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IOER INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH JOURNAL, VOL. 1, NO. 1, MARCH, 2019 METACOGNITIVE SKILLS DEVELOPMENT IN BASIC CHEMISTRY OF BACHELOR OF INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS OF BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY, PHILIPPINES ANTONETTE T. GERON, MDM, MAEdSc. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5891-9763 antonettegeron@yahoo.com Batangas State University, Main Campus I Poblacion, Batangas City

ABSTRACT The main goal of education is to make the students gain skills, abilities, and strategies which they will use throughout their lives rather than to store information from their classrooms and be sponges of knowledge initiated by their teachers. Hence, a good education should be able to show how to learn, how to remember, how to motivate students’ and how to control their own learning. This study focused on the students’ ability to learn chemistry by developing their metacognitive skills among a first-year Bachelor of Industrial Technology students of Batangas State University, with an end view of preparing metacognitive skills activities in Chemistry. Specifically, this aimed to determine the extent of manifestation of metacognitive skills in terms of planning, monitoring, and evaluation. The researcher utilized frequency count, weighted mean and ranking as the statistical treatment and the Bachelor of Industrial Technology students enrolled in Basic Chemistry from the seven campuses of Batangas State University as the respondents. The descriptive method of research was employed by using a researchers-made questionnaire as the main instrument in gathering data. Focus group discussion among chemistry faculty was also utilized to determine their assessment on the extent of students’ metacognitive ability. Based on the result, it was found that the Bachelor of Industrial Technology students from Batangas State University system showed a moderate extent of manifestation of metacognitive skills in terms of planning, monitoring, and evaluation. Results of the study were used as a basis for the preparation of metacognitive activities to enhance the skills of students. Keywords: Metacognitive Skills Development, Metacognitive Skills in Chemistry, Metacognitive Activities, Descriptive method, Higher Education, Philippines

INTRODUCTION The nation’s quest for economic stability, democracy, peace, and high-quality life requires a scientifically literate Filipino citizenry possessing high standard and advanced skills in reasoning, creative thinking, decision-making, and problem-solving. The youth of today, the students, the learners will compose the voting public, the consumers’, the law-making bodies and the workforce in the near future. It is therefore

imperative that they manifest, acquire critical thinking abilities that will enable them to make sound and firm decisions and informed choices. Tertiary students are expected to have higher order thinking skills or HOTS that can be attained if students could apply the things, they’ve learned. Moreover, HOTS was important and a key element in the teaching and learning process. Therefore, HOTS can be used to predict and determine the success of one student. Students

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IOER INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH JOURNAL, VOL. 1, NO. 1, MARCH, 2019 basically, who have a good level and welldeveloped HOTS are expected to succeed in their studies and chosen fields. The Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, Philippine Qualifications Framework, the Commission on Higher Education Memorandum Order Number 46, and the global call for transformative education serve as the key catalysts of Outcomes Based Education (OBE) in the Philippine educational system which are met through active enhancement of higher order thinking skills. OBE prepare students to meet the highest standards of professionals, economist, and managers. These also serve as the bases for selecting the topics to include, how to teach, and assess students at the highest standards required by the actual workplace. HOTS is based on various taxonomies of learning created by Benjamin Bloom on Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning that includes analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. In this regard, chemistry learning is transpired if students can solve worded problems independently, if the students could analyze their own thinking, if they can construct knowledge, assumed responsibility for their learning and realizes that learning is a personal experience that requires active and dedicated participation which is the focus of metacognition and metacognitive skills of each student. Today, one of the main goals of education is to make the students gain the thinking skills and strategies which they will use throughout their lives, rather than storing information. A good education should be able to show the students how to learn, how to remember, how to motivate themselves and how to control their own learning so that they can teach how to learn. For all these reasons, to investigate the process of the metacognitive skills of students is important. A Metacognitive manner of teaching is like driving the students in the reallife range and context because students manage their own learning. In the same manner, students are motivated to arouse their interest by permitting them to relate their previously learned ideas and concept in chemistry. (Aslan, 2016) Metacognitive practices help students become aware of their strength and weaknesses as learners, writers, readers, test-takers, group member, and others. A significant element is

