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04 EVENTS AND ADVERTISERS 06 FOREWORD
Andy Oppenheimer examines the latest terrorist IED attacks.
Tahmiena Naji Editor-in-Chief
Andy Oppenheimer AIExpE MIABTI Deputy Editors
Dr. Salma Abbasi, David Oliver US Correspondent
Frank G. Rando Design and Production Manager
Mariel Tabora Foulds CBNW Xplosive is published by React Media Publishing, 15 Heritage House, Chase Side, London N14 5BT, UK. Telephone: +44 20 8886 2133 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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www.cbnw.co.uk ISSN 2059-7894. © React Media Publishing 2017. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be used, reproduced, stored in an information retrieval system or transmitted in any manner whatsoever without the express written permission of React Media. This publication has been prepared wholly upon information supplied by the contributors and while the publishers trust that its contents will be of interest to readers, its accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The publishers are unable to accept, and hereby expressly disclaim any liability for the consequences of any inaccuracies, errors or omissions in such information whether occurring during the processing of such information for publication or otherwise. No representations, whether within the meaning of the Misrepresentation Act 1967 or otherwise, warranties or endorsements of any information contained herein are given or intended and full verification of all information appearing in the publication of the articles contained herein does not necessarily imply that any opinions therein are necessarily those of the publishers.
08 THE MANCHESTER MASSACRE
Andy Oppenheimer analyses Britain’s worst terrorist bombing since London 7/7. 12 INTERVIEW: INSIGHT AND RESOLVE
David Oliver talks to Dr Robert J. Stokes of Cobalt Light Systems about explosives detection. 17 SCTX 2017
David Thompson describes this year’s Security & CounterTerror Expo. 20 GROUND CONTROL TO MAJORMOD
22 STRAY DOGS
Andy Oppenheimer explores terrorist use of the Internet for bomb-making. 26 ENTRY OF THE GLADIATORS
30 NINE LIVES
The Diamond Aircraft UXO Control DA42 TerraStar
Melanie Moughton relates how Felix Fund supports the EOD community.
Roland Alford demonstrates his company’s latest disruptors.
David Oliver looks at counter-IED training with the Swiss Armed Forces.
34 RISING FROM THE ASHES
Brian Clesham considers private enterprises for mitigating explosive remnants of war. 38 RING A LOUDER ALARM
Frank G. Rando lays out response planning for terrorism events. 40 COUNTRY FOCUS: WE HAVE THE WATCHES…
Ron Aledo focuses on the resurgence of Taliban terrorism in Afghanistan. 44 UNDER PRESSURE
Dr. Jean-Philippe Dionne and Dr. Aris Makris explain vital
factors in bomb suit testing. 48 DOWNING THE DRONES
Kier Head takes the deadly game of cat and mouse into the air. 52 FLYING THE TERRASTAR
David Oliver takes off in advanced aircraft for detecting UXO. 56 THE RECOILLESS REVOLUTION
Cathy Parker presents a new addition for the EOD toolkit. 59 ON THE RADAR
Gregory Labzovsky introduces a new scanner to spot personborne devices. 62 HIDDEN KILLERS
Manish Khandelwal rolls out lightweight suits for minefield breaching.
EVENTS & INDEX 2018 EVENTS
2017 EVENTS 19-21 September
NCT USA 2017 Washington DC, USA www.nct-usa.com
NCT South America Bogota, Colombia www.nctsouthamerica.com
3rd C-IED Technology Workshop C-IED Centre of Excellence Madrid, Spain email@example.com
SCTX London Olympia www.counterterrorexpo.com
31 October-2 November Ordnance, Munitions and Explosives Symposium Cranfield University Shrivenham, UK www.cranfield.ac.uk/events/symposia-at-shrivenham 6-8 November NCT Middle East 2017 Doha, Qatar www.nct-middleeast.com 21-24 November Milipol Paris Paris, France www.em.milipol.com 29-30 November
April NCT USA 2018 Washington DC, USA www.nct-usa.com 29-31 May NCT Asia Pacific 2018 Tokyo, Japan www.nctasiapacific.com 11-15 June Eurosatory 2018 Paris France www.eurosatory.com 2-4 July NCT Europe 2018 Vught, the Netherlands www.nct-europe.com
UK Security Expo 2017 London Olympia, UK firstname.lastname@example.org
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Field Forensics ..............................................7 Flir Inc ...................................................... IFC NBC-Sys .....................................................58 Nexter Robotics ...........................................BC Teledyne ICM .............................................. IBC
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EVENT ADS 4th International Symposium Berlin ................ 47 CBRNe Summit Asia 2017............................55 Eurosatory ................................................. 43 IB Consultancy NCT Events ........................... 29 SCTX ........................................................ 37
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MANCHESTER TO MOSUL:
THE WEAPON OF CHOICE In just six months the UK was targeted by four terrorist attacks. Three were in central London. The Manchester suicide bombing on 22 May, in which 22 were killed and hundreds injured by a single suicide attacker carrying a rucksack IED, was the worst attack on British soil since London 7/7.
