfxg] dlxnfsf] kf7]3/df /flvG5 . o:tf /f]uLx¿sf] pkrf/sf] yfngL / kl5sf ;a} pkrf/x¿df x]df6f]nf]lhi6, afnljz]if1, d'6' ljz]if1, OG8f]qmfOgf]nf]lhi6 / dlxnf /f]u ljz]if1 h:tf ljz]if1 kf7]3/ lrlsT;sx¿sf] Pp6f 6f]nL g} ;+nUg /xg' kg]{ x'G5 . ;f/f+zdf, yfnf;]ldof d]h/ / yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofsf /f]uLx¿n] klg aRrf hGdfpg ;S5g\ eGg] s'/f k|dfl0ft ePsf] 5 . ;fOk|;sf ^@ hgf dlxnfx¿ h;dWo] %) hgf yfnf;]ldof d]h/ ePsf / !@ hgf OG6/d]l8of ePsf ;a} @% jif{ xf/fxf/Lsf dlxnfx¿n] u/]sf] ue{wf/0fdWo] () ;kmn ePsf] 5 . •

oL dWo] !$ hgfnfO{ k|hgg ;xof]u lbOPsf] lyof] . h:t} lgz]rg k|lqmofdf ;xof]u, 6]:6 6\o"j afnssf] hGd / k'¿ifsf] z'qmsL6 dlxnfsf] kf7]3/df /fVg] k|lqmof cfbL . *& hgf :j:y aRrfx¿ hGd]sf lyP . tLdWo] ^( hgf aRrfx¿ cjlw k'/f u/]/ hGd], !@ hgf ;dok"j{ hlGdP h;df -$ hgfsf] h'DNofxf / ! hgfsf] ltDNofxf_, & hgfsf] ue{ t'lxPsf] lyof] eg] @ j6f d[t aRrfx¿ lgsfNg' k/]sf] lyof] . aRrf hGdfpg] ;dodf s'g} klg dlxnfnfO{ uDeL/ cK7\of/fx¿ ePsf] kfOPg . ^ hgf la/fdLx¿df eg] d'6'sf Ifl0fs ;d:ofx¿ b]lvPsf lyP .

;fn

gfn

afa'af6 lnPsf] ljo{ c08;Fu ld;fpg] sfd c08f;oaf6 kl/kSj c08 lemlsFb}

lg;]lrt l8Da kf7]3/df /fv]kl5 e|'0fdf ljsf; x'G5

93


cWofo ^ yfnf;]ldofdf ;ª\qmd0f yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿df ;ª\qmd0f x'g] vt/f clt a9L x'G5 lsgls oL /f]uLx¿df tnsf ;d:ofx¿ x'G5g\ .

;d:ofx¿ • • • • •

Plgldof lkmof] x6fpg' -:Kn]g]S6f]dL_ kmnfd tTjsf] clwstf /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg 8]:k]ml/cf]ShfdfOg cf}ifwLsf] k|of]u

Plgldof /f]uLx¿n] ckof{Kt /utsf] 6«fG:k\mo'hg kfpg' of 6«fG:k\mo'hg kfpFb} gkfpg' To:tf /f]uLx¿df x'g] Plgldof, lgdf]lgofh:tf 3fts ;ª\qmd0fsf] ;a}eGbf dxTjk"0f{ sf/0f dflgG5g\ . /utsf] cfk"lt{ kof{Kt x'g] ljsl;t klZrdL d'n'sx¿df of] ;d:of lj/n} kfOG5 eg] ckof{Kt /utsf] 6«fG:k\mo'hg ePsf ljZjsf ljsf;zLn d'n'sx¿df o:tf] ;ª\qmd0fsf] ;d:of c´} klg sfod 5 .

:Kn]g]S6f]dL -lkmof]nfO{ zNolqmof u/L x6fpg'_ ;dodf g} 6«fG:k\mo'hg pkrf/ z'¿ gu/]sf jf lkmof]nfO{ zNolqmof u/]/ lgsfn]sf la/fdLx¿df :6«]k6f]kmf]S;, lgdf]lgof, Xofdf]lkmn;, OGk\mn'P~hf / OGSofK';'n]6]8 AofS6]l/ofn] Nofpg] g]O;]l/of d]lg~hfOl6;\h:tf ulDe/ lsl;dsf ;ª\qmd0f x'g] hf]lvd w]/} x'G5 . lkmof] x6fOPsf la/fdLx¿df AofS6]l/of, efO/; / kl/hLljx¿n] klg uDeL/ ;ª\qmd0f u/fpg ;S5g\ lsgeg] dfly pNn]v ul/Psf ls6f0f'x¿n] pTkGg u/fpg] ;ª\qmd0flj¿4 h'´\g lkmof]n] ;3fpg] u5{ .

94


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] kmnfd tTjsf] clwstf /utsf] kof{Kt dfqfdf 6«fG:k\mo'hg lng] t/ l8=Pkm=cf]= kfpg g;s]/ cyjf of] cf}ifwL;Fu ;fd~h:otf sfod ug{ g;s]/ kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ gul//x]sf la/fdLx¿nfO{ klg s8f vfnsf] ;ª\qmd0f x'g] 8/ x'G5 lsgls ;ª\qmd0fsf ls6f0f'x¿ kmnfd tTjdf df}nfpF5g\ . hlt w]/} kmnfd tTj z/L/df x'G5 Tolt l56f] tL ls6f0f'x¿ df}nfpF5g\ / plt g} w]/} ;ª\qmd0f u/fpF5g\ . o];]{lgof OG6]/f]sf]lnl6sf elgg] AofS6]l/of;Fu c¿ AofS6]l/ofh:tf] cfk\mg} jftfj/0faf6 kmnfd tTj hDdf / k|of]u ug]{ ;+oGq x'Fb}g . of] cgf}7f] ;ª\qmd0fsf/L ls6f0f'n] clxn];Dd kfOPsf ;ª\qmd0fdWo] a9L ;ª\qmd0f u/fPsf] kfOG5 t/ Pp6f :j:y dfG5]df oL AofS6]l/ofsf] xfgL x'Fb} gx'g] of sd x'g] x'gfn] logsf] s'g} lSnlgsn dxTj 5}g . t/, yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿df 8]:k]ml/cf]ShfdfOgsf c0f'x¿;Fu afFlwPsf of 5f8f kmnfd tTjsf c0f'x¿ clws x'gfn] oL AofS6]l/ofx¿n] hLjg g} lng ;Sg] ;ª\qmd0f u/fpF5g\ . oBkL AofS6]l/on ;ª\qmd0f / efO/n ;ª\qmd0fdf kmnfd tTjsf] e"ldsf slt 5 eg]/ yfxf kfpg y'k|} cWoog cg';Gwfg ePsf 5g\ -h:t} efO/n ;ª\qmd0fn] x'g] x]kf6fOl6;, P8\; cflb_ / kmnfd tTjn] ;ª\qmd0fnfO{ s;/L a9fpF5 / l;kmfl/; ul/Psf cf}ifwLx¿sf] logLx¿dflysf] k|efj s:tf] 5 cflb s'/fx¿ x]l/Psf 5g\ . oL k/LIf0fx¿sf kl/0ffdx¿n] b]vfPsf 5g\ ls efO/;n] u/fpg] v/fa vfnsf] bL3{ x]kf6fOl6; aL / l; ;fy} o;sf la?4 ul/g] pkrf/sf] k|efj sd x'g'sf] sf/0f yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf /f]uLx¿df x'g] kmnfd tTjsf] clwstf x]f . To;sf/0f kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ k4ltsf] k|efjsfl/tfn] bL3{ efO/n x]kf6fOl6;sf] pkrf/df dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]Ng] b]lvPsf] 5 . yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf /f]uLx¿df ha kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ ljlw z/L/sf] tf}nsf] $) ldlnu|fd÷tf}n k|lts]hLeGbf sd x'G5 cyjf ;]/d k]ml/l6g tx !(#% μg÷k|ltln6/eGbf dfly x'G5 To;a]nf Pr=cfO{=eL=sf] ;ª\qmd0f plt pRr / s8f x'g] b]vfOPsf] 5 . ;f/f+zdf, kmnfd tTjn] yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf /f]uLx¿df ;ªqmd0fnfO{ clt uDeL/ agfpg 7"nf] e"ldsf v]N5

95


lsgeg] kmnfd tTjn]– != ls6f0f'x¿sf] nflu kf]ifs tTjsf] sfd u5{, @= O~hfOd elgg] k|f]l6gsf] nflu kf]ifs tTjsf] sfd u5{ h;n] ;ª\qmd0fsf ls6f0f'x¿nfO{ a9fpg] sfd u5{, #= z/L/sf sf]ifx¿nfO{ hng x'gaf6 /f]Sg] PG6LcS;L8\ofG6 eGg] dxTjk"0f{ /;fognfO{ z/L/af6 x6fpF5 . $= ;ª\qmd0flj¿4 h'´\g] z/L/sf dxTjk"0f{ sf]ifx¿nfO{ Iflt k'¥ofpF5 .

/ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgaf6 x'g] ;ª\qmd0f la/fdLnfO{ 6«fG:k\mo'hg u/]sf] /ut ;ª\qmd0fsf] d'Vo >f]t x'g] s'/f nfdf] ;dob]lv yfxf kfOPsf] 5 . /utn] hLjgnfO{ arfpF5 t/ klg o;n] cjfl~5t k|ltlqmofx¿ / hLjg g} hfg;Sg] ;ª\qmd0fx¿ klg Nofpg ;S5 . y'k|} lsl;dsf ;fgf;fgf ;'Idbz{s oGqn] dfq b]Vg ;Sg] ls6f0f'x¿ s]xL ;do ;Dd /utdf hLljt} /xG5g\ / /ut lbPkl5 la/fdLx¿nfO{ ljleGg lsl;dsf] ;+qmd0f u/fpF5g\ . logLx¿dWo] x]kf6fOl6; aL / ;L Pr=cfO=le= ! / @ lSnlgsn ¿kn] dxTjk"0f{ hLjf0f'x¿ x'g\ / logn] uDeL/ / bL3{ lsl;dn] ;+qmd0f u/fpg ;S5g\ . o"/f]k / pQ/ cd]l/sfh:tf b]zx¿df ;'wfl/Psf] /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg ;]jf, vf]k sfo{qmd, /Qmbftfsf] /ut :qmLlgË ug]{ k|0ffnL, pRr u'0f:t/sf] ;fj{hlgs :jf:Yo ;]jf cflb ;'ljwfx¿n] ubf{ o;/L ;+qmldt x'g ;Sg] 36gf Psbd lj/n} x'G5g\ eg] Pr=aL=eL, Pr=;L=eL / Pr=cfO=eL=n] /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgsf] dfWodaf6 u/fpg] ;+qmd0fx¿ klg nueu /f]lsPsf 5g\ . t/ ljsf;zLn b]zx¿df eg] u'0f:t/xLg /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg, ljvl08t :jf:Yo pkrf/ ;]jf, l;ldt >f]t ;fwg, cGo lsl;dsf :jf:Yo ;]jfnfO{ k|fyldstf lbg' kg]{ ;d:of cflbn] ubf{ /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgsf] dfWodn] ;ª\qmd0f x'g] vt/f clt w]/} 5 . ljsf;zLn b]zx¿df yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf /f]uLx¿df /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgsf] dfWodaf6 ;ª\qmldt x'g] qmd c´ hf/L 5 . x]kf6fOl6; la / l; sf] ;ª\qmd0f yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf /f]uLx¿nfO{ x'g] ljlzi6 dxTjsf] lSnlgsn ;d:of xf] lsgls oL ls6f0f'x¿n] yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿df /f]usf] cfk\mg} sf/0fn] cyjf kmnfd tTj x6fpg]

96


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/]

6«fO{Kofgf];f]df q'mhL

xk{; l;Dn]S;

/utn] h'g;'s} ;+Vofdf ;+qmd0fsf/L hLjf0f' af]Sg ;S5

:6flkmnf]sf]s;\ cf}l/o; ol;{lgof OG6]/f]sf]lnl6sf Pr=l6=Pn=eL

Pr=lj=eL

t/ tkfO{+n] ug]{ 6«fG:k\mo'hgdf Pp6} klg x'g'x'Fb}g

cg'lrt pkrf/ k4ltsf] sf/0fn] x'g] kmnfd tTj;Fu ;DalGwt sn]hf]sf] /f]unfO{ c´ a9fpg ;S5g\ . sn]hf]sf] /f]u ljsl;t b]zsf yfnf;]ldofsf a'9f /f]uLx¿ / cNkljsl;t b]zsf hg';'s} pd]/sf /f]uLx¿sf] d[To'sf] k|d'v sf/0f ag]sf] 5 .

x]kf6fOl6; B efO/; -Pr=la=le=_ af6 x'g] ;ª\qmd0f w]/} ljsf;zLn b]zx¿df x]kf6fOl6; la sf] ;ª\qmd0f -l;=Pr=aL_ Pp6f uDeL/ ;fj{hlgs :jf:Yo ;d:of ag]sf] 5 . bftfsf] /utnfO{ :qmLlgË u/]/ hfFRg] pRr u'0f:t/sf] Joj;flos :jf:Yo ;]jf / k|efjsf/L Pjd\ ;'/lIft vf]kx¿n] klg sltko ;dodf of] cj:yfdf ;'wf/ Nofpg ;s]sf 5}gg\ .

/f]u ;g]{ k|lqmof x]kf6fOl6; la /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgb]lv afx]ssf of}g ;Dks{, ue{jtL cfdfaf6 aRrfdf ;g]{ / b"w r';fpFbf ;g]{ h:tf cg]sf}F dfWox¿af6 ;5{ t/ yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf /f]uLx¿ /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgaf6 w]/} ;ª\qmldt x'G5g\ . pko'Qm gLlt agfO{ nfu' u/]/ x]kf6fOl6; la efO/;af6 aRg ;lsG5 . h:t}– != /Qm bftfsf] 5gf}6 / /utsf] hfFr @= Pr=la=le=lj¿4 vf]k / lg;ª\qmd0f sfo{qmd #= cfdfaf6 aRrfdf ;g]{ -7f8f] ;/fO_ sf] /f]syfd

Pr=lj=eL=sf] :sLDofl6s k|ltlglwTj DNA kf]nLld/]h

leqL k|f]l6g s]Gb| (HBcAg)

HBeAg

HBV DNA

aflx/L lrNnf]sf] tx HB ;txsf PlG6hLgx¿

HBsAg

Pr=la=eL=sf] k|fs[lts Oltxf; Pr lj=eL=af6 ;ª\qmldt ´08} % b]lv !) k|ltzt /f]uLx¿ hLjge/ ;ª\qmldt x'G5g\ / ;ª\qmd0fsf hLjf0f' hLjge/ af]s]sf]

97


x]kf6fOl6; aL af6 x'g] ;+qmd0fsf k|fs[lts Oltxf; ;+qmldt 100,000

;';'Kt tLj| ;+qmd0f

tLj| x]kf6fOl6;

90,000

10,000

k"mnldgG6 x]kf6fOl6; 100

bL3{ ;+qmd0f 10,000

nIf0fljlxg

bL3{ x]kf6fOl6;

HBsAg afxs

6,000

4,000

s8f x]kf6fOl6;

;fdfGo x]kf6fOl6;

3,000

l;/f]l;; 3,000

x]kf6f];]No'n/ sfl;{gf]df 300

3,000

x'gfn] pgLx¿nfO{ sn]hf]sf] /f]u nfUg] ;Defjgf Psbd a9L x'G5 . olb plrt /f]syfdsf pkfox¿ ckgfOPg eg] ;ª\qmldt cfdfaf6 hGd]sf () k|ltzt lzz'x¿n] x]kf6fOl6; la sf ls6f0f'x¿ hLjge/ af]S5g\ . x]kf6fOl6; la ;ª\qmd0f ePsf bL3{ /f]uLx¿dWo] @% b]lv #) k|ltztnfO{ nuftf/ sn]hf]sf] /f]u nfU5 . uDeL/ vfnsf] sn]hf]sf] /f]u nfUg;Sg] x]kf6fOl6; la sf ls6f0f'af6 ;ª\qmldt yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf /f]uLx¿sf] k|ltzt b]z}lkR5] km/s k5{ . /f]usf] of] cfFs8f Pr=la=eL= vf]kh:tf /f]usf] /f]syfdsf pkfox¿sf] sfof{Gjog, /utbftfsf] 5gf}6, /utsf] :qmLlgË / ljz]if u/]/ /f]usf] :yfgLo k}mnfj6h:tf s'/fx¿df lge{/ /xG5 . k|sflzt tYofÍcg';f/ yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf @ b]lv #% k|ltzt la/fdL ljZjel/ g} x]kf6fOl6; la sf] efO/; af]Sg]df k5{g\ eg] @) b]lv () k|ltzt s'g} g s'g} a]nf klxnf g} x]kf6fOl6; la efO/;af6 ;ª\qmldt eO;s]sf] kfOPsf] 5 . ljsl;t b]zx¿df kfOPsf ax';+Vos x]kf6fOl6; la sf efO/; af]Sg] /f]uLx¿ a'9fx¿ 5g\ h;nfO{ ;DalGwt b]zn] vf]k nufpg z'¿ ug'{ / /ut hfFrsf] gLlt agfpg'eGbf cufl8 g} ;ª\qmd0f eO;s]sf] lyof] t/ ljsf;f]Gd'v b]zx¿df ;a} pd]/sf /f]uLx¿ oL efO/;af6 ;ª\qmldt eO{ g} /x]sf 5g\ . yfnf;]ldof d]h/ /f]usf] lgbfg eO{ /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg z'¿ ug'{eGbf cufl8 /f]uL Pr=la=eL= sf] bL3{ afxs xf] xf]Og / pm o;eGbf cufl8 x]kf6fOl6; la efO/;n] ;ª\qmldt ePsf] lyof], lyPg h:tf s'/fx¿ hfFr u/L la/fdLsf] Pr=la=eL= sf] cj:yf kQf nufpg' k5{ . olb la/fdLx¿ oL b'j} cj:yfsf xf]Og eg] klg h'g;'s} pd]/sfnfO{ klg vf]k nufpg' k5{ . yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf ;a} /f]uLx¿df Pr=la=eL= 5 ls 5}g kQf nufpg aif}{lkR5] hfFRg' k5{ . oL hfFrx¿df ;txL PG6LhLgsf] hfFr, (HbSAg) Pr=la=eL=, PG6La8L -PG6L Pr=la=P;=_ O–PG6LhLg hfFr -O=P=hL_, O=P=hL= PG6Lal8sf] hfFr -PG6L–Hbe_ / sf]/ PG6Lal8g -PG6L–HBC_ hfFr cflb kb{5g\ . x]kf6fOl6; la sf] efO/; bL3{ ¿kn] af]Sg] /f]uLx¿sf] pkrf/ slxn]b]lv z'¿ ug]{ xf] eGg] kQf nufpg af/Daf/ hfFr ug'{kg]{ x'G5 -x]g'{xf];\ 6a_ . x]kf6fOl6; la sf efO/;af6 ;ª\qmldt yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf

98


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] kmnfd tTjsf] clwstf ePsf la/fdLx¿nfO{ jf/Daf/ hfFRg'k5{ lsgls of] cj:yfn] sn]hf]sf] Iflt ug]{ ;Defjgf 7"nf] x'G5 . o;a]nf k|efjsf/L ¿kn] kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ ljlw cToGt dxTjk"0f{ x'G5 .

bL3{ Pr=aL=eL= ;+qmd0fsf] ;]/f]nf]lhsn -t/nhGo ljj/0f_

6a

an -HBc IgM an -HBc

bL3{ Pr=la=eL= ;ª\qmd0fsf] pkrf/ bL3{ x]kf6fOl6; la sf] pkrf/sf] p2]Zo x]kf6fOl6; la efO/; 36fpg' of bafP/ /fVg' / o;n] ug{;Sg] ;ª\qmd0fnfO{ /f]Sg' xf] . kl5Nnf jif{x¿df Pr=la=efO/;af6 x'g] ;ªqmd0fsf] pkrf/df ;'wf/ cfPsf] 5 . cf}ifwL cyjf ;a}lt/ k|of]u ul/g] PG6LefO/n pkrf/ k4ltdf nfdf] ;dob]lv :yflkt ePsf] k/Dk/fut pkrf/ k4lt cNkmf—l/slDag]G6 OG6/k]m/g kb{5 . k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLnfO{ ;dfof]hg ug]{ cNkmf OG6/k]m/g eGg] Pp6f cf}ifwLn] x]kf6fOl6;sf bL3{ /fuLx¿df kfOg] efO/;nfO{ #% b]lv $) k|ltzt;Dd x6fPsf] kfOPsf] 5 . clxn] ev{/} pTkfbg ul/Psf] PG6LefO/n nflde'8fOg xf] . nlde'8Lg -epivirTM - HBV, 3TC_ sf] PSn} cyjf OGkm/k]m/g;Fu ldnfP/ lbPsf] dfqfn] bL3{ x]kf6fOl6; lj sf] efO/;n] ug]{ ;ª\qmd0fdf gf6sLo ;'wf/ NofPsf] 5 . oBkL o; cf}ifwLsf] k|lt/f]w cg'kft klxnf] jif{ !$ k|ltztb]lv #@ k|ltzt;Dd / $ jif{kl5 ^& k|ltzt k'Ug'nfO{ o;sf] a]kmfObfsf] ¿kdf lnOPsf] 5 . Jofkfl/s ¿kn] pknAw l;=Pr=aL=sf] pkrf/df k|of]u ul/g] P8]kmf]eL/ l8kLef]S;Ln eGg] cf}ifwL of] efO/;sf] bdg ug{df nlde'8Lg hlQs} k|efjsf/L b]lvPsf] 5 / o;n] k|lt/f]w -/]lh:6]G;_ sf] lrGtfnfO{ klg 36fPsf] 5 . of] efO/;nfO{ bjfpg] c¿ cf}ifwLx¿df– != k]lun]6]8 OG6/k]m/g elgg] /fd|f] k|efjsfl/tfsf] nflu algPsf] OG6/k]m/gsf] gofF ¿k @= OG6]sfle/ elgg] cf}ifwL d'Vo 5g\ .

an -HBe

HBeAg HBV DNA HBs Ag ALT 0

1

2

months 3 4 5

6

1

2

/]lKns]6 cj:yf

3

years 4 5

6

7

8

9

Plss[t cj:yf

t/ oL b'j} cf}ifwLx¿ Pr=la=le= pkrf/sf] nflu k/LIf0fdf 5g\ . of] /f]usf] pkrf/ ;do, cf}ifwLsf] 5gf}6, cf}ifwLx¿sf] ld;fj6 h:tf s'/fx¿sf] lg0f{o of] /f]u x]g]{ lkmlhl;ogn] sn]hf] /f]u ljz]if1 -x]kf6f]nf]lhi6_ ;Fu ldn]/ ug'{kg]{ x'G5 t/ hxfF ;fwg / >f]tx¿ pknAw 5g\ tL 7fpFx¿df oL gofF cf}ifwLx¿sf] cGt/f{li6«o lgb]{zg cg';f/ ul/Psf] k|of]un] x]kf6fOl6; la n]

99


u/fpg] bL3{ ;ª\qmd0fsf] Joj:yfkgnfO{ Jofks ;'wf/ u/]sf] 5 / l;/f]l;; -sDk]G;]6]8 / cgsDk]G;]6]8_ / x]kf6f]];]n'n/ sfl;{gf]df -Pr=l;=l;=_ h:tf eoÍ/ 8/nfUbf sn]hf]sf] ;ª\qmd0f x'g] vt/f klg 36fPsf] 5 .

x]kf6fOl6; ;L -Pr=l;=le=_

Pr=;L=eL= efO/; aflx/L kq Go"Snf]sl:k6 k|f]l6g Pp6} /]zf ePsf] RNA

em08}

10,000 Go"Snf]6fO8\; 50-60mm Aof;

/f]u lgbfg ug]{ hfFrsf] pkof]lutf pkrf/ pkrf/sf] k|efj :qmLg lglZrttf k|esf] fjsf] / ;dofjlwsf] cf+sng k"jf{g'dfg

ljlw

x OGhfOd ODo'gf]Pl; x l/slDag]G6 ODo'gf]Anf]6 hfFr HCV RNA u'0ffTds P:;] hfFr HCV RNA kl/df0fsf] P:;] hfFr h]gf]6fOk

x

ALT

x x

x x

x x

;ª\qmldtdWo] x]kf6fOl6; ;L sf bL3{ ;ª\qmd0f / ;ª\qmldtx¿ *) k|ltzt hlt 5g\ . x]kf6fOl6; la h:tf] geP/ of] x]kf6fOl6;, /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgb]lv afx]s c¿ dfWodaf6 ;b}{g . c´}klg Pr=l;=eL= lj¿4 e/kbf]{ / ;'/lIft vf]k lg:s]sf] 5}g . t/ klg k|of]uzfnfdf s]xL hfFrx¿ ug{ ;lsG5 h;n] /utdf of] /f]usf] efO/;nfO{ klxrfg ug{ ;S5 . To;sf/0f of] /f]u ;g{af6 aRg] / ;ª\qmd0fsf] ;DefjgfnfO{ 36fpg] Pp6} dfq pkfo eg]sf] bftfn] bfg u/]sf] /ut /fd|/L hfFRg' g} xf] . c¿ efO/;sf] pN6f] of] efO/;sf] cf]yf/f] a:g] ;do -OGs'j];g lkl/o8_ nfdf] 5 To;sf/0f of] ls6f0f' Psk6s /utdf cfO;s]kl5 nfdf] ;do;Dd ;ª\qmd0f k}bf ug{;S5 t/ cf]yf/f] a:g] ;do -OGs'j];g lkl/o8_ nfdf] /xg] / of] ;dodf ;ª\qmd0fsf] vt/f w]/} x'g] x'gfn] ;fdfGo /ut a}Íx¿df ul/g] PG6La8L hfFrn] of] ls6f0f' kQf gnfUg ;S5 . of] ;dodf /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg eP/ la/fdL ;ª\qmldt x'g ;S5 . ljG8f] k]mh cyjf Od'gf];fOn]G6 lkl/o8 eg]/ lrlgg] of] ;ª\qmd0fsfnnfO{ 36fpg / /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgaf6 ;g]{ Pr=l;=eL=nfO{ 36fpg Pr=l;=eL= hfFr ug]{ k|lqmofn] Jofkstf kfPsf] 5 .

Pr=l;=eL= sf] k|fs[lts Oltxf; -x]g'{xf];\ 6b_ Pr=;L=eL= ;+qmd0fsf] k|fs[lts Oltxf; tLj| Pr=;L=eL= ;+qmd0f 15-30%

70-85%

bL3{ Pr=;L=eL= ;+qmd0f

lgsf]

bL3{ x]kf6fOl6; ;L ;fdfGo dWod s8f l;/f]l;; sn]hf] /f]usf] clGtd cj:yf x]kf6f];]No"n/ sfl;{gf]df sn]hf] k|Tof/f]k0f

6b

100

d[To'

´08} @) k|ltzt bL3{ Pr=l;=eL= sf afxsx¿nfO{ ;fdfGo vfnsf] sn]hf]sf] /f]u nfU5 -kmfOa|f]l;;_ eg] @) k|ltztnfO{ l;/f]l;;, x]kf6f];]n'n/ sf/l;{gf]df h:tf uDeL/ sn]hf]sf] /f]u nfU5 . bL3{ x]kf6fOl6; ;L ePsf] ´08} !) b]lv @) k|ltzt /f]uLx¿nfO{ !) jif{leqdf l;/f]l;; x'G5 . x]kf6fOl6; ;L n] u/fpg] ;ª\qmd0f g} sn]hf] k|Tof/f]k0f ug'{ kgf{sf] d'Vo sf/0f xf] . km/s km/s ef}uf]lns If]qdf kfOg] / cnu cnu lSnlgsn dxTj af]s]sf hDdf ^ k|sf/sf -h]gf]6fOk_ x]kf6fOl6; ;L 5g\ . ljZje/sf !) b]lv *) k|ltzt yfnf;]ldofsf la/fdLx¿ of]


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] efO/;af6 ;ª\qmldt 5g\ / oL la/fdLx¿df x'g] sn]hf]sf] bL3{ /f]usf] d'Vo sf/0f Pr=l;=eL= ;ª\qmd0f g} xf] . x]kf6fOl6; ;L af6 lkl8t yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿df kmnfd tTj sd dfqfdf dfq x6fOof] cyjf x6fpFb} x6fOPg eg] sn]hf]sf] Iflt ug]{ of] csf]{ k|d'v sf/0f aGg ;S5 . To;sf/0f Pr=l;=eL=af6 ;ª\qmldt yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf ;a} la/fdLx¿n] k|efjsf/L ¿kn] kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ k4lt ckgfpg' k5{ . ;fy} jif{df Ps k6s ljz]if k|of]uzfnfdf x]kf6fOl6; C sf] kl/If0f u/fpg' k5{ . yfnfl;ldofsf lj/fdLx¿n] af/Daf/ /ut lnO/xg' kg]{ / Pr=l;=le= / Pr=la=le= /ut af6 g} ;g]{ x'Fbf oL la/fdLx¿df oL b'j} efO/;sf] ;+o'Qm pkl:ylt x'g ;S5 h;n] sn]hf]sf] /f]usf] tLj| ljsf; ug{ w]/} ;xof]u u5{ .

6c

Pr=;L=eL= h]gf]6fOksf] ljZjJofkL ljt/0f

6d

bL3{ vfnsf] /f]udf ljsl;t x'Fb} u/]sf] Pr=;L=eL= ;+qmd0fsf] ;]/f]nf]lhsn sf]if{ – c¿ PlG6a8L 9fFrfx¿ klg ;Dej 5g\

bL3{ x]kf6fOl6; ;L sf] pkrf/ klxnf klxnf Pr=l;=eL= ;ª\qmd0fsf] pkrf/ k/Dk/fut l/slDjofG6–P–OG6/k]m/g df]gf]y]/fkLsf] ¿kdf lyof], o;sf] k|efjsl/tf !) b]lv @% k|ltzt dfq b]lvPsf] lyof] t/ l;=Pr=l;= sf] pkrf/df xfn}sf jif{x¿df Psbd} ;'wf/ cfPsf] 5 . k/Dk/fut l/slDaGofG6–P–OG6/k]m/g lbg] pkrf/ k4lt ;Fu;Fu} efO/n lj/f]wL u'0f ePsf] vfg] cf}ifwL l/jflel/gsf] k|of]u xfn;fn} l;kmfl/; ul/Psf] pkrf/ ljlw xf] t/ l/jflel/g pkrf/ /utsf] /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ 6'6\g] Xofdf]nfOl;; /f]usf] pkrf/;Fu ;DalGwt 5 lsgls o; cf}ifwLn] oL ls6f0f'x¿ afFRgsf] nflu cfjZos kg]{ Pl8gf];fOg 6«fOkmf]:k]m6 -Pl6kL_ eGg] /ftf] /Qmsf]ifsf] Pp6f 36snfO{ /fd|/L 36fOlbg ;S5 . yfnf;]ldofsf l/jflel/g c}iflw lnO/x]sf /f]uLx¿n] /ftf] /Qmsf]ifx¿ 6'6]sf] of x]df]nfOl;; ePsf] cg'ej ug{ ;S5g\ / pgLx¿nfO{ ´08} #) k|ltzt a9L /utsf] 6«fG:k\mo'hg lbg'kg]{ x'g;S5 . k]ml/ yk kmnfd tTj sf] clwstfnfO x6fpg kmnfd x6fpg] yk ;3g pkrf/ k|lqmofdf hfg'kg]{ x'G5 . ev{/}sf lbgx¿df lgs} /fd|/L ;'wf/ ul/Psf] OG6/k]m/g k]lun]6]8 OG6/k]m/g pkrf/nfO{ of t Psn ¿kdf of t l/jflel/g ;Fu;Fu} k|of]u ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 . o; pkrf/n] k|efjsfl/tfsf] b/nfO{ a9fpg'sf] ;fy} l;=Pr=l;= sf la/fdLx¿nfO{ pkrf/sf] c¿ df}sf klg lbPsf]

dlxgf

:j:y sn]hf]

lkma|f]l;;\

l;/f]l;;

101


5 . pkrf/sf] k|s[lt / ;do x]kf6fOl6; ;L sf] lhgf]6fOk / s'g efO/; kQf nfUof] To;df e/ k5{ . o;dWo] of] efO/;sf] k|sf/ ! sf] pkrf/ ug{ ;a}eGbf s7Lg efO/;sf] ¿kdf kfOPsf] 5 .

6e HIV

Ps csf{df qm; h]g]l6s u/]sf efO/; kbfy{

efO/;sf] aflx/L ;tx

HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES

6f

Pr=cfO=eL=sf] /]lKns];g ;fOsn

CD4 k|fks;Fu efO/n OGe]nk

UnfOsf]k|f]l6gsf] k|ltlqmof

s'g k|sf/sf] pkrf/ ug]{ eGg] s'/f x]kf6f]nf]lhi6sf] ;/;Nnfx cg';f/ lg0f{o ug'{k5{ . gofF pkrf/ ljlwx¿n] ;kmntfsf] b/nfO{ a9fPsf 5g\ . PNkmf l/sDjLGofG6 OG6/k]m/g PSn}n] of] b/nfO{ !) b]lv @% k|ltzt;Dd psfn]sf] 5 eg] k|sf/ ! sf] ls6f0f' afx]s cGosf] pkrf/df o;n] ^) k|ltzt ;kmntf kfPsf] 5 . 6fOk—! efO/;df klg pkrf/sf] ;kmntf $* k|ltzt k'u]sf] 5 . Pr=la=eL= / Pr=l;=eL= ;ª\qmd0fsf] PG6LefO/n pkrf/ ;fx|} dxËf] 5 / of] ljZjsf ljsf;zLn b]zx¿df ;LdLt dfqfdf dfq pknAw 5 . Pr=l;=eL= / Pr=lj=eL=sf ls6f0f' Psaf6 csf]{df ;g{ glbg ckgfpg' kg]{ k"j{ ;fjwfgLx¿dWo] bfFt df´\g] a'¿;, Jn]8 / c¿ wfl/nf j:t'x¿ ;f6f;f6 gug'{ xf] . Pr=la=eL= clt ;ª\qmd0fhGo efO/; xf] / Psaf6 csf]{df ;fx|} l56f] ;g{ ;S5 t/ oL efO/;lj¿2sf] vf]kn] ;g{ ;Sg] vt/fnfO{ ;w}Fsf] lglDt /f]lslbg ;S5 .

Xo'dg ODo'gf] l8lkml;oG;L efO/; -Pr=cfO=eL=_ Pr=cfO=eL= ;'Idbz{s oGqn] dfq b]Vg ;lsg] ;ª\qmfds ls6f0f' xf] h;n] ubf{ P8\; nfU5 . -6e_ Pr=cfO=eL= /]6«f]efO/;]; ;d"xdf kg]{ efO/;x¿ x'g\ / logLx¿sf] h}ljs ljz]iftf ljlzi6 lsl;dsf] x'G5, lsgeg] oL efO/;x¿n] cfk\mgf] j[l4 x'g] tl/sfnfO{ cfk}m lgoGq0f ug{ ;Sb5g\ / pgLx¿n] cfqmd0f u/]sf sf]ifx¿df pgLx¿sf] lqmofsnfknfO{ klg lgoGq0f ug{ ;Sb5 . lnDkmf];fO6 -l;=l8=$_ gfd u/]sf z/L/sf ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿ w]/} dxTjk"0f{ sf]ifx¿ x'g\ / logLx¿ efO/;x¿;Fu ldNg ;S5g\ -x]g'{xf];\ 6f_ . oL efO/;x¿ Pp6f ;+oGqsf] k|of]u u/]/ sf]ifx¿df k:5g\ h;n] logLx¿nfO{ sf]ifsf] l8=Pg=P= sf] Pp6f efu agfpF5g\ . oL efO/;x¿ ;+qmldt dfG5]sf] z/L/df /fd|/L :yflkt eO{ ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿df hDdf x'G5g\ / tL sf]ifx¿nfO{ Iflt k'¥ofpF5g\ . z/L/sf] k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLdf ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿n] dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x u5{g\ t/ oL sf]ifx¿n] Psk6s l/6«f]efO/;af6 ;ªqmldt

102


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] eO;s]kl5 ;ª\qmd0fsf] lj¿4 h'´\g ;Sg] / z/L/nfO{ /Iff ug{;Sg] tfut u'dfpF5g\ . s'g} pkrf/ ePg eg] of] ;ª\qmd0fsf] /f]u & b]lv !! jif{leqdf uDeL/ aGb5 t/ lSnlgsn nIf0fx¿ cufl8 g} b]lvg uO{ /f]uLsf] ;d:of uDeL/ klg aGb5 . s'g a]nf of] /f]un] uDeL/ ¿k lnG5 eGg] ;dosf] 6'Ëf] x'Fb}g . z'¿ z'¿sf] ;dodf of] efO/;af6 ;ª\qmldt /f]uLsf] k|of]uzfnf hfFr ubf{ cyjf lSnlgsn lx;fan] s'g} ;ª\s]t of nIf0fx¿ b]lvFb}gg\ -o; cj:yfnfO{ cl;D6f]d]l6s cj:yf elgG5_ ha Psk6s nIf0fx¿ b]lvg z'¿ u5{g\ / k|of]uzfnf hfFrn] klg efO/;sf] tLj| j[l4 b]vfO{ ;ª\qmldt sf]ifx¿sf] Iflt eO;s]sf] glthf b]vfpF5 tj cj:yf cToGt uDeL/ ag]sf] x'G5 . o; cj:yfn] la/fdLnfO{ P8\; eO;s]sf] 5 elg a'´fpF5 . P8\;sf] pkrf/ gkfPsf] /f]uL dg]{ ;aeGbf k|d'v sf/0f ;ªqmd0f xf] . z/L/sf] k|lt/Iff k|0ffnL sdhf]/ eO;s]sf] sf/0fn] of] ;ª\qmd0f hLjg lng] vfnsf] vt/fk"0f{ x'G5 . h'g;'s} k|sf/sf ls6f0f'x¿n] klg uDeL/ b]lv lnP/ hLjg g} hfg] lsl;dsf] ;ª\qmd0f u/fpg ;S5g\ . pkrf/ gul/Psf] P8\; /f]udf lgdf];fO:6Ls sfl/gL eGg] efO/; w]/}h:tf] d[To'sf] sf/0f ag]sf] 5 . Pr=cfO=eL= /utaf6, c;'/lIft of}g;Dks{sf] dfWodaf6 Ps JolQmaf6 csf]{ JolQmdf ;5{ eg] ;ª\qmldt cfdfaf6 hGdg] lzz'df klg ;5{ -o;nfO{ ;ªqmd0f ;g]{ 7f8f] af6f] elgG5_ . Pr lj=eL= / Pr=l;=eL= df h:t} /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgsf] sf/0faf6 Pr=cfO=eL= ;g{ glbg /ut bftfsf] /utsf] k|of]zfnfdf /fd|f];Fu hfFr x'g'k5{ / /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg ;]jf pRrsf]6Lsf] u'0f:t/Lo x'g'k5{ . Pr=cfO=eL= ;g]{ c¿ tl/sfx¿af6 aRgsf nflu w]/}hgf;Fu of}g ;Dks{ gug]{; u/]klg ;'/lIft 9Ën] ug]{ ug'{k5{ . Pr=l;=eL= df h:tf] Pr=cfO=eL=sf] nflu ;'/lIft / k|efjsf/L vf]k clxn];Dd ag]sf] 5}g . of] efO/;sf] z'¿sf] cj:yfdf sf]ifdf k:g] / lg:sg] a]nfdf x:tIf]k ug]{, o; ls6f0f'n] ;ª\qmldt ug]{ sf]ifdf o;sf] j[l4 eO/x]sf] avtdf o;dfly cfqmd0f ug]{ vfnsf cg]s yl/sf PG6L l/6«f]efO/n -l/6«f]efO/;nfO{ cfqmd0f ug]{_ cf}ifwLx¿ ;g\

103


!((^ b]lv g} k|of]udf 5g\ (6g) . cGt/f{li6«o lgb]{zg d'tfljs o; If]qdf sfd ul//x]sf j}1flgsx¿ tyf ljz]if1x¿n] tof/ u/]sf] ljlwcg';f/ @ j6f jf ;f] eGbf a9L cf}ifwLx¿ ;+o'Qm ¿kn] lnFbf oL cf}ifwLx¿n] P8\; /f]usf] k|fs[lts Oltxf; g} abn]sf klg 5g\ . oL cf}ifwLx¿ pknAw ePb]lv Pr=cfO=eL= ;ª\qmldt /f]uLx¿sf] hLjg / hLjg:t/df 7"nf] ;'wf/ cfPsf] 5 . of] l/6«f]efO/n lj/f]lw cf}ifwL ;ª\qmldt cfdfaf6 hGdg] aRrfdf ;g]{ Pr=cfO=eL=sf] ;+qmd0flj¿4 *) k|ltzteGbf a9L la/fdLx¿df ;kmn ePsf] 5 . t/ Pr=;L=eL= / Pr= la=eL h:t} Pr=cfO=eL= sf] pkrf/df k|of]u x'g] cf}ifwLx¿ klg cToGt dxFuf 5g\ . Pr=cfO=eL= ;ªqmldt /f]uLx¿dWo] ax';ª\Vof a;f]af; ug]{ ul/a b]zx¿df y'k|} k|of;x¿sf afah'b klg pkrf/ ;]jf ;Lldt 5 / cf}ifwLx¿ k|of]u ug{ g;Sg] u/L dxFuf 5g\ . RNA

HIV

CD4

RNA DNA

k|f]l6g

DNA

l/e;{ 6«fG:qmLk6f; + RNase H

6g

cf}ifwLnfO{ x:tIf]ksf] df}sf k|bfg ug]{ lsl;dsf] Pr=cfO=eL=sf] hLjgrqm

cj/f]wsx¿

OlG8lj6/ eg. ZDV, ddC, ddI, d4T, 3TC, NVP and DLV

k|f]l6g

Go"lSno; OlG6u|];

RNA

qmf]df]hf]gn DNA (latency) OlGxlj6/

efO/n k|f]l6g efO/n ;'rf? 6«fG:qmLk;g cf/=Pg=P= by tat, nef, rev 6«fG:n];g

OlGxlj6/

OlGxlj6/

eg. SQV, RT IDV and NBA

OG6/k]m/G;

clxn];Dd k|sflzt ePsf tYofÍx¿n] yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf /f]uLx¿df Pr=cfO=eL= sf] ;ª\qmd0f sd kfOPsf] b]vfPsf] 5 t/ ;a} b]zx¿af6 tYofÍx¿ cfPkl5 of] tYofÍ a9\g] ;Defjgf klg plQs} 5 . /utsf] dfWodaf6 c¿ cg]s k|sf/sf ;'Id hLjf0f'x¿ ;g{ ;S5g\ . yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf /f]uLx¿ jf Xofdf]ln6Ls Plgldofsf /f]uLx¿df of] Tolt uDeL/ k|s[ltsf] gx'g ;S5, t/ k|lt/Iff k|0ffnL Psbd sdhf]/ ePsfx¿ / cË k|Tof/f]k0f ul/Psf /f]uLx¿nfO{ of] ;fdfGo hLjf0f'n] ug]{ ;+qmd0f lSnlgsn ¿kn] dxTjk"0f{ x'g ;S5 .

