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The annual news magazine of Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology on Research, Training, & Collaboration

January 1, 2016 through December 31, 2016

CONTENTS FEATURED STORIES Johns Hopkins University Institute for NanoBioTechnology Suite 100, Croft Hall 3400 North Charles Street Baltimore, MD 21218 (410) 516-5634



Director Sharon Gerecht PROFESSOR, CHEMBE

Associate Director Hai-Quan Mao

Ten Years and Counting

Engineers Unravel the Mysteries of Cancer


Editor-in-Chief Mary Spiro




Graphic Design Danielle Peterson BRIO DESIGN

Cover Illustration Martin Rietveld INBT WEB DIRECTOR

Photography Jon French; Will Kirk, Mary Spiro

Research Vacation Is all They Ever Wanted

Symposium: Review and Preview



Letter from the Directors

12 Symposium Review/Preview


New INBT Leadership

14 Alumni: Revolve Biotechnologies


Co-op Offers Mastery

16 Corporate Partner: Applied Materials

LETTER from the DIRECTORS Welcome to 2017 and our new publication, The Nano-Bio Report, which combines some of the data of an annual report with the some of the storytelling of a magazine. We hope you will enjoy reading our report and will share its content with your colleagues and friends. As INBT enters its next decade, we look forward to new challenges and innovative breakthroughs as we focus our efforts on three main research areas: • Engineering for Cancer Therapies: Through INBT’s Physical Sciences-Oncology Center, mechanical, chemical, biomedical and computer engineers are unraveling the life of both normal and cancerous cells at a precise level of detail. (See Page 6 for a story on the PS-OC.) • Stem Cells and Regenerative Engineering: INBT researchers have harnessed the power of stem

Sharon Gerecht

cells to repair and regenerate different tissues damaged due to injury or disease. (See Page 12 for a preview of our 2017-symposium topic.) • Diagnostic Tools Engineered for Early Detection: At INBT, scientists and engineers coming from disciplines such as materials science, mechanical engineering, biomedical engineering and chemical and biomolecular engineering are developing technologies and tools that can be used to diagnose and treat disease quickly and with very small patient samples. (See Page 9 to read about some of these innovations from our international research interns.) INBT researchers are poised for an exciting future of discovery. We hope that you will join us on the journey. If you are interested in learning how to partner with INBT, either through a private contribution or through a corporate partnership, please contact INBT through our main number, 410-516-5634, or by contacting one of us directly via our emails listed below.

Hai-Quan Mao


Thanks for reading!

Sharon Gerecht

Hai-Quan Mao


Associate Director

Professor, ChemBE

Professor, MSE

Institute for NanoBioTechnology


Gerecht and Mao Take Helm of INBT BY MARY SPIRO

On January 1, 2017, leadership duties for Johns Hopkins

members who both have a remarkable track record of innovation

Institute for NanoBioTechnology (INBT) passed to professors

and translation.”

Sharon Gerecht and Hai-Quan Mao of the Whiting School of

Gerecht, the Kent Gordon Croft Investment Faculty Scholar,

Engineering. Gerecht now leads INBT as Director and Mao serves

is a professor in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular

as Associate Director. INBT’s outgoing Director, Peter Searson

Engineering. Her research focuses on ways to control the fate of

of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and

stem cells, which are the most fundamental building blocks of

Associate Director, Denis Wirtz, the University’s Vice Provost for

tissues and organs. She was the inaugural winner of the University

Research and Theophilus H. Smoot Professor in the Department of

President’s Frontier Award.

Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, step down after 10 years; both remain at Hopkins. “Sharon and Hai-Quan embrace INBT’s original vision, which

Mao is a professor in the departments of Materials Science and Engineering and Biomedical Engineering, and currently holds a joint appointment in the Translational Tissue Engineering Center

seeks to bring together researchers from diverse disciplines to

at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. His research is focused on

solve problems at the interface of nanotechnology and medicine,”

engineering novel nano-structured materials for nerve regeneration and

said INBT’s founding director Peter Searson and Joseph R. and

therapeutic delivery. He won the University’s 2015 Cohen Transla-

Lynn P. Reynolds Professor. “Their contributions to multidisci-

tional Engineering Award and a 2015 University Discovery Award.

plinary research, commitment to technology transfer, and vision

“Since its inception, INBT has been a leader in cross-divisional

in educating the next generation of leaders in nanobiotechnology

research at Johns Hopkins. Under Sharon and Hai-Quan’s

made Sharon and Hai-Quan ideal candidates for the job. Denis

leadership will further the institute’s mission to advance research

and I were delighted to pass the baton to two outstanding faculty

and education at the intersection of engineering, medicine, and health.” said Whiting School dean Ed Schlesinger.