recognizing the frontier of one’s knowledge or ability and then figuring out how to expand that knowledge or extend the ability. Those who know their strengths and weaknesses in these areas will be more likely to actively monitor their learning strategies and resources and assess their enthusiasm for particular tasks and performances (Chick, 2009). Moreover, learning chemistry and other sciences is a pre-requisite of modernization, national development, and globally competitive individual. Most student showed increase self-possession when they build metacognitive skills because they have a wellestablished self-efficacy which improves motivation as well as well-developed learning success. Likewise, it is a crucial task because it requires more effort from the teacher to activate the thinking capabilities of the students hence, students must do their part and cooperate to meet the objectives of the activity. Students who applied to solve a problem in chemistry, taking down notes are basic metacognitive skills. But, in Higher Educational Institutions (HEI’s) it is imperative that higher order thinking skills (HOTS) are developed and explicitly involve in all learning tasks and activities. It was believed that cooperative learning, concept mapping and reciprocal teaching are strategies that took advantage in activating student engagement and commitment in a metacognitive classroom. Also, teachers need to focus on students' attention and responsiveness on how to accomplish their multiple tasks. In the same degree, process goals must be established and evaluated with the students so to discover that understanding, transferring, and transmitting thinking processes improves learning and the developed skills will never be outdated. Developed metacognitive skills are essential for the 21st-century educational system because this will allows students to successfully cope with diverse situations and challenges in the more competitive world of education. This research aimed to provide opportunities for students to reflect on gauging their study habits and strategies that best work for them while working on their own. This is also an avenue for the students to be independent in doing their lessons for them to be more appropriate in the challenges of the 21st-

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IOER INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH JOURNAL, VOL. 1, NO. 1, MARCH, 2019 century educational system. Where 21st-century education is more about giving students the needed skills to succeed and helping them grow in confidence to practice skills like creativity, critical thinking, proper communication, and collaboration. With so much information readily available today, 21st-century skills focus on information that was being inculcated to the students, sharing concepts and ideas that give worthwhile learnings and using it in smart ways. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The abstract nature of Chemistry necessitates that its concepts and principles be learned in an environment where students can meaningfully grasp the material to be studied. Students must be given opportunities to make use of their prior knowledge in order to construct new ones. It is important that students be able to discuss, negotiate and defend their solutions to problems in small group settings. If these are consistently done in the Chemistry classroom, then, meaningful learning will most likely occur. One promising way by which students can achieve meaningful learning is by letting them engage in academic tasks designed in a constructivist environment. Constructivism is a philosophy which espouses that students must be actively engaged in their knowledge construction. Constructivism asserts that knowledge is not passively received but is actively built up by the learner when meaningful task is handed over to them. (Uzman, 2007) This is believed that academic tasks in Chemistry can be structured and designed using constructivist principles to foster students' metacognition. The students' manner of planning, monitoring, and evaluation on their learning while using various metacognitive activities that resulted in metacognitive profiles of students. The possible link between students' overt metacognitive behaviors and their meaningful learning of in chemistry. This study was guided by the research paradigm (Figure 1) below. The process box below describes the process which is presented by an arrow directed from the first box. Pertinent data of this endeavor were collected for assessment. This portion primarily describes the

Chemistry is also explored when metacognitive capabilities were taken into considerations. Several studies showed that improved metacognitive skills can facilitate both formal and informal learning. It can also improve the performance of new tasks and help students solved the problem more effectively. On the viewpoint of Pashler, (2007) successful learners typically use metacognitive strategies whenever they learn through collaborative learning style. They state that Metacognition is a set of skills that enable learners to become aware of how they learn and to evaluate and adapt these skills to become increasingly effective at learning. In a world that demands lifelong learning, providing people with new and improved metacognitive strategies is a gift that can last forever. Further, Ku, (2014) stated that metacognition is a part of self-regulated learning (SRL) that identified metacognition as the skills that make it possible for learners to understand and regulate their own learning. Their model divided metacognition into the knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition. Where regulation of cognition is subdivided into planning, monitoring, and evaluation. Where planning requires the learner to draw on relevant previous knowledge, identify goals, map out the use of strategies, and manage resources such as time and effort. On the other hand, monitoring is the recursive process of selfchecking and revising of strategies that occurs during a learning task and evaluation is the appraisal of the final outcome and consolidation of new knowledge acquired. These are all imperative to be a part of the metacognitive process of learning. This study on the Metacognitive Skills Development in Basic Chemistry of Bachelor of Industrial Technology Students at Batangas State University focused on the extent of metacognitive skills in terms of planning, monitoring, and evaluation. In this regard, the perceived assessment was used in crafting activities to enhance metacognitive skills methodology of the study which employed the use of a questionnaire and focused group discussion. The results of the study served as the basis of the output which was the metacognitive activities to enhance their metacognitive skills.

