IMO News - Winter Issue - 2019

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Ballast water treaty amendments enter into force

The magazine of the International Maritime Organization Winter 2019



IMO safe fishing vessel treaty gets major boost



Addressing barriers to transboundary carbon capture and storage



Women in port management


Winter 2019

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Winter 2019




IMO and shipping – tackling global challenges FROM THE MEETINGS

on Carriage of 15 Sub-Committee Cargoes and Containers (CCC)

22 London Convention/London Protocol (LC/LP)



allast water treaty B amendments enter into force


Sulphur 2020: preparing for a sea change from 1 January 2020


Global EU/IMO project drives energy efficiency in the maritime sector


Supporting gender equality, empowering women - World Maritime Day 2019




IMO safe fishing vessel treaty 17 gets major boost

20 Women in fisheries MANAGING EDITOR Lee Adamson Email: 4, Albert Embankment London SE1 7SR United Kingdom

ASSISTANT EDITOR Natasha Brown Email:

Tel: +44 (0)20 7735 7611 Fax: +44 (0)20 7587 3210


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ADVERTISING Sally McElhayer Email: Tel: +44 (0)20 7735 7611

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News and stories from around the world on IMO’s work to promote safe, secure and sustainable shipping on clean oceans

IMO News is the magazine of the International Maritime Organization and is distributed free of charge to qualified readers. The opinions expressed are not necessarily those of IMO and the inclusion of an advertisement implies no endorsement of any kind by IMO of the product or service advertised. The contents may be reproduced free of charge on condition that acknowledgement is given to IMO News.

Please allow at least ten weeks from receipt at IMO for additions to, deletions from or changes in the mailing list. Design by FLIPSIDE Copyright © IMO 2019 Printed by CPI Colour



Winter 2019


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IMO NEWS • Winter A message from 2019 IMO Secretary-General Kitack Lim


IMO and shipping – tackling global challenges T

he world today faces huge challenges, such as the tangible threats from climate change, a universal effort to steer our world into a future of sustainable development, the increasing benefits and potential risks of digitalization and the need to preserve our oceans.

Turning to our efforts to help combat climate change - in 2018, all IMO stakeholders, Member States, IGOs, NGOs and the whole maritime industry came to a mutual understanding and adopted an initial strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from shipping.

On a global level, arguably the most talked about topics are the impact of climate change and other issues affecting human health and the environment.

But we must now accelerate progress towards the implementation of the initial strategy, looking at new fuels from renewable and sustainable sources, new methods of propulsion, and new ways of maximizing the efficiency of existing propulsion methods.

The shipping industry is going through fundamental changes as it responds to these challenges. Not surprisingly, this is one of the busiest and most productive periods in IMO’s long history.

IMO Member States and all stakeholders have worked tirelessly to pave the way for a harmonized and smooth entry into force of the global sulphur limit, referred to as “IMO 2020”. We have taken a proactive approach and initiated meetings, discussions and a symposium, bringing together all stakeholders - from IMO Member States, and the shipping, oil and bunker industries - to facilitate the smooth implementation of this important, global regulatory standard.

Indeed, this mutual effort was recognized by UN SecretaryGeneral António Guterres at the Climate Summit last September when he highlighted the progress made by shipping in reducing emissions.

IMO continues to lead the way, not only in the regulatory work but also with the successful implementation of a portfolio of practical projects. Through our technical cooperation strategy and these major projects, we are working effectively in supporting developing countries to build their resources across a wide spectrum of maritime issues.

In so many areas, we are now at a crossroads. In the next biennium, IMO will need to deliver tangible and concrete action – to ensure our strategies, plans and roadmaps are achieved. I am confident that, together, we can succeed.

I would like to reiterate my sincere appreciation to all Member States as well as IGOs, NGOs and the maritime industry for their continued collaboration to achieve our goals in this critical area of IMO’s work. It is a true reflection of the spirit of IMO. I am certain that together, in particular with the cooperation of the maritime industry, we will make further progress.




Winter 2019

Ballast water treaty amendments enter into force A

mendments to an international treaty aimed at preventing the spread of potentially invasive species in ships’ ballast water entered into force on 13 October 2019.

Ships regularly take on sea water, in tanks, to ensure their stability. Known as ballast water, this can contain many aquatic species, including in microscopic or larval form. These can become invasive and harmful if the ballast water is released, unmanaged, in a new location at the end of an ocean voyage. The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments, 2004 (the BWM Convention) was adopted by IMO to address this problem.

The BWM Convention entered into force in 2017. The amendments formalise an implementation schedule to ensure ships manage their ballast water to meet a specified standard (“D-2 standard” - see above) aimed at ensuring that viable organisms are not released into new sea areas, and make mandatory the Code for Approval of Ballast Water Management Systems, which sets out how ballast water management systems used to achieve the D-2 standard have to be assessed and approved. This will help ensure that aquatic organisms and pathogens are removed or rendered harmless before the ballast water is released into a new location – and avoid the spread of invasive species as well as potentially harmful pathogens.

The amendments to the BWM Convention were adopted in April 2018. In essence, the schedule for implementation means that compliance with the D-2 standard set out in the Convention will be phased-in over time for individual ships, up to 8 September 2024. Over time, more and more ships will be compliant with the D-2 standard. In many cases, meeting the D-2 standard will be achieved through fitting ballast water management systems. There are now many such approved systems on the market, ranging from those which use physical methods such as ultraviolet light to treat the ballast water, to those using active substances (chemicals). Those that use active substances have to go through a thorough additional approval process.