104


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] c¿ efO/;x¿ Xo'dg kfdf]{efO/; – la !( /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgaf6 ;g{;Sg] -oBkL of] dfWod of] efO/; ;g]{ k|d'v dfWod xf]Og_ Xo'dg kfdf]{efO/; B19 Pp6f csf]{ efO/; xf] . yfnf;]ldof jf l;Ssn sf]ifh:tf] Xofdf]ln6Ls Plgldofsf la/fdLx¿df of] efO/;n] Transient Aplastic Crisis c:yfoL PKnf:6Ls ;Í6 eg]/ hflgg] /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] pTkfbgdf c:yfoL lj/fd nufpF5 . Pr=lk=eL= lj—!( n] ug]{ ;ª\qmd0fsf] s8f cj:yfdf x]df]Unf]lag cs:dft 36\5 / l/6LSo'nf] ;fO6\; elgg] /ftf] sf]ifsf k]l/k]ml/on lk|s;{/x¿ crfgs ufoj x'g] cj:yf cfpF5 . olb of] ;ª\qmd0fsf] t'¿Gt} lgbfg x'g ;Sof] eg] /f]uLnfO{ k"0f{ -xf]n_ /utsf] 6«fG:k\mo'hg lbg ;lsG5 h;n] ;ª\qmd0fsf ls6f0f'lj¿2 h'´\g PG6La8Lsf] sfd u5{ . t/ x•Lsf] dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ ev{/} k|Tof/f]k0f u/]sf / Pr=cfO=eL= ;ª\qmldt eO{ z/L/sf] k|lt/Iff k|0ffnL u'dfPsf /f]uLx¿df slxn] sfFxL uDeL/ / bL3{ vfnsf lSnlgsn cK7\of/fx¿ klg b]lvG5g\ .

Xo'dg ;fO6f]d]ufnf] efO/; k|lt/Iff k|0ffnL sdhf]/ ePsf /f]uLx¿df c´ 7"nf] vt/f lgDTofpg] efO/; Xo'dg ;fO6f]d]ufnf] efO/; xf] . cËx¿sf] k|Tof/f]k0f u/]sf la/fdLx¿df ;dod} lgbfg / pkrf/ geP of] efO/;n] cToGt s8f ;ª\qmd0f u/fpF5 . of] ls6f0f'sf] Pp6f d'Vo ljz]iftf o;n] ;ª\qmldt u/]sf sf]ifx¿df :yfoL ¿kn] cfk}m af; ug'{ -ljz]if u/L ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿df_ clg ck|Tofl;t 9Ën] ;lqmo aGb} bf];|f] k6s -;]s]G8/L_ jf k6s–k6s -l/cs/]G;_ ;ª\qmd0f u/fpg' xf] . x•L dHhfsf] k|Tof/f]k0f u/fpg' kg]{ cyjf ul/;s]sf yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf /f]uLx¿n] lkmN6/ u/]sf] /utdfq lng'k5{ lsgls o;n] ubf{ ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿ / ltgLx¿;Fu x'g] l;=le=P= nufotsf ls6f0f'x¿ klg x6\5g\ .

dn]l/of / rfuf; /f]ux¿ /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg k5fl8 nfUg] dn]l/of / rfuf; /f]ux¿ %) jif{b]lv hfgsf/Ldf 5g\ . KnfHdf]l8od k|hfltx¿ / 6«fOkf]]gf];f]df

105


qm'hL qmdzM dn]l/of / rfuf; /f]u nufpg] ls6f0f'x¿ x'g\ . oL ls6f0f'x¿ lk|mh ul/Psf] /utsf] ljleGg efudf / hdfP/ ;'/lIft /fv]sf] KnfHdfdf klg @ xKtf;Dd hLljt /xg;S5g\ . ko{6sLo b]zx¿af6 :yfgLo b]zx¿df, :yfgLo b]zx¿af6 c¿ b]zx¿df a9\bf] a;fO{F ;/fO{sf] sf/0fn] dn]l/of / rfuf; /f]ux¿ a9\g] ;Defjgf uDeL/ rf;f]sf] ljifo xf] . ljZj :jf:Yo ;Ë7g, o"/f]lkog sfpG;Ln, cd]l/sg :jf:Yo clwsf/Lx¿ / /fli6«o /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg s]Gb|x¿n] /ut lbO;s]kl5 cfpg] dn]l/of / rfu; /f]ux¿sf] lgoGq0f ug]{ p2]Zon] Pp6f ;f´f dfgs agfPsf 5g\ h;cGtu{t /ut 6«fG;ˆo'hg kl5 la/fdLsf] / /Qmbftfsf] /utsf] hfFr klg k5{g\ .

gofF Kofyf]hLgx¿ ;g\ !((% b]lv !((* sf] aLrdf kQf nfu]sf gofF ls6f0f'x¿df x]kf6fOl6; la / ;L sf] ykdf c¿ x]kf6fOl6; hL -Pr=lh=eL / Pr=la=eL=–;L=_ P;=O=Pg=–eL / l6=l6= efO/;x¿ x'g\ . /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgaf6 oL efO/;x¿ ;g{;Sg] s'/f cfn]lvt ¿kdf kfOG5 t/ logLx¿n] sn]hf]df c;/ k'¥ofpF5g\ jf k'¥ofpFb}gg\ ;f] s'/f :ki6 x'g afFsL 5 .

k'/fgf Kofyf]hLgx¿af6 hlGdPsf gofF lrGtfx¿ s[phk]mN8—Hofsf]a /f]u -l;=h]=8L=_ / o;sf] gofF / cnu ¿k -le=;L=h]=l8=_, ufOj:t'x¿df kfOg] jf]efOg :kf]GhLkmd{ OG;]kmnfOl6; -lj=P;=O=_ dfgj hfltdf kfOg] o:tf] /f]u xf] h;n] :gfo' k|0ffnLnfO{ c;/ u5{ . of] /f]u s'g} ;fFrf] efO/;n] eGbf klg lk|cg elgg] k|f]l6gsf] sf/0fn] x'G5 . o;sf] ;+/rgfsf] sf/0fn] ubf{ of] hLjf0f'nfO{ c¿ ;ª\qmd0fsf/L ls6f0f'x¿ dfOqmf]J;, JofS6]/Lof, Kof/f;fO6sf] s'g} klg ;d"xdf /fVg ldNb}g . o:tf] kfOPsf] 5 ls s'g} clglZrt cj:yfdf dfgj z/L/n] lk|cg k|f]l6gnfO{ o:tf] xflgsf/s ls6f0f' of tTjdf kl/0ft ul/lbG5 h'g cj:yf lj:tf/} 3fts vfnsf] :gfo' /f]udf ljsl;t x'G5 . of] /f]unfO{ jiff}{Fb]lv hflgPsf] 5 tfklg l;=h]=8L= / o;sf] dxTj tyf gofF ¿knfO{ ;g\ !(() df dfq /fd|/L lrlgof] . ljz]if u/L o"=s]= df d/]sf dflg;sf] z/L/ lr/kmf/ u/]/ x]bf{ of] hLjf0f'

106


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] a9L g} b]lvof] eg] c¿ b]zx¿df clns sd ;ª\Vofdf kfOof] . ;g\ @))! l8;]Dj/;Dddf !!# j6f s];x¿ o'=s]=df e]l6of] eg] k|mfG;df $ j6f, cfO/n]08df / xªsËdf !÷! j6f kfOof] . clxn];Dd b]lvPsf ljleGg hfFrx¿n] l;=h]=l8=sf /f]uLx¿ ;ª\qmldt ufO{j:t'x¿sf] df;' / b"waf6 ag]sf pTkfbgx¿ vfg] dfG5]x¿ x'g\ eGg] b]vfPsf] 5 . c¿ dfG5]x¿af6 zf/Ll/s j[l4 x'g] xdf]{g -u|f]y xdf]{]g_ lng] la/fdLx¿df klg of] ;d:of kfOPsf] 5 eg] 8'/fDof6/ / slg{on k|Tof/f]k0f u/]sf /f]uLx¿df of] ;ª\qmd0f kfOPsf] 5 . :gfo'd08nsf] zNolrlsT;fdf / O=l;=hL= ubf{ k|of]u ul/g] oGq pks/0fx¿nfO{ /fd|/L lg;ª\qmd0f gul/Psf] sf/0fn] klg of] ;ª\qmd0f x'g] u/]sf] kfOPsf] 5 . /ut

PG6La8Lsf] lgdf{0f efO/; k|lt txx¿

T1

T2

;do

;+qmd0fsf] ;do

6«fG:k\mo'hgsf] sf/0fn] of] ;ª\qmd0f ePsf] kfOPsf] 5}g t/ /f]usf] uDeL/ k|s[lt / lnDkml6s tGt'x¿df lk|cg k|f]l6gsf] pkl:ylt x'g] sf/0fn] ubf{ klZrdL b]zx¿df ljz]if u/L a]nfotn] /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgaf6 x'g] o;sf] ;ª\qmd0fnfO{ /f]Sg ckgfpg] gLltx¿ lgdf{0fsf] nflu k|z:t >f]tx¿sf] kl/rfng u/]sf] 5 . o:tf gLltx¿df Pp6f lglt /utnfO{ ljZjJofkL ¿kd} lkmN6/ ug'{kg]{ k4ltsf] z'¿jft xf] h;sf] sf/0fn] ubf{ /utdf /x]sf y'k|} ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿ x6\b5g\ .

/utsf] ;'/Iff ;ª\qmd0fsf/L ;fgf;fgf hLjf0f'x¿ /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgsf] dfWodaf6 ;g]{ ;DefjgfnfO{ /f]Sgsf] nflu k|z:t cGt/f{li6«o k|of;x¿ ePsf 5g\ . /utsf] ;'/lIftkgnfO{ lgDg s'/fx¿n] ;xof]u u5{g\ . != ;xL /Qmbftfx¿af6 :jod\;]jLsf] ¿kdf lgoldt /ut lng] gLlt lgdf{0f ug'{ . @= bftfx¿af6 lnPsf] /utdf Pr=cfO=eL=, Pr=la=eL=, Pr=l;=eL=, le/ËL / c¿ :yfgLo ¿kdf kfOg] ;ª\qmfds hLjf0f'x¿sf] clgjfo{ k|of]uzfnf hfFr u/L pRr :t/sf] /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg ;]jfsf] Joj:yf ug'{ . #= vf]k / lg;ª\qmd0f k|lqmofnfO{ :yflkt ug'{ . cf}Bf]lus b]zx¿n] xfn}sf jif{x¿df Go"lSns Pl;8 hfFr -6]:6LË_ Pg=P=6L= elgg] ljlzi6 vfnsf] l8=Pg=P= k|of]uzfnf k|ljlw nfu" ug]{, /utsf] :qmLlgË ug]{ sfd u/L lSnlgsn ¿kn] dxTjk"0f{

107


efO/;x¿nfO{ 36fpg] sfdsf] z'¿jft u/]sf 5g\ t/ of] k|ljlw Psbd} dxFuf] 5 .

AofS6]l/ofn] Nofpg] k|b"if0f /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg lnPsf /f]uLx¿sf] /utdf efO/; / c¿ ;'Idbz{s oGqn] dfq b]Vg ;Sg] hLjf0f'b]lv jfx]s JofS6]/Lof / k/hLljx¿ klg df}nfpg ;S5g\ . AofS6]l/ofn] ug]{ /utsf] k|b"if0f b/ efO/;n] ug]{eGbf %) b]lv @%) u'0ff a9L 5 . k|foM h;f] o:tf k|b"if0fx¿ ;fdfGo g} x'G5g\ / logLx¿nfO{ ;lhn} /f]Sg ;lsG5 . /ut bfg ug]{ dfG5]sf] /ut lnFbf 5fnfnfO{ lg;ª\qmd0f gu/L /ut tfGof] eg] of] /ut lng] dflg;sf] /f]usf] >f]t aGg ;S5 . /ut lngsf] nflu 5fnf 5]8\g] qmddf ToxfF /x]sf JofS6]/Lofx¿ /utdf k:5g\ / /utnfO{ k|b'lift ub{5g\ .

/ut ;'/lIft /fVg] gofF tl/sfx¿

x]lnsn If]q

;a} lsl;dsf /f]usf] ls6f0f'x¿df x'g] k|b"if0fsf] ;DefjgfnfO{ sd ug{ Kofyf]lhg l8=Pg=P=nfO{ gi6 ug]{ p2]Zosf ;fy gofF k|ljlwx¿ ljsf; ePsf 5g\ h;nfO{ hDdf ul/Psf] /utdf /fVgf;fy Kofyf]lhgsf l8PgPnfO{ gi6 ul/lbG5 . of] ljlwnfO{ Kofyf]hLg lgis[o kfg]{ k|lqmof elgG5 . of] g} ;a}eGbf klxnf] ;lqmo ;'/Iff pkfo xf] . o;n] Kofyf]hLgx¿nfO{ lglZqmo agfpF5 / /utsf] o'lg6df ls6f0f'x¿ eP klg x6fpg] sfd u5{ . cg';Gwfg / lSnlgsn cWoogx¿sf] ljsf; eO/x]sf 5g\ . o;} cGtu{t Kn]6n]6\;nfO{ ;'/lIft /fVg] k|ljlw :jLs[t eO{ Jofj;flos ¿kn] cg'dlt lng] sfd o"/f]kdf eO/x]sf] 5 . of] k|ljlw /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿nfO{ ;'/lIft /fVg], /utsf c¿ tTjx¿ klg ;~ro ug]{ s'/fsf] nflu klg k|of]u x'g] ;Defjgf 5 .

ljsf;zLn b]zx¿df /utsf] pknAwtf / ;'/Iff ;a} cNkljsl;t b]zx¿df /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg k|lqmof;Fu ;DalGwt vt/fx¿ ljsl;t b]zx¿sf] t'ngfdf Psbd a9L 5g\ . ljsf;zLn b]zx¿df kof{Kt /ut k|fKt ug{ g;Sg' g} 7"nf] ;d:of xf] eg] /Qmbftfsf] 5gf}6sf] gLlt / vf]k sfo{qmdx¿ cd]l/sf / o'/f]ksf] u'0f:t/df ;~rfng x'g ;s]sf 5}gg\ .

108


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] oL b]zx¿df JofKt cfly{s ;Í6, cfwf/e"t cfjZostf k|flKtsf] xf]8afhL / /fhg}lts cl:y/tfn] pRr u'0f:t/sf] /ut pknAw u/fpg agfpg' kg]{ gLltnfO{ k5fl8 ws]n]s]f 5 . ljZj :jf:Yo ;Ë7gsf] /ut ;'/Iff ljefusf] tYofÍ cg';f/ *) k|ltzt dflg;x¿ ljsf;zLn b]zx¿df a:5g\ / ltgLx¿n] ;+;f/sf] s'n /ut cfk"lt{ ;ft s/f]8 krf; nfv o'lg6sf] $) k|ltzt dfq /ut k|fKt u5{g\ . oL 7fpFx¿df hDdf ul/Psf] /utdWo] cg'dflgt !^ k|ltzt dfq /ut sd hf]lvd ePsf] / lgMz'Ns ¿kn] :jo+;]jLbftfaf6 cfk"lt{ x'G5 hals $# k|ltzt /utsf] /fd|/L hfFr g} x'Fb}g . kl/0ffd:j¿k Pr=cfO=eL=, Pr=l;=eL=, Pr=la=le= cflbsf] ;ª\qmfds /ut lnP/ x'g] ;ª\qmd0f ljsf;zLn /fi6«x¿df ;fx|} g} w]/} pRr b/df 5 . oL b]zx¿df /utsf] pknAwtf / ;'/lIftkgnfO{ ;'lglZrt ug{ cGt/f{li6«o, /fli6«o :jf:Yo ;+3 ;ª\u7gx¿ tyf lgofds ;+:yfn] uDeL/ lsl;dsf k|of;x¿ z'¿ ug'{ cToGt h¿/L 5 .

109


pkrf/ gul/Psf] yfnf;]ldof d]h/df cGTodf s] x'G5 – ;f/f+z /utsf] ckof{Kt 6«fG:k\mo'hgaf6 k|efljt x'g] c+ux¿ cg'xf/sf] c8\jfu]kg -ufnfsf] dflyNnf] x•Lsf] clt j[l4

kof{Kt ¿kn] kmnfd tTj gx6fpgfn] -lrn];g_ z/L/sf c+ux¿df x'g] ;d:of lk6'6/L u|GyL -of}g c+u, Pl8«gn / yfO/fO8sf] j[l4df c;/ yfO/f8 u|GyL -lj/n}_ Kof/fyfO/f8 u|GyL -xfOkf]Kof/fO/f]l8Hd h;n] xfOkf]SoflN;dLof lgDTofpF5_ d'6' -d'6'sf df+;k]zLn] sfd ug{ 5f8\g] / c? dxTjk"0f{ c+ux¿ k|efljt sn]hf] -x]kf6f]d]ufnL_

lkmof]sf] j[l4 -y|f]Daf];fO6f]k]gLof cflb_

/ut -Plgldof_

k]lGqmofh -dw'd]x_

5fnfsf] /+u kl/jt{g -gªsf] tNnf] efusf] /+u kl/jt{g, s'lxgf, uf]lnufF7f / 3'F8fsf] v}/f]kg_ of}gfË -ljsf; / sfo{df afwf_

x•Lx¿ a9]/ efFlrg] ;d:of x•L dHhfsf] lj:tf/n] ubf{ c;odd} tNnf] k]mdf]/n PlkkmfOl; aGb x'g]

110

x•L / hf]gL{ b'Vg] cf]:6Lcf]kf]/f]l; -xfOkf]Kof/fyfO/f]l8Hd;Fu ;DalGwt_


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/]

cWofo & yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8of / c¿ k|sf/sf yfnf;]ldofx¿ yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8of Pp6f o:tf] d]l8sn cj:yf xf] h;df o;sf la/fdLx¿n] k|efljt β- lhg afa'cfdfx¿ b'j}af6 k|fKt u5{g\ . -ltgLx¿nfO{ la–yfnf;]ldofsf] nflu xf]df]hfOu; dflgG5 ._ t/ oL la/fdLx¿df yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf la/fdLx¿df eGbf sd s8f vfnsf] lSnlgsn nIf0fx¿ b]lvG5g\ . yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofsf /f]uLx¿df x]df]Unf]lagsf] tx ^ b]lv ( u|fd k|lt ln6/ /xg] ePsfn] /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hgsf] cfjZostf gkg{ ;S5 . t/ ev{/} ul/Psf y'k|} uDeL/ cg';Gwfgx¿ cg';f/ yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofdf klg cg]s vfnsf lSnlgsn nIf0fx¿ b]lvG5g\ tL dWo] sltko uDeL/ klg x'G5g\ . k|fo h;f] uDeL/ /f]ux¿df /f]uLx¿df @ b]lv ^ jif{sf] jLrdf s]xL lSnlgsn / k|of]uzfnfaf6 k|dfl0ft x'g] lsl;dsf k|df0fx¿ klg b]lvG5 . /f]uLx¿sf] j[l4 / zf/Ll/s ljsf; cfjZostf eGbf sd eP klg o; lsl;dsf yfnf;]ldofdf β- yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf /f]uLx¿nfO{ h:tf] nuftf/ /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg lbO/xg' kb}{g cem sd uDeL/ vfnsf] of] /f]udf t /f]uLx¿df jo:s a]nf;Dd klg /f]usf st} nIf0fx¿ g} b]lvFb}gg\ . pgLx¿df Plgldofsf] Psbd g} sd k|efj -* b]lv !) u|f=÷ln= x]df]Unf]lag_ x'g] ePsf] x'Fbf zfob g} /ut lng'kg]{ x'G5 . yfnf;]ldof d]h/df h:t} /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ 6'qmg] / lkmof]df hDdf x'g] qmd tLj| x'g] x'gfn] lkmof] a9\g ;S5 -:k]gf]d]ufnL_ of] cj:yf slxn]sfFxL yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofsf] /f]uLx¿df ljsf; x'g] s8f lsl;dsf] Plgldofsf] sf/0f klg aGg;S5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf la/fdLnfO{ nuftf/ /ut lbO/xg' kg]{ -6«fG;k\mo'hg_ x'G5 . lkmof]nfO{ zNos[of u/]/ x6fpFbf klg oL ;d:ofx¿ 6g{ ;S5g\ . t/ of] lg0f{o d]l8sn ljz]if1x¿sf] ;Nnfxdf la/fdLsf] :jf:Yosf] c¿ cg]s kIfx¿nfO{ Wofgdf /fv]/ lng'k5{ lsgeg] lkmof] x6fpgfn] uDeL/ ;+qmd0f klg x'g ;S5 .

111


cWofo # df j0f{g ul/Ph:t}, yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf] nIf0fx¿sf] k|d'v sf/0f /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿df :jtGq α- r]gx¿ y'lk|P/ logLx¿;Fu ;b}j ;Fu} /xg] β- r]gx¿;Fu c;Gt'ngsf] l:ylt >[hgf x'g' xf] . α- r]gx¿ PSn}n] /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] l5lkg] x/]s k|lqmofnfO{ g/fd|/L vnaNofpF5g\ . dfly pNn]v ul/P h:t} s8f lsl;dsf] Plgldof / c¿ cj:yfx¿ l;h{gf ug{ ;S5g\ . dfly pNn]v ul/P h:t}, olb α- r]gx¿sf] clws ;+Vofsf] pkl:ylt 36]sf] v08df yfnf;]ldof /f]usf nIf0fx¿ sd s8f x'g]5g\ eg]/ cfzf ug'{ pko'Qm g} x'G5 . c0f'x¿sf] txdf ul/Psf] kl/If0fn] b]vfP cg';f/ o; cj:yfn] tn pNn]v u/] cg';f/ cGo y'k|} l:yltsf] l;h{gf u5{ . s_ β+ hLgsf] pkl:yltn] yf]/} g} ;+Vofdf ePklg β- r]gx¿ pTkfbg u5{g\ / ltgLx¿ α- r]gx¿;Fu hf]8f agfpFg k'U5g\ . / :jtGq α- r]gx¿sf] ;+Vof 36fpF5g\ . β+ hLgx¿sf] hLg ;+/rgf kl/jt{g sd s8f lsl;dsf] lSnlgsn glthf;Fu ;+aGwL 5 h;nfO{ β ++ cj:yfn] lrlgG5 . v_ α- r]gx¿sf] ;+Zn]if0fsf] nflu lhDd]jf/ hLgx¿sf] q'l6n] pTkflbt α- r]gx¿sf] ;+Vof 36\g uO{ α- r]g / β- r]gx¿sf] ;Gt'ngdf ;'wf/ cfpF5 . u_ γ r]g pTkfbg ug{ lhDd]jf/ γhLgsf] pRr ;s[otfn] hL kmf]P6n x]df]Unf]lag aGg (α2γ2) α- r]g;Fu ldN5 / 5f8f vfnsf xflgsf/s α- r]gnfO{ 36fpF5 . r]g pTkfbg x'g] cj:yfn] c¿ ;sf/fTds s'/fx¿ klg NofpF5 h:t} δβ yfnf;]ldof, kmf]o6n x]df]Unf]lagsf] j+zf0f'ut ;+nUgtf, -HPFH_ / γ hLgx¿sf] (XMNL) elgg] Pp6f vf; ;fO6df kl/jt{g . γ

dflysf a'Fbfx¿ cg';f/ d]l8sn sd{rf/Lx¿n] la/fdLsf] cj:yfaf/]df pgLx¿sf] 1fg / hfgsf/LnfO{ a9fpg ;S5g\ / la/fdLsf] l8=Pg=P=df ePsf] vf; vfnsf] IfltnfO{ ;xL ¿kn] lrGg ;S5g\ . To;sf/0f hxfF ;'ljwfx¿ pknAw 5g\, k/LIf0fsf o; lsl;dsf cf0fljs ljlwx¿n] yfnf;]ldofsf] pkrf/sf] nflu cd"No lsl;dsf ;xof]u pknAw u/fO/x]sf 5g\ . o; ljsf;n] ubf{ la/fdLsf] nflu ;xL vfnsf] pkrf/sf] Joj:yf ug{ ;lhnf] ePsf] 5 .

112


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] /f]usf] lgbfg yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofsf] lgbfg ug{ o;sf vf; vfnsf lSnlgsn k|of]uzfnfsf hfFrx¿sf] hfgsf/L :yflkt ug{ h¿/L 5 h;n] ubf{ o;nfO{ yfnf;]ldof d]h/af6 5'§fpg ;lsG5 . t/ cToGt} k|efjsf/L cf0fljs k|of]uzfnf k|ljlw x'Fbf x'Fb} klg o;f] ug{ ;w}F ;+ej / ;lhnf] 5}g . t/ klg s]xL k|efjsf/L / ;fwf/0f qmfO6]l/of o; k|sf/ 5g\ .

yfnf;]ldof b]lvg] cj:yf SnLlgsn :Kn]gf]d]ufnL -lkmof] a9\g]_ hG8L; x•Ldf kl/jt{g cg'xf/df kl/jt{g x]df6f]nf]lhs Plgldof cf/=lj=;L= dfOsf];fO6f]l;; Pgcf/la;L afof] Sofldsn Pr lj Pkm Pr la=P@

pRr afnscj:yfdf nfUg]

OG6/d]l8of kl5Nnf] ;dodf nfUg]

lgDg P;f]D6f]Dofl6s -nIf0f dfq b]lvg]_

+++ +++ ++++ ++-++++

+++-++++ +-+++ ++-++++ 0-++++

0-+ 0-+ 0 0

++++ ↓ +

++-+++ ↓ +

0-+ N -↑ +

++-++++

+-+++

0

10-95+Ü Pg cyjf ↑

10+95+Ü Pg cyjf ↑

Pg cyjf < 10Ü Pg cyjf ↑ (> 3.5%)

-;Dd]ngsf] k|ltj]bgx¿af6 Pd=P= gf]e]Dj/ !((^_

;f/f+zdf, yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8of eGg] zAbn] km/flsnf] If]q ;d]6\5 / la/fdLx¿df /x]sf] x]df6f]nf]lhsn / lSnlgsn glthfnfO{ ;+s]t u5{ . oL kl/0ffdx¿n] O+lut u/]sf] /f]u xf]df]hfOuf]; β yfnf;]lddf eGbf sd s8f t/ x]6]/f]hfOuf]; jfxseGbf w]/} s8f dflgG5 .

yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofsf] Joj:yfkg yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofdf /ut lbg -6«fG;k\mo'hg_ slxn]b]lv z'¿ ug]{ eGg] k|Zg ;aeGbf dxTjk"0f{ x'G5 . tn pNn]v ul/Psf d]l8sn cj:yfx¿ bL3{ Plgldofsf kl/0ffd x'g;S5g / oL g}

113


sf/0fx¿n] ubf{ /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg yfNg'kg]{ x'g ;S5 . • ;':t zf/Ll/s j[l4 • Kofyf]nf]lhsn ¿kn] x•L efFlrg] • d'6'sf ;d:ofx¿ • cg'xf/sf] a]9\ªu]kg • ;fdfGo zf/Ll/s s[ofsnfkdf sld • xfOk/:Kn]lgHd -lkmof] a9\g] ;d:of_ yfnf;]ldof d]h/df ljsl;t x'g] s'g} lsl;dsf cK7\of/fx¿nfO{ t'¿Gt} lrGgsf] nflu la/fdLx¿sf] glhsaf6 x]/rfx u/L d]l8sn / k|of]uzfnf hfFrx¿nfO{ lg/Gt/tf ug{ h¿/L x'G5 . t/ yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofsf la/fdLx¿n] d]h/sf] t'ngfdf l9nf] u/L /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg z'¿ ub{5g\ . cufl8 pNn]v ul/Psf] h:t}, hLjgsf] kl5Nnf] cjlwdf uP/ /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg z'¿ u/]kl5 pTkGg x'g] k|lts[ofx¿ h:t}M Pnf]ODo'gfOh]zgx¿ k|lt ljz]if Wofg lbg' h¿/L x'G5 . To;sf/0f /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg ug'{eGbf cufl8 /ut lbg] bftf / /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg lng] la/fdLsf] /Qm;d"xsf] k|sf/ / cGo tTjx¿ Psbd /fd|/L ldnfP/ x]g{ h¿/L x'G5 . yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8of ePsf ue{jtL dlxnfx¿nfO{ /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hgsf] ;Vt h¿/L kg{ ;S5 .

kmnfd tTjsf] ck;f/0f -lrn];g_ yfnf;]ldof d]h/df h:t}M yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofdf lgDg sf/0fx¿n] ubf{ kmnfd tTjsf] clwstf x'g hfG5 . s_ /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] ckof{Kt / ck|efjsf/L pTkfbg v_ /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ 6'6\g] ;d:of . u_ cfGb|fn] cjzf]if0f ug]{ kmnfd tTjsf] dfqfdf j[l4 . yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofsf la/fdLx¿df x'g] kmnfd tTjsf] clws ;+lrtLsf] af/]df t'ngfTds ¿kn] sd cg';Gwfgx¿ ePsf 5g\ . Pp6f cWoogn] b]vfPsf] 5 Pshgf yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofsf] /f]uLsf] z/L/df k|ltjif{ @ b]lv % u|fd kmnfd tTj y'lk|G5 . of] tYofª\s k|ltlbg )=! ldln u|fd s]hL x'g cfpF5 . of] vfgfaf6 cjzf]if0f x'g] kmnfd tTjsf] dfqfsf] b/eGbf @) b]lv &)Ü n] a9L xf] . To;}n] yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofsf /f]uLx¿ ha !) jif{eGbf dfly k'U5g\ pgL¿sf] z/L/df hDdf x'g] kmnfd tTjsf]

114


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] clwstfsf] sf/0fn] x'g] ;d:ofx¿ lgoldt /ut 6«fG;ˆo'hg ug]{ yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf /f]uLx¿df h:t} uDeL/ x'g ;S5 . yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofsf /f]uLx¿nfO{ slxn] kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ lbg] eGg] s'/fsf] lg0f{o yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf /f]uLx¿sf] h:tf] k]ml/l6gsf] tx x]/]/ ug{ ufx|f] x'G5 To;sf/0f of] lg0f{o lng] Psdfq cfwf/ la/fdLsf] z/L/df ePsf] kmnfd tTjsf] ;xL ef/ kQf nufpg' xf] . To;sf/0f kmnfd tTjsf] Psfu|tfsf] ;xL cfFsng ug{ sn]hf]sf] jfoK;L ug'{ cyjf cem gofF, k|efjsf/L / ;+j]bgzLn 9Ën] la/fdLnfO{ c;/ gkf/L ug{;lsg] P;=So'=o'=cfO=8L= / Pd=cf/=cfO hfFr ug{' pko'Qm x'G5 . kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ -cfO/g lsn];g_ ug]{ lg0f{o lnO;s]kl5 yfnf;]ldof d]h/df h:t} 8]:k]ml/cf]ShfdfOg lng ;lsG5 . yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofdf la/fdLx¿nfO{ 5fnf d'lgaf6 xKtfsf] @ b]lv # lbg l8=Pkm=cf]=sf] emf]n k|If]k0f ug'{kg]{ x'g;S5 . yfnf;]ldof d]h/df kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ ul//x]sf /f]uLx¿n] kfngf ug'{ kg]{ ljleGg k/LIf0fx¿ h:t} yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofsf /f]uLx¿n] klg ljleGg k/LIf0fx¿ lgoldt ¿kdf ug'{k5{ . yfnf;]ldof OG6/ldl8ofsf la/fdLx¿sf] cfGb|fn] ;fljseGbf clws kmnfd tTj cjzf]if0f ug]{ ePsf]n] /f]uLx¿n] kmnfd tTj ePsf vfg]s'/fx¿ kfn'ª\uf]sf] ;fu, sn]hf] / u]8fu'8L vfg x'Fb}g . vfgf;Fu sfnf] lrof lkpgfn] cfGb|faf6 x'g] kmnfd tTjsf] cjzf]if0fnfO{ 36fpg d2t u5{ .

yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofdf d]l8sn ;d:ofx¿ s_ xf8df kl/jt{gM Plgldof;+u n8\g z/L/n] w]/} /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ pTkfbg ug{ k|oTg u5{ . kmn:j¿k, x•Lsf] dHhf -af]gDof/f]_ a9L s[ofzLn x'G5 . af]g Dof/f]sf] clws ;s[otfn] ubf{ x•L 6]8f]d]8f] x'g], kftnf] / sdhf]/ x'g], x•Lsf] :jefljs j[l4 / ljsf; geO{ x•L efFlrg];Dd klg x'G5 . t/ x•Lsf s8f lsl;dsf ;d:ofx¿nfO{ nuftf/ ul/g] /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hgsf] dfWodaf6 sd ug{ ;lsG5 . v_ cf]l:6of]kf]/f]l;; -x•L Kjfn kg]{ /f]u_M cf]:6Lof]kf]/f]l;; h:tf] uDeL/ lsl;dsf] /f]uaf6 aRg la/fdLx¿n] nuftf/ Jofofd

115


ug{sf ;fy} vfgfdf SoflN;odsf] dfqfnfO{ a9fpg' k5{ . SofN;Lod / le6fldg l8 sf] SofK;'nx¿ lngfn] yk kmfObf k'Ug ;S5 . r'/f]6 k6Ss} vfg' x'Fb}g . s]xL 8fS6/x¿n] vfg] / gzfaf6 lbg] afof]kmf]:kmf]g]6\;sf] k|of]uaf6 /fd|f glthfx¿ klg b]vfPsf 5g\, oBlk o;sf] cf]:6Lof]kf]/f]l;;;Fu n8\g ;Sg] e"ldsfsf] 6'ª\uf] nfUg afFsL g} 5 . u_ x•L dHhf -jf]g Dof/f]_ sf] lj:tf/ / kmf]lns Pl;8M z/L/df ePsf] Plgldof;+u n8\gsf nflu x•Lsf] dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ clt a9L s[ofzLn x'G5 / a9L kl/>d u5{ . yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8of ePsf /f]uLx¿sf] z/L/n] clws dfqfdf /ftf /Qmsf]if agfpg' kgf{n] o:tf] ePsf] xf] . To;sf/0f la/fdLx¿n] cltl/Qm le6fldg ljz]if u/L kmf]lns Pl;8 lng'k5{ . kmf]lns Pl;8sf] sdLn] yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofsf /f]uLx¿df Plgldofsf] l:yltnfO{ cem} ljuf5{ . kmf]lns Pl;8 ;fukft / df;'df k|fs[lts ¿kn] kfOG5 . o;f] ePklg, lbgsf] Pp6f rSsL k]mlns Pl;8 vfg] u/]df la/fdLsf] cltl/Qm cfjZostf klg k"/f x'G5 . 3_ un:6f]g -lkQ y}nLdf 9'+uf_M yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofsf /f]uLx¿df ;fwf/0f eGbf a9L dfqfdf lkQ y}nLdf 9'+uf aGg] ;d:of kfOG5 . -sf]n]lnlycfl;;_ lkQ kTy/x¿ /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ 6'6\bf lg:sg] ;xpTkfbg -lkQsf 6'qmfx¿_ x'g oL kTy/x¿ sn]hf]sf] 5]pd} /x]sf] lkQdf hDdf x'g z'¿ u5{g / To; 7fFpdf cj/f]w pTkGg u5{g . kmn:j¿k k]6 b'Vg yfN5 . lkQ kTy/sf] pkl:yltnfO{ cN6«f;fp08 u/]/ kQf nufpg ;lsG5 . olb k]6 nuftf/ b'lv/Xof] eg] zNos[of u/]/ lkQy}nL kmfNg ;lsG5 . ª_ v'§fdf x'g] cN;/M yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofsf /f]uLx¿df /Qm ;~rf/ k|s[of sd x'g] ePsf]n] / /utn] clS;hgsf] cfk"lt{ sd ug]{ x'gfn] uf]nL uf7fFsf] jl/kl/ cN;/ x'g] ;Defjgf a9L x'G5, ljz]if u/]/ kfsf] pd]/sf] lj/fdLx¿df . oL cN;/x¿ xtklQ hflt x'Fb}gg / pkrf/ ug{ uf¥xf] x'G5 . x]df]Unf]lagsf] dfqf a9fpgsf] nflu lnOg] /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hgn] /Qm ;~rf/ tyf clS;hgsf] dfqf a9fO{ s]xL cf/fd u/fpF5 . of] ;Fu;Fu} lbgsf] ! b]lv @ 306f d'6'sf] ;txeGbf s]xL dfly v'§f