2016 Nano-Bio Report



Institute for NanoBioTechnology

Ten Years and Counting BY MARY SPIRO

On April 21, 2016, Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology hosted an open house to celebrate its tenth anniversary as a research entity. More than 100 people gathered in Croft Hall to share memories and try one of 15 hands-on demonstrations developed by the labs located in the building. INBT was officially launched May 15, 2006, with $4 million in funding from Senator Barbara Mikulski under then university president William H. Brody. “At that time, Denis (Wirtz) and I anticipated that there would be new opportunities for physical scientists and engineers to collaborate with biomedical researchers and clinicians in solving problems in medicine, specifically problems at the molecular and nanoscale,” said founding director Peter Searson. “Since multidisciplinary collaborations across departments and divisions were not prevalent then, the deans of medicine, public health, engineering, and arts and sciences supported the creation of the institute to build the infrastructure to support and promote these efforts.” Today INBT has 250 affiliated faculty members across all university campuses. A core group of faculty reside in the 26,000 square feet of laboratory space located in Croft Hall on the University’s Homewood campus. Croft Hall serves as a focal point for INBT activities and headquarters for staff, where researchers from eight departments in the Whiting School of Engineering and the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine collaborate under one roof. “INBT has catalyzed multidisciplinary research across the university,” said Landon King, executive vice dean of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. “The collaborations between engineers, scientists, and clinicians initiated by INBT have led to numerous discoveries, partnerships, and new companies.” Over the last decade, INBT researchers have generated more than $80 million in research funding. The institute manages a diverse portfolio of research projects and has established numerous research centers and initiatives, such as the Physical Sciences-Oncology Center, Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence, Center for Digital Pathology, and the Blood-Brain Barrier working group. An award from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in 2006 helped create the NanoBio training program. With funding from the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation, 89 PhDs have been awarded to students from eight departments in the Whiting School of Engineering and the Krieger School of Arts and Sciences. INBT also supports a postdoctoral training program. INBT is home to an NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) that has supported 104 students over eight years, and receives more than 700 applicants for 10 internships each year. INBT hosts an International Research Experience for Students (IRES) program, providing internships to work at IMEC, a world-class nano-fabrication facility in Leuven, Belgium. Thanks to those who celebrated with us that day and to those who continue to support the work of INBT every day. Photos provided by INBT staffer Jon French.

2016 Nano-Bio Report


Engineers Unravel Complexities of Cancer BY MARY SPIRO

Artist's image of a cancer cell traveling through a 3D matrix that closely resembles the environment through which cancer cells move in a human body.


Johns Hopkins University


Engineers and clinicians are working together to reveal the mysteries of cancer through the newly funded Johns Hopkins Physical Sciences-Oncology Center (PS-OC), launched via a $9 million federal grant to the Institute for NanoBioTechnology. The Johns Hopkins PS-OC is the second time that the National Cancer Institute has chosen to fund INBT to create an entity through which physical scientists, cancer biologists, clinicians and other researchers can collaborate to help solve the challenges of diagnosing and treating cancer. INBT’s first PS-OC was funded from 2009 to 2014.

2016 Nano-Bio Report


The Hopkins PS-OC will be part of NCI’s Physical Sciences On-

“Instead of looking at other aspects like tumor growth, I’ll be

cology Network, a collective of 10 centers at research institutions

working with my colleagues in the schools of engineering and

nationwide. INBT’s center will engage researchers from the Johns

medicine to uncover the physical underpinnings of cancer metasta-

Hopkins School of Medicine and the Whiting School of Engineering,

sis,” Wirtz said. “The ‘team science’ approach in our center should

as well as collaborators from Washington University in St. Louis,

result in the creation of new therapies targeting metastasis, the

the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Arizona.

primary cause of human cancer deaths.”

