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10 » INTERVIEW: Lt Col Guy Moverley, DIT DSO 14 » ECM FOR EOD: The future of jamming 20 » POINT AND SHOOT: Countering drones

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CONTENTS 05 FOREWORD

Andy Oppenheimer assesses terrorist fake suicide belts.

06

06 VIABLE AND UNSTABLE Publisher

Tahmiena Naji Editor-in-Chief

Andy Oppenheimer reviews the threat from dissident Irish IEDs.

Andy Oppenheimer AIExpE MIABTI Deputy Editors

Dr. Salma Abbasi, David Oliver US Correspondent

Frank G. Rando Design and Production Manager

Mariel Tabora Foulds Xplosive is published by React Media Publishing,

50 Summit Way, Southgate, London N14 7NP, UK. Telephone: + 44 (0)7411559550 E-mail: tina@chembio.biz Printed by The Manson Group, 8 Porters Wood, Valley Road Industrial Estate, St Albans AL3 6PZ Tel: 01727 848440

www.cbnw.co.uk ISSN 2059-7894. © React Media Publishing 2020. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be used, reproduced, stored in an information retrieval system or transmitted in any manner whatsoever without the express written permission of React Media. This publication has been prepared wholly upon information supplied by the contributors and while the publishers trust that its contents will be of interest to readers, its accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The publishers are unable to accept, and hereby expressly disclaim any liability for the consequences of any inaccuracies, errors or omissions in such information whether occurring during the processing of such information for publication or otherwise. No representations, whether within the meaning of the Misrepresentation Act 1967 or otherwise, warranties or endorsements of any information contained herein are given or intended and full verification of all information appearing in the publication of the articles contained herein does not necessarily imply that any opinions therein are necessarily those of the publishers.

ON THE

David Oliver meets Lt Col Guy Moverley of DIT DSO. 14 WE’RE JAMMIN’

Kier Head presents the future of ECM for EOD. 20 POINT AND SHOOT

24

David Oliver outlines man-portable counterUAS systems. 24 ROGUE TRANSMISSIONS

Hugo Bibby describes real-time radio-spectrum monitoring. 28 HOMEMADE AND DEADLY

Dr Sebastian Wiegmann rolls out a new HME training course.

28

34 THE ROBOT WITH X-RAY EYES

COVER X-ray source mounted on robot chassis; IEDs inspected with dual-energy module. ©Vcsecurity

10 INTERVIEW: DO THE BUSINESS

Vcsecurity explains EOD robot and X-ray integration.

34

38 PROMOTIONAL FEATURE: DANGER UXB

Les Hayward presents UXO services by MAL EOD. 42 HUNTING THE BOMB-MAKERS

Andy Oppenheimer describes the vital role of bomb forensics. 46 INTO THE FRAY

Frank G. Rando sets out integrated MTA response.

54 SMART FUSION

Peter Lashbrook joins the sensor dots. 58 CASE STUDY: IT’S A RAID

James Tomlinson relates a CT operation using the FLIR Fido X2. 60 ADVERTORIAL:

Eurosatory 2020. 62 BOOK REVIEW:

50 THE GRAND DESIGN

Don Williams lays out blast design principles.

David Oliver reviews Practical Military Ordnance Identification (Second Edition).

XPLOSIVE

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EVENTS & INDEX 2020 EVENTS

ADVERTISERS INDEX

22 – 23 April Sicc Series Conference Rome www.mastercbrn.com

ADS Inc ................................................. 23

5 – 7 May

Avon Protection ...................................... 13

NCT USA Washington DC www.nct-events.com 8 – 12 June Eurosatory Paris www.eurosatory.com 30 June – 2 July International Explosives Conference London www.iec-2020.com 8–10 September

CBNW Magazine .................................... 53 Felix Fund – The Bomb Disposal Charity ..... 31 Flir Inc ................................................. IBC Hotzone Solutions Group ............................ 9 Institute of Explosive Engineers ................. 33 Mal Eod ................................................IFC NBC-sys ................................................ 49

Counter Terror Expo London www.ctexpo.co.uk

USBTA (United States Bomb Technicians Association) ........................ 17

22 – 24 September

VisiConsult X-ray Systems & Solutions GmbH ................................. OBC

NCT Europe Rome Italy www.nct-events.com 12 – 13 October NCT Middle East Abu Dhabi www.nct-events.com 6 – 7 November 7th Annual EOD/IED & Countermine Symposium Alexandria, VA www.countermine.dsigroup.org 11 – 13 November

BOOK PROMOTION Fields of Orion by Andy Oppenheimer ......... 27

EVENT ADS Counter Terror Expo ................................ 37 Eurosatory .................................... 60 & 61 NCT Explosive Asia .................................. 19

NCT Asia Seoul www.nct-events.com

NCT Explosive Europe .............................. 41

2 – 3 December

Joint Civil DOD CBRN .............................. 57

International Security Expo London www.internationalsecurityexpo.com

4

Apstec Systems...................................... 45

XPLOSIVE

MARCH 2020

SICC Series Conference ........................... 57


FOREWORD

MTAs AND EFPs In a growing number of marauding terrorist attacks, the wearing of fake suicide belts by perpetrators is an alarming development. In both attacks on London Bridge, on 3 June 2017 and 29 November 2019, attackers armed with knives also had “hoax explosive devices” strapped to their bodies. In the latest incident, on 2 February in south London, an apparent explosive strapped to the suspect's body was determined to be a "hoax device." In the 2017 atrocity, there were six to eight packages fixed to the chest with wires and cords. “He continued to move so I’ve taken a third shot aimed at his head,” a police witness said, adding that the terrorist was still trying to tug or get hold of the cord. In the 2019 incident, the Met Police released photos of leather belts attached to disposable water bottles wrapped in silver masking tape. In January, an assault on prison guards by two inmates wearing fake suicide belts in a maximum-security facility in Whitemoor, UK was designated a terrorist attack, when inmates attacked an officer "wearing belts with various items crudely attached." In an attempt at maximising fear and complicating the response, this terrorist tactic can give the attackers greater opportunity to create more mayhem and kill more people. It will certainly guarantee that they will be shot successively until they are dead – as they can still detonate the belt while laying injured or as they fall. In the June 2017 attacks an officer at the scene said there was “absolutely no doubt at all” in his mind that the devices were viable. Police believed the terrorists planned to create a “siege situation.” Met Police Commander Dean Haydon said: “It makes the bravery of those police officers and members of the public who tackled the terrorists even more remarkable. The belt would have been visible to them and if you are fighting back or aiming a shot at someone wearing the device you would clearly be very aware that you could be caught in an explosion.” The targeted killing by the US on 3 January of the head of In this edition, Iran’s Revolutionary Guard Quds Force, Maj. Gen. Qasem Kier Head presents the Soleimani, highlighted the extent to which one nationfuture of ECM for EOD; state high official, in this case an élite corps commander, Hugo Bibby describes real-time could instigate the deployment of thousands of IEDs. radio-spectrum monitoring; MAL EOD presents their company’s UXO; His speciality was armour-piercing explosively David Oliver rolls out counter-drone formed penetrators/projectiles (EFPs) from 2005 systems and interviews Lt Col Guy and 2011 during the Iraqi insurgency. The Quds Moverley of DIT DSO; Dr Sebastian Force provided EFP training, bomb-making Wiegmann introduces new HME training; components and logistics to militants in Iraq. Andy Oppenheimer reassesses Irish EFPs killed hundreds of American and British soldiers republican IEDs and examines bomb forensics, and as ever, we at and caused a high number of amputations. As many Xplosive extend our thanks to as 1,000 deaths were directly linked to Iranian support all of you who risk your lives through training, materials or employment of the devices. to help keep us safe. They also set off a catch-up cycle of countermeasures to protect vehicles from the weapons versus new EFP designs. This reached a height in 2010 when Iraqi insurgents brought in the Black Cat – a new passive infrared trigger, with the motion detector to be triggered not by heat but instead by radio frequencies. With the cost to construct devices an estimated $30 as against the countermeasures running into millions of dollars, the EFP was a costly ‘cat-and-mouse’ contest of facing up to a level of deadly technological ingenuity that was underestimated at the time. ●

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TERRORISM

©Wikipedia

ANDY

OPPENHEIMER RE-ASSESSES THE IED CAPABILITIES OF

IRISH

REPUBLICAN

DISSIDENT TERRORIST GROUPS

VIABLE

AND UNSTABLE While the main attention of UK government,

The Provisional IRA’s Mark 15 mortar (Barrack Buster) could carry upt to 100 kg of explosives and be deployed as multiple tubes. Its most notorious hits were the downing of a Lynx and Puma helicopters in 1994. The New IRA are said to be advancing their mortar effort.

police, security forces and intelligence agencies is focused on the multi-armed jihadist terrorist menace and other problematic elements on the far Right and far Left, sundry bomb attempts and attacks by Irish republican spin-off groups in Northern Ireland continue to cause concern

On 10 September 2019 a command-wire-initiated, improvised mortar was found in a parked vehicle in Creggan, Londonderry. It was aimed at killing or injuring a police patrol. The mortar was positioned close to a family home, aimed at the town's police station. As with similar incidents, several households were evacuated. The IED was found during a police search for New IRA bomb-making equipment.

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©PSNI

©PSNI

B

etween January and September 2019 at least eight attacks targeted Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) officers, compared to one in 2018. The PSNI is concerned by a resurgence in attempted bomb The device emplacements and renewed planted in Creggan, Derry in efforts by the main groups to September 2019 conduct attacks. Their locations targeted a PSNI – Belfast, Craigavon and patrol. Fermanagh – showed a spread of deployable capability. Many incidents involve ‘viable’ devices and many are unstable. Callouts requiring the legendary 11 EOD & S Regiment RLC squads


TERRORISM

(321 EOD & Search Squadron) averaged four times a week on average in 2018, which included response to hoaxes and false alarms. The threat level is set at Severe in Northern Ireland for ‘NI-related terrorism’ and Moderate for the rest of the UK. The threat from dissident Irish republican groups, which originally broke off from the main Provisional IRA in the RIRA graffiti 1990s, is highly variable. on the While the violence has so Bogside, Derry, far been confined to August 2009. Northern Ireland, a hit on the mainland is a perennial aim. In April 1998 the Real IRA board the ferry would have caused a attempted to drive a massive VBIED mass-casualty event. on board a car ferry in Dublin, which was intercepted by the Gardaí in Dun Laoghaire. The IED’s main charge Types of IEDs was found to be viable but highly The groups possess high-calibre unstable. Premature detonation on weapons as well as a variety of

2019 20 January Londonderry: VBIED (vehicle-borne IED) exploded inside a car left outside the courthouse in Londonderry. Pizza delivery van hijacked by New IRA. PSNI spotted vehicle; began to evacuate area 21 January Londonderry: a second VBIED (vehicle-borne IED) was left outside the courthouse on Bishop Street. British Army EOD team found the IED contained 50 kg of fertiliser HME (home-made explosives) and was unstable, but viable. PSNI said it was capable of creating a mass-casualty incident. Derry courthouse had been similarly targeted in March 2011 5 March Five A4-sized white postal bags containing IEDs which ignited on opening were sent to Heathrow and London City Airports, Waterloo station and Glasgow University. New IRA claimed responsibility 2 June East Belfast: PSNI officer found a viable booby-trapped VBIED on the underside of his vehicle after he drove the car to a golf club 26 July Craigavon, Co. Armagh: An initial claim that a horizontal mortar had been fired at a passing police patrol but had “missed its target leaving a warhead in the vicinity” was found not have been fired, but was a come-on to lure officers towards a booby-trapped IED contained in a hollowed-out concrete block left close to a metal tube 19 August Wattle Bridge, Co. Fermanagh: An initial explosion near the border was followed by a second device exploding next day during EOD response. Linked to the Continuity IRA; almost identical to the Craigavon IED 7 September Strabane, Co.Tyrone: a mortar found by a resident on a wall near houses near a police station

©Ardfern/Wikipedia

explosives. While thankfully nowhere near the extent, number, sophistication or variety of bombings inflicted by PIRA, or anything like the equivalent heartland support – the dissident groups have inherited some of PIRA’s extensive IED skills. They have launched targeted assassinations using VBIEDs and have been developing expertise in mortars (PIRA developed a series that went up to at least Mark 16). Regular seizures of weapons and explosives are an indicator of continued activity. Gardaí discovered a mortar tube, explosives and a “substantial” quantity of ammunition during border searches in February 2019. Many incidents in 2019 have involved small bombs, with pipe bombs being prevalent. A typical recent incident among many occurred when a pipe bomb partially exploded in the front garden of a house in west Belfast on 4 January. Small amounts of Semtex purloined from the PIRA are still in the hands of at least one of the IRA offshoot groups although the quantity and quality is not known. Old 1980s

Irish police discovered explosives, firearms and ammunition during searches near the border with Northern Ireland on 28 February 2019.