116


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] /fVgfn], ;'Tbf v'§flt/ s]xL cUnf] l;/fgL nfpgfn], df]hf nufO{ /fv]/ v'§fnfO{ Gofgf] /fVgfn] klg cf/fd x'G5 . lhGs ;Nk]m6sf rSsLx¿ lngfn] klg kmfObf k'U5 . ;fy ;fy} hydroxyurea PSn} cyjf c¿ cf}ifwL;Fu ldnfP/ lbgfn] -erythropoeitin / butyrates_ kmf]P6n x]df]Unf]lagsf] j[l4 u/fpg ;S5 . r_ d[uf}nfsf ;d:ofx¿M yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofsf la/fdLx¿sf] :jf:Yodf x'g] csf]{ ;d:of d[uf}nfdf Iflt k'Ug] x'G5, h'g /utdf x'g] cToflws o'l/s Pl;8sf] sf/0fn] x'g ;S5 . cToflws lqmoflzn x•Lsf] dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ sf] sf/0fn] algg] o'l/s Pl;8 clt g} sfd gnfUg] tTjx¿sf] ;+ufnf] xf] . PNnf]Ko'l/gf]n (Allopurinol) cf}ifwL lngfn] o:tf] o'l/s Pl;8 algg sd u/fpg d2t ug{ ;S5 . 5_ y|f]Daf]lkmlnofM csf]{ ;d:of y|f]Daf]l;;sf] a9\bf] vt/f klg xf] . o; ;d:ofdf -/ut ;DaGwL v08 x]g'{xf];\_ /Qm gnLx¿df y|f]Daf];fx6\; / Kn]6n]6\;x¿ hDdf x'G5g\ / /ut hdfO{ of afSnf] agfO{ /utsf] ;+rf/nfO{ cj/f]w k'¥ofpF5g\ . o;n] ubf{ sf]if / tGt'x¿df /fd|f];Fu clS;hg k|jfx x'g kfpFb}g . Kn]6\n]6\; ;+VofnfO{ lg/Gt/ uGtL u/]/ 8fS6/x¿n] /ut afSnf] x'g glbg] of hDg glbg] cf}ifwL lbg] of zNos[of ug]{ s'/fsf] lgwf{/0f ug{ ;S5g\ . h_ cltl/Qm d]8'n/L Pl/y|f]kf]Ol;;M of] af]g Dof/f]b]lv jflx/ /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ pTkfbg x'g] k|so[ f xf] . yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf /f]uLx¿n] ;fg} pd]/af6 /utsf] 6«fG;k\mo'hg lng z'¿ ug]{ ePsf]n] x•L—dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ clws s[ofzLn x'g kfpFb}g . yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofsf /f]uLx¿n] nuftf/ /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg gkfpg] ePsf]n] x•Lsf] dHhf / Tof] eGbf aflx/sf] If]q h:t} 5flt / d]¿b08df /utsf /ftf sf]ifx¿ aG5g\ . PS;/] u/]/ x]bf{ /ut agfpg] tGt'x¿sf] y'k|f] nfUb} uPsf] b]Vg ;lsG5 . d]¿b08 glhs aGg] /Qmsf]ifx¿n] d]¿b08df bafa lbG5g\ / :gfo'hGo ;d:ofx¿nfO{ hGd lbg ;S5g\ . o:tf k|s[ofnfO{ PS;—/] u/]/ jf ce}m k|efjsf/L Pd=cf/=cfO{= u/]/ b]Vg

117


;lsG5 . oL ;d:ofx¿nfO{ /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg pkrf/ af6 ;lhn} xn ug{ ;lsG5 . /ut lbgfn] gfhfoh 7fpFdf cltl/Qm ¿kn] aGg] /Qmsf]ifx¿ aGg kfpFb}gg\ To;sf] kl/0ffd :j¿k b]lvPsf] tGt'sf] -df;_ 8Nnf] klg x/fpF5 . olb uDeL/ vfnsf :gfo' hGo cj:yfx¿ b]vf k/] eg] /]l8of]y]/fkL h:tf] ;lqmo lgbfg ljlw klg ckgfpg' kg]{ x'g ;S5 . em_ d'6' / sn]hf]sf ;d:ofx¿M bL3{ Plgldofn] d'6'sf ;d:ofx¿ cfpF5g\ eg] kmnfd tTjsf] clwstfn] ubf{ d''6' / sn]hf] b'j} ljlu|g ;S5g\ . oL b'j} cj:yfx¿sf] pkrf/sf lglDt yfnf;]ldof d]h/df ckgfPs} pkrf/ k2tLx¿ ckgfpg' k5{ .

yfnf;]ldof;Fu ;DalGwt c8af·] x]df]Unf]lag cyjf ;+/rgfut ¿kn] x]df]Unf]lag cGt/ kfg]{ tTjx¿ c;fdfGo x]df]Unf]lagx¿ ;fdfGo x]df]Unf]lageGbf ;+/rgf / sfddf g} km/s x'G5g . s]xL dxTjk"0f{ c;fdfGo x]df]Unf]lagx¿M • x]df]Unf]lag P; -PrljP;_ • x]df]Unf]lag l; -Prlal;_ • x]df]Unf]lag O -PrljO{_ • x]df]Unf]lag l8 -Pr lj8L_ • x]df]Unf]lag n]kf]/ oL x]df]Unf]lagx¿ la=–yfnf;]ldof h;/L g} j+zf0f'ut ¿kn] ;5{g\ . pbfx/0fsf lglDt s;}n] cfdf afa'af6 k|fKt u/]sf] hLgdWo] Ps hgfaf6 /fd|f] -gd{n_ / csf]{ hgfaf6 g/fd|f] -Pagd{n_ x]df]Unf]lag P;=;L=O=jf 8L dWo] s'g} x'G5g\ eg] ltlgx¿nfO{ qmd};+u PraLP;, PraL;L, PraLO jf PraL8Lsf] jfxs -Sofl/o/_ elgG5 . oL Sofl/o/x¿sf] aL–yfnf;]ldofsf Sofl/o/x¿sf] klxrfg u/] h;/L g} k|of]uzfnf k/LIf0faf6 klxrfg ug{ ;lsG5 .

xf]df]hfOuf]6 c;fdfGo x]df]Unf]lag dflg;x¿n] -P;=l;=O= cyjf 8L_ c;fdfGo x]df]Unf]lag afa'cfdf dWo] Psaf6 / csf]{ km/s c;fdfGo x]df]Unf]lag -P;=l;=O=8L=_ csf]{ afa' jf cfdfaf6 j+zf0f'ut ¿kn] k|fKt ug{ ;S5g\ . t/ h;n] afa'cfdf b'j}af6 x]df]Unf]lag P; k|fKt u5{g\ of] SnLlgsn

118


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] ¿kn] dxTjk"0f{ cj:yf xf] / o;nfO{ x]df]Unf]lag P; sf] nflu xf]df]hfOuf]; cyjf v'k]{sf]if /QmcNktf -l;Ssn ;]n Plgldof_ elgG5 . x]df]hfOu; x]df]Unf]lag l;=l8= / O= ;Fu s'g} klg ax';+Vofdf /x]sf /f]ux¿ ;DalGwt gePsf]n] oL x]df]Unf]lagx¿ lSnlgsn ¿kn] dxTjk"0f{ 5}gg\ .

la–yfnf;]ldof;Fu ldl>t c8af·] x]df]Unf]lagx¿ c;fdfGo x]df]Unf]lagx¿af6 x'g] ;aeGbf w]/} kfOg] β yfnf;]ldofsf of}lus ¿kx¿M • Pr= la= P;= . β - yfnf;]ldof / • Pr= la= O{= . β - yfnf;]ldof Pr la P; . Hbs/β yfnf;]ldofM n] yfnf;]ldof d]h/ / OG6/d]l8ofsf] lSnlgsn cj:yf h:tf]eGbf klg æv'k]{Æ sf]if /QmcNktf -l;Ssn ;]n l8lhh_sf] h:tf] nIf0f b]vfpF5 . yfnf;]ldofM of] ;a}eGbf cgf}7f] lsl;dsf] x]dfUnf]lagsf] ljljlwtf ePsf] / yfnf;]ldofsf] u'0f af]s]sf] blIf0f k"j{ Pl;ofdf k|rlnt /f]u xf] . o;sf] of}lustfn] klg y'k|} lSnlgsn nIf0fx¿ -k]mgf]6fOksf ljljwtfx¿ / /f]usf] l;ls:ttfsf] ax'¿k_ b]vfpF5 . la/fdLsf] l;ls:ttf / nIf0fx¿sf] cfwf/df, SnLlgsn ¿kn] βyfnf;]ldof÷HbE nfO{ ltg cj:yfdf ljefhg ul/G5 . HbE÷β

sd s8f vfnsf] β- yfnf;]ldof÷HbEM blIf0fk"j{ Pl;ofsf yfnf;]ldofaf6 k|efljt /f]uLx¿dWo] ;/b/ !%Ü /f]uLx¿df kfOG5 . o;sf /f]uLx¿n] s'g} klg lsl;dsf] SnLlgsn ;d:ofx¿ b]vfpFb}gg\ . pgLx¿df x]dfUnf]lagsf] tx k|lt 8];Lln6/ /ut ( b]lv !@ u|fd x'G5 . s8f lsl;dsf] β- yfnf;]ldof÷HbEM of] /f]u ePsf clwsf+; /f]uLx¿n] β- yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofsf] h:tf] lSnlgsn nIf0fx¿ b]vfpF5g\ . logLx¿sf] x]dfUnf]lagsf] tx l:y/¿kn] k|lt8]l;ln6/ ^ b]lv & u|fd x'G5 . clt s8f vfnsf] β- yfnf;]ldof÷HbE M o;sf /f]uLx¿df yfnf;]ldof d]h/ /f]uLx¿df h:tf] s8f vfnsf lSnlgsn nIf0fx¿ kfOG5g\ / x]df]Unf]lagsf] tx k|lt8]l;ln6/ /ut $ b]lv % u|fd;Dd x'G5 . oL la/fdLx¿sf] pkrf/ yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf /f]uLx¿sf] h:t} u/]/ ug{'k5{ .

119


/ut 6«fG;k\mo'hgM oL cj:yf ePsf la/fdLx¿nfO{ /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hgsf] ;dodf pRr /Qmrfk, hLp y/y/L sfDg], / dlit:sdf x'g] /Qm>fk h:tf cK7\of/fx¿af6 hf]ufpg /fd|/L cg'udg ug'{k5{ . pRr /Qmrfksf] sf/0f dl:tisdf /Qm>fj eO{ d[To' x'gaf6 hf]ufpgsf nflu pRr /Qmrfk lgoGq0f ug]{ cf}ifwL lbg ;lsG5 . s8f vfnsf] Plgldof gePsf la/fdLx¿nfO{ /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg lbg' x'Fb}g . α-

yfnf;]ldof

dfgjsf] α- Unf]lag hLgx¿ qmf]df]hd !^ df k|ltlnkL aG5g\ -8'KnLs]6_ / ToxL a:5g\ . Pp6f jf b'j} α- Unf]ljg hLgx¿ ePsf] l8 Pg P sf] 7"nf] efu ha x/fpF5 α- r]gx¿sf] dfqfdf sld cfO α- ;+Zn]if0f x'g k'U5 . olb Pp6f dfq hLg x/fof] eg] o:tf] cj:yf ePsf] JolQmnfO{ df}g -;fOn]G6_ cyjf 6fOk αα/α- sf] afxs elgG5 . oxL la/fdLdf b'j} hLgx¿ d]l6P eg] o:tf] JolQmnfO{ α-/α- afxs elgG5 .

αα/α cyjf

olb # j6f hLgx¿ d]l6P eg] o:tf] cj:yfnfO{ Hb/H /f]u elgG5 lsgls o:tf] a]nf /utdf β- r]gx¿sf] clwstf /xG5 . of] cj:yf sd s8f vfnsf] Xofdf]ln6Ls Plgldof ePsf] h:tf] of :Kn]gf]d]ufnL ePsf] h:tf] x'G5 . s8f vfnsf] Xofdf]ln6Ls ;+s6, cf}ifwL of ;"Ox¿sf] k|efjn] x'g] u5{ . olb $ j6} hLgx¿ d]l6P eg] xfO8«f]k kmf]P6\; -Hb af6\;{_ b]vfk5{ of] cj:yf eg]sf] uef{zodf ePsf] e|'0fsf] d[To'sf] ;"rs xf] .

120


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/]

cWofo * 8a

:yflkt pkrf/sf ljlwx¿ / eljiosf ;Defjgfx¿ x8\8Lsf] dHhf -af]gDof/f]_ sf] k|Tof/f]k0f -la Pd 6L_ olb x•Lsf] dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ sf] k|Tof/f]k0f ;kmn eof] eg] o;n] yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf] k"0f{ pkrf/ ug{ ;S5 . yfnf;]ldofsf] nflu la Pd 6L ug]{ k4ltsf] z'¿jft ;g\ !(*! df eof] / clxn];Dd !%)) la/fdLx¿n] o:tf] pkrf/ kfO;s]sf 5g\ .

x8\8Lsf] dHhfsf] k|Tof/f]k0f eg]sf] s] xf]< x•L dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ eg]sf] x•Lleq x'g] d'nfod tGt' xf] h;n] /utdf kfOg] ;Dk"0f{ sf]ifx¿ lgdf{0f u5{ -x]g'{xf];\ 8a_ . jo:s cj:yfdf of] df;L -Dof/f]_ s/ª\x¿df, 5fltsf] xf8df, vKk/df, lgtDasf] xf8 / d]¿b08sf] xf8df dfq kfOG5 eg] hGdg] ljlQs} of] c¿ xf8x¿leq klg kfOG5 . x•Lsf] dHhfdf -af]g Dof/f]df_ ePsf] :6]dsf]ifx¿af6 /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿, ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿ / Kn]6\n]6\;x¿ aGb5g\ -x]g'{xf];\ 8b_ .

6G;Ln / P8]gf]O8\;

yfOd;\ lnDkm g8\; lkmof] k]o/sf] Kofr]h Pk]l08S; af]g Dof/f]

lnDkm g8\; lnDkml6s e];N;

8b :6]d sf]if

Kn]6n]6\; Ocf]l;gf]lkmn Go'6«f]lkmn

d]nf]O8 lk|s;{/

lnDkmf]o8 lk|s;{/ df]gf];fO6 aL ;]n

;xof]uL l6 sf]if

;k|]z/ l6 sf]if ;fO6f]6lS;s l6 sf]if

df:6 Aof;f]lkmn sf]if Dofqmf]k]mu; KnfHdf sf]if

x•Lsf] dHhf -af]gDof/f]_ sf] k|Tof/f]k0f eg]sf] Ps hgf :j:y JolQmaf6 -h;nfO{ bftf elgG5_ af]g Dof/f] lems]/ csf]{ -k|fks_ nfO{ lbg' xf] . la/fdLsf] c:j:y x•Lsf] dHhf -af]gDof/f]_ nfO{ cf}ifwLsf] k|of]uaf6 of lasL/0fsf] dfWodaf6 klxnf gi6 ul/G5 . o; k|lqmofnfO{ sG8L;lgª elgG5 . cj :j:Yo dHhf -Dof/f]_ nfO{ bftfsf] lgtDasf] xf8af6 lgsflnG5 / t/n kbfy{ lbP h;/L la/fdLsf] /Qm

121


k|jfxdf o;nfO{ xflnG5 . o;sf] k|s[of /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg h:t} x'G5 . -x]g'{xf];\ 8c) Psk6s of] dHhf k|fkssf] /Qm k|jfxdf k'lu;s]kl5 7'nf x•Lx¿tkm{ hfG5 / ToxfF o;n] ;fdfGo / :j:y /Qmsf]ifx¿ pTkfbg ug{ z'¿ u5{ . x•L—dHhf lng] dfG5]sf] z/L/df k'lu;s]kl5 /Qmsf]ifx¿ agfpg o;nfO{ @ b]lv # xKtfsf] ;do nfU5 .

o;sf hf]lvdx¿ s] s] x'g\< of] ljlw cToGt ;kmn x'g ;S5 t/ o;sf cfk\mg} hf]lvd -cK7\of/fx¿_ klg 5g\ . k|Tof/f]k0f z'¿ ug'{eGbf cufl8 o;sf vt/fx¿ / kmfObfx¿nfO{ /fd|/L s]nfpg'k5{ . x•L dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ k|Tof/f]k0fsf] /fd|f] glthf kfpg la/fdLnfO{ p;sf bfh'efO of lbbLalxgLn] dHhf -Dof/f]_ bfg ug'{k5{ h;sf] ;a} tGt'x¿ Ps csf{df ldN5g\ . o;sf cK7\of/fx¿df ;+qmd0f / /Qm>fj d'Vo x'g\ . of] cj:yf bftfsf] Dof/f]n] k|fkssf] Dof/f]nfO{ k|lt:yfkg ug'{eGbf cufl8 b]vfk5{ . cem csf]{ hl6ntf eg]sf] aflx/L a:t'sf] lj¿4 z/L/sf] dHhfn] b]vfpg] k|ltlqmof -u|fk\m6 e;]{h xf]:6 l8lhh_ xf] . ha bftfsf] Dof/f]n] la/fdLsf] z/L/nfO{ ckl/lrt eGg] hfGb5 To; k5fl8 5fnfdf, cfGb|fdf / sn]hf]df ;d:ofx¿ z'¿ x'G5g\ . oL ;d:ofx¿ ;fdfGo, uDeL/ / 3fts ;d]t x'g ;S5g\ . ljz]if1x¿sf cg';f/ la Pd 6L ul/Pkl5 yfnf;]ldof;Fu ;DalGwt /f]ux¿ kmnfd tTjsf] ef/ -clwstf_ bL3{ x]kf6fO6L;, d'6' / cGt>fjL u|GyLsf ;d:ofx¿ ;lhn} ;dfwfg x'G5g\ / slxn] sfFxL Ifltu|:t c+ux¿ klg hflt x'G5g\ t/ la/fdLx¿nfO{ pgLx¿sf] hLjge/ xf]l;ofl/k"j{s kl/If0f ul//xg' k5{ . la Pd 6L kl5 la/fdLsf] z/L/df k|Tof/f]k0feGbf club]lv y'k|]/ /x]sf] clws kmnfdtTjnfO{ x6fpg'k5{ . o;nfO{ kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ k4ltaf6 cyjf k|To]s ! b]lv @ xKtfsf] cGt/fndf ;fdfGo 9+un] /ut lems]/ x6fpg klg ;lsG5 . z/L/sf] tf}nsf] k|lt s]hL ^ ldlnld6/ /ut k|lt !$ lbgsf] cGt/fndf lz/faf6 l;of]n] tfg]/ lgsfNg ;lsG5 . la Pd 6Ln] x•Lsf] dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ nfO{ dfq pkrf/ u5{ eg]/ hfGg' h¿/L 5 . o;sf/0f uef{wfg ug]{ tof/L ul//x]sf

122


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] bDkQLx¿nfO{ ;Demfpg' k5{ ls olb pgLx¿sf] lhg yfnf;]ldofn] k|efljt 5 eg] ToxL hLgx¿ ltgLx¿sf gjhft lzz'df ;g]{5g\ .

hf]lvdnfO{ s;/L Go'lgs/0f ug{ ;lsG5< s_ bftfsf] 5gf}6M hf]lvdsf] dfqfnfO{ sd u/fpg] Pp6f dfq pkfo eg]sf] la/fdLsf] tGt'sf] k|sf/ / bftfsf] tGt'sf] k|sf/nfO{ 7\ofSs} ldnfP/ k|Tof/f]k0f ug'{ xf] . dHhf kfpg] dfG5]sf] dHhf lbg]sf] dHhf -Dof/f]_ ;Fu Pr, Pn P 7\ofSs} ldNg' eg]sf] oL b'j} JolQmx¿ h'DNofxf x'g' xf] . bf];|f] cj:yfsf Pr Pn P ljz]iftfx¿ /fd|/L ldNg] bfh'efO of lbbLalxgLx¿ x'g\ . bfh'efO lbbLalxgLaf6 klg 7\ofSs} ldNg] x•L dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ k|fKt ug]{ ;+efjgf @% k|ltzt dfq x'G5 . kl/jf/sf ;b:oeGbf aflx/sf dfG5]x¿af6 7\ofSs} ldNg] af]g Dof/f] kfpg Psbd ufx|f] x'G5 . tGt'sf] k|sf/nfO{ -l6:o' 6fOk_ lgwf{/0f ug]{ lhgnfO{ lnDkmf];fO6 PlG6lhg -Pr Pn P_ elgG5 . logLx¿n] ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿df k|s6 tGt'sf] k|sf/ -l6:o' 6fOk_ nfO{ b]vfpF5g\ . tL cg]s PlG6lhgx¿ dWo] Pr=Pn=P=– P, Pr=Pn=P= – la, Pr Pn P – l; / Pr Pn P – l8 cf/ x¿n] x•L dHhfsf] k|Tof/f]k0fsf] nflu k|d'v e"ldsf v]N5g\ . Pr Pn P– P df %( j6f, Pr Pn P– la df !!* j6f, Pr Pn P – l; df #^ j6f / Pr Pn P– l8 cf/ df !#& j6f PlG6lhgx¿ x'G5g\ . ;Dk"0f{ z/L/ k|0ffnLdf c¿ cg]s Pr Pn 8c P hf]8Lx¿ / %)) eGbf al9 lhgx¿ x'G5g\ . logLx¿af6 c/af}+ km/s k|sf/sf Pr=Pn=P= hf]8Lx¿sf] x8\8L dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ ldnfP/ hfFRg] sfd ;Defjgf x'G5 . Cross Matching Test t/ oL lhgx¿ Pscsf{;Fu ;DalGwt 5g\ / hf]8fx¿sf] ¿kdf afa'cfdfaf6 aRrfx¿df cfPsf 5g\ . bfh'efO lbbLalxgLx¿n] @ hf]8fx¿ dWo] ! hf]8f cfdfafa'af6 k|fKt u5{g . To;sf/0f logLx¿n] Pp6} hf]8fx¿ k|fKt ug]{ ;Defjgf @%Ü x'G5 . lbbLbfh' efOalxgL dWo] yfnf;]ldof

bftf

x•L dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ sf] pkrf/

k|fks

123


gePsf] Pshgf;Fu tGt'sf] k|sf/ -l6:o' 6fOk_ / lhgx¿ ldNgsf nflu kl/jf/sf] ;+Vofdf klg e/ k5{ . xf8sf] dHhf k|Tof/f]k0f ug{ rfxg] /f]uLx¿dWo] cg'dflgt #)Ü /f]uLx¿n] dfq cfk"m;Fu k"0f{ ¿kn] ldNg] Pr=Pn=P= ePsf bftfx¿ kfpg ;S5g\ . kl/jf/sf ;b:ob]lv aflx/sf dfG5]x¿;Fu dHhf -Dof/f]_ ldnfpg] k|oTg ug'{ ufx|f] x'G5 / slxn]sfFxL of] sNkgf eGbf k/sf] x'G5 . ;}4flGts cfFs8fx¿n] b]vfPsf 5g\ Pshgfsf] Pr Pn k|f]kmfOn csf]{ JolQm;Fu km/s k5{ / of] c¿ c;DalGwt dfG5]x¿;Fu c/af}sf] tYofª\sn] km/s k5{ . x•L dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ bfg ug]{ / lng] dfG5]x¿sf] Dof/f] 7\ofSs} ldNg' cfjZos 5 . Dof/f] ldNof] eg] dfq k|Tof/f]k0f ;kmn x'g] ;+efjgf a9L x'G5 . To;sf/0f klxnf] ;d"xsf cfkmGtx¿ / cGo glhssf cfkmGtx¿af6 x•L dHhf -af]g Dof/f_ bfg lng] ;Defjgf ePg eg] dfq c;DalGwt dfG5]x¿df vf]Hg' k5{ . cem, af]gDof/f] bfg ug]{ JolQm sDtLdf # jif{sf] x'g'k5{ . o;f] eof] eg] lnPsf] x•L dHhf /fd|/L l5lKkPsf] 5 eGg] kSsf x'G5 . xfn}sf jif{x¿df of] af]gDof/f] ldnfpg] k|ljlwdf w]/} k|of;x¿ ePsf 5g\ . af]gDof/f]sf k|sf/x¿ -;d"x_ ldNg] c;+DalGwt bftfx¿ -Pd=o"=l8=P;=_ af6 Dof/f] lnO{ k|Tof/f]k0f ug]{ s'/fnfO{ hf]8 lbO{ ;+efJo bftfx¿sf] ;d"xnfO{ 7"nf] agfpg] k|of; ePsf] 5 . ljZje/sf x•LdHhfsf bftfx¿ h;n] cfk\mgf] gfd / 7]ufgf lbP/ hfFr u/fpg /fhL 5g\ pgLx¿sf] Pr=Pn=P= ljz]iftfx¿sf] lni6 btf{ u/]/ /fVg] k|rngsf] z'¿cft ePsf] 5 . o;/L Pr=Pn=P= lni6df /flvPsf bftfx¿;Fu ldNg] k|fksx¿ af]g Dof/f] k|Tof/f]k0fsf] lglDt cfpg] ljlQs} bftfnfO{ ;"rgf lbO{ k|Tof/f]k0f ;DkGg ul/G5 . c;DalGwt gfdfjnLnfO{ btf{ u/]/ /fVg] wf/0ff klxnf] k6s ;g\ !(*& df z'¿ eof] . o"/f]k / cd]l/sfdf u/]/ clxn];Dd #% nfv ;+efljt bftfx¿sf] gfdfjnL btf{ eO;s]sf] 5 . c;DalGwt bftfx¿sf] Dof/f] k|Tof/f]k0f ubf{ x'g] vt/fx¿sf] af/]df y'k|} cWoogx¿ eO;s]sf 5g\ . cfk\mg} glhssf] ;DalGwtaf6 k|Tof/f]k0f ul/Psf]eGbf of] w]/} hf]lvdk"0f{ x'gfn] of] vt/fnfO{ 36fpg] lbzffdf y'k|} sfdx¿ x'g'kg]{ b]lvG5 .

124


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] v_ k|fks -la/fdL_ sf] 5gf}6M s]xL la/fdLx¿ x•L dHhfsf] k|Tof/f]k0f -la Pd 6L_ sf nflu hf]lvdk"0f{ x'G5g\ . y'k|} hf]lvdx¿ b]lvPsf 5g\ . • a9]sf] sn]hf]— @ ;]dLeGbf nfdf] • lau|]sf] sn]hf]— lkma|f]l;; cyjf sn]hf]df bfu b]lvg' • kmnfd tTjsf] clwstfsf] sd lgoGq0f oL tYox¿df cfwfl/t /x]/ k|Tof/f]k0f lng] la/fdLx¿nfO{ # efudf 5'6\ofOPsf] 5 . oL k|To]s ;d"xdf ;kmntfsf] b/ klg km/s km/s 5 . klxnf] ;d"x;Fu Pp6f hf]lvd 5 eg] t]>f] ;d"x;Fu # j6f hf]lvdx¿ 5g\ . csf]{ :jtGq k|sf/sf] hf]lvd lgDTofpg] tYo la/fdLsf] pd]/ xf] . clxn];Ddsf glthfx¿n] b]vfPsf 5g ls !% jif{eGbf dflysf pd]/sf la/fdLx¿df ul/Psf k|Tof/f]k0feGbf tnsf] pd]/df ul/Psf] k|Tof/f]k0fx¿ a9L ;kmn 5g\ . tnsf] tflnsf x]g'{xf];\ . afnaflnsfx¿ -!^ jif{sf_ ;d"x ! ;d"x @ ;d"x # jo:sx¿ -!*—@@ jif{_ -k];f/f] cg'ej !((%_

;Vof !@! @&@ !@% &)

afFr]sf Ü Oe]G6 lk|m Ü (% () *% *! &* %( &) ^^

of] k|Tof/f]k0f ;kmn x'gsf] nflu x•Lsf] dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ k|Tof/f]k0f ul//x]sf] la/fdL !^ jif{ d'lgsf] :j:y sn]hf] ePsf] kmnfd tTjsf] clwstf w]/} pRr gePsf] / lbbLalxgL bfh'efOaf6 x•Lsf] dHhf lnPsf] x'g'k5{ . dfly b]vfOP h:t} !^ jif{eGbf dfly ul/Psf k|Tof/f]k0fx¿sf] ;kmntfsf] b/ Tolt /fd|f] 5}g .

7\ofSs ldNg] lsl;dsf] x8\8Lsf] dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ k|Tof/f]k0fsf c¿ tl/sfx¿ . c;DalGwt dfG5]x¿ t/ dHhfsf] k|sf/ ldNg] -Pd l8 P;_, bfh'efO lbbL alxgL afx]s glhssf kl/jf/ ;b:ox¿, Ps cfk;df gldNg] afa'cfdf cflbaf6 x•L dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ lnO k|Tof/f]k0f ul/g] k|s[ofsf] hf]lvdnfO{ 36fpFb} ;kmntfsf] b/df ;'wf/ Nofpg

125


8fS6/x¿ lg/Gt/ k|oTg/t 5g\ . k|Tof/f]k0f k|s[ofsf] hf]lvdnfO{ sd ug]{ csf]{ kIf pkrf/sf] s08L;lgªnfO{ ;'wf/ ug'{ klg xf] . t/ o;f] ePklg o;sf kl/0ffdx¿ ljljwtfk"0f{ 5g\ . To;sf/0f hf]lvd / kmfObfsf] ;Gbe{nfO{ Ps Psj6f /f]u / k|Tof/f]k0fsf] ;Gbe{df x]g{' cfjZos 5 .

-tnsf] tflnsf x]g'{xf];\_ a}slNks bftfx¿af6 yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿df ul/Psf] x•L dHhf k|Tof/f]k0f -lj Pd 6L_ sf] kl/0ffdx¿M yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf @( hgf /f]uLx¿ !! b]lv ## jif{ -dWos ^ jif{_ ^ hgf Pr Pn P p:t} ePsf cfkmGtx¿ @ hgf Pr Pn P gldn]sf cfkmGtx¿ !# hgf Pr Pn P gldNg] ;xf]b/x¿ * hgf Pr Pn P gldNg]sf afa'cfdfx¿ c:jLsf/— c;kmn %%Ü -Pr Pn P gldn]sf k|sf/x¿ xf]Ogg\_ • tLa| lh=eL=Pr=l8= cfO=cfO=eL $&Ü • bL3{ lh=eL=Pr=l8= #*Ü • afr]sfx¿ -Pkm=o'= &=% jif{_ ^%Ü -@!Ü Oe]G6 lk|m_ • k|Tof/f]k0faf6 x'g] d[To'b/ #$Ü -%)Ü lh eL Pr l8 #)Ü ;+qmd0f_ -UoflhPe P6 Pn k];f/f] la Pd 6L @)))_

lgisif{ cfk\mgf bfh'efO{ lbbLalxgLaf6 lnPsf] / k"0f{¿kn] ldn]sf] x•LdHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ k|Tof/f]k0fsf] ;kmntfsf] b/ pRr 5 eg] k|s[ofut q'6Lx¿sf] sf/0fn] x'g] d[To'b/ /fd|/L 5gf}6 ul/Psf la/fdLx¿df %Ü eGbf klg sd 5 . k|Tof/f]k0faf6 x'g] hf]lvdx¿ 36fpg] k|oTg lg/Gt/ hf/L 5 . o:tf] k|oTg /fd|/L gldn]sf ;xf]b/af6 lnPsf] af]g Dof/f] k|Tof/f]k0fn] lgDTofpg] hf]lvdx¿sf] sd ug]{ ;Gbe{df klg rln/x]sf] 5 .

126


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] ;fn -s8{ An8_ sf] /ut k|Tof/f]k0f of] k|Tof/f]k0f k|ljlwdf Pshgf aRrf olb k|Tof/f]k0f lng]' kg]{ cj:yfdf 5 eg] / pQm aRrfsL cfdf ue{jtL 5g\ eg] pgsf] ue{df /x]sf] e|'0fsf] Pr Pn P hfFr ul/G5 . olb of] e|'0fsf] Pr Pn P cl3Nnf] aRrf;Fu ldNof] eg] ue{df /x]sf] jRrf hlGd;s]kl5 cfdfsf] ;fn gfndf /x]sf] /ut k|Tof/f]k0f ug{ ;lsG5 . s8{ -gfnsf]_ /ut elgg] of] /ut :6]d sf]ifsf] cToGt} /fd|f] >f]t ePsf]n] af]g Dof/f]sf] ;§f of] /ut k|efljt aRrfnfO{ k|Tof/f]k0f ul/lbg] xf] eg] o;n] /Qmsf]ifx¿ lgdf{0f ug{ ;S5 . o; k|ljlwdf Pp6f cK7\of/f] /x]sf] 5 Tof] s] eg] ;fn gfnaf6 lemlsg] of] /utdf Go'lSnP6]8 sf]ifsf] ;+Vof k|fkssf] z/L/sf] s'n ahgsf] >!×!)& k|lt s]hL x'g'k5{ . la=Pd=6L=df h:t} o:tf] k|Tof/f]k0f lng] la/fdLsf] sn]hf], d'6', kmf]S;f] / d[uf}nfn] k"0f{ ¿kdf sfd ul//x]sf] x'g'k5{ . klxnf] ;kmn s8{ /utsf] k|Tof/f]k0f cfheGbf !) jif{ cufl8 ;DkGg ePsf] lyof] . To;a]nf b]lv ljZjdf %)) j6f To;vfn] k|Tof/f]k0fx¿ ;kmntfk"j{s ;DkGg eO;s]sf 5g\ . of] k|ljlw yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf s]xL /f]uLx¿nfO{ lgsf] kfg{ ;kmn klg eO;s]sf] 5 t/ ;kmntfsf] b/nfO{ a9fpg yk cg';Gwfgsf] cfjZostf 5 . yfnf;]ldofsf] nflu s8{ -;fngfn_ sf] /ut k|Tof/f]k0f afnaflnsfx¿sf] ;+Vof k|Tof/f]k0f ul/Psf] !) Ho'Fbf /x]sf !) hflt ePsf $ yfnf;]ldof bf]xf]l/Psf $

-/f]rf, P6, cn, !((* o"/f]s8{_

o; lsl;dsf] k|Tof/f]k0fsf ;+efljt kmfObfx¿ lgDg 5g\ . • ;fn gfndf /x]sf] /ut -s8{ /ut_ t'ngfTds ¿kn] ;+qmd0fsf/L ;'Id hLjf0f'x¿af6 d'Qm x'G5 . • aflx/L tTjn] z/L/df /x]sf] ;+oGqdf ug]{ x:tIf]kaf6 pTkGg x'g] k|lts[of -lh=eL=Pr=8L=_ sf] hf]lvd sd x'G5 lsgeg]

127


-lh=eL=Pr=8L_ c;/ pTkGg ug]{ 6L= lnDkmf]];fO6\;x¿ o;df k"0f{¿kn] s[ofzLn x'g kfpFb}gg\ -of] s'/f yfnf;]ldof /f]uLx¿df ;xL x'G5 xF'b}g 6'ª\uf] nfUg afFsL g} 5_ k/Dk/fut la=Pd=6L=df eGbf Pr=Pn=P sf] b'¿:ttf sd :t/sf] ePklg sfd rN5 .

oL ;DefJo kmfObfx¿nfO{ ;'wfl/Psf kl/0ffdx¿ ;lxt dx;"; ul/Psf] 5÷5}g ;f] k'li6 ug{ kl/0ffdx¿ cem} ck'u 5g\ . clxn] :jo+;]jsx¿n] bfg u/]sf] /utnfO{ ;'/lIft /fVg] /ut a}+sx¿ eP h:t} ;fngfnaf6 lemlsPsf] /ut s8{An8nfO{ ;'/lIft /fVg s8{ /ut ;+lrt s]Gb|x¿sf] ;+hfn agfpg] sfd e}/x]sf]5 . /fd|f];Fu pkrf/ u/]/ ;fngfnaf6 lemlsPsf] /ut -s8{ /ut_ nfO{ —!(° sf] tfkqmddf @) jif{;Dd /fVg ;lsG5 . ;a}eGbf 7"nf] s8{ /utsf] a}+s Go"of]s{ /ut s]Gb| xf] hxfF &))) eGbfa9L gd"gfx¿ ;+slnt 5g\ / @)) j6f eGbf al9 k|Tof/f]k0fx¿ ;kmn e};s]sf 5g\ . clxn] Go'of]s{ /ut s]Gb|af6 s8{ /ut lnP/ k|Tof/f]k0f ug{ @*))) cd]l/sL 8n/ -em08} @* nfv g]kfnL ?k}of_ vr{ nfU5 . a]nfot, O6nL, hd{gL, k|mfG;, a]lNhod, g]8/Nof08, :k]gn] klg s8{ /ut a}+lsª ;]jfx¿ pknAw u/fPsf 5g\ .

128


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/]

cWofo ( pkrf/sf c¿ tl/sfx¿ kmf]P6n x]df]Unf]lag a9fpg d2t ug]{ j}1flgsx¿n] ;s];Dd z/L/nfO{ s'g} bVvn gul/sg pkrf/ ug]{ ljlw k|of]u u/]/ clxn]sf] pkrf/eGbf ;:tf] / sd hf]lvd ePsf pkrf/sf tl/sfx¿ kQf nufpg nuftf/ljleGg lsl;dsf cg';Gwfgx¿ ul//x]sf 5g\ . ;a} gofF tl/sfx¿n] Unf]ljg r]gx¿df ePsf] c;Gt'ngnfO{ 36fpg] s'/fdf hf]8 lbPsf 5g\ . pbfx/0fsf] nflu o:tf cf}ifwLx¿ klg kfOG5g\ h;n] γ—r]gx¿ h:tf c¿ r]gx¿sf] pTkfbgnfO{ a9fpF5g\ . oL r]gx¿ -γ- r]gx¿_ α- r]gx¿;Fu ldn]kl5 kmf]P6n x]df]Unf]lag -Hb (α2γ2_ agfFp5g\ / :jtGq vfnsf α- r]gx¿sf] kl/df0fnfO{ 36fpF5g\ . oL cf}ifwLx¿n] x•L dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ sf] s[ofsnfknfO{ bjfp5g\ / γ- r]gx¿sf] pTkfbgnfO{ j[l4 u5{g\ . logLx¿ % chfl;6fOl8g, ;fO6f]l;g, c/fljgf];fO8 xfO8«fl] S;o'l/of, Pl/y|fk] f]Pl6g / a'l6l/s Pl;8 8]l/e]l6A;x¿ 5g\ . % chfl;6fOl8g, ;fO6f]l;g, c/fljgf];fO8 b'jn } ] yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿df ljiffQm c;/x¿ b]vfPsf 5g\ . o;sf/0f oL cf}ifwLx¿ gofF ePklg logLx¿sf] k|of]u ug{ 5f]8L c¿ sd ljiffQm 8]l/d]l6D;x¿sf] cWoog cg';Gwfg e}/x]sf] 5 . xfO8«fl] S;o'l/of / Pl/y|fk] f]Pl6g h:tf cf}ifwLx¿sf] k|of]uaf6 s]xL /fd|f kl/0ffd b]lvPsf] 5 t/ lolgx¿sf] k|efj yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf /f]uLx¿dfeGbf yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofsf la/fdLx¿df a9L /fd|f] kfOPsf] 5 . r]gx¿sf] ;+Zn]if0fnfO{ pQ]lht ug]{ e"ldsf v]Ng] a'l6l/s Pl;8 8]l/d]l6D;sf] sfo{nfO{ cem}klg /fd|f];Fu a'lemPsf] 5}g t/ ;aeGbf k|efjsf/L a'6f]/]6\; gzfsf] dfWodaf6 k|If]k0f ul/g] cflh{gfOg a'l6/]6 g} xf] . s]xL la/fdLx¿df o; pkrf/n] -cf}ifwLsf]_ c¿x¿sf] eGbf /fd|f] k|efj kf/]sf] 5 . t/ lsg o:tf] k|efj k¥of] sf/0f hfGg ;lsPsf] 5}g . clh{gfOg a'l6/]6\; / xfO8«f]lS;o'l/of ldnfP/ of clh{gfOg a'l6/]6 / Pl/y|f]kf]Pl6g ldnfP/ cyjf oL ltg}j6f cf}ifwL ;+o'Qm ¿kdf lbOg] pkrf/df g} ;+efljt eljiosf] k|ult lge{/ ug]{ 5 .

