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SOCIAL SCIENCES STUDY GUIDE: GEOGRAPHY Grade 8

A member of the FUTURELEARN group


Social Sciences Study guide: Geography

1808-E-SOS-SG02

Í2(È-E-SOS-SG02_Î

Grade 8

CAPS aligned


Study Guide G08 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

CONTENTS Introduction................................................................................................................ 3 Learning programme ................................................................................................. 4 UNIT 1: MAPS AND GLOBES .................................................................................... 5 LESSON 1: MAPS ................................................................................................... 7 ACTIVITY 1 ........................................................................................ 13 LESSON 2: TOPOGRAPHICAL MAPS................................................................. 14 ACTIVITY 2 ........................................................................................ 15 LESSON 3: LOCATION: GRID SYSTEM .............................................................. 15 ACTIVITY 3 ........................................................................................ 17 LESSON 4: LINES OF LATITUDE AND LINES OF LONGITUDE ........................ 18 ACTIVITY 4 ........................................................................................ 19 LESSON 5: CO-ORDINATES ................................................................................ 20 ACTIVITY 5 ........................................................................................ 22 LESSON 6: DIRECTION (GEOGRAPHIC DIRECTION) ....................................... 23 ACTIVITY 6 ........................................................................................ 24 LESSON 7: WAYS OF DETERMINING DIRECTION: THE SHADOW-TIP METHOD ............................................................................................ 25 ACTIVITY 7 ........................................................................................ 26 LESSON 8: WAYS OF DETERMINING DIRECTION: THE ANALOGUE WATCH METHOD ............................................................................................ 27 ACTIVITY 8 ........................................................................................ 28 LESSON 9: WAYS OF DETERMINING DIRECTION: THE STARS, CELLPHONE AND SUN ........................................................................................... 29 LESSON 10: WAYS OF DETERMINING DIRECTION: BEARING .......................... 32 ACTIVITY 9 ...................................................................................... 32 LESSON 11: HOW TO MEASURE DISTANCE ON A MAP.................................... 33 ACTIVITY 10 .................................................................................. 34 LESSON 12: DESCRIPTION AND INTERPRETATION OF PHENOMENA............ 34 EXERCISE 1 ...................................................................................... 34 UNIT 2: CLIMATE REGIONS.................................................................................... 38 LESSON 13: FACTORS INFLUENCING TEMPERATURE ..................................... 39 ACTIVITY 11 ...................................................................................... 42 LESSON 14: FACTORS INFLUENCING RAINFALL .............................................. 43 ACTIVITY 12 ...................................................................................... 44 LESSON 15: SOUTH AFRICA’S CLIMATE ............................................................ 45 ACTIVITY 13 ...................................................................................... 50 LESSON 16: SOUTH AFRICA’S CLIMATE (CONTINUED) ................................... 51 ACTIVITY 14 ...................................................................................... 55 LESSON 17: CLIMATE AND WEATHER ................................................................ 57 ACTIVITY 15 ...................................................................................... 59 LESSON 18: CLIMATE AROUND THE WORLD .................................................... 60 ACTIVITY 16 ...................................................................................... 65 EXERCISE 2 ...................................................................................... 66

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Study Guide G08 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

