Page 1

Volume 1 2020


CONTENT Innovatieve Materialen About is een vaktijdschrift gericht op de civieltechnische Innovatieve Materialen sector en bouw. Het bericht over ontwik(Innovative Materials) is a digital, kelingen op het gebied van duurzame, inindependent magazine novatieve materialen en/of deabout toepassing material inconstructies. the fields of daarvaninnovation in bijzondere

engineering, construction (buildings, infrastructure and industrial) and Innovatieveindustrial Materialen is een uitgave van design. Civiele Techniek, onafhankelijk vaktijdschrift voor civieltechnisch ingenieurs werkzaam in de grond-, weg- en waterA digital subscribtion in 2020 bouw en verkeerstechniek.

(6 editions) costs € 39,50 (excl. VAT) Members of KIVI and students: De redactie staat open voor bijdragen € 25,- U(excl. van vakgenoten. kunt VAT) daartoe contact opnemen met de redactie.

SJP Uitgevers

Postbus 861 4200 AW Gorinchem Uitgeverij tel. +31 183 66 08 08 SJP Uitgevers

Postbus 861 Publisher 4200 AW Gorinchem Gerard van66 Nifterik tel. (0183) 08 08 e-mail:

Advertizing & sponsoring Drs. Petra Schoonebeek Redactie: Bureau Schoonebeek vof

Hoofdredactie: Innovative Materials Gerard van Nifterik platform:

Dr. ir. Fred Veer, prof. Ir. Rob Nijsse (Glass &Advertenties Transparency Research Group, TU Delft), Drs. Petra Schoonebeek dr. Bert van Haastrecht (M2I), Wim Poelman, dr. Ton e-mail: Hurkmans (MaterialDesign), Jos Brouwers, (Department abonnement inSection 2016 ofEen thedigitaal Built Environment, (6 uitgaven) kost €and 25,00 (excl. BTW) Building Physics Services TU Eindhoven), Jilt Sietsma, (4TU.HTM/ Mechanical, Maritime Zie ook: and Materials Engineering (3mE), prof.dr. Pim Groen, (SMART Materials Aerospace Niets uit deze uitgave Engineering mag worden (AE) TU Delft/Holst TNO), Kris verveelvuldigd en ofCentre, openbaar worden Binon (Flam3D), Guido Verhoeven door middel van herdruk, fotokopie, microfilm op welke wijze dan ook, zonder (Bondofvoor Materialenkennis/SIM voorafgaande toestemming Flanders, Prof.schriftelijke dr. ir. Christian Louter uitgever. Institutvan für de Baukonstruktion Technische Universität Dresden).

1 News 18 Preview: MaterialDistrict Rotterdam commits to Circular Economy

With 175 exhibitors, an exhibition with 400 materials, and a lecture programme with 50 speakers, MaterialDistrict Rotterdam is once again imbued with material innovation. As the only annual event for material specifiers from all sectors of spatial design, MaterialDistrict commits fully to the Circular Economy.

26 Glass foam aggregate

Last year, glass foamed concrete, applied in Natuurmonumenten’s headquarters in Zierikzee (the Netherlands), earned the 2019 Concrete Award (Betonprijs) in the ‘Groundbreaking’ category. It was the first time that glass foamed concrete was used in residential construction in the Netherlands. This kind of concrete consists for a considerable part of glass foam that gives the material special properties. Glass foam is made from melted and foamed waste glass. The material has been around since the 1930s, but due to a combination of special properties - light, high insulation value and made from a waste product (glass waste) - it is in the spotlight angain.

32 Prototyping + MNE 2020

On February 5 and 6 Prototyping + MNE 2020 took place in Kortrijk Xpo. The event is the result of a cooperation between Prototyping Xpo and MNE. The first one is the networking trade show for designing and prototyping industrial components and products; the second one stands for Machineering Network Event. This year these two networking trade shows, both specialised in manufacturing technology, com­ bined their concepts, strengths and knowledge for the first time. A small summary of new materials exposed.

36 ZOAK brick: Zeer Open Afval Keramiek (very open waste ceramic)

Together with a number of partners start-up Company TileSystems has developed the so-called ZOAK brick (Zeer Open Afval Keramiek): very open waste ceramic. ZOAK bricks ensure rainwater is retained directly where it falls and is drained to the ground. Public squares and streets will not experience any nuisance from the excess rain water as a result of extreme showers. Moreover, the ZOAK brick has a positive effect on the Urban Heat Island Effect (UHI). Experiments at the Hogeschool van Amsterdam show that the retained rainwater evaporates due to heat and the material cools down.

38 Efficient manufacturing through advanced modelling and control of tribological effects

Within the framework of the ASPECT project (, researchers from the University of Twente, together with M2i, TriboForm and ESI Group, have developed an advanced simulation technology that takes into account the temperature-induced increase in friction when forming sheet metal. This can prevent all kinds of problems during production.

42 Challenging Glass 7

On 18 and 19 June 2020 the seventh edition the international conference ‘Challenging Glass’ will be held in Ghent, Belgium. Again, the congress promises to present a great amount of knowledge and development in the rapidly evolving domain of glass applications in construction. With participants from all over the world, more than 100 presentations of high-quality papers and inspiring keynote presentations, the conference promises once again to be a great success.

Cover: Metadecor, page 2



Kunstenpand (Illustratieon: DeZwarteHond)

Facade of perforated, anodized aluminum Since 2018, a new center for art and culture in Rotterdam is under construction. This so-called Kunstenpand was designed by DeZwarteHond architects and will be the future home to Theater Zuidplein, a part of the Rotterdam Library and various other cultural functions. The 12,000 m2 complex thus forms an important part of a larger, overall project called ‘Hart van Zuid’: the metamorphosis this area in the south of Rotterdam is currently undergoing.


The Kunstenpand is made of brick, with an eye-catching contrasting voile façade at the entrance and reception hall, made of anodized aluminum. The public functions such as the library, a food court and an exhibition space will be located in this area.The aluminum façade was made by Metadecor and is marketed under the name MD Designperforatie. All kinds of patterns can be applied to the perforated metal; either a re­ peating theme, a large continuous image, or any other design.

NEWS MD Design perforation is used in interior design for decoration, illustration or, for example, for covering acoustic walls. If the perforated wall or facade is additionally provided with (LED) lighting, a spectacular image is created that gives the building a unique identity. The awning cladding of Het Kunstpand consists of so-called MD Flack anodized aluminum sheets. The design of the facade consists of small triangles that fall together like a puzzle and in turn form larger triangles, spirals and circles. This whole leads to an interplay of forms that are already visible from a distance and partly from close by. The façade panels are made by means of a special rear construction developed by the company. The Kunstpand becomes officially delivered on March/April this year. More at Metadecor> More at DeZwarteHond>

‘Hart van Zuid’ ‘Hart van Zuid’ is the name of the area development around shopping centre Zuidplein (South square) and the Ahoy convention centre and multi-purpose arena, both situated in the south of in Rotterdam. With the Hart van Zuid area development, the municipality of Rotterdam wants to give Rotterdam Zuid a new and lasting boost. A consortium of Heijmans and Ballast Nedam, supported by 3i Infrastructure, is responsible for area development. The design is in the hands of Architectenbureau Kraaijvanger. The total project includes various separate parts, including the renovation and expansion of Ahoy, construction of a new swimming pool, improvement of traffic and infrastructure, city squares and renovation of the public transport hub. Total estimated costs (over a period of twenty years): € 330 million. More about Hart van Zuid (Dutch)>



Delta Flume test facility at the Deltares test site in Delft

Flood barrier made from glass Strukton Civiel is heightening and reinforcing the dike in the village of Neer along the Meuse river. The dike upgrade in Neer consists of strengthening the green dike over a distance of approximately 1,600 metres and strengthening a hard barrier (a retaining wall) of approximately 550 metres. Raising the hard barrier by 70 cm meant that several houses would no longer have a view of the Meuse river. Local residents want to preserve the view of the Meuse. Safety was the most important factor for the water authority. It therefore initiated discussions with the local residents and looked at the options. In the end, the Limburg


NEWS 80 metres in four locations, the longest will be 30 metres long. The glass flood-barrier consists of five layers of tempered glass. The inside consists of three structural panels, each 1.5 centimetres thick. On the outside thereof, 8 millimeters thick ‘sacrificial windows’ are installed. An ionomeric foil (1.5 millimeter) is provided between the glass plates to give the glass extra strength, while an anti-graffiti layer is provided on the outside. To investigate whether the glass construction can indeed withstand the impact of floating branches and trunks, the impact of a collision was simulated by having a tree trunk with a diameter of 40 centimetres weighing 800 kg collide with the barrier. These tests have been conducted in the week of 20 January in the the so-called Delta Flume test facility at the Deltares test site in Delft. Various tests will be conducted to demonstrate that the glass barrier can withstand the loads that occur at high water levels, providing adequate protection for the local residents who live behind the dikes. On the basis of the test results, the Flood Risk Management Expertise Network (ENW) will be asked to approve the system. More at Strukton>

More at Strukton> The glass flood defense consists of five layers of tempered glass. The basis is formed by three structural panels, each 1.5 centimeters thick