γ-

129


yfnf;]ldof d]h/x¿df of] cf}ifwL k|of]u ug's { f] p2]Zo @ j6f /ut 6«G;k\mo'hgx¿sf] ljrsf] ;dofjlwnfO{ nDAofpg' xf] eg] yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofsf la/fdLx¿sf ;DaGwdf /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg ;'¿ ug'k{ g]{ cfjZostfnfO{ k5fl8 ;fg'{ / x•L dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ sf] lj:tf/sf] sf/0fn] x•Ldf x'g] kL8fnfO{ sd ug'{ klg xf] .

hLg pkrf/ ljlw -hLg y]/fkL_ yfnf;]ldofsf] clGtd pkrf/ eg]sf] :j:y lhgx¿nfO{ x•L dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_sf] :6]d sf]ifx¿df /fVg' xf] . o;/L ul/g] pkrf/nfO{ g} lhg y]/fkL elgG5 . ljut !) jif{b]lv :j:Yo lhgx¿nfO{ /f]uLx¿sf] :6]d sf]ifx¿df xfNg ;lsg] h}ljs k4ltdf 7"nf] k|ult ePsf] 5 . xfn}sf] jif{x¿df efO/n dfOqmf]clh{ljHd cyjf l/6«f] efO/;x¿sf] k|of]u klg eljiodf ljZj:t 9+un] ckgfpg ;lsg] u/L a9]sf] 5 . t/ :j:y lhgx¿sf] k|j]zsf] kl/0ffd :j¿k pTkfbg ePsf β- r]gx¿ rflxFbf] hlt pRr kl/df0fdf 5g\ / nfdf] ;do;Dd pRr u'0f:t/ sfod /fVg ;S5 of ;Sb}g eGg] s'/fsf] ;'lglZrttf g} of] pkrf/ k4ltsf] ;d:of xf] . o;sf] cnfjf efO/;x¿ k|jz ] u/fpg] sfo{ / c¿ lhgaf6 x'g] ;Defljt x:tIf]ksf] ;'/lIftkgsf ljifodf y'k}| rf;f]x¿ p7]sf 5g\ .

/f]kg sfo{ -ODKnfG6];g_ k"j{ Pr= Pn= P= ldnfP/ /f]usf] lgbfg ug]{ ljlw xfn}sf jif{x¿df /f]k0f sfo{ -ODKnfG6];g_ ug'{eGbf cufl8 g} hLg;DaGwL /f]usf] lgbfg ul/g] PGD -lk lh 8L_ k|ljlwdfly a9L Wofg s]lGb|t ug{ yflnPsf] 5 . o;df Ps hgf /f]u k|efljt afnssf] Pr=Pn=P nfO{ — Pr=Pn=P= ldnfO;s]/ -Dofr ul/Psf]_ yfnf;]ldof d'Qm kfl/Psf] lgz]lrt c08;Fu ldnfOG5 -Dofr_ / 7Ls nfu]kl5 dlxnfsf] uef{zodf /flvG5 . o;/L hlGdPsf] afnsn] p;sf] Pr=Pn=P= ldnfOPsf] bfh'÷lbbLnfO{ b'¿:t ldNg] x•L dHhf -af]g Dof/f]_ pknAw u/fpg ;Sg] 5 . oL ljlwx¿n] 7"nf] g}lts k|Zg p7fPsf 5g\ tfklg /f]u ljz]s kfg{] lbzfdf gofF cfzf ag]sf 5g\ . o; eGbf klg a9L oL ljlwx¿ cToGt dxFuf / k|ljlws ¿kn] hl6n klg 5g\ t/ h] ePklg oL k|ljlwx¿df eO/x]sf] k|ult x]bf{ eljiodf of] k|ljlw Jofks k|of]udf cfpg ;Sg]5g\ .

130


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/]

cWofo !) dgf]j}1flgs k|efjx¿ la/fdL c¿ bL3{ /f]ux¿df h:t} yfnf;]ldof d]h/ ePsf] /f]uLx¿n] klg cg]sf}F ;f]rgLo r'gf}ltx¿sf] ;fdgf ug'{ kb{5 . of] /f]un] ubf{ k"/f ug'{kg]{ cg]s zf/Ll/s cfjZostfx¿ / o:tf] /f]u ePsf b]zsf dflg;x¿df /f]usf af/]df x'g] r]tgfsf] cefjsf] sf/0fn] of] /f]u nfu]sf /f]uLx¿ / tLgsf cfdfa'afx¿n] cg]s vfnsf ;+j]ufTds sl7gfOx¿ em]Ng' kg]{ x'G5 . logLx¿sf] hLjgsf] cg]s v08x¿df la/fdLx¿n] ;+j]ufTds r'gf}tLx¿ a]xf]g'{kg]{ x'G5 . h:t}M • xtf]T;fx • lg/fzf • kL/ • zq'tf • pbfl;gtf • lrGtf • d[To'sf] eo • ljZjf;sf] sdL • PSnf]kg • l/; • lg/Lxtf • s;}af6 dfof gkfPsf] cg'e"lt • cljZjf; • c¿df a9L e/ kg'{k/]sf] xLg efjgf • cfTdljZjf;sf] sld / c¿ cg]s lsl;dsf dfgl;s ;d:ofx¿ csf]{tkm{ la/fdLx¿n] ;fx; / r'gf}tL ;fdgf ug{ ;Sg] cfF6 j[l4 ePsf] klg dx;'; u5{g\ . o; ;+j]un] pgLx¿nfO{ l56f] kl/kSs agfpg] ;fy} l;h{gzLn cfF6L, w}o{lzn agfpg klg d2t ub{5 .

cleefjs -cfdf–a'afx¿_ la/fdLx¿sf cleefjsx¿n] klg gsf/fTds / ;sf/fTds b'j} k|sf/sf ;+j]ux¿ cg'ej u5{g\ . logLx¿ cfk\mgf] 5f]/f5f]/Lx¿sf] :jf:Yo cj:yf k|lt cfk"mnfO{ lhDd]jf/ 7fG5g\ / bf]ifL dx;'; u5{g . s'g} cleefjsx¿nfO{ cfk\mgf 5f]/f5f]/Lx¿df o:tf] /f]u nfu]sf] yfxf x'gf;fy ;+3ft -ulx/f] rf]6_ x'G5 . /f]usf] af/]df k6Ss} 1fg gePsf] of t sd hfgsf/L ePsf b]zx¿df of] /f]u nfu]sf aRrfx¿sf] hLjge/ ug'{kg]{ pkrf/ tyf 3/df ug'{kg]{ ljz]if x]/ljrf/ tyf pkrf/ k|s[ofsf] af/]df pgLx¿ cgle1 tyf c;dy{ x'G5g\ . slxn]sfFxL aRrfdf x'g] yfnf;]ldof /f]usf] lgbfgn]

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afa'cfdflarsf] ;DaGwdf tgfj l;h{gf ug]{ / kf/kfr's] ug'{kg]{ l:ylt;Dd k'U5 . k]ml/ s'g} afa'cfdf cfˆgf] la/fdL aRrfsf] /fd|f] pkrf/ ug{ cfk;df w]/} glhs klg x'G5g\ . yfnf;]ldof ePsf] aRrfnfO{ w]/} Wofg lbFbf slxn]sfxLF kl/jf/sf cGo ;b:o;+usf] ;DaGwdf lttf]kgf klg cfpF5 – ljz]ifu/L c? aRrfx¿;+u .

la/fdL / ltgsf afa'–cfdfx¿ nuftf/ /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg, ;w}F ug'{kg]{ kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/h:tf cToGt si6 ;fWo / nfdf] pkrf/ k4lt ;fdgf ug'{kg]{ oyfy{sf] cg'e"ltn] la/fdL / cleefjsx¿df s[ofsnfkhGo ;d:ofx¿ cfpg ;S5g\ . yfnf;]ldof / cGo j+zf0f'ut /f]ux¿;Fu hf]l8Psf] ;fdflhs b[li6sf]0fsf] sf/0fn] afa'–cfdfx¿ /f]unfO{ n'sfpg rfxG5g\ . pgLx¿ cfk\mgf cfkmGtx¿ / kl/jf/sf ;b:ox¿nfO{ klg of] s'/f eGg rfxb}gg\ . clxn] ljsl;t b]zx¿df hgr]tgf / lrlsT;lso ;]jfsf] u'0f:t/ a9]sf] 5, yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿sf] cfo' / hLjg:t/ a9]sf] 5 . oL b]zx¿df ;d]t la/fdLx¿ / tLgsf cleefjsx¿ cK7\of/f] dx;''; u5{g\ / of] s'/fnfO{ 5nkmn ug{ rfxFb}gg\ t/ ha pgLx¿n] cfk"mn] yfnf;]ldof /f]u lnP/ lhGbuLe/ afFRg'k5{ eGg] ;Tosf] cg'e"lt u5{g\ ta of] ;TonfO{ ;fdgf ug]{ s'/fdf afgL k5{ To;kl5 ;a} s'/f ;fdfGo x'G5g\ . To;sf/0f ;a} la/fdLx¿ / cleefjsx¿ Ps k6s zf]s ;'tf{ / kL/sf] cj:yfaf6 u'h|G5g\ . To;kl5 lj:tf/} gsf/fTds ;+j]ux¿ sd x'b}hfG5g\ / /f]u / pkrf/nfO{ cfk\mgf] b}lgs hLjgdf ;dfof]hg u5{g\ . o; ljifosf hfgsf/ / ljz]if1x¿sf] ;xof]u of] a]nfdf cToGt dxTk"0f{ x'G5 . cNkljsl;t b]zdf of] s'/f ta cem bb{gfs x'G5 ha cleefjs / la/fdLn] nfu]sf] /f]u af/] yfxf kfpF5g\ . o;sf] pkrf/ s;/L x'G5 eGg] klg hfGb5g\ t/ cfk"m;Fu ePsf] ;Lldt >f]t / ;fwgn] ubf{ pkrf/ ug{ ;Sb}gg\ . of] cj:yfn] ubf{ lhGbuLe/ lrGtf, lg/fzf, kL/, g}/fZotf hGdfpFb5\ . la/fdLx¿ ;dfhb]lv 6f9f /xg rfxG5g\ . oL b]zdf /f]usf] lgbfg /fd|/L x'Fb}g, sltko cj:yfdf lgbfg g} x'Fb}g lgbfg ePklg la/fdLx¿sf] /fd|f] pkrf/ g} x'Fb}g .

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yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] ;"rgf / ;xof]u kfpg' yfnf;]ldof /f]u nfu]sf] Pp6f jRrfsf] cleefjsn] ;s];Dd k':tsfnoaf6, OG6/g]6af6 yfnf;]ldof /f]u nfu]sf c¿ aRrfx¿sf cleefjsx¿af6 ;d]t w]/} hfgsf/L lng' cfjZos 5 . /fli6«o yfnf;]ldof ;+3 / yfnf;]ldof cGt/f{li6«o dxf;+3 h:tf ;+:yfx¿n] cleefjsx¿nfO{ yfnf;]ldofsf af/]df cfjZos dxTjk"0f{ ;"rgfx¿ pknAw u/fP/ / aRrf afFRg], /f]u;Fu n8\b} afFRg] s'/fdf ljZjf; / ;fx; lbg ;S5g\ . of] /f]u, o;sf] pkrf/ / lgoGq0f af/] /fd|f] hfgsf/L kfPsf cleefjsx¿ of] /f]uaf6 s;/L aRg] eGg] hfGb5g\ / aRrfsf] pkrf/ af/] /fd|f] x]Ssf /fVg ;S5g\ / pgLx¿n] bf];|f] k|efljt aRrf hGdfpFb}gg\ . lrlsT;sx¿ g} ;a} cltl/Qm ;"rgfx¿sf clwsfl/s ;|f]t, ky k|bz{s / cfZjf;g k|bfos JolQmx¿ x'g\ . g;{x¿sf] e"ldsf klg o;df cToGt dxTjk"0f{ 5 . g;{ / la/fdLsf] ;aGw la/fdL / 8fS6/x¿sf] ;DaGw eGbf leGg x'G5 lsgls g;{x¿n] la/fdLx¿;Fu nuftf/ nfdf] ;do JotLt u/]sf x'G5g\ . To;sf/0fn] la/fdLx¿df cfjZos kg]{ x/]s ljlzi6 ;d:ofx¿nfO{ 8fS6/n] eGbf klxnf / ;xL 9+un] klxrfg ug{ ;S5g\ . /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg ug]{ 7fpFdf cgf}krfl/s ¿kn] pkl:yt x'g] la/fdLsf afa'–cfdf, ;fyL efO{x¿;+usf] clws ;Dks{af6 g;{n] la/fdLsf] pkrf/sf] ;d:ofsf af/]df w]/} s'/fsf] hfgsf/L k|fKt u5{g\ . To;sf/0f oL dflg;x¿n] k|fo la/fdLx¿n] eGbf klg ;xL ;"rgf lbg ;S5g\ . oL hfgsf/Lx¿nfO{ lrlsT;s;Dd k'¥ofpg h¿/L 5 tfls pkrf/df cfjZos kl/dfh{g ug{ ;lsof];\ . 8fS6/ / g;{x¿sf] dxTjk"0f{ ¿kn] ;/f]sf/ /fVg'kg]{ ljifo la/fdLx¿sf] /f]usf] pkrf/ k4lt;Fusf] ;dfof]hg xf] . w]/} la/fdL / cleefjsx¿ yfnf;]ldof d]h/df kmnfd tTjnfO{ x6fpg] pkrf/ ljlw z'¿ ug'{kg]{ cfjZostfnfO{ ;a}eGbf sl7g ;d:ofsf] ¿kdf lnG5g\ . d'l:snn] lgoldt ug'{kg]{ /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hgdf afgL k/]kl5 k]m/L kmnfd tTj a9\g] csf]{ ;d:of hlGdg k'U5 . 8fS6/ / g;{x¿n] of] ;d:of / o;sf] ;dfwfgnfO{ ;lhnf] agfpg / pkrf/nfO{ ;kmn agfpg 7"nf] ;xof]u ug{ ;S5g\ .

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yfnf;]ldof d]h/ ePsf afn, jo:s / j[4x¿ z}zjsfndf lzz'n] klxnf klxnf yfnf;]ldofsf] pkrf/sf] si6 / cK7\of/f] dx;'; u5{ t/ cfk"mnfO{ s] e}/x]sf] xf] a'em\b}g . of] a]nf afnsn] cfk"mnfO{ :ofxf/ ;';f/ / pkrf/ ug]{ JolQmdfly ljZjf; / e/f];f ljsf; u5{Ù o;sf/0f cleefjsx¿n] oyflz3| aRrfx¿sf] cj:yf oyfy{¿kdf a'em]/ pgLx¿;Fu :jR5 / alnof] ;DaGw lj:tf/ ub{} pkrf/df ;xof]u ug'{ kb{5 . ha aRrf 6's'/ 6's'/ lxF8\g] x'G5g\ pgLx¿ :jtGq¿kn] v]Ng ¿rfpF5g\ / gofF s'/f ug{ rfxG5g\ To;a]nf /f]uL aRrfx¿nfO{ ;d:ofx¿ cfOnfU5g\ . of] a]nfdf aRrfn] cfk"mn] ug{ gx'g] sfdx¿sf] af/]df yfxf kfp5g\ / cfk\mgf] pd]/sf c¿ aRrfx¿n] ug]{ sfd klg cfk"mn] ug{ ;Sb}gg\ . ha aRrfx¿ :s'n hfg] pd]/sf x'G5g\ ;d:ofx¿ cem hl6n aG5g\ . pkrf/sf] qmddf x'g] b'Mv, si6 / ;d:ofx¿b]lv afx]s pgLx¿sf] xf8df cfpg] kl/jt{g, z/L/sf] j[l4 gx'g] ;d:ofn] ubf{ cfk\mgf ;fyL;+uLx¿eGbf cfk"m cnu ePsf]] dx;'; ub{5g\ . pkrf/sf] k|s[of l9nf] ;'¿ eP/ cfPsf] o:tf] ;d:ofn] t afnsx¿sf] ;af]{kl/ :jf:Yosf] cg'e'ltdf g} g/fd|f] c;/ u5{ . o:tf] cj:yfdf oL /f]uL afnsx¿n] cfk\mgf] /f]usf] af/]df ;f]lw vf]hL ug{ lgs} hf]8 lbG5g\ . oxfF cleefjs / 8fS6/x¿n] afnsnfO{ p;sf] /f]usf] af/]df ;lj:tf/ atfP/ p;df cfTdljZjf; hufO{ /f]u k|lt ;xh aGgsf] nflu dxTjk"0f{ ;xof]u ug{ ;S5g\ . olb ljz]if u/]/ cleefjsx¿ a9L ;+/If0fsf/L geO{sg /f]uL aRrfx¿df pkrf/sf] ;jfndf pTkGg x'g] gsf/fTds k|efjnfO{ lhTg ;kmn eP eg] aRrf Pp6f cfTdljZjf;L o'jf aGg] jftfj/0fsf] nflu pa{/ e"ld tof/ x'G5 / Pp6f cfTdljZjf;L o'jf aG5 . o'jf cj:yf – ;DejtM ;a}eGbf lkmtnf] / sl7g cj:yf xf] . of] a]nf o:tf] a]nf xf] ls ha Pp6f /f]uLn] cfk\mgf] efjL hLjg yfnf;]ldofsf] pkrf/ k4lt;Fu ;fdgf ub}{ ljtfpg' kg]{ eGg] ;Tosf] ;a}eGbf 68\sf/f] 9+un] dx;"; u5{ . la/fdLn] oxLa]nf efjL lbgx¿df /f]u;Fu d'sfljnf ub}{ hLjg:t/ pRr /fVgsf] nflu cfjZos ;fx; / w}o{tfsf] klxrfg klg ug'{k5{ .

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yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] cem !# jif{b]lv !( jif{;Ddsf cfnf–sfFrf o'jf ju{n] h:t} yfnf;]ldof /f]u nfu]sf oL pd]/sf /f]uLx¿n] klg o; /f]udf ckgfpg' kg]{ ky k/x]hsf] lj¿4 ljb|f]x u5{g\ . yfnf;]ldofsf oL pd]/sf /f]uLx¿ ljz]ift kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ k4lt -lrn]zg y]/fkL_ lng c:jLsf/ u5{g . la/fdLsf bfh'efO, lbbLalxgL, afa'cfdf, d]l8sn sd{rf/L, 8fS6/ g;{ / dgf]a}1flgsx¿ ;a}n] of] pd]/sf yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿nfO{ v'zL / cfTdljZjf;L agfpFb} pkrf/ k4lt hf/L /fVg d2t ug'{k5{ / pgLx¿nfO{ o:tf] a]nf 8fS6/x¿sf] ;Nnfx gdfGbf x'g] v/faL / b'Zkl/0ffd af/] klg /fd|/L ;Demfpg' k5{ . 8fS6/x¿n] of] pd]/sf la/fdLx¿nfO{ yfnf;]ldof /f]usf] pkrf/ k4lt;Fu ;d~h:otf sfod /fv]/ v'zL / ;DkGg hLjg afFr]sf jo:s la/fdLx¿sf] pbfx/0f lbFb} pT;fx yKg' k5{ . jo:s cj:yf – jo:s cj:yfdf k|j]z ul/;s]kl5 la/fdLx¿n] gofF r'gf}tLx¿sf] ;fdgf ug'{k5{ . jo:s e};s]kl5 la/fdLx¿n] yk cfTdljZjf; cfh{g ul/;s]sf x'G5g\ / s]6fs]6L x'Fbfsf] h:tf] xtf]T;flxt x'Fb}gg\ . pgLx¿sf cfdfa'af kl/jf/sf cGo ;b:ox¿ h:t} la/fdLx¿ klg a'l4dfg / dha"t alg;s]sf x'G5g\ / gofF la/fdLx¿ / ltgsf cleefjssf nflu pko'Qm pbfx/0f aGb5g\ . t/ ha la/fdLx¿n] hLjg k4lt, eljiosf] sfdsf] of]hgf :yfoL ;DaGwsf] ljsf;, pRr lzIff, /f]huf/L / j}aflxs ;DaGw h:tf s'/fsf] af/]df ;f]Rg' kg]{ / lg0f{o ug'{kg]{ x'G5 To;a]nfdf hLjgel/ ckgfpg'kg]{ pkrf/ k4lt cToGt lem+emf] nfUbf] aGb5 . o;sf/0f oL /f]uLx¿nfO{ pgLx¿s} nflu tyf pgLx¿sf cfkmGtsf lglDt eg]/ pkrf/ k4lt hf/L /fVgsf] lglDt lg/Gt/ pT;flxt u/fpg' k5{ . olb la/fdLx¿n] cfk"m cfdfa'af aGg g;Sg] cj:yf yfxf kfP eg] pgLx¿df yk tgfj k}bf x'G5 . d]l8sn hl6ntfx¿ af/] a9L ;hu / oxL /f]usf sf/0fn] d/]sf ;fyLx¿sf] af/]df hfgsf/L ePsf /f]uLx¿df of] /f]usf] sf/0fn] x'g] d[To' lg/fzfsf] k|dv ' >f]t x'G5 . hLjgsf k|To]s cj:yf / pd]/sf cg]s txx¿df cfpg] km/s km/s r'gf}ltx¿sf] ;fdgf ug{ yfnf;]ldofsf la/fdLx¿nfO{ kl/jf/, ;fyLefO / d]l8sn sd{rf/Lx¿sf] lg/Gt/ ;xof]u / pT;fxsf] h¿/t x'G5 . To;eGbf klg a9L cfk\mg} k|of; / hLjgk|ltsf] ;sf/fTds b[li6sf]0f ;a}eGbf

135


dxTjk"0f{ x'G5 . Pp6f yfnf;]ldofsf] /f]uL slt cfTdljZjf;L / kl/kSj 5, Tof] p;n] c¿af6 kfPsf] ;xof]udf e/ kb{5 . t/ la/fdLsf] cfk\mgf] ;s[o ;xeflutf lagf of] n8fOF lhTg ;+ej 5}g eGg] :jLsf/f]QmL clt cfjZos 5 . k|fKt u/]sf] plrt pkrf/, ;'ne, ;/n / kof{Kt ;xof]u / ;xfg'e"ltn] ubf{ g} w]/} la/fdLx¿ bL3{ /f]u kfn]/ lhGbuL afFRg' kg]{ s7f]/ cj:yf;Fu d'sfljnf ug{ ;S5g\, hLjgsf y'k|} dxTjsf+Iff, OR5f / ;kgfx¿nfO{ k"/f ug{ ;S5g\ . b'ef{Uoj;, yfnf;]ldof /f]un] u|:t y'k|} dflg;x¿ ljsf;zLn b]zdf a:5g\ . tL b]zx¿df /fli6«o :t/sf /f]u lgjf/0f ;+:yfx¿, cleefjsx¿ / d]l8sn sd{rf/Lx¿n] /f]uLx¿nfO{ k'¥ofpg] ;]jf ;Lldt 5 . oL b]zx¿df >f]t / ;fwgx¿ ;Lldt 5g\ . :jf:Yo ;+/rgf / c¿ :jf:Yo k|fyldstf If]qx¿ ¿U0f cj:yfdf 5g\ . l6=cfO=Pkm= sf] dxTjk"0f{ sfd /fli6«o :t/sf yfnf;]ldof ;+u7gx¿sf] k|j4{g ug'{Ù o; /f]uaf6 kLl8tx¿sf] b]zsf] /fli6«o :jf:Yo ;+:yfx¿nfO{ nuftf/ ;xof]u / pT;fx k|bfg ug'{ xf] . l6=cfO=Pkm= sf] of] ;xof]un] tL b]zsf ;DalGwt :jf:Yo clwsf/Lx¿nfO{ yfnf;]ldof /f]unfO{ ;dod} pkrf/ ul/Pg eg] o;n] hg:jf:Yodf kfg]{ vt/gfs gsf/fTds k|efj af/] ;f]Rg / cfjZos sbd rfNg d2t ug]{ ljZjf; lnOPsf] 5 .

136


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/]

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ljz]if1 o'lg6df / ;fdfGo zfvfdf pkrf/ u/fPsf, ;g\ !(^# kl5 hlGdPsf a]nfotsf /f]uLx¿df @% jif{otf @%Ü afFr]sf 5g\ . o;df xKtfsf] slDtdf klg $ u|fd eGbf a9L l8=Pkm=cf]= lng]x¿dWo] afFRg]x¿sf] ;+Vof pRr 5. & j6f ljleGg ljz]if1tf k|fKt s]Gb|x¿df pkrf/ u/fPsfx¿df ;g\ !(^% b]lv !(^( aLrdf hlGdPsfx¿ dWo] !% jif{el/df *$=@Ü afFr] eg] !(&) b]lv !(&$ leq hlGdPsfx¿dWo] !% jif{el/df (^=(Ü afFr] . !(^# / !(*& sf] aLrdf hlGdPsf la/fdLx¿ dWo] /fd|/L kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ kfPsfx¿ @% jif{el/df !))Ü afFr] eg] sdhf]/ tl/sfn] kmnfd tTj x6fP/ pkrf/ kfPsfx¿ dWo] @% jif{df #@Ü dfq afFr] – Pp6} s]Gb|, ;do ;dodf ljz]if1n] x]g]{ u/]sf lyP . # j6f ljz]if1tf k|fKt o"lg6x¿df pkrf/ u/fPsfx¿dWo] !% jif{df /fd|/L kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ kfPsfx¿ (!Ü afFr] eg] /fd|/L gkfPsfx¿ !* Ü afFr] . !(^# jif{kl5 hlGdPsf / ! j6f ljz]if1tf k|fKt s]Gb|df pkrf/ u/fO/x]sf] @( jif{ el/df jfFRg] b/ dWod lsl;dsf] /Xof] . !(%* / !((# sf] aLrdf hlGdPsf / Pp6f ljz]if1tf k|fKt s]Gb|df pkrf/ u/fPsf dWo] @% jif{ el/df ^^Ü afFr] . !(&) b]lv !(($ sf] aLrdf hlGdPsf / & j6f ljz]if1tf k|fKt s]Gb|x¿df pkrf/ u/fPsf /f]uLx¿ dWo] @% jif{el/df *@Ü afFr] . ljz]if1tf k|fKt / ;fdfGo pkrf/ o'lg6x¿df pkrf/ u/fPsf a]nfotsf /f]uLx¿ dWo] #% jif{sf] pd]/eGbf cufl8sf /f]uLx¿sf] d[To'b/ %) Ü /x\of] . a]nfotsf] ljz]if1tf k|fKt o'lg6x¿df pkrf/ u/fPsfx¿ dWo] !(&$ kl5 hlGdPsfx¿ @% jif{el/df !))Ü afFr] eg] !(%& b]lv !((& leq hlGdPsfx¿ of] $) jif{ el/df &*Ü afFr] .

(Advances in experimental medicine and Biology volume 509, p125)

138


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] dflysf] tflnsfdf lbPsf] tYofª\sx¿n] ljut aL; jif{ el/df yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf /f]uLx¿df ePsf] cWoogsf] glthfnfO{ b]vfpF5g\ . dflysf] tYofª\s cg';f/ ;g\ !(&$ b]lv l8=Pkm=cf]=sf] plrt k|of]u x'g yfn]kl5 hlGdPsf /f]uLx¿ h;n] /f]u nfu]sf] z'¿ b]lv g} pkrf/ kfP / cem} klg /fd|f] pkrf/ kfP/ pkrf/ k4lt;Fu /fd|f] ;fd~h:otf sfod ul//x]sf 5g\ ltgLx¿sf] cfo' nfdf] / hLjg:t/ pRr b]lvPsf] 5 . w]/} b]zdf yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf /f]uLx¿sf] hLjg:t/df ;'wf/ cfpg'sf] d'Vo sf/0f /f]uLx¿n] ;jf]{Qd pkrf/ kfpg ;Sg], ;dlk{t l/km/]G; d]l8sn s]Gb|x¿sf] :yfkgf g} xf] . b'ef{Uoj;, ljsf;zLn b]zx¿df a:g] yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿n] k|fKt ug]{ lrlsT;sLo ;]jfnfO{ pRr:t/sf] agfpg cem} klg y'k|} sfdx¿ ug{ afFsL 5 . ljjfx, kl/jf/ kf]if0f / zf/Ll/s ultljlwx¿ h:tf ;jfnx¿ yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿ / ltgsf cleefjsx¿;Fu w]/} ;/f]sf/ /fVg] ;jfnx¿ x'g\ .

vfgf / yfnf;]ldof ;fdfGot yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿n] s'g} ljlzi6 k|sf/sf] vfgf vfg' kb}{g t/ kmnfd tTj a9L kfOg] vfgf eg] vfg' x'Fb}g . la/fdLx¿sf] sn]hf] kmnfd tTjsf] clwstfsf] sf/0f of x]kf6fOl6;sf] ;+qmd0f x'g;Sg] sf/0fn] ubf{ cTolws sdhf]/ x'g;Sg] x'gfn] pgLx¿n] dfbs kbfy{ -hfF8 /S;L_ lkpFb} glkpFbf /fd|f] x'G5 . lkpg} k/] ;f¥x} yf]/} lkpg'k5{ -afFsL kf]if0f ;aGwL ljz]if v08df_

v]ns'b / yfnf;]ldof yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿n] k|fo ;a} v]ns'bx¿df efu lng ;S5g\ t/ s:tf] vfnsf] v]n slt;Dd v]Ng' x'G5 eGg] s'/f pgLx¿sf] lSnlgsn cj:yf / lrlsT;sx¿n] lbPsf] ;Nnfx cg';f/ x'g'kb{5 .

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pkrf/ ug{ ;Sb5g\ . ljbf dgfpg b]z ljb]z 3'Dg] ofqLx¿n] cfk"mn] ofqf z'¿ ug'{eGbf cufl8 pgLx¿ 3'Dg hfg] 7fpFx¿sf] glhs /x]sf d]l8sn s]Gb|x¿ sxfF k5{g\ kQf nufpg' k5{ . la/fdL ofqLx¿n] 3/ 5f]8\g' cl3 g} cfk"m 3'Dg hfg] 7fpFx¿sf] d]l8sn s]Gbdf /x]sf :yfgLo lkmlhl;ogx¿;Fu ;Dks{ ug'{k5{ . /f]uL ofqLx¿n] ofqf k"j{ cfk"mnfO{ cfjZos kg]{ ;a} lsl;dsf ;"O{x¿ / vf]kx¿ 8fS6/;Fu k/fdz{ u/]/ nufpg' k5{ / cfk"m 3'Dg hfg] 7fpFx¿df JofKt /x]sf ljlzi6 k|sf/sf ;+qmd0fx¿ af/] klg hfgsf/L /fVg' k5{ . ljZj :jf:Yo ;+u7gsf] j]e;fO6df /x]sf] 'ofqLx¿nfO{ lgb]{zg ;Nnfx' klg x]g{ ;lsG5 . cfˆgf] pkrf/sf lglDt cfjZos kg]{ cf}ifwLx¿, PlG6jfOl6sx¿ lg;+qmldt ul/Psf pkrf/sf oGq pks/0fx¿nfO{ xf]l;of/Lk"j{s kf]sf] kfg'{ k5{ / cfjZos kbf{ t'¿Gt e]l6g] u/]/ cfk"m;Fu af]Sg' k5{ . pRr kxfl8 of lxdfnL If]qx¿lt/ e|d0f ug]{ of]hgf agfO/x]sf /f]uLx¿sf] x]df]Unf]lagsf] tx ;fdfGo x'g'k5{ / pRr cIff+zx¿df hfFb}ubf{ prfOsf] xfjfkfgL;Fu cfk"mnfO{ nuftf/ cEo:t kfb}{ a9L prfOdf hfg'k5{ To;sf/0f yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿ e/;s !!,))) lkm6eGbf dflysf] prfOdf hfg' xF'b}g . olb hfg]xf] eg] ofqf z'¿ ug'{eGbf l7s cl3 /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg lng' k5{ . c? cj:yfx¿df yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿ sxfF—sxfF 3'Dg ;S5g\ of ;Sb}g eGg] s'/fsf] s'g} 5]saf/ 5}g .

ljjfx / kl/jf/ yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿n] lgZro klg ljjfx ug{ / aRrf hGdfpg ;S5g\ . oL /f]uLx¿af6 hGdg] aRrfx¿ :j:y x'G5g\ ls x'Fb}gg\ eGg] s'/f cfk\mgf] hf]8Lsf] yfnf;]ldofsf] cj:yfdf e/ k5{ . cfk\mgf] >Ldfg of >LdtL :j:y xf] ls q'l6k"0f{ lhgsf] afxs xf] of yfnf;]ldofsf] /f]uL xf] oL tYox¿n] pgLaf6 hlGdg] aRrf :j:y /xG5 /xFb}g eGg] s'/fsf] lgwf{/0f u5{ . olb yfnf;]ldofsf] Pp6f /f]uLn] csf]{ cfk"m h:t} /f]uL;+u ljjfx u¥of] eg] hlGdg] aRrfx¿ yfnf;]ldofsf] /f]uL g} aG5g\ . olb Pp6f la/fdLn] β- yfnf;]ldofsf] /f]u af]s]sf] JolQm;Fu ljjfx u¥of] eg] %)Ü aRrfx¿ β- yfnf;]ldofsf] afxs eP/ hlGdg ;S5g\ . %)Ü

140


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] aRrfx¿ /f]u k|efljt x'g ;S5g\ . olb Pp6f la/fdLn] csf]{ :j:y -yfnf;]ldofsf s'g} nIf0f gaf]s]sf]_ JolQm;+u ljjfx u¥of] eg] pgLx¿sf] aRrf yfnf;]ldofsf] ;+jfxs dfq x'G5, /f]uL x'Fb}g . -;f/f+zdf eGbf_ l;kmfl/; ul/Psf] pkrf/ k4lt;Fu ;fd~h:otf sfod ug]{ la/fdLx¿n] Pp6f ;fdfGot k"0f{ / v'zL hLjg afFRg ;S5g\ . pbfx/0fsf nflu ;fOk|;df *#Ü yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿n] pRr lzIff k"/f u/]sf 5g\ eg] @%Ü n] ljZj ljBfnox¿af6 :gfts tx pQL0f{ ul/ ;s]sf 5g\ . @@Ü la/fdLx¿ ljjflxt 5g\ logLx¿dWo] &#Ü n] aRrf hGdfPsf 5g\ sltkon] t #, $ hgf hlt aRrfx¿ hGdfPsf 5g\ . ;fOk|;sf &(Ü yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿ x:tsnf, v]tLkftL, ;/sf/L sfof{nodf ;lrj, lzIf0f, gl;{ª\ d]l8sn / :jf:Yo;]jf h:tf Joj;fox¿df ;+nUg /xg'sf ;fy} :yfoL hflu/] klg 5g\ .

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142


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] ;+Vof dn]l/of JofKt ePsf] If]qx¿df kof{Kt dfqfdf a9]sf] 5 ha ls :j:y JolQmx¿ eg] dn]l/ofsf] s8f ;+qmd0fsf] sf/0f d/]sf 5g\ . kl5Nnf jif{x¿df dn]l/of pGd"ng sfo{qmdn] ubf{ ljZjsf clwsf+z If]qx¿df dn]l/of /f]usf] ;+qmd0fsf] sf/0fn] dg]{ 36gfx¿ :jfQ} 36]sf 5g\ eg] yfnf;]ldof nufot x]df]Unf]lagsf] u8a8Lsf] sf/0fn] nfUg] /f]ux¿;Fu ;fdgf ug]{ ljifo cem} klg Pp6f r'gf}lt g} ag]sf] 5 . 12c

a;fO{F ;/fO / cGt/hftLo ljjfxsf] sf/0fn] ubf{ yfnf;]ldof /f]u ;+;f/sf ;a} efudf k'lu;s]sf] 5 . yfnf;]ldof /f]u slxNo} gb]lvPsf] pQ/ o'/f]k]nL b]zx¿df of] /f]u Pp6f k|d'v ;fj{hlgs :jf:Yo ;d:ofsf] ¿kdf b]vfk/]sf] 5 .

lbPsf] lrqn] -x]g'{xf];\ 12c_ β- yfnf;]ldof /f]uaf6 k|efljt b]zx¿nfO{ b]vfpF5 . /f]u -l;Ssn ;]n l8lhh_, -HbE) / β- yfnf;]ldof u/]/ x]df]Unf]lagsf] s8f u8j8Lsf] sf/0fn] x'g] /f]uaf6 ;+;f/sf] %Ü hg;+Vof u|l;t 5 .

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e/kbf]{ >f]tx¿sf cg';f/ ;+;f/sf] hg;+Vofsf] !=%Ü cyjf * b]lv ( s/f]8 dfG5]x¿n] βyfnf;]ldof af]s]sf 5g\ . ^) xhf/ aRrfx¿ x/]s ;fn yfnf;]ldof nfu]/ hlGdG5g\ . tL dWo] w]/} h;f] cNkljsl;t b]zdf a:5g\ . of] tYofª\sn] 6L=cfO=Pkm= yfnf;]ldofsf] lSnlgsn Joj:yfkgsf] lgb]{lzsfaf6 /f]usf] tNnf] txsf] cfFs8f dfq lbPsf] 5 lsgls ;+;f/sf] ;f¥x} k|efljt If]qsf] ¿kdf cGbfh ul/Psf 7fpFx¿df a:g] hg;+Vofsf] slt efun] yfnf;]ldof x'g;Sg] q'6Lk"0f{ lhg kfn]/ a;]sf] 5 < To;sf] oyfy{ tYofª\s cfpg afFsL g} 5 . l6=cfO=Pkm= sf] /]s8{ cg';f/ yfnf;]ldof /f]u nfu]sf @ nfv dfG5]x¿ dfq btf{ ePsf 5g\ . pgLx¿n] pkrf/ 12d kfO/fv]sf 5g\ . tLtf] oyfy{ t of] 5 ls ljsf;lzn b]zx¿df hlGdPsf clwsf+z yfnf;]ldof k|efljt aRrfx¿sf] d[To' yfnf;]ldof /f]usf] lgbfg geO g} x'G5 of t cw'/f] lgbfg eP/ x'G5 . sltsf] pkrf/ g} gkfO{ d[To' x'G5 eg] sltsf] cw'/f] pkrf/ eP/ x'G5 .

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;fOk|;

143


/f]syfd O6fnL, u|L; / ;fOk|; h:tf b]zx¿n] lbPsf] pbfx/0f cg';f/ yfnf;]ldof /f]uyfd ug{ ;lsg] /f]u xf] . oL b]zx¿ g} ;+;f/sf o:tf b]zx¿ x'g h;n] of] /f]u lgoGq0fsf] nflu ;kmn /fli6«o sfo{qmdx¿ ;~rfng u/]sf 5g\ / of] /f]uaf6 k|efljt /x]/ hlGdg] aRrfx¿sf] ;+Vofdf s6f}tL ePsf] 5 / sltko 7fpFdf o:tf aRrfx¿sf] hGd z"Go g} 5 . /f]u /f]syfdsf] s'g} /fli6«o gLlt gePsf] t/ u'0f:t/o'Qm /f]syfd sfo{qmd yfnf;]ldof /f]u nfu]/ hGd]sf] aRrfsf] k|ltjif{ nfUg] pkrf/ vr{sf] cfFsng ePsf] a]nfot h:tf] b]z klg yfnf;]ldofaf6 k|efljt eP/ hGdg] afnsx¿sf] ;+Vof %)Ü kof{Kt ¿kn] ul/g] kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ -cfO/g lrn];g_ ;Dd dfq emfg{ ;kmn b]lvG5 -x]g'{;\ 12d_ . cd]l/sL 8n/ ckof{Kt cfO/g lrn];g ;kmn /f]syfd sfo{qmdsf dxTjk"0f{ kIfx¿ xhf/df cfO/g lrn];g/lxt cj:yf clxn] c¿ k|efljt b]zx¿df s;/L /f]syfd sfo{qmdnfO{ ;kmn agfpg ;lsG5 eGg] cfwf/ z'?jftL jif{x¿ ePsf 5g\ h'g o; k|sf/ 5g\ — (WHO/HGN/WG/00.1 2000) • ;/sf/sf] rfxgf / k|lta4tf . • ;fj{hlgs Pjd\ :j:Yo—Joj;foL ;r]tgf sfo{qmdx¿;Fu} zlQmzfnL :jf:Yo lzIff cleofgsf] ;~rfng . • l:qmlgª\u / aRrf hGdg'eGbf cl3 ul/g] /f]usf] lgbfg sfo{sf] nflu u'0f:t/o'Qm k|of]uzfnfsf] :yfkgf . • ue{jtL / h]g]l6s ;]jfx¿sf] k|a4{g .