Other amendments to the BWM Convention entering into force on 13 October 2019 relate to survey and certification.

The BWM Convention - D-2 standard

The D-2 standard specifies that ships can only discharge ballast water that meets the following criteria: • less than 10 viable organisms per cubic metre which are greater than or equal to 50 micrometres in minimum dimension; • less than 10 viable organisms per millilitre which are between 10 micrometres and 50 micrometres in minimum dimension; • less than 1 colony-forming unit (cfu) per 100 millilitres of Toxicogenic Vibrio cholerae; • less than 250 cfu per 100 millilitres of Escherichia coli; and • less than 100 cfu per 100 millilitres of Intestinal Enterococci.

The BWM Convention and the SDGs

Implementation of the Ballast Water Management Convention contributes to achieving a number of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), in particular, SDG 14 on life below water, which calls for sustainable use of the oceans; and SDG 15, which includes targets relating to biodiversity and curtailing the spread of invasive species.

The BWM Convention requirements

Since the Convention entered into force in September 2017, ships have been required to manage their ballast water to avoid the transfer of potentially invasive aquatic species. All ships must have a ship-specific ballast water management plan and keep a ballast water record book. Ships are also required to manage their ballast water to meet either the D-1 ballast water exchange standard or the D-2 performance standard. The amendments in force from 13 October 2019 formalise the implementation schedule for the transition from the D-1 to the D 2 standard.


Winter 2019


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Sulphur 2020: preparing for a sea change from 1 January 2020 F

rom 1 January 2020, sulphur oxide emissions from ships will be reduced considerably under a forthcoming IMO rule. This will have significant benefits for human health and the environment – but also represents a challenge for the industry.

The preparedness of all stakeholders for this significant change as well as its challenges – were highlighted during a Symposium on IMO 2020 and Alternative Fuels, held at IMO, on Thursday 17 and Friday 18 October. The symposium, which was attended by over 300 delegates, brought together a range of speakers, from Member Governments, as well as from shipping, refineries, fuel oil suppliers and legal professionals. “Collaboration among key stakeholders is essential for the smooth landing of IMO 2020,” IMO Secretary-General Kitack Lim said, opening the symposium. He highlighted the tremendous amount of work undertaken to prepare for IMO 2020 by all stakeholders, since the 2020 date was confirmed in 2016, including a series of guidance and guidelines for shipowners as well as flag and port States. From 1 January 2020, the “IMO 2020” rule means that the limit for sulphur in fuel oil used on board ships operating outside designated emission control areas will be reduced to 0.50% m/m (mass by mass) – while in designated emission control areas (ECAs) the limit will remain at 0.10%. The current limit is 3.50% so the change is significant and – for most ships – will mean a switch to new types of compliant fuel oils, so-called very low sulphur fuel oil (VLSFO), or marine gas/diesel oil. The VLSFO blends are new to the market.

attempted before and needs to be understood by all stakeholders.” A representative from the International Standardization Organization (ISO) outlined the recently-issued standard: ISO/PAS 23263:2019, which addresses quality considerations that apply to marine fuels in view of the implementation of the sulphur 2020 limit and the range of marine fuels that will be placed on the market in response.

Other speakers explained how scrubbers (which will be installed on around 4,000 ships) and – to a lesser extent – LNG, are being used to meet the sulphur 2020 limit as well as the potential to reduce other emissions from ships. Summing up, IMO’s Hiroyuki Yamada, Director of Marine Environment Division, reiterated the importance of cooperation among all stakeholders and encouraged Member Governments, shipping, refinery, fuel oil supply and relevant industries, as well as charterers, to finalize their preparations for IMO 2020. IMO will make every effort to support the consistent implementation of IMO 2020 on Sulphur limit. Day two of the symposium focused on the role of alternative fuels in the decarbonization of international shipping.

Member States speaking at the symposium, including representatives from Denmark, Japan, Marshall Islands and Singapore, said that they were ready as flag and port States to implement and enforce the sulphur 2020 limit. Stakeholder meetings were a feature in many countries, bringing together industry and government officials to ensure preparedness.

In terms of supply of the new fuel oil needed to meet the 2020 limit, representatives from IPIECA, representing the oil and gas industry, and IBIA, representing the bunker industry, confirmed that supply of the low sulphur fuel oil was expected to be readily available in most locations and is already available in some. Many ships will be looking to load complaint fuel oil well before the end of 2019. However, there was an expectation of price volatility and supply and demand would have to find a new balance which could take time – especially given that this involves many different actors, from refiners, to bunker suppliers, to ships and the shipping industry. “It is all going to be about market dynamics - but supply and demand will get in balance. It will not be easy transition, but we will get there,” said Eddy van Bouwel, Chair, marine fuels committee, IPIECA.

Speakers touched on the challenges new blends of fuel oil might bring, including potential quality issues providing challenges, in particular to the ship’s engineers, and the need for preparedness was reiterated, including crew training and reviewing clauses in charter parties. Simon Bennett, Deputy Secretary-General of the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) said that the shipowner organisation was confident that IMO 2020 will be a success. “However, the huge enormity of such a regulatory game changer has never been




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Winter 2019


Global EU/IMO project drives energy efficiency in the maritime sector


global network of maritime technology cooperation centres has completed an impressive array of pilot projects over the past three years, helping to drive forward the changes which are required to reduce GHG emissions from shipping. Five regional Maritime Technology Cooperation Centres (MTCCs) have been established under the Global Maritime Technology Cooperation Centres (GMN) Project, which is funded by the European Union and implemented by IMO.