Metropolitan Police Commissioner Cressida Dick said in a radio interview in mid-July that five imminent attacks had also been pre-empted in recent weeks. More than 100 people in the UK have been convicted of terrorism offences related to Syria and Iraq since 2014. At least 500 investigations into suspected terrorist activity are ongoing. The number of people arrested on suspicion of Islamist terrorism in the EU rose in 2016 for the third year in a row: 718 jihadist terror suspects were arrested, up from 687 in 2015 and 395 in 2014. While terrorists resort increasingly to the ‘low-tech’ M.O. of knives and vehicles to mow down pedestrians, the IED continues to be their pre-eminent weapon of choice in all conflict areas. There are, as ever, too many events to document, but prime examples were on 31 May in Kabul, when 150 were killed and 400 injured in a huge truck bomb in Kabul's diplomatic quarter, the deadliest attack since the US invasion in 2001 and attributed to the Taliban-affiliated Haqqani network. On 4 April 14 people were killed in explosions at two underground stations in St Petersburg, Russia. And what of Daesh? Iraqi forces reclaiming the city of Mosul and other areas turned into a brutal ‘caliphate’ by the terrorist scourge of our time are met by hundreds of suicide IEDs, mortars, booby trapped ruined buildings, and vehicle bombs – across thousands of square miles of Iraq and Syria. Many IEDs have machined firing pins and commercially derived fuses. As well as purloining predecessor designs used during the Iraqi insurgency, Daesh IEDs are on an unprecedented scale – densely-packed to keep their captives in and deny territory to advancing forces. Selecting just three IED incidents: in May a man received a 15-year jail sentence for leaving a bomb filled with ball bearings on a London tube train last October. In July UK intelligence helped foil an Australian plot to bring down a passenger aircraft using poison gas or a crude bomb In this edition, disguised as a meat mincer. The terrorist cell which Andy Oppenheimer looks killed 14 people in Catalonia on 17 August was at the investigation into the reportedly planning a bombing attack in Manchester bombing and assesses Barcelona that was only abandoned when terrorist use of the Internet to make they accidentally blew up the house where IEDs; Brian Clesham advocates private they were stockpiling explosives. enterprises for demining operations; David All such incidents require immediate police Thompson reports on Security & Counter and EOD response. Occurring during the Terror Expo 2017 and Ronald Alford describes June election campaign, the Manchester disruptor demos at the show; Ronnie Aledo attack led to calls for no further cuts to warns against the Taliban resurgence in police and other responder services, along Afghanistan; Kier Head rolls out jammers against with demands to increase funding and drones; Melanie Moughton outlines the role of personnel: terrorism policing was placed the Felix Fund charity; David Oliver interviews on an “emergency footing” after the attacks. leading firm Cobalt Light Systems, and takes Former Met chief Paul Condon said the us aboard advanced aircraft for detecting reduced number of frontline officers could lead UXO. And as is customary, we at to the police missing vital information about CBNW Xplosive extend our thanks future terrorist attacks. We need more, not less, to all of you who risk your lives of these dedicated and brave people. They do not to help keep us safe. run, they do not hide. ✺
At 22.30 hrs on 22 May, a lone suicide bomber, UK-born Salman Abedi, detonated a single devastating device in a concert arena packed with children and families in Manchester, northern England. He killed 22 and injured over 200. The attack was a stark reminder that IEDs remain the terrorist weapons of choice, worldwide. And that they are likely to be homemade, from easily acquired materials.
anchester 2017 was the worst act of terrorism on British soil since the transit bombings on 7 July 2005. Greater Manchester Police (GMP) Chief Constable Ian Hopkins said it was "the most horrific incident" the city had ever
details of the IED. The New York Times and later, The Guardian published the photographs taken at the crime scene by British police- including images of the possible detonator and remains of the Karrimor backpack. The size and type of explosive
by hairdressers and other retail outlets, an acid such as sulphuric acid, and acetone. Renowned explosives engineer Dr Sidney Alford told The Independent that a lethal quantity of the explosive could be ready in just 24 hours, with two hours to make it, then it has to be
EXAMINES THE DETAILS OF
7 JULY 2005
witnessed. It occurred only yards from where a massive IRA vehicleborne IED devastated the Arndale centre on 15 June 1996. Release of details Complicating the post-attack investigation and British cooperation with US intelligence was the sudden leak in May to the US media of
Above & Left: CCTV images emerged on the day of the attack of Abedi carrying a blue suitcase.