/f]syfdsf] dxTj ljZj :jf:Yo ;+u7gsf cg';f/ w]/} b]zdf /fli6«o ¿kdf rnfOg] /f]u /f]syfdsf] sfo{qmddf nfUg] jflif{s vr{ / yfnf;]ldof /f]uaf6 k|efljt cfdfafa'af6 jif{el/df hlGdg] aRrfnfO{ pkrf/ ubf{ nfUg] vr{ emG8} emG8} a/fa/ x'g cfpF5 . /f]u /f]syfdsf] jflif{s vr{ l:y/ /xG5 eg] /f]u pkrf/sf] jflif{s vr{ x/]s jif{ a9\{5 . -lrq A x]g'{xf];\_ o;n] ubf{ /f]syfdsf] sfo{qmdsf] vr{ k|To]s jif{ a9\5 . ljZj :jf:Yo ;+u7gn] b]vfPsf] pkrf/ vr{n] of] ;+s]t u/]sf] 5 ls olb yfnf;]ldofaf6 k|efljt aRrfx¿sf] hGdnfO{ k|efjsf/L /f]syfd sfo{qmd dfkm{t lgoGq0f ul/Pg eg] w]/} b]zx¿nfO{ yfnf;]ldof /f]u nflu;s]sfx¿nfO{ ;fdfGo pkrf/ u/fpg klg d'lZsn kg]{5 . log} sf/0fx¿n]

144


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] ubf{ yfnf;]ldof e};s]sf /f]uLx¿sf] pkrf/ vr{ wfGgsf] nflu /f]syfd sfo{qmdnfO{ k|efjsf/L 9+un] ;~rfng ug{ h¿/L 5 .

yfnf;]ldof s;/L cfdfafa'af6 5f]/f5f]/Ldf ;5{ < cWofo ! df pNn]v ePh:t} β- yfnf;]ldofsf] nIf0f -6«\]6_ a+zf0f'ut u'0fsf] P6f]hf]dn l/;]l;e 9fFrf cg';f/ afa'cfdfaf6 5f]/f5f]/Ldf ;5{ . o; k|lqmofdf aRrf ue{df cfpg] qmddf p;n] cfdfafa' k|To]saf6 β- Unf]ljg lhg kfpF5 . olb cfdfafa' b'j};Fu ;fdfGo / :j:y β- Unf]ljg lhgx¿ 5g eg] aRrfdf klg b'O{ j6f ;fdfGo β- -Unf]ljg lhgx¿ ;5{g\ -gSzfdf b]vfP h:t}_

:j:y afnaflnsfx¿ healthy children

cfdfafa' b'j};Fu ;fdfGo / :j:Yo β- Unf]lag hLgx¿ 5g\

olb afa'cfdf dWo] Pshgf;Fu /f]u k|efljt β- Unf]lag lhg 5 -o;sf] dtna cfdf of a'af β- yfnf;]ldofsf afxs 5g\_ / Ps hgf;Fu ;fdfGo / :j:y β- Unf]ljg lhg 5 eg] To:tf cfdfafa'af6 hGd]sf aRrfx¿df cfdfafa'af6 k|efljt hLg u|x0f ug{;Sg] ;Defjgf %) k|ltzt x'G5 . aRrf yfnf;]ldof ;+jfxs eP/ hlGdg] ;Defjgf %)Ü, /f]usf] ;+jfxs geO hlGdg] ;+efjgf %)Ü x'G5 . o:tf ;+jfxsx¿ tn lbOPsf gfdn] lrlgG5g\ . !_ β- yfnf;]ldof x'g] u'0f -6«]6_ sf afxsx¿ . @_ β- yfnf;]ldofsf nflu x]6]/f]hfOuf]; JolQmx¿ . #_ cyjf β- yfnf;]ldof dfOg/ ePsf JolQmx¿ .

yfnf;]ldofsf ;+jfxsx¿sf (Carriers) ljifodf 50% yfnf;]ldof x'g;Sg] nIf0f -6«]6_ ePsf %) healthy k|ltzt :j:Yo JolQmx¿nfO{ yfnf;]ldof /f]u nfu]sf] xF'b}g . pgLx¿df /f]usf] s'g} dfgl;s of ef}lts nIf0f kfOFb}g . To;sf/0f pgLx¿nfO{ s'g} pkrf/ tyf vfgfdf ky k/x]h cfjZostf 5}g . of] cj:yf afa'cfdfdWo] Pshgf;F u k|efljtcarries β Unf]ljg hLg 5, of the parents %) k|ltzt la6fyn 6]«6 p β yfnf;]ldofsf] jfxs xf] nfdf] ;do;Dd uDeL/ g} xF'b}g / jf:tjdf yfnf;]ldof x'g ;Sg] u'0fx¿ af]s]sf JolQmx¿nfO{ pgLx¿n] olb /f]usf] nflu ljlzi6 ¿kn] ghrfP;Dd s]xL klg yfxf xF'b}g t/ s]xL JolQmx¿n] ;fdfGo lsl;dsf] Plgldofsf] cg'ej ug{ ;S5g\ . kmnfd tTjsf] sdLsf] sf/0fn] ePsf] Plgldof eg]/ unt lgbfg

145


x'g klg ;S5 t/ /fd|f];Fu ul/Psf] k|of]uzfnf hfFraf6 ;fdfGo Plgldof xf] ls eo+s/ yfnf;]ldof x'g] nIf0f xf] ;f]sf] lgbfg x'g ;S5 . yfnf;]ldofsf ;+jfxs dlxnfx¿df ue{jtL ePsf] cj:yfdf dWod vfnsf] Plgldof x'g ;S5, To;nfO{ 7Ls ug{ ue{jtL /xg] ;doel/sf] nflu kmnfd tTj a9fpg] vfg]s'/fx¿ / cf}ifwL lbg ;lsG5 .

cfk"mdf yfnf;]ldof x'g ;Sg] u'0f ljBdfg 5—5}g eg]/ hfGg lsg cfjZos 5 < yfnf;]ldof x'g;Sg] u'0fsf] afxs x'g'n] :jf:Yodf s'g} g/fd|f] c;/ kb}{g . olb Pp6f of] u'0fsf] afxsn] csf]{ u'0fsf] afxsaf6 ;Gtfg hGdfof] eg] $ hgfdWo] ! hgfdf of] u'0f ;g]{ cyjf hlGdPsf] aRrfx¿dWo] @%Ü nfO{ yfnf;]ldof d]h/ x'g] ;+efjgf x'G5 . gSzfn] %) k|ltzt a]6fyn 6]«6 b]vfpF5 ls olb cfdfafa' b'j}n] of] u'0f af]s]sf 5g\ eg] k|To]s ue{df aRrfdf yfnf;]ldof d]h/ x'g] ;Defjgf $ df ! cyjf @%Ü x'G5 . To:t} @ df ! cyjf %)Ü ;Defjgf aRrf yfnf;]ldofsf] ;+jfxs -6«]6 jf Sofl/o/_ x'g] x'G5 eg] $ df ! jf @%Ü ;Defjgf :j:Yo -;+jfxs klg gePsf]_ x'g] x'G5 .

25% @% k|lwith tzt thalassaemia yfnf;]ldof

afa'cfdf b'j}n] β- yfnf;]ldof x'g;Sg] u'0f af]s]sf 5g\

25%

@% k|ltzt :j:Yo healthy

c¿ c;fdfGo x]df]Unf]lagx¿ / x]df]Unf]lagsf u8a8Lx¿ c¿ w]/} k|sf/sf c:jefljs lsl;dsf k|f}9 x]df]Unf]lagx¿ klg b]lvPsf 5g\ . oL x]df]Unf]lagx¿ c¿ eGbf ;+/rgfdf klg cnu 5g\ / logLx¿sf] lSnlgsn kl/0ffd klg km/s b]lvG5 . oL c:jefljs x]df]Unf]lagx¿nfO{ ;+/rgfut x]df]Unf]lag e]bsx¿ -:6«sr/ x]df]Unf]lag Eof/LcfG6_ eg]/ lrlgG5 . oL e]bsx¿df d'Vo u/]/ x]df]Unf]lag -HbS_, x]df]Unf]lag O -HbE_, x]df]Unf]lag ;L -HbC_, x]df]Unf]lag l8 -HbD_ / x]df]Unf]lag n]kf]/ -Hb_ kb{5g\ . logLx¿ β- yfnf;]ldofdf j0f{g u/] h;/L g} cfdfafa'af6 5f]/f5f]/Ldf ;b{5g\ t/ -Hb_ n]kf]/ / -HbS_ j+zf0f'ut ¿kn] k|fKt ug]{ JolQmx¿sf] lSnlgsn cj:yf eg] ljlzi6 lsl;dn] dxTjk"0f{ x'G5 . Hb -n]kf]/_ yfnf;]ldof d]h/eGbf klg β- yfnf;]ldof d]h/;Fu ldN5 eg] -HbS_ sf] sf/0fn] v'k]{sf]if /f]u -l;sn ;]n

146


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] l8lhh_ nfU5 . of] x]df]Unf]lagsf] sf/0fn] x'g] s8f cj:yf xf] . of] (HbS) lSnlgsn kl/0ffddf / cfjZos lrlsT;sLo ;Gbe{df β yfnf;]ldof d]h/eGbf km/s 5 . cfdfafa'af6 cfpg] c? x]df]Unf]lag;Fu ;Da4 u'0fx¿ -6«]6x¿_ HbC, HbD, HbE sf] s'g} /f]u;Fu ;DaGw 5}g t/ slxn]sfxLF oL x]df]Unf]lag e]bsx¿ β yfnf;]ldof x'g;Sg] u'0f -6«]6_ ;Fu ldNg hfG5g\ / lSnlgsn lx;fan] dxTjk"0f{ vfnsf] /utsf] u8a8L k}bf u/fpF5g\ .

-HbE_ β — yfn;]ldof

25% with HbE/βHbE/‚-

blIf0f Pl;ofdf a:g] sDaf]l8ofnL, leotgfdL, yfO a+zh ePsf dflg;x¿df kfOg] -HbE_ Pp6f ;f/} k|rlnt c:jfefljs / c;fdfGo k|sf/sf] x]df]Unf]lag xf] . olb Pp6f cleefjs;Fu β- yfnf;]ldof x'g ;Sg] u'0f 5 / csf]{ cleefj;Fu HbE x'g;Sg] u'0f -6«]6_ 5 eg] k|To]s tL ue{af6 hlGdg] afns HbE/ β-yfnf;]ldof nfu]/ hlGdg] ;Defjgf @%Ü /xG5 .

@% k|ltzt 25%

yfnf;] ldof @% k|ltzt HbE HbE 6]«6 thalassaemia trait

Pp6f cleefjsn] a]6f yfnf;]ldof x'g;Sg] u'0f af]S5 / csf]{n] HbE x'g;Sg] u'0f af]S5

@% k|ltzt a]6fyn 6]«6

@% k|ltzt :j:y

HbE/ β-yfnf;]ldof

/f]udf β yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofdf h:tf] sd s8f vfn] Plgldofdf x'g] h:tf] nIf0fx¿ kfOG5g\ . t/ pgLx¿sf] cj:yf yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf] h:tf] cToGt uDeL/ k|s[ltsf] x'g ;S5 . HbE / β - yfnf;]ldofsf lSnlgsn kl/0ffdx¿ / o;sf] d]l8sn x]/ljrf/ af/] o;} lstfadf n]lvPsf] 5 .

x]df]Unf]lag n]kf]/ / β yfnf;]ldof x]df]Unf]lag n]kf]/÷β—yfnf;]ldof;Fu ldNg k'Uof] eg] β yfnf;]ldof d]h/ b]vfkg]{ lsl;dsf s8f lSnlgsn cj:yf b]lvG5 . dfly pNn]v ul/P h:tf] HbE/β yfnf;]ldof j+zf0f'ut ¿kdf ;/] h;/L g} of] klg ;Gtfgx¿df ;5{ . HbS / β

yfnf;]ldof

olb Pp6f cleefjs;Fu β- yfnf;]ldof x'g] u'0f / csf]{;Fu -Pr= lj P;_ HbS x'g] u'0f -6«]6_ 5 eg] k|To]s ue{af6 hlGdg] aRrfdf Pr lj P; β- yfnf;]ldof x'g] ;Defjgf @%Ü /xG5 of $ hgf aRrf hlGdP eg] ! hgfnfO{ x'G5 . of] /f]u clk|msfnL / e"—dWo

25% with @%25% k|ltzt HbS/βHbS/‚HbS 6]«6 yfnf;] ldof @% k|ltztHbS thalassaemia trait

Pp6f cleefjsn] a]6f yfnf;]ldof x'g;Sg] u'0f af]S5 eg] csf]{ cleefjsn] HbS x'g;Sg] u'0f af]S5

@% k|ltzt a]6fyn 6«]6

@% k|ltzt :j:y

147


;fu/Lo j+zh x'g] dfG5]x¿df a9L kfOPsf] 5 . β- lhgn] pTkfbg ug]{ ;fdfGo β- x]df]Unf]lagsf] dfqf cg';f/ of] /f]usf] l;ls:ttf km/s k5{ . olb β- lhgn] β- Unf]ljg g} pTkfbg u/]gg\ eg] of] /f]usf] cj:yf 7\ofSs} v'k]{ sf]if /f]u -l;sn ;]n l8lhh_ h:tf] x'G5 . t/ β- hLgn] s]xL β- Unf]ljg pTkfbg u¥of] eg] l;ls:ttf sd x'G5 . of] lstfadf lbOPsf] hfgsf/L of] cj:yfnfO{ /fd|/L a'em\g kof{Kt 5}g . yk hfgsf/Lsf] nflu WHO sf] j]a;fO6 x]g{ ;lsG5 . x]df]Unf]lag e]bsx¿sf c¿ ;lDdngx¿ a+zf0f'ut ¿kn] o;/L klg cfpg ;S5g\ . h:t} δβ / HB n]kf]/ / HbO Arab/β b'j} yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8of;Fu ldN5g clg HbS/HbC, HbS/HbD kGhfj / HbS/HbO c/j ;a} l;ls:ttfsf] ljleGg ¿k ePsf v'k]{sf]if /f]u -l;Ssn ;]n l8lhh\_ ;Fu ldN5g\ . a-

yfnf;]ldof

;fdfGo cNkm Unf]aLg hLgx¿, qmf]df]hf]dx¿ !^

qmf]df]hf]d ToxL qmf]df]hf]ddf cNkmf yfnf;]ldof dfOg/

qmf]df]hf]d, ljk/Lt qmf]df]hf]dx¿df cNkmf yfnf;]ldof

;'z'Kt jfxs

yfnf;]ldof β- yfnf;]ldofeGbf w]/} km/s 5 . of] lstfadf ePsf] hfgsf/L α- yfnf;]ldof ePsf JolQmx¿sf] nflu kof{Kt 5}g . pgLx¿n] ljZj :jf:Yo ;+u7gsf] j]e ;fO6 x]g{ ;S5g\ . t/ o;sf] Olkl8ldof]nf]hLsf] af/]df s]xL cfwf/e"t hfgsf/Lx¿ / j+zf0f'ut ¿kn] ;g{ ;Sg] tl/sfx¿sf] af/]df oxfF lbOPsf] 5 . a-

ljZje/df sl/j @^ s/f]8 dflg;x¿ α- yfnf;]ldofsf afxsx¿ 5g\ . logLx¿ dWo] ;a}eGbf a9L /f]uL ef/t, blIf0f k"jL{ Pl;of / clk|msfdf 5g eg] e"dWo;fu/Lo If]qdf clt sd /f]uL 5g\ . pQ/L o'/f]kdf oL /f]uLx¿sf] ;+Vof nueu z'Gok|fo 5 .

148


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] Unf]ljgsf] t'ngfdf α- Unf]ljg $ j6f hLgx¿n] ag]sf] x'G5 . qmf]df]hd !^ sf] k|To]s TofGb|fdf @ j6f hLg /xG5g\ .

β

(i) alpha thalassaemia

(i)

cNkmf yfnf;] ldof dfOg/ minor

;fdfGob]lv s8f lsl;dsf] /utsf] u8a8Lx¿ k}bf ug{sf] Both carry b'j}nparents ] yfnf;]ldof dfOg/ nflu a- yfnf;]ldof x'g;Sg] u'0f -6«]6_ x¿ ljleGg 9+un] cfdfafa' af]salpha ]sf 5g\ thalassaemia h;df k|To]s afa'minor cfdfsf which the two abnormal genes ;lDdlnt x'G5g\ . x]df]Unf]lag jf6{;sf] xfO8«f]k k]mfP6]N; b'O{j6f c:jefljs hLgx¿ ljk/Lt qmf]df]hf]ddf /x]sf 5g\ l;G8«f]d -bf]>f] gSzf_ Pp6f cToGt s8f α- yfnf;]ldof (ii) alpha xf] . of] a- yfnf;]ldofsf] xf]df]hfOuf]; cj:yf xf]Ù o;df (ii) thalyn trait6]«6 cNkmf (cis type) rf/ j6} Unf]lag hLjx¿n] sfd ul/x]sf x'Fb}gg\ / αr]gx¿ pTkfbg x'Fb}gg\ . o;n] ubf{ s8f Plgldof x'G5 / e'|0fsf] d[To' ;d]t x'G5 . SnLlgsn glthfdf Ps¿ktf B b' thj}n] cNkmf t hxfO8« d f]K; ;fdfGol geP klg HbH /f]u ePsf JolQmx¿df -x]g'{xf];\ gSzf #_ yfnf;]cfdfafa' ldof dfOg/ af]s]sf] 5g\ x]df]Unf]lag k]m6N; cNkmf / ToxL qmf]df]hf]ddf b'O{j6f yn d]h/ clwsf+zsf] :jf:Yo /fd|f] x'G5 . c:jefljs cNkmf Unf]lag (cis type)

/f]usf] s8f ¿k HbH xfO8«f]k kmf]P6]n xf] t/ of] cToGt lj/n} dfq x'G5 .

HbH

yfnf;]ldofsf] lSnlgsn ;Gbe{df αyfnf;]ldofsf] dxTj .

hLgx¿ /x]sf 5g\

(iii)

(iii)

normal

;fdfGo haemox]dglobin f]Unf]lag

alphayn cNkmf thal ;'z'Kt silent carrier jfxs

β-

xf]df]hfOuf]; β yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿nfO{ α- yfnf;]ldof x'g ;Sg] u'0f -6«]6_ sf] pkl:ylt dxTjk"0f{ x'G5 lsgls o;n] α r]gx¿ / β r]gx¿sf] aLrsf] c;Gt'ngnfO{ sd ulb{g ;S5 / β- yfnf;]ldofsf] SnLlgsn glthf ;fdfGo s8f x'g k'U5 .

One parent Pp6f has alpha cleefjs;F u thalassaemia cNkmf yfnf;] h ldof dfOg/ 5 / ToxL qmf]df]hf]ddf b'O{j6f c;fdfGo Unf]lag hLgx¿ 5g\ .

& the other csf] { cleefjs ;'parent z'Kt the /f]usilent sf] has jfxs xf] . Pp6f qmf]df]hf]ddf c;fdfGo cNkmf Unf]lag hLg 5 .

alpha cNkmf yn thal 6]«6 trait

x]haemodf]Unf]lag globin H /f]u H disease

cfk"m afxs eP gePsf] kQf nufpg cg'j+zLo ;/;Nnfx -sfplG;ln·_ ;fdfGot, k|of]uzfnfsf] hfFrx¿af6 Pshgf dflg;n] yfnf;]ldof x'g ;Sg] u'0fx¿ af]s]sf] 5 5}g eGg] kQf nfU5 . k|of]uzfnfsf hfFrx¿ ug{ eGbf cufl8 ;Dej ePsf 7fpFx¿df dflg;x¿n] cg'a+lzs ;/;Nnfx -h]g]6Ls sfpG;Llnª_ lng' Psbd h¿/L x'G5 . of] ;/;Nnfxdf pgLx¿nfO{ lsg hfFr ug'{ k5{ / hfFraf6 k|fKt glthfsf] cy{ pgLx¿sf] lglDt s] x'g ;S5 eGg] af/]df ;"rgf, lgb]{zg / ;Nnfx lbg'kb{5 . cGoyf of] ;Nnfx / ;"rgf Pp6f c;n :jf:Yo lzIff sfo{qmdn] klg k|bfg ug{ ;S5 . Pp6f

149


α2b2

a2δ2

α 2γ 2

Hb A

Hb A2

Hb F

h]g]l6s ;Nnfxsf/ ljz]if 9+un] tflnd k|fKt JolQm x'g'k5{ h;n] o;sf] /f]syfdaf/] dxTjk"0f{ kIfx¿df ;Nnfx lbg ;S5 / /f]usf] af/]df lgDg ;Nnfx / ;xof]u ug{ ;S5 . • sxfF hFrfpg], • k|fKt kl/0ffdx¿sf] JofVof ljZn]if0f s;/L ug]{ . • yfnf;]ldofdf x'g;Sg] u'0fx¿ cfk"mdf x'g' eg]sf] s] xf]< yfnf;]ldof x'g;Sg] afa'cfdfx¿ h;n] aRrf hGdfpg] tof/L ul/x]sf 5g\ pgLx¿sf] nflu cfjZos ljsNkx¿ atfpg] / ue{wf/0f ul/;s]/ vt/fdf /x]sf hf]8Lx¿sf nflu pkfox¿ ;'emfpg] . • yfnf;]ldof d]h/ / cGo x]df]Unf]lag u8j8Lsf] sf/0f of h]g]6Ls sf/0fn] x'g] /f]ux¿sf] k|s[lt / pkrf/af/] atfpg] . • Pshgf ;Nnfxsf/n] /f]usf ;+jfxs JolQm jf bDktLnfO{ cfjZos ;"rgfx¿ lbg'k5{ / ca s;/L cufl8 hfg'k5{ eGg] lg0f{o ug]{ lhDdf pgLx¿nfO{ g} 5f]l8lbg' k5{ . t/ k|fo slxn]sfxL ;Nnfxsf/x¿n] lbPsf] ;Nnfx / hf]lvddf k/]sf hf]8Lx¿n] lnPsf] lg0f{ox¿df wfld{s / ;fF:s[lts ljZjf;x¿n] klg 7'nf] k|efj kf5{ . l6 cfO Pkmsf] "Prevention of Thalassaemias and other Haemoglobin disorders" Volume I eGg] k|sfzgsf] v08 ! n] o; /f]usf]

af/]df s'zn hfgsf/L lbg ;S5 .

yfnf;]ldof x'g;Sg] u'0fx¿ af]s]sf] 5 5}g kQf nufpg] k|of]uzfnf k/LIf0f β-

of] /f]u kQf nufpgsf] nflu ul/g] hfFrx¿df ;a}eGbf dxTjk"0f{ ;Eefljt 9+un] ul/g] /utsf] k"0f{ u0fgf (CBC) d'Vo xf] . o;df x]df]Unf]lagsf] tx gflkG5 / /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] gfkf];Fu ;alGwlt logsf] ;+Vof / 3gTj gflkG5 . o; gfknfO{ lgDg /Qmsf]if 3gTj -Pd=l;=eL=_ / lgDg /Qmsf]if x]df]Unf]lag -Pd=l;=Pr=_ eg]/ hflgG5 . Pp6f jo:s JolQmdf Go"gtd /Qmsf]if 3gTj &% eGbf tn uof] eg] To:tf] cj:yf of] /f]usf] u'0f af]s]sf] cj:yfsf] ;"rs klg x'g;S5 . t/ of] cj:yf slxn]sfFxL /utdf kmnfd tTjsf]

150


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] Go"gtfsf] sf/0fn] klg x'G5 . c¿ hfFrx¿ u/]kl5 s] ;d:of xf] kQf nfU5 . Go"gtd /Qmsf]ifsf] 3gTj aRrfx¿df sd b]lvg ;S5 / of] pd]/lkR5] km/s k5{ . /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿nfO{ klg ;"Idbz{s oGqdf /fv]/ ltgLx¿sf] cfsf/ / agfj6 hfFlrG5 . yfnf;]ldof x'g;Sg] u'0f af]s]sf dfG5]sf /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ kx]Fnf] kxF]nf] /ªsf x'G5g / logLx¿sf] cfsf/ Psgf; x'Fb}g . -x]g'{xf];\ 12f_ o; cj:yfnfO{ kf]Ols6f];fO6f]l;; elgG5 . o;sf] t'ngfdf ;fdfGo / :j:y /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ /ªdf uf9f /ftf], uf]nf uf]nf / yf]/} sf]lk|Psf] cfsf/df b]lvG5g\ . -x]g'{xf];\ 12e_ yfnf;]ldof x'g;Sg] u'0f gaf]s]sf JolQmx¿ / β yfnf;]ldof dfOg/ x'g;Sg] u'0f af]s]sf JolQmx¿df ;dfg ¿kn] kfOg] x]df6f]nf]lhsn u'0f -Eofn'_ u'0f gaf]Sg] -;fdfGo_ β yfnf;]ldof x'g;Sg] u'0f af]Sg] Hb: HCT: MCV MCH: MCHC: RDW-CV:

13.5 g/dl 42% 88.8 FL 28.5 pg 32.1 g/dl 13.1 %

Hb: HCT: MCV: MCH: MCHC: RDW-CV: A2:

14.2 g/dl 42.5 % 61.2 FL 20.5 pg 33.4 g/dl 15.9 % 5.3 %

c¿ yk k|of]uzfnfsf hfFrx¿ -/utsf] k"/f kmnfd tTjnfO{ cfk"m;Fu afw]/ /fVg] Ifdtf -TIBC / k]ml/l6g_ n] kmnfd tTjsf] sldnfO{ b]vfpFb}g . olb /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] Go"g 3gTjsf] tx w]/} tn b]lvof] eg] yfnf;]ldof x'g;Sg] u'0fsf] pkl:ylt 5 5}g / s:tf] k|sf/sf] 5 oL tYox¿ kQf nufpg yk k|of]uzfnf hfFr ug'{k5{ . β- 6«]6sf] pkl:ylt lgwf{/0f ug{ ul/g] hfFrsf] k|s[ofnfO{ x]df]Unf]lag On]S6«f]kmf]l/l;; elgG5 . o; k|s[ofn] HBa / HbA2 sf] ;+VofTds dfkg u5{ . oL dfkgx¿ Ps jo:s JolQmsf] x]df]Unf]lagdf /x]sf qmdz pRr / Go'g efux¿ x'g\ . On]S6«f]kmf]/]l;; elgg] of] hfFraf6 kmf]P6n x]df]Unf]lag h:tf Pshgf jo:s JolQmsf] /utdf ;fdfGo ¿kn] pkl:yt /xg] x]df]Unf]lagsf] klg hfFr x'G5 . s]xL xb;Dd oL pNn]lvt hfFrx¿ Pp6f JolQm yfnf;]ldof x'g ;Sg] u'0f afxs xf] ls xf]Og kQf nufpg kof{Kt 5g\ . α- yfnf;]ldof

x'g ;Sg] u'0f -6«]6_ eP gePsf] s'/f 36fpg] / cnu ug]{ -PS:Sn'hg / l88S;g_ k|s[ofaf6 klg kQf nfU5 . /Qmsf]ifsf]

151


B

yfnf;]ldof x'g;Sg] u'0fsf] pkl:yltsf] ¿kx¿ Plgldof

dfOqmf];fO6f]l;;

HbA2

HbF

>3.5%

1-5%

Snfl;sn

0-+

(MCV<75 fl) +

βσ

0-+

+

<3.5%

5-10%

Lepore

0-+

+

<3.5%

1-5%

<3.5%

<2%

0 0 ;'z'Kt afxs -;Dd]ngsf] sfo{kqaf6, Pd P gf] !$, !((^_ 12e

yfnf;]ldof x'g;Sg] u'0f gaf]s]sf] dflg;sf] /utsf] lkmNd -;fdfGo_

12f

aL6f yfnf;]ldof af]s]sf] dflg;sf] /utsf] lkmNd

cGo

5-10% Lepore Hb

Go"gtd 3gTj (MCV) sf] tx tn ePsfx¿ -kmnfd tTjsf] sdLsf] sf/0fn] xf]Og_, Ps ;fdfGo x]df]Unf]lag On]S6«f]kmf]/]l;; ubf{ klg β- yfnf;]ldofsf] u'0f kQf nfu]g eg] / hfFr ul/Psf JolQmx¿ vf; hghflt ;d"xsf] a+zh klg x'g\ eg] pgLx¿ α- yfnf;]ldofsf ;+jfxs x'g;Sg] u'0f ePsf JolQm x'g eGg ;lsG5 . s'g} s'g} kl/l:yltx¿df β- cyjf α- yfnf;]ldofx¿sf] u'0f pkl:yt 5 5}g lgwf{/0f ug{ l8= Pg= P= hfFr ug{ ;lsG5 . h]g]l6s hfFr ug]{ oL tl/sfx¿ yfnf;]ldofsf] lgbfgsf] nflu w]/} k|of]u x'g yfn]sf 5g\ .

/ut s;n] k/LIf0f u/fpg'k5{ < of] /f]u ;+;f/sf] h'g ;'s} efudf klg b]lvg ;S5 eGg] s'/fnfO{ Wofgdf /fvL, yfnf;]ldof /f]syfdnfO{ k|fyldstf lbgsf] nflu yfnf;]ldof x'g ;Sg] u'0f pkl:yt 5 ls 5}g kQf nufpg /ut :qmLlgª ug]{ k|s[ofnfO{ ;DalGwt b]zsf] /f]usf] lgoGq0fsf] /fli6«o sfo{qmddf ;d]6\g' k5{ . of] hfFr e/;s ;fgf] pd]/sf] JolQmdf To;df klg ljz]if u/L ljjfx ug'{ / ue{wf/0f ug'{ cufl8 g} u¥of] eg] o;n] ;DalGwt JolQmx¿nfO{ y'k|} ljsNkx¿ lbg ;S5 . sd;]sd klg /utsf] :qmLlgª ug'{kg]{ cj:yfx¿ oL x'g\– s_ ha s'g} JolQmsf] cfkmGt yfnf;]ldof x'g ;Sg] u'0f af]s]sf] s'/f yfxf ePsf] of /f]u nflu;s]sf] 5 eg], v_ yfnf;]ldofsf] b/ pRr /x]sf] b]zx¿af6 cfPsf] 5 eg],

152


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] ;xuf]qtf -k'Vof}{nL ;DaGw_ ;xuf]qtf eg]sf] Pp6} lsl;dsf] /ut ePsf -/Qm;+aGw leqsf_ cfkmGtx¿ sf] ;d"x xf] . oL cfkmGtx¿sf] aLrdf x'g] ljjfxnfO{ ;xuf]qLx¿sf] ljjfx elgG5 . ;+;f/sf y'k|} efux¿df o:tf] ljjfxnfO{ k|f]T;fxg lbOPsf] 5 / k|of]udf 5 . gftf hlt w]/} glhs x'G5, Tolt g} w]/} o:tf afa'cfdfaf6 hGd]sf aRrfx¿df sGh]G;n u8a8Lsf] sf/0fn] yfnf;]ldof h:tf] /f]u nfUg] vt/f /xG5 . c;DalGwt hf]8Laf6 hGdg] aRrf :jf:y x'g] ;Defjgf (*Ü /xG5 . dfdf, k'mk"sf 5f]/f5f]/L aLr ljjfx eO{ hGdg] aRrf :j:y /xg] ;Defjgf (^Ü / cfk\mgf cfdfafa'x¿ / xh'/ cfdf xh'/a'afx¿ glhs /x]sf cfkmGtx¿ aLr ljjfx eO{ hlGdg] aRrf :j:y /xg] ;Defjgf ($Ü dfq /xG5 . o;/L g} hlt 6f9fsf] dfG5]l;t ;Dks{ u/L aRrf hGdfof] yfnf;]ldof /f]uaf6 k|efljt aRrf hGdfpg] ;Defjgf Tolt g} 6f9f efU5 . c;DaGwLt cleefjsaf6 hGd]sf !))) hgf aRrfx¿dWo] ´08} @—# hgf aRrfx¿ k|efljt kfOPsf] 5 . glhssf cfkmGtx¿sf] ;dfud eO{ hGd]sf !))) hgf aRrfx¿ dWo] @ b]lv @) hgf aRrfx¿df j+zf0f'ut ;d:of b]lvPsf 5g\ . afa'cfdfx¿sf] /Qm ;DaGw hlt glhssf] /x\of] Tolt g} a9L ;d:ofx¿ x'G5g\ .

hf]lvddf /x]sf hf]8Lx¿sf nflu pknAw ljsNkx¿ afa'cfdfsf] hfFrM B- yfnf;]ldof x'g ;Sg] u'0f af]s]sL Ps hgf dlxnf aRrf hGdfpg vf]lh/x]sL l5g\ cyjf ue{jtL eO;s]sL l5g\ eg] p;sf] nf]Ug]n] klg pm;Fu yfnf;]ldof x'g ;Sg] u'0f ljBdfg 5 5}g kQf nufpg t'¿Gt} hfFr u/fpg'k5{ . olb b'j} cfdfafa';Fu o:tf] u'0f pkl:yt 5 eg] pgLx¿n] kl/jf/ lgof]hgsf] af/]df ;f]Rg ;S5g\ . olb ue{jtL eO;s]sf] eP ue{df /x]sf] e|'0fdf yfnf;]ldof 5 5}g kQf nufpg hfFr u/fpg ;S5g\ / olb aRrf yfnf;]ldof k|efljt /x]5 eg] ue{ t'xfpg ;S5g\ . ue{sf] aRrfnfO{ hGd lbg] of t'xfpg] eGg] lg0f{o ug{ ;S5g\ . o;/L

153


vt/fdf /x]sf hf]8Lx¿nfO{ pknAw c¿ ljsNkx¿df 5'l§P/ a:g], c¿sf] aRrf NofP/ kfNg], c¿ cfdfafa'af6 /h / jLo{ lnP/ 6]i6 6\o'j aRrf hGdfpg] d'Vo x'g\ . sltko cfdfafa'x¿, wfld{s ljZjf;sf] sf/0fn] ubf{ aRrfsf] cj:yf kQf nufpg ;Sb}gg\ / ue{nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbG5g\ .

yfnf;]ldofsf] nflu e|'0fsf] k/LIf0f e|'0fdf yfnf;]ldof ljBdfg 5 5}g hfFRg] . ue{d} /x]sf aRrfdf yfnf;]ldof 5 5}g eg]/ hfFRg] # j6f hfFrx¿ 5g\ .

!_ PGdLcf];]G6]l;; of] hfFr ue{sf] bf]>f] txsf] cj:yf cyjf !* b]lv @@ xKtfsf] aLrdf ul/G5 . o;df cN6«f;fp08 u/L hfFlrG5 . Pshgf tflnd k|fKt ue{ ljz]if1n] cfdfsf] tNn]f k]6df ;f¥x} kftnf] tf/ 3';f5{g\ / o;sf] dfWodaf6 @÷# rDrf Pldgf]O6Ls t/n kbfy{ aflx/ tfG5g\ . ue{df /x]sf] lzz'af6 lemlsPsf] of] t/nkbfy{nfO{ k|of]uzfnfdf hfFlrG5 / e|'0f cj:yfsf] aRrfdf yfnf;]ldof 5, 5}g lgwf{/0f ul/G5 . of] hfFr ue{jtL cfdfsf] :jf:Yo ;fx|} /fd|f] 5 / pgL vt/fd'Qm 5g\ eg] dfq ug'{k5{ . slxn]sfxLF of] hfFrsf] sf/0fn] ubf{ s]xL lbg of s]xL xKtfkl5 ue{ t'lxg ;S5 . @_ sf]8f]{;]G6]l;;M cN6«f;fp08n] lbPsf] lgb]{zgcg';f/ Pp6f dl;gf] tf/nfO{ cfdfsf] k]6df 3';f/]/ e|'0f hf]l8P/ /x]sf] gfledf k'¥ofOG5 . of] l;of]sf] dfWodaf6 @ b]lv # ldlnln6/ /ut lgl:sG5 / k|of]uzfnfdf kmf]P6n /utnfO{ 5'6\ofOG5 . olb o:tf] /ut lgsfNg] k|fljlws l;4 5g\ eg] k|foh;f] klxnf] k|of;df g} ztk|ltzt kmf]P6n /ut tfGg ;S5g\ . z'4 kmf]P6n /ut tfGg c;kmn x'g] sf/0fx¿df ;fgf] pd]/sf] ue{wf/0f, !* xKtfeGbf slnnf] ue{ cfdfsf] df]6f]kg / cufl8 a;]sf] ;fn cflb kb{5g\ . oL dWo] ;fgf] pd]/df x'g] ue{wf/0f g} sf8f]{;]G;]l;; hfFrdf b]lvg] cK7\of/f]x¿sf] k|d'v sf/0f xf] . h]n On]S6«f]kmf]/f]l;;sf] k|of]uaf6 Unf]ljg r]gnfO{ 5'6\ofpg] k|s[of g} of] lsl;dsf] k|of]uzfnf hfFr ljlwdf ;d:of v'6\ofpg] k|d'v 154


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] ljlw xf] . cf0fljs ljlwaf6 klxnf] cj:yfdf g} ljlzi6 9+un] ul/g] hfFrsf] ljsf;n] ubf{ sf]]8f]{;]G6]l;; ljlw x/fO;s]sf] 5 . of] ljlw hf]lvddf /x]sf bDktLx¿ h;sf] klxnfsf] l/kf]6{ x/fO;s]sf] 5, l;=le=P;= -CVS) sf] hfFrn] s]xL ;+s]t ub}{g / ue{ /x]sf] l/kf]6{ l9nf] u/L u/]sf] cj:yfdf dfq ul/G5 .

#_ sf]l/cf]lgs len; :ofDklnª (CVS) l;leP; hfFr PDgLcf];]G6]l;; eGbf s]xL cufl8 cyjf ue{ /x]sf] !) b]lv !! xKtfsf] ljrdf ul/G5 . o; hfFrdf cN6«f;fp08sf] ;xf/f lnb} ue{/f]u ljz]if1n] sf]l/cf]lgs lemNnL ;]nsf] ;fgf] gd"gf tfG5g\ of] sf]ifdf e|'0fdf /xg] h]g]l6s ;"rgf ;'/lIft /x]sf] x'G5 . o;af6 g} kl5 uP/ ;fn aG5 . of] gd'gf lngsf] nflu oft dl;gf] tf/nfO{ cfdfsf] k]6df 3';fl/G5 -6«fG;PG8f]ldg/_ oft of]gLaf6 ;fgf] Sofy]6/ 3';fl/G5 -6«fG;;le{sn_ . To;kl5 o;/L tflgPsf] sf]if ljZn]if0f ul/G5 . PlDgcf];]G6]l;; h:tf] (CVS) ljlwn] cfdfnfO{ vf;} vt/f x'Fb}g . tfklg aRrf t'lxg] lemgf] ;Defjgf eg] /xG5 . olb ue{ t'lxof] eg] klg o;sf] sf/0f CVS ljlwn] g} ePsf] xf] eg]/ eGg uf¥xf] x'G5 lsgls w]/} ue{x¿ ue{fj:yfsf] !@ xKtfsf] jl/kl/ t'lxG5g\ . olb of] hfFr (CVS) uef{cj:yfsf] cl3Nnf] r/0fdf g} of clGtd k6s /h:jnf ePsf] ldltn] * xKtf el/df g} ul/of] eg] ue{df /x]sf] lzz'sf] z/L/sf c+ux¿df rf]6 nfUg] / c+ue+u x'g] vt/f /xG5 t/ olb /h:jnf ePsf] ldltn] ( xKtfdf of] hfFr (CVS) ul/of] eg] o:tf] c+ue+u x'g] s'g} yk vt/fx¿ ePsf] k|df0f 5}g . oL sf/0fn] ubf{ klg of] hfFr (CVS) uef{wf/0fsf] !) xKtfsf] z'¿cftdf g} ug{] ul/G5 .

h]g]l6s hfFrn] s;/L sfd u5{ < PDgf]cf];]G6]l;; / l; le P; (CVS) b'j} hfFrx¿ l8 Pg P hfFrdf cfwfl/t 5g\ of] hfFrn] cfdfa'afdf pkl:yt c0f'jf+lzs -h]g]l6s_ c;fdfGokg -lhg ;+/rgf kl/jt{g_ sf] cj:yfnfO{ klxrfg ug]{ jf 5'6\ofpg] u5{ . of] j+zf0f'ut /f]usf] lgbfg ug]{ ;a}eGbf /fd|f] tl/sf xf] . of] hfFrdf klg w]/} sd g} ePklg c¿ hfFrx¿df h:t} uNtL x'g] ;Dejgf /xG5 .