©An Garda Síochána

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TERRORISM

New IRA was formed in 2012. As of early 2020 it was the largest faction and presents the most viable IED threat. In 2018, the New IRA accounted for the deployment of 17 IEDs in the province

©PSNI

Continuity IRA IRA emerged in 1986. With its main power base in north Armagh, it is also active in Fermanagh Real IRA was one of the original spin-offs and have been held responsible for the worst terrorist atrocity in Northern Ireland: the Omagh bombing on 15 August 1998, which killed 29. As with many PIRA attacks, Semtex was used as a booster for the 140 kg AN (ammonium nitrate) VBIED. They have been largely supplanted by the New IRA.

The device planted in Craigavon, Co. Armagh on 26 July was a ‘come-on’ to lure officers towards a secondary "deadly booby-trap device."

stock (from Libya) Semtex may have exceeded its 35-year use-by date. Semtex was used to kill PSNI Officer Ronan Kerr in a tilt-switch UVBTIED in Omagh in April 2011.

©An Garda Síochána

Alphabet soup What former Sinn Féin President Gerry Adams once called an ‘alphabet soup’ of groups could also be called the ‘fission products’ of the Provisional IRA – spin-off gangsterish outfits carrying on the ‘armed struggle against British rule’ and which vary in capabilities and Mailing of a parcel bomb to life span. And, like subatomic Heathrow Airport particles, they often morph into, on 5 March 2019 or merge with, other entities. was claimed by

Gardaí discovered a mortar and a substantial quantity of ammunition during border searches on 1 February 2019.

©Metropolitan Police

the New IRA.

NOTABLE IED

ATTACKS

January 2010: PSNI recruit Peadar Heffron was seriously injured in by a VBIED outside his home in Randalstown, Co Antrim April 2010: a taxi containing a 100 kg IED detonated outside MI5 HQ at Palace Barracks, Hollywood, Co Down April 2011: PSNI Constable Ronan Kerr was killed by a VBIED March 2016: Prison Officer Adrian Ismay in Belfast was killed by a partially detonated under-vehicle IED Some simply rename themselves. Even attempted attacks are seen as a way to increase recruitment, especially of young members who have never lived through the socalled ‘Troubles.’ A few hundred core

8

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members of all groups may include old PIRA bomb-makers, some having been released from jail under the terms of the 1998 Good Friday Agreement. There is leadership overlap between the groups. Exploiting political instability Compared to pre-Brexit years, the dissident republican attacks are receiving more media coverage due to the Irish border issue – which has been a prime sticking point in the UK’s attempts to reach agreement with the EU. The republican terror groups could exploit any future border instability as it has done during the absence of an executive since January 2017. In September 2019 former PSNI

Chief Constable, Sir Hugh Orde, said that officer numbers were at a “dangerous” level in the face of increased attacks and the service hopes to recruit 600 officers in 2020. MI5 still allocates 22% of its resources to countering terrorism in Northern Ireland. British Army EOD specialists and the SAS Special Reconnaissance Squadron act in support of MI5 and the PSNI, who between them foiled at least nine terrorist attacks from 2017 to 2019. The dissident Irish republican threat may wax and wane, and the groups are rejected by the great majority in a province scarred by generations of conflict. But with political volatility, legacy issues and difficulties in sharing intelligence with the Republic post-Brexit – like all terrorists, the fission products of the Provisional IRA will continue to exploit vulnerabilities. ✺ Editor-in-Chief of CBNW and Xplosive Andy Oppenheimer AIExpE MIABTI is author of IRA: The Bombs and the Bullets – A History of Deadly Ingenuity (2008) and Fields of Orion: An Odyssey (2019).


INTERVIEW

Lt Col Guy Moverley is a Military Adviser on Counter-Explosive Ordnance with the UK Department for International Trade Defence & Security Organisation (DIT DSO). DIT DSO is responsible for helping UK defence and security industries export their products, maintaining relationships with overseas governments to promote British defence and security products, working with Ministry of Defence and industry to ensure PLOSIVE defence and security EPUTY DITOR products have export potential, and providAVID LIVER ing UK defence and MEETS T OL security companies with specialist support UY OVERLEY to sell their goods

D D

X

G

OF

Crown Copyright

E O L C

M DIT DSO

Xplosive: What is your background? GM: I graduated as an Ammunition Technical Officer (ATO) in 1994 and was posted to the Directorate of Land Service Ammunition as the manager of land service guided weapons. I deployed as a High Threat Improvised Explosive (IED) Device Disposal Operator to Northern Ireland and as an Ammunition Storage Troop Commander in Croatia. On the staff, I have served in Ministry of Defence (MOD) responsible for specialist EOD and CBRN capability development and Defence Intelligence, as a senior IED analyst. I commanded the Weapons Intelligence Specialist Company in Afghanistan responsible for the exploitation of captured enemy materiel. In 2014, I was assigned to the Joint Improvised-Threat Defeat Organization in the USA as the

DO

Lt Col Guy Moverley DSO.

THE BUSINESS

10 XPLOSIVE

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INTERVIEW

UK’s Counter-IED and Weapons Technical Intelligence Exchange Officer, working closely with a variety of United States government departments. In 2017, I deployed to Iraq as the Director of Counter-IED in the multinational Combined Joint Task Force Headquarters responsible for the force protection of contributing nations and development of Iraqi Counter-IED capability in Iraq and Syria. Xplosive: What is your role within the DIT DSO? GM: To support UK defence and security export campaigns by industry plus establishing targets and export potential. I also have to make sure that the companies understand what restrictions and regulations apply to export defence and security goods and services. A British C-IED instructor with the Combined Joint Task Force shows Iraqi Border Guard Police how to handle explosives.

I identify potential customers by liaising with overseas defence attachés in London and UK defence attaches overseas. I am responsible for developing potential customer requirements via British Embassies, and by making introductions between UK companies and overseas users. Xplosive: Does your role involve visiting countries overseas? GM: I travel abroad to meet military specialists, and to assess their equipment and advise them how it could be improved or replaced with UK products or services. I have recently visited Uruguay and several countries in Africa – including Algeria and the Republic of South Africa – and advised Nigeria, Egypt, Rwanda and Somalia. I also engage with international demining organisations including the United Nations Mine Action Service

(UNMAS) and NGOs such as the HALO Trust. Xplosive: How do you illustrate UK industry capabilities to potential export customers? GM: I arrange for demonstrations of UK equipment and products via the UK Export Support Team (EST), which comprises serving military personnel with a wide range of expertise. The EST is staffed by regular officers and soldiers, from the British Army. It includes members of the Royal Artillery, the Royal Armoured Corps, the Royal Engineers and the Infantry, who collectively possess a wealth of knowledge and experience both in training and on operations. The purpose is to provide specialist military services and advice to legitimate UK defence and security companies in order to help them

©DoD

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INTERVIEW A HALO Trust deminer in Afghanistan, where Col Moverley commanded the Weapons Intelligence Specialist Company.

succeed in the export market. The services can provide support at defence and security exhibitions at home and abroad. We give impartial military advice and assist with promotional material by participating in photographic and video shoots. I help to plan, execute and support demonstrations and presentations, and host visits of foreign delegations – plus providing after-sales training and support, which can include assistance in producing training packages. Xplosive: Where do the demonstrations take place? GM: The EST is co-located with regular British Army units where it can arrange access to training grounds – including an all weather cross country driving area, and

Col Moverley has visited Somalia and engaged with international demining organisations, including the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS).

ranges for gunnery and live firing purposes. Along with other areas and ranges throughout the UK, these can be used for product evaluations and demonstrations. Potential customers can be invited to demonstrations and training of UK-produced EOD equipment and services at Larkhill Garrison in the South-West of England, where the Royal School of Artillery (RSA) delivers centralised Initial Trade Training (ITT) and Subsequent

©UNMAS

international delegates can tour. DIT DSO can also use other locations such as the MOD Defence Explosive Ordnance Disposal, Munitions and Search Training Regiment (DEMS Trg Regt) in Bicester, which has excellent facilities where ‘live’ demonstrations can be conducted. International visit coordination is conducted by the DIT DSO Country Desk Officer, Military Adviser and Export Support Team Staff. ✺ The UK Equipment Capability Showcase at Larkhill.

Crown Copyright

12 XPLOSIVE

Trade Training (STT) to the Royal Artillery (RA). DIT DSO-sponsored UK industry demonstrations can take place in a variety of locations depending on the requirement. Resources and accessibility are the key considerations. For CBRNE, I would choose to use the EST Exhibition Hall at Larkhill, Wilts which includes a UK Equipment Capability Showcase that

©HALO Trust

MARCH 2020


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ECM

WE’RE

JAMMIN’ KIER HEAD PRESENTS THE FUTURE OF

ECM FOR EOD

The explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) operator is highly likely to be the first to see advances in enemy tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs). Therefore, their electronic counter-measures (ECM) being ‘ahead of the game’ is crucial to survivability

A man-portable counter-unmanned aircraft system (UAS) deployed.

©Kirintec Ltd

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ECM

©Kirintec Ltd

ECM is installed covertly as possible in a civilian vehicle.

Kirintec’s Sky Net counterunmanned aircraft system (UAS).

©Kirintec Ltd

©Kirintec Ltd

A counter-UAS system’s antenna is deployed at a static site in the Middle East.

I

have covered a little of the UK history of ECM, or ‘jammers,’ from an EOD perspective before. For the past 45 years, ECM has always been a quickly evolving area. Now, when all technology continues to rapidly advance, it is a ‘given’ that the requirements placed upon ECM and its subsequent capabilities will increase and expand at the same rate. When ECM was a standalone capability, the following were important considerations:

Decide what needs to be protected. Do you need to protect a VVIP going about their normal daily routine, is it an event involving multiple people, a moving convoy, a military foot patrol – or the most important, a bomb technician?

Understand the threat. Insurgents tend to use TTPs that other individuals or groups have found effective but there is always someone out there ‘pushing out the envelope’. RCIEDs tend to be mass produced and linked to certain groups which can help understand the threat in a certain area. Other groups may prefer the use of drones as flying/crashing RCIEDs or just as a method of dropping individual IEDs onto an area. These incidents require the control and video links to be jammed, plus whatever IED trigger/release signal may be. All this information will indicate the main threats faced, allowing a modern jammer to be specified with the right signal sources, amplifiers, antennas and fill profile.

Define the deployment options. Is the jammer to be static or moving at speed? Is the operating area urban, mountainous, jungle or open terrain? Are there power, weight, range or installation restrictions? Does the jammer need to be covert? Is it essential to maintain communications while under active cover? The answers to these questions may change elements of the hardware and software. Dynamic response and future proofing. If the insurgent is particularly active with his ‘Research and Development’, his ability to switch from one type of RCIED to another must be considered. If the jammer is likely

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ECM

to be used for numerous different purposes and in different regions, having a modular system would have been ideal as modules can be swapped out to match signal sources, amplifiers and antennas, thereby covering the new threats. You could argue that without a modular system, you are a bit screwed… If your hardware is modular, then covering a new threat until recently would mean receiving a new ‘fill’ from the manufacturer, encrypted and then distributed across the internet within perhaps eight hours or less. This was common but it could be argued this is no longer enough. Cyber and ElectroMagnetic Activities (CEMA)

THE SYNCHRONISATION AND COORDINATION OF CYBER AND ELECTROMAGNETIC ACTIVITIES, DELIVERING OPERATIONAL ADVANTAGE THEREBY ENABLING FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT, AND EFFECTS, WHILST SIMULTANEOUSLY, DENYING AND DEGRADING ADVERSARIES’ USE OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC ENVIRONMENT AND CYBERSPACE. UK VERSION OF CEMA AS DEFINED BY THE MOD, 2019 JOINT DOCTRINE NOTE 1/18 CYBER AND ELECTROMAGNETIC ACTIVITIES

…TO UNDERSTAND, MANAGE AND CONTROL THE ELECTROMAGNETIC ENVIRONMENT IS A VITAL ROLE IN WARFARE AT ALL LEVELS OF INTENSITY. THE OUTCOME OF FUTURE OPERATIONS WILL BE DECIDED BY THE PROTAGONIST WHO DOES THIS TO DECISIVE ADVANTAGE. CHIEF OF THE DEFENCE STAFF, AIR CHIEF MARSHAL SIR STUART PEACH

ECM fitted to a Ford Raptor in the Middle East.

The CEMA concept. ©Kirintec Ltd

A vehicle-fit jammer is installed and about to be programmed for the area of operations.

©Kirintec Ltd

©Kirintec Ltd

ECM at dusk.