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IOER INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH JOURNAL, VOL. 1, NO. 1, MARCH, 2019 INPUT

PROCESS

OUTPUT

Questionnaire Focus Group Discussion

Activities to Enhance Metacognitive Skills in Chemistry

1. The Extent of Metacognitive Skills of Students in Chemistry 2. Extent of students’ manifestations in terms of Planning, Monitoring, and Evaluation

3. Difficulties Meet by the Teachers and Students in Chemistry

Figure 1. Research paradigm OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY This study was focused on the metacognitive skills development in Basic Chemistry of Bachelor of Industrial Technology students in the different campuses of Batangas State University with the purpose of preparing activities to enhance these skills. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions: (1) to assess the extent of students’ manifestations of metacognitive skills in Basic Chemistry in terms of planning, monitoring, and evaluation (2) to determine the difficulties met by the teachers and students in basic chemistry, and (3) to develop learning activities to enhance the metacognitive skills of the students. The researcher was guided by the research paradigm to determine the extent of the metacognitive skills of the Bachelor of Industrial Technology students. METHODOLOGY The study focused on the metacognitive skills development in Basic Chemistry of Bachelor of Industrial Technology Students at Batangas State

University. Descriptive method of research was utilized in the study to determine the extent of manifestation of metacognitive skills as to planning, monitoring, and evaluation. The respondents are students enrolled in Basic chemistry from the College of Industrial Technology of the seven campuses in Batangas State University system. Using the Slovins formula, the respondents were determined. The study was composed of 348 students as the primary respondents in the study. The researcher used the questionnaire as the main instrument in order to gather the data needed in the study. The questionnaires were generated to determine the extent of manifestation of metacognitive skills as to planning, monitoring, and evaluation to come up with Chemistry activities. A focus group discussion (FGD) with chemistry teachers were conducted to assess the difficulties meet in teaching – learning. The data were tabulated according to the statement of the problem. The researcher also used the frequency counts, weighted mean and ranking.

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IOER INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH JOURNAL, VOL. 1, NO. 1, MARCH, 2019 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This part presents the data gathered from the questionnaires distributed to the respondents 1. Extent on Students’ Manifestations of Metacognitive Skills. Metacognitive skills are the acquired knowledge accumulated through constant

and from the Focus Group Discussion conducted by the researcher. This also shows the interpretation and highlights of the analysis of the results. practices and a variety of experiences. The following section presents the assessed metacognitive skills of the respondents in terms of planning, monitoring, and evaluation.

1.1. In terms of Planning Table 1. The Extent of Manifestation of Students’ Metacognitive Skills in terms of Planning Planning

WM

WM

1. 2.

Analyzing and sequencing problem-solving in chemistry Identifying where to get information on every chemistry topic

3.02 3.01

Moderate Extent Moderate Extent

3.

Giving time and schedule to study or accomplish a task in chemistry

3.01

Moderate Extent

4.

Analyzing the exercises given in different chemistry topics

3.00

Moderate Extent

5.

Writing to do list, listing of information and listing the steps or procedures to solve a problem or accomplish a task in each topic in chemistry Retrieving relevant chemistry concept that was previously discussed

2.45

Least Extent

2.45

Least Extent

2.43

Least Extent

8.

Thinking and writing what one knows and does not know in the topic to be discussed in chemistry Setting specific goals and target on every topic discussed in chemistry

2.06

Least Extent

9.

Writing the specific goals and objectives in every topic in chemistry

2.05

Least Extent

2.05

Least Extent

6. 7.