155


xfd|f] lghL ljz]iftfx¿sf nflu lhDd]jf/ xfdLn] cfdfa'afaf6 a+zf0f'ut ¿kn] lnPsf lhgx¿ x]df]Unf]lag ;d]t l8 Pg P n] ag]sf x'G5g\ . z/L/sf k|To]s c+ux¿ nufot aRrfnfO{ a]/]/ a;]sf] ;fnn] ;d]t Pp6f JolQmsf] l8=Pg=P=sf] ;du| gd"gf af]S5 . l;=lj=P;= hfFrdf k|of]uzfnf a}1flgsx¿n] sf]/f]cf]lgs lemNnLaf6 lnPsf] sf]ifsf] l8=Pg=P=df lglxt x]df]Unf]lag lhgsf] /fd|f] cWoog u5{g\ / ca hlGdg] aRrf :j:y x'G5 cyjf yfnf;]ldof x'g ;Sg] u'0f af]s]sf] x'G5 of yfnf;]ldof d]h/ g} eP/ hlGdG5 eGg] s'/f kQf nufpF5g\ . of] gd"gfsf] cWoog k"/f ug{ em08} ! xKtf nfU5 .

ue{ t'xfpg' olb k|of]uzfnf hfFrn] aRrf /f]uaf6 k|efljt ePsf] b]vfof] eg] cfdfafa'n] ue{ t'xfpg] lg0f{o lng ;S5g\ . of] ;Gbe{df h]g]l6s ;Nnfxsf/ / ue{ /f]u ljz]if1sf] e"ldsf dxTjk"0f{ x'G5 . oxL a]nf bDktLx¿n] ue{sf] aRrf hGdfpg] / p;nfO{ lhGbuLe/L pkrf/ ug]{ lg0f{o klg lng ;S5g\ . olb ue{ t'xfpg] g} lg0f{o lng] xf] eg] uef{j:yfsf] ;dosf] cfwf/df o;nfO{ b'O{ r/0fdf t'xfpg ;lsG5 .

klxnf] r/0fdf ue{ t'xfpg' dlxnfsf] ue{ a;]sf] !$ xKtf k'Ug' cufj} klxnf] r/0fd} ue{ t'xfpg] sfd ug{ ;lsG5 . bDktLx¿nfO{ ue{ t'xfpFbf klg bf];|f] aRrf hGdfpg] Ifdtfdf s'g} sdL gcfpg] s'/fdf ljZj:t kfg'{ k5{ . t/ vt/fdf /x]sf hf]8Lsf] k|To]s ue{df cfPsf] aRrf /f]uaf6 k|efljt x'g;S5 eGg] s'/f klg /fd|f];Fu ;Demfpg'k5{ . olb cfdfa'afx¿n] ca ue{df cfpg] aRrf /f]uaf6 k|efljt x'G5 ls xF'b}g eg]/ hfGg rfx] eg] lzz' hlGdg' eGbf cufl8 ul/g] /f]u lgbfgsf] k|s[of k'gM ckgfpg' k5{ eg]/ ;'emfj lbg'k5{ .

l9nf] u/L ue{ t'xfpg' !$ xKtfeGbf a9Lsf] ue{ t'xfpgsf] nflu ue{jtL dlxnfnfO{ ;'Ts]/L Joyf nfUg] cf}ifwL -k|f]:6fUnf08Lg_ uef{zodf lbOG5 . of] k|s[ofdf 306f}+;Dd Joyf nfUg], k|lqmofx¿ w]/} emGeml6nf ePsf] x'Fbf uef{j:yfsf] cl3Nnf] r/0fdf ue{kft u/fpg'eGbf sl7g /

156


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] si6k"0f{ x'G5 . o:tf] ePklg o; sfo{n] dlxnfsf] csf]{ ue{ af]Sg;Sg] Ifdtfdf eg] s'g} c;/ kfb}{g .

c¿ tl/sfx¿ aRrf hGdg' eGbf cufl8 g} ul/g] /f]usf] lgbfg / ue{kft u/fpg] ljlw ljjfbf:kb 5g\ . ue{df ePsf] jRrf yfnf;]ldof /f]u x'g] u'0f ePsf] 5 ls 5}g eGg] hfg]/ dfq /f]usf] lgoGq0f x'Fb}g . ue{l:yt lzz'sf] /f]u lgbfg / ue{ktg ljgf ul/g] s'g} klg :qmLlgª ;kmn / k|efjsf/L x'Fb}g . cfdfsf] /utdf /x]sf] kmf]P6nsf]ifx¿sf] ljZn]if0f ug]{ h:tf /f]syfdsf cg]s ljlwx¿ ljsf; e}/x]sf 5g\ t/ oL ljlwx¿sf cfk\mgf ;Ldfx¿ 5g\ / xfn k|of]udf /x]sf] ue{l:yt lzz'sf] /f]u lgbfg k|s[of h:tf] of] Tolt k|efjsf/L 5}g . csf]{ k|d'v k|s[of -PGD_ cyjf k"j{ k|Tof/f]k0f h]g]l6s lgbfg -lk| 6fG:KnfG6];g 8fOUgf]l;;_ xf] . of] ljlwdf yfnf;]ldof x'g ;Sg] u'0f af]s]sL cfdfaf6 l8=Pg=P k|ljlw k|of]u u/L :j:y c08 lemlsG5 . afa'af6 ;d]t :j:y jLo{ lnO{ o;nfO{ uef{zo aflx/ g} lgz]lrt ul/G5 . of] lgz]lrt c08nfO{ cfdfsf] kf7]3/df /flvG5 . ue{ t'xfpg dg gug]{ dflg;x¿sf] nflu of] ljlw /fd|f] 5 olb k|ljlw sd hl6n / :j:y ;d]t eP o;sf] k|of]un] Jofkstf kfpg] lyof] .

157


zAb–cy{ ;+u|x cu|fg'nf];fO6– PSo"6— P8\;– cNa'dLg– cN8f]:6]/f]g– Pnf]ODo'g– Plgldof– PgfDg]li6s– PgflkmNofS;L;– PG6LjfO6Ls– PG6La8L– PG6LhLg– PG6Llx:6fdfOg– PG6Lcf]S;L8G6–

PG6LkfO/]l6s– PG6Ll/6«f]efO/n– PG6LefO/n–

158

;fO6f]KnfHdLs u|fg'n; -bfgfx¿_ gePsf] ;]tf ;Qmsf]ifx¿ -x]g'{xf];\ u|fg'nf];fO6_ -tLa|_ 5f]6f] ;dodf g} l;ls:t -;f¥x}_ agfpg] la/fdL qmf]lgs;Fu t'ngf ug'{xf];\_ -PSjfo8{ ODo"gf] l8lkm;]G;L efO/;_ efO/;sf] pkl:yltn] ubf{ z/L/sf] k|lt/f]wfTds Ifdtf gi6 x'g], of] /f]u PrcfOeLsf] ;+qmd0fsf] sf/0fn] x'G5 . /ut / of}g ;DaGwaf6 ;5{ . /utsf] KnfHdf, df+zk]zL, c08fsf] ;]tf] efu, b"wdf kfOg] k|f]l6gx¿sf] k|sf/x¿dWo]sf] ;fdfGo k|f]l6g . z/L/df g'g / kfgLsf] ;Gt'ngnfO{ ;'rf¿ ug]{ :6]/f]O8 xdf]{g . z/L/df aflx/af6 k:g] kbfy{ lj¿4 pTkfbg x'g] PG6Laf]l8hÙ pbfx/0fsf] nflu /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg lng' . /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿, x]df]Unf]lag cyjf s'n /utsf] u'0f 36\g] of sld x'g] Pp6f cj:yf . klxnf] k6ssf] PG6La8Lh z/L/sf] ;]/ddf klxrfg x'g ;s]sf] v08df ODo'gf]h]lgs kbfy{sf] lj¿4df bf];|f] k6s PG6Lal8hsf] tLa| pTkfbg . k|f]l6g jf cf}ifwLx¿ k|ltsf] clt pRr ;+a]bgzLntf h;sf] sf/0fn] Plglkmnofs6Ls ;+3ft x'g ;S5 . ;'Idbz{s oGqn] dfq b]Vg ;Sg] cToGt ;fgf ;fgf hLjf0f'af6 ;]ld;]Gy]l6s lnP/ of pTkfbg u/]/ agfOPsf] kbfy{ of] 3f]ndf 3'Ng -ldl;g_ ;S5 / ;;fgf lhjf0f'x¿nfO{ dfg{ -bafpg_ ;S5 . z/L/sf] k|lt/Iff k|To'Q/sf] Pp6f efusf] ¿kdf PG6LhLg lj¿4 ;s[o x'g] k|f]l6g . k|lt/Iff k|ltpQ/nfO{ pQ]lht ug{ ;Sg] kbfy{ . Pnlh{s k|lts[ofsf] pkrf/df k|of]u x'g] of}lusx¿ dWo] Ps of}lus . ljleGg kbfy{ -kx]+nf kmnk"mn, le6fldg ;L, cNkmf – 6f]sf]k]m/f]n cflb_ h;sf] cs;L8];gn] jf logLx¿;+usf] cS;Lhgsf] k|ltlqmofn] lk|m ¥ofl8sn -zl//sf lglDt v/fa tTj_ n] zl//df k'¥ofpg] xfgLaf6 hf]ufpF5 . Hj/f] /f]Sg], x6fpg] of sd ug]{ . l/6«f]efO/;x¿sf] lj¿4 lgb]{lzt, logLx¿sf] k|efj / sd ug{] . efO/;sf] lj?4 k|efjsf/L;+u sfd ug]{, lgb]{lzt x'g] .


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] Pl/b\dLof– cf6{/L– cl;D6f]Dofl6s– c6f]hd– AofS6]l/od–

jfon– jfon/L– jfoK;L– /Qm ;d"x– /ut KnfHdf–

/utsf k|sf/– x•Lsf] dHhf -af]gDof/f]_–

af]efOg :kf]uLkme{ OG;]kmfnf]KofyL–

Soflkn/L– sfaf]{xfO6«]8–

d'6'sf] w8\gsf] nosf] ;do of zlQmdf kl/jt{g cfpg' . df+;k]zLsf] leQf ePsf d'6'af6 z/L/el/ /ut k'¥ofpg] /QmgnLx¿ . /f]usf] s'g} klg ;+s]t b]vf gkg]{ cj:yf . of}g qmf]df]hf]db]lv afx]ssf c¿ qmf]df]hdx¿ JoS6]l/ofsf] k|f]sfof]l6{e ;d"x dWo] kg]{ s'g} ljlzi6 Go'lSno; gePsf] Pssf]ifLo uf]nfsf/, rqmsf/ of /8 h:tf] cfsf/sf] ;"Idbz{s oGqn] dfq b]Vg ;lsg] hLj . of] hLj ;d"xdf j:5 / /f]u nufpg ;Ifd x'G5 . sn]hf]n] pTkfbg ug]{ kx]+nf] cyjf xl/of] t/n kbfy{, h'g 8'8]gddf k:5 / af];f]sf] cjzf]if0f ug{ d2t u5{ . jfon;Fu ;alGwt hLljt z/L/af6 lgsflng] tGt', sf]if of t/n kbfy{ / o;sf] hfFr k|lqmof vf; lsl;dsf] PG6LhLgsf] pkl:yltsf] of cefjsf] cfwf/df /utnfO{ $ ;d"xnfO{ afl8g], P, aL, PaL / cf] -/utsf k|sf/x¿ x]g'{xf];\_ /utsf] :t/ . kfgL of 3'lnPsf] cj:yfdf /x]sf k|f]l6g, On]S6«f]nfO6\;, ;'u/, lnkL8\;, cGt/bxg k|lqmofaf6 lg:s]sf] ljsf/, Pldgf] Pl;8, xdf]{g, le6fldg h:tf tTjx¿ ePsf] k'm;|f] kx]+nf] /ª\usf] k"0f{ /utsf] Ps dxTjk"0f{ efu . /Qm ;d"x x]g'{xf];\ x•Lsf] vf]qmf] efu leq kfOg] sg]sl6e tGt' of] @ ¿kdf kfOG5 . nfdf] nfdf] vfnsf] x•L leq kfOg] af];f]sf]if ePsf] ;]tf] of kx]nf] b]lvg] kbfy{ / csf]{ /ftf] dHhf h;df ;Dk"0f{ /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ / u|fg'nf];fO6\;x¿ aGb5g\ . d]¿b08 leq kfOg] kbfy{ . vfgfaf6 ;a} lk|cf]gaf6 x'g;Sg] a'4f ufOj:t'x¿sf] OG;]k\mofnf]KofyL s]Gb|Lo :gfo' k|0ffnLdf nfUg] j[l4o'Qm 3fts /f]u of] e]F8f afv|fsf] Srapie ;Fu ldN5 . -o;nfO{ ax'nf ufO{sf] /f]u eg]/ klg hflgG5_ ;aeGbf ;fgf /QmgnLx¿ -/Qmsf]ifLo_ xl/of] af]6lj¿jfx¿af6 algg] ;'u/ :6fr{ / ;]n'n'h ePsf] sfj{g, xfO8«f]hg / clS;hgsf ljleGg of}lusx¿ .

159


sfj{g 8fOcS;fO8– ;]n -sf]if_– lrn]l6Ë Ph]G6– lrn]l6Ë y]/fkL–

qmf]df]hf]d– qmf]lgs -bL3{/f]u_– l;/f]l;;–

;fO6«]6– sf]u'n];g– sf]u'nf]KofyL– sGh]lg6n– sG6\ofldg]6– sGeNhg– s'n]sf] Plgldof– qm'hk]ml86 Hofsf]j /f]u–

l;cfgf]l;;–

160

kz'sf] Zjf;k|Zjf; / xl/of ;fukft kbfy{sf] Iflt, bxgsf] k|s[ofdf aGg] u¥xf}+ /ª\uxLg UofF; . hLjgsf] cfwf/e"t sfo{x¿sf] nflu lhDd]jf/ :jtGq ¿kn] sfo{ ug{ ;Ifd lhpFbf] j:t'sf] ;a}eGbf ;fgf] ;+/rgf . w]/} of}lusx¿ dWo] Ps of}lus hf] wft';Fu ldn]/ lrn]6/ agfpF5 . of] lrlsT;fdf wft'sf] -d]6nsf]_ ljiffQmtf pkrf/ ug{ k|of]u x'G5 . lrn]l6ª Ph]G6sf] k|of]un] z/L/df pTkGg wft';Fu afFw]/ ldnfpg] k|s[of h;n] ubf{ wft' tTjn] ef}lts s[ofsnfk of ljiffQm c;/ u'dfpF5 . wft' tTj lbzf lk;fa kl;gfsf] dfWodaf6 aflx/ hfG5 . wfuf] h:tf] b]lvg] sf]ifsf] Go'SnLdf /xg] ;+/rgfx¿ h;n] hLgsf] ¿kdf a+zf0f'ut ;"rgf af]S5g / ;Dk"0f{ sf]ifLo s[ofsnfkx¿nfO{ lgoGq0f u5{g\ . jLrdf b]vf kb}{ l;ls:t agfpFb} n}hfg] bL3{ lsl;dsf] lj/fd -PSo"6sf] 7Ls pN6f]_ sn]hf]nfO{ c;/ k'¥ofpg] cg]sf} bL3{ cj:yfx¿ dWo] lkma|f]l;; eO{ sn]hf]sf] ;+/rgfdf Jofks ¿kn] Iflt k'u]sf] cj:yf . -nfdf] ;do /S;L ;]jg u/]sf] dflg;sf] cyjf x]kf6fOl6; ePsf] sn]hf] h:tf]_ ;fOl6«s Pl;8sf] nj0f tTj . jfSnf] h]nLh:tf] Rofn Rofn] cj:yf aGg] k|s[of of /ut hDg] k|s[of /ut hDg] k|s[ofdf c;/ ug]{ /f]u . hGdFbf g} cfPsf], e|'0fsf] kf7]3/df ljsf; x'g] k|s[of of lnPsf] /f]u t/ hLgaf6 ;/]/ cfPsf] a+zf0f'ut eg] xf]Og . ;Dks{sf] dfWodaf6 bfu nufpg', d}Nofpg' of ;+qmd0f ug'{ c;fdfGo, c:jfefljs / pu| ¿kn] df+;k]zLx¿ cfk;]cfk v'Drg] /f]u . -yfnf;]ldof x]g'{xf];\_ lk|cgsf] sf/0fn] x'g] lbdfusf tGt'x¿df Kjfn kg]{, a]nfeGbf cufl8 g} x'g] dfgl;s c;Gt'ng / df+;k]zLsf] ;+of]hgdf ;d:of b]vf kg]{ cj:yf ePsf] lj/n} x'g] j[l4jw{s 3fts OG;]k\mofn]KofyL . /utn] cfk"lt{ ug]{ clS;hgsf] dfqfdf ;d:of cfO{ 5fnf lgnf] of kx]Fnf] x'g] ;d:of -k/Dk/fut ljZjf;cg';f/ af]S;Ln] r';]sf]_


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] ;fO6f]KnfHd– 8]k]ml/k|f]g– 8]S;L/fOaf]Go'lns Pl;8– 8]:k]m/n– 8]:k]ml/cf]ShfdfOg— 8fOa]l6h d]ln6\;—

8fOUgf]l;;— 8fO:6f]n— l8=cfO=l;— 8fo'/]l6s— l8 Pg=P=— 8fO:KgLof— On]S6«f]kmf]/l;;– ODaf]nfOh— ODaf]lnHd— ODa|Lof]— OG8f]qmfOg—

Go'lSno/ lemNnLeGbf aflx/ /xg] h}ljs / ch}ljs kbfy{x¿ h;df lemNnLn] afFw]sf chf{g]nx¿ dfO6f]sf]lG8«of / Snf]/f]Knf:6 klg k5{g . vfOg] kmnfd tTj x6fpg] cf}ifwLsf] Jofkfl/s gfd h;nfO{ Pkf]6]S; eGg] cf}ifwL sDkgLn] ahf/df NofPsf] 5 . -l8 Pg P_ j+zf0f'ut u'0fsf cf0fljs cfwf/sf ¿kdf /x]sf ljleGg Go"SnLs Pl;8x¿ h;sf] ;+/rgf hf]/ x]lnS;af6 ag]sf] b]lvG5 . 8]:k]ml/cf]ShfdfOgsf], Jofkfl/s gfd h;nfO{ gf]efl6{; kmdf{ eGg] cf}ifwL lgdf{tf sDkgLn] ahf/df NofPsf] 5. kmnfd tTj x6fpg] cf}ifwL j+zf0f'ut / jftfj/0fLo sf/0fx¿n] ubf{ sfaf]{xfO8«]8 cGt/bxg k|s[ofdf b]vf kg]{ u8a8L . o;df OG;'lng eGg] xdf]{gsf] pTkfbg sd x'G5 / la/fdLnfO{ a9L lkzfj nfUg], /utdf / lk;fjdf a9L lrgL b]lvg], / ef]s ltvf{ a9L nfUg] / ahg 36\g] nIf0fx¿ b]lvG5g\ . nIf0f / ;+s]tx¿sf] cfwf/df /f]usf] klxrfg ug]{ ljlw d'6'sf] sf]7f /utn] el/Psf] ;dodf x'g] d'6'sf] df+;k]zLsf] noa4tfsf] ;':ttf l8l;ldg]6]8 OG6«fdf:s'n/ sf]u'nf]KofyL -gzf leq /ut afSnf] aGg], hDg] ;d:of_ d'qaw{s cf}ifwL -l8cS;L/fOaf] Go'lSns Pl;8 v08 x]g'{xf];\_ ;f; k]mg{ cK7\of/f] x'g] ;d:of . t/n tTj dfk{mt rnfodfg cfGtl/s ljB'tLo zlQmsf] k|jfxaf6 lgnlDat tTj leq c8\lsg', ufl8g' / cj/f]w l;h{gf ug'{ /utdf xfjfsf kmf]sfx¿ / c;fdfGo kbfy{x¿ k;]/ /Qm zL/fx¿df x'g] cs:dft cj/f]w ue{wf/0fsf] ;dob]lv * xKtf;Ddsf] kf7]3/df /x]sf] dfgjfs[lt . cGt>fjL u|GyLx¿ h;n] cfGtl/s ¿kdf xdf]{gx¿sf] >fj u/fpF5g\ / /utaf6 oL xdf]{gx¿ z/L/el/ k|jflxt x'G5g .

161


OGhfOd— Pl/y|f]8df{— Pl/y|f]Anfi6—

Pl/y|f]Anf:6f]l;; kmf]P6]n—

Pl/y|f];fO6\;— Pl/y|f]kf]Ol6g— PS:6«fef:s'n/— k\mof6 -af];f]_— k]mla|n— k]ml/l6g— lkma|gf]lhg— lkma|f]l;;— kmf]P6n— x]df]Unf]lag—

kmf]P6;— kmf]lns Pl;8—

162

hl6n lsl;dsf] k|f]l6g h;n] z/L/sf] tfkqmddf /x]/ z/L/leq ljlzi6 lsl;dsf] hLj /;folgs k|lts[ofnfO{ pQ]lht kf5{ . 5fnfsf] /ftf] kg . /ftf] /Ësf], x•Ldf kfOg]] dHhfsf] sf]if h;n] x]df]Unf]lagnfO{ ;+Zn]lift u5{ / /ftf] /Qmsf]ifsf] lgdf0f{df ;+of]hgsf/L e"ldsf v]N5 . lj:tfl/t ¿kdf /ftf /Qmsf]ifsf] k'vf{ . e|'0fsf] Xofdf]ln6Ls /f]u of] gofF hlGdg] aRrfdf hlG8; Pl/y|f]Anfi6;\sf] k|jfx dfWodaf6 b]lvG5 . o:tf] cj:yf ha Rh ;sf/fTds ePsf] e|'0fsf] PG6LhLg lj¿4 cfdfsf] Rh gsf/fTds ePsf] z/L/n] PG6La8L pTkfbg u5{ / o;/L pTkflbt PG6Lj8Ln] ;fn klg l5rf]n]/ Pl/y|f];fO6\; /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ df/]kl5 of] cj:yf b]vf k5{ . /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ . ljz]ifu/L d[uf}{nfdf ag]/ /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] lgdf{0f k|s[ofnfO{ k|]/0ff lbg] xdf]{gn kbfy{ . /QmgnL (Vessel) df geO{ cGoq x'g] P8Lkf]h df+;k]zLsf] y'k|f] agfpg] t}nLo j:t', zlQm lbg] vfB kbfy{dWo] Ps k|d'v vfB . Hj/f] . kmnfd tTjsf] ;~rodf ;lqmo /xg] kmnfd tTj g} af]s]sf] lqm:6nfOg -kf/bzL{_ k|f]l6g hf] sn]hf] / lkmof]df k|z:tdfqfdf kfOG5 . sn]hf]df pTkfbg eO{ /]zfbf/ k|f]l6gdf kl/jt{g x'g] KnfHdf k|f]l6g, lkma|Lg, h;n] /ut hDg] k|s[ofsf] nflu d2t u5{ . /]zfbf/ tGt'sf] j[l4n] lgwf{/0f ug]{ Ps k|s[of . -kmf]P6; x]g'{xf];_ of] Pp6f /Qm tGt' xf] h;df @ j6f cNkmf r]gx¿ / b'O{j6f ufdf r]gx¿ /x]sf x'G5g\ . of] ev{/} hGd]sf] afnsx¿sf] /utdf Psbd w]/} x'G5 / yfnf;]ldof h:tf] Plgldofdf logsf] ;+Vof a9]sf] x'g;S5 . ue{wf/0fsf] # dlxgfsf] cjlwb]lv ghlGdpGh]n ;Ddsf] dfgjfs[lt . s'kf]if0f cyjf sd kf]if0f tTjsf] sf/0fn] x'g] Plgldofsf] pkrf/df k|of]u ul/g] le6fldg 'B' sDKn]S; dWo]sf] Pp6f lqmi6nfOg le6fldg .


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] :jtGq -lk|m_ ¥ofl8sn— km+u;— un Anf8/ -lkQy}nL_— un :6f]g -lkQ kTy/_— ufdf Unf]ljlng— hLg— h]gf]6fOk— Unf]ljg— Un'sf]h—

;f¥x} w]/} k|ltlqmofTds k/df0f'x¿ cyjf c0f'sf 6'qmfx¿ . -ax'rg kmGhfO_ k/hLjL ;d"xdf kg]{ Pssf]ifLo hLjf0f' pTkfbg ug]{ Pp6f hLjf0f' . sn]hf]sf] 5]pdf /x]sf] sn]hf]n] pTkfbg u/]sf] lkQ hDdf x'g] df+;k]zLo y}nL . lkQ y}nLdf hDdf x'g] s8f 7f]; kbfy{ o;nfO{ ljlncf/L SofNs'n';/ sf]n]lny klg elgG5 . PG6Lj8L k|z:t ePsf] /utsf] k|f]l6g v08 . j+zf0f'ut u'0f ;fg]{ IfdtfnfO{ lgoGq0f ug]{ u'0f ePsf] cf/ Pg P / l8 Pg Pdf kfOg] lqmofTds o'lg6 . Pshgf JolQm jf ;d"xsf] h]g]l6s ;+/rgf -agfj6_sf] Ps efu cyjf ;Dk"0f{ efu . x]dfUnf]lag eGg] k|f]l6gaf6 x]d x6fpFbf k|fKt x'g cfpg] /+ulxg k|f]l6g . PN8LxfOl8s sf]af]{lgn ;d"xsf] lrgL, k|fs[lts j:t'df klg Jofks ¿kn] kfOg] Pp6f u'lnof], /ª\uxLg 3'ngzLn 8]:6«f]/f]6]6f]/L ¿k, k|s[ltdf :jfefljs ¿kdf k|fKt 5 / of] hgfj/ jf dflg;sf] z/L/df kfO{g] sfaf]{xfO8«]8df ;dflji6 x'G5 .

u|fk\m6sf] lj¿4 xf]:6 /f]u (GVDH)— bfg ug]{ JolQmsf] T sf]ifx¿n] kfpg] JolQmsf] sf]ifx¿nfO{ cfqmd0f ubf{ pTkGg x'g] Ps cj:yf . u|fd g]u]l6e— u|fd :6]g ubf{ v]/L gb]lvg] KofhL /ªsf] JofS6]l/ofsf] ;d"x . u|fd kf]lhl6e— u|fd :6]g ubf{ b]lvg] KofhL /ªsf] JofS6]l/ofsf] ;d"x . u|fg'nf];fO6\;— ;fO6f]KnfHdLs u|ofg'Pn -bfgfbf/_ j:t'x¿;Fu /x]sf] ax';+/rgfut Go"lSnP/ ;]tf /Qm sf]ifx¿ -af;f]lkmn, cfl;gf]lkmn cyjf Go'6«f]lkmn_ -u|fg'nf];fO6\; x]g'{xf];\_ u6— kfrggnL, cfGb|f cfdf;o;Fu ;DalGwt efux¿ . Xofd— Xofdf]Unf]lag / dfof]Unf]lagdf x'g] uf9f /ftf] /ªsf] /ftf] kmnfd tTj x]df]6f]kf]Ol;;— /ut of /Qmsf]if lgdf{0f k|lqmof x]df]Unf]lag cNkmf, lj6f, ufdf, 8]N6f elgg] $ j6f kf]lnk]K6fO8 ePsf] clS;hgnfO{ kmf]S;f]af6 tGt' tGt' / sf]if sf]if;Dd k'¥ofpg] /ftf] /Qmsf]ifsf] kmnfd tTj kfOg] efu (Hb)

163


x\ofdf]nfOl;;— x\ofdf]/]h— x]kf6fOl6;— x]kf6fOl6; 'A'—

x]kf6fOl6; 'B'—

x]kf6fOl6; 'C'—

x]6]/f]hfOuf]6— x]6]/f]hfOuf];— Pr cfO eL—

xf]df]nf]u;— xf]df]hfOuf]6— xf]df]hfOuf;— xdf]{g— xfO8«f]k kmf]P6]n;— xfOk/sfnldof— xfOk/kf]6fl;ldof–

164

x\ofdf]Unf]lag pTkfbg ub}{ /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿ 6'qmg] k|s[of . clgolGqt 9+usf] clt w]/} /Qm>fj . sn]hf]sf] hngsf] sf/0fn] lrlgg] of lglZrt ug]{ Ps k|sf/sf] /f]u . /ut ;]/ddf ga:g] cf/ Pg P ePsf] efO/;sf] sf/0fn] x'g] tLa| t/ sd xflgsf/s /f]u xf] h'g ;+qmd0fhGo lbzfaf6 x'g] kfgL / vfg]s'/fsf] k|b"if0fsf] sf/0f ;g]{ u5{ . /utsf] ;]/d -t/n kbfy{df_ /xg] hf]/ TofGb|f ePsf] l8 Pg P efO/;sf] sf/0f x'g] 3fts lsl;dsf] x]kf6fOl6; . of] ;+qmldt /ut / z/L/df kfOg] t/n kbfy{ -jLo{_ / /h cflbsf] sf/0faf6 ;b{5 . To;sf/0f o;nfO{ ;+qmds x]kf6fOl6; klg elgG5 . Psn /]zfo'Qm cf/ Pg P ePsf] efO/;sf] sf/0fn] x'g] of] x]kf6fOl6; cj}wflgs nfu"kbfy{sf] ;"O{, /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg, ;+qmldt /ut;Fusf] ;Dks{ / /uthGo kbfy{af6 ;5{ . k|fo h;f] bL3{ lsl;dsf] ;+qmd0f x'G5 . s'g} /f]u nfUg ;Sg] u'0fnfO{ lgoGq0f ug]{ @ j6f km/s km/s Pn]n]; ePsf] JolQm qmf]df]hdx¿df Ps} cj:yfdf /xg] km/s u'0f af]Sg] hLgx¿ . -x\o'dg ODo'gf]l8lkm;]G;L efO/;_ dfgjsf] /f]u k|lt/f]wf/fTds Ifdtf gi6 ug]{ efO/; dfgjsf] k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLnfO{ cfqmd0f u/L P8\; nufpg ;Sg] l/6«f]efO/;x¿ . ;fk]If ¿kdf pxL cj:yf, u'0f / ;+/rgf ePsf] . j+zf0f'ut u'0fnfO{ lgolGqt ug]{ h;df @ j6f p:t} Plnn;x¿ x'G5g\ . qmf]df]hdx¿df Ps} cj:yf /xg] / Pp6} u'0f af]Sg] hLgx¿ . z/L/df ePsf] t/n kbfy{df k|jflxt x'g], sf]ifåf/f pTkflbt z/L/df ljz]if k|efj sfod /fVg] tTj . e|'0fdf cTolws ¿kn] t/n kbfy{ hDdf x'g] uDeL/ / lj:tfl/t /f]u . /utdf cToGt pRr dfqfdf c;fdfGo ¿kn] y'lk|Psf] kf]6fl;odsf] pkl:ylt o;nfO{ xfOk/kf]6fl;ldof klg elgG5 . -x]g'{xf];\ xfOk/ sfnfldof_


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] sf]l6{sf]:6]/f]O8—

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165


lne/ -sn]hf]_— nDa/— nË -kmf]S;f]_— lnDkmf];fO6—

DofUg]l6s l/;f]gG; Od]lhª -MRI_—

dn]l/of— d]lgghfOl6;— dfOqmf]j— efOqmf]cuf{lgHd— dfO6f]sf]lG8«og— Do'6]zg— dfof]sfl8{og— Go'/f]nf]hL— Go'lSno;—

cf]l8df— cf]:6«f]lhg—

166

z/L/df x'g] u|GyLx¿Wo] ;aeGbf 7"nf] u|GyL h;n] lkQ agfpg], o;n] cfk"maf6 eP/ axg] / /utdf ePsf tTjx¿nfO{ kl/jt{g ug]{ sfd u5{ . z/L/sf] k6'sf afFWg]efu tNnf] sDd/;Fu ;DalGwt . z/L/sf] yf]/fS;sf] kl5Nnf] efudf /x]sf] @ j6f v08df afFl8Psf] xfjf leq tfGbf k'mlng] c+u h;n] :jf; k|Zjf; s[of u/fpF5 . ;fdfGo dfgj z/L/df x'g] ;]tf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] @)— #)Ü efu cf]u6\g], lnDkm sf]ifx¿ / k|lt/Iff k|0ffnL lgdf{0f ug]{ :6]d sf]ifx¿af6 pTkGg x'g] /Ëlxg sf]ifx¿ z/L/df ePsf c0f'x¿sf] r'DasLo k|ltWjlg gfKgsf] lglDt /]l8of]wdL{ t/ªx¿ k|of]u u/]/ cfGtl/s tGt'x¿sf] laDa sDKo'6/df x]g{ ldNg] lsl;dsf] z/L/nfO{ 3fp rf]6 gnufOsg /f]usf] lgbfg ug{ ldNg] k|ljlw . ;+qmldt JolQm of hgfj/nfO{ 6f]Sg] nfdv'§]sf] 6f]sfOaf6 ;/]/ k/lhjLx¿n] /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿df lasf/ NofO{ x'g] ltj| of bL3{ /f]u efO/;sf] ;+qmd0faf6 x'g] lj/fd of Hj/f], 6fpsf] b'vfO{, afGtf of 3fF6L c/l/g] nIf0fx¿ b]lvg] JofS6]l/ofx¿sf] sf/0faf6 x'g] Hofg hfg;Sg] vfnsf] lj/fd . ;"Idbz{soGqsf] ;xfotfn] dfq b]Vg ;lsg] ls6f0f' -hLjf0f'_x¿ ljz]ifu/L /f]u lgDTofpg] lsl;dsf JofS6]l/ofx¿ . ;"Idbz{s oGqn] dfq b]Vg ;lsg] of To;af6 klg b]Vg] g;lsg] ;"Id hLjf0f'x¿ . -ax'jrgdf dfO6f]sf]lG8«of_ sf]ifLo Zjf;k|Zjf;sf] dfWodaf6 sf]ifx¿sf] nflu cfjZos zlQm pTkfbg ug]{ ;+/rgf . hLgsf] ;+/rgf kl/jt{g . d'6'sf] leQfdf /x]sf] dWo df+;k]zLo kq . :gfo' k|0ffnLsf] cWoog ug]{ zf:q . -ax'jrgdf Go'SnL_ sf]ifx¿sf] sfo{sf] nflu clt cfjZos vf; lemNnLleq /x]sf] Go'lSno/ :ofk -t/n kbfy{_ n] afFlwPsf] Go"lSno/ k|f]l6gn] e/k"/ ;~hfn ePsf] o'sfof]{6\;sf] sf]ifLo cuf{g]n . t/nkbfy{sf] cTolws ¿kdf hDdf x'g] k|s[of . cf]o:6«; j9fP/ dlxnfx¿sf of}ghGo ljz]iftfx¿sf] ljsf;nfO{ pTk|]l/t ug]{ Ps lsl;dsf] of}g xdf]{g .


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] cf]/n— chf{lgHd—

d'vaf6 lnOg]Ù d'v;Fu ;DalGwt . leGgfleGg} sfo{x¿ ug{ ;Ifd t/ Ps csf{sf] e/df dfq ug{ ;Sg] Pp6f lhpFbf] a:t'sf c+ux¿ . cuf{gf]d]ufnL— c+ux¿ c:jfefljs ¿kn] 7"nf] x'g] -cfsf/ a9\g]_ k|s[of . -sn]hf], lkmof]_ cf]:6Lof]kf]/f]l;;— x•Lx¿ sdhf]/ aGg], Kjfn kg]{, x•Lsf vfnL efux¿ a9\g] t/ 3gTj 36\g], lvOg] h:tf ;d:of b]lvg] x•Lsf] /f]u . cf]e/L— dlxnf k|hgg\ u|GyLÙ o;sf]] hf]8L ;+Vof x'G5 . clS;hg— jfo'd08nsf] @!Ü efu cf]u6\g] /ªxLg, :jfbxLg / uGwxLg Uof; . clS;h]g]6— clS;hgsf] cfk"lt{ ug'{ . Kofglqmofh— OG;'lng / Un'sfuf]g h:tf xdf]{gx¿ / kfrg /; pTkfbg ug]{ 8'8]gd;Fu hf]l8Psf] cfdf;o k5fl8 /x]sf] 7"nf] u|GyL . Kofl;6f]k]lgof— /utdf /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿, ;]tf/Qmsf]ifx¿ Kn]6\n];df x'g] c:jefljs lsl;dsf] sdL . Kof/f;fO6 -k/hLjL_— s'g} csf]{ hLjdf cfl>t /xL cf>o lbg] lhjf0f'af6 kmfObf lnFb} cf>o bftfnfO{ g} dfg{;Dd ;Sg] hLjf0f' . Kof/fyfO/fO8 u|GyL— 3fF6Lsf] yfO/fO8 u|GyLsf] 5]pd} /x]sf] rf/ j6f ;;fgf u|GyLx¿dWo] kOf/fyfO/f8 xdf]{g pTkfbg ug]{ u|GyL . Kofyf]lhg— /f]u pTkfbg ug]{ ls6f0f'x¿ h:t} efO/;, AofS6]l/of Kofyf]nf]hL— /f]ux¿sf cfwf/e"t k|s[ltx¿ / ltgLx¿sf] pTkfbg ug]{ ;+/rgfTds / k|fs[lts kl/jt{gx¿sf] cWoog k]lG;lng— ljleGg lsl;dsf] JofS6]l/ofsf] lj¿4 zlQmzfnL k|efj kfg]{ sd ljiffn' PlG6jfof]l6s Pl;8sf] ld;fj6 . k]l/sfl8l6h— k]l/sfl8{odsf] hng kl/]sfl8{od— 7"nf /QmgnLx¿ / d'6'nfO{ 9fSg] sf]lgsn cfsf/sf] y}nL . k]mgf]6fOk— jftfj/0f / h]gf]6fOklarsf] cGt/s[ofsf] sf/0f pTkfbg x'g] hLgsf] b]lvg] lsl;dsf u'0fx¿ kmf]:kmf]/;— ;+o'Qm ¿kdf P n] a'´fOg], Jofks¿kn] b]lvg] c— wft'hGo dlN6Eofn]G6 tTj . lk6\o'6/L u|GyL— dlitissf] OGkmlG8a'nd;Fu hf]l8P/ /x]sf] ;fgf] c08fsf/ /ftf] v}/f] gf8L, ljlzi6 cGt>fjL u|GyL KnfHdf— /utsf], b"wsf] jf lnDkmsf] t/nefu h;nfO{ t}l/P/ /x]sf] kbfy{af6 cnu ug{ ;lsG5 .