The research goals of this new PS-OC incarnation will build

Kenneth Pienta, a professor of urology, oncology, and pharma-

upon the foundations of the center’s first iteration and delve into

cology and molecular sciences at the Johns Hopkins University

discovering the mechanism of metastasis – or how cancer cells

School of Medicine and also a member of the Kimmel Cancer

break free from a primary tumor to seed tumors in distant organs.

Center, will be the PS-OC’s associate director. Currently, Pienta’s

Denis Wirtz, Johns Hopkins Vice Provost for Research, directs

research involves studying tumor microenvironments and how they

the new center as he did the first PS-OC. Wirtz is also the T. H.

contribute to the formation of tumors and metastasis. His bench

Smoot professor in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular

laboratory program focuses on the development of new therapies

Engineering and a member of the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer

for prostate cancer.


Johns Hopkins Physical Sciences-Oncology Center has three primary research areas: • The Role of Physical Cues in Collective Cell Invasion –

Instead of looking at other

This project examines how the physical forces exerted upon

aspects like tumor growth, I’ll

affect the migration of these cells, both collectively and

be working with my colleagues

poulos, professor and chair of Department of Chemical and

cancer cells when they are confined within a tumor can individually. The team is led by Konstantinos KonstantoBiomolecular Engineering.

in the schools of engineering

• Forces Involved in Collective Cell Migration – When they

and medicine to uncover the

to travel in groups. This team, led by Wirtz, studies the

physical underpinnings of cancer

break away from a tumor, some cancer cells seem to prefer forces involved in organizing the collective migration of breast cancer cells in both 2D and 3D environments. • Impact of low oxygen on the migration of sarcoma cells

metastasis The ‘team science’

– Low oxygen within a tumor (hypoxia) dramatically

approach in our center should

outcomes. Research led by Sharon Gerecht, a professor of

result in the creation of new

primary tumor cells respond to oxygen in their microen-

therapies targeting metastasis,

increases pulmonary metastasis and results in poor health chemical and biomolecular engineering, investigates how vironment. The goal is to better understand the spread of cancer and identify new treatment targets. Other members of the Johns Hopkins PS-OC center include

the primary cause of human

Andrew Ewald and Daniele Gilkes of the School of Medicine, Pei-

cancer deaths.

Karin Eisinger and Celeste Simon of the University of Pennsylvania,


Institute for NanoBioTechnology

Hsun Wu and Sean X. Sun of the Whiting School of Engineering, and Charles Wolgemuth of the University of Arizona.

From left: Lydia Carroll, Stephanie Cai, Lakyn Mayo, and Chris Argento on top of Gravensteen Castle in Ghent. Not pictured, Michael Signorelli.

Research Vacation is All They Ever Wanted BY MARY SPIRO

Every summer since 2009, undergraduate students have had the

was able to send five students to Belgium, the largest group ever.

chance to spend 10 weeks conducting research at a world-class

The 2016 students chosen included undergraduates Stephanie Cai,

microfabrication research facility known as IMEC in Leuven,

Lydia Carroll and Michael Signorelli from biomedical engineering;

Belgium. Founded and administered by Johns Hopkins Institute

Lakyn Mayo from materials science and engineering; and master’s

for NanoBioTechnology (INBT), a select group of University

degree student Chris Argento from chemical and biomolecular

students experience intense research opportunities in an


international environment. INBT’s International Research Experience for Students (IRES), funded by the National Science Foundation, has grown in popularity among the Johns Hopkins students who compete for a handful of available research positions. During the summer of 2016, INBT


Argento helped with the development of a droplet microfluidic system to screen the fermentation characteristics of yeast strains used in manufacturing everything from beer to biofuels. “The system shrinks this process from a flask down into tiny microdroplets on a silicon chip, meaning it could potentially screen