Between them, the MTCCs count 97 participating countries and have been working with 1,179 participating vessels to deliver sets of data which can help inform and support energy efficiency improvement. Port energy audits and retrofitting of domestic vessels for better energy efficiency are just two ways in which results are already being seen. More than 160 people from 64 countries met for the third annual GMN conference, held together with the World Maritime University (WMU) at the University’s premises in Malmö, Sweden (8-10 October).

Representatives from the five MTCCs reported on their pilot projects which assess a range of measures to help cut emissions in the maritime sector. These range from data collection in accordance with IMO MARPOL requirements, to assessing the impact of local improvements in ports, to reducing emissions in port areas. As well as pilot projects, each MTCC is involved in hosting and arranging regional and national workshops and seminars, to raise awareness of IMO’s energy-efficiency measures for ships and to deliver capacity building through training.

Successful regional projects

MTCC-Caribbean has been coordinating regional efforts in two pilot projects: one to establish a maritime energy efficiency baseline and cost/ benefit analysis for different energyefficiency technologies and the other a system for collecting fuel consumption data throughout the Caribbean. “The pilot projects have definitely raised awareness in the Caribbean; evidenced, for example, by the fact that now local stakeholders are looking into developing local solutions, such as alternative fuels,” said Captain Sukhjit Singh, Deputy Director and Technical Head of MTCC-Caribbean. MTCC Asia has been developing a software tool to help ships’ crews record fuel consumption and is working on ways

of optimising the angle at which ships float in the water (“trim”), to improve their performance; and has also been collecting and reporting ship fuel oil consumption data. Fifteen demonstration ships have, to date, provided 68,517 sets of data relating to ship fuel consumption and optimum trim. Prof. Wei Ruan, Head of MTCC-Asia, told the conference that the guidelines on ship trim optimization will be circulated to more than 1000 ocean-going vessels, highlighting the positive local and regional impact of the pilot project. MTCC Latin America has organised several workshops, throughout the region, to help maritime authorities and other stakeholders fulfil their obligations under IMO’s international regulations on energy efficiency. Its pilot projects have focused on examining the barriers and constraints faced by regional ship owners and operators when implementing the IMO regulations and on collection of fuel consumption data.

MTCC Africa has also been collecting fuel consumption data and has developed standardized e-forms for data collection equipment (tablets), enabling ships’ crews to input key parameters, such as fuel type, fuel consumed, engine rating and so on, and then upload this via satellite to a webbased platform - where it can be processed and analysed. By the end of 2018, more than 1000 data sets had been collected. A demonstration pilot project on port energy audits is also being implemented. MTCC Pacific has been focusing on uptake of energy efficient ship technologies and operations (including for domestic shipping and ports) and on fuel oil consumption data collection and reporting. The positive impact of these efforts in the Solomon Islands, one of the beneficiary countries, was highlighted in an IMO GMN video earlier this year: a full energyefficiency and emissions audit in the port of Honiara, Solomon Islands has helped authorities cut emissions considerably.

Future action

The GMN project is continuing, through the MTCCs, to work with local stakeholders and push forward with raising awareness of energy efficiency in the maritime sector. The MTCCS are perfectly poised to continue to implement measures locally and regionally, in order to meet the challenges which action on climate change demands, in line with the Paris Agreement. IMO has adopted its own initial strategy on reduction of GHG emissions from

ships in which the role of the MTCCs is specifically highlighted.

“If international shipping is to achieve at least 50% reduction by 2050, what this really means is an average 85% emission reduction per ship,” said Edmund Hughes, Head, Air Pollution and Energy Efficiency, IMO. “The MTCCs are looking into technical and operational measures for energy efficiency - and this is why the MTCCs are so important; and we commend them.”

The GMN project

The GMN project is funded by the European Union and implemented by IMO.

The project was born out of a concept to develop a global network of maritime technology cooperation centres to accelerate capacity building and technology transfer in the maritime field. This idea was mooted in September 2015 during the inaugural Future-Ready Shipping Conference, a joint IMO-Singapore international conference on maritime technology transfer and capacity building.

Four years on, and thanks to a €10 million funding contribution from the European Union , the GMN project has come into fruition and five MTCCs have been established and have, to date, involved more than 2,210 participants in more than 50 maritime energy efficiency workshops, as well as delivering pilot projects. They are: MTCC Africa; MTCC Asia; MTCC Caribbean; MTCC Latin America; and MTCC Pacific. EC funding for the project has now been confirmed until September 2020.


• MTCC-Africa, hosted by Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Mombasa, Kenya • MTCC-Asia, hosted by Shanghai Maritime University, China

• MTCC-Caribbean, hosted by University of Trinidad and Tobago, Trinidad and Tobago • MTCC-Latin America, hosted by International Maritime University of Panama, Panama • MTCC-Pacific, hosted by Pacific Community, Suva, Fiji




Winter 2019

Supporting gender equality, empowering women - World Maritime Day 2019 “Experience tells us that diversity is better; it’s better for teamwork, better for leadership - and better for commercial performance. The maritime world is changing. And for the better. With help from IMO, and other organizations, exciting and rewarding career opportunities are opening up for women. And a new generation of strong and talented women are responding. They are proving that in today’s world the maritime industries are for everyone. It’s not about your gender, it’s about what you can do,”.

