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TECHNOLOGY FACILITATOR’S GUIDE

Grade 8

A member of the FUTURELEARN group


Technology Facilitator’s guide

1808-E-TEC-FG01

Í2(È-E-TEC-FG01ÉÎ

Grade 8

CAPS aligned

FI le Roux JC le Roux J Lubbinge HA Saaiman J Saaiman A Schwartz


Facilitator’s Guide G08 ~ Technology

Contents

PREFACE............................................................................................................................ 7 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................. 7 TIMETABLE AND TIME MANAGEMENT............................................................................ 7 ASSESSMENT REQUIREMENTS....................................................................................... 8 STUDY TIPS........................................................................................................................ 9 SUBJECT CONTENT AND PLANNING............................................................................ 10 TERM 1: UNIT 1: Design skills........................................................................................ 11 LESSON 1: Design process.................................................................................. 15 Activity 1................................................................................................................. 17 Activity 1 MEMORANDUM..................................................................................... 17 LESSON 2: Safety................................................................................................. 17 Activity 2................................................................................................................. 17 Activity 2 MEMORANDUM..................................................................................... 17 TERM 1: UNIT 2: Structures............................................................................................. 19 LESSON 3: Frame structures................................................................................ 20 Activity 3................................................................................................................. 20 Activity 3 MEMORANDUM..................................................................................... 20 LESSON 4: Structural members in roof trusses.................................................... 21 Activity 4................................................................................................................. 21 LESSON 5: Forces................................................................................................ 22 Activity 5.1............................................................................................................. 22 Activity 5.2 MEMORANDUM.................................................................................. 22 LESSON 6: Reinforcing of structures.................................................................... 23 Activity 6.1............................................................................................................. 23 Activity 6.2 ............................................................................................................ 24 Activity 6.3............................................................................................................. 24 Activity 6.3 MEMORANDUM.................................................................................. 24 LESSON 7: Structures spanning a space.............................................................. 26 Activity 7................................................................................................................. 26 LESSON 8: Types of structures............................................................................. 27 Activity 8 ................................................................................................................ 27 Activity 8 MEMORANDUM..................................................................................... 27 LESSON 9: Structural failure................................................................................. 27 Activity 9................................................................................................................. 27 Activity 9 MEMORANDUM..................................................................................... 27 TERM 1: UNIT 3: Communication skills......................................................................... 29 LESSON 10: Graphical communication................................................................. 30 Activity 10.1 .......................................................................................................... 30 Activity 10.1 MEMORANDUM................................................................................ 35 Activity 10.2........................................................................................................... 42

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Facilitator’s Guide G08 ~ Technology

Activity 10.2 MEMORANDUM................................................................................ 44 Activity 10.3........................................................................................................... 45 Activity 10.3 MEMORANDUM................................................................................ 45 Activity 10.4 .......................................................................................................... 46 Activity 10.4 MEMORANDUM................................................................................ 51 Activity 10.5 .......................................................................................................... 53 Activity 10.5 MEMORANDUM................................................................................ 58 Activity 10.6........................................................................................................... 60 Activity 10.6 MEMORANDUM................................................................................ 63 Activity 10.7........................................................................................................... 65 Activity 10.7 MEMORANDUM................................................................................ 67 Activity 10.8 .......................................................................................................... 67 Activity 10.8 MEMORANDUM................................................................................ 69 TERM 1: UNIT 4: Mechanical systems and control....................................................... 70 LESSON 11: Simple machines.............................................................................. 71 Activity 11............................................................................................................... 71 LESSON 12: Gears............................................................................................... 72 Activity 12.1 .......................................................................................................... 72 Activity 12.2 .......................................................................................................... 74 LESSON 13: Mechanisms that change direction of movement............................. 75 Activity 13.............................................................................................................. 75 PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT TASK....................................................................... 77 TERM 2: UNIT 5: Impact of technology and processing............................................... 86 LESSON 14: The positive impact of technology.................................................... 87 Activity 14.............................................................................................................. 87 LESSON 15: The negative impact of technology................................................... 88 Activity 15.............................................................................................................. 88 LESSON 16: Reducing the negative impact of technology................................... 88 Activity 16.............................................................................................................. 88 PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT TASK....................................................................... 92 TERM 3: UNIT 6: Mechanical systems and control....................................................... 98 LESSON 17: Simple mechanisms: Levers............................................................ 99 Activity 17.............................................................................................................. 99 LESSON 18: Gears............................................................................................. 102 Activity 18............................................................................................................ 102 LESSON 19: Impact of technology: Mining......................................................... 104 Activity 19 ........................................................................................................... 104 PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT TASK..................................................................... 106