Water Authority opted for an innovative concept: part of the flood defences will be made from glass to maintain protection and preserve the view. The Herik/ Strukton vof consortium is designing and producing the glass barrier. The plan is to install the barrier in the autumn of 2020 and the completion of the project as a whole is scheduled for late 2020. The glass panels consist of multiple layers of glass and film. In close consultation with glass supplier Scheuten, the ideal thickness and composition in terms of strength and transparency have been calculated, always keeping in mind the aim of preserving the view of the Meuse river while meeting standards for flood risk management. The quality of the glass and film is high so that the barrier will be able to cope with external factors such as the weather. The glass panels will be installed over a total distance of



Drystack at GEVEL 2020

Drystack: bricklaying without cement During GEVEL 2020, January 28 - 30 in Ahoy Rotterdam, the system of Drystack was demonstrated. Drystack is a new, dry system for brick laying. Masons are no longer needed: anyone can stack a brick façade according to a drawing. The Dutch architecture firms Heren 5 and MH3 used this technique in the facade design of a housing project in Hoorn. The Intermaris Housing Corporation is currently building 267 rental properties there. The delivery is scheduled this year. Due to the intention of Intermaris Housing Association to use innovative techniques, both involved architectural firms were able to experiment with a new way of making brick facades. With the Drystack system, brick laying is replaced by stacking bricks ‘dry’. The bricks are simply placed on racks made of recycled plastic, and small holes in the brick put the stones in place. Afterwards, the joints between the stones are finished with cling mortar. The benefits are obvious. In the first place, the facades can be realized with less mason capacity. With a staggering shortage of bricklayers, anyone seems to be capable to build a wall, what was demonstrated during GEVEL 2020. Moreover, the use of cement is avoided, which has a positive effect on the carbon footprint of the façade and the building as a whole. Moreover, the method gives a lot of freedom of form: connections, patterns: everything that the designer draws can be stacked with this system, including round walls, wavy facades,


oblique patterns, diagonal lines, crosses, et cetra. An last but not least, the walls can be easily dismantled at the end of their lifetime, making brick an easy-to-reuse product. More at Drystack>

NEWS water in it with alcohol. Then they place the alcohol gel into a pressure chamber, where high pressures and a supercritical CO2 atmosphere enables miscibility of the alcohol and the CO2 gas; when the pressure is released, everything turns it into a homogeneous gossamer-like aerogel. Heat can be further applied afterwards to anneal the plastic polymers, thus transforming the material and compacting into the final desired shape, yet preserving the 18 carat composition. According to the researchers this gold has the material properties of a plastic. If a piece of it falls onto a hard surface, it sounds like plastic. But it glimmers like metallic gold, and can be polished and worked into the desired form. The researchers can even adjust the hardness of the material by changing the composition of the gold. They can also replace the latex in the matrix with other plastics, such as polypropylene.

Lightweight gold ETH researchers have created a lightweight 18-carat gold, using a matrix of plastic in place of metallic alloy elements. The study has just been published in the journal Advanced Functional Materials titles ‘Light gold: a colloidal approach using latex templates. Advanced Functional Materials’. Raffaele Mezzenga, Professor of Food and Soft Materials, ETH Zurich, and researcher Leonie van ’t Hag set to create a new form of gold that weighs about five to ten times less than traditional 18-carat gold. The conventional mixture is usually three-quarters gold and one-quarter copper, with a density of about 15 g/cm3. By contrast, the new gold material’s density is just 1.7 g/cm3. And nonetheless it is still 18-carat gold. This was archived by using protein fibres and a polymer latex Instead of a metal alloy element, to form a matrix in which they embedded thin discs of gold nanocrystals. In addition, the lightweight gold contains countless tiny air pockets invisible to the eye. Gold platelets and plastic melt into a

material that can be easily processed mechanically. Here’s how the researchers create the new lightweight gold: first, they add the ingredients to water and create a dispersion. After adding salt to turn the dispersion into a gel, next they replace the

The possibilities are obvious. No one wants to wear a heavy watch on their wrist, even if it’s made of real gold. After a time, it becomes uncomfortable and annoying. The researchers expect the plastic gold will be in particular demand in the manufacture of watches and jewellery, it is also suitable for chemical catalysis, electronics applications or radiation shielding. They have applied for patents for both the process and the material. More at ETHZ>

Gold nanoplatelets embedded in a latex matrix (Images: Stephan Handschin/ScopeM/ETH Zurich)



Removed joints

Reuse of bitumen joint tram rails A. Noordzij Bitumenverwerking BV from Gorinchem, the Netherlands, has developed a method whereby more than 95 percent of the bitumen joints along the tram rail is reused. Currently, these joints are regarded as waste and are removed and burned. It is estimated that this causes 3,381 kg of CO2 per kg of bitumen. Added to this is the extraction and processing of bitumen. According to Noordzij this process offers a considerable reduction in CO2 emissions compared to the current working method. The process starts with gouging the bitumen joints along the tram rail. The removed bitumen is transported to a recycling location, where it is melted, sieved and stored again. More than 95 percent of the material is suitable for reuse; the rest goes to a waste processing company. Meanwhile, the Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management has officially recognized this method used by Noordzij as ‘continued use’. This means that the gummed bitumen is no longer covered by ‘waste’.>


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MaterialDistrict Rotterdam 2020 Met 175 exposanten, een tentoonstelling met vierhonderd materialen en een lezingenprogramma met vijftig sprekers staat MaterialDistrict Rotterdam van 17 tot en met 19 maart 2020 weer bol van de materiaalinspiratie. Als enige jaarlijkse evenement voor materiaalvoorschrijvers uit alle sectoren van de ruimtelijke vormgeving zet MaterialDistrict volop in op de Circulaire Economie. Klik hier voor een gratis ticket



Reusing metal powder for additive manufacturing According to University of Twente PhD candidate Laura Cordova Gonzalez, metal powders used in additive manufacturing can be safely reused. This enables the reduction of waste in the production of many functional parts for application in the aerospace, biomedical, energy and automotive industries. In order to reduce the downtime of vehicles or other machines, most companies make use of a lot of spare parts. This process needs a lot of space and not all stored parts are getting used. By using 3D-printing, it is no longer needed to stock spare parts as they can be produced on demand. Only a small proportion of the metal


powder used in additive manufacturing is melted into a part. After printing, the excess powder is removed from the final product and may be stored for later use but too little is known about the quality of this excess powder. The printing and the storing can both contaminate the powder and change its properties making it unreliable. Reusing the powder is a risk most companies are not willing to make. In most critical components, like in the aerospace industry, it is important that the metal powders, and therefore the final products, maintain their quality and present a high degree of repeatability.

In her thesis, Cordova Gonzalez describes a methodology to safely reuse metal powder for selective laser melting. She looked at four different metal powder commonly used in additive manufacturing. All these powders had different properties after several cycles of reuse. Parts built with reused powder show greater micro-sized porosity than parts made from new powder after four cycles of reuse. However, the changed structure (see figure 1) had no effect on the mechanical properties in static loading. To ensure powder quality Cordova Gonzalez proposes a new methodology for both reusing and storing powder. She

NEWS advises to analyzing powder before the first usage, after prolonged storing periods and in between cycles depending on the needed reliability of the endproduct. To increase the quality of the used powder, manufacturers can sieve the powder to remove too large particles or rejuvenate the powder by mixing it with new, unused powder. Laura Cordova Gonzalez defended her PhD thesis titled ‘Exploring the influence of powder properties and handling on the selective laser melting process’ on Thursday 30 January 2020. More at University Twente>

Figure 1: Micro pores in parts made from unused ‘virgin’ powder (a and b) and reused powder (c and d)

Design Carpets with impact on CO2 These exceptional carpets from Studio Wae with geometric designs are made with production failures of the 3 biggest carpet­ tile producers of The Netherlands. Interface, Tarkett (Desso) and Forbo. Studio Wae has collaboration contracts with these sustainable frontrunners to expand the lifecycle of these wastes. The designs are inspired on M.C. Esher. You can create your own color, shape and size which makes every carpet unique as it always fits in the space. Due to the unique click system the loose tiles click together, so you can go crazy on your creation.

‘Create your own Wae’



Environmentally-friendly alternative to EPS Washington State University researchers have developed an environmentally-friendly, plant-based material that works better than Styrofoam (a trade mark of extruded polystyrene foam (XPS), for insulation. The foam is mostly made from nanocrystals of cellulose, the most abundant plant based material on earth. The researchers also developed an environmentally friendly and simple manufacturing process to make the foam, using water as a solvent instead of other harmful solvents. The work, led by Amir Ameli, assistant professor in the School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, and Xiao Zhang, associate professor in the Gene and Linda School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, was published last year in the journal Carbohydrate Polymers (‘Strong ultralight foams based on nanocrystalline cellulose for high-performance insulation’). While other researchers have created other cellulose-based foams, the plant-based versions haven’t performed as well as Styrofoam. They are not as strong, don’t insulate as well, and degraded at higher temperatures and in humidity.