Mr. Lim urged all stakeholders to continue to work to break down barriers and empower women in the maritime community.


n 26 September, IMO and the global maritime community celebrated the annual World Maritime Day, under the theme “Empowering Women in the Maritime Community”.

“Gender equality has been recognized as one of the key platforms on which people can build a sustainable future. It is one of the 17 goals that underpin the UN’s Sustainable Development Agenda, which countries all over the world have pledged to implement,” said IMO Secretary-General Kitack Lim.

“Helping our Member States achieve the SDGs and deliver the 2030 Agenda is one of our key strategic directions. Gender equality and decent work for all are among those goals - SDGs 5 and 8 and, although we are highlighting the role of women in the maritime community this year, I want to stress that this is part of a continuing, long-term effort in support of these objectives,” Mr. Lim said. This year, IMO invited the entire maritime world to highlight and showcase their commitment to empowering women and to supporting SDG 5 on gender equality.

Numerous activities throughout 2019 have helped support the message that, for sustainability and success in the modern world, empowering women in the maritime community makes sense. Shipping needs diversity in the workforce. “Women in the maritime world today are strong, powerful and constantly challenging old-fashioned perceptions,” Mr. Lim said.

Colombia’s World Maritime Day Parallel Event

“Shipping must draw talent from every corner of the globe and every sector of the population to ensure its own sustainability.” This was a key message from IMO Secretary-General Kitack Lim, in his opening remarks to the 2019 IMO World Maritime Day Parallel Event in Santiago, Colombia. “Improving the participation of women in society leads to better social and economic outcomes. This is also true in the maritime community. So, it is critical that women are provided with equal access to opportunities at all levels and within all sectors of the maritime industry. Experience shows that, when they are given those opportunities, women are strong and successful – continually challenging old-fashioned and outdated perceptions and proving that, today, the maritime industries are for everyone,” Mr. Lim said.

The World Maritime theme for 2019, “Empowering women in the maritime community” was prominent throughout the high-level event. Speakers and panellists also emphasised the relevance of the United Nations agenda for sustainable development, with its associated Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).


IMO’s Women in Maritime programme will continue to support the empowerment of women in the maritime sector in years to come, through gender specific fellowships; by facilitating access to high-level technical training for women in the maritime sector in developing countries; by creating the environment in which women are identified and selected for career development opportunities in maritime administrations, ports and maritime training institutes; and by facilitating the establishment of professional women-in-maritime associations, particularly in developing countries.

World Maritime Day is an official United Nations day. Every year, it provides an opportunity to focus attention on the importance of shipping and other maritime activities and to emphasize a particular aspect of IMO’s work. Each year has its own world maritime theme, which is used to steer events and activities throughout the year. Governments, individually, jointly and regionally are encouraged to mark World Maritime Day on a date of their choosing but usually in the last week of September. A series of activities and events have been held during 2019 related to the theme, Empowering Women in the Maritime Community. Many maritime stakeholders have enthusiastically taken up the theme, which has been highlighted at seminars, conferences and panel discussions.

IMO has been directly involved in numerous events. Among other activities, an IMO film Turning the Tide, showing how IMO’s Women in Maritime programme is helping to support gender diversity in the maritime sector, premiered earlier this year. Mr. Lim highlighted the challenges ahead – including the need for action to combat climate change as presented in IMO’s initial GHG strategy - as well as the opportunities for a sector which drives global trade and development. “The global shipping sector is essential for a sustainable future. But maritime activities themselves need to be sustainable - and an important part of IMO’s role is to ensure that shipping continues to make its contribution to global trade and development in a sustainable way,” Mr. Lim said. Finally, five women with illustrious careers in the maritime field shared their stories of how they achieved success in a deeply moving and personal exchange of experiences. They were: Katy Ware, Director of Maritime Safety and Standards, United Kingdom Maritime and Coastguard Agency; Despina Panayiotou, President, WISTA International; Liliana Monsalve, Head of Claims, IOPC Funds; Angela Pinilla, Manager, ECOPETROL; and Helen Buni, focal point for the IMO Women in Maritime programme.

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New and alternative fuels – interim safety guidelines for methyl/ethyl alcohol agreed


here is increased focus on new fuels and fuel blends, which are being developed to ensure compliance with the 0.50% sulphur limit for fuel oil (from 1 January 2020) and IMO 2030 and 2050 CO2 emission targets set out in the IMO GHG strategy. Matters related to newer types of fuel are considered under the agenda item on the International Code of Safety for Ships using Gases or other Low-flashpoint Fuels (IGF Code). The IGF Code, which entered into force in 2017, aims to minimize the risk to ships, their crews and the environment, given the nature of the fuels involved. It has initially focused on liquefied natural gas (LNG), but work is now underway to consider other relevant fuel types. The Sub-Committee:

• finalised draft interim guidelines for the safety of ships using methyl/ethyl alcohol as fuel, for submission to the Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) for approval;

• made progress in developing draft interim guidelines for the safety of ships using fuel cell power installations; • agreed to develop amendments to the IGF Code to include safety provisions for ships using low-flashpoint oil fuels and established a correspondence group to continue this work;. • approved, in principle, draft amendments to the IGF Code, relating to specific requirements for ships using natural gas as fuel. The Sub-Committee further agreed to develop interim guidelines on safety provisions for ships using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as fuel. • completed draft guidelines for the acceptance of alternative metallic materials for cryogenic service in ships carrying liquefied gases in bulk and ships using gases or other low-flashpoint fuels, for submission to the MSC for approval.