UNIT 3: SETTLEMENTS ........................................................................................... 68 LESSON 19: SETTLEMENTS ................................................................................. 69 ACTIVITY 17 ...................................................................................... 73 LESSON 20: FACTORS AFFECTING SETTLEMENT PATTERNS ........................ 74 ACTIVITY 18 ...................................................................................... 80 LESSON 21: CLASSIFICATION OF SETTLEMENTS ............................................ 81 ACTIVITY 19 ...................................................................................... 82 LESSON 22: URBAN SETTLEMENTS.................................................................... 83 ACTIVITY 20 ...................................................................................... 85 LESSON 23: FUNCTIONS OF URBAN SETTLEMENTS ........................................ 86 ACTIVITY 21 ...................................................................................... 89 LESSON 24: FUNCTIONAL PATTERNS WITHIN CITIES ...................................... 90 ACTIVITY 22 ...................................................................................... 91 LESSON 25: LAND USE ZONES ............................................................................ 92 ACTIVITY 23 ...................................................................................... 98 LESSON 26: INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS.............................................................. 99 ACTIVITY 24 .................................................................................... 102 LESSON 27: URBAN PROBLEMS AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS ...................... 103 ACTIVITY 25 .................................................................................... 104 LESSON 28: RURAL SETTLEMENTS .................................................................. 105 ACTIVITY 26 .................................................................................... 108 LESSON 29: FARMING TYPES AND RURAL SERVICES ................................... 109 ACTIVITY 27 .................................................................................... 112 LESSON 30: RURAL DEPOPULATION ................................................................ 113 EXERCISE 3 .................................................................................... 115 UNIT 4: TRANSPORT AND TRADE ....................................................................... 116 LESSON 31: TRANSPORT BETWEEN SETTLEMENTS ..................................... 117 ACTIVITY 28 .................................................................................... 125 LESSON 32: THE ROLE OF TRANSPORT IN PROMOTING ACCESS TO OPPORTUNITIES ............................................................................ 126 ACTIVITY 29 .................................................................................... 127 LESSON 33: TRANSPORT AND TOURISM OPPORTUNITIES ........................... 128 ACTIVITY 30 .................................................................................... 129 LESSON 34: THE INFLUENCE OF TRANSPORT ON SHAPE AND STRUCTURE OF SETTLEMENTS ......................................................................... 130 ACTIVITY 31 .................................................................................... 136 LESSON 35: TRANSPORT SYSTEMS DEVELOPED AS A RESULT OF A DEMAND FOR TRADE .................................................................... 137 ACTIVITY 32 .................................................................................... 138

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Study Guide G08 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

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UNIT 1: MAPS AND GLOBES Proposed time frame for unit 1 Week 1

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Week 5

Week 6

Lessons 1, 2 and 3

Lessons 4 and 5

Lessons 6, 7 and 8

Lessons 9 and 10

Lessons 11 and 12

Unit test

In our first unit, we deal with maps and globes, an exciting unit with a large amount of expanded, enriching content. Lesson Aims By the end of this unit you should be able to do the following: 1. Explain: How to determine direction using the shadow-tip method What GPS is How people determine direction using the stars 2. Distinguish between: - Various types of maps and their functions - Various types of map scale 3. Describe/discuss: - The advantages of topographical maps - How to determine direction using a watch 4. Define: - Geographic direction 5. List or label on a diagram: - The important lines of longitude and latitude 6. Name/identify: - Direction using the 16 compass points The symbols on maps Lines of longitude and latitude A state-of-the-art way to determine direction nowadays 7. Apply: - Your knowledge of mapwork in order to successfully use and identify items on maps Your mapwork knowledge to convert scale to actual distances on a topographical map and orthophoto map, respectively Your knowledge to determine direction on a map. Your knowledge to measure true bearing using a protractor Your knowledge of graphs to determine temperature and interpret other statistical information

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Special requirements for mapwork In the mapwork section you will learn the basic skills required to read maps. To do this you will make use of the South African 1:50 000 topographical map series and aerial photographs. For this purpose, a topographical map of Volksrust (2729BD) and an orthophoto map of Volksrust (2729 BD 13) have been included along with your study material as an addendum. To study mapwork effectively, a number of special instruments are required: o An accurate ruler is needed to measure distances. o A protractor is essential to measure bearings and angles. o A compass and divider are useful for calculating distances. o A simple calculator will help with calculations. o To get the most out of aerial photography a small magnifying glass will bring out detail that may help you to identify images and map features. Learners are allowed to use a magnifying glass in tests and examinations. o A set square is optional, but a sharp pencil and a soft eraser are vital. o An atlas covering Southern Africa in detail is essential.