10. Reading the topic to be discussed in chemistry before the discussion

Composite Mean

The result showed that, analyzing and sequencing problem-solving in chemistry garnered the highest weighted mean of 3.02 and was verbally interpreted as moderate extent, while writing the specific goals and objectives in every topics in chemistry and reading the topics to be discussed in chemistry before the discussion ranked the lowest with a weighted mean of 2.05 and was verbally interpreted as least extent. The assessment of the extent of students’ manifestations of metacognitive skills as to planning gained a composite mean of 2.55 and was verbally interpreted as moderate extent. This means that students carefully analyzed and had a step- by- step recognition of the problem. This also regarded that students have a concrete

2.55

Moderate Extent

review of the problem just before they found solutions to it. Furthermore, most student showed increase self-confidence when they build metacognitive skills because they have a well established self-efficacy which improves motivation as well as well-developed learning success. (Hacker, 2009) From the study of Winograd, (2001) showed that most chemistry teachers were utilizing the metacognitive approach because students can readily follow and grasp the instructions given by their teachers. In view of this, learning should be intensified by giving more activities that may encourage the students to have good study habit no matter how difficult the course was. Also, it is evident that most students show increase self-

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IOER INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH JOURNAL, VOL. 1, NO. 1, MARCH, 2019 confidence when they build metacognitive skills because they have a well- established selfefficacy which improves motivation as well as well-developed learning success. Thus, it is imperative that well-planned lessons must be given to each learner in the classroom. The result from this study was parallel to the study of Monem (2010) that students who engage in metacognitive control through the use of selfregulation strategies, demonstrate a willingness to comply with classroom norms. On this, metacognitive activities should be in teachers' priorities. Teachers need to focus students' attention on how tasks are accomplished. Process goals, in addition to content goals, must be established and evaluated with students so they discover that understanding and transferring thinking processes improves learning. In this fast1.2.

changing world, the challenge of teaching is to help students develop skills which will not become obsolete in nature. Metacognitive strategies are essential for the twenty-first century. They will enable students to successfully cope with new situations. Students who engage in metacognitive strategies are more likely to remain engaged in a task and persist through its completion. Moreover, catering the interests of the students stimulate metacognitive functions self – regulated learners are self - propelled and independent learners, who possess relevant skills which enhance their ability to construct knowledge and assume responsibility for their own learning and realizes that learning is a personal experience that requires active and dedicated participation of the learner itself.

In terms of Monitoring

Table 2. Extent of Manifestation of Students’ Metacognitive Skills in terms of Monitoring Monitoring

WM

VI

3.12

Moderate Extent

3.08

Moderate Extent

3.08

Moderate Extent

3.04

Moderate Extent

2.75

Moderate Extent

1. 2.

Solving additional problems in chemistry from other references Asking a friend or somebody else for help or as study partner while having chemistry review

3.

Consulting references, textbook, modules, and handouts in chemistry

4.

Rewriting chemistry notes, creating tables, diagram and mapping the important topics discussed in chemistry

5.

Checking chemistry progress against goals or to do list

6.

Reading the prescribed chemistry books, modules and handouts until the topic is well understood

2.74

Moderate Extent

7.

Highlighting chemical terminologies and concepts that are deemed important.

2.73

Moderate Extent

8.

Reviewing solutions to the given sample problems in chemistry that were discussed Using a chemistry dictionary to look up different words that are unfamiliar

2.63

Moderate Extent

2.51

Moderate Extent

2.50

Moderate Extent

2.82

Moderate Extent

9.

10. Reviewing returned major examination results, quizzes and exercises in chemistry

Composite Mean

It is revealed that reviewing returned major examination results, quizzes and exercises in chemistry ranked the lowest with a weighted mean of 2.50 and were verbally interpreted as moderate extent. Solving additional problems in

chemistry from other references gained the highest ranked with a weighted mean of 3.12 and was verbally interpreted as moderate extent. The assessed metacognitive skill as to monitoring acquired a composite mean of 2.82 and was