IMO Model Course on Safe Handling and Transport of Solid Bulk Cargoes validated


he safety of ships carrying bulk cargoes depends on proper implementation of IMO rules - and training is crucial. A new IMO Model Course on Safe Handling and Transport of Solid Bulk Cargoes was validated by the Sub-Committee.

The course will focus on the mandatory measures for handling and transport of solid bulk cargoes outlined in the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes (IMSBC) Code, which is the industry rulebook on how to deal with such cargoes. IMO model courses are designed to facilitate access to knowledge and skills.

The course will cover all solid bulk cargoes, including those which may liquefy when moisture limits are reached and cause instability of the ship. These cargoes require that particular attention is paid to testing and recording moisture limits before loading.

Development of next set of draft amendments to IMSBC Code


rogress was made in developing the next set of draft amendments to the IMSBC Code, which will be further considered by the Editorial and Technical (E&T) Group in spring 2020. This set of amendments (06-21) will include updates to individual schedules and proposed new individual schedules, among others. The Sub-Committee discussed the need for a distinction between liquefaction and dynamic separation for Group A cargoes, noting that dynamic separation only applied to bauxite. The issue was referred to the E&T Group for further discussion ahead of the next session, CCC 7.

In June 2019, MSC 101 adopted a consolidated edition of the IMSBC Code, incorporating all amendments adopted to date, since the code was first adopted in 2008, as well as amendment 05-19.

9-13 SEPTEMBER 2019

Inspection programme for containers


he Sub-Committee made progress in revising and updating the guidance on inspection programmes for cargo transport units (CTUs), including expanding the current guidelines for inspections related to transport of dangerous goods at sea, to include all types of cargoes carried in CTUs. The Sub-Committee encouraged Member States to undertake CTU inspections and report their findings to the Organization. A correspondence group was instructed to further develop the draft amendments to the inspection programmes; review the draft guidelines to ensure they are upto-date; and consider contamination and pest control matters with regard to CTU inspections taking into account the IMO/ ILO/UNECE Code of Practice for Packing of Cargo Transport Units (CTU Code).

Next set of draft amendments to the IMDG Code agreed


he Sub-Committee agreed the next set of draft amendments (40-20) to the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code, which will be submitted to MSC 102 for adoption, following finalization by the Editorial and Technical (E&T) Group. The draft amendments relate to: segregation requirements for alcoholates; segregation in relation to liquid organic substances; classification and transport of carbon, following incidents involving the spontaneous ignition of charcoal; classification of UN portable tanks for multimodal transport; and provisions for labels. The Sub Committee also established a correspondence group to review maritime special provisions in chapter 3.3 of the IMDG Code, in order to identify those permitting exemptions from the full application of the Code; and to recommend a way forward. The review is intended to address issues related to non-declaration and misdeclaration of dangerous goods.





Winter 2019

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Winter 2019


IMO safe fishing vessel treaty gets major boost A

global regime to create much-needed safety standards for fishing vessels has moved a significant step closer following an IMO-led international Ministerial Conference in Torremolinos, Spain.

During the conference (21-23 October), nearly 50 States signed the Torremolinos Declaration, publicly indicating their determination to ensure the 2012 Cape Town Agreement on fishing vessel safety will enter into force by the tenth anniversary of its adoption (11 October 2022).

The Cape Town Agreement includes mandatory safety measures for fishing vessels of 24m in length and over. It covers key parameters such as stability and associated seaworthiness, machinery and electrical installations, life-saving appliances, communications equipment, fire protection and fishing vessel construction. Although adopted in 2012, it will only enter into force after at least 22 States, with an aggregate 3,600 fishing vessels of 24m in length and over operating on the high seas, have expressed their consent to be bound by it. When it does, it will improve the safety of life at sea for hundreds of thousands of fishers worldwide, who currently do not benefit from a global mandatory regime for fishing vessel safety. It is also seen as key tool in combating illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) fishing. Speaking at the close of the Conference, which adopted the “Torremolinos Statement on the Cape Town Agreement of 2012, relating to fishing vessel safety, and combating illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing”, IMO Secretary-General Kitack Lim noted that IMO had once again returned to Torremolinos to finish the endeavours started more than 40 years ago, when the first global treaty to address safety of fishing vessels was adopted in Torremolinos in 1977 (it did not enter into force). “In 2019, with this conference, we now have a broader consensus on the urgent need for the Cape Town Agreement to enter into force, as a significant contribution to the long-term sustainability of the fishing industry,” Mr. Lim said.

“This work must now continue, in a pro-active and cooperative manner, to bring the agreement into force as soon as possible, so that fishers around the world can enjoy the safety and welfare benefits,” Mr. Lim said.

The first international treaty on fishing vessel safety was adopted by IMO in Torremolinos in 1977, with a follow-up Protocol adopted in 1993. But their failure to enter into force has meant that fishers are not yet protected by a global, mandatory treaty – unlike cargo and passenger ships which are covered by international treaties for safety of life at sea and environmental protection, that have wide acceptance and have been in force for many decades.

IMO Secretary-General Lim ended the Conference with a key message for States. “You are the leaders who can now push this cause forward, in collaboration with relevant national bodies, other States and international organizations, to bring this process to a successful conclusion. That is, to bring into force the final piece of the international regulatory framework for fishing, the Cape Town Agreement,” Mr. Lim said. “There is no time to lose. If the fishing sector remains insufficiently regulated, fishing-related activities will continue to cause more fatalities; pollute our oceans; place SAR services at risk; and harm developing States affected by illegal fishing activities,” Mr. Lim said.