167


Kn]6\n]6\;—

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168


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] :k]gf]d]ufnL -lkmof] a9\g'_– :6]d sf]if—

lkmof]sf] c:jfefljs ¿kdf x'g] cfsf/ j[l4 . y'k|} km/s km/s k|sf/sf sf]ifx¿ hGdfpg ;Sg] t/ s'g} vf; lsl;dsf] sf]ifdf gkg]{ sf]if -x•L dHhfdf /xg] x\ofdf6f]kf]Ol6s :6]d sf]if_ :6'n -lb;f_— u'åf/af6 lg:sfzg x'g] z/L/sf] ljsf/o'Qm kbfy{ :6«]k6f]sf]s;— dflg; / 3/kfn'jf hgfj/x¿nfO{ /f]u nufpg ;Sg] JofS6]l/ofsf hLjx¿ . ;As6flgo;— 5fnfd'lg, 5fnf tlNt/ . l;DK6d -nIf0f_— zf/Ll/s ¿kdf u8a8L k}bf ePsf] ;+s]t ug]{ cj:yfnfO{ lj/fdL cfk}mn] yfxf kfPsf], ladf/sf] dgf]ut k|df0fx¿, c:j:Yotfsf zf/Ll/s nIf0fx¿ . l;Gy]l;; -;+Zn]if0f_— c+ux¿ ldn]/ k"0f{ aGg] k|s[of of s'g} j:t'x¿ k'm6]/, 6'6]/ clg ldn]/ csf]{ j:t' aGg] k|s[of . l;lkmlnh— k|foh;f] of}g c+ux¿df x'g] ;¿jf /f]u, /ftf] w;f]{ b]lvg], gb'Vg] glrnfpg], k}mlnFb} hfg] lsl;dsf] 3fp . l;:6f]n— d'6'n] /ut kDd ug{sf] lglDt v'lDrPsf] cj:yf . 6\oflssfl8{of— ;fk]If ¿kn] d'6' l56f], l56f] w8\sg' . 6]:6Lh— hf]8f bfgfsf ¿kdf /x]sf k'¿if k|hgg\ u|GyL . 6]:6f]:6]/f]g— k'¿ifx¿sf] uf}0f, of}g ljz]iftfx¿sf nflu lhDd]jf/ 6]:6Lhn] pTkfbg ug]{ of}g xdf]{g . y|f]Daf];fO6— Kn]Kn]6\; x]g'{xf];\ . y|f]Daf]lkmlnof— /QmgnLx¿df /ut hDg] /f]u y|f]Daf]l;; j+zf0f'ut ¿kn] of kl5 k|fKt u/]/ k|j[Q /xg] cj:yf . y|f]DA;— /utsf gnLx¿leq /ut hdL ToxL 7fpFdf 6fFl;P/ /lx/xg] cj:yf ODaf]n;;Fu t'ngf ug'{xf]; . yfO/fO8 Unf08— yf]/fS;sf] cufl8sf] e]G6«n efudf of 3fF6Lsf] cufl8sf] cfwf/ efudf /x]sf] yfO/f]lS;g / l6«cf]8f]yfO/f]gfOgh:tf xdf]{gx¿ pTkfbg ug]{ 7"nf] cGt>fjL u|GyL . l6:o'— cGt/sf]ifLo kbfy{åf/f s'g} k|f0fL jf lj¿jfsf] w]/} dWo] Ps ;+/rgfut kbfy{ lgdf{0f ug]{ vf; lsl;dsf sf]ifx¿sf] ;d"x . TRALI— 6«fG;k\mo'hg l/n]6]8 PSo'6 nª OGHo'/L -/ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg ubf{ x'g ;Sg] ltj| vfnsf] kmf]S;f]sf] rf]6_ 6«fG;ˆo'hg— gzfaf6 z/L/df /ut lbg] sfd cN;/— ;txsf] tGt'sf] Ifo eP/ of kLk b]lvg] u/L Do's; lemNnL of 5fnf lrl/g], k'm6\g] k|s[of .

169


o"l/of—

k|f]l6gsf] 6'lqmg] k|s[ofsf] clGtd pTkfbgsf] ¿kdf /x]sf] :tgwf/Lx¿sf] d'qsf] d'Vo 7f]; efu . o"l/s Pl;8— z/L/sf sf]ifx¿df Go"lSns Pl;8 6'6]/ pTkfbg x'g] lasf/ a:t', o;sf] s]xL efu Go'lSns Pl;8 k|r'/ ePsf vfgfx¿ -sn]hf] d[uf}nf_ krfpg] qmddf klg lg:sG5, k|foh;f] pTkflbt o"l/s Pl;8 ls8\gLdf hfG5 / lk;fasf] ¿kdf aflx/ afpF5 . o"l/g -d"q_— d[uf}nfn] lj;h{g ug]{ o"l/of, o"l/s Pl;8, lqm6LgfOg, g"g lkud]G6 ePsf] ljsf/o'Qm j:t' . o'l6{sfl/of— w]/} lsl;dsf zf/Ll/s u8a8L, uf]ndfnx¿, PnhL{ ljz]if EoflS;g— vf; /f]ux¿sf] lj¿4 k|lt/Iff k|0ffnL a9fpg jf ;s[o kfg{ z/L/df ;"Osf] dfWodaf6 3';fOg] Ho"Fbf / d[t ;"Id lhjf0f'x¿ /fv]/ tof/ ul/Psf] kbfy{ . eNe— d'6' of lz/fdf ePsf] v'Ng], aGb x'g] / /f]lsFb} ug]{ t/n kbfy{nfO{ aUg, ;"rf¿ ug{ of lgoGq0f ug{ ;Ifd Ps ;+/rgf . e]g -lz/f_— /Qmsf]lzsfx¿af6 d'6'tkm{ /ut af]s]/ n}hfg] /Qm gnL . efO/n x]kf6fOl6;— x]kf6fOl6; 'A' h:tf] /f]u nufpg] efO/; . efO/;— dflg;df ;f¥x} ;fdfGo cyjf cGoTg} h6Ln ;+qmd0f u/fpg ;Sg] c0f'x¿ ePsf ;"Idbz{soGqn] dfq b]Vg ;lsg] ;+qmd0fsf/L lhjf0f'x¿sf] Pp6f 7'nf] ;d"x . le6fldg l8— /f;folgs ¿kn] :6]/f]O8;Fu ;DalGwt x•L / bfFtsf] ;+/rgf lgdf{0fsf] nflu cfjZos lrNnf]df 3'Ng ;Sg] le6fldg dWo] Ps lhGs— af]6lj¿jf / k|f0fLx¿sf] nflu cfjZos ;"Id kf]if0f tTj – lgnf], ;]tf] /+usf] vlgh kbfy{ (Zn) hfOuf]6 — z'qmsL6n] c08nfO{ lgz]lrt u/]kl5 pTkfbg x'g] sf]if . -Dofl/cfd j]A:6/ d]l8sn 8]:s l8S;g/Ldf kfOg] kl/efiffx¿df cfwfl/t, Dofl/cfd j]A:6/ :k|LªlkmN8 Pd P, !((^_

170


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/]

pkof]uL hfgsf/L vfgkfg clg yfnf;]ldof vfgfaf6 x'g] kmnfd tTjsf] cjzf]if0fnfO{ 36fpg] yfnf;]ldof /f]udf x'g] kmnfd tTjsf] clwstf /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hgsf] sf/0fn] x'G5 t/ la/fdLn] vfPsf] vfgfaf6 z/L/n] cjzf]if0f ug]{ kmnfd tTj klg dxTjk"0f{ 5 . vfgfaf6 xfd|f] z/L/df ;fgf] dfqfdf kmnfd tTj cjzf]lift x'G5 . olb /utdf x]df]Unf]lagsf] tx sd 5 eg] cjzf]lift kmnfd tTjsf] dfqf pRr x'G5 . yfnf;]ldof d]h/ / yfnf;]]dLof OG6/d]l8of ePsf lgoldt /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg gul//x]sf /f]uLx¿n] pgLx¿sf] ef]hgnfO{ ;dfof]hg ug'{k5{ tfls pgLx¿sf] vfgfdf kfOg] hDdf kmnfd tTj klg sd gxf];\ / of] vfPkl5 z/L/df kmnfd tTjx¿ clws klg gxf];\ . ef]hgdf hDdf @ vfnsf kmnfd tTj kfOG5g\ . Pp6f /ftf] df;'df x'g] -ld6 cfO/g_ / csf]{ df;'b]lv jfx]s cGo ef]hgdf kfOg] kmnfd tTj -gg—ld6 cfO/g_ .

df;'df kfOg] kmnfd tTj -ld6 cfO/g_ s'v'/fsf] uf9f /ftf] df;', e]F8f, ufO{uf]¿ / ;'Fu'/sf] /ftf] df;' / ;d'b|df kfOg] ;fl8{g, sdNh, l;kLls/fx¿ cfbLsf] df;'df kmnfd tTj k|z:t kfOG5 . sn]hf] df;'df kfOg] kmnfd tTj dWo]sf] ;a}eGbf /fd|f] >f]t xf] . oL vfg]s'/fx¿nfO{ 36fP/ k|f]l6gnfO{ e6\df;af6 kfOg] k|f]l6gn] k|lt:yfkg ug{ klg ;lsG5 t/ vfgfaf6 s'v'/fsf] df;', c¿ df;' / df5f x6fOxfNg' Tolt a'l4dfgL xf]Og lsgeg] oL vfg]s'/fx¿n] cfjZos cToGt dxTjk"0f{ kf]if0ftTjx¿ cfk"lt{ u5{g\ ljz]if u/]/ aRrfx¿sf lglDt . s'v/' fsf] /ftf] df;'eGbf ;]tf] df;' vfg' /fd|f] x'G5 lsgeg] o;df kmnfd tTj sd x'G5 . vfgf;Fu /ftf] df;' vfOof] eg] nueu #% k|ltzt kmnfd tTj xfd|f] z/L/df cjzf]lift x'G5 . b"w / b"waf6 ag]sf kl/sf/x¿ vfgfdf vfOof] eg] o;/L cjzf]lift x'g] kmnfd tTjsf] dfqf !) b]lv $) k|ltzt;Dd x'G5 . b"w, bxL, rLh / lqmddf kfOg]

171


SofN;Lodn] df;'af6 kfOg] kmnfd tTjsf] cjzf]if0fnfO{ 36fpg d2t u5{ . df;' ePsf] vfg]s'/f vfFbfsf] ;dodf Ps Unf; b"w lkpg' cyjf ksfpFbf g} b"wsf] k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . ;]tf] rLh h:tf] ;zdf kf:tfsf] 7"nf] 6'qmf, of df};fsf / Sofg]nf]gL;Fu w]/} rLhnfO{ :kf3]6L af]nf]UgfOh ld;fP/ b"w of bxL k|of]u ub}{ /; agfpg' /fd|f] ljsNk x'G5 .

Pslbgdf Ps lkG6 b"w lkpg' /fd|f] x'G5 . ljz]if u/L o;n] cf]:6Lcf]kf]/f]l;; x'gaf6 /f]Sg d2t u5{ . olb tkfO{+ cfk\mgf] jhgaf/] lrlGtt x'g'x'G5 eg] cfwf 5fnL ˆofFlsPsf] jf 5fnL k'/} kmflnPsf] b"w lkpg' 5fnL gkmflnPsf] k"0f{ b"w lkpg' hlQs} kmfObfhgs x'G5 .

df;'b]lv jfx]s c¿ vfg]s'/fdf kfOg] kmnfd tTj -gg ld6 cfO/g_ df;'b]lv jfx]ssf c¿ vfg]s'/fdf kfOg] kmnfd tTj h:t} c08f, rsn]6, cGg, ;fu;AhL, kmnk"mn, t¿n, l;dL / bfndf k|z:t dfqfdf kfOG5 . o"=s]=df laxfgsf] vfhf;Fu vfOg] cGgx¿, ux'Fsf] ;]tf] lk7f]df / /f]6Ldf w]/} kmnfd tTj ;+/If0f ul/Psf] x'G5 t/ of] cj:yf c¿ w]/} b]zx¿df gx'g ;S5 . xfd|f] z/L/n] cjzf]if0f ug]{ kmnfd tTj dWo] df;'b]lvjfx]s cGo vfg]s'/fdf kfOg] kmnfd tTjsf] dfqf sd x'G5 . t/ of] cj:yf s:tfs:tf vfg]s'/fx¿ ldnfP/ vfOPsf] 5 To;sf] cfwf/df @) u'0ffn] km/s kg{ ;S5 . kmnfd tTjsf] z/L/df x'g] cjzf]if0fnfO{ 36fpg] vfg]s'/fx¿ !_ cGg @_ b"w / b"whGo kl/sf/x¿ x'g\ eg] z/L/df kmnfd tTjsf] cjzf]if0fnfO{ a9fP/ d2t ug{] vfg]s'/fx¿df !_ le6fldg l; kfOg] ;fukft / kmnk"mnx¿ @_ df5f, df;', vk6] df5f, s'v'/fsf] kl/sf/ #_ crf/, :6«fp6, e6\df;sf] ;;, leg]u/ / /S;L d'Vo x'g\ . df;'b]lv jfx]s cGo vfg]s'/fx¿df kfOg] kmnfd tTj vfgaf6 aRg Psbd ufx|f] 5 lsgls of] k|foh;f] ;a} vfg]s'/fdf kfOG5 . t/, kmnfd tTjsf] cjzf]if0f z/L/df a9fpg] vfg]s'/fx¿ 36fO{

172


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] o;sf] cjzf]if0f 36fpg] vfg]s'/fx¿nfO{ ef]hgdf a9fP/ of] ;d:ofaf6 aRg ;lsG5 .

df;'b]lv jfx]s cGo vfg]s'/fx¿df kfOg] kmnfd tTjsf] cjzf]if0f 36fpg] vfg]s'/fx¿ != cGgx¿– uFx'sf] rf]s/, ds}, cf]6, rfdn, e6\df;n] xfd|f] z/L/df cjzf]lift x'g] kmnfd tTjsf] dfqfnfO{ 36fpF5g\ / le6fldg ;L sf] lj¿4 h'´\5g\ . le6fldg ;L k|z:t dfqfdf ePsf vfg]s'/fx¿n] kmnfd tTjsf] cjzf]if0fnfO{ a9fpF5g\ . xfd|f] vfg]s'/fdf cGgnfO{ k|z:t dfqfdf ;dfj]z ug'{ /fd|f] xf] t/ of];Fu s'g}klg k|sf/sf] le6fldg ;L ePsf] vfg]s'/f vfg' x'Fb}g -h:t} cf]/]Gh h";_ . cGg / b"wnfO{ ldnfP/ vfg' /fd|f] x'G5 -pbfx/0fsf] nflu lrh, :ofG8ljr, k|m]Gr 6f]:6, Dofs/f]gL, cGgx¿ / b"w_ . o"=s]=df k"0f{ cGgb]lv afx]s cGo lsl;dsf] ux'Fsf] lk7f]df kmnfd tTj ;+/If0f ug'{kg]{ s'/fnfO{ sfg"gn] g} lglb{i6 u/]sf] 5 . To;sf/0f oxfF cGgdf kmnfd tTjsf] ;+/If0f :jtM:k"mt{ x'G5 . To;sf/0f kmnfd tTj ;+/If0f gul/Psf] k"0f{ cGg -s]xL gx6fOPsf], gld;fOPsf]_ lk7f] / o;sf] /f]6L vfg' /fd|f] x'G5 . cfk"mnfO{ dgkg]{ Kofs]6sf] vfg]s'/f vfg'cl3 o;sf] kf]sfdf n]lvPsf] hfgsf/L /fd|/L k9\g'k5{ . kmnfd tTj ;+/If0f gul/Psf vfg]s'/fx¿df vf]n] ksfP/ vfg] ul/Psf] cf]6 -ux'F, hf} cflbsf kl/sf/x¿_ klg xf] / :jf:Yo;Fu ;DalGwt k;ndf a]Rg /flvPsf] vfg]s'/fx¿ lsGg' cl3 vfg]s'/fsf] kf]sfdf 6fFl;Psf sfuhx¿df x]/]/ pQm vfg]s'/fx¿df kmnfd tTj ;+/lIft 5}g eg]/ 9'Ss x'g'k5{ . t/ c¿ b]zx¿df cGgdf kmnfd tTj ;+/lIft ug]{ rng gx'g klg ;S5 . e6df;df kfOg] k|f]6Lgn] klg xfd|f] z/L/df cjzf]if0f x'g] kmnfd tTjsf] dfqfnfO{ 36fpg d2t u5{ . e6\df;af6 y'k|} kl/sf/x¿ -:kfu]6L af]nf]UgfOh, :6Lo' / Sof;/f]N;_ agfpg ;lsG5 / :jfb a9fpgsf] nflu d;nf xfNg ;lsG5 . @= lrof, skmL / d;nfx¿– lrof, skmL / s]xL d;nfx¿ -h:t} cf]/]Uofgf]_ n] kmnfd tTjsf] cjzf]if0fnfO{ 36fpF5g\ . vfgf;Fu lrof cyjf slkm k|z:t dfqfdf lkpg' /fd|f] x'G5 . o;nfO{ b"w /fv]/ lkpg' t c´ pQd 173


x'G5 . lrof PG6LcS;L8]G6sf] nflu /fd|f] >f]t dflgG5 .

#= b"waf6 ag]sf kl/sf/x¿ b"w, rLh / bxLx¿n] klg z/L/df cjzf]if0f x'g] kmnfdsf] dfqfnfO{ 36fpF5g\ . cf]i6Lcf]kf]/f]l;; -x•L sdhf]/ aGg] / efFlrg]_ af6 aRg cfjZos kg]{ SoflN;odsf] nflu klg xfd|+f] vfgfdf b"wsf] kl/sf/ a9fpg' cfjZos 5 . 5fnL sf6]/ lrNnf] 36fO;s]sf] b"w / lrhx¿df SoflN;od e/k"/ x'G5 / jhg a9\g glbgsf] nflu klg plQs} dxTjk"0f{ 5g\ . slDtdf klg lbgdf Ps lkG6 b"w lkpg' k5{ . df;'b]lv afx]s cGo vfg]s'/fx¿af6 kfOg] kmnfd tTjsf] cjzf]if0fnfO{ a9fpg] vfg]s'/fx¿

u}/ df;'hGo vfB kbfy{ h;n] kmnfd tTjsf] cjzf]if0f a9fpF5 != le6fldg ;L le6fldg ;L kmnk"mn, kmnk"mnsf] /; / ;fukftdf k|z:t kfOG5 To;sf/0f ljxfgsf] vfgf;Fu vfOg] 6f]:6;Fu kmnk"mnsf] /; lkpg] afgL 5f]8\g'k5{ . o;sf] abnf Ps sk lrof of slkm /fd|f] x'G5 lsgeg] o;n] kmnfd cjzf]if0fnfO{ 36fpF5 . slxn]sfFxL ! lunf; b"w /fd|f] x'G5 . lao/n] kmnfd tTjsf] cjzf]if0fnfO{ a9fpg] x'gfn] vfgf;Fu ;Fw} ljo/ vfg' xflgsf/s 5 t/ slxn]sfFxL ljo/ dfq s]xL abfdx¿sf] ;fydf vfg ;lsG5 . kmnk"mn / kmnk"mnsf] /; PG6LcS;L8]G6sf] /fd|f] >f]t x'gfn] kmnk"mn dfq vfg' /fd|f] x'G5 . pdfn]sf]÷pl;g]sf] vfg]s'/fdf le6fldg ;L sd x'g] x'gfn] pl;g]sf] vfg]s'/f vfg' /fd|f] x'G5 . @= df;', s'v'/fsf] df;', df5f / ;d'Gb|df kfOg] hgfj/ / jg:kltaf6 ag]sf] vfgf df;', s'v'/fsf] df;', df5f / cGo ;d'b|L vfgfx¿ cfk}mdf k|z:t kmnfd tTj kfOg] dfq geO{ logLx¿n] df;'b]lv jfx]s cGo vfg]s'/faf6 k|fKt x'g] kmnfd tTjnfO{ klg cjzf]if0f x'g d2t u5{g\ . oL vfg]s'/fx¿nfO{ cfk\mgf] ef]hgaf6 k"/} x6fpg' klg Tolt a'l4dfgL x'Fb}g lsgls oL vfg]s'/fx¿ aRrfx¿ / a"9fa"9Lx¿nfO{ geO{ gx'g] kf]ifs tTjx¿ x'g\ . 174


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] #= crf/, ;p/qmfp6, e6\df;, leg]u/, /S;L / ;; ;p/qmfp6, crf/ agfOPsf] Kofh, ufh/, ;nud / vld/ pAhfOPsf] e6df; -pbfx/0f ld;f], e6\df; ;;_ n] kmnfd tTjsf] cjzf]if0f k|lqmofnfO{ a9fpF5g\ . ha crf/ agfOPsf ;fu;AhLx¿ / oL vfg]s'/fx¿ vfgf;Fu vfOG5 ta kmnfd tTjsf] c´ a9L dfqf cjzf]if0f x'g k'U5 . ;d'b|sf] 5]pdf knfpg] xl/of] ´f/ ld;fOPsf] vfg]s'/fx¿df klg of] tTj Psbd a9L x'G5 . ;fdfGo ¿kdf kmnfd tTj sd ePsf vfg]s'/fx¿df cGg -ds}, s]xL klg gkmfn]sf] ux"Fsf] lk7f], l;dL_, hldg d'gL kmNg] ;AhL, df5f le6fldg ;L k|z:t kfOg] vfg]s'/fx¿ x'g\ . dWod :t/sf kmnfd tTj kfOg] vfg]s'/fx¿df s]xL cGgx¿, s]xL hldg d'lg kmNg] kmn / s]xL le6fldg ;L kfOg] df;'klg k5{g\ . Psbd w]/} kmnfd tTj kfOg] vfg]s'/fdf 7"nf] dfqfsf] df;', s'v'/fsf] df;' / df5f k5{g\ . le6fldg ;L k|z:t ¿kdf kfpg] cldnf kmnk"mnx¿ / s]xL ;fu;AhLx¿ klg x'g\ . z/L/n] lnPsf] kmnfd tTj 36fpg] b"wsf kl/sf/x¿, cGgx¿, u]8fu'8Lx¿, lrof, slkmh:tf vfg]s'/fx¿ nuftf/ ¿kdf lnP/ kmnfd tTj pRrdfqfdf /x]sf] ef]hgaf6 k|fKt x'g] kmnfd tTjsf] cjzf]if0fnfO{ 36fpg ;lsG5 .

vfg]s'/fx¿df PG6LclS;8]G6 s'g}klg ef]hgdf PG6LclS;8]G6 x'g' h¿/L x'G5 lsgls gfdn] g} ;Í]t u5{ls o;n] z/L/nfO{ x'g] cS;L8]l6e Ifltaf6 arfpF5 . clS;8]l6e Ifltaf6 z/L/nfO{ arfpg] qmddf ltgLx¿n] sf]/f]g/L d'6' /f]u / SofG;/af6 arfpg dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x u5{g\ . yfnf;]ldof /f]udf kmnfd tTj z/L/df y'k|g] ;d:of x'g] x'gfn] clS;8]G6n] k'¥ofpg] Iflt -clS;8]l6e Iflt_ Pp6f 7"nf] vt/fsf] ¿kdf /xG5 . o; n]vdf clS;8]G6sf] o:tf] c;/sf] lj¿2 sfd ug]{ $ j6f k|dv ' PG6LclS;8]G6sf] af/]df rrf{ ul/g]5 . ltlgx¿ x'g–\ le6fldg O{, le6fldg ;L, sof/f]6gf]O8\; tyf ˆnfaf]gf]O8;\ .

!= le6fldg O{ le6fldg O{ ef]hgdf kfOg] ;a}eGbf dxTjk"0f{ PG6LclS;8]G6 xf] . w]/} cWoogx¿af6 of] kfOPsf] 5– yfnf;]ldof /f]u ePsf /f]uLx¿df /f]u gePsf dflg;x¿sf] t'ngfdf /utdf le6fldg 175


O{ sf] tx w]/} sd x'G5 . yfnf;]ldof /f]u nfu]sf la/fdLx¿n] oft vfg]s'/fdf le6fldg O{ sd lnPsf] sf/0fn] of pgLx¿nfO{ of] le6fldgsf] cfjZostf a9L ePsf] sf/0fn] o:tf] x'G5 . w]/} cWoogx¿n] b]vfPsf 5g\ ls le6fldg O{ cltl/Qm ¿kdf lbPsf] v08df k]ml/ /utdf of] le6fldgsf] tx /fd|f];Fu a9\5 . 8fS6/x¿ of ef]hg ljz]if1x¿ h;n] l;kmfl/; u/]sf] eP tfklg le6fldgsf] cltl/Qm cfjZostf k"lt{ ug{ s[lqd ¿kdf agfOPsf] le6fldgeGbf k|fs[lts vfg]s'/fdf kfOg] le6fldg dfk{mt cfk"lt{ ug'{ g} /fd|f] x'G5 . le6fldg O{ lrNnf]df 3'Ng] le6fldg xf] . o;sf] cy{ of] lrNnf]sf] dfqf pRr ePsf vfg]s'/fx¿df kfOG5 . le6fldg O sf /fd|f >f]tx¿df ag:ktL t]nx¿ -cf]lne, ;"o{d"vL, kfd / e6\df;_ cflb x'g\ . oLdWo]df cf]lnjsf] t]n ;a}eGbf /fd|f] dflgG5 lsgls o;df d'6' /f]u lgoGq0f ug{ ;Sg] u'0f klg 5 . cf]lnj t]n k|z:t k|of]u ul/g] u|L;, kf]r'{un, :k]g, O6nL h:tf e"–dWo ;fu/Lo b]zx¿df pQ/L o'/f]k]nL b]zx¿sf] t'ngfdf d'6' /f]u sd kfOPsf] 5 . t/ vfg]s'/f e'6\bf o;df ePsf] le6fldg O{ gi6 x'G5, o;y{ o;sf] le6fldg O{nfO{ hf]ufpgsf] nflu vfg]s'/f kfSg nfu]kl5 dfq xfNg' of vfgf kfls;s]kl5 t]ndf df]Ng' /fd|f] x'G5 . sfutLsf] /;;Fu ld;fOPsf] cf]lne t]n k|of]u u¥of] eg] df5f, s'v/fsf] df;', pl;g]sf] ;fu ;AhL / ;nfb Hofb} :jflbnf] x'G5 . vfg]s'/f df]Ng' dfq 5 eg] k|fs[lts lsl;dsf] cf]lne t]nsf] k|of]un] ltVv/ vfnsf] :jfb lbG5 . olb of] t]n k|of]u u/]/ vfg]s'/f ksfpg' 5 eg] k|zf]wg ul/Psf] cf]lne t]n k|of]u ug'{k5{ . l3pdf klg le6fldg O{ kfOG5 t/ cf]lne t]nsf] c¿ klg :jf:Yo ;DaGwL kmfObfx¿ x'g] sf/0fn] cf]lne t]nsf] k|of]u /fd|f] x'G5 . le6fldg O{ sf c¿ >f]tx¿ b"waf6 ag]sf kl/sf/x¿, cGg, abfd, 5f]s/fx¿, c08f / df;' x'g\ . b"waf6 ag]sf kl/sf/x¿ vfgfdf kfg'{ lgs} /fd|f] x'G5 lsgls logn] le6fldg O{ lbg'sf] ;fy} vfgfaf6 z/L/df cjzf]if0f x'g] kmnfd tTjsf] dfqf 36fpg], SoflN;od k|z:t kfOg] x'gfn] x•L sdhf]/ x'g] /f]u cf]:6Lcf]kf]/f]l;;af6 arfpg] sfd klg ub{5 . vfgf ksfpFbf

176


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] b"wsf] k|of]u ug]{ of vfgf;Fu Ps Unf; b"w klg vfg ;lsG5 . 5fnL sf6]sf] b"wdf SofN;Lod pxL dfqfdf /x]klg le6fldg O{ sf] dfqf eg] sd x'G5 .

@= le6fldg ;L le6fldg ;L n] df;'b]lv afx]g cGo ef]hgaf6 k|fKt x'g] kmnfd tTjsf] cjzf]if0fnfO{ a9fpF5 . le6fldg ;L Pp6f ultnf] PG6LclS;8]G6 xf] t/ klg le6fldg ;L kfOg] y'k|} vfg]s'/fx¿ c¿ vfg]s'/fx¿ h;df u}/ df;'hGo kmnfd tTj al9 x'G5 ;Fu ld;fP/ vfgfn] df;'afx]s cGo vfg]s'/fx¿af6 x'g] kmnfd tTjsf] cjzf]if0f a9\5 . To;sf/0f o;nfO{ l;ldt dfqfdf lng'k5{ . of] ;fjwfgL yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8of ePsfx¿ / slxn]sfFxL dfq /ut 6«fG:k\mo'hg u/fpg]x¿sf] ;jfndf t c´ dxTjk"0f{ 5 . of] ;D´g h¿/L 5 ls df;'afx]s cGo ef]hgdf kfOg] kmnfd tTj c08f, rsn]6, cGgx¿, ;fu;AhL, kmnk"mn, hldgd'lg kmNg] kmn, l;dL / bfnx¿df k|z:t dfqfdf kfOG5 . o'=s]=df ljxfgLsf] vfgfdf k|of]u x'g] cGg, /f]6L agfpg] ux"Fsf] lk7f] cflb k|foM h;f] vfg]s'/fx¿df kmnfd tTj yk ul/Psf] x'G5 . o:tf] cEof; c¿ b]zx¿df gx'g ;S5 . le6fldg ;L ljz]if u/L kmnk"mn, kmnk"mnsf] /; / ;fukftdf kfOG5 . vfgf vfO;s]kl5 of vfgf cfg'cl3 Ps b'O{j6f kmnk"mn vfg' of Ps b'O{ Unf; /; vfg' /fd|f] x'G5 . vfgf vfg] ljlQs} of vfgf;Fu slxNo} vfg' x'Fb}g . :jf:Yo ljz]if1x¿n] lbgdf sd;]sd vfg]s'/fsf] % efusf] Ps efudf kmnk"mn vfg'kg]{ s'/f l;kmfl/; u5{g\ . of] Ps efu eGg'sf] dtna, kmnk"mnsf] h'; ! Unf;, ;'Gtnf, :ofp, gf:kftL, s]/f, c+u'/sf] cfwf ´'Kkf], Pp6f uf]ne]F8f, ufh/, k|m]Gr l;dL, ;nfbh:tf vfg]s'/fx¿ kb{5g\ . le6fldg ;L kfgLdf 3'Ng] le6fldg xf] . To;sf/0f o;nfO{ pl;Gof] eg] le6fldg kfgLdf uP/ gi6 x'G5 . t/ xNsf ¿kn] afkm lbgfn] le6fldgsf] ;+/If0f g} x'G5 . kfs]sf] ;fu;AhLdf cf]lne t]n / sfutL ld;fP/ vfgfn] t Pp6f xNsf vfgfsf] g} sfd u5{ . le6fldg O{ / l; n] ;Fu;Fu} x'Fbf w]/} /fd|f sfdx¿ u5{g\ To;sf/0f cfk\mgf] ;fu;AhLdf cf]lne t]n k|of]u u/]/ vfg' w]/} /fd|f] x'G5 . 177


#= Sof/f]6]gf]O8\; So/f]6]gf]O8\;sf] htftt} kfOg] >f]tx¿df ufh/, kFx]n]f km;L{, ds}, uf]ne]F8f, d]jf, ;'Gtnf, sfnf]–xl/of] ;fukftx¿ x'g= . oL ;a} vfg]s'/fx¿df le6fldg ;L kof{Kt kfOg] x'gfn] dfly elgP h:t} ;fjwfgL h¿/L x'G5 . olb ef]hgdf af];f] of t]n w]/} 5 eg] z/L/n] ef]hgaf6 cjzf]if0f ug]{ Sof/f]6]gf]O8\;sf] dfqf pRr x'G5 To;sf/0f cf]lne t]n ld;fpg g5f]8\g'xf];\ . pRr tfkqmddf Sof/f]6]gf]O8\; gi6 x'G5 To;sf/0f vfg]s'/fnfO{ dGb cfFrdf ksfpg' /fd|f] x'G5 / ;s];Dd sd ksfpg' /fd|f] x'G5 . $= k\mnfaf]gf]O8\; oL tTjx¿ lrof, /ftf] /S;L, kmnk"mn / ;fukftdf kfOG5g\ . vfgf;Fu ! Unf; /]8 jfOg slt /fd|f] cj;/ xf]nf Û olb rf]vf]lgtf] a:g' kg]{ a]nf xf] eg] vfgf;Fu Ps Unf; lrof vfg' /fd|f] . b"w xfn]sf] lrof /fd|f] PG6LcS;L8]G6 dfq geP/ o;n] vfg]s'/faf6 z/L/n] cjzf]if0f ug]{ kmnfd tTjnfO{ klg 36fpF5 . Pslbgdf y'k|} Unf; lrof vfg' /fd|f] x'G5 . z/L/df kfgLsf] ;Gt'ng agfO{ /fVg lbge/df * Unf; t/n kbfy{ lkpg' Psbd h¿/L x'G5 .

;f/f+z

178

le6fldg O{ ljz]if u/L ;"o{d"vL t]n, cf]lne t]nh:tf ag:klt t]ndf k|z:t dfqfdf kfOG5 . oldWo] cf]lne t]n /fd|f] 5 lsgls o;n] d'6'sf] /f]udf klg kmfObf u5{ . o;nfO{ vfgf kfSg nfu]kl5, kfls;s]kl5 of sfFrf] vfg]s'/fdf xfNg' /fd|f] x'G5 lsgls of] t]n ttfpgfn] le6fldg gi6 x'G5 .

le6fldg ;L kmnk"mn / ;fu;AhLdf k|z:t kfOG5 . oL ef]hgx¿nfO{ c¿ u}/ df;'hGo kmnfd tTj a9L x'g] vfg]s'/fx¿;Fu ld;fP/ gvfg' /fd|f] x'G5 / of] ljz]ifu/L nuftf/ /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg glnO{/x]sf yfnf;]ldof OG6/d]l8ofsf /f]uLx¿sf] nflu xflgsf/s x'G5 . ;fukft / kmnk"mnnfO{ vfgf vfg'cl3 of kl5 vfg' /fd|+f] x'G5 . ;fu;AhLdf cf]lne t]n yKg'xf];\ lsgls le6fldg ;L / O{ n] ;Fu;Fu} /fd|f] sfd ug{ ;S5g\ .

Sof/f]6]gf]O8\; ufFh/, kx]Fnf] km;L{, ds}, uf]n]e]F8f, d]jf, ;'Gtnf / uf9f xl/of] ;fukftdf kfOG5 . oL vfg]s'/fx¿df le6fldg


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] ;L k|z:t kfOg] x'gfn] dflysf] ;fjwfgL h¿/L 5 . k]ml/ klg cf]lne t]n k|of]u ug{ ge'nf}F . •

lrof / /ftf] /S;Ldf k\mnfef]gf]O8\; kfOG5 / logLx¿ PG6LcS;L8\]G6 klg x'g\ . c´ ykdf lrofn] kmnfd tTjsf] cjzf]if0fnfO{ klg 36fpF5 .

of] n]vnfO{ n]vssf] cg'dlt lnP/ of] lstfadf ;dfj]z ul/Psf] xf] . 8f= 8f]gf lxN6L–6]Nkm/ k|d'v ef]hg ljz]if1 aRrfx¿sf] nflu u|]6 cf]/d08 ;]G6 c:ktfn n08g .

179


n] d'6'df ePsf] kmnfd tTjsf] dfqf gfK5 .

T2*

tGt'x¿df hDdf ePsf] kmnfd tTjsf] dfqfnfO{ T2* n] k|ltljlDjt u/L ;doj4 9Ën] gfK5 . T2* sf] gfknfO{ :t/Lo lsl;dsf] r'DasLo k|ltWjlg ljDj gfKg] -MRI_ d]l;gdf cfpg] k|ltljDj -gSzf_ sf] cfwf/df gflkG5 . Pd=cf/=cfO+ d]l;gn] z/L/sf tGt'x¿sf] ljDj ptfg{ zlQmzfnL r'Das / /]l8of]wdL{ t/Ësf] k|of]u u5{ . Pd=cf/=cfO{= d]l;gn] z/L/sf] r'DjsLo u'0fx¿sf] km/ssf] / ljljwtfsf] klxrfg u/L oL km/sx¿nfO{ gSzfdf kl/0ft u5{ / oL gSzfx¿sf] cWoog u/]/ lkmhLl;ogx¿n] /f]u kQf nufpF5g\ . kmnfd tTjsf] clwstfn] tGt'x¿sf] r'DasLo u'0fx¿df kl/jt{g NofpF5 . o;n] ubf{ T2* u'0f -dxTj_nfO{ c´ ;fgf] agfpF5 . d'6'sf] T2* sf] gfk dxTjk"0f{ 5 lsg eg] sfl8{ofs T2* Eofn' @) ldln;]s]08eGbf tn ePsf la/fdLx¿nfO{ -ldln;]s]08 eg]sf] ;]s]08sf] !))) efusf] ! efu xf]_ T2* Eofn' @) ldln;]s]08eGbf a9L ePsf la/fdLx¿nfO{ eGbf kmnfd tTj clws eO{ x'g] d'6'sf] ;d:of al9 x'G5 . T2* hfFr

ug{ Pp6f aGb MRI dl;gdf $% ldg]6 ;do nfU5 . la/fdLnfO{ Pp6f u2f ePsf] 6]andf ;'tfOG5 / 5ftLdf @ j6f ljB'tLo lzzfx¿ /fvL x[bo ult gflkG5 . la/fdLnfO{ dfOqmf]kmf]g ePsf] x]8;]6 klg nufpg lbOG5 h;n] ubf{ p;n] k|fljlws;Fu s'/f ug{ ;sf];\ . la/fdL ;'t]sf] 6]annfO{ lj:tf/} 7]lnG5 tfls la/fdLsf] k"/} z/L/ MRI dl;gsf] ;'¿Ëleq k;f];\ . MRI dl;g ;'¿Ë ePsf] 7"nf] 8'gf]6 h:tf] b]lvG5 . MRI dl;gn] :Sofg ul//x]sf] ;dodf la/fdL lgZrn eO{ /xg'k5{ . k|fljlwsn] lbPsf] lgb]{zgd'tfljs gfKg] p2]Zosf] nflu s]xL ;do ;f; /f]Sg'kg]{ x'G5 . dl;gn] gfkx¿ lnO/x]sf] a]nf 7"nf]7"nf] lqmªlqmª / 8ª8ª ug]{ cfjfh lgsfN5 . la/fdLx¿n] nufPsf] x]8;]6n] sfgnfO{ of] cfjfhaf6 ;'/lIft /fV5 . of] hfFr kL8f/lxt / rf]6k6s gnfpg] lsl;dsf] 5 . c´ a9L MRI dl;gn] T2* sf] gfk lnO/x]sf] a]nf w8\lsO{ /x]sf] d'6'sf] klg k|ltljDj ptfg]{ ePsf]n] d'6'sf] sfo{nfO{ klg cfFsng ug{ ;lhnf] x'G5 .

180


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] dl;gn] lnPsf] d'6'sf] sfo{sf] gfk ;doa4 9Ën] ul/g] d'6'sf] cN6«f;fp08sf] hfFreGbf w]/} e/kbf]{ x'G5 . /utnfO{ kmf]S;f]lt/ /ut kDk ug]{ bfFof e]G6«Lsn elgg] d'6'sf] bflxg] sf]7fsf] cfsf/ / sfo{ hfFr ug{ klg MRI ;Ifd 5 . yfnf;]ldofsf /f]uLx¿nfO{ kf]NDo'g/L xfOk/ 6]G;g -kf]NDo'g/L gnLsf] sf/0fn] x'g] pRr /Qmrfk_ x'G5 / o;sf] sf/0fn] ubf{ d'6'sf] bfFof sf]7f :jefljs ¿kn] 7"nf] x'G5 / /ut kDk ug{;Sg] Ifdtfdf sld cfpF5 . MRI

;DalGwt ;a} j}1flgsx¿ lSnlgsn k/LIf0faf6 k|fKt oL dflysf ;a} hfgsf/Lx¿nfO{ ;'lglZrt ug]{ k|lqmofdf 5g\ . TIF, NIH / U.S.A. n] oL k|oTgx¿nfO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofO/x]sf 5g\ .