©Kirintec Ltd

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So what? This means that all activity in the RF spectrum needs to be coordinated at the equipment development stages – and not in the more normal experience of first noticing when active ECM interferes with something else, on operations. The Doctrine Note is available to all on the internet and states: “… Technology will remain an essential element of future conflict and a driver of military change over the next 20 years. Maintaining a technological advantage across key capability areas has, for many years, enabled us to succeed with relatively small, professional Armed Forces. “But these key capability areas were never integrated, leading to ‘stove-piped’ capability/force development where interoperability was coincidental rather than planned. However, with the convergence of computing and telecommunications and the pace of technology, the


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ECM

military is now trying to re-balance its understanding of the environments to encompass electromagnetic, cyber and information aspects.” New ECM will have to fit into this CEMA ‘umbrella,’ so it must be a multi-role, agile and scalable platform supporting operations involving all these new aspects. It needs to have an architecture which can be configured for simultaneously operating force protection, C-IED operations, communications, electronic warfare and cyber missions, probably all simultaneously. The system will have to respond to new CEMA-based threats faster than conventional approaches as this will reduce the burden on the end-user, logistic and procurement chains. What will it look like? Probably a lot like ECM does now, a green or tan aluminium box with power cables going in and antenna cables coming out! However, it will contain state-of-the-art components (processors, FPGA, transceivers and power-amplifiers), system hardware collocated by function, and crucially user-friendly network-centric software. These can be used to create flexible, scalable systems to suit missions of varying size, weight and power constraints, from tactical personal-countermeasure units, through to vehicle-based platforms and up to strategic, fixed installations. If it has an in-built multi-layered communication

network and the modular build ability to support any user requirement, this system will help defence and security agencies to synchronise CEMA operations. This means integrated functions and capabilities that maximise complementary effects in and through cyberspace and the electromagnetic spectrum. This new approach will bring together effective and networked detect, collect, protect, spoof, decoy and deny CEMA capabilities in a variety of modular solutions. Most current ECM systems cover 20 MHz to 6 GHz, but few offer CEMA capabilities such as networked asset tracking and remote fill changing/ diagnostics/zeroise and dynamic resource sharing. The best systems will also continue to evolve, over the next year or so to incorporate ultra-low (down to 100 kHz) and ultra-high band (up to 18 GHz) capability and crucially will be able to use or egress the collected RF emissions for intelligence purposes. ©Kirintec Ltd/L Fitz-Gerald Finch

A drone takes off towards its target.

©Kirintec Ltd

A counterUAS system with omni-directional antenna works equally well against one target or a swarm.

Fast-moving tech. To summarise what is required in the future, for ECM to be part of this CEMA vision, the following is required: • Future proof, with dynamic networked resource sharing, instantly re-configurable to address emerging threats and technology, without the need to upgrade hardware. Agile software-driven platform • using open standard software. • Multi-role, multi-function system that can be used to conduct any RF related activity. Can detect threat signals • anywhere in the electromagnetic environment (EME) – 100 kHz to 18 GHz, possibly higher. Can identify threats and select • relevant countermeasures using machine learning and a qualified assurance model. Can deliver a selected • countermeasure at the right frequency, power and time to deny the threat system to the adversary. Be • deployable and available in all operational environments. Deliver secure remote access to • systems. Integration in the future • Integrate with other CEMA and ISR systems to enable analysis and exploitation of the EME. Interoperability at both tactical • and strategic levels via open standards, a shared architecture and defined interfaces. Use common hardware and • software architecture for the dismounted, mounted and static roles to enable the Commander to optimise the SWAP burden against threat coverage. Interoperate with national and • international partners when considering the use, control or denial of the EME. ✺

Lt Col (Retd) Kier Head is Kirintec Ltd’s Director of EOD Ops. He was a Royal Logistic Corps Ammunition Technical Officer (ATO) in the British Army, deployed to operational theatres as an EOD operator and electronic countermeasures (ECM) user, including in Northern Ireland and Afghanistan. He has spoken on the subject of ‘Bridging the Gap in Operator Blast Protection’ and ‘Advances in IEDD Operator training within NATO’ at CT Expo, ‘The Technical Aspects of Maritime Citadel Compromise by the Use of Explosives’ at SAMI and ‘Training for an IED Environment’ at ITEC in the past. He has also written numerous articles in the wider Counter-Explosive Ordnance (C-EO) area of interest, including several articles for Xplosive.

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COUNTER-UAS

ŠRussian MoD

A Russian soldier is pictured using the REX-1 C-UAS system developed by the ZALA Aero Group during Exercise Vostok 2018.

POINT AND

SHOOT DAVID

OLIVER AIMS MAN-PORTABLE COUNTER-UAS SYSTEMS AT DRONES

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The use of hostile small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) by terrorist organisations in the Middle East, coupled with rapidly expanding drone industries outside of NATO, have raised serious questions about whether the armed forces and security agencies are adequately trained, organised and equipped to successfully defend against rogue sUAS armed with explosives or chemicals at home or abroad

W

hen military aircraft first flew over enemy lines during World War I, the only air defence weapons available to the troops under attack were their rifles. In the 21st century, hand-held rifle-like devices are being used against the increasing threats posed by UAS. The proliferation of sUAS has been stunningly swift – prompting governments and industry to urgently seek to develop effective defence systems against these unmanned threats. Man-portable hand-held systems used to detect and neutralise small unmanned

aerial systems are becoming a growing sector in the market. Invisible Interdiction Invisible Interdiction is a Melbourne, Florida-based company that designs and manufactures the lowest-power C-UAS radio frequency (RF) defeat systems on the market. It markets both hand-held and modular systems that are integratable into UAS detection suites via serial, digital and Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network interfaces. The man-portable full spectrum and ghoul tool attachment systems


COUNTER-UAS

are designed for hand-held use by military and security forces. Their jamming capability includes known and emerging commercial RF bands in use and are the smallest, lightest weight, and most capable hand-held systems available. These are export controlled items (ITAR). Therefore, the United States Department of State licensing process will have to be followed if potential customers are an international non-US partner. DroneDefender Another US company based in Columbus, Ohio, Battelle recognised that unidentified sUAS pose a serious risk to government agencies and officials and its DroneDefender device was developed to counter these threats. Traditional defence mechanisms against sUAS, such as shooting them down, were not tenable within the US under current regulations. Other potential solutions posed safety risks. The proliferation of drones overseas demanded an effective and easy-to-deploy solution. The DroneDefender system utilises a non-kinetic solution to defend airspace against sUAS, such as quadcopters and hexacopters, operated without compromising safety or risking collateral damage. The easy-to-use, lightweight, pointand-shoot system required no extensive training. DroneTracker recognises and classifies RF, WiFi, and non-WiFi sUAS, transmits data to command and control centres, and can be programmed to automatically trigger alerts and countermeasures when a sUAS threat is confirmed. DroneDefender uses radio control frequency disruption and is a lightweight, point-and-shoot system with a demonstrated range of 400 m. The DroneDefender V2 device launched in 2018 miniaturised the electronics and integrated them into the hand-held unit for enhanced simplicity. The new device simplified the operation of the system by reducing to only one trigger with the use of a multifunction selector switch. The

improvements also extend its proven and demonstrated range with enhanced effectiveness against an even wider set of drones. Battelle and the San Franciscobased anti-drone technology maker, Dedrone began working together in 2017 to develop a collaborative solution to provide airspace security for militaries and critical infrastructure. ThunderDrone In June 2018, Dedrone successfully demonstrated the capabilities of DroneTracker and DroneDefender at ThunderDrone, a United States Special Operations Command (SOCOM) and SOFWERX rapid prototyping event. SOFWERX is a public-private innovator of technology designs fusing academia, civilian companies and other non-traditional US DoD partners who work on SOCOM’s most challenging problems. Dedrone announced the purchase of DroneDefender from Battelle in October 2019. With this acquisition, Dedrone has launched a new consultancy, Dedrone Defense, specialising in services and solutions for US federal agencies, including the DoD. It provides a proven, end-to-end solution that detects and classifies airspace activity, protects assets from sUAS threats, and defeats adversary UAS. DroneGun MkIII Based in Sydney, Australia, DroneShield Ltd is a leader in UAS security technology. Its DroneGun MkIII is a compact, lightweight countermeasure against a wide range of UAS designed for one hand operation. It allows for a controlled management of UAS payload such as explosives, with no damage to common sUAS models or surrounding environment. This is due to the sUAS generally responding via a vertical controlled landing on the spot, or returning back to its starting point, which assists in tracking the operator. RF disruption activation will also interfere with any live video streaming (FPV) back to the remote

controller, halting the collection of video footage and intelligence by the UAS operator. DroneGun has the option to disrupt multiple RF frequency bands simultaneously, including 433MHz, 915MHz, 2.4GHz and 5.8GHz. It also has an optional global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) disruption capability, including GLONASS and GPS. The system allows for an up to 2-km coverage in a wide range of environmental conditions. The battery-powered, highly portable single rifle style is easy to use – requiring minimal technical training for set-up. In 2018, DroneShield Ltd received a US$3,200,000 order for 70 DroneGuns for use by a Middle Eastern Ministry of Defence, following the granting of relevant US governmental approval. This approval was for the largest order for the company’s products to date, and for the largest known order for tactical drone mitigation products globally in the short history of the C-UAV industry. Not all the DroneShield’s potential products require such regulatory approval. Sales of the restricted products to a number of countries allied with the US do not require such approval. Russian REX-1 The Russian defence industry has strongly indicated its firm intention to enter the cutting-edge branch of hardware development, namely, portable C-UAV systems. During Russia’s major ‘Vostok 2018’ exercise, a new hand-held C-UAV weapon was used by Russian Federation airborne troops. The REX-1 is a rifle-like, manportable jammer developed by Kalashnikov Group subsidiary ZALA Aero Group. It relies on the jammer’s ability to cut the UAS off from its operator, communications bearer and autonomous navigation capability to neutralise the threat. Specifications data indicate that it operates in the 2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz ranges, which are commonly associated with wireless and mobile

XPLOSIVE

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COUNTER-UAS

©Russian MoD

A French soldier aims a DroneGun at a vehicle-mounted UAV during the 2019 Bastille Day military parade in Paris.

telephone operations, as well as GNSS such as BeiDou, Galileo, GLONASS and GPS. Suppression of GNSS signals can be made up to a 2-km radius around the system, with other communications blocked over a 30 front arc out to 500 m. ZALA Aero has stated that the system includes laser and stroboscope modules, to enable an operator to dazzle and neutralise electro-optical/infrared (EO/IR) sensors – in addition to blocking a UAS GNSS and communications capabilities. This combined jam and blinding capability could also give the weapon a secondary role against other GPS- and EO-reliant platforms. Battery and power figures claim three hours of continuous life and 36 months on standby before needing a recharge. At a reported 4.5 kg in weight, it has rifle-like dimensions and a stock based on the MP-514K air rifle. It is simple to use, offering mobile and light forces a new ability to counter proliferating sUAVs, which can be hard to engage with more conventional firearms. Russia’s arms exporting company, Rosoboronexport, has also unveiled

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DRONEGUN TACTICAL

One such DroneGun customer is France. During the Bastille Day celebrations in Paris on 14 July 2019, French troops armed with DroneGun Tactical were part of the security element deployed to protect those taking part in the military parade on the Champs-Elysées, as well as the crowds watching the celebrations. a new man-portable C-UAS systems from Pishchal-PRO. Being among the lightest C-UAV solutions on the global market, the Pishchal-PRO weighs 3.5 kg, which is even lighter than the Kalashnikov AK-103 7.62 mm assault rifle – and jams a UAS navigation and control channels at a distance of 2 km. The device is man-portable, so can be integrated into an individual soldier’s kit. China’s gun China’s Shen Zhou Ming Da High Technology Co Ltd (SZMID), a Beijing-based company specialising in RF detection and jamming technology for C-UAV applications, has developed the DZ-02 Pro portable jammer gun. The DZ-02 Pro is intended to counter commercial multirotor and small fixed-wing UAS, and can

disrupt satellite navigation signals, BeiDou Galileo, GLONASS, and GPS systems, as well as RF communications in the 1.56 Mhz1.62 GHz, 2.4-2.483 GHz, and 5.7255.85 GHz wavelengths up to a maximum range of 1 km. The system weighs 4.8 kg including the battery, and has an overall length of 750 mm with its adjustable stock retracted, a height of 300 mm including the optical sight, and a thickness of 60 mm. It comprises a single RF antenna featuring a vertical and horizontal V-plane of 60° and a total power output of 15 W – with this distributed evenly among its three RF channels. According to SZMID, the DZ-02 Pro is designed to cause a target to hover in place until its power is depleted, or activate its return-home protocol. ✺


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ECM

ROGUE TRANSMISSIONS All images ŠNarda Safety Test Solutions

HUGO BIBBY DESCRIBES

Manual DF antennas should include sensors to measure elevation and polarisation.

HOW REAL-TIME

RADIO-SPECTRUM MONITORING CAN PINPOINT TERRORIST ACTIVITY

Whenever a radio or telephone signal is transmitted it is possible to detect it using spectrum monitoring equipment. Add direction finding (DF) capability and the source of any suspicious signals can be located for appropriate action to be taken

T The Narda SignalShark is a prime example of a modern RTSA. In a small hand-held unit it has a 100% probability of intercept (POI) for signals longer than 3.125 microseconds.