The Cape Town Agreement

The Cape Town Agreement treaty will enter into force 12 months after at least 22 States, with an aggregate 3,600 fishing vessels of 24m in length and over operating on the high seas have expressed their consent to be bound by it. With two accessions made during the Conference, by Cook Islands and Sao Tome and Principe, 13 countries have now ratified the Cape Town Agreement: Belgium, Congo, Cook Islands, Denmark, France, Germany, Iceland, Netherlands, Norway, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Sao Tome and Principe, South Africa and Spain.

Torremolinos Declaration

As well as taking action to ensure entry into force, States signing the Torremolinos Declaration pledged to promote the agreement, recognizing that the ultimate effectiveness of the instrument depends upon the widespread support of States, in their capacities as flag States, port States and coastal States. They also denounced the proliferation of IUU fishing, recognizing that international safety standards for fishing vessels will provide port States with a mandatory instrument to carry out safety inspections of fishing vessels, thereby increasing control and transparency of fishing activities. Forty-eight countries have so far signed the declaration: Argentina, Bangladesh, Belgium, Belize, Central African Republic, Chile, China, Congo (Republic of), Cook Islands, Costa Rica,

The Cape Town Agreement, adopted in 2012, builds on the earlier treaties and will provide the global regime needed for safety of fishing vessels, alongside the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Fishing Vessel Personnel, 1995 (1995 STCW-F Convention), which is already in force.

No time to lose

Ministers and organizations alike highlighted the importance of the Cape Town Agreement for safety, for combating IUU fishing, and for the sustainable development of an industry which feeds millions of people.

More than 30 ministers attended the Torremolinos conference, pledging to bring the Cape Town Agreement into force as soon as possible.




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Croatia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Ecuador, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Guinea (Republic of), Guinea Bissau, Iceland, Indonesia, Ireland, Kiribati, Lebanon, Liberia, Marshall Islands, Mozambique, Namibia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Republic of Korea, Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Spain, Togo, Uganda, United Kingdom, Vanuatu. The Declaration is open for further signatures until 21 October 2020.

Conference resolutions and Torremolinos Statement

The Conference adopted two resolutions. Conference resolution 1 adopted the Torremolinos Statement on the Cape Town Agreement of 2012 and combating illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing. The Statement highlights the importance of the Cape Town Agreement and the work on combating IUU fishing. It calls on States to ratify the Cape Town Agreement; urges States to take action to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing; encourage States to ratify and promote the STCW-F Convention on training fishing vessel personnel; calls upon FAO, ILO and IMO to continue to work together in the fishing sector; and requests IMO to continue to provide technical assistance to States that request it in order to accede to, and implement, the Cape Town Agreement. The second resolution expresses appreciation to Spain for hosting the conference.

Addressing the challenges for safe and legal fishing

A series of panel discussions during the conference provided an opportunity for expert speakers to discuss and share best practice in a number of key areas, including environmental protection;


stopping IUU fishing; reducing risk and protecting search and rescue services; responsible fishing schemes; working conditions; and marine debris from fishing vessels. Along with the Cape Town Agreement and the STCW-F Convention, two other key treaties address fishing vessels and contribute to the fight against IUU fishing. They are: ILO’s Work in Fishing Convention 2007 (Convention No. 188), which entered into force on 16 November 2017 and sets minimum requirements for work on board including hours of rest, food, minimum age and repatriation; and FAO’s Agreement on Port State Measures to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing (PSMA), 2009, which entered into force in 2016 and seeks to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing through the adoption and implementation of effective port State measures.

Torremolinos Conference

The Conference, hosted by IMO and the Government of Spain, brought together more than 30 Ministers, from maritime and fishing Administrations, and one Prime Minister, who addressed the Conference, among a total 500 delegates from nearly 150 delegations, including some 120 States.

The Torremolinos Conference was held with the kind support of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and The Pew Charitable Trusts.

The opening session of the Conference was addressed by the UN Special Envoy for the Oceans, Peter Thomson, and by Ministers from Spain, as well as by FAO and UNCTAD. The President of the Ministerial Segment was Spain’s Secretary-General of Transport, Ms. María José Rallo del Olmo.




Winter 2019

Women in fisheries


side event, reflecting IMO’s 2019 World Maritime theme, highlighted the role of women in fisheries and the need for greater visibility and recognition. Women play a significant role in the fishing supply chain, processing, smoking, and ensuring fish reaches markets and tables. Yet their contribution is often overlooked. “Women play key roles in fisheries around the world. To ignore those roles is to see only half the picture,” said IMO’s Juvenal Shiundu. “Available data does not capture the multidimensional nature of the work undertaken by women in fisheries and few policies are developed with women in mind,” Mr. Shiundu said. Speakers at the event highlighted good examples of work being done to support women in fisheries, including organization into networks and associations to give them a stronger voice as well as training. The Hon Emma Metieh Glassco, Director General, of Liberia’s National Fisheries and Aquaculture Authority, highlighted practical steps to increase the visibility of women in fisheries, including organizing fishmongers’ associations and practical training on salting of fish and using improved smoking ovens (a project supported by Iceland).

Ms. Cherie Morris, representative of the Women in Fisheries Network, Fiji, said the network was working to give women in fisheries a voice at community level. The network has also secured funding to collect data. The importance of, and the need for, data was echoed by several speakers, including Dr. Cleopatra Doumbia-Henry, President of the World Maritime University (WMU). “We need to produce data and research on fishing - on fishers and the role that they play and, from there, look at how we can lift them from poverty,” Dr. Doumbia-Henry said. Current estimates suggest that about 40 million people are engaged in fishing, with only 15% being women.