Preparation of a topographical- and orthophoto map Sometimes a topographical- and orthophoto map is not prepared for the use for map work purposes. Below are some tips to prepare the different maps. •

Firstly, prepare your topographical map as follows: o Cover your topographical map with a grid (blocks) of 1’ x 1’ according to the divisions on the edge of the map (these divisions are known as MINUTES, and they are indicated by the ’ sign). Neatly and accurately, draw lines from top to bottom and from left to right across the map, in pencil. o Mark the blocks at the top and bottom from left to right 1, 2, 3 …, and the blocks on the left- and right-hand sides from top to bottom A, B, C … o The lines you have drawn on the map represent lines of latitude (horizontal) and lines of longitude (vertical). o With the aid of these lines you are able to read and give co-ordinates. (Co-ordinates will be discussed in a following lesson.) o Each degree of latitude or longitude is subdivided into 60 minutes (60’) and each minute into 60 seconds (60”). • Draw a grid on the orthophoto map (aerial photograph) as well. Start at the top left-hand side corner and cover the whole photo area with blocks of 5 cm x 5 cm. Mark the columns at the top and bottom 1, 2, 3 … and the rows on the right- and left-hand sides from the top a, b, c … Note: Use CAPITAL LETTERS on the topographical map and small letters on the orthophoto map.

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Unit

LESSON 1: Maps Maps are used to provide information about places. Different kinds of maps have different purposes. Physical maps show the natural features and roughness of the earth. • They show the features of the earth created by nature. • Sometimes they are called topographical maps. • Many cartographers use shading to indicate the different shapes. • Land elevation is also shown on physical maps. • The map legend or key tells us how to read the physical map.

Figure 1.1: Example of a physical map of South Africa

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Figure 1.2: Fish River Canyon (Source: Google Earth)

Elevation maps show the height of the land below or above sea level. A population map can indicate population density (the number of people per square kilometre in a given area).

Limpopo 4 929 368

Figure 1.3: Population map (Source: srufaculty.sru.edu)

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Figure 1.4: Population map

Figure 1.5: Product maps show agricultural and other natural resources produced in an area.

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Weather maps show the forecast for a given time period for a specific area. The map may show the expected high and low temperatures, whether it will be sunny, cloudy, rain, snow, or hail. The weather pattern over time for an area is called its climate. Scientists study weather records of temperature, precipitation, wind speed and direction. They look at the number of sunny and cloudy days to form an overall picture of the climate for an area.

Cape Town

Figure 1.6: Weather map (Source: www.tiscover.co.za)

Political maps show the boundaries of, or borders between countries. • These maps usually show the capital city of each country, state, etc. • They may also provide detailed information about cities, roads, rivers, and lakes.

Figure 1.7: Political map (Source: www.african-safari-and-travel-advisor.com)

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A historical map gives a visual picture of historical events. Historical maps could show dates cities were founded, which European countries claimed specific areas of the Africa, political boundaries at different times in history or battle sites, for instance. • Two or more maps can be used together to compare the same feature for different places. • They can also compare the same feature for the same place at different times.

Figure 1.8: Historical map of British occupations (Source: www.south-africa-tours--travel.com)

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Figure 1.9: Historical world map (Source: Print Artist Master Clips)

A road map gives an indication of the location of a place by indicating the names and situation of roads.

Figure 1.10: Road map (Source: www.sbp.org.za)

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The atlas An atlas is a collection of maps compiled in such a way that you can handle the contents with ease. • The contents are systematically arranged and provide the user with a variety of maps. • In addition to the political and physical maps found in an atlas, distribution maps are used to illustrate population distribution, occurrence of minerals, economic activities, the climate, vegetation and so on. • Each map has a specific theme and has an appropriate title or heading. • Maps in the atlas have appropriate scales, keys and symbols to help the reader to interpret the maps.