2016 Nano-Bio Report


thousands of strains rapidly and at lower cost,” Argento said. “This experience familiarized me with both microdroplets and cell culture, as well as the many other ways that IMEC applies nanotechnology to the life sciences. I gained an interest in how microfluidics and nanoscience as a whole can be utilized to improve health.” In addition to technical skills, students reported intangible benefits from the program. “This summer opened my eyes to the diversity of work I could do after graduation,” said Cai. Her project focused on optimizing ultra-fast quantitative PCR on-a-chip and resolving challenges related to DNA fragment amplification that arise when qPCR is performed rapidly. “While I truly value the research and laboratory skills I learned, one of the biggest takeaways is that academia and industry can exist symbiotically, and there are companies out there that foster this kind of collaboration.” Not all projects involved lab-on-chip devices. Carroll worked on processing electroencephalography (EEG) signals from a new type of headset that can be used outside the lab. “This research exposed me to advanced signal processing and machine learning, both of which are very applicable to my future work as an engineer,” Carroll said. “I also got the chance to practice planning and running my own project, which is something I'll be expected to do as soon as I graduate.” Of course, no trip to Belgium would be complete without sampling the country’s famous beer, chocolate and waffles. Participants also had a chance to explore nearby European cities, such as Paris and London. “My time at IMEC through INBT gave me a new perspective on biomedical engineering and the options available for microelectronics,” concluded Carroll. “I had a great time at IMEC this summer and learned a lot about academic research as a whole.” The students wrote about their experiences both in and out of the lab via blog posts on the website “INBT’s summer at IMEC Research Program.” For a more complete picture of the life of an INBT summer international research intern, go to

Top: Bruges at night. Photo by Chris Argento Bottom: At the Grote Markt in Leuven. Photo by Michael Signorelli

10 Institute for NanoBioTechnology

Co-op Offers True Mastery of the Discipline BY MARY SPIRO

Many would argue that while the PhD program focuses a student

advisor and a research mentor at the host company. Co-op

toward a career in academic research, the purpose of a master’s

experiences can last from six to nine months, and, at the end,

degree is to kick start a student’s career in industry. However, most

students write their thesis on their industry experience.

science and engineering master’s degree programs require university

So far, one student, Andrew Beamesderfer in Materials Sciences

based laboratory research experience similar to that of their

and Engineering, has completed the pilot program. He spent the

doctoral candidates; and industry co-operative education (co-ops)

summer and fall of 2016 working at BD Diagnostics in Sparks,

programs are mostly available to undergraduates, before they have

MD. As of this writing, two more students are participating in co-

even completed their bachelor’s degrees.

ops at MedImmune in Gaithersburg, MD.

Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology Co-Operative

“Participating in the INBT Masters CO-OP program has been

Master’s Education Program offers a richer experience for master’s

an invaluable experience,” Beamesderfer said. “I’ve been able to

degree students interested in industry and provides more thor-

gain experience in a number of areas, while building upon the

oughly trained candidates to industry partners. The INBT Co-Op

technical background provided by Johns Hopkins. Although I

is available to students in the departments of Materials Science

learned a lot about the technical side of my project, I feel that

and Engineering and Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and

the power of this program is being immersed in a company to

gives students intense industry training while allowing them to

take away lessons about global product development, intellectual

complete the requirements of their discipline’s degree.

property, flexibility and prioritization, interacting with outside

Launched in 2016, INBT’s Co-Op takes the place of the usual

companies, and most importantly leadership. The INBT Master’s

laboratory research and thesis component of the traditional mas-

Co-Op program teaches much more than a classroom- or even an

ter’s program, explained INBT’s Director of Corporate Partner-

academic research-based program. (It) immerses you in a company,

ships, Tom Fekete, who helps oversee the program

allowing you to take away a number of lessons that are simply not

“Our co-op provides real-life work experience after they have

available in a traditional master’s program.”

completed the undergraduate training,” Fekete said. “The academic

Fekete said several other nearby companies are interested in

training is the same, but when the students gradate, they will have

hosting co-op participants, and he expects the program to expand

industrially relevant research experience and a better understanding

as INBT adds more industry partners, who will, in turn, generate

of how work gets done in the industrial environment.”

more interest from students entering these two departmental

At Johns Hopkins, the master’s degree program usually takes an additional year (or maybe two) after a student finishes their

engineering master’s degree programs. To find out more about the INBT Co-Operative Master’s

bachelor’s degree. Those interested in the INBT Co-Op may

Education Program, visit

apply during their first semester as a master’s student. If selected


to participate in the program, students are paired with a faculty

2016 Nano-Bio Report 11

INBT’s annual symposium offers students a chance to showcase their research during the afternoon poster session. Thought leaders who are experts on the selected topic enlighten attendees during the morning talks. Photos by John French and Mary Spiro.