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IOER INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH JOURNAL, VOL. 1, NO. 1, MARCH, 2019 verbally interpreted as moderate extent. This showed that students were resourceful enough to gain information and enhance their own knowledge in order to monitor their learning. This was also an indication that practice and drill activities may enhance the metacognitive monitoring skills of the students. This also indicates that the learners who monitor their own learning learned to check their own responses and answer and became conscious of errors or answer that do not make sense. (Nbina, 2012) This also showed that learners tend to assess the quality of work done based on the evidence and 1.3.

explicit criteria. In addition to this, the study made by Saribas, (2009) showed that learners who were exposed to metacognitive selfassessment skills were more confident about their ability and took greater responsibility for their learning tasks. Learners also develop self-efficacy or a set of belief an individual has regarding the abilities and capabilities in specific performance domain. This also influenced the choice of task, the amount of effort expended and level of persistence in the selected task. Thus, learners who possess a monitoring skill were more likely to be efficient learners with high self- efficacy.

In terms of Evaluation

Table 3. The Extent of Manifestation of Students’ Metacognitive Skills in terms of Evaluation Evaluation 1. Thinking of an easier way to solve the problems in chemistry after finishing the tasked 2. Grouping students for assistance when the chemistry topic discussed is not yet clear 3. Rewarding student after studying or accomplishing a task in chemistry 4. Assessing how chemistry strategies can be applied in another learning context 5. Asking student feedback after accomplishing the activities in chemistry 6. Checking against written chemistry goals or to do list if everything is accomplished 7. Assessing chemistry strategies based on the performance of students on the test or quality of submitted tasks 8. Reflecting and reviewing the result of the examination in basic chemistry 9. Comparing the result of the examination with other classmates and determine the error committed 10. Reflecting on different chemistry strategies and identifying what worked and did not worked Composite Mean

Evaluation is the appraisal of the final outcome and consolidation of new knowledge

WM

VI

3.16

Moderate Extent

3.11

Moderate Extent

3.10

Moderate Extent

3.08

Moderate Extent

2.85

Moderate Extent

2.82

Moderate Extent

2.80

Moderate Extent

2.79

Moderate Extent

2.64

Moderate Extent

2.62

Moderate Extent

2.90

Moderate Extent

acquired. (Okoza, J.A. and Owens, O. 2013) From the result, it is therefore concluded that

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IOER INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH JOURNAL, VOL. 1, NO. 1, MARCH, 2019 thinking of an easier way to solve the problems in chemistry after finishing the tasked garnered a highest ranked with a weighted mean of 3.16 and was verbally interpreted as moderate extent. On the other hand, reflecting on different chemistry strategies and identifying what worked and did not worked gained the lowest ranked with a weighted mean of 2.62 and was verbally interpreted as moderate extent. The assessed metacognitive skill as to evaluation revealed a composite mean of 2.90 was verbally interpreted as moderate extent. This moderate extent of manifestation of metacognitive skills as to evaluation indicates that student learners know how to appraise the learning outcomes and have reflected on the knowledge they gained. Metacognitive practices help students become aware of their strengths and weaknesses as learners, readers, test – takers and group members. (Osborne, 2003) The key element is recognizing and evaluating the limit of ones’ knowledge or ability to configure how to expand knowledge and extent of their abilities. This is parallel with the study conducted by Chick, (2009) that those who know their strengths and weaknesses in different learning areas will be more likely to actively evaluate their learning strategies and resources and assess their readiness for particular tasks and performances. 2. Difficulties met in Chemistry Chemistry is one of the major branches of science. It is one of the most important subjects present in these days curriculum for all level of education. Being important, it became mandatory in all courses in the tertiary level specifically in the College of Industrial Technology were basic chemistry is part of the first year curriculum in all courses. But chemistry by its nature is difficult among other sciences due to its imaginative aspect, problem-solving activities and its great relationship with mathematics. (Saribas, 2009) Due to these scenarios, chemistry appeared to be difficult in nature as the students look at it. There are several difficulties met by students in chemistry in the College of Industrial Technology such as; the inability of the students to link ideas or making conceptual connections on chemistry