In their work, the WSU team created a material that is made of about 75 percent cellulose nanocrystals from wood pulp. They added polyvinyl alcohol, another polymer that bonds with the nanocellulose crystals and makes the resultant foams more elastic. The material that they created contains a uniform cellular structure that means it is a good

WSU Tri-Cities post-doc researcher Peipei Wang


insulator. For the first time, the researchers report, the plant-based material surpassed the insulation capabilities of Styrofoam. It is also very lightweight and can support up to 200 times its weight without changing shape. More at Washington State University>

Inspired by Print Met een uniek initiatief presenteren drie bij FESPA Nederland aangesloten bedrijven zich tijdens Material District Rotterdam 2020. Onder het motto ‘Inspired by Print’ laten Agfa BV, lwaarden Artwork en PPP Nederland gezamenlijk zien waartoe de branche van visuele communicatie in staat is op het gebied van Digital Deco. FESPA Nederland 085 - 760 03 33

MasterTop PUre floor design PU-gietvloeren die aanmerkelijk bijdragen aan duurzaam bouwen Bezoek ons op Material District, stand C51, Ahoy Rotterdam, 17-19 maart



First double-curved textile concrete facade

As part of the CurveTex research project, the Institute of Textile Technology at RWTH Aachen University (Institut für Textiltechnik der RWTH Aachen) has realised in cooperation with industrial partners a double-curved textile-concrete facade. This new development combines the advantages of textile concrete with new three-dimensional shaping possibilities using elastically-adapted reinforcement textiles made of glass fibres. The variety of forms of concrete facades is thus supplemented by free, undulating or round structures.

According to RWTH textile reinforced concrete (TRC) elements have so far only been used as flat panels, flat sandwich structures or simply curved building structures. As part of the research project ‘CurveTex - Development of a drapable textile reinforcement for the production of double-curved textile reinforced concrete elements’, the world’s first double-curved TRC facade was realised. The project objectives were the development of a drapable textile reinforcement for a concrete matrix and the production process (concrete casting process) for


INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2020 double-curved TRC elements with continuous fibre reinforcement. Based on the expertise of Penn Textile Solutions GmbH, a new product approach for the development of a drapable reinforcement textile could be used in this project. A textile product was developed which is now used as a reinforcement structure for double-curved TRC elements. Drapable, elastically adapted textile reinforcements were manufactured and tested for drapability and material quality. The manufacturing technique of double-curved concrete elements was developed by Stanecker Betonfertigteilwerk GmbH. As a research institute, ITA has carried out material tests, evaluations and coating trials and successfully used the expertise in the field of textile concrete as a bridge between the two industrial partners. The result of the project was a demonstrator facade made of 12 filigree TRC facade elements. The facade with the dimensions 4.83 metre x 2.42 metre x 0.03 metre was constructed at Stanecker Betonfertigteilwerk GmbH.

Savings on concrete

Due to their corrosion resistance, textile reinforcements in concrete components allow a filigree construction. By replacing the steel reinforcements with textile grid structures, up to 80 percent savings in concrete and cement can be achieved, resulting in an immense reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. The geometric formability or drapability of the market-relevant standard textiles has so far been very limited due to the textile grid structure. These standard textiles could not be used for the production of double-curved textile concrete elements, as either undesired wrinkling occurred or the fibres had to be cut through. In both cases, the forces occurring under load cannot be absorbed by the reinforcement. Research within the CurveTex project has resulted in a high geometric freedom of design without wrinkling. The cooperation took place from September 2016 to August 2018 between the Institut für Textiltechnik of RWTH Aachen University, short ITA, and the two small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) Penn Textile Solutions and Stanecker Betonfertigteilwerk GmbH. October 2019, the CurveTex facade was presented at the ICONIC AWARDS 2019: Innovative Architecture, and received the ‘Best of Best’ award in the ‘Innovative Material’ category.

CurveText (PennTextile/RWTHAachen)



MAKE IT MATTER MAKE IT MATTER is compiled in collaboration with MaterialDistrict ( In this section new, and/ or interesting developments and innovative materials are highlighted.

COCOA_001 COCOA_001 is an material made with 40 % waste from industrial chocolate production and follows the concept of a circular economy by looping resources and giving so called waste further usage. All other ingredients are vegan, biodegradable and harmless to the environment. The material is part of Paula Nerlich’s research into vegan biomaterials and is currently in development. It is water-repellent, solid and has a shiny surface. COCOA_001 can be remoulded several times without material loss with low energy usage and it shows potential for 3D printing. More at MaterialDistrict>

Flax composite Studio Bart Vernooij is a design studio focussing on material research and product development, often incorporating new materials and production techniques in these products. At the moment the main focus is on the development and application of sustainable alternatives to fibreglass in composite materials. This done with the use of natural fibres, like flax, and partially biobased resins. As a proof of concept these have been successfully applied in surf and skateboards, but the range of possibilities is much wider. More at MaterialDistrict>

Karuun The structure of rattan is comparable to a bundle of tubes, long capillaries, able to transport water up to an amazing length. When the capillaries are injected with various bulking agents, rattan is transformed from a wood with limited use into a versatile, innovative material: Karuun. This material is firmer, and harder, and even has a colouration. One of the advantages of this modified rattan is its high degree of bendability. By treating it with heat and steam, boards and rods can be eas­ily shaped with very little force or energy. More at MaterialDistrict>


MAKE IT MATTER Tilbury tiles Plasma Rock Tilbury Tiles are made from plasma gasified waste from landfills near Tilbury, UK. The low carbon Tilbury Tiles are made from 100 % Tilbury waste and are created in Tilbury by a local tile company. For the manufacturing of the Tilbury Tiles, plasma rock is broken down into little pieces and powder. Each tile consists out of about 200 gram plasma rock material, made from 1 kg of landfill waste.

More at MaterialDistrict>

Moonlight Moonlight is an interior decoration material made entirely of tin. The plates are neither laminated nor galvanized but cast of pure tin. Each piece is cast by hand of a master craftsman, therefore no two tiles are alike. The thickness of the sheet can be produced from 1.6 mm to 2.0 mm and the maximum size is 340 mm X 480 mm, smaller sized items are available in decreasing increments of 1 mm. There are 6 different surface textures available like plain matte, plain bright, rock pattern, wood pattern, leather pattern, cloth pattern and antique can be produced. Moonlight is used as wall cladding. More at MaterialDistrict>

Koroyd Koroyd developed a lightweight material with the same name, original designed to be the ultimate energy absorber, but already successfully integrated into a whole range of applications including helmets, sports protection, automotive, industrial and defence sector products. According to Koroyd the material features the world’s thinnest walled tubes, resulting in a structure which is 95 % air. Koroyd’s welded tubes crumple instantly and consistently on impact, absorbing maximum force in a controlled manner, minimising energy transferred to your head for instance. More at MaterialDistrict>

Karta-pack bagasse This packaging material is made from bagasse, fibrous matter that remains after sugarcane stalks are crushed to extract their juice, creating a biodegradable material. Karta-Pack provides an environmentally friendly alternative to plastic packaging and is also available from other biobased materials, such as a cotton/bagasse mix and bamboo.

More at MaterialDistrict>



MaterialDistrict Rotterdam commits to Circular Economy With 175 exhibitors, an exhibition with 400 materials, and a lecture programme with 50 speakers, MaterialDistrict Rotterdam is once again imbued with material innovation. As the only annual event for material specifiers from all sectors of spatial design, MaterialDistrict commits fully to the Circular Economy. Mycelium products. MaterialDistrict Rotterdam 2019

How can you build circularly? Which materials contribute to a healthy living environment? Will we save or generate energy in the future using smart materials? MaterialDistrict Rotterdam (formerly Material Xperience) is an annual event in the Netherlands that brings together material manufacturers and specifiers of materials of all sectors of spatial design and gives an answer to the most important questions on the road to a circularly built and designed environment.

MaterialDistrict Innovation Fund

This year, more exhibitors than ever will show (material) innovations within the themes Circularity, Wellbeing, and Energy Transition, a direct result of the MaterialDistrict Innovation


Claything fabric. MaterialDistrict Rotterdam 2019

NEWS Fund, founded last year by MaterialDistrict. Start-ups and designers can receive subsidy from the fund for their participation with the event. An independent advisory board, of which Leonne Cuppen (Yksi Expo), David Heldt (Connecting the Dots), and Daan Bruggink (ORGA architects) are part, fulfils an important role in the scouting of start-ups and assessing the subsidy applications.

Largest material exhibition ever

The annual material expo at MaterialDistrict Rotterdam is during the upcoming event larger than ever. Where in other years about 250 materials were on display, the visitor can see, feel, and experience no less than 400 samples this edition. All selected materials fall within one or more of the three sustainable themes.

Nature at home. MaterialDistrict Rotterdam 2019

Lecture programme

MaterialDistrict Rotterdam is known for its high-profile lecture programme, which includes renowned (inter)national architects, scientists, designers and other experts. Once more, there will be two simultaneous theatre programmes this year, providing a line-up of 50 speakers who will share their knowledge and experience with the audience.


The 15th edition of MaterialDistrict Rotterdam takes place from 23 - 25 June 2020 in Rotterdam Ahoy, the Netherlands. With 7,500 expected visitors, 200 exhibitors and 9.000 m² surface area, the material event for (interior) architects and R&D professionals once again revolves around material innovation for spatial design: Architecture, Interior, Garden & Landscape, Leisure, Stage & Décor, and Furniture & Interior Construction.