12 Institute for NanoBioTechnology

Symposium: Review and Preview INBT’s 2016 symposium focused on Precision Medicine and was held April 29 at the School of Medicine. The annual event was co-hosted by Johns Hopkins Individualized Health Initiative (aka Hopkins inHealth) and featured several inHealth-affiliated speakers. Treatments developed through the precision medicine approach aim to overcome the one-size-fits-all mindset of contemporary medicine. With therapies driven by data and through the synergized efforts of electronic medical records, public health investigations, clinical studies, and from records collected by patients themselves, patients should see more predictable outcomes. Speakers included Antony Rosen (medicine), Kenneth Pienta (urology), Zheyu Wang (biostatistics), Nilanjan Chatterjee (biostatistics), Andrew Feinberg (epigenetics), and Scott Zeger (biostatistics). The theme for the 2017 Symposium will be Engineering Vascularization. It will be held May 5, 2017 in the Owens Auditorium at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Speakers will include experts in vascularization who will approach the topic from several angles such as regeneration, oncology, and stem cells. Presenters will include David Cheresh from UCSD and David Kaplan from Tufts University. Other speakers to be announced. Cheresh is a leading authority in angiogenesis - the growth of new blood

INBT’s 11th annual symposium—

vessels – from the Moores Cancer Center at University of California San

Engineering Vascularization—

in clinical and basic science with an emphasis on translational medicine.

will be held Friday, May 5

vice chair and a distinguished professor of the Department of Pathology.

at the Johns Hopkins

He is the chair of the Department of Biomedical Engineering and

School of Medicine.

Dental Medicine, the Department of Chemistry, and the Department of

Diego Health. He leads efforts to develop new collaborations and programs He is the associate director of Innovation and Industry Alliances and the Kaplan is the Stern Family Professor of Engineering at Tufts University. holds faculty appointments in the School of Medicine, the School of Chemical and Biological Engineering. His research focuses on biopolymer engineering to understand structure-function relationships, with emphasis on studies related to self-assembly, biomaterials engineering, and functional tissue engineering/regenerative medicine.

2016 Nano-Bio Report 13

Revolve Biotechnologies: Made-to-Order DNA Libraries BY MARY SPIRO

If you are in the business of engineering new proteins for any pur-

INBT: Where did you get the idea for Revolve?

pose, it’s likely that you will need DNA “libraries” as templates from which to synthesize different protein molecules. But con-

Firnberg: During my graduate studies in Marc Ostermeier’s lab

structing a customized DNA library is not always something a

in the ChemBE department, we developed a new technique called

researcher would do in-house. The process can be costly, labor

PFunkel mutagenesis for building DNA mutant libraries. After

intensive and requires special expertise and equipment. Instead, a

we published it, we noticed that other labs were also interested in

researcher would buy custom-made libraries from another lab that

using these libraries and some contacted us. Along with several

specialize in such endeavors.

students in the lab, we entered a business plan competition and the

Enter Revolve Biotechnologies, a startup founded by Johns

company was born from that experience.

Hopkins University alum Elad Firnberg. Revolve Biotechnologies builds DNA mutation libraries used for engineering useful proteins.

INBT: Who are your typical clients?

Firnberg’s company accomplishes this task more quickly and less expensively than competitors using a technique he perfected while

Firnberg: Our clients are scientists at other biotech companies

working in a Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology (INBT)

(usually therapeutics or bio-based chemicals) and researchers in

affiliated laboratory. Revolve Biotechnologies has set up shop in the

academic labs.

historic Stieff Silver Building in the Hampden neighborhood of Baltimore, Maryland, just minutes from Johns Hopkins University. The following is a Q&A with Firnberg:

INBT: How is what you produce different or better than what a similar company might do? That is, what makes Revolve Biotechnologies unique?