topics was the primary challenge to them. This means that students cannot directly associate the topics being discussed with the actual things that happen in real-life situations. This is parallel to the study made by Senocak, (2011) where there were multiple reasons contributing to student’s failure to engage in meaningful learning in chemistry classrooms. However, the main hurdle lies in students’ inability to demonstrate a good understanding of very basic concepts of the subject. Due to huge gaps in students’ understanding of fundamental concepts, they were unable to engage in in-depth learning of advanced level content. Teachers do try to assist students to overcome the difficulties in their effort to make a good sense of the subject matter presented to them. The teachers do make deliberate efforts to value and explore students’ prior knowledge and use it as a basis to help students construct an understanding of concepts under consideration. They do try out their own unique remedial tactics and instructional strategies to engage students in meaningful learning. From the study of Osborne, (2003) much criticism has been voiced about the lack of systematic attention paid to problem-solving activities in sciences. This also reminds that from the first days of science instruction, sets of routine problem assigned by the teacher have been part of classroom life. As a teaching strategy, they largely have been used uncritically in the classroom. In a similar vein, it has been said that it would appear that nearly all physical science education seems to be based on the optimistic assumption that success with numerical problems breeds an implicit conceptual understanding of science. Thus, being related to numerical approached in sciences, the student looked at chemistry as a difficult subject. To create a more engaging classroom it is important to use diverse techniques and strategies to get the attention of the learners such as cooperative learning, concept mapping and reciprocal teaching to activate student engagement. Also, teachers need to focus students’ attention on how to accomplish their multiple tasks. Meanwhile, this study also explained that students’ tensions and difficulties in chemistry were manifested by the close observation of different classroom situations

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IOER INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH JOURNAL, VOL. 1, NO. 1, MARCH, 2019 such as the teacher introduced a new concept in a lesson and students could not cope with it; a lesson involving more advanced-level information pertaining to the subject matter under consideration; students recalling factual information (word to word) instead of describing the ideas, information, or meaning in their own words, students’ inability to linking ideas or making conceptual connections and students’ do not offer an explanation when giving answer to question during classroom discussion. 3. Proposed Metacognitive Activities Metacognitive activities were developed to enhance the metacognitive abilities of Bachelor of Industrial Technology Students of Batangas State University. It is believed that practice and giving various activities with diverse difficulties can enhance their skills. Metacognitive practices help students become aware of their strengths and weaknesses as learners, writers, readers, testtakers, group member, etc. A key element is recognizing the boundary of one’s knowledge or ability and then figuring out how to expand that knowledge or extend the ability. For students to become more metacognitive, they must be taught the concept and its language explicitly though not in a content-delivery model by giving a lecture in a collaborative manner and designed according to knowledge construction approach where students need to recognize, assess, and connect new skills to old ones. (Tanner, 2012). Instructors can encourage learners to become more strategic thinkers by helping them focus on the ways they process information. Self-questioning, reflective journal writing, and discussing their thought processes with other learners are among the ways that teachers can encourage learners to examine and develop their metacognitive processes. Teaching metacognitive skills to students gives them the key to understanding their own thinking and learning. This shows that students must be responsible enough with their learning rather than expecting to be passive learners and sponges of knowledge transmitted by their teachers. A teacher engaged in metacognitive development in their own classroom helps their students be more participative and reflective individuals in terms of

a learning process. This may also enhance the learner-centered teaching approach where collaborative participation of students was visible. Metacognitive practices help students become aware of their strengths and weaknesses as learners, writers, readers, test-takers, group member, etc. A key element is recognizing the bounds of one’s knowledge or ability and then figuring out how to expand that knowledge or extend the ability. Those who know their strengths and weaknesses in these areas will be more likely to actively monitor their learning strategies and resources and assess their readiness for particular tasks and performances. CONCLUSIONS Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions are drawn. 1. Students from the College of Industrial Technology in Batangas State University system show a moderate manifestation of metacognitive skills as to planning, monitoring, and evaluation. 2. The inability of the students to link ideas or making conceptual connections on chemistry topic was revealed as the difficulties met by the teacher and students in dealing with chemistry. 3. The prepared chemistry activities give emphasis and highlights on developing the metacognitive skills of students in terms of planning, monitoring, and evaluation. RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the findings and conclusions of the study, the following recommendations are hereby endorsed: 1. The prepared metacognitive activities may be utilized for basic chemistry classes for the enhancement of student learning. 2. Metacognitive activities in teaching chemistry must be practiced by the students to improve their learning and