Metadecor. MaterialDistrict Rotterdam 2019

For more information and a free entry ticket, visit Rotterdam. Opening hours Tuesday 23 June, 10:30-19:00 h Wednesday 24 June, 10:30-19:00 h Thursday 25 June, 10:30-19:00 h Reed. MaterialDistrict Rotterdam 2019

About MaterialDistrict MaterialDistrict is the world’s leading match-making platform in the field of innovative materials. The MaterialDistrict network encourages joint innovation towards a better, more sustainable and better-quality society. More on the MaterialDistrict website>

Studio WAE. MaterialDistrict Rotterdam 2019



Photos: Mamou-Mani & Studio Precht

Sandwaves Last February, MaterialDistrict payed attention to the so-called Sandwaves project; a collaboration between Mamou-Mani and Studio Precht. The

Sandwaves is the largest sand-printed installation to date, made of 58 3D printed elements of sand and furan resin. Made for the Diryah Season event

curated by Design Lab Experience, the 3D printed elements form a continuous ribbon for people to pass through. The installation is made of local, abundant materials: sand and furan resin, consisting of cellulose of pine-trees and corn-kernels. The printer added layers of fine sand, while a layer of resin was deposited with a roller. Once finished, the print had to be removed from the soft sand. Through the chemical reaction between the sand and the resin, it turned black. To get the original colour back, the elements had to be sandblasted with the same sand. The lattice-thickness is based on structural forces. Because sand is not a strong material, the elements are very thick, each piece weighing about 160 kg.

More at Material District>


RAW PAINTS LANCEERT RWP028 dé verfoplossing voor vochtige ondergrond. TEKST  FOTOGRAFIE RAW PAINTS

De meest voorkomende problemen met muurverf voor buiten? De hechting. Op vochtige muren hecht traditionele exterieurverf vaak niet goed, wat leidt tot afbladderen en veelvuldig onderhoud. Dat moet anders kunnen! RAW Paints heeft daarom RWP028 gelanceerd: een hoogwaardige, watergedragen mineraalverf met natuurlijke matte uitstraling.

TWEECOMPONENTEN EXTERIEURVERF VOOR VOCHTIGE MUREN De speciale exterieurverf van RAW Paints is te gebruiken op steen, stuc en beton en staat als Klasse 1 verf bekend om de uitstekende hechting op vochtige ondergrond. Zo is RWP028 bijvoorbeeld bij uitstek geschikt voor gevels met hoge vochtigheidsgraad in de steen (vanaf 10%). Alle verf van RAW Paints is in poedervorm en gemaakt op basis van minerale grondstoffen. Het bijzondere aan de RWP028 is dat je deze samenstelt door verfpoeder te mengen met het op waterbasis gemaakte PLUS. Deze speciaal door RAW Paints ontwikkelde mix van polymeren maakt hechting op vochtige ondergronden mogelijk.

WAAROM KIEZEN VOOR VOOR PRODUCTEN VAN RAW PAINTS?  Reduceren onderhoud Vanwege de uitstekende hechting zorgt schilderen met de producten van RAW Paints voor een langere periode zonder onderhoud.  Verhogen UV-bestendigheid Omdat onze verf goed afspuitbaar is – verliest het niet de UV-reflectie  Efficiënt in gebruik De verf is direct zonder voorbehandeling toepasbaar op de genoemde ondergronden steen, stuc en beton (mits schoon en algvrij)  Gezond schilderen De verf bevat géén conserverings- en oplosmiddelen en is daarmee veel gezonder voor schilders om mee te werken.  Duurzame keuze Bij de productie en het transport van RAW Paints komt geen water te pas: dit draagt bij aan de CO2-reductie.

OVER RAW PAINTS Bij RAW Paints hebben wij als doel om met onze schone verfpoeder de traditionele verfindustrie te veranderen en impact te creëren. Door nu actie te ondernemen. Er moet iets gebeuren om deze wereld beter achter te laten voor onze kinderen. En voor die van hen. Kijk voor meer informatie over RAW Paints en onze producten op

 Sustainable Development Goals RAW Paints draagt bij aan maar liefst 9 van 17 SDG's.



Building materials come alive Colorado University Boulder researchers have developed a new approach to designing more sustainable buildings with help from micro-organisms. In a study published in January in the journal Matter, engineer Wil Srubar and his colleagues describe a strategy for using bacteria to develop building materials that live and multiply, and might deliver a lower carbon footprint. According to Wil Srubar, an assistant professor in the Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering (CEAE, Colorado University) in future living building materials could be used to improve the efficiency and sustainability of building material production. Sunbar and his colleagues experimented with cyanobacteria belonging to the genus Synechococcus. Under the right


conditions, these microbes absorb carbon dioxide to help them grow and make calcium carbonate - the main ingredient in limestone and, it turns out, cement. To begin the manufacturing process, the researchers inoculate colonies of cyanobacteria into a solution of sand and gelatin. With the right tweaks, the calcium carbonate churned out by the microbes mineralize the gelatin which binds together the sand, and a brick is formed. As an added bonus, such bricks would actually remove carbon dioxide from the air. The researchers also discovered that they could make their materials reproduce. If damaged, the remaining part is capable of growing new material.

Those new bricks are resilient: According to the group’s calculations, roughly 9-14 % of the bacterial colonies in their materials were still alive after 30 days and three different generations in brick form. Bacteria added to concrete to develop self-healing materials, in contrast, tend to have survival rates of less than 1 %. Nevertheless, the team notes that there’s still a lot of work to do. Cyanobacteria, for example, need humid conditions to survive - something that’s not possible in more arid regions of the world. So he and his team are working to engineer microbes that are more resistant to drying out so they remain alive and functional.

INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2020 The work was published on 15 January in the journal Matter titled: ‘Biomineralization and Successive Regeneration of Engineered Living Building Materials.’ Other coauthors of the new study include CU Boulder’s Jeffrey Cameron, assistant professor in Biochemistry; Sherri Cook and Mija Hubler, both assistant professors in CEAE; postdoctoral researchers Juliana Artier and Jishen Qui; and graduate student Sarah Williams. More at the University Colorado> The artikel is online

Formation of the Living building materials (LBMs) Mineralized Scaffold. The physically crosslinked hydrogel together with bacterial calcite precipitation supports the LBM. With decreased humidity, the scaffold gains structural integrity (i.e., improved mechanical properties)

Strong. Endlessly. Open.

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Experimental concrete 2020: ‘Circular’ During GEVEL 2020, from 28 - 30 January in Ahoy Rotterdam, the kick-off was given for Experimental Concrete 2020. With Experimental Concrete, Betonhuis (the sector association of the cement and concrete industry) wants to start dialogue between designers and industry. A dialogue that not only consists of information about existing possibilities, but one in which designers express their ambitions. Regardless of the designers’ prior technical knowledge, their ideas are the basis to the discussion. Again, in 2020 the concrete sector is organizing an Experimental Concrete workshop and the theme for this year is ‘Circular’. A preview was shown during GEVEL 2020. Like ‘Natuurkrater’ (natural crater): a concept by Westo Beton whereby with temporary, organically shaped fillings in the formwork, free, naturally looking holes are created. Those openings can filled with water and/or soil and accommodate animals or plants. Byldis, together with DP6 Architectuurstudio, has developed various prototypes in which concrete as a building material can be a breeding ground and place of residence for animals, trees and plants. In the so-called , white concrete is broken, creating whimsical,


‘Natuurkrater’ (natural crater)


‘Barst-gebroken’ experiment (‘Crack-broken’)

Circular surcharge: white concrete, with extending black brick residual material as surcharge

but natural-looking patterns. The notches provide a porous and rough bonding surface, which ensures a more natural expression. In another experiment - ‘Porous top’ - white concrete was poured on shaving foam. This resulted in a lightweight and porous material with a pressure-resistant top. As a result, moisture can penetrate the top layer where microorganisms and mosses can settle. Roots and the porous pressure-resistant top layer fuse, creating a natural floor. With ‘Circulaire toeslag - uitstekend’ (‘Circular surcharge -

sticking out’), pressure-resistant porous and moisture-absorbing materials, such as wood, were deposited in a formwork. Microorganisms and mosses can then nestle in it. They also experimented with a polished version.

Circular surcharge: white concrete, with black brick residual surcharge

Constructief prefab (2019)

More at the Betonhuis(Dutch)>



Glass foam aggregate Last year, glass foamed concrete, applied in Natuurmonumenten’s headquarters in Zierikzee (the Netherlands), earned the 2019 Concrete Award (Betonprijs) in the ‘Groundbreaking’ category. It was the first time that glass foamed concrete was used in residential construction in the Netherlands. This kind of concrete consists for a considerable part of glass foam that gives the material special properties. Glass foam is made from melted and foamed waste glass. The material has been around since the 1930s, but due to a combination of special properties - light, high insulation value and made from a glass waste - it is in the spotlight again.

Glass foam or foam glass is a porous material made of foamed glass. It was developed in the 1930s by the French company Saint-Gobain with calcium carbonate as a foaming agent. In 1935 the material was patented. Around the same time, a similar material was being developed in Russia, and in 1939, the Mendeleev Institute of Chemical Technology in the Soviet Union produced the first experimental foam glass.