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he range of electronic devices that could be put to nefarious use in the hands of terrorists is diverse: mobile phones, remote-control systems, satellite phones, two-way radios and jamming systems are just a few examples. However, anyone operating these devices opens themselves up to the possibility of being tracked down, as they all emit radio-frequency (RF) signals that can be detected, and in most cases identified, using radio-spectrum monitoring equipment. Even the receiver of a remote-detonation IED can produce some telltale RF emissions. Traditionally, the equipment needed to monitor such transmissions would have been bulky and expensive and, if mobility was


ECM

required, probably a vehicle-mounted system. However, the pace of change in this area of technology has been such that today military forces and surveillance technical teams have access to powerful hand-held instruments designed for spectrum monitoring. Various spectrum analysers and radio receivers are available – and now there is a new addition to the hand-held armoury: the real-time spectrum analyser (RTSA). Real-time spectrum analyser So, what is the difference between an RTSA and a conventional swepttuned spectrum analyser? As the name suggests, a swept-tuned analyser sweeps across a frequency band from left to right, displaying measurement results sequentially, that is, not in real time. By comparison, within a given frequency span, an RTSA displays the energy across all frequency components simultaneously. By using a fast Fourier transform (FFT) process and overlaying multiple FFTs in a staggered way rather than sequentially, the RTSA provides a gapless view so the user does not miss any transient signals. Modern hand-held instruments such as the Narda SignalShark have a 100% probability of intercept (POI),

even for signals with a duration of just a few microseconds. The processing power required for the FFT process also makes it possible to obtain magnitude and phase information from the input signal as opposed to just amplitude with a traditional spectrum analyser. Phase is important Phase is particularly important for DF systems based on the Doppler effect: when an antenna is turned in a circle, it changes the distance to the transmitter and thus the phase of the received signal. The direction producing maximum negative phase shift is therefore the angle of arrival. Since the FFT process takes information from the time domain and converts it to the frequency domain, it is straightforward to switch between frequency and time domains and look at changes in frequency over time. This is extremely useful whenever signals are frequency modulated or when the rogue transmissions use frequency-hopping techniques. All of this means the RTSA is ideal for evaluating communication signals

and monitoring the radio spectrum. Key specifications It is worth noting that not all hand-held instruments are equal. Manufacturers are adept at emphasising the good points and burying equally important details deep in the specification. For radio monitoring and direction finding, a good range is obviously desirable – users want to see signals as far away as possible – and to achieve this, a device with good sensitivity is required. This means that the intrinsic noise or displayed average noise level (DANL) of an instrument needs to be as low as possible. Signal-to-noise ratio A rule of thumb is that a 6 dB difference in signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) equates to double the distance or four times the area covered. A recent comparative test revealed that there was a 10-12 dB difference in S/N between the best and worst performing hand-held instruments. This means that devices like the Narda SignalShark could detect

A typical heat map produced by the Narda SignalShark RTSA shows the likely location of a suspect transmitter.

signals at four times the distance (or 16 times the area) that some others were able to manage. A high dynamic range is also vitally important as it enables the detection of weak signals in the presence of strong transmitters, Persistence a very common operational display on the occurrence. Narda SignalShark shows an anomaly at 805 MHz.

Harmonics Consideration should also be given

XPLOSIVE

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25


ECM

(ADFA) uses a central monopole as a reference element for DF and as an omnidirectional monitoring Automatic DF antennas like the antenna. Narda ADFA can be Nine dipole elements situated attached to the roof of around the central monopole any normal vehicle using a strong provide the DF aspect. The magnetic mount. control software is fast, allowing the ADFA to take a bearing in 1.2 ms, so short-duration push-to-talk (PTT) or pulsed signals can be located. During this short bearing cycle, channel power and spectrum are measured, enabling the user to monitor changes in the signal level or spectrum concurrently with bearing to the level of internal information. Thus it is possible to ‘artefacts’ or harmonics The Narda ADFA optimise bearing settings to the generated by the automatic DF antenna works on the principle of signal of interest and monitor equipment itself. If a measuring the phase adjacent channels. measurement device difference between nine Just like the manual antenna, displays a strong signal, dipole elements and a central reference the bearing results from the ADFA the harmonics monopole element. also contain elevation information generated by that may as well as azimuth. mask the signal being Software is important in hunted. This also applies to displaying the DF information to the intermodulation products, which optimised for frequency range, operator, and the heat map algorithm can occur if a measurement device sensitivity and directivity in order to running on the Narda SignalShark sees two or more strong signals; achieve good bearing accuracy. As analyser will provide the right the user can end up hunting the well as a choice of hand-held manual location even in dense urban areas intermodulation rather than true DF antennas, there are automatic with a lot of RF reflections. The heat signals. DF antennas designed for either map is a colour-coded overlay of the Comparing specifications vehicle-based or static monitoring. area of interest, ranging from red carefully will help users to select Manual DF antennas are indicating a very likely location to an instrument that is capable of particularly suitable for use in blue for very unlikely. An ellipse identifying low-level signals when buildings or terrain where the larger with a 95% probability of transmitter stronger signals are present. automatic DF antennas would be location will be displayed with the impractical. A manual DF antenna estimated transmitter position at should include a built-in electronic Graphical displays its centre. compass plus sensors to measure Assuming that an instrument with Hand-held easily portable RTSAs elevation and polarisation (roll) appropriate RF performance has are now becoming so powerful been chosen, it is then very important angles of the antenna as these are that they have capabilities which important factors in determining to make sure measurements can previously would only have been the direction of a signal source. be viewed so that suspect signals associated with large benchtop or The elevation aspect is obviously stand out from the crowd. vehicle-mounted devices. Coupled critical in identifying the height of a A spectrogram or waterfall with a suitable DF antenna, the RTSA signal source, for example, the right display gives a good representation is a powerful tool for monitoring floor in a block of flats. Frequency of spectrum versus time, but a terrorists’ RF activity and locating range is another major consideration persistence view (displaying the source of the transmissions. ✺ but the right antenna – such as with spectrum as level versus frequency) a range 400 MHz to 8 GHz – will be means that sporadic signals can be able to cover all common mobiledetected easily, even if they are Hugo Bibby is Technical Director communication frequencies. ‘hidden’ by another signal. of Link Microtek Ltd, the UK Direction-finding antennas All hand-held devices for spectrum monitoring need an antenna. Assuming direction finding is required, it is best to choose antennas

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Automatic DF antennas Automatic DF antennas are more complicated as a number of elements need to be used to provide the necessary DF accuracy. The Narda Automatic Direction Finding Antenna

representative for Narda Safety Test Solutions. A chartered member of the Society for Radiological Protection, he has been working with Narda’s measurement and monitoring equipment for 25 years.


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EXPLOSIVES

HOMEMADE DR

SEBASTIAN WIEGMANN DESCRIBES A NEW TRAINING COURSE ON THE CHEMICAL SIDE OF

HME

Deflagrating acetone peroxide upon contact with concentrated sulphuric acid.

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Homemade explosives (HME) are a significant factor in the IED threat that armed forces are facing in missions around the world. Accordingly, EOD personnel need to be well informed and knowledge about HME precursors, production, and physical and chemical properties should be included in their expert training


EXPLOSIVES

AND DEADLY

W

hen conventional ammunition is no longer available for the construction of IEDs, explosive material will be more and more likely to be home-made, also as they cost less to produce. What they lack in performance is often compensated for by the sheer amount of explosive employed.

Easy to produce HME are characterised by the fact that they can be produced by anyone with readily available starting

An exact amount of sodium azide is weighed for the synthesis of silver azide.

Deflagrating acetone peroxide upon contact with a hot steel needle.

materials. Instructions for their Applying silver preparation can be found easily azide to show the brisance on the internet. On the other against a copper hand, depending on the sheet. country, obtaining the starting materials can range from very easy to difficult - and may represent the real obstacle. But due to the precursors’ dual use as fertilisers, household or industrial chemicals, it is nearly impossible to completely prevent access. HME can be both explosives and explosive mixtures. In the latter, a fuel is mixed with an oxidiser, with nitrates, chlorates and perchlorates being the most commonly encountered oxidants. The variety of fuels is much larger in comparison. Gasoline, sugar, metal powders or

XPLOSIVE

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29


EXPLOSIVES

A small quantity of acetone peroxide detonates due to confinement in aluminium foil.

C

M

Aluminium foil fragment after the detonation of a small quantity of acetone peroxide.

phosphorus are just a few examples. Decisive for the performance of these explosive mixtures is the ratio of fuel and oxidiser, the particle size and the degree of homogeneous mixing. Nitrates and peroxides Nitrates, in particular ammonium nitrate, play a major role both in missions abroad and in domestic terrorism. The classic ANFO, a mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil, is a commonly used mining explosive but is also popular with terrorists. ANFO was used for example in the attacks in Oklahoma City in 1995, in Oslo in 2011, and is utilised regularly in the Middle East.

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Mixtures with chlorates as oxidiser are also quite common in this region, but also in domestic terrorism cases such as the Bali nightclub bombing in 2002. Many VBIEDs (vehicle-borne IEDs) deployed by the Provisional IRA used ANFO and other variants, sometimes in devices with explosive charges as large as 1,500-kg (3,300 lb), as in the Manchester city centre bombing in 1996. Explosives are somewhat more difficult to prepare than explosive mixtures, since just blending all components together may lead to dangerous chemical reactions. During the synthesis of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), for example, close attention must be paid to the temperature during the

reaction to avert an unwanted explosion. An example of a comparatively simple reaction is the production of acetone peroxide, where the starting compounds hydrogen peroxide and acetone are relatively easily available. For this reason, the frequency of use has increased in recent years, as the subway and bus attacks in London in 2005; Paris in 2015; Brussels in 2016; and Manchester Arena in 2017. The mixtures are, however, highly unstable. In the Middle East, Israel and Palestine excluded, acetone peroxide is found primarily as a detonator and not a main charge. CBRN defence and EOD While it is possible to purchase some HME for training purposes, such as ANFO, which is a common mining explosive - this is not possible for very sensitive explosives such as acetone peroxide or hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD). These are not available on the market and in addition may not be legally transported. However, it is of paramount importance for personnel dealing

Y

CM

MY

CY

CMY

K


Did you know that over 2,500 suspect devices, WWII bombs and terrorist situations are attended each year in the United Kingdom? Every day bomb disposal and search personnel can be faced with highly pressured situations. This continued exposure to intense stress can have lasting effects, both mentally and physically. Felix Fund is here to help this unique group of men and women. We help anyone who has conducted or assisted with Explosive Ordnance Disposal and Search duties across all three services of the British military as well as SO15 (Metropolitan Police Counter Terrorism Unit). We help those still serving, veterans and their immediate family members.

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EXPLOSIVES

Homemade detonators before and after detonation with acetone peroxide.

with unknown substances on missions abroad to have hands-on training with these explosives before being confronted with them at a bomb factory or IED scene. The knowledge, capability and permission to make explosives is a rare skill in the Bundeswehr (German Army). The CBRN Defence, Safety and Environmental Protection School offers the unique possibility to train the handling of sensitive explosives under expert supervision, and in a secure context at its Department of Chemistry. Based on this, German CBRN Defence and the Bundeswehr EOD Service set up cooperation in 2017 to train EOD specialists in dealing with HME. Training with real explosives In the sessions that have taken place since then, personnel from various departments, in particular EOD units, were able to increase their knowledge about HME. The meetings generally start with a refresher on the chemical basics of explosives. Typical questions are: ● Which precursors are required? ● Which ones of these are present in everyday life, and which ones should arouse suspicion if found? ● Why is temperature control so important when using nitric acid in a chemical reaction? All frequently used HME are

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to heat and open fire? How does sulphuric acid chemically ignite acetone peroxide? This all builds into a comprehensive experience best gained with the actual explosive. To complete the skills, the stabilisation of various explosives with different liquids such as diesel fuel or commercially available workshop lubricants, is demonstrated in practical experiments.

The way ahead The feedback received during these sessions of information transfer has been consistently positive - as it provides a unique opportunity to practice dealing with non-available explosives in a secure setting. Integrated into pre-deployment training, it represents a much better alternative than having to gain the necessary experience in the mission theatre on location. In order to institutionalise this need for information transfer, a three-day training was integrated into the curriculum of the CBRN Defence, Safety and Environmental Protection School. The number of participants is limited to 12 people and a A beaker with selection of applicants is acetone and carried out by the CBRN hydrogen peroxide Defence Command of the is ready for the synthesis of Bundeswehr. Main acetone peroxide. participants are the EOD forces of the Bundeswehr. However, the training is also open to participants from other NATO nations. presented, with a focus on where The Department of Chemistry and how they were employed. at the CBRN Defence and In practical exercises, the Environmental Protection School primary explosives acetone peroxide will continue to provide expertise and HMTD are prepared under for specialists and give them the guidance to get a sense of how easily possibility to practically experience they may be produced. Safety is not the specific characteristics of only ensured by suitable protective HME, continuously adjusted to clothing, but also by a limitation the upcoming threats around of the amounts produced. the world. ✺ These self-made explosives, in addition with many other preprepared ones, are then used by the Sebastian Wiegmann has a PhD in participants to gain direct practical organic chemistry and is currently experience in their handling. working as a civil servant at the CBRN Defence, Safety and ● How much force is needed Environmental Protection School regarding shock and friction of the Bundeswehr as Head of sensitivity? the Explosives Section. ● How does the material react


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ROBOTICS

THE

ROBOT ➋

X-ray source is mounted on the robot chassis.