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Facilitator’s Guide G08 ~ Technology

TERM 4: UNIT 7: Electrical systems and control........................................................ 115 LESSON 20: Simple circuit components............................................................. 116 Activity 20............................................................................................................ 116 Activity 20: MEMORANDUM................................................................................ 116 LESSON 21: Correct connections....................................................................... 117 Activity 21............................................................................................................ 117 LESSON 22: Electrical components and their symbols....................................... 118 Activity 22 ........................................................................................................... 118 Activity 22 MEMORANDUM................................................................................. 119 LESSON 23: Impact of bias in technology........................................................... 119 Activity 23............................................................................................................ 119 LESSON 24: Electrochemical cells...................................................................... 120 Activity 24............................................................................................................ 120 LESSON 25: Photovoltaic cells........................................................................... 122 Activity 25............................................................................................................ 122 Activity 25 MEMORANDUM................................................................................. 122 LESSON 26: Generating electricity..................................................................... 123 Activity 26 ........................................................................................................... 123 PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT TASK..................................................................... 124 ADDENDUM A: Important terminology......................................................................... 127 ADDENDUM B: Squared paper...................................................................................... 129 ADDENDUM C: Isometric paper.................................................................................... 131 ADDENDUM D: Drawing sheet...................................................................................... 133 ADDENDUM E: Colour images...................................................................................... 135

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SUBJECT CONTENT AND PLANNING UNIT 1

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LESSON TERM 1 LESSON 1: Design process LESSON 2: Safety LESSON 3: Frame structures LESSON 4: Structural members in roof trusses LESSON 5: Forces LESSON 6: Reinforcing of structures LESSON 7: Structures spanning a space LESSON 8: Types of structures LESSON 9: Structural failure LESSON 10: Graphical communication LESSON 11: Simple machines LESSON 12: Gears LESSON 13: Mechanisms that change direction of movement PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT TASK (PAT)

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TERM 2 LESSON 14: The positive impact of technology LESSON 15: The negative impact of technology LESSON 16: Reducing the negative impact of technology PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT TASK (PAT) TERM 3 LESSON 17: Levers LESSON 18: Gears (continue) LESSON 19: Impact of technology: mining PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT TASK (PAT) TERM 4 LESSON 20: Simple circuit components LESSON 21: Correct connections LESSON 22: Electrical components and their symbols LESSON 23: Impact of bias in technology LESSON 24: Electrochemical cell LESSON 25: Photovoltaic cells LESSON 26: Generating electricity LESSON 27: Alternating current LESSON 28: Electrical circuits and control PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT TASK (PAT)

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Facilitator’s Guide G08 ~ Technology Unit

TERM 1

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UNIT 1: Design skills

Learning objectives After learners have completed this unit, they must be able to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of: Design process • Investigate • Design • Make or manufacture • Evaluate • Communication Safety The main causes of accidents: • General safety rules for practical technology work • Safety regulations regarding electricity • Gas • Safety precautions when using cutting tools • Safety precautions related to cleaning agents and medicine

Introduction

Technology is the use of knowledge, skills and resources to provide practical solutions (objects) to solve people’s problems or meet their needs. Technology contributes to human support and comfort, while taking social and environmental factors into consideration.

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Facilitator’s Guide G08 ~ Technology

IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGY Analyse To closely study or examine a problem, need or item. Annotate/Label To provide work or sketches with notes and explanatory remarks.