181


k\mnf] rf6{ A

yfnf;]ldof Joj:yfkg

d]h/sf

la/fdLx¿sf]

/ut lbg] pkrf/ z'¿ ug'{ cl3 k|of]uzfnfaf6 ul/g] /f]usf] lgbfgsf] ;'lglZrt ug]{ cfjZos pkrf/x¿ kl/eflift ug]{ k"/f /ut sfpG6 (FBC) x]df]Unf]lag / On]S6«f]kmf]/l;; xfO kkm{d]G; lnlSj8 qmf]df6f]u|fkmL (HPLC) cf0fljs cWoog (α-β- lhg ;+/rgf kl/jt{g klxrfg ug{ (XMN1 sf] pkl:ylt kQf nufpg]_ /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg z'¿ ug'{ cl3 k|of]uzfnf / lSnlgsn If]q -qmfO6Pl/of_sf] kl/efiff Hb sf] tx & u|fd— 8];Lln6/ eGbf tn -b'O{ k6s b'O{ xKtfeGbf a9Lsf] km/sdf hfFRbf_ tnsf lSnlgsn cj:yfx¿ (Hb & u|fd÷ k|lt 8] ln eGbf a9L ePklg_ • cg'xf/sf] kl/jt{g • Go"g j[l4 • x•Lx¿ 6'6\g], k'm6\g] Psk6s /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg ug]{ lg0f{o lnO ;s]kl5 tnsf s'/f ug'{ k5{ lj:tfl/t k|of]uzfnf k/LIf0f h]gf]6fOk /Qm ;d"x, ;]/d k]ml/l6g tx sn]hf]sf] sfo{sf] hfFr -LFT_ k'/f lhg /;fog cj:yf, HBB, HCV / CMV cj:yfsf] ;]/f]nf]hL ;]/f]nf]hL gsf/fTds b]lvof] eg] vf]k

HBV

sf] lj¿4

HBV / HCV / cyjf HIV ;]/f]nf]hL ;sf/fTds b]lvof] eg] ljz]if lsl;dsf] hfFrsf] nflu tof/L

182

B

yfnf;]ldof d]h/ ePsf la/fdLx¿sf] Joj:yfkg

β

/ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg pkrf/ ljlw /utsf] nflu • :jo ;]jL / k};f ltg{ gkg]{ bftfaf6 ;+sng • HBV, HCV, HIV / le/+uLsf] l:qmlgª\u u/]/ x]g{] • /ftf] /Qmsf]ifnfO{ Kofs;]n agfpg] • /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿sf] u'0fnfO{ sfod /fVg] kf]if0f tTj /ut ghDg d2t ug]{ tTj /fVg] • /ut lkmN6/ ug]{ -ljz]if u/L ;+ro ÷ e08f/0f ug'{ cl3 / w'nfO ug]{ la/fdLx¿sf] nflu s_ k|To]s k6s 6«fG;k\mo'hg ug'{ cl3 gofF PlG6a8Lsf] hfFr v_ cfjZos dfqfsf] u0fgf cfjZos u_ !)÷!% ldlnln6/ /ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿÷k|lts]hL z/L/sf] tf}nsf] cfwf/df lbg] 3_ #÷$ 306f nufP/ lbg] ª_ d'6'sf] ;d:of ePsf /f]uLx¿nfO{ @ b]lv % ldlnln6/ k|lt s]hL z/L/sf] tf}n÷306f nufP/ lbg] sf] tx !)=% ÷ k|lt 8];Lln6/ -/ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg cufl8_ HB sf] tx k|lt 8];Lln6/ !% u|fd;Dd -/ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg k5fl8 HB

/ut 6«fG;k\mo'hgsf] sf/0f pTkGg hl6ntfx¿sf] cg'udg ug]{ /]s8{ /fVg] / pkrf/ ug]{ /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg pkrf/ k4ltsf] k|efjsfl/tfsf] d'Nofª\sg lkmof] /fd|f] /x]sf la/fdLx¿df HB sf] 36fO ! xKtfdf ! u|fd ÷ k|lt 8];L ln6/ eGbf a9L x'g'x'Fb}g lkmof] ;Nolqmof u/]/ x6fPsf /f]uLx¿df k|lt xKtf !=% u|fd k|lt8];L ln6/ eGbf 36\g' x'Fb}g


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] C

yfnf;]ldof d]h/ ePsf la/fdLx¿sf] Joj:yfkg

β

kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ cfO/g lrn];g • !) b]lv @) k6s;Dd /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg ul/ ;s]kl5 cyjf • k]ml/l6gsf] tx !))) u|fd k|lt ln6/ eGbfdfly cyjf • sn]hf]df kmnfd tTjsf] dfqf —#=@ ldlnu|fd k|lt u|fd 8«fO{ j]6df cyjf • pd]/ # jif{ jf ;f] a/fa/ ePdf

D

k|of]u ug'{ cl3 %)) u|fd l8:s]l/cf]sGhfdfOgsf] 3f]nnfO{ o;sf] !)Ü 3f]ndf ldnfpg] •

le6fldg C lbg] aRrfx¿nfO{ —%) mg/day k|f}9x¿nfO{ —@)) mg/day pkrf//t lkmlhl;ogn] l;kmfl/; u/] adf]lhd l8Pkmcf] • 5fnfd'lgaf6 lbOg] * b]lv !@ 306f nufP/, ! xKtfdf ^ lbg ;Dd cyjf • gzfaf6 lbOg] -IV_ * b]lv !@ 306f nufP/ ^ lbgeGbf al9 ! xKtfdf cyjf • gzfaf6 @$ 306f nufP/ k|If]k0f ug]{ cyjf • cGoyf

&% ldlnu|fd k|lts]hL ;a}lt/ l;kmfl/; ul/G5 L1 ;Fu ;DalGwt ljiffQmtfsf] cg'udg ug]{ • ! b]lv @ xKtf;Dd ;]tfsf]if u0fgf • sn]hf]sf] sfo{sf] hfFr • hLÍsf] txsf] gfk lng] sfd

5fnfsf] ;d:of — la/fdLnfO{ ;'O xfGg] 7fpF k]mg]{ ;Nnfx s8f PnhL{— l8Pkm cf] lbg aGb . c;+j]bgzLn -l8;]G;L6fO;g_ u/fpg] ljz]if pkrf/ h¿/L dfqf;Fu ;DalGwt hl6ntfsf] cg'udg ;'gfOdf ;d:of -c6f] ljiffQmtf_ jif]{gL cl8of] d]l6«_ b]Vgdf ;d:of -cf]So'n/ ljiffQmtf_ kmG8f]:sf]kL, On]S6«f] /]l6gf] u|fkmL— jif]{gL ;':t j[l4 / x•Ldf kl/jt{g -rf6{ G 1 df lbP h:t} cg'udg ug]{_

kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ z'¿

aRrfx¿sf] nfluM @)–$)mg/kg hxfF L 1 sf] k|f}9x¿sf] nfluM #)–%)mg/kg k|of]u x'G5 Toxf

l8:s]l/cf]hfdfOg;Fu ;DalGwt gsf/fTds k|efj — k|lts[of / hl6ntfx¿sf] cg'udg

Uof]6«f]OG;]:6fOgn nIf0fx¿ k]6 b'Vg' kvfnf rNg' Hj/f] ÷ lSnlgsn z+sf ofl;{lgof

→ l8Pkmcf] lng aGb

k|of]uzfnf kl/If0f /ut / lbzfsf] sNr/ ;]/f]nf]hL k]6sf] — cN6«f;fp08

↓ PG6LafOl6s lbP/ pkrf/ lSnlgsn nIf0fx¿ k'/} x/fPkl5 l8=Pkm=cf]= pkrf/ z'¿

k|efjsfl/tfsf] d"Nofª\sg k||To]s # dlxgfdf ;]/d k]ml/l6g tx hfFr • @$ 306fdf ul/Psf] lk;fjsf] kmnfd tTj • lne/ jfof]K;Låf/f sn]hf]df /x]sf] kmnfd tTjsf] y'k|fOsf] hfFr jf SQUID cyjf MRI af6 hfFr • sn]hf] sfo{ -LF_ hfFr uef{j:yfM ha lglZrt x'G5, l8Pkmcf] /f]Sg' k5{ . •

183


E

lkmof] a9\g] ;d:of ePsf /f]uLx¿sf] Joj:yfkg

ha tnsf qmfO6]l/ofx¿ k'/f x'G5g\ ta lkmof] lgsfNg] s'/f ljrf/l0fo x'G5 .

• •

RBC 3gTjsf] !=% Hb sf] pko'Qm tx

u'0ffeGbf a9L j[l4 jf sfod /fVg k|ltjif{ @)) b]lv @@) ldln ln z/L/sf] tf}n s]hLeGbf a9L RBC sf] cfjZostf x'g' jf lkmof]sf] cfsf/ ^ ;]dL eGbf a9L x'g'

lkmof] zNolqmof u/]/ x6fpg' cl3 • pd]/sf] /fd|f] Vofn -la/fdL ^ jif{eGbf dflysf] x'g' h¿/L_ • pko'Qm vf]ksf] z'¿cft lgdf]sf]Ssn, x\ofdf]lkmn;, d]lgGhf]sf]Ssn -lkmof] x6fpg'eGbf @ xKtf cufl8_ vf]k of]hgf k'/f

!

pko'Qm / klxnfg} z'¿ ul/Psf] /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hgn] lkmof] lemSg' kg]{ ;d:of l56f] of l9nf] kfg{ d2t ug{ ;S5 .

k]G;Llng cyjf c¿ a}slNks PG6LjfO6Ls rnfpg z'¿ Kn]6\n]6\;sf] cg'udg P:kL/Lg lbg] cflb Kn]6\n]6\ ;x¿ *),)),))) So'ljs ldnL eP

lkmlhl;ogx¿n] la/fdLnfO{ lkmof] x6fPkl5 x'g] uDeL/ ;+qmd0fsf] pRr hf]lvd x'g] s'/f k9fpg'k5{ . olb s]xL sf/0f Hj/f]sf] nIf0f b]lvof] eg] t'¿Gt d]l8sn ;Nnfx lng] s'/f eGg]_

184

F

jif]{gL d'6'sf] k"/f hfFr -cfFsng_

cK7\of/fx¿ b]lvPsf] a]nf w]/} k6s cyjf ha pkrf/ ul//x]sf] lkmlhl;ogn] cfjZos 7fG5g\ To; ;dodf . •

On]S6«f]sfl8{of]u|fd

(ECG)

Jofofd ;Fu;Fu}

d''6'sf] no -tfn_sf] c;fdfGokg klxrfg ug{ ldNg] u/L @$ 306] O=l;=hL+_ Osf]sfl8{of]u|fd— d'6'sf] sf]7fx¿sf] cfsf/ gfKb} o;sf] k|To]s efun] slt sfd ul//x]sf 5}g x]g]{ -la/fdLn] cf/fd u/]sf] a]nf / s;/t u/]sf] a]nf_ Pp6f /]l8of]O;f]6f]lks hfFr xf] h;n] d'6'sf] sfo{sf] af/]df cltl/Qm hfgsf/L lbG5 .

MUGA

DofUg]l6s l/;f]gG; Od]hLË (MRI) d'6'df ePsf] kmnfd tTjsf] dfqf gfKg k|of]u x'G5 -ce}m d'Nofª\sgsf] qmddf_


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] G

yfnf;]ldof d]h/ ePsf /f]uLx¿df b]lvPsf] of}g tyf x•Lx¿sf] ;d:of

j[l4sf] nfluM prfO{ gfKg] -p7]sf] a]nf, a;]sf] a]nf_ jif{sf] $ k6s of}g ljsf; s_ TANNAR — !) jif{b]lv ^ dlxg] . v_ FSH, LN -xdf]{g_ ^ dlxg] . u_ cf]:6«fl8cf]n, 6]:6f]:6]/f]g -xdf]{gx¿_ ^ dlxg] dw'd]x s_ k|To]s k6s hfFbf /ut / lk;fjdf Un'sf]hsf] gfk lng] . v_ Un'sf]hnfO{ ;xg ug{ ;Sg] Ifdtfsf] (GTI) hfFr aif]{ lkR5] . xfOkf]yfO/f]Ol8Hd T4 TSH -hfFr_ ^ dlxg] xfOkf]Kof/fyfO/f]Ol8Hd s_ Ca, Po4 -# dlxg]_ v_ PTH / le6fldg l8, olb SoflN;odsf] tx sd 5 eg] x•L s_ x•Lsf] pd]/ -3'F8f / gf8Lsf] PS; /]_ pkrf/sf] z'¿df !.@ jflif{s_ / aRrf a9'Gh]n;Dd v_ DEXA :Sofg cf]l:6of]kf]/f]l;; 5 5}g x]g{ cf7 jif{sf] pd]/ b]lv jflif{s ¿kdf u_ :kfOgsf] PS; /] aRrf a9'Gh]n jflif{s ¿kdf

H

l8=Pkm=cf]= pkrf/sf] k|efjsfl/tfsf] cg'udg

;]/d k]ml/l6g !))) eGbfsd nuftf/ ¿kn] sn]hf]df /x]sf] μg/l jf 8«fO lng] olb j]6 lnFbf #=@—& y]/fk]l6s ;+st] ldlnu|fd÷k|= )=)@% eGbf kmnfd tTj u|fd ;Dd sd k'Uof] eg]dfq 36fpg] sn]hf]df /x]sf] 8«fOj]6df #=@ l8=Pkm=cf]= kmnfd tTj ldln u|fd eGbf /f]Sg ;lsG5 sd / ^ dlxgfkl5 k'gd{"Nofª\sg ;]/d k]ml/l6g @))) μg/ln= dfqf jf cfj[lQ sn]hf]df kmnfd eGbf a9L a9fpg] tTj 8«fOj]6df &—!% ld=u|f÷k|=u|fd ;]/d k]ml/l6g ;Fw}el/ slxNo} gzfaf6 @$ g36L @%)) 306] l8=Pkm=cf]= μg . ln= eGbf 3f]nsf] k|If]k0f a9L . cyjf @$ 306] 5fnfd'gLaf6 sn]hf]df kmnfd !% ld=u|f eGbf ul/g] nuftf/sf] tTj a9L -8«fOj]6df_ k|If]k0f, k]ml/l6g / LIC sf] tx 36fpg k|efjsf/L x'g;S5 . l;kmfl/; ul/Psf] clwstd dfqfeGbf a9L s'g} xfntdf klg a9fpg' x'Fb}g . -æyfnf;]ldofsf] pkrf/df jt{dfg /0fgLlt / wf/0ffx¿Æ 8f= h] kf]6{/af6_

185


I

x]kf6fOl6; l; efO/;af6 x'g] ;+qmd0f

k|of]uzfnf cfFsng HCV, lj¿4 HCV sf PG6Lal8hsf] klxrfg ha ha lj¿4 HCV gsf/fTds lj¿4 HCV ;sf/fTds jif}{ lkR5] u/fpg] HCV RNA tkm{ hfg] HCV - RNA - g]u]l6e sn]hf]df ePsf] ;]/dsf] txsf] sfo{sf] hfFr (ALT)- ;fdfGo /]Gh HCV-RNA cg'udg ^ dlxg] . HCV-RNA - g]u]l6e HCV-RNA - sf] lgl/If0f ALT sf] j[l4 ug]{ #÷# dlxgfdf

{

HCV- RNA- ;sf/fTds

efO/nsf] ef/Lkgsf] Psfu|tf slt 5 ;+Vof k|fKt ug]{ cyjf h]gf]6fOlkªdf hfg] pkrf/ / o;sf] ;do cjlw efO/n ef/Lkg / h]gf]6fOkdf e/ k5{ . lx:6f]nf]hL / sn]hf]sf] kmnfd tTjsf] dfqfsf] nflu pkrf/ yfNg'eGbf cl3 lne/ afoK;L cfjZos x'g;S5

klxnf] nfOg pkrf/ l/slDagfG6 -l/afle/Lg;Fu;Fu}— OG6/k]m/]g cyjf k]uLn]6]8 OG6/k]m/]n . yfnf;]ldof d]h/df l/jfld/Lg;Fu ;DaGwLt Xofdf]nfOl;;sf] sf/0fn] Pp6} dfq OG6/k]m/g lbP/ ul/g] pkrf/nfO{ 8f= x¿n] dg k/fpF5g\ lsgls o;f] ubf{ nuftf/ /ut 6«fG;k\mo'hg / ;3g lsl;dsf] kmnfd tTj x6fpg] pkrf/ ug{kg]{ afWotfaf6 aRg ;lsG5 . pkrf/sf] ;dodf— cg'udg ug'{kg]{ FBC @ xKtfdf, AST, ALT @ xKtfdf, yfO/fO8sf] sfo{ k/LIf0f # dlxgfdf HCV–RNA -kl/df0ffTds_ !@ xKtf / # dlxgfdf . ha pkrf/sf] k|efjsfl/tfsf] ;'lglZrt ug{ gsf/fTds u'0ffTds gfk (NQ measurement) l;kmfl/; ul/G5 . pkrf/ /f]Sg] lg0f{odf pkrf/sf] k|efjsfl/tfsf] of ck|efjsfl/tfsf] eljiojf0fL klxnf # dlxgf el/df 36\g] efO/n nf]8 -ef/Lkg_ df e/ k5{ . pkrf/ ug]{ lg0f{o ug{sf] nflu x]kf6f]nf]lh:6sf] ;Nnfx clgjfo{ 5 .

186

J

x]kf6fOl6; la, (HBV) efO/;af6 x'g] ;+qmd0fsf] cg'udg . Psk6s yfnf;]ldof /f]usf] lgbfg kSsf eO;s]kl5 ;a} la/fdLx¿sf] k/LIf0f ug]{

bL3{ HBV gsf/fTds ;]/fnf]hLsf] afxsx¿ HBV ;]/f]nf]hL pkl:yltn] ljutdf kSsf ¿kn] HBV ;+qmd0f ePsf] b]vfPsf] . #.# dlxgfdf SALT / HBV-DNA ;sf/fTds kfOof] / SALT a9]sf] kfOof] eg] HBV vf]k lbg] vf]ksf] pkrf/ ug]{ ljrf/ ug]{ k|lt/Iffk|0ffnLsf] cfjZostf pkrf/ yfNg' eGbf ljsf;sf] 5}g . cl3 lx:6f]nf]hL / nflu HBV sn]hf]df ePsf] kmnfd PG6Lal8hsf] tTj hfFRg jfoK;L ug{ k/LIf0f ug]{ cfjZos a- l/slDaofG6 IFN, aif{ jif{ lbgdf jif{ lbgdf nflde'l8g cyjf oL b]vfpg] b'j};Fu} . c¿ kfOg] b]vfpg] cf}ifwLx¿ Adefovir k/LIf0f Entecavir

pkrf/sf] a]nf cg'udg ug]{ HVC-DNA SALT eAg anti HBE

# dlxg]

pkrf/ ug]{ lg0f{o, pkrf/sf] k|sf/, / slt k6s cg'udg hfFr ug]{ To;sf] af/]df yfnf;]ldof d]h/sf] pkrf/ ul//x]sf] lkmlhl;og x]kf6f]nf]lhi6 / Uof6«f]OG6]/f]nf]lhi6n] ;+o'Qm ¿kdf lg0f{o lng' kb{5 .


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/]

lstfadf k|of]u ePsf ;+lIfKt ¿kx¿, OsfO / gfkx¿ k|of]u ePsf OsfOx¿ /utsf] 3gTjM

ldlnln6/ (ml) ln6/sf] xhf/ efusf] ! efu

x]df]Unf]lagM

u|fd k|lt 8]l;ln6/ (G/dl) 8];Lln6/— ! ln6/sf] ;o efusf] ! efu

tf}nM

lsnf]u|fd -s]hL_ w]/} h;f] cf}ifwLx¿sf] dfqf ldlnu| f D; (mg) (DFO, L1)

! u|fdM

!))) u|fdsf] Ps efu

k]ml/l6gM

dfOqmf]u|fd (g/l) k|lt !),))) u|fdsf] Ps u|fd

;femf ;+lIfKt ¿k B—13:

kf/ef] efO/; aL–!(

EBV:

PK:6Lg afg efO/;

8]:k]ml/cf]ShfdfOgM DFO kmnfd tTjM

Fe

x]kf6fOl6; la efO/;M

HBV

x]kf6fOl6; l; efO/;M

HCV

x\o'dg ODo'gf]l8lkm;]G;L efO/;M

HIV

;]/d PnfgfOg Pldgf]6«fG;km/]hM

sALT - lne/

kmª\;g

k/LIf0f ;]/d P:kf/]6]6 Pldgf]6«fG;km/]h x]df]Unf]lagM

sAST - lne/

HAV:

x]kf6fOl6; P efO/;

/ftf /Qmsf]ifx¿M

RBC

MRI:

DofUg]6Ls l/;f]gG; Od]h

kmª\;g 6]i6

Hb

187


Crosswords - brain teasers FALLEN PHRASES

I T A P I D T

N S H H R

R E H E A

O A L E N

U R A S T

I O C S P E G S E D M G S T A E H I E H T T A S

E H N D A G I S E E E I L

T N S D

E I F R

A C S O E N R N M

DIRECTIONS Each letter appears in the same column, but below where it should be. Put the letter back in the grid and rebuild the phrase. 195. See the solution on page 138.

188


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/]  T R E A T M E N T H N T H O H S M A N S

R S I X A L Y H P A N A L F A S I T I E

U R T I C A R I A E E M I N I M U M B R

M D O N A T I O N M S I S Y L A N A O O

O F O S A R N T A A G H I T L I A C L C

ACTIVITY ANTICOAGULANT DEFORMITY EFFECTIVENESS FILTRATION HAEMOGLOBIN INTERNATIONAL MATCHING PATIENT SEROCONVERT TREATMENT

L I O I T I C T Y T I L A U Q N Y I G O

E L E C T R O P H O R E S I S T S A O N

C T M O L P M A T C H I N G O E N I M V

U R D A O B P H L R I R F M L R O M E E

L A T E N U A E Y I M E E S A N I E A R

A T S N Y N T T I T P G M I B A S A H T

R I Y Y I V I T C A A I B S O T U S N N

ANALYSIS CENTRIFUGATION DIAGNOSIS ELECTROPHORESIS HAEMATOCRIT IMPAIRMENT LABORATORY MINIMUM QUALITY THALASSAEMIA URTICARIA

S O R S C M B T T L I M O O R I F S A E

E N A G R T I Q O D R E L N A O S A I I

G R N O O E L V Y L M N I G T N N L N T

E F F E C T I V E N E S S A O A A A I A

U E S R N R T U A L N O M I R L R H S P

D B F E U T Y A N E T F E D Y A T T R T

L L U S T O N O I T A G U F I R T N E C

A T N A L U G A O C I T N A A E P E Y S

ANAPHYLAXIS CYTOMEGALOVIRUS DONATION EMBOLISM HAEMATOPOESIS INCOMPATIBILITY MANNITOL MOLECULAR REGIMEN TRANSFUSIONS YERSINIA

DIRECTIONS Find the hidden words in any direction (horizontal, vertical, diagonal, forwards, backwords). After all of the words are found, the letters that are not used reveal a hidden message. 195. See the solution on page 138.

189


 CUM

AC

LAS

DY

TE

BO

IN

MIA

RON

TO

CA

SAE

USE

THE

THA

SI

ULA

DIRECTIONS Unscramble the tiles to reveal a message. 196. See the solution on page 139.

190


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 See the solution on page 139. 196.

191






1a

1a. 1b. 2a. 2b. 2c. 3a. 3b. 4a. 4b. 4c. 4d. 4e. 5a. 5b. 5c. 6a. 6b. 6c. 6d. 6e. 6f. 7a. 7b. 7c. 8a. 8b. 8c. 8d. 9a.

1b. 2a. 2b. 2c. 2d. 3a. 3b. 4a. 4b. 4c. 4d. 5a. 5b. 5c. 5d. 5e. 6a. 6b. 6c. 7a. 7b. 7c. 7d. 8a. 8b. 8c. 8d. 9a. 9b. 9c. 9d. 10a. 10b. 11a. 11b. 11c. 12a. 12b. 12c. 13a. 13b. 13c. 14a. 14b. 14c. 15a. 15b. 16a. 16b. 16c. 17a. 17b. 17c. 18a. 18b. 18c. 18d. 18e. 19a. 19b. 19c. 20a. 20b. 20c. 20d. 20e.

192

Increase in the numbers of white blood cells without cyto plasmic granules One of the senses (verb) Eye without.....a centre Product of the kidney A note appended to a letter after the signature (postscript) A playing card A very usefull medicine for the heartburn Increase in the number of WBC Of the mouth You can “surf” when you go there A serious disease that weakens the immunity of the patient The most famous lady worldwide In terms of And so on The two ends of ... a key Pneumonic Tennis ... need these Letters found in the word synovium Cannot do Process of getting older Visited very often by Schumacher A burden for the organism undergoing haemodialysis Jean d’ ..., a French hero With no clothes on Shell prize The human body burns glucose to produce it Pronoun objective case of “He” French for mine Acid found in urine and increased in patients with gout Similar cousonants Volleyball term Found in ... West Bones (Latin, unfinished) A group of physiologically or anatomically related organs Infection of the lungs Acute febrile highly contagious viral disease The first name of the first man on the moon Workplace of a nurse Hello “n” shaped tube running from the liquid in a vessel to a lower level outside the vessel so that liquid runs through the tube Year (Abbreviation) The three letters used to denote blood groups Pele’s T-Shirt number Treats mania Protein functioning in the storage of iron More but ... less Man is a member of this kingdom Having the same relative stracture, position or value “Expanded gas shock”, shock absorbed Bruce...., Martial art athlete and actor The position of something Unspecialised cell that gives rise to differentiated cells Heart chambers (genitive) Formation of frost on a surface Turn around and around (past) Abreviation for Duodenal Uleer Symbol of the chemical element tin. Same as 12b horizontally Musical note Sensory layer of the eye possesing rods and cones Synonym to therefore Brandname for desferrioxamine ..... Angeles, state of U.S.A. Function word to indicate an alternative Chemical element Zn ....Tze Tung. Chinese hero Very small and....incomplete

9b. 9c. 10a. 10b. 10c. 10d. 11a. 11b. 12a. 12b. 13a. 13b. 13c. 13d. 14a. 14b. 14c. 15a. 15b. 15c. 15d. 16a. 16b. 16c. 16d. 16e. 17a. 17b. 17c. 18a. 18b. 18c. 19a. 19b. 19c. 19d. 19e. 20a. 20b.

Third singular of “to be” Measures to prevent a disease Genetic constitution of an individual Loud breathing noises while sleeping Advantage A group of RNA viruses (HIV is a member) Aggregate of cells having a similar structure Automobile association Acronym for Taylor Not down Metric unit of length equal to 100 meters Dynamite Cellular organelle possesing DNA Index of Medieval Medical Images Suffix for verbs Upper jespiratory injection Postal code for Tennessee E.U ancestor Occupational therapy University of Louisiana Prefix denoting the menstrual period Antiarrythmic and topical anaesthetic Prefix meaning again The edges ... of air Position of a switch Have youngs (used of animals, past) Sick The upper part of the body The smallest stractural unit of living matter able to function indepentently “The ...., of the Rings”, a hollywood movie A developing human Effectiveness index The first half of ...an engine Deep red iron-containing substance in Hb and Myoglobin A famous wizard The body excluding head, neck and limbs Condition marked by an increase in fibrous tissue Lock’s best friend New..., a state of USA (missing the last letter) Found on the store-button of the calculator Incompatibility of these blood group between mother and foetus causes hydrops foetalis and erythroblastosis Electrically charged atoms Electric current that flows in one direction steadily The maximum production possible ...... Fridays (American Restaurant) A pronoun Secretely collecting classified information A small drink Numerical Information system Medical Sexually Transmitted Disease A consouant Extraterestrial Osman....Pasha, Turkish general The fourth note of the diatonic scale Mouthlike opening in a bodily organ (latin) English National Opera Male or Female given name Emergency alert system Natural qualities or talents A person who doesn’t say the truth Reacting with a base produces salt Functional unit of DNA that controls the expression of traits Slang for “them” inside adjective Sit again abnormal enlargement of the spleen


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] 

1 2 3

4

5 6 7

8

9 11

10 12

13

14

15 16 17 20

22

18

19

46

47

21

23

24 25 26

28

27

29 31

30 33

32 34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43 44

45 49

48

50

51

52

53

54

55 56 57 58

60

193


ACROSS 2. 3. 5. 6. 7. 11. 14. 15. 17. 19. 21. 23. 25. 27. 30. 31. 34. 35. 36. 39. 41. 43. 44. 45. 48. 50. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60.

the cardiovascular system polymorphonuclear HIV is one (plural) group of tissues working together substance found in blood and used to diagnose certain disease the product of the nephron encloses the brain the body defence system ...anaemia, thalassaemia major attacked by HIV they are made of aminoacids abbreviation for erythrocyte “No blood” in medical terms staphylococcus is one, here many platelett the main organs of human pulmonary system the blood pump the smallest vessell takes place mainly in stomach DNA functional units monocyte cell-free blood mulfunction , disease not local, not belonging here surrounds the nucleus glucose belongs to their category made up of vertebrae produces urine harbours the DNA long, thin bones that form the thorax granulocyte the main blood protein in homazygous form is called cooley’s any fluid turns in that after extensive heating

DOWN 1. 4. 8. 9. 10. 12. 13. 16. 18. 20. 21. 22. 24. 26. 28. 29. 32. 33. 37. 38. 40. 42. 46. 47. 49. 51. 52. 53.

produces blood cells (2 words) vital for human life one type of blood gouping supply of food a clotting protein the largest tissue in human body the smallest unit of human body white blood cell thrush is caused by these thyroxine is one their survival harms other organisms group of cells cooperating scientific term for the species of man DNA is this kind of material one becomes after adolesence fascilitates body reactions efferent vessel large, main hellenic for sea heart aets like one red blood cell afferent vessel the headquarters of TIF are on this island triglycerides belongs to this category ....anaemia, thalassaemia white cells staining purplish white cells staining reddish group of organs

See the solution on page 140. 197.

194


195 FALLEN PHRASES Thalassaemia is an inherited genetic disease passed from parent to children through the genes.

HIDDEN MESSAGE Regular blood transfusions greatly contribute to the quality and length of life of thalassaemia patients. ACTIVITY ANALYSIS ANAPHYLAXIS ANTICOAGULANT CENTRIFUGATION CYTOMEGALOVIRUS DEFORMITY DIAGNOSIS DONATION EFFECTIVENESS ELECTROPHORESIS EMBOLISM FILTRATION HAEMATOCRIT HAEMATOPOESIS HAEMOGLOBIN IMPAIRMENT INCOMPATIBILITY INTERNATIONAL LABORATORY MANNITOL MATCHING MINIMUM MOLECULAR PATIENT QUALITY REGIMEN SEROCONVERT THALASSAEMIA TRANSFUSIONS TREATMENT URTICARIA YERSINIA

(Over, Down, Direction) (12, 10, N) (4, 18, N) (2, 12, N) (20, 14, N) (19, 20, N) (5, 18, NE) (18, 1, SW) (18, 14, W) (4, 2, S) (16, 1, S) (7, 1,S) (10, 13, E) (5, 2, E) (1, 10, E) (1, 13, NE) (11, 19, W) (9, 11, E) (4, 7, E) (5, 16, E) (9, 15, E) (8, 3, SE) (8, 7, S) (3, 12, S) (4, 1, E) (17, 20, W) (6, 15, N) (9, 12, E) (1, 20, E) (18, 18, W) (18, 17, W) (1, 1, S) (3, 1, S) (20, 19, W)



yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/]


LETTER TILES Thalassaemia causes iron to accumulate in the body

CROSSWORD ONE

E

2

G

A

1

2

1

3

A

N O

4

Y

S

6

T

I

5

P

7

N

P

11

S

O

10

R

R

9

E

P

8

3 R E T R O V I R U S

P

S

18

I

I

17

G

X

16

N

A

15

I

L

14

R

Y

13

S

O

H

12

E

R

19 20

196 L

O

R T I S S U E S

4 A E A A O V T L R S U P R H M S T N T S

5 N U C L E U S L I M M I R I A T E N I S

6 U R I L T N S E C M O T R U L T

7 L I D O C A I N C A

8 O N D N C B R E D A

L

A

I

N

R M L L

R

O

A

N

E

E

M

M

L M H E A D A R

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 C E L L C L O R D A A L L F O E T U S R

Y E E I C E N G D A A H A E M E R U O Z

T R U N K E N Y D A F I B R O S I S O I

O R K E Y E A Y N A L I O R L E A N O N

S T O E Y E R H E S U S O I O N S N D C

I T C A P A C I T Y U I O T G I S H E C

S P Y I N G C M T S I P O I O O S I S M

S S T D N E N M E T I H O N U R I I F A

H S O S S I U M E E N O O N S R C L E O

E A S S E N D O W M E N T N S L I A R O

A C I D E G E N E M A N E

R E S I T G E N S P L E N

M O S I N A A T

M E G A L Y


197 CROSSWORD TWO

1 B 2 I R C U L A T O R Y C 3 O 4 L Y M O R P H O N U C L E A R N P 5V I R U S E S X M Y 6 R G A N A O 8 9 E M7 A R K E R N 11 R H 10 F U R I N E 12 O 13 E I C B R 14 15 S K U L L W S B I M M U N E 16 L U R L O S 17 O O L E Y S 19 I C F LY M P H O C Y T E H 18 N D U M U 20 R 21 P R O T E I N S H G N G O A O 22 E I T 23 C R R T N Y M I A 24 O T S S H 25 A N A E M I A S U E U T M 29 26 27 A C T E R I 28 A E G B E 31 0H R O M B O C Y T E D L U N G S N 33 32 A Z U N M 34 E A R T 35 C A P I L L A R Y H T M T T J 36 38 39 E N 40 D I G E S 37 T I O N P G E S R U C R R H Y 41 O N O C Y T E 42 M A V P P L A S M A 43 T E H A I 44 45 O R E I G N F D I S O R D E R 46 47 O S C F 50 A R 51 48 Y T O P L A S M C C B O H Y D R A T 52 E S Y A P O T T S R S S K I D N E Y 53 54 O U S E P S N Y 55 N U C L E U S H O I P T B S 57 R A N U L O C Y T E L H G S M 58 A L B U M I N L T H A L A S S A E M I A 49 M E D P I N T E 56 R I R E N E A S N

60 G

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kqfrf/sf] nflu cfjZos 7]ufgf / hfgsf/L WHO Headquarters World Health Organization Headquarters Avenue Appia 20, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland Telephone: (41 22) 791-21-11 / Fax: (41 22) 791-0746 Cable: UNISANTE GENEVA / Telex: 415 416 Email: info@who.int / Website: http://www.who.ch/

AFRICA WHO Regional Office Dr. Naomi Nhiwathiva, Chief DCP, Regional Office for Africa, World Health Organization, Parirenyatwa Hospital, P.O. Box BE 773, Harare, Zimbabwe Telephone: (263) 407-69-51 or (263) 470-74-93 Fax: (263) 479-01-46 or (263) 479-12-14 Telex: 5217 or 5364 UNISANTE Cable: UNISANTE BRAZZAVILLE Email: regafro@whoafr.org Website: http://www.whoafr.org/

EUROPE WHO Regional Office J.E. Asvall, Regional Director, Regional Office for Europe Accident Prevention Programme, World Health Organization, 8, Scherfigsvej, DK-2100 Copenhagen 0, Denmark Telephone: (45) 39-17-17-17 / Fax: (45) 39-17-18-18 Telex: 15348 or 15390 / Cable: UNISANTE COPENHAGEN Email: postmaster@who.dk Website: http://www.who.dk/

200


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] AMERICAS WHO Regional Office George A.O. Alleyne, Regional Director, Regional Office for the Americas, Emergency Preparedness & Disaster Relief Coordination, World Health Organization, Pan American Sanitary Bureau, 525 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20037, USA Telephone: (202) 974-3000 / Fax: (202) 974-3663 Telex: 248338-440057-64152-892744 Cable: OFSANPAN WASHINGTON Email: postmaster@paho.org / Website: http://www.paho.org/

SOUTHEAST ASIA WHO Regional Office Mrs Harsaran Bir Kaur Pandey, IO for South East Asia World Health World Health House Indraprastha Mahatma Gandhi Rd, New Delhi,

Regional Office Organization, Estate, 110002 India

Telephone: (91) 11-331-7804 or (91) 11-331-7823 Fax: (91) 11-331-8607 or (91) 11-332-7972 Telex: 3165095 or 3165031 / Cable: WHO NEW DELHI Email: postmaster@whosea.org Website: http://tron.um.u-tokyo.ac.jp/.

EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN WHO Regional Office Hussein A.Gezairy, M.D., F.R.C.S., Regional Director Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean World Health Organization, PO Box 1517, Alexandria, 21511 Egypt Telephone:

(203) 48-202-23 or (203) 48-202-24 or (203) 48-300-90

Fax: (203) 48-389-16 or (203) 48-243-29 Telex: 54028 or 54684 / Cable: UNISANTE ALEXANDRIA Email: emro@who.sci.eg / Website: http://www.who.sci.eg

201


WESTERN PACIFIC WHO Regional Office Dr. Shigeru Omi, Regional Director, Regional Office for the Western Pacific Health Services, Development & Planning World Health Organization PO Box 2932, 1099 Manila, Philippines Telephone: (632) 528-80-01 / Fax: (632) 521-10-36 or (603) 536-02-79 Telex: 27652-63260-40365 / Cable: UNISANTE MANILA Email: postmaster@who.org.ph Website: http://www.who.org.ph/

Council of Europe (CoE) Mr Karl ñ Friedrich Bopp Administrative Officer, Health & Social Affairs Directorate General III Social Cohesion 67075 Strasbourg, France Tel: 33388412214 / Fax: 33388412726 Email: Karl-friedrich.bop@coe.int

European Commission Dr Lieve Fransen, Principal Administrator, Health and Family Planning, AIDS Unit, Rue de Geneve/Genevestraat 12, B1140, Bruxelles Tel: +32-2 2963698/2969117 Fax: 2963697

Food and Drug Administration (FDA), USA Dr Jay Epstein, Director, Office of Blood Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, HFM-300, 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 Tel: + 13018273518 / Fax: + 13018273533 Email: epsteinj@cber.fda.gov

202


yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/] yfnf;]ldof af/]

International Consortium for Blood Safety (ICBS) Dr Mohamed El-Nageh, Executive Director, New York Blood center, 310E 67th Street, New York, NY 10021, USA Tel: +12125703319 / Fax: +12125703320 Email: elnagehmm@aol.com

International Federation of Blood Donor Organizations (FIODS) Mr Niels Mikkelsen, Secretary General, Bloddonorerne Denmark, Vesterbrogade 191, 1800 Frederiksberg, Denmark Tel: + 4570137014 / Fax: + 4570127010 Email: mikkelsen@bloddonor.dk

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCRCS) Mr Peter Carolan, Senior Officer, Case Postale 372, 1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland Tel: + 41227304222 Fax: + 41227330395 Email: carolan@ifrc.org

International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) Dr Paul Strengers, Secretary General, PO Box 9190, NL 1006 AD Amsterdam, The Netherlands Tel: 31205123212 / Fax: 31205123560 Email: p_strengers@clb.nl

203


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204

1a.

Victor A Hoffbrand and Beatrix Wonke "Long-term Deferiprone Chelation therapy" in Iron Chelation therapy Advances in experimental medicine and Biology" Vol 509 pages 127-139.

1b.

Lisa J Anderson, Beatrix Wonke, Emma prescot, Sally Holdan, J. Malcolm Walker, Duddley J. Pennell "Comparison pf effects of oral deferiprone and subcutaneous desferrioxamine on myocardia iron concentrations and ventricular function in beta thalassaemia" The Lancet vol 360. August 17, 2002.

2.

Grady Rw, Berdoukas Va, Giardina Pj, "Iron Chelators: combined therapy could be a better approach Blood 1998; suppl. 1. P + 2:16b

3.

Cohen AR, Galanello R, Piga A, Di Palma A, Vullo C, Tricta F, Safety profile of the iron chelator Deferiprone: a multicentre study." Br. J. Haematol 2000; 108, 305-312.

4.

Olivieri NF, Brittenham GM, Mc Laren CE, Templeton DM, Cameron RG KA, "Long-term safety and effectiveness of iron chelation therapy with Deferiprone in thalassaemia major". N Engl J Med 1998: 339, 417 - 423.

5.

Ian R. Wanless, George Sweeney, Amar P. Dhillon, Maria Guido, Antonio Piga, Renzo Galanello, M. Rita Gamberini, Elias Schwarz and Alan R. Cohen: Lack of progressive hepatic fibrosis during long-term therapy with Deferiprone in subjects with transfusion-dependent beta-thalassaemia. Blood September 2002. Volume 100, number 5 pages 1566 - 1569.

6.

A.V. Hoffbrand, A. Cohen, C. Hersko Role of Deferiprone in Chelation Therapy for transfusional iron overload" Blood March 13, 2003

7.

Review John B Porter "Practical Management of Iron Chelation" British Journal of Haematology 2001, 115, 239-252

8.

Lancet 2003; 361:1597 - 1602


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