Further research and data collection are necessary to set a benchmark or baseline of the current situation. But women play an important role in small-scale fisheries in developing countries, often making up the majority of the people involved. Speakers also emphasized the need to combat illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing. This has to include a bottom-up approach, including and involving women in the shore-side part of the fisheries supply chain. Further work is needed, to build partnerships, to achieve greater inter-agency collaboration between IMO, FAO and ILO, to improve visibility and recognition of women in the fisheries sector and to support the organization of women in fisheries into networks. The event was organized by IMO and the Government of Spain and sponsored by The Ministry of Transport of the People’s Republic of China.



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Winter 2019

7-11 OCTOBER 2019

Addressing barriers to transboundary carbon capture and storage


ransboundary export of carbon dioxide (CO2) for the purpose of carbon capture and storage (or “sequestration”) can now be provisionally allowed under certain circumstances, Parties to the London Protocol have agreed. The London Protocol provides the basis in international environmental law for Governments to allow carbon capture and storage (CCS) under the seabed - which is recognized as one tool in climate change mitigation, while ensuring protection of the marine environment.

CCS is a climate change mitigation technique. In simple terms, CO2 emissions are captured at source and then injected in carefully selected sub-seabed rock formations, typically a few kilometres below the sea floor. Depleted oil and gas fields, for example, can provide permanent storage for CO2 waste. The technique may be appropriate for large single point CO2 emission sources such as power stations, chemical and cement plants and steelworks. London Protocol Parties, meeting in London for their annual meeting with Parties to the London Convention (7-11 October), adopted a resolution to allow provisional application of an amendment to article 6 of the Protocol to allow sub-seabed geological formations for sequestration projects to be shared across national boundaries.

The London Protocol has, since 2006, provided a basis in international environmental law to allow CO2 storage beneath the seabed when it is safe to do so, and to regulate the injection of CO2 waste streams into sub-seabed geological formations for permanent isolation. The 2009 amendment adopted by Parties to the London Protocol allows for sub-seabed geological formations for sequestration projects to be shared across national boundaries – effectively allowing CO2 streams to be exported for CCS purposes (provided that the protection standards of all other London Protocol requirements have been met). However, the 2009 amendment has yet to enter into force. The resolution to allow provisional application of the 2009 amendment as an interim solution, pending sufficient acceptance by Contracting Parties, enables countries that wish to do so, to


implement the provisions of the amendment in advance of entry into force. To do this, the Parties concerned will need to deposit a declaration of provisional application and provide notification of any agreements or arrangements with the Secretary-General of the International Maritime Organization (IMO). “The adoption of the resolution will remove a barrier for countries that wish to make use of carbon capture and storage - but which do not have ready access to offshore storage sites within their national boundaries,” said Fredrik Haag, Head, Office for the London Convention and Protocol and Ocean Affairs, IMO. “An important point to note is that reduction of CO2 emissions at source should be the primary focus, and provisional application of the amendment should not be seen as a substitute for other measures to reduce CO2 emissions. Carbon sequestration can be considered as one of a portfolio of options to reduce levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and can be an important interim solution in the fight against climate change.” The London Protocol provides a framework for Parties to effectively prevent pollution of the sea by dumping or incineration at sea of wastes and other matter, and by activities including carbon capture and storage in sub-seabed geological formations and marine geoengineering activities, such as ocean fertilization. The London Protocol takes a precautionary approach and prohibits all dumping of wastes at sea, except for those on a list of wastes that may be considered. However, any wastes on the list must be assessed and given a permit before being dumped at sea. The London Protocol was adopted in 1996, to modernize and eventually replace its forerunner, the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, 1972 (London Convention). The London Protocol is one of the key pillars of marine environment protection together with the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and Regional Seas Conventions. The objectives of the LP include protecting and preserving the marine environment from all sources of pollution.


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H C B 35 M o n t h ly


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Women in port management


hat do successful, well-run ports and female empowerment have in common? Both can make a significant contribution to sustainable economic development.

IMO has provided support to eight female officials from developing countries, with an emphasis on Pacific Small Island Developing States, attending a Port Senior Management Programme held at the Galilee International Management Institute (GIMI) in Nahalal, Israel, (6-19 November). The two-week course provided participants* with key information and updates on innovations in the port industry. Subjects covered include global trends and advances in port development, management and operations; port security and efficiency in container terminals;

and international law concerning ports and ships. Organized visits to the Israeli Maritime Training Authority in Akko and the Port of Haifa, as well as practical simulator exercises, enabled participants to experience for themselves the day-to-day operations of a port, with a view to applying this knowledge back in their respective countries. The event was delivered through IMO’s gender and capacity-building programme, in collaboration with GIMI. It comes as part of IMO’s continuous efforts to support the UN Sustainable Development Goal 5 to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. * Participants from: Cabo Verde, Fiji, Kiribati, Mongolia, Papua New Guinea, Seychelles and Solomon Islands

IMO helps train future leaders in maritime policy


n effective maritime transport system is an important foundation for sustainable development. But it needs proper planning and a solid policy foundation. So, as part of its efforts to help deliver the global Sustainable Development Goals, IMO encourages and assists its Member States to devise national maritime transport policies.