Artistic drawing When advanced techniques such as colour, texture, shading, shadows and perspective are used to create a drawing that resembles reality. Bias A tendency to support or oppose a particular person or thing in an unfair way by allowing personal opinions to influence your judgement. Communicate To share information with others by speaking, writing, drawing or using models or products. Constraints Aspects that limit conditions within which the work or solution must be developed, e.g., time, materials, cost. Creative Producing or using original and unusual ideas. Describe To say or write what something or someone is like. Design To make a provisional plan or drawing (a possible solution). Design brief A short statement of a problem or need. For example, a plastic container for packaging.

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Facilitator’s Guide G08 ~ Technology Unit

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Design process The activity of solving problems through ideas. STEP 1: Investigate STEP 2: Design STEP 3: Manufacture STEP 4: Evaluate STEP 5: Communicate

Design specifications

The criteria of the final solution, e.g., shape, size.

Evaluate To judge the quality or effectiveness of a product or idea. Flow chart A diagram that allows you to identify every step in the manufacturing process.

Investigate To carefully examine a problem, need or want. Isometric projection A 3-D drawing that uses lines drawn at 30°.

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Make

Facilitator’s Guide G08 ~ Technology

To produce or manufacture something.

Needs Things that a person must have for a satisfactory life. Orthographic projection A 2-D drawing used to produce a working drawing, usually showing three separate views of the same object.

Portfolio A systematic and organised collection of someone’s work. Problem A situation, person or thing that needs attention and needs to be solved or addressed. Prototype The first version of a product. Questionnaire A set of questions used to find out people’s views about something.

Survey Research carried out by questioning. Wants To desire a particular thing (which you can live a satisfactory life without).

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Facilitator’s Guide G08 ~ Technology Unit

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LESSON 1: Design process Below is an example of the steps involved in the design process. STEP 1: Investigate 1.1 1.2 Safety 1.3

Identify the problem (need/want) ...……………………………………………………………………………………………………................... Analyse EXISTING products on: Suitability of materials Investigation strategy

Fitness for purpose

Cost

Manufacturing method

Use a variety of available technologies and methods to: •

locate (library referencing systems, internet searches, indexes, magazines, shops)

collect (questionnaires, data collection forms, literature surveys)

test and compare the properties of a product

• sort and verify the information Circle or underline the method you used.

STEP 2: Design 2.1 Design brief (Short written idea including outline of the problem, who is affected, how the product will be used, reliability and the impact on the environment.) ..……...………................………………………………………………….…..…………………………….... 2.2 Design ideas (Use the design brief and freehand drawings to find several solutions. Choose the best solution.) …....…………………………………………………………………………………………………..………… ……..........……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2.3 Design specifications (More detailed than the design brief.) List of features of product/description (Details of size, shape, colour, etc.)

Materials (What will the product be made from?)

Safety

Cost

Quality standards (Does the product meet a certain standard?)

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Facilitator’s Guide G08 ~ Technology

STEP 3: Make/manufacture 3.1

Planning

Formal drawing showing • dimensions and quantities (on separate folio paper) • Resource lists: (tools/ equipment) ................................................. • ................................................. .................................................

3.2

Manufacturing process (how it is made) Formal drawings showing dimensions and quantities (on separate folio paper) Resource lists: (tools/equipment) .................................................................................... .................................................................................... Manufacturing skills (Skills needed to manufacture, e.g., measuring.) ..................................................................................... ..................................................................................... Safe working practices (Demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of safe working practices.) ..................................................................................... .....................................................................................