VCSECURITY EXAMINES EOD ROBOT AND X-RAY INTEGRATION TO INCREASE COUNTER-IED MISSION CAPABILITIES

I

n this article, we will look at how they can be integrated into a single system without hindering each systems capability. To accomplish this type of integration we must first look at the capabilities of each system and how they can be integrated without degrading or limiting either tool in its ability to perform its normal mission. To begin the integration process,

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WITH

you have to understand each system’s mission when deployed by bomb technicians. This level of understanding will ensure that when each system is integrated, none of the original functions or capabilities are negated. The problem with most integration packages is, these fundamental requirements are not addressed. This leaves the operators with a tool that has degraded capabilities. Therefore, let us look at each tool and develop a list of mission capabilities that must remain available to the end user. Mission required robot capabilities: Robots are designed to provide the bomb technicians the ability to conduct counter IED attacks and reconnaissance remotely. The robot allows the bomb technicians to conduct many different tasks without having to expose themselves

to the threat. Below is a list of capabilities that must remain in place if an X-ray is integrated into the system:

IMAGE

The arm must be free to perform work with other different tools like a distruptor or samples collection in case of a CBRNE scenario. It should not be forced to hold an imaging panel or X-ray c-arm during the entire operation, with no ability of the robot to remove the system and mount another device remotely. The ability of the arm to perform work during the initial recon of the suspect item should not be negated by the addition of an X-ray system. The robot’s ability to navigate to the target and work in tight spaces should not be hampered by the addition of an X-ray system. This ties back into the above. If the addition of an X-ray hinders the robot’s ability to move to and from the target, it is not a synergistic integration - and


ROBOTICS

Bomb technicians around the world face the threat of dealing with neutralising the improvised explosive device (IED) threat. To accomplish this task, they have a plethora of very advanced tools at their disposal. Two of the main tools used by bomb technicians to accomplish their counter-IED mission are the robot and portable X-ray system. Both systems provide a unique capability

➍ Examples of IED devices inspected with a dual-energy module.

X-RAY EYES reduces overall system capability. Many of the bolted-on systems on the market seriously limit the robot’s ability to move in a confined space. The robot’s ability to provide visual information back to the operator is a key requirement. The position of cameras and viewing area must work with the X-ray and not block any of the mounted cameras. Once the X-ray is mounted, the cameras must be reconfigurable to accommodate the x-ray system. This will require the ability to move cameras so their view is not blocked and continue to provide the operator full visual capabilities. The ability of the operator to see what they are doing with a robot is already very challenging - and if that ability is hindered by the addition of an X-ray, you just made their job much more difficult. The ability of the robot to deploy different tools while downrange increases the system’s available options to the bomb technician.

A robot should have the ability to store and deploy different tools (detectors, disruptor, X-ray, etc) from a chassis mount. IMAGE

This deployment needs to be seamless, which means the operator is not trying to deploy the tool by his own movements. These deployments should be pre programmed into the system, allowing a seamless picking up and setting down of the tool. While this is a very advanced capability, it should be part of the robot system - and also not hindered by the addition of an X-ray. IMAGE

Wireless and wired operation of the robot must not be hindered by the addition of an X-ray. Both of these systems operate wirelessly, and typically work on the same frequency which can cause problems when you try a bolt on package. Both the robot and X-ray should be able to function

wirelessly and not interfere with the other’s signal and operation. When the systems are hard-wired (jamming), trying to run a wired robot with a hard-wired X-ray attach turns into a wire mess. The X-ray hard-wired on a robot in an ad hoc configuration is an accident waiting to happen, and surely not how you want to operate an integrated package. Mission-required X-ray capabilities When the X-ray system is mounted to a robot it must be able to take a usable X-ray image. The alignment of the X-ray generator and panel must be conducive to the obtaining of a good image. Digital Radiography (DR) panels are calibrated (gain and offset) based on generator alignment on the panel. If this alignment is not stable and standardised, the image quality will be affected. This alignment is also key if you

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ROBOTICS

The X-Ray source and panel are mounted on the robot using a C-arm that can be easily detached from the robot. Once the robot manipulator (arm) is free, it moves back to disconnect the system cable from the robot.

are using a system that can provide dual-energy imaging. The alignment between the X-ray generator and detector panel ensures that a dualenergy image is accurate. IMAGE

The integration of the robot and

➎ Panel and generator in a c-arm taking an image at a non-ground level angle.

The robot uses automatic movements to deposit the X-ray system and gently leaves it on the ground without operator interference.

from a single controller. that the system performs – without This ability is what truly the operator having to try and merges both tools into grab and deploy tools. These Exclusive full integration. The robot a single operator pre-programmed movements controller is used to platform, and ensures and tool deployments make the operate the X-ray system that all the deployment overall complexity of using the and view the image without using the issues are addressed system more user-friendly. system software and from an intelligent When compared to bolt-on laptop/tablet. engineering perspective. X-ray and robot packages, an The operator now has the intelligent software-driven package ability to run all the systems from provides the end user with more a single controller - and truly merges down-range capability. both tools into a single multi-capable Robot and X-ray integration for platform. counter-IED missions is the future. It provides the bomb technician with X-ray must allow for the ability to enhanced capabilities. While bolt-on conduct X-ray scans at multiple IMAGE ➏ packages do provide some capability, angles. Many of the bolt on systems Another very key integration they typically degrade overall limit the X-ray to a ground level requirement is addressing how capability of both systems. When X-ray only. The integration should the operator deploys the different looking for a quality robot and X-ray allow for conducting complex angle tools that are mounted to the robot package, make sure that the package scans, and requires the ability to re chassis. If you have ever used a does not limit one or the other’s tools position the generator and detector robot with just the cameras as your capabilities. The idea is to end up panel to the best available angles guide, you know just how hard of a with a more capable tool - and to get a good X-ray. task this can be. enhance your team’s ability to The robot and X-ray integration counter the IED threat. ✺ should include programmed moves IMAGE ➎ X-ray and robot synergy One of the most important parts of VCsecurity is a division of VisiConsult X-Ray Systems & Solutions GmbH, a leading manufacturer of digital X-ray systems with over 15 years’ true robot and X-ray integration is experience in supplying portable X-ray systems for security applications. the ability to operate both systems

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COMPANY PROMOTIONAL FEATURE: UXO

DANGER

UXB

A fine example of remaining ordnance from a previously ‘cleared’ range!

LES HAYWARD EXPLAINS THE RANGE OF

UXO

CARRIED OUT BY

MAL EOD

A

t the coal-face, all MAL EOD operators have worked for, or on behalf of, the Ministry of Defence (MOD) – or have been involved with humanitarian organisations dealing with land mine clearance. The use of specialist contractors has a further important role – that of keeping client pricing to a competitive level, while maintaining quality of service. MAL EOD offers clients the complete package – from initial surveys, risk assessments, advice on the CDM regulations, and

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With its head offices in Liverpool, the ordnance disposal company MAL EOD is a fairly small specialist company operating from a remote location in North Wales. has around ten full-time employees at any one time, with access to a vast number of specialist contractors qualified to deal with all aspects of explosives disposal – whether on land, on, or underwater, in the UK or any location overseas the guidelines within CIRIA C681 working down to the final disposal of hazardous material. UXO teams Our underwater UXO teams consist mainly of ex-Royal Navy clearance divers. These teams are utilised from the shallow depths of canals to the depths encountered offshore. As an example, in 2017 MAL EOD was contacted by a representative of the Panama Canal Co to advise on, and undertake clearance of, a sunken munitions ship which was breaking

up in the canal. While overseas work might be expected to involve recent conflict zones, disposal of ammunition dumps, and IEDs – work in the UK mainly derives from the legacy of World War II and includes not only detection of residual bombing, but also detection and clearance of firing ranges, anti-aircraft sites and training areas. Given the inexorable advance of development due to increasing housing need, previously unused land close to areas which


COMPANY PROMOTIONAL FEATURE: UXO

experienced heavy bombing is now being taken up for new estates, roads, railways and industry. In this respect, the ‘desktop’ survey is of advantage. Bombing records Gathering data on bombing history, geology and archaeology for the site has to determine whether or not a full magnetic survey is justified before development starts. This is simplified by the internet, from which data can often be assembled far quicker than would otherwise be required by postal or phone enquiries and by travelling to inspect archives. Official bombing records alone are not sufficiently reliable. Data also has to be assembled from old press reports, parish records and personal anecdotes. composite reports are provided, detailing the findings and listing possible hazards – together with a recommendation for any further action. Survey methods If a full survey is considered to be required for UK sites a visual

SINGAPORE

OPERATION

An EOC (Explosive Ordnance Clearance) package for the Singapore Government centres on an ex-UK bomb dump that was relinquished by the MOD in 1962, and has been operated ever since by the Singaporean Armed Forces. The land parcel is to be sold off and used for building, as are many of the ex- MOD sites in the UK and around the world. The first of its kind in Singapore, the operation is not without its problems – but the EOD teams are ahead of schedule and are looking to complete the clearance early. inspection is undertaken – having first defined the area of interest. The most common method of detection employs magnetometry, although ground-penetrating radar may also be employed. Surveys are conducted either from the surface or by borehole logging with the results of magnetic anomalies being plotted to give a clear picture of locations. An anomaly may of course not be a bomb – it could be a buried pipe or similar ferrous object – and when detected the only course of action is excavation for close examination. It is not uncommon to discover bombs which have penetrated soft

soil to a considerable depth and which remain buried and harmless unless violently disturbed (for example by pile-driving). When excavation does take place, the difficulties encountered may include not only existing structures, but also geological conditions – and, of course, the weather. It is not uncommon for excavations to require either pumping or shoring up – a situation which the Bomb Disposal groups of World War II would have also been familiar with. Magnetic surveys have until recent times been carried out either by an operator walking the site, or

Examples of MAL EOD custom kit: nonmagnetic trolley for surface surveys. This can accommodate three gradiometer probes with associated controller.

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COMPANY PROMOTIONAL FEATURE: UXO

with vehicle-borne equipment. In most cases this remains the preferred option, although difficulties arise for example over rough or overgrown terrain, swampy areas or land which may contain such hazards as land mines. UAVs MAL EOD has more recently dealt with these situations by embracing the use of UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles – drones) to carry the detecting equipment. The data obtained may also include gathering images, 4K video, LIDAR and infrared heat signatures. The use of such equipment also provides operator safety should surveys need to be carried out in hostile areas. An added benefit is the use of FLIR thermal cameras – absolutely essential in search and rescue operations, where vulnerable persons can be located. Perhaps the most exciting aspect of drone use is in the theatre of land mine and UXO clearance in developing countries. Traditionally, a highly dangerous operation involving

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Disposal of dangerous ordnance on a former Army training range. The item has first been punctured by the use of an IED disruptor. Following this, an igniter is magnetically clamped to the piece to burn out remaining explosive.

acute risk to operatives, MAL EOD is able to offer its clients the ability to ‘comb’ a location flying at low level – and to identify threats utilising LIDAR, which employs laser light pulses to penetrate the ground. Data provided then allows for safe removal. Duty team members also oversee safety and disposal on military archaeology operations, such as the excavation of World War 1 bunkers in Flanders Fields, which could include chemical weapons UXO.

in mind. Water resistance is also a major issue, since work on an important survey must continue even in heavy rain. These issues can add to the design costs – for example cable connectors need to be of military grade. A simple connector – which in domestic environments would cost less than a pound sterling – would rise to around twenty times that for a military-style connector. Borehole probes require not only a strong housing, but also need to be completely waterproof.

Specialist equipment MAL EOD use equipment that has been developed in-house to meet specific requirements. In addition to detection devices, the range includes electric initiators, communications devices, IED disruptors, remote controlled drills and remote controlled igniters. A sea-going survey vessel and inflatable boats are also on hand for river work. Current projects include development of a multi-probe portable logger to retrieve magnetic data from site, and display this as a three-dimensional presentation, along with An example of a GPS coordinates. borehole logger. This A problem facing uses a differential magnetometer (gradiometer) EOD equipment with meter and audible indication designers is of anomalies. The results may be combating the coupled to a logger and combined with GPS co-ordinates for graphical environment where display. The performance of this it is used. Survey kit equipment is equivalent to gets rough treatment more expensive commercial units. and transportation – and must be designed with this

Training MAL EOD provides training where required for all forms of EOD work – including explosives basics, safety requirements and electronics. A ‘breadboard’ version of an IED is provided with all components. Anti-tamper devices are exposed for easy access for students to try their skills in safely de-arming such devices, and to get some idea of what may be encountered in the field. MAL EOD is also a registered school for teaching the IMAS courses up to and including level 3. Drone use in a combat theatre is one of our newer courses and is gaining popularity. ✺

MARCH 2020

Les Hayward is an electronics engineer, formerly employed by DERA (MOD). He 'retired' in 2001 but still undertakes engineering work on request. He is also the joint author of A Pictorial Record of the Royal Naval Cordite Factory Holton Heath (Folly Books).