ACTIVITY 1 Select the correct word/phrase from the word bank to complete the following sentences. Word bank population map; physical map; political map; land use map; road map; climate map 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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A map of South Africa that shows how people have divided the land into provinces, is called a .................. A ......... shows features of the land, such as mountains and rivers. To see where people live in a country, you should look at a ....................... You can use a .......................... to find out what the climate is like in an area. Look at a .............................. to find out where forests and farmland are. (5 x 2) = [10]

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LESSON 2: Topographical maps The basic type of map used to represent land areas is the topographical map. • Topographical maps show the natural features of an area covered • They also show certain artificial features, known as cultural features. • Political boundaries, such as the limits of towns, countries and states are also shown.

Advantages of topographical maps • Because of the great variety of information included on them, topographical maps are most commonly used as general reference maps. For instance, most hikers use topographical maps to navigate through wilderness, planning their routes with obstacles and landmarks in mind. If they should get lost, they can find their bearings again by aligning their map and compass to a prominent feature observed nearby. • A further advantage is the large scale representation of the land area, which means that relatively small pieces of land are mapped showing quite intensive detail. This contributes to accurate measurements of distance and direction, as well as the reader being able to correlate information with observations in the field with ease. In your study material you will find a 1:50 000 topographical map of Volksrust 2729BD. The key on topographical maps indicates the following: • • • •

Map scale Information about magnetic bearing Special symbols indicating the presence of features such as railroads, schools, airstrips and water towers, etc. Generally, the green areas on a topographical map indicate forest or vegetation, blue depicts water features, and the white areas indicate areas that are barren or without any growth. Series of brown lines, known as contour lines, indicate mountains and hills. They show the elevation and relative steepness of an area. Each line represents a specific unit of elevation. Where the contour lines are very close together, the terrain is quite steep.

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ACTIVITY 2 Complete the sentence in column A by matching it with that in column B. Write only the letter of your choice next to the number, e.g. 2E. Column A

Column B

1 2

The green on a topographical map The blue on a topographical map

A B

3

The white on a topographical map

C

4

The large scale representation on a topographical map

D

depicts water features indicates areas that are bare and have no growth indicates that relatively small pieces of land are mapped indicates forest or vegetation (4 x 2) = [8]

LESSON 3: Location – grid system To successfully locate places on a map you must understand the system used by geographers to describe location. To measure the position of any place on the surface of the earth accurately geographers use a geographic grid system. The grid system or co-ordinate system pinpoints location by using two curved measurement scales or co-ordinates that specify the position of a point, line, or other geometric figure on a map. The grid system uses lines of latitude and longitude as a reference. The lines are curved because the earth’s surface is curved (Earth is spherical) and not flat. The east-west lines of the scale are called lines of latitude. The lines that run from the one pole to the other (north-south lines) are lines of longitude. (A little trick we use to remember which lines are which, is to say “LATitude is FLATitude. The lines fall FLAT on their backs.)

Lines of longitude Lines of longitude represent east-west location, and are shown on a map or globe by a series of north-south running lines that all converge at the North pole and the South pole, and are the widest apart at the equator. The east or west location indicated by the lines of longitude are east or west from the 0º longitude line passing through the Greenwich Observatory in England. (This particular line that passes through the Greenwich Observatory is known as the Prime Meridian). These lines of longitude are also called meridians (see figure 3.1).

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Figure 3.1: Meridians or lines of longitude (Source: www.plantwatch.sunsite.ualberta.ca)

Lines of latitude Lines of latitude represent north-south location, and are indicated on a map or globe by a series of east-west running lines that run parallel to the Equator, which marks the midpoint between the two poles all around the earth's circumference. These lines of latitude are also called “parallels” because they are parallel to the equator (see figure 3.2).

Figure 3.2: Parallels or lines of latitude (Source: http://www.csulb.edu/~rodrigue/geog140/lectures/geographicgrid.html)

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Gr 8-Social Sciences-Study Guide Geography 2  
Gr 8-Social Sciences-Study Guide Geography 2