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IOER INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH JOURNAL, VOL. 1, NO. 1, MARCH, 2019 performance in the subject. 3. A teacher should crop the appropriate activities’ to continuously develop the metacognitive skills of the students in the different colleges in the university. 4. Teacher and student should be aware of the different difficulties met to think of possible solutions in order to mitigate those difficulties in learning chemistry. 5. Parallel studies may be conducted among different colleges in the University, in other subject areas and courses to validate the findings revealed by the study. 6. The future researcher may also use other metacognitive skills to enhance student learning. REFERENCES Anderson, L. W., and Krathwohl, D. R., et al (Eds..) (2013). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Allyn & Bacon. Boston, MA Pearson Education Group. Aslan, S. (2016). The Effect of Learning by Teaching on Pre-Service Science Teachers’ Attitudes towards Chemistry. Journal of Turkish Science Education, Vol. 14(3), 1-15. Commission on Higher Education (2012) CHED Memorandum Order No. 46 Series 2012, Policy-Standard to Enhance Quality Assurance (QA) in the Philippine Higher Education through an Outcomes-Based and Topology-Based Quality Assurance. https://ched.gov.ph/wpcontent/uploads/2017/10/CMO-No.46s2012 Chick, N. L., Karis, T., & Kernahan, C. (2009). Learning from Their Own Learning: How Metacognitive and Meta-affective Reflections Enhance Learning in RaceRelated Courses. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 3(1). doi:10.20429/ijsotl.2009.030116

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IOER INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH JOURNAL, VOL. 1, NO. 1, MARCH, 2019 https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2013/05/ 15/republic-act-no-10533/ Saribas, D., & Bayram, H. (2009). Is it possible to improve science process skills and attitudes towards chemistry through the development of metacognitive skills embedded within a motivated chemistry lab?: a self-regulated learning approach. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 61-72. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2009.01.014 Senocak, E. (2011). A study on adaptation of the attitudes towards chemistry lessons scale into Turkish. Research in Science and Technological Education, Turkish. Tanner, K. D. (2012). Promoting Student Metacognition. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 11(2), 113-120. doi:10.1187/cbe.12-03-0033 Uzman, K.O. and Uba, A.I. (2007). Improving students’ achievement in further Chemistry using team teaching approach. Review of Education, 18(1), 15-21

same university. Also, she is a degree holder of Master in Development Management major in Public Management at Pangasinan State University, Urdaneta Campus, Pangasinan. Being a research enthusiast, she has presented various researches in both national and international fora and conferences. Furthermore, she has served as biology lecturer in Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi, Thailand (RMUTT) under the Faculty Exchange Program. Also, she is a cooperating supervisor and research adviser of an On-the-Job Training student from RMUTT, Thailand. COPYRIGHTS Copyright of this article is retained by the author/s, with first publication rights granted to IIMRJ. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution – Noncommercial 4.0 International License (http://creative commons.org/licenses/by/4)

Paris, S.G. & Winograd, P. (2001). The Role of Self-regulated Learning in Contextual Teaching: Principles and Practices for Teacher Preparation. (CIERA Archive#0103). AUTHOR’S PROFILE Antonette G. Tegon – Geron is a full-time faculty member in the College of Arts and Sciences at Batangas State University (BatstateU) Pablo Borbon Main I, Batangas City, Philippines where she teaches Biology subjects and General Science courses in the undergraduate programs. She is a graduate of Bachelor of Science in Biology and Master of Arts in Education major in Science Teaching from the

P – ISSN 2651 - 7701 | E – ISSN 2651 – 771X | www.ioer-imrj.com GERON, A. T., Metacognitive Skills Development in Basic Chemistry, pp. 106 - 116 116

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METACOGNITIVE SKILLS DEVELOPMENT IN BASIC CHEMISTRY OF BACHELOR OF INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS OF  

ABSTRACT The main goal of education is to make the students gain skills, abilities, and strategies which they will use throughout their liv...

METACOGNITIVE SKILLS DEVELOPMENT IN BASIC CHEMISTRY OF BACHELOR OF INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS OF  

ABSTRACT The main goal of education is to make the students gain skills, abilities, and strategies which they will use throughout their liv...

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