Production process

When it comes to product shapes, there are roughly three variants: glass-foam sheet material, glass-foam granulate and expanded (fine) glass granulate. In all three cases, the production processes are basically the same is about the same, whereby heat with energy-saving low temperature ovens are used to melt the glass and ultimately to foam it. The production of glass foam granulate for instance starts with crushing waste

glass and mixing it up with a foaming agent (often carbon or lime). Then, the material is transported through an oven with the aid of a conveyor belt. At a temperature of 800 to 900 °C, the powder foams to a layer of approximately 80 mm thick. Outside the oven, this layer bursts into pieces through the thermo shock of the outside air. These chunks are called glass foam granules. Depending on the properties of the foam glass, it can be used as insulation material in various


Video production proces

Thee stages of glass foam aggregate production: crushing, foaming, breaking (Photos:

alkali-resistant, non-flammable and has a high bearing capacity. Expanded glass pellets are used in lightweight masonry mortar and so-called ultra-light concrete and so-called hot concrete (see box).

Insulation material

Glass foam sheets are manufactured from a mixture of recycled and new glass (2: 1) that is melted, poured into a mold and brought to a temperature of 850 °C in an expanding oven where it is foamed. In addition, the material acquires the typical closed cell structure. The (plate) material is used as insulation material. The mechanical strength is high, and the intensity change is proportional to the apparent density. It has excellent pressure resistance and can withstand the erosion and load of the external environment more than other materials. The combination of compression resistance and moisture barrier properties makes foam glass an outstanding thermal insulation material. This kind of material is produced by Pittsburgh Corning (Owens Corning), under the logical and protected name of Foamglass. The company’s glass foam products are mainly insulation and building materials, which are made at production locations in Tessenderlo (Belgium), Klášterec (Czech Republic), Yantai (China), Sedalia (US) and Fresno (US).


Benefits Breaking

sectors of construction engineering, even as load-bearing insulation under floor slabs and as substructure of roads. This type of glass foam granulate was also used in the concrete building in Zierikzee that won the Betonprijs 2019. The glass foam material was supplied by Glasschuim Nederland BV in Helmond.

A similar material is called ‘expanded glass’ which is basically the same material, but the term is often used for smaller, round grains with a diameter between 0.04 and 16 mm. Just like the previously mentioned coarse granulate, it’s also extremely light. At the same time it’s pressure-resistant, heat-insulating,

The benefits of glass foam as a building material include the light weight, high strength and thermal and acoustic insulating properties. The internal bubbles are relatively closed, so there is no capillary phenomenon and no penetration. Furthermore the pores are filled with an insulating gas, which makes foam glass probably one of the most ideal thermal insulation materials. In the case of glass foam chunks (such as



Last year, glass foamed concrete, applied in Natuurmonumenten’s headquarters in Zierikzee (the Netherlands), earned the 2019 Concrete Award (Betonprijs) in the ‘Groundbreaking’ category (Photo: Betonvereniging)

those used as a top-up material) (rain) water can easily flush through it. Glass foam can also be compacted well for a high pressure load, for example for foundations in residential construction and road construction. Not all types of glass foam have equal properties. For instance, the performance of the material can be influenced due to the foaming agent used. As a result, the material can contain more or less air, which will affect both the thermal insulating capacity and density.

2018, foam glass granulate (due to the lighter weight) was used for the renewal of part of the B 472 (in Bavaria) to prevent further deposition of the peat soil in the ramp of a bridge.


Glass foam is used relatively frequently outside The Netherlands. Especially in road construction in Sweden and Norway, but also in Germany. In Scandinavia, this mainly happens as an alternative to EPS blocks to prevent frost damage, with the advantage that a layer of glass foam does allow water through. In Germany it is mainly the light weight of glass foam that is decisive for the infrastructure sector, especially in settlement-sensitive areas. For example, in


Glass foam concrete, structure

The first application in the Netherlands took place in the fall of 2017, when foam glass was used in Hazerswoude-Dorp (municipality of Alphen aan de Rijn) as a filler material for a road section. Becau-


Ultralight concrete, ‘Warmbeton’ In 2012, the so-called Warmbeton development project started at Technical University of Eindhoven (TU/e), Faculty of Architecture. The aim was to investigate whether it would be possible to combine three facade functions - architectural, building physics and construction - in one cement-bound material. The first step was to develop an ultra-light concrete, with the main raw material being expanded glass, which is on the market under the name Liaver (0.25 - 4 mm). The grain sizes of the Liaver grains were chosen in such a way that all sand and gravel were replaced. For example, two-third of the concrete volume consists of air that is trapped in glass beads made from recycling glass. The specific weight has therefore been reduced proportionally, from 2400 to 800 kg/m3. The lambda value is decisive for the thermal insulation capacity; 0.14 W/mK. Within a wall thickness of 50 cm, an Rc of over 3.5 m 2K W can be achieved with this. At that thickness, the facades can also be floor-bearing. The compressive strength is approximately 10 N/mm2. Innovative Materials 3 2015 More at Tectoniek (Dutch)>

with a density of 15 - 40 kg/m³ is much lighter than sand 1400 - 1600 kg/m³. However, polystyrene must be applied as a sheet material, which makes it very difficult to repair or replacement of pipework afterwards. So glass foam was chosen, which means that excavation work remains possible. With a specific mass of between 100 - 165 kg/m³, it is heavier than polystyrene, but still a lot lighter than sand. According current expectations, the subsidence rate will be seven centimetres in thirty years.


Nevertheless, little has been done with glass foam in the Netherlands so far. This has to do with the certification of the material for the Soil Quality Regulation. In the Netherlands, glass foam is usually classified as ‘non-shaped building material’. Non-shaped building materials

Video warmbeton (Dutch)

se the soil there consists of peat, roads and gardens subside to about eighty centimetres in thirty years. This causes damage and requires constant mainte-

nance. Conventionally, sand is used as a raising material, but the soil continues to settle due to the high mass. Polystyrene could be an option because that material

Video project Hazerswoude (Dutch)

Project at Hazeswoude, 2017


INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2020 are ground to very small parts for their certification and then tested on leaching. In that fine form, glass foam did not meet all Dutch requirements. In practice, however, the pieces of glass foam are larger than in the test and do not leach. Work is also being done on the certification of the building material for the Soil Quality Regulation by adding an additional binder with which the leaching remains within the standards.


In addition to being light, thermally insulating and bearing capacity, the material is also acoustically absorbent due to its surface structure. This property offers possibilities. For example, in Switzerland along roads and railways gabions are filled with glass foam as a noise barrier. The ceiling of the office of Natuurmonumenten in Zierikzee also consists of rough chunks of glass foam with an acoustic absorbing capacity. Glass foam is also non-flammable. It melts at high temperatures, but no smoke is released. This is a characteristic that is valuable in principle in every project, but in particular in building-related projects such as roof gardens and roof pavements. More at

Insulating concrete for monolithic constructions The Austrian company Technopor Glas-schaum in Krems an der Donau, which is a pioneer in the field of monolithic building with glass foamed concrete, offers a glass foam granulate under the name TECHNOpor. The brand name of construction-insulating glass foamed concrete is TECHNOlith. It is a isolating concrete that is optimized for building structures. According to the company, the material opens up the possibility of insulating and monolithic construction. The company has been involved in various projects over the past ten years, such as the EFH project in Stuttgart in 2012. It is an aesthetically striking, monolithic building on a slope west of Stuttgart. It is designed by MBA/S Matthias Bauer Associates from Stuttgart. The walls and roof are made in one piece. Article in Deutschen Bauzeitung, 2014 (German)> More at Technopor>

Glass foam aggregate. (Photo:



A TREE ABSORBS * SOME 25KG OF CO2. EACH YEAR. BUILD CO2 FRIENDLY WITH PEFC-CERTIFIED WOOD Timber continues to store CO2 throughout its entire life cycle. Timber from PEFC-certified forests is renewable as PEFC requires forest owners to preserve the forest and its biodiversity. See what PEFC can do for your sustainable plans on

*Get to know all about trees and CO2: co2trees 31 | INNOVATIVE MATERIALS

1 2020


Prototyping + MNE 2020 On February 5 and 6 Prototyping + MNE 2020 took place in Kortrijk Xpo. The event is the result of a cooperation between Prototyping Xpo and MNE. The first one is the networking trade show for designing and prototyping industrial components and products; the second one stands for Machineering Network Event. This year these two networking trade shows, both specialised in manufacturing technology, combined their concepts, strengths and knowledge for the first time. A small summary of new materials exposed. Lubrizol Estane TPU

The possibility to print in flexible material is an opportunity for designers to create a wide range of solutions for unsolved challenges. Think about a material that can simulate 2K-injection properties where the designer can tinker with wall thicknesses to reach certain shore values. Aside from that, designers can create ergonomic, breathable and damping designs like personalized bike seats, handles, inand outer shoe soles. The possibilities are endless if the design is right.