A seminar on maritime transport policy, delivered by IMO and the faculty of the World Maritime University is now an integral part of the curriculum at IMO’s Malta-based International Maritime Law Institute (IMLI) – and the fourth in the series has been completed (13-15 November). The seminar highlights the importance of a national maritime transport policy to guide planning, decision making and legislation in the maritime sector. In particular, the importance of maritime transport policy in relation to developing maritime legislation and the close relationship between policy and legislation is emphasised. At the end of the seminar the students participate in a practical group exercise, during which they formulate the key aspects of a maritime transport policy for an imaginary state.

By teaching students from developing countries how to formulate their national maritime transport policies, IMO contributes to several of the SDGs. The seminar is the result of continuing collaboration between IMO and its two global maritime training institutions – the World Maritime University and IMLI – which help to train the future leaders of the maritime world.


Winter 2019

Strengthening regional cooperation to enhance maritime security


tates in the western Indian Ocean and the Gulf of Aden area have adopted a plan of action to ensure better coordination of regional efforts to enhance maritime security. During a high-level regional meeting in Mombasa, Kenya (13-14 November), signatory States to the revised Code of Conduct concerning the repression of piracy, armed robbery against ships and illicit maritime activity in the western Indian Ocean and the Gulf of Aden Area* agreed to establish a governance framework to champion implementation of the code. A steering committee will be established along with working groups on information sharing and coordination. This should help ensure better coordination of capacity building through concerted efforts to leverage synergies, avoid duplication of effort and achieve better collaboration with donors and implementing partners, to promote improved programmes to deal with the wide range of maritime security threats in the region. The Working Group on Information Sharing will spearhead work on the development of an information sharing network, including a plan to establish multi-agency national maritime information sharing centres. There will also be support for the development of regional maritime information sharing centres.

The Working Group on Coordination of Effort will be responsible for championing coordination of capacity building efforts, including work to enhance maritime domain awareness and coordination of training activities. The Mombasa meeting was jointly organized by IMO and the Republic of Kenya with a financial contribution from the United Kingdom.

*Known as the Jeddah Amendment to the Djibouti Code of Conduct 2017

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Winter 2019

Towards a national maritime transport policy for Madagascar

Empowering women in search and rescue operations


raining for African women working in search and rescue (SAR) operations has taken place at the Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre in Rabat, Morocco (13-15 November). Thirteen officials* from developing countries and Small Island Developing States took part in the first regional training course of this kind.

The course included a practical exercise on a rescue boat and provided a platform to discuss how to improve and enhance the knowledge of African women working in

SAR and to provide them with appropriate tools to manage SAR missions. IMO, together with the International Maritime Rescue Federation (IMRF) and the Government of Morocco, supported the course, the latest in a series of events this year which fully support the World Maritime theme “Empowering Women in the Maritime Community”.

*Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, Republic of the Congo, Senegal, Seychelles and South Africa.


adagascar is the latest country to benefit from IMO’s work promoting good maritime governance to support sustainable development. A workshop starting the process to develop a National Maritime Transport Policy (NMTP) for the country took place in the capital, Antananarivo (13-15 November).

Forty participants from across government departments took part and decided to complete a draft policy in early 2020. All relevant government entities and stakeholders would be involved in the process, with the goal being to contribute to the country’s sustainable socio-economic development and achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. The workshop was organized by IMO and the Agence Portuaire, Maritime et Fluviale, with support from the World Maritime University (WMU).

IMO launches online tool to smooth reporting formalities

S Tackling invasive aquatic species in Jordan


iofouling is the build-up of aquatic organisms on a ship’s underwater hull and structures. It can be responsible for introducing potentially invasive non-native aquatic species to new environments and can also slow a ship down and impact negatively on its energy efficiency.

A two-day workshop was held in Aqaba, Jordan (11 to 12 November) to raise awareness of the problem and the impact it is having along the Jordanian coastline. The workshop was co-organized and hosted by the Jordan Maritime Commission, under the GEF-UNDP-IMO GloFouling Partnerships Project, which aims to establish regional partnerships and cooperation agreements to address marine biofouling issues. Participants discussed a wide range of topics including biofouling as a pathway for non-indigenous species, and approaches


to how biofouling should be controlled and managed to minimize the transfer of invasive aquatic species through ships’ hulls. Among the participants were representatives of various maritime sectors, including marinas, ports and civil society organizations, including the Arab Women In Maritime Association (AWIMA).

Participants agreed on the establishment of a National Task Force as well as the creation of a communication platform for all its members, which will be key in defining a national policy on biofouling and invasive species. They agreed to draft a national strategy and action plan to implement the IMO Biofouling Guidelines. The next step for the GloFouling Partnerships in Jordan will be to develop national baseline reports to assess the current situation regarding non-indigenous species and biofouling management practices.

treamlining the many administrative procedures necessary when ships enter or leave port is an important element of IMO’s work. And now, an important tool used by software developers to create systems for exchanging the relevant data electronically has been made available by the Organization – online and free of charge. The IMO Compendium is a reference manual containing data sets and the structure and relationships between them, that will enable the IMO Member States to fulfil a mandatory obligation (in place since April 2019) for the reporting formalities for ships, cargo and people on board international shipping to be carried out electronically and in a harmonised way. Overall, this helps make cross-border trade simpler and the logistics chain more efficient, for the more than 10 billion tons of goods which are traded by sea annually across the globe. IMO is not the only organization dealing with electronic data exchange in maritime transport. But others, notably the World Customs Organization, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe and the International Standards Organization, have aligned their own data structures with the IMO Compendium to promote harmonization.



Winter 2019


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