STEP 4: Evaluate 4.1 4.2 4.2.1 mm

Who is doing the evaluation? ............................................................................................................................................................. How are you going to evaluate? ............................................................................................................................................................. Evaluate the final product by comparing it with: • design brief • specifications

mm 4.2.2 mm

Evaluate the manufacturing process with mm regard to efficient: • work procedures • skills • time management

STEP 5: Communicate 5.1

5.2

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Prepare presentation • Existing drawings • All written information (design brief, poster, PowerPoint or slides including reasoning for design) Comments on design process • Was design/project successful/good? ……………………………………………………………….................................................… • Reasons for the above ………………………………………………………………….….............................………… • Suggestions to improve design …………………………………………………………………….............................………...…

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Facilitator’s Guide G08 ~ Technology Unit

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Activity 1 Instructions Problem statement The learners must design a means of transport made of wood to carry five learners across a river every day. They must name the FIVE steps of the design process to follow when a new product is developed to solve a problem.

Activity 1 MEMORANDUM Design process • Investigate • Design • Make/manufacture • Evaluate • Communicate

LESSON 2: Safety

Activity 2 Instructions 1. Learners must answer the questions below. 2. Ensure learners understand the importance of safety.

Activity 2 MEMORANDUM 1.

Name the THREE main causes of accidents. • Reckless or unsafe acts • Faults in mechanical systems • Faults in electrical systems

2.

List FOUR safety regulations to apply when handling a knife. • Prevent cutting tool accidents by: ○○ keeping tools in a good condition ○○ handling tools correctly • Use the correct cutting tool for the job intended. • Handle the knife with care and don’t drop it.

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Facilitator’s Guide G08 ~ Technology

• • • • • 3.

DO NOT check the sharpness of a blade with your finger. DO NOT carry cutting tools with sharp blades or edges in your pocket. Store cutting tools in a safe place after use. Carry cutting tools with the sharp edge towards the ground or pointing away from your body. DO NOT run around with cutting tools.

Connect a plug as shown below: • Provide a pre-cleaned adapter cable with 5 mm insulation to the learners. • Learners must use a screwdriver to wire the plug as indicated. • • •

L: Live Brown or red (Brown – bottom right) N: Neutral Blue or black (Blue – bottom left) Earth: Green or green and yellow or only copper wire

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*Refer to Addendum E for colour images.

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Facilitator’s Guide G08 ~ Technology Unit

TERM 1

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UNIT 2: Structures

Learning objectives After learners have completed this unit, they must be able to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of: Frame structures • Definition of frame structures • Types of frames • Purpose of structural members in roof trusses Structural members in roof trusses • Types of structural members in roof trusses • Rafter ties in trusses Forces Reinforcing of structures • Triangulation • Internal cross-bracing Structures spanning a space • Structural members of structures spanning a space Types of structures • Bridges • Arches • Cantilevers Structural failure

Introduction

Structures are part of everyday life and serve a variety of purposes. Different types of forces also act on structures, which is why certain structures need to be reinforced to withstand the forces being exerted.

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Facilitator’s Guide G08 ~ Technology

IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGY

A structural member is a specific part or component used to make a structure, e.g., columns, beams and struts. Each member performs a specific function in a structure.

Roof trusses are an example of an inside frame

Modern designes feature frame structures as part of their design

LESSON 3: Frame structures

Activity 3 Instructions Learners must identify the two types of frame structures in the pictures and indicate the type of materials that they are made of.

Activity 3 MEMORANDUM 1. 2. Š Impaq

Inner frame. Wood. Outside or visible frame. Steel or aluminium. 20


Facilitator’s Guide G08 ~ Technology Unit

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LESSON 4: Structural members in roof trusses

Activity 4 Instructions 1. Learners must build as many different roof trusses from paper or straws as possible. 2. Ensure learners have all the necessary equipment. Requirements • A4 sheet of paper or straws • glue/glue gun Steps 1. Roll a sheet of A4 paper around a pencil. Roll as many as you need to build the roof trusses. 2. Paste it on the rim so that it doesn’t roll off, or use straws as an alternative. 3. Use a glue gun to build the roof trusses quickly. 4. Build as many different roof trusses as possible. 5. Use the following examples as guidelines. You may build any other design.

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Gr 8-Technology-Facilitator's Guide  
Gr 8-Technology-Facilitator's Guide