Lubrizol Estane TPU is only printable on MJF 4210 machinery. Companies involved: ZiggZagg, LubriZol, HP with MJF4210 machines

Granular 3D printed Vase (TPE)

Large-size granular 3D-printing is still new and innovative. Main developments are now taking place on the materials side: the vase is printed in TPE. Xylempor>


3D printed logo of FAM3D, Lubrizol Estane TPU

Granular 3D printed stool (ABS + modified wood fiber)

Granular 3D printed stool (ABS + modified wood fiber)

stool is printed in an innovative compound (ABS + modified wood fiber), resulting in better printing and material properties.>

Large-size granular 3D-printing is still new and innovative. Main developments are now taking place on the materials side: the

Copper slag inorganic polymer

These tiles are made of inorganic polymers made using copper slag - a byproduct of the copper industry - take advantage of the industrial processes through which it the material has already passed (smelting), in order to deliver an alternative to portland cement at a fraction of the CO2 (some research

Granular 3D printed Vase (TPE)

Tiles made of copper slag inorganic polymer


INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2020 indicate up to 77 % less CO2). This material, beyond being a sustainable alternative that utilizes byproducts, is highly performative: high fire resistance allows for use in extreme environments (i.e. furnaces) and as a precaution (i.e. tunnels); corrosion resistance allows for construction in oceanic climates as well as waste containment (perhaps ironically, given that it is a waste in itself); high strength competes with and even outperforms some of the highest quality cements, just to name a few. While being a novel sustainable material, copper slag inorganic polymers also uncover a new aesthetic that has darker tones difficult to achieve with cement, while also being able to be moulded in high-fidelity details, making a wide range of high-design uses available, from tiles, to furniture, to cladding. KU Leuven, Studio ThusThat

Biobased products

Sustainability is high on the agenda of governments and municipalities. There is an constant need for opportunities and initiatives to increase the sustainability profile. Biobased materials fit well with this, because they consist of natural materials and have a low CO2 footprint. Last year two Dutch companies, Gebr. Van Kessel and Circulus, specialized in the development of circular chains, introduced a new production technique that converts two residual flows, roadside grass fiber and recycled plastic, into a biobased material. For the time being, this biobased initiative focuses primarily on scaling up the biobased products in public spaces. Other markets, such as materials for the construction sector, seem to have an interesting potential.

Cast basalt products

Czech company Eutit produces various products made of cast basalt. Melted basalt is processed from raw material, which is, according to Eutit, unique by its material composition. From melted basalt, which features excellent properties, particularly

3D printed dough cutter


Tiles made of cast basalt

abrasion and chemical resistance, the company produces huge amount of innovative products of wide applicability. There are two kinds of products: melted basalt and a material called Eucor. Eucor features the same properties, but is resistant to higher temperatures, and is used exclusively in industrial operations as abrasion-resistant insert protecting the piping.

3D printed dough cutter

K3D improved a conventional, industrial dough cutter by 3D printing it. The original product consitsts of more than twenty parts. Due to the contact with the dough, the blade must be cleaned frequently. This is inconvenient and leads to inactivity. The new design consists of only one part, with a porous printed blade. The weight was reduced with 90 percent; the amount of components decreased with 95 percent. According to manufacturer K3D, the 3D printed dough cutter shows clearly the different advantages of 3D metal printing; Laser based Powder Bed Fusion in this case.


ADVERTENTIE Hét expertisecentrum voor materiaalkarakterisering. Integer, onafhankelijk, objectief onderzoek en advies. ISO 17025 geaccrediteerd. Wij helpen u graag verder met onderzoek en analyse van uw innovatieve materialen. Bel ons op 026 3845600 of mail



ZOAK brick: very open waste ceramic Circular bricks for a climate-proof future Together with a number of partners start-up Company TileSystems has developed the so-called ZOAK brick (Zeer Open Afval Keramiek): very open waste ceramic. ZOAK bricks ensure rainwater is retained directly where it falls and is drained to the ground. Public squares and streets will not experience any nuisance from the excess rain water as a result of extreme showers. Moreover, the ZOAK brick has a positive effect on the Urban Heat Island Effect (UHI). Experiments at the Hogeschool van Amsterdam show that the retained rainwater evaporates due to heat and the material cools down.

Together with a number of partners start-up Company TileSystems has developed the so-called ZOAK brick (Zeer Open Asfalt Keramiek): very open waste ceramic. ZOAK bricks ensure rainwater is retained directly where it falls and is drained to the ground. Public squares and streets will not experience any nuisance from the excess rain water as a result of extreme showers. Moreover, the ZOAK brick has a positive effect on the Urban Heat Island Effect (UHI). Experiments at the Hogeschool van Amster-


dam show that the retained rainwater evaporates due to heat and the material cools down. Due to climate change, the Netherlands is increasingly confronted with ex­ treme weather conditions such as heavy showers and extreme heat, causing a lot of inconvenience and damage. Water problems in particular have led to many discussions and requires a solution for both municipalities and residents. ‘Heat stress’ is also a problem ZOAK bricks

responds to. Heat stress mainly occurs in urban areas where the Urban Heat Island Effect occurs. In these areas the mortality and disease rates are higher compared to surrounding rural areas. These are topics that municipalities (should) consider.


The ZOAK slab is a sustainable product, made from ceramic (residual) waste. It’s an open structure brick, wear-resistant, colourfast and harder than concrete.

INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2020 been applied in practice. At the moment there is a pilot installation on the Water Street of TU Delft and a Field Lab in Grubbenvorst (Limburg). The Fieldlab in Grubbenvorst was laid out in consultation with the municipality of Horst aan de Maas. In addition, the first collaborations with municipalities are a fact. The first project was completed at the end of 2019 and various other projects will follow in 2020. Each project is tailor-made, due to different groundwater levels. In the meantime, partnerships have been established between industries, municipalities and educational institutions throughout The Netherlands. Rob Alards, TileSystems

Due to the open structure, ZOAK is permeable to water and acts as a sponge. Part of the rainwater is buffered in the material (sponge) and another part is delivered to the substrate. The per­ meability of the stone helps to prevent dehydration and subsidence of the soil, and stimulates the growth of plants and trees.


Various tests by the Technical Center for the Ceramic Industry (TCKI) and KIWA have shown that the system allows water to flow through optimally. In the ‘0’ measurement, which was carried out by the Hogeschool van Amsterdam on ‘fieldlab Grubbenvorst’, 2000 mm water m2/hour was allowed through. In addition, the material has been extensively tested in a polluted environment. The results of these tests will be public early this year. ZOAK is not only water-permeable, it also retains approximately six liters of water per m2. The extent to which this helps to combat heat stress is still being investigated by TU Delft in collaboration with the Hogeschool van Amsterdam and Rotterdam. The first results indicate that the retained rainwater evaporates due to heat and the clinker cools down.


The ZOAK brick has passed various tests for European standards, but has also



Photo: Opel

Efficient manufacturing through advanced modelling and control of tribological effects Within the framework of the ASPECT project (, researchers from the University of Twente, together with M2i, TriboForm and ESI Group, have developed an advanced simulation technology that takes into account the temperature-induced increase in friction when forming sheet metal. This can prevent all kinds of problems during production.

One of the most common metal forming processes is deep drawing, a sheet metal forming process in which the sheet metal is drawn in a die through the stroke of a ‘punch’. Depending on the industry sector, the speed with which metal parts are formed varies from one to hundreds per minute. At high production speeds,


the tooling heats up, triggering an increase in friction that leads to cracks in the material. Conversely, when the tools are cold, insufficient friction may lead to wrinkling. In both cases, the production must be stopped until the problem is addressed, and costly manufacturing time is lost. Finding the optimal domain

for friction within the complex range of process conditions (temperature, lubrication stroke velocity, blank holder forces etc.) has been puzzling engineers for decades. The current simulation tools available to assist engineers during production assume constant friction despite the temperature increase, also

RESEARCH neglecting other important influences. If the tool downtime can be avoided, there is a potential for producing with 15-40 % more parts in the same time. This potential has motivated several companies to join forces and foster a breakthrough, under the leadership of the Materials Innovation Institute (M2i).

The solution

The project ASPECT (www.nweurope. eu/aspect) was granted funding in 2016 from the INTERREG North-West Europe Programme, co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund. In ASPECT, researchers from Twente University, together with M2i, TriboForm and ESI Group, developed an advanced

Copyright ESI Group

simulation technology to account for temperature-induced friction increase in sheet metal forming. The model was

extensively validated through tribological experiments run at Falex Tribology in Belgium and Filzek TriboTech in Germany. Computational acceleration methods were developed by M2i and ESI Group, reducing in half the simulation time required for the new, physics-based models, thereby allowing its use in production. Two full-scale demonstrators were built: one on consumer goods at Philips in Drachten, The Netherlands and one on automotive components, at Opel in RĂźsselsheim. The Swiss company inspire AG developed the technology linking the prediction with adaptive control systems, able

to adjust the machine settings during production and keep it within the desired process window. To allow further spread of results, a public demonstrator line was developed by the German company Filzek TriboTech in Darmstadt. Here, during dedicated workshops, industrial experts are witnessing the temperature-induced friction effects during forming and discussing innovative strategies for their prediction and control. The next workshop is planned on March 26th, but similar events will continue to be organised after the end of the ASPECT project.

Bron: ESI Group


RESEARCH Direct impact for the industry: The results of the project triggered impacts across the entire supply chain of sheet-metal forming, now allowing:

• Increase of the Mean Time Between

Failures (MBTF) by 15 % or more (considering the customization trends, leading to shorter runs). Moreover, by including the temperature influences in the process control, critical tool areas and wear can be identified, allowing a reduction in maintenance costs of 25 %;

• 15-40 % increase in productivity,

and a cost reduction of costs of 1.2 Million euro/year per production line; when applied at sector-level, the benefits exceed 100 Million/ euro year for the two manufacturing sectors considered;

• Reduction of scrap by an order of

magnitude, leading to additional savings, considering the expensive steel grades used in these processes.