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FORENSICS

HUNTING THE BOMB-MAKERS

ANDY

OPPENHEIMER EXPLAINS HOW BOMB FORENSICS TECHNOLOGIES IDENTIFY TERRORIST MODUS OPERANDI

©Wikipedia

AND TRACK AND

The FEL is the only dedicated explosives forensic lab in Great Britain, with an unparalleled level of specialisation.

BREAK THE

IED

SUPPLY

CHAIN

E

vidence collected from exploded and unexploded IEDs is vital to gather knowledge of the bombmaker, who supplied the parts and explosives, where it was made and where the components came from. Bomb forensics can help trace bomb-makers, emplacers, financiers and suppliers from nation-states, criminal gangs, and legitimate and online sources. An intact, pre-empted, unexploded IED has a unique ‘fingerprint’ or ‘signature’ – providing clues about its creator, the explosives, and the quality, type and quantity of its components. From intact shells, mortar bomb casings, legacy shells, AP mines to pressure cookers, circuit boards and batteries

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©MOD

©MOD

– these clues can enable us to assess terrorist and insurgent TTPs; share information with law enforcement agencies, and aid re-design and development of new equipment and protective gear. And they are vital in civilian terrorist trials.

A Forensic Case Officer recovers evidence from a jacket in the laboratory.

British WI pioneers Weapons intelligence teams (WITs) recover, document and A Forensic Case Officer analyse forensic data about analyses a car to an IED’s physical materials. recover traces of The British Army WITs dealt explosives as part of a training with Provisional IRA bombs exercise. which either failed to detonate or were disrupted or dismantled by the EOD teams, leaving them intact for forensic ©MOD


FORENSICS

examination. British WITs uncovered characteristic IRA bomb-maker techniques. Electronic components could be traced to a specific large company; another attached taunting messages to his fabricated IED containers; another built bombs with ‘spaghetti’ wiring. Exploitation To exploit a device, components are triaged: unsafe explosive items are removed and the rest go off to forensics. Even after suicide bombings grisly process of collecting forensic evidence can lead to sources and bring about convictions. Photographing bomb components is very important as evidence such as tape used to connect electrical components may be altered during subsequent forensics. It also aids IED reconstruction. Advanced sampling equipment can identify chemical components found on surfaces. Detonation of high-explosives leaves signatures on nearby objects as embedded soot, distinct discoloration and knife-like edges on metallic surfaces. A specimen can meet specific criteria – such as a brand-name 9 V battery. DNA and fingerprinting DNA and fingerprint testing identifies known miscreants. Repeat configurations can point to a single perpetrator. Components like tape must be fingerprinted before removal from a device; debris from surroundings post-blast is also examined.

● George Soros received the first of 14 bombs at his home in Katonah, New York in October 2018 ● Suspect in Plantation, Fla had made “roughly six inches of PVC pipe, a small clock, a battery, some wiring and energetic material” sent to senators and former presidents ● A single fingerprint and small amount of DNA tracked down a suspect with long arrest history ● A fingerprint found on the envelope of a bomb intended for a Republican politican and a small amount of DNA was discovered on two other packages It has dealt with major terrorist incidents including London 7/7 2005 and Manchester Arena May 2017. Material is examined at Fort Halstead – whole vehicles, doors, and even parts of Hammersmith Bridge, which the IRA tried to blow up three times. FEL’s work is split into four main categories: ● post-explosion scenes ● improvised explosive devices ● finds and caches of explosives and related materials, and ● examination of suspects, property or premises for trace levels of explosives (that is, amounts that cannot be seen by the naked eye, as opposed to bulk levels, which can be seen, handled and weighed) The appearance is assessed, whether a powder or fragments from blown-up debris. Burning a powder first reveals whether a material is

energetic. Black powder – a component of gunpowder – has a sulphur egg odour. A lilac flame colour emits from potassium (nitrate). Spectroscopy and chromatography detects the smallest quantities of explosives. Scanning electron microscopes have an energy dispersive spectrometer to identify the potassium and sulphur and the carbon present from charcoal. Ion chromatography confirms the presence of nitrate and potassium. MAYBE THEY HAVE A CAMPING STOVE, OR A HOME BREWING HOBBY, OR THERE IS A HAIRDRESSER LIVING AT THE PROPERTY. BUT THEY’RE ALSO THE THREE PRECURSOR CHEMICALS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF HMTD. FEL SENIOR FORENSIC SCIENTIST Police on Parsons Green, west London following the attempted bombing on a tube train in September 2017. The partial detonation greatly aided forensics.

TEN YEARS AGO, IT REQUIRED A SPOT OF BLOOD THE SIZE OF A QUARTER, BUT NOW WE CAN DO IT WITH A HEAD OF A PIN. THAT’S MADE TOUCH DNA A LOT MORE POSITIVE. DR. PETER STOUT, PRESIDENT OF HOUSTON FORENSIC SCIENCE CENTER

Dstl FEL The Dstl Forensic Explosives Laboratory (FEL) is the world’s premier specialist explosives lab.

©Wikipedia/Edwardx

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FORENSICS Trace Explosives Recovery Kit (TERK) FEL provides forensic kits to the police who are the first to arrive on scene. A TERK can take one-billionth of a gram samples from a premises where a terrorist is based, and from their possessions. Mass spectrometry detects levels of 1ng – 100,000 times smaller than a grain of sugar. It separates a very small sample into its individual parts and provides information about the amounts of each part and to identify unknown materials. Other methods compare a sample to known samples.

LONDON 7/7 ● Four bombers attacked the London transport system, killing 52, injuring 800 ● FEL teams found the variety and scale of hazards in hot, dark, cramped and traumatic working conditions at the four scenes were beyond anything previously experienced in the UK ● They examined trace samples and 2,000 items, including vehicles and trace kits ● Five days after the attack the police raided a suspect bomb factory in Leeds and found 150 items for testing and buckets of a mystery yellow-brown substance ● FEL analysis: it was a novel explosive made from hydrogen peroxide and probably pepper ● Vehicle used by three bombers recovered at Luton railway station contained components, packets of nails and complete devices containing HMTD and were destroyed at the scene

Russell Square pictured after it was cordoned off on 7 July 2005. Hazards during forensics collection at the four Underground bomb attack scenes had no precedent in the UK.

©Wikipedia/Francis Tyers

FEL CASE STUDY: TELL-TALE TRACES ● Safety search of premises occupied by a suspect ● Knives, white crystals, small initiators and a respirator ● EOD team found a device taped to a cabinet

FORLAB The EU’s prime Forensic Laboratory uses a similar range of technologies for on-site evidence analysis in a post-blast scenario: LIBS (laserinduced breakdown spectroscopy), Raman spectroscopy and non-linear junction detectors (NLJDs) for search and detection of hidden electronic components. Sample screening and 3D scenario recreation can be done in a few minutes. Attempts are being made to improve European investigation of crime scenes post-blast and reduce overall time to complete investigations. New integrated technology may reduce the number of lab samples and support investigators

PARSON’S GREEN BOMB

● The partial detonation enabled forensics ● TATP (triacetone triperoxide): HME ● Very basic clock timing & power unit: perpetrator may not have intended suicide or wanted to ensure device went off outside of human factors ● Fairy lights: basic initiator ● Frag materials: broken glass, knives and screws all in a bucket inside a supermarket bag

THERE’S A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HANDLING MILITARY HARDWARE, WHICH HAS BEEN CONSTRUCTED TO A PARTICULAR STANDARD AS COMPARED TO SOMETHING THAT SOMEBODY’S MANUFACTURED IN THEIR GARAGE. FEL SENIOR FORENSIC ANALYST

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● White crystals tested positive for peroxides and precursor chemicals for HMTD (hexamethylene triperoxide diamine) ● The suspect’s clothes were sampled for explosives ● Traces of HMTD were recovered from his jacket, shirt, belt, watch, scarf and trousers ● Further sampling around wires of small fired initiators and analysis of white crystals also identified HMTD ● Firmly connected the suspect to the materials needed to ID the perpetrators. As stated by a FEL principal scientist, “if we can detect a trace of explosive, no matter how small, on an item of clothing – we can conclude that the person wearing those clothes is likely to have been in an environment contaminated with explosives. There may be no other evidence linking them to a scene.” ✺


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RESPONSE

INTO THE FRAY FRANK G.

RANDO

PRESENTS

THE INTEGRATED PUBLIC SAFETY AND RESCUE TASK FORCE APPROACH TO HYBRID TACTICAL VIOLENCE After the MTA on London Bridge and in Borough Market on 3 June 2017, security bollard barriers were installed on the bridge.

©Wikipedia/ChiralJon

Hybrid tactical violence (HTV) – a combination of modalities and tactics to inflict maximum physical injury or death on a targeted population – defies conventional thinking or response by any specific emergency service discipline. These complex, active violence threat scenarios, which are on the rise in particular in the United States – require unconventional thought and multidimensional, multidisciplinary planning, mitigation and response strategies and tactics

A

symmetric threats, urban warfare and tactical ultraviolence are no longer limited to the battlefields of Iraq, Afghanistan, Syria or Africa. While foes and enemies have engaged us in urban warfare and terror attacks in the streets and venues of cities throughout the world, the carnage continues today in the form of armed assaults, edged weapons attacks, vehicles mowing people down and, of course, improvised explosive devices at our schools, houses of worship, shopping centres and other locations. Multiple modalities may be used,

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such as semi-automatic weapons, assault type rifles, and explosive and incendiary devices. These acts of violence are not restricted to jihadists and other terrorists; they are also perpetrated by disgruntled and delusional lone individuals. Hybrid tactical violence Many are heavily armed and may have explosives or incendiaries at the ready or pre-planted IEDs, grenades and other devices. The growing use of hoax suicide belts adds a further, deadly challenge to rapid response. The intentional maiming and murder of innocent non-combatants

©CPNI

leaves our communities as open and vulnerable battlefields where malevolent individuals and groups can wage war. The unpredictability created by active violence events creates fear that they can occur in everyday places. While any form of violence, whether perpetrated against an individual or a group is frightening and cause for alarm, the use of military or paramilitary tactics against a civilian population carries


RESPONSE

with it ominous connotations and consequences.

While the recent stabbing incident on 2 February in south London thankfully did not see fatalities, the perpetrator wore a hoax suicide vest and carried a range of knives – and the rapid police and EMS response doubtlessly saved lives.

Confronting attackers The realities imposed by confronting an armed attacker who commits arson and is also executing individuals armed with an AK-47, strapped with a bandolier of ammunition and fragmentation Coordinated response grenades wearing head-to-toe Lessons learned from these incidents ballistic protection and night vision are valuable and close analysis is equipment – is quite different from warranted to effect proper, safe and the urban mugger demanding successful collaborative multimoney. agency responses. Optimal In hybrid tactical violence, the multiagency operational goals must perpetrator has upped the ante focus on threat elimination and – possibly via thorough tactical lethality reduction. This cooperative planning and sophisticated militarylevel of response can only be style assault tactics and weaponry. achieved through pre-event At this juncture, the emergency dialogue, collaborative planning services triad of police, fire and and joint public safety – emergency EMS (emergency medical service) ©National Ambulance assets responding will be confronted Resilience Unit (NARU) by a complex, evolving and dynamic tactical situation The UK NARU which may exceed the ensures all UK ambulance teams range of operational are properly trained, hazards that they are equipped & prepared accustomed to. for hazardous situations & mass casualty Hybrid tactical events. violence attacks go beyond the definition of ©CPNI an active shooter event. The compound effect of this type of violence requires a paradigm shift of thought which involves a synergistic planning and response strategy. Incident lessons Marauding The collective efforts and terrorist attacks focus of the emergency are fast-moving, violent incidents where assailants services and public move through a location safety sector must aiming to find and kill or injure stress a comprehensive as many people as possible. Most deaths occur within the and integrated first few minutes of the counterterrrorism attack, before police are approach. In planning able to respond. for such attack scenarios, planners need to conduct a historical survey of hybrid tactical violence events by revisiting the occurences at Mumbai, Columbine High School, the Las Vegas mass shooting, the Christchurch, New Zealand attack, the Charlie Hebdo event in Paris, the Sandy Hook, Connecticut mass shooting and ©Ordnance School, Defence Forces Ireland many other examples.

services exercises and simulation. Traditionally, police, fire and EMS have compartmentalised roles, responsibilities and rivalries which need to be adjusted and adapted to form effective and integrated public safety response and rescue task forces to deal with these high-acuity, high-impact events. The concept and definition of interoperability is not limited to communications, but needs to be applicable to our emergency services and first-response personnel. The collaborative and interoperable first responder is an essential commodity when responding to a asymmetric, high-threat event such as a coordinated attack situation.