INBT: How are you filling a needed gap either locally or nationally for this service?

Firnberg: We are unique due to our intellectual property. This technology allows us to build libraries in about 4-fold less time

Firnberg: Many research labs in academia and industry require

and for a lower cost than competitors. That means we can deliver

mutation libraries but lack the expertise or have limited resources

products faster to our clients and speed up development of new

to build them in-house. We fulfill this need by providing them


with our custom library generation service. We also use our library technique in order to develop useful proteins for our clients such as antibodies and fluorescent proteins.

14 Institute for NanoBioTechnology

Infrared fluorescent proteins in bacterial colonies developed by Revolve Biotechnologies. Image courtesy Elad Firnberg.

INBT: What are the challenges of running a startup? What are the

INBT: Anything else people should know about Revolve



Firnberg: The challenge of running a small startup company such

Firnberg: Running a company is a lot like graduate school in

as Revolve is the many roles and responsibilities undertaken by

that it consists of prolonged stretches of failure punctuated by

a small number of staff. This is especially challenging to manage

occasional moments of great glory that make it all worthwhile.

while also staying focused on the science. The rewards are the ability to have influence in shaping the direction and future of the

For more information about Revolve Biotechnologies, Inc., go to

company. Graduates from INBT-affiliated laboratories and their principal investigators have gone on to

INBT: How did your training at JHU and involvement with

be the founders of more than 15 business enterprises. Some of

INBT help you prepare to create this technology and launch this

these companies include Circulomics, Cancer Targeting Systems,


Gemstone Biotherapeutics, Asclepyx, and LifeSprout.

Firnberg: My graduate training at JHU offered me a strong foundation in chemical and biomolecular engineering and the technology itself emerged from my thesis work. I first started learning about how to write a business plan and launch a business when we entered the annual business plan competition at JHU. After that we got some coaching from the JHU FastForward program, which was new at the time.

2016 Nano-Bio Report 15

Applied Materials’ Lab-on-a-Chip Technology Hopes to Gain Advantage on Cancer BY MARY SPIRO

Improved diagnostic tools save lives through more accurate and

partnerships, Tom Fekete, and representatives from Applied

earlier diagnoses. To that end, Johns Hopkins Institute for Nano-

Materials have discussed ways the two entities can work together.

BioTechnology has partnered with Applied Materials (AMAT) of

Dietz said that establishing a relationship with a world-class

Santa Clara, California to discover ways the company’s core capa-

research university such as Johns Hopkins and an organization

bilities can be leveraged to solve specific problems in health care.

such as INBT, which has a “strong interaction between clinicians

Applied Materials offers INBT its unique expertise in high-speed imaging as well as in nanofabrication techniques to enable more sophisticated devices that can be scaled, said Jim Dietz, director of new business development at Applied Materials Dietz, a 1993 Johns Hopkins alum in the Department of

and engineers working to solve important medical questions,” presents exciting challenges for Applied Materials. “Healthcare is a brand new area for AMAT, and we want to align ourselves with thought leaders to solve big problems,” Deitz said. One area where Applied Materials particularly hopes to

Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, first heard about

contribute its expertise is in lab-on-a-chip technology, particularly

INBT in 2014 when he served as a Mentor in Residence for the

as it can be applied to diagnostic techniques in clinical oncology.

university. Over the last 18 months, INBT’s director of corporate

“Our sweet spot is any diagnostic approach that lends itself to fabrication on silicon or glass to achieve high performance.” Dietz said. “We see the future of clinical oncology being driven by significant advances in biosensor and imaging technologies on the front end, coupled with big gains in analytics on the back end, which will deliver increasingly targeted and effective treatments to improve patient outcomes.” This collaboration between INBT and AMAT is part of the Institute’s Corporate Partnership program, which seeks to connect Institute researchers with industry professionals to achieve common goals. For more information about INBT’s Corporate Partnership Program, contact Tom Fekete via email at To learn more about Applied Materials, go to

Applied Material’s uVision system has the industry’s smallest optical inspection pixel size, enabling cutting-edge R&D activities. IMAGE: Applied Materials

16 Institute for NanoBioTechnology

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2016 Nano-Bio Report  


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