The project results rolled out into other benefits, such as: improved die design through use of tribological simulations, improved exploitation of the advanced materials such as Advanced High Strength Steels (at the project partner Tata Steel) and insight for design of new grades, with improved properties. The research has also led to insights for the design of the second generation lubricants, with better forming properties, developed and marketed by the German company Zeller&Gmelin.

Contact information: Iulia Degeratu,


De volledige procesketen


Knowledge and networking event

Materials+Eurofinish+Surface 2020

The Benelux central meeting place for: materials, characterization, joining techniques and surface treatments

3 and 4 June, 2020 NH Conference Centre Koningshof, Veldhoven (NL)

The reasons why your company shouldn’t miss Materials+Eurofinish+Surface 2020 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

This two-day event will give you the opportunity to present your company to 2.500 visitors. This event covers the entire production chain: from raw material to final product. This event has a strong conference program. Expand your network at the international Meet & Match. Demonstrate your innovations as live demos at your stand. Enjoy the benefits of an all-in service package.


More information:


Facade P.C. Hooftstraat 138, Š Evabloem

Challenging Glass 7 On 18 and 19 June 2020 the seventh edition the international conference ‘Challenging Glass’ will be held in Ghent, Belgium. Again, the congress promises to present a great amount of knowledge and development in the rapidly evolving domain of glass applications in construction. With participants from all over the world, more than 100 presentations of high-quality papers and inspiring keynote presentations, the conference promises once again to be a great success.

As the name suggests, Challenging Glass focuses on contemporary challenges in glass, glass products and glass constructions. These challenges are very diverse and are found in areas like sustainability, (upgrading and reusing existing glazing); structural safety, (hybrid glass-steel components); innovative products (such as ultra-thin and ultra-strong glass); energy-efficient glass products (vacuum glass); realization of increasingly complex glass projects and so on. To achieve this, Challenging Glass collects not only the international developments within the scientific glass research world, but also invites leading designers and constructors, together with innovative companies and market leaders, and this on a global scale. Nevertheless, the conference remains very accessible: in addition to a high technical level, Challenging Glass also offers a unique informal networking opportunity where a multidisciplinary mix of renowned experts together with young


professionals can forge links for collaborations towards the glass products of tomorrow. Challenging Glass is organized every two years in collaboration with a leading research group on structural glass at an internationally renowned university. This year the congress will be welcomed for the second time at Ghent University in Belgium. Previously Challenging Glass also took place at Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) in 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2018, at the Ecole Polytechnique FĂŠdĂŠrale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland in 2014 and at Ghent University (UGent) in 2016. The organizers are Jan Belis (UGent), Christian Louter (TU Dresden) and Freek Bos (TU Eindhoven). Over the years, Challenging Glass has received a number of internationally renowned keynote speakers. Also for the upcoming edition of Challenging Glass there are interesting keynote speakers on the program. Chikara Inamura, for example, United States, who has pushed the boundaries of the famous MIT in terms of, among other things, 3D glass printing. Furthermore, we welcome Professor Markus Feldmann (RWTH Aachen), who as chairman of the European standards committee TC250 SC11 is in an excellent position to present the state of affairs regarding the development of the new Eurocode for glass constructions. This standard will in future determine the design and calculation of all structural glass applications throughout Europe and in many countries outside of it. Finally, also Gerard Loozekoot and Filippo Lodi, both from the prominent Dutch architectural firm UNStudio, bring a selection of their latest architectural projects with glass. Challenging Glass also offers a rich program, built around various themes including projects & case studies, architectural

design, complex geometries, laminated glass and interlayer materials, strength and stability of glass, connections and bonding of glass, numerical modeling, experimental research, hybrid glass steel components, facade and insulating glass, curved glass, structural safety and design strategies for glass structures. The entire program therefore comprises a hundred technical presentations, written and presented by experts from more than 15 different countries. Each of these papers has gone through a strict peer review process for which Challenging Glass has installed an international scientific committee of eight leading glass experts. Challenging Glass has also set up a collaboration with the recently established Glass Structures & Engineering journal of the international publisher Springer. A number of promising papers from the congress have been pre-selected for publication in a special edition of this journal. The selected papers have gone through a double-blind review and correction process, which guarantees a high end quality. A copy of this special edition will be provided by Springer to the participants of the Challenging Glass congress. Thanks in part to the input from many international authors and keynote speakers, the science committee and sponsorship from industry partners, the Challenging Glass organization eagerly await a successful and inspiring 7th edition of Challenging Glass in Ghent. Jan Belis, Christian Louter, Freek Bos

18 Septemberplein Eindhoven, ŠUNStudio



Smart Materials, Part 7

Shape memory alloys: working principles Smart materials are everywhere, but often invisible or simply not recognized. This is the seventh article in a series of eight, in which prof. Pim Groen will discuss the world of smart materials; this time the working principles of shape memory alloys. Pim Groen is professor of SMART Materials at Aerospace Engineering (AE) at Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) and Programme Manager of Holst Centre, TNO.


INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2020 Shape memory alloys; how does they work? The best way is to illustrate that by showing it. Figure 1 shows a piece of wire made out of a shape memory alloy. When it is bent into a certain shape it will remain in that shape. When it is heated up by putting it into warm water, it will return into its original shape. Obviously it really has a memory. The second example is more complex and can be also used for actuators: a memory alloy spring. When it is heated up, it will unfold; but when it is cooled down, it will return to its original shape. This effect is also observed for polymers: the so-called shape memory polymers; and even it is observed for magnetic materials. The magnetic shape memory effect.

Figure 1

To understand the shape memory alloys, it’s important to understand the crystal structure of the material. It’s quite similar to the piezoelectric materials, where the physical properties are closely related to the crystal structure. Figure 2 (on the right) shows the high temperature crystal structure which is called the austenite structure. This is the well know called Body Centered Cubic structure which is observed in many metals. On the left the crystal structure of the alloy for low temperatures is presented. This is the so-called martensite structure which is having a monoclinic symmetry. The interesting thing about this structure is that it twins easily as you can see here. Figure 3 shows the so-called twinning effect. This process is costing almost no energy, so this deformation is easily done by applying mechanical force.

Figure 2. Related to crystal structure

The materials are based on alloys of Cu Al and Ni or Ni Ti, which is sometimes called Nitinol. The diagram of figure 5 shows how it works. At low temperature a twinned martensite structure can be observed. By applying mechanical stress, the structure will deform into a different shape but still with the martensite structure. If the material is heated up, there will be a phase transformation of the martensite crystal structure to the cubic austenite structure and the shape of the part will go back the original shape. If it’s cooled down, the shape will remain and the crystal structure will transform back to the low temperature structure of the twinned martensite. Figure 3. Related to crystal structure

Figure 5

Figure 4. Related to crystal structure


INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2020 Figure 6 shows how this happens as a function of temperature. At low temperature 100% of the volume is in the Martensite phase. If the sample is heated up, you can observe that at a temperature ‘As’ the austenite phase formation starts. (‘As’ stands for the Austenite start). At the temperature Af, Austenite final, the materials are fully transformed to the austenite form. If it now cools down, you can see the start of formation of Martensite at Ms. This in complete at M final. So there are no sharp transitions of one phase to the other, but there is a big hysteresis effect. For SMA actuators there are two working principles. The first is the single way actuation where the deformation takes place below the Martensite final temperature. (Figure 7, at the top.) If it’s heated above the Austenite final temperature it will return to its original shape and stays there also upon cooling. For the so-called two way actuation, the change in shape takes place when the part is heated above the Austenite final temperature. This has been programmed in the material by special thermomechanical treatments - the so called training of the SMA. With both principles it is possible to make actuators.

Figure 6

If an actuator is made of a trained spring, forces up to about 20 N can be obtained. Figure 7

Missed one of the preceeding articles? Click on the article for the previously published parts.

Figure 8


INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2020 Furthermore, the graph in figure 8 shows the temperature at which the deformation takes place can be tuned. This is done by varying the composition of the alloy. Finally, figure 9 shows the use of a shape memory actuator in an airplane. Here is a Triple 7 where the chevrons can be adjusted. The idea here is to have noise reduction during take-off and a better cruise performance. The SMA is combined with a heater to make this adjustment of the chevron possible.

Figure 9

Piezoelectric Materials and components A few years ago, Pim Groen, together with Jan Holterman, published ‘Piezoelectric Materials and components.’ It’s available online> An extended version (hard copy) can be ordered via the website of> Authors: Jan Holterman, Pim Groen ISBN: 978-90-819361-1-8 Hardcover, 218 fullcolor illustrations, 307 pages.



Enterprise Europe Network (EEN) supports companies with international ambitions The Enterprise Europe Network (EEN) is an initiative of the European Commission that supports entrepreneurs in seeking partners to innovate and do business abroad. The Network is active in more than 60 countries worldwide. It brings together 3,000 experts from more than 600 member organisations – all renowned for their excellence in business support.