Life-saving is paramount For example, EMS and Fire & Rescue must be integrated into a tactical entry to provide immediate, lifesaving care and victim extractions – while law enforcement provides operational security and tactical overwatch. There may be one or multiple attackers present in the tactical environment. Threat neutralisation is of paramount importance; yet, medical and rescue elements must be immediately available to provide life-saving interventions such as tourniquet application for severe extremity haemorrhage, or to relieve a tension pneumothorax caused by penetrating chest trauma. The initial response cannot be delayed until the arrival of a SWAT (Special Weapons and Tactics) team. Emergency medical assets cannot be staged a block away waiting for the ‘all clear’ from the Incident Commander. The initial arriving units must be trained The Counter and ready to form Marauding an immediate Terrorist Attack course addresses what Integrated Public happens when the Safety Response– shooting starts and Rescue Task Force essentially ‘all bets are off.’ team to address the immediate operational needs of the situation – such as tactical entry, threat elimination, victim rescue and emergency medical care.

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RESPONSE

©Metropolitan Police/RT

Met Police photo of fake suicide belts worn by the attackers on London Bridge, 3 June 2017. Each had three disposable water bottles “covered in masking tape attached to the belt.”

Police arrive at Sandy Hook Elementary school after the mass shooting on December 14, 2012.

©VOA

Bullet marks on the wall of the VT suburban railway station, site of the November 2008 Mumbai attacks.

©Office of Public Safety

US instructions for the public: RUN: Evacuate If Possible; HIDE: Hide silently in as safe a place as possible; FIGHT: Take action to disrupt or incapacitate the shooter.

©Wikipedia/Nichalp

Tactical back-up and RSPs As additional units arrive, more assets serve as back-up entry teams to secure the perimeter and secure a casualty extraction point. They will perform render-safe operations and provide additional tactical overwatch and other functions as needed. All personnel must be trained to recognise real or potential secondary, antipersonnel devices and maintain a high level of situational awareness at all times. Team operational safety is always first and foremost. Citizen engagement As in any emergency response effort, citizen engagement, awareness, training and empowerment are vital to enhance community-wide preparedness and resilience for coordinated attack events. This would include grass-roots efforts by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as the American and International Red Cross and Red Crescent and other entities such as Integrated Community Solutions to Active

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the United States which has attracted international This Stop The Bleed attention. Similarly, there poster gives are other programmes instructions on such as Run, Hide, Fight how to apply a tourniquet. – which address active shooter countermeasures our communities can take advantage of. The realities of a Mumbai-style, coordinated, hybrid conventional weapons attack, another domestic bombing event or a Sandy Hook or Columbine-type school mass ©Stop The Bleed violence event must be confronted, studied and engrained into our mindset as professionals responsible Violence Events (ICSAVE) and the for saving lives. Stop the Bleed Coalition, both in And when lives are being lost the state of Arizona. to an attacker during those initial These entities offer citizen few seconds, first responders must awareness, preparedness and have the readiness and adaptable empowerment programmes which capabilities of acting as a unified allow citizens to participate in force – and without hesitation, stare training and exercises that address down pure evil as a team and extremism, terrorism, tactical proceed to save lives. ✺ ultraviolence, and community-wide emergencies. Specifically, courses such as Frank G. Rando is a national SME, Stop the Bleed can turn citizens of all trainer, and first responder with ages into ‘immediate responders’- by over 30 years’ experience in training them to control and stop emergency management, tactical, severe haemorrhage through the use disaster and special operations of direct pressure, tourniquets, and medicine, environmental health wound packing. The Stop the Bleed and safety, public safety, and programme is a national initiative in counterterrorism.


BUILDINGS PROTECTION

THE GRAND DESIGN DON WILLIAMS LAYS OUT RECOMMENDED BLAST DESIGN PRINCIPLES FOR INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION

IED/EOD operators, Special Forces, law enforcement officers and other specialists are often called upon to offer advice to the corporate sector on protection from terrorist and criminal activities. They are asked because they are seen as having particular knowledge on responding to attacks ©Misael Garcia from Pexels

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BUILDINGS PROTECTION

T

here are often communication issues when uniformed people talk to the corporate sector. Corporate managers are concerned with profit and reputation which are closely aligned to the provision of a safe and secure environment. The corporate sector has an emphasis on prevention, whereas uniformed services usually arrive after the incident has occurred. In terms of IEDs, bomb techs arrive after the item has been found, Protected spaces assessed and identified as are locations within a potentially hazardous. building where occupants CPNI

and other assets have enhanced levels of protection against the effects of blast. Examples of such spaces are bomb shelter areas (BSAs); control rooms; and server rooms.

CPNI

MAINTAIN

Protecting sites For the corporate sector, evacuating every time an unattended item is found is neither sensible, cost-effective nor, it could be argued, safe. All recommendations relating to protection from malicious human action must be cost effective but they must also support the business and the ‘image’ of the organisation. On some sites, screening of people and goods and the presence of armed guards is appropriate and expected. On other sites, think shopping centres: not only would such measures be inappropriate, but they would hinder or even defeat the function of the site. Obviously, all advice must be contextualised so that in certain circumstances screening people entering a shopping centre may be necessary but this is rare. Building in design The following are some suggestions drawn from many years of experience, on designing the built environment to protect against bombs. Considerable work has been undertaken and published over many years by organisations such as the US FEMA, DoD, UK CPNI (Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure), as well as professional associations such as the International Association of Protective Structures, the Institute of Explosives Engineers and ASIS International. There are a number of physical and procedural principles that can be used as design criteria for new sites; some may also be applied to existing sites. Principles are designed to support not hinder the client’s business. The term ‘asset’ is used to indicate the thing(s) deemed worthy of protection: staff, the building, the controls/utilities/amenities of the site, items on display, VIPs, etc. It is essential that assessment of blast effects be in relation to realistic bomb weights. For example, consider that a 5-kg weight can be held in an outstretched arm, 10 kg held by the side of the body, and 20 kg is a heavy load

DISTANCE

● Limiting the proximity of a bomb to the asset can reduce the effect of an explosion and hence number of casualties. In many cases this is not possible. CPNI

● Vehicular access controls can restrict the size of a bomb that can get close to the site reducing the amount of explosive from hundreds of kg to tens. ● Use landscaping to limit how close vehicles or large items can be placed near the asset. ● Provide public parking away from key areas. ● Restrict parking that is close to critical controls and functions of the site – or allocate close parking spaces to employees and others where there is some degree of confidence. ● Ensure critical controls and functions for the site are not located next to places where a bomb can be placed – that is, adjacent to public areas.

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BUILDINGS PROTECTION

probably on wheels. Some of the larger bomb sizes often proffered are neither realistic or historically based in most cities, nor can they be defended against – so consider probable rather than possible.

IDENTIFY

ITEMS WHICH ARE OUT OF PLACE

● Ensure public and back-of-house areas are easy to view and search makes detection of potentially hazardous items, such as bombs, easier. ● Provide clear site lines for staff and CCTV. ● Ensure street furniture, plantings and other items are designed to make observation and search quick and effective. ● Train staff on identification and reporting of items considered to be out of place.

LIMIT

LOCATION OF A BOMB

● Sound design with matching processes can significantly limit where a bomb can be placed. ● Access controls can limit what is brought into controlled areas, particularly back-of-house areas where critical controls and functions are located. ● Use of cloak and storage rooms can both limit where items can be placed and act as deterrents. The proximity of critical functions to such rooms must be considered. ● Depending on the nature of the site and event, controls may be put in place to limit what the public can bring in. ● Use of landscaping etc can limit how close an item can be placed near the asset. Protect critical features Protecting critical features includes protection from fragmentation. Where distance between critical functions and areas where a bomb may be placed can not be provided, the intervening walls, ceilings, etc can be hardened to limit blast damage. Design can assist with channelling blast away from specific areas. Poor design can result in blast being increased due to reflection or containment. Reduce injuries Many blast-related injuries from building materials are to the eyes from projected glass particles. Where there are large glass areas in public places, consideration should be given to the type of glazing laminate or the use of protective films. Where large glass or decorative panels are used, the potential method of failure should be assessed. That is, will it pivot from the top or bottom (depending on how large a bomb can be placed where)? And what will be the resultant effect on the crowd? Design to prevent ‘progressive collapse’ should a structural element be damaged is now a common design requirement. The potential for corridors and access ways

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to channel blast can be considered. The nature, strength, fixing and location of signage, street furniture and landscaping should be considered in relation to potential bomb locations as they can result in ‘secondary fragmentation.’ Hazardous material should not be stored at or adjacent to a location where a bomb may be placed. Allow emergency access post-incident ● Ensure the design allows emergency service personnel and equipment to access the site after an incident when normal routes may not be available. ● Ensure that on-site emergency materials are located in places where they are unlikely to be affected by an incident, possibly in multiple locations. ● Ensure appropriate and realistic evacuation routes and assembly areas are provided. ● Where there is free and unrestricted access by the public, it is not possible to prevent items of between 5-10 kg to be carried or 20 kg if on wheels. When asked by the corporate sector for advice, consider their operating environment, their drivers, legal obligation to make a profit, or at least what trade is possible while insolvent, and their image and reputation. Ensure offered guidance is sensible and applicable to their context. Gaining an understanding of protective security as a management discipline will assist in communicating effectively with those ‘outside the barrack gates.’ ✺

Donald S. Williams CPP RSecP ASecM holds qualifications in Security Management and Security Risk Management as well as Project and Resource Management. He is a Certified Protection Professional and Registered Security Professional, a member of ASIS-International, the Institute of Explosive Engineers, the International Association of Bomb Technicians and Investigators (Distinguished Life Member), and the International Association of Protective Structures. He has authored over 130 publications including Bomb Safety and Security, the Manager’s Guide. He was awarded the Australian Security Medal by his peers for services to the profession.


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DETECTION

Our reliance on sensors is expansive, with significant repercussions in defence and security. Sensors continue to develop and alter our engagement with our surroundings, but is the defence sector integrating this enough for operators, without ‘information overload’?

©Franck V

PETER

LASHBROOK JOINS THE SENSOR DOTS

SMART

FUSION W

e rely on sensors every day – smartphones, vehicles, fridges, ovens, smoke alarms and dozens of devices contain sensors on various scales. Many of these platforms behave independently, without communication between devices, or working only within a single device, such as a smartphone or vehicle. There are implications to consider when integrating sensor data, which has often prevented exploitation in the defence sector: security, compatibility and portability being just a few. Perhaps the most critical, until now, has been a perceived lack of ‘need’.

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In the realm of ‘smart homes’ and Internet of Things (IoT) applications, sensor information is often basic. However, it has opened new possibilities to gather data and present this to a user – enlightening us all to the possibilities for sensors and their role in our world. Sensor fusion in this environment is kept simple – often due to bandwidth limitations within domestic networks, technology limitations and a finite range of user requirements.

Military sensors The same is true for sensing in military applications, especially portable solutions in Counter-EO (combining CBRN, EOD & IED).

Sensor interconnect in industry.

Sensor manufacturers often redesign, reinvent or update a device to offer an updated level of detection (where possible) or a new feature, often requiring their own hardware or software layer to interact or even view the information from their sensors. This can only be effective where the manufacturer happens to supply all the sensors your deployment requires, but this is rare and therefore limits the operational capability. Sensor fusion in defence realms – taking the data from various sensors from different manufacturers and integrating their output to provide a single view – has been successful on a project-by-project


DETECTION

©Dan LeFebvre

other areas of interest. For example, when NEST detecting a chemical incident, thermostat wind speed, direction, exact control – sensing in homes and the sensor location and a simple Internet of visual representation delivers Things. enhanced situational awareness to the operator. Sensor fusion can be combined in an onward capability to deliver data fusion. Governments and their S&T (science & technology) agencies are working hard to automate

data collection, to include sensors, and use AI (artificial intelligence) to enhance decision making in the field. The thinking is to place less burden on the operator by automating which information is relevant to the operator – and, thereby, ensuring that only information is visually presented. This level of integration is only achievable currently through the use of vast arrays of devices and computing power and lacks portability.

Use of electronics for sensor processing and automation.