Every company can participate by adjusting its profile to the database. This company will be brought to the attention in the country in which it wants to become active. At the same time it is possible to search for partners. EEN advisers actively assist in compiling the profile, which is drawn up in a certain format. The EEN websites also contain foreign companies that are looking for Dutch companies and organizations for commercial or technological cooperation. The EEN advisers support the search for a cooperation partner by actively deploying contacts within the network. In addition, Company Missions

and Match Making Events are regularly organized. All these services are free of charge. There are five types of profiles:

• Business Offer:

the company offers a product

Video: How Enterprise Europe Network works

• Business Request:

the company is looking for a product

• Technology Offer:

the company offers a technology

• Technology Request:

the company is looking for a technology

• Research & Development Request:

the organization seeks cooperation for research

When a company has both a Business Offer and a Business Request (or another combination), two (or even more if applicable) profiles are created. The profile includes the most essential

information about the nature of the supply or demand, the ‘type of partner’ that is intended and the expected cooperation structure. Get in touch with your local network contact point by selecting the country and city closest to where your business is based. They can help you with advice, support and opportunities for international partnerships. For sustainable building and the creative industry, contact ir. drs. Hans Kamphuis: T: +31 (0) 88 042 1124 M: 06 25 70 82 76 E: For Materials contact Nils Haarmans: T: +31 (0) 88 062 5843 M: 06 21 83 94 57 More information websites can be found at the Europe Network websites:


ENTERPRISE EUROPE NETWORK The Enterprise Europe Network Materials Database: Request for partnership: March 2020. Intrested? contact>

Raw materials for production of metals, rods and profiles

A company from North Macedonia manufacturing machine parts, tools and services is looking for suppliers of raw materials for production of metals, rods and profiles. The company is looking for partners under manufacturing agreement. BRMK20191204001

Geopolymers as alternative materials for outdoor block paving.

An Italian company with long-lasting experience in manufacturing and commercialisation of concrete products for floors and building walls, seeks partners for technical cooperation as it is interested to use geopolymers for outdoor paver and firestop blocks and RTD institutions for research cooperation through European projects. TRIT20191204001

Glass and rock wool

French insulation company is looking for glass and rock wool producers to work under a supplier agreement. In order to provide its solutions to the market, the company purchases glass and rock wool. Since these products are not always available, the SME is looking for a EU certified provider to work under supplier agreement. BRFR20191125001

Technical solutions for carbon capture and utilization.

An international group of companies with headquarters in Northern Germany is providing industrial solutions to customers in oil and gas sector in Asia and Middle East. Sought are contacts to SMEs or research partners with technical solutions to convert carbon dioxide to a useful commodity. Solutions should minimum have been tested at lab scale, closer to market is preferred. Cooperation is offered in form of technical cooperation agreements or commercial agreements with technical assistance. TRDE20191028002

Enterprise Europe Network brokerage event/ Welcome to the Materials+Eurofinish+Surface Matchmaking 2020! Get in touch with potential new partners! Meet interesting materials and surface treatment experts, bonding experts, researchers, developers, engineers, SMEs, OEMs, suppliers and intermediaries. In the B2B matchmaking sessions you have 30 minute bilateral meetings with a variety of participants of your choice that are focused on materials and coatings. The Materials+Eurofinish+Surface Matchmaking 2020 is organized by Enterprise Europe Network.


June 3 and 4 2020, Veldhoven

New knowledge & network event Materials+Eurofinish+Surface On Thursday 16 January the kick-off of the new knowledge and network event Materials + Eurofinish + Surface took place at Mikrocentrum in Veldhoven (the Netherlands). The organization, consisting of Mikrocentrum, VOM and Vereniging ION, presented the plans for the coming edition and asked the visitors to think actively for the 2021 edition. Boundless thinking, that was the overarching theme during the kick-off. Whereas the start was made in 2019 through the collaboration between Mikrocentrum and VOM with Eurofinish + Materials, Vereniging ION is now also joining the ION for the edition on 3 and 4 June 2020. In 2018, Mikrocentrum and the Belgian VOM already announced the collaboration of the merger of the Materials and Eurofinish trade fairs. The successful first edition took place on 15 and 16 May 2019 in Leuven (BE) and was visited by 1500 visitors and 130 exhibitors. This cooperation enabled the organizers to offer the manufacturing industry one central meeting place with all aspects for a good and sustainable end product; such as materials, surface techniques, joining techniques and analysis techniques. Connecting Vereniging ION within the collective with the Surface trade fair is therefore a logical step to grow as the knowledge and network event for the Benelux manufacturing industry around materials science, analysis techniques, joining techniques, product development and surface technology.


Materials + Eurofinish + Surface 2020 expects around 200 exhibitors and 60 speakers in the knowledge program. The experience is central during the entire event. According to the organisation, the combination of the exhibition floor, conference program, demo areas, innovation plazas, an international Meet & Match and material and coating doctors, makes it an unique event concept.


Pushing boundaries

Thanks to its central location at Veldhoven, situated in the heart of the high-tech manufacturing industry, the event is also able to attract Dutch, Belgian, Luxembourg and German visitors and to push boundaries. This is achieved through intensive collaboration with partners and exhibitors. From these two groups, four organizations explained why they chose to participate in Materials + Eurofinish + Surface. RenĂŠ de Groot of KVK, for example, explained why they are organizing a Meet & Match and Mark Decker (Kanigen), Serviel Smolders (Smolders SSO) and Koen Babonnick (AD Chemicals) shared their experiences during the previous edition and expectations for the coming edition. The kick-off ended with a lecture about getting more out of a trade show with online marketing by Susanne van Doornik (Mikrocentrum).

About Materials + Eurofinish + Surface

Materials + Eurofinish + Surface offers a complete overview of the latest developments within the entire chain on 3 and 4 June 2020 in the NH Koningshof in Veldhoven; from raw material to realized product. While Materials focuses strongly on the role of materials in the success of a product, Eurofinish and Surface connect professionals who are involved in surface techniques. In short: where Materials ends, Eurofinish and Surface start. This synergy means that as a visitor you will find all aspects to realize a good and sustainable end product. Companies interested in exhibiting can find more information on the website:

AGENDA 13 th International Conference on Coatings on Glass and Plastics 23 - 26 March 2020, Braunschwieg

International Symposium on Bituminous Materials 8 - 10 June 2020, Lyon

BuildingHolland 2020 24 - 26 March2020, Amsterdam

Fensterbau frontale 2020 16 - 19 June 2020, Nürnberg

Techni-mat 2020 25 - 26 March 2020, Kortrijk

Challenging Glass 18 - 19 June 2020, Gent

Lijmen België 7 April 2020, KU Leuven Campus Brugge

MTEX+ 20 June 2020, Chemniz

4TU.HTM & M2i Joint Workshop ‘Surfaces, Interfaces & Coatings’ 16 April 2020, Utrecht

9th Forum on New Materials 20 - 22 June 2020, Montecatini Terme

Hybrid 2020 28 - 29 April 2020, Karlsruhe

MaterialDistrict Rotterdam 23 - 25 June 2020, Rotterdam

CeramicExpo 2020 5 - 6 May 2020, Cleveland

17th brick and block mansonry conference 5 - 8 July 2020, Kraków

Rapid.Tech + FabCon 3.D 5 - 7 May 2020, Erfurt

DigitalConcrete 6 - 9 July 2020, Eindhoven

Eurasphalt & Eurobitume 12 - 14 May 2020, Madrid

ESEF 2020 1 - 4 September 2020, Utrecht

World Biomaterials Congress 19 - 24 May 2020, Glasgow

Architect@Work 2020 16 - 17 September 2020, Rotterdam

Plastics Recycling World Exhibition 2020 3 - 4 June 2020, Essen

Kunststoffen 2020 23 - 24 September 2020, Veldhoven

Materials+Eurofinish+Surface 2020 3 - 4 June 2020, Veldhoven

SE Conference 20 Amsterdam 30 september - 1 oktober 2020, Amsterdam


Innovative Materials, the international version of the Dutch magazine Innovatieve Materialen, is now available in English. Innovative Materials is an interactive, digital magazine about new and/or innovatively applied materials. Innovative Materials provides information on material innovations, or innovative use of materials. The idea is that the ever increasing demands lead to a constant search for better and safer products as well as material and energy savings. Enabling these innovations is crucial, not only to be competitive but also to meet the challenges of enhancing and protecting the environment, like durability, C2C and carbon footprint. By opting for smart, sustainable and innovative materials constructors, engineers and designers obtain more opportunities to distinguish themselves. As a platform Innovative Materials wants to help to achieve this by connecting supply and demand. Innovative Materials is distributed among its own subscribers/network, but also through the networks of the partners. In 2019 this includes organisations like M2i, MaterialDesign, 4TU (a cooperation between the four Technical Universities in the Netherlands), the Bond voor Materialenkennis (material sciences), SIM Flanders, FLAM3D, RVO and Material District.

Ontmoet dé top van de lijmsector Do’s and don’ts van verlijmen

• een doordacht ontwerp voor minimaal lijmgebruik • assessment van levensduur, sterk ondersteund door voorspellende modellen • lijmoplossingen voor de toekomst • gebruik van duurzame materialen voor verlijming

7 april 2020 KU Leuven Campus Brugge 13:30 - 18:30 uur

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