Counter-EO platform At DSEI 2019, sensors featured heavily – with technology becoming more and more attractive at defence exhibitions. Once again, missing from DSEI was a constructive method of delivering sensor fusion to users, enabling multiple types of sensor. Other than at our stand in the Innovation Hub, which was visited by VIPs, international delegations, politicians, visitors and serving military personnel who were

©Alexandre Debiève

basis. Often this has been achieved through space, naval and other defence applications for decades. For example, the Phalanx CIWS (Sea-wiz) is an example of projectbased sensor fusion where radar, infrared and other sensor data is fused together and provided to the operator. This, however, is not a man-portable solution; it requires extensive power and processing capability along with platform installation – for example, on a ship. Fusion in the field However, providing sensor fusion in the field has proved a challenge, with portable platforms offering integration limited to individual sensor manufacturers, or single devices. The effect of this is to limit the operator to handheld devices with no onward method of transmission, or limiting them to a single manufacturer – which often misses the opportunity for sensing

PELAmesh during DSEI 2019 with live demonstration throughout the exhibition, battery powered.

©PELA Systems Ltd

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DETECTION

UAV platforms being modified with additional sensors.

Army Fuchs platform with vehicle-based sensing platforms and handheld detectors.

including what they could bring to sensor fusion. Our UAV development – PELAcopter – has sought to overcome the challenge of traditional UAV platforms within rapid deployment, extended duration and sensitive operations, such as CBRN. However, even within the unmanned, autonomous and optionally-manned environment, sensor fusion remains a challenge where the physical platform has been developed faster than the ©OGL Graeme Main/MOD

©Tom Morales

fascinated to understand more about sensor fusion, particularly the PELAmesh ground-breaking platform for Counter-EO operations. PELAmesh does not just focus on the data from one type of sensor. It merges live data streams, from dozens of deployed sensors, into a simple graphic display with easy alerting. Limiting information overload for the user has been a key consideration in PELAmesh; the platform is designed with full and ‘alert-only’ functionality, resulting in a simplified output. This was further highlighted during attendance at the Toxic Trip 2019 CBRN exercise in Italy, where CBRN operators from across NATO nations were presented with the PELAmesh solution and sensor fusion in Counter-EO environments. Immediate benefits are clear – operators can utilise autonomous platforms to deploy and operate sensors, viewing a more comprehensive dataset from a safe, remote location.

replacing a range of sensors or buying a ‘locked-down’ platform with built-in obsolescence. Military forces are also looking closely at, and developing, wearable technology to offer greater insight to the individual on the battlefield, merging this data with other nearby assets to track common features and capabilities. Battle Management Systems (BMS) identify ‘friendly’ assets, geographic features and known enemy forces. While recently speaking with NATO operators, many of these BMS platforms were found to be outdated and the ability to introduce sensor fusion to future BMS platforms, especially in dismounted roles such as CBRN and counter-IED, is a key area for the user.

consideration for sensing and integration with other devices. A drone can operate and supply a video feed to the operator on one console while the ground vehicle is on another, wind measurement is on another display, and so on. This is why these platforms have often been vehicle-based, such as the Fuchs platform – and integrated into monolithic command systems. The PELAmesh platform enables operators to deploy rapidly, with or without the support of vehicles, to quickly and accurately, detect, identify and monitor the environment. Whether CBRN, IED, environmental or geographic – PELAmesh offers sensor fusion at a level never before achieved. And the innovation continues. ✺

Filling the capability gap Sensor fusion is an area military forces have identified as a ‘capability gap’. They have umpteen sensors, sometimes from defence procurement 15-years ago, which do not have a suitable replacement. Networking these sensors together and providing sensor fusion across multiple devices is the goal – without

Unmanned platforms In summary, it would be an oversight to exclude unmanned or autonomous platforms. Unmanned, autonomous and optionally manned platforms all have a role in sensor fusion and the future of sensing in both war and peacetime duties. There is already a great deal of detail on UAVs, drones and their deployment capabilities,

Peter Lashbrook is the founder of PELA Systems and a CBRN consultant. PELA Systems, a UK-based company, design and manufacture the Patented PELAmesh range of remote scene assessment and sensor fusion platforms for man-portable and infrastructure applications worldwide.

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CASE STUDY

IT’S A RAID

In December 2018, the BBC reported that a couple had been jailed for making home-made explosives in Cardiff after a property raid. South Wales Police, alongside multiple specialist support teams (including the Welsh Extremism and CounterTerrorism Unit), conducted the property raid in August 2018 after a tip-off

All photos ©FLIR

T

he raid led to suspects being convicted of possession of explosives, counts of manufacture and counts of possession of a document containing information useful to terrorism. Identifying explosive material The FLIR Fido X2 explosive trace detector (ETD), sold by Southern Scientific in the UK, was used by officers at the scene to identify and verify explosive threats. Handheld ETDs operate by collecting trace quantities of explosive material present on surfaces or individuals

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MARCH 2020

First-touch area explosive screening.

that have been in contact with explosive material. TrueTrace™ The FLIR Fido X2 and X3 use TrueTrace technology for detection of Trace (nanogram) amounts of explosives. Fido X Series uses multiplexed luminescence technology, a reversible, chemically-specific interaction. TrueTrace enabled devices allow high throughput with a low cost-per-sample, making them a popular portable trace detection instrument. Quick analysis of samples Within ten seconds, the FLIR Fido X2 can accurately analyse samples collected with reusable swabs. The X2 ETD displays simple ‘Threat’/’No Threat’ results, along with category-based explosive identification. The system graphical user interface (GUI) and on-board tutorial


CASE STUDY

JAMES

TOMLINSON

RELATES

A RECENT CASE STUDY WHERE THE

FLIR FIDO X2 HANDHELD EXPLOSIVE DETECTOR WAS

Triacetone triperoxide (TATP) identification on Fido X2 ETD.

DEPLOYED FOR A COUNTER-TERRORISM OPERATION

The FLIR Fido X2 ETD unit.

videos guide the user through operation, with basic operator training taking less than an hour. During the property raid in Cardiff, the X2 was first used to swab the suspect’s hands, testing positive for explosive material within seconds. The speed of analysis ensures that responding officers can quickly and accurately identify threats with confidence. The X2 also boasts a rapid start-up of just three minutes and a rapid clear down within seconds, making it the device of choice for first responders to save time during critical operations. Lightweight and portable ETD Ergonomically designed and ultra-lightweight, the Fido X2 is easily portable during periods of high alert. Officers in Wales utilised the X2 ETD throughout the raid to test suspects and items while multiple teams conducted a

thorough search of the property in question. They demonstrated that portable handheld ETD technology, such as the FLIR Fido X Series, is sensitive, portable and intuitive, allowing it to play a primary role in combating the global threat of terrorism. ✺ James Tomlinson is the CBRNe Sales Director at Southern Scientific Ltd with eight years’ experience in military/first responder sales and a background in radiation detection and scintillation materials.

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59


ADVERTORIAL: EUROSATORY 2020

A major event for the CBRNe industry Eurosatory, the international leading exhibition of land and airland defence and security, will be held from 8 to 12 June 2020 in Paris

W

ith 1,802 exhibitors from 63 countries and over 98,700 participants from five continents and 153 countries, Eurosatory has unquestionably established itself as the leading international exhibition in the field of Land and Airland Defence and Security. In 2020, the organiser COGES expects even more exhibitors and other participants from around the world. For the 2020 event, national pavilions of Belgium, Australia, Switzerland, Germany and Scandinavian countries have already increased their exhibiting surface. Lithuanian industries will exhibit for the first time under a national pavilion. The 27th edition of Eurosatory will highlight innovation and present the latest technologies and solutions in Defence and Security domains. International high-level delegations will come to the exhibition from all over the world. In 2018, Eurosatory welcomed 227 official delegations from 94 countries and four international organisations – EU, NATO, UN and OSCE. A great number of VIP experts (key persons in the equipment

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procurement process) from different countries (34 countries in 2018) come to Eurosatory: national technical experts, corporate safety directors of private companies, and others. Moreover, the exhibition is visited by many ministers and deputy ministers, chiefs of staff of armed and security forces, and many other countless professionals. CBRNe domain is a historical component of the exhibition. Among the exhibiting companies, there are companies that offer CBRNe solutions such as Avon Protection, Bertin Technologies, Bruker Detection, Cegelec, Cristanini, Dräger Safety, Ecotest, Environics, GIE Defense NBC, Hotzone, Kärcher, Matisec, NBC Sys, Oritest, Ouvry, Paul Boye, VTT, Thales and others. A technological cluster dedicated to CBRNe issues exists at the event since 2008 and gathers CBRNe companies. In 2020, it will be animated by IB Consultancy. Daily Live Civil-Military CBRNe Demonstrations will be realised by end-users at the cluster, showcasing capabilities of civil and military first responders. Participants will be able to live an immersion in the NCT PRO Experience and wear an CBRNe suit.

In 2018, about 20% of Official Delegations showed an interest for the domain and visit manufacturers from the CBRNe sector. Moreover, the organiser expects to see at the exhibition Chiefs of Police of New York, London, Sydney, Stockholm and other terror-impacted cities to bring and exchange their knowledge in responses to terrorist threats. Attendees of Eurosatory exhibition take advantage of the opportunity to learn about the latest developments and main trends in defence technologies by visiting live demonstrations available outdoors and indoors, a real specificity of the show. The products and equipment are presented in action in real situations. In addition to exhibiting companies, foreign and French institutional bodies (police, firefighters, intervention groups) will take part in the live demonstrations. For example, the Prefecture of Police – the governmental organisation in charge of Security in Paris area – and the BRI and BSPP interservices will realise a live demonstration dedicated to CBRNe issues. Eurosatory supports exchanges of views about the evolution of Defence and Security between all the players of the land and airland defence and security domain. Therefore, over 70 conferences and exhibitor pitches are organised over the five days of the exhibition with the presence of over 250 speakers. In 2020, IB Consultancy will organise several conferences and debrief CBRNe issues to debrief them with official delegations, institutional representatives, experts and manufacturers. Without any doubt, Eurosatory is the unmissable exhibition for CBRNe companies. Eurosatory 2020 will take place in Paris, 8-12 June 2020. For more information, please visit www.eurosatory.com. ✺


LAND AND AIRLAND DEFENCE AND SECURITY EXHIBITION

08-12 JUNE 2020 / PARIS THE UNMISSABLE

WORLDWIDE

EXHIBITION 1,802

exhibitors

+14,7%

from 63 countries 65,9% of international

65 startups at Eurosatory LAB

98,721

Total attendance (exhibitors, visitors, press, organisers)

227 Official delegations from 94 countries and 4 organisations (representing 760 delegates)

696

journalists

from 44 countries

75 Conferences 2,102 Business meetings made

2018 key figures


BOOK REVIEW

IDENTIFYING THE UNKNOWN

Practical Military Ordnance Identification (Second Edition)

Published by CRC Press In the series Practical Aspects of Criminal and Forensic Investigations

T

he threat variables associated with military ordnance are enormous, requiring the application of a structured process to identify unknown munitions. The focus of Practical Military Ordnance Identification, Second Edition is the application of a practical deductive process to identify unknown ordnance items that are commonly recovered outside military control. Written by Tom Gerbeck, an EOD technician in the United States Marine Corps until 2001, he later served as an explosive security specialist with the US Federal Air Marshal Service (FAMS). As an independent contractor, he deployed to Afghanistan and served as an EOD team lead in Iraq. Today, Tom is a full-time member of the graduate faculty for Oklahoma State University’s School for Forensic Sciences, Arson-Explosives, Firearams & Toolmarks Investigation (AEFTI) programme. The author supplies a seven-step procedure to identify unknown munitions by their category, group, and type. Detailed logic trees help users narrow down the possibilities in order to accurately identify ordnance. The book covers the safety precautions associated with each category and group of ordnance. It describes many ordnance construction characteristics and explains the fundamentals of military ordnance fuzing. Appendices define terms and supply abbreviations and acronyms used to describe military ordnances. Coverage new to this edition includes: a list of conventional markings; additional safety precautions to take; an expanded list of high explosives; additional technical details on explosives effects; hazards associated with pyrotechnics, pyrophorics, smoke compounds and incendiaries; a section on pre-1870 projectiles, hand grenades, landmines, underwater ordnances, and rockets; and for the first time, details on Man-Portable-AirDefense-Systems (MANPADS) missile systems. Technical research has been provided by Daniel Evers, who joined the US Marine Corps in 2003 as an EOD technician who has deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan in support of combat operations, responding to IED and ordnance related calls for assistance, and training personnel responsible for EOD-related work. The book has been written for public safety bomb technicians, SWAT personnel, explosives detection canine

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handlers, emergency management personnel, beach and park patrol units, forensic laboratory staff, evidence response teams, UXO technicians and deminers. According to the author, the goal of the latest edition of the book is to offer these professionals a means of identifying potential threats as well as how to accurately articulate critical information to those in a position to assist in safely resolving a potentially dangerous situation. The book is copiously illustrated with more than 180 photographs and diagrams, with appendices covering US ordnance-related abbreviations, marking and symbols; functional definitions for ordnance-related terms; US and Russian explosive designations; US and Russian ordnance marking schemes, and black powder, smooth bore projectile diameters and weights. The author has dedicated the book to the bomb technicians who have paid the ultimate price, and to those risking their lives every day. âœş


NEXT LEVEL EXPLOSIVES DETECTION C

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