used in the bomb’s main charge was examined by the UK government’s Forensic Explosive Laboratories (FEL). When the photos were first leaked, Chair of the US Homeland Security Committee Mike McCaul said the device contained the homemade HE, TATP, which is made from commonly available materials – hydrogen peroxide, used as bleach
I’M QUITE SURE THAT A PERSON WHO HAS BEEN ON A TERRORIST COURSE WILL BE INSTRUCTED BY PEOPLE WHO WILL KNOW HOW TO ARRANGE THINGS SO THAT THE POSSIBILITY OF KILLING YOURSELF [DURING MANUFACTURE] IS QUITE LOW… I’M GUESSING THAT ABEDI WAS GIVEN EXPERIENCE IN DOING IT DR SIDNEY ALFORD, THE INDEPENDENT, 3 JUNE 2017
filtered, washed, and dried. ‘Mother of Satan’ TATP is highly unstable and can explode prematurely, hence being dubbed ‘the Mother of Satan.’ It can be 80% as powerful as a goldstandard HE, TNT. It is also very hard to detect – making it a chosen mix for terrorists, who have used it in multiple attacks in the Middle East, in the recent Paris and Brussels attacks, and in the London July 2005 bombings. The Manchester bomber is believed to have packed powdered TATP inside a bag, surrounded by the frag items. There was also a 12-volt battery used for emergency lighting,
I WOULD SUSPECT THAT THEY DIDN'T HAVE CONFIDENCE HE WAS GOING TO GO THROUGH WITH IT. HE MIGHT NOT EVEN HAVE KNOWN THAT IT HAD A REMOTE DETONATOR OR THAT THEY COULD BLOW HIM UP THEMSELVES Col Hamish de Bretton-Gordon, Mail Online, 25 May 2017 ©Manchester Evening News
which is more powerful than used in many terrorist IEDs. The detonator appeared to have a small circuit board soldered inside one end so may have been fabricated as a switch to ensure the IED detonated in case the bomber backed out or was taken down. Alone – or with help? Abedi is believed to have built the bomb alone. But according to Director of Avon Protection Systems and regular CBNW contributor Col Hamish de Bretton-Gordon, photos of the bomb suggested Abedi had 'significant help', adding: “This is not something you can knock up in your back shed.” Questions abound as to whether
Left & Below: Location of the Manchester blast.
Above: Abedi walking
©Eugen Simion 14 OpenStreetMap/Wikimedia
Abedi acted alone in buying the components needed to make the device, and if he was trained while on a recent trip to Libya. The instruction, planning and execution for the Manchester massacre at first indicated a degree of fabrication skills and, therefore, a network. Recent attacks have indicated self-starter cells – small, linked groups of radicalised individuals with a supply of weapons, explosives and IED components – rather than ‘lone wolves.’ Then on 31 May, the North West Counter Terrorism Unit revealed that Abedi bought most of the components used to make the bomb. By 12 June, 11 arrested suspects had
Left: British military personnel stand alongside armed police as part of Operation Temperer in response to the raised threat level.
been released, including Abedi's older brother, Ismail, with his younger brother, Hasham, detained in Tripoli on suspicion of links with Daesh, which predictably claimed responsibility for the Manchester attack. Based on CCTV and phone calls it appears many of Abedi’s movements
were “carried out alone” in the four days prior to the attack. Images emerged of him on the day of the attack carrying a blue suitcase, an object of interest for the ongoing investigation – which involves 16,000 hours of CCTV footage and 755 statements. In early July GMP said he carried
THIS IS NOT SOMETHING YOU CAN JUST PUT TOGETHER BY READING A BOOK OR WATCHING A YOUTUBE VIDEO. HE WILL HAVE SPENT TIME AT A CAMP SOMEWHERE, POSSIBLY IN LIBYA, BEING SHOWN HOW TO DO IT. BUT ONCE YOU HAVE THE SKILLS AND THE MATERIALS, ASSEMBLING THE DEVICE ITSELF CAN BE DONE FAIRLY QUICKLY FORMER METROPOLITAN POLICE OFFICER DAVID VIDECETTE, WHO WAS INVOLVED IN THE INVESTIGATION INTO THE LONDON 7/7 ATTACKS
the device through Manchester city centre for “several hours” before the attack. Ch Supt Russ Jackson said others may have been “aware or complicit” but that police do not believe he had any target other than the Arena in mind.
OUR ENQUIRIES SHOW ABEDI HIMSELF MADE MOST OF THE PURCHASES OF THE CORE [BOMB] COMPONENTS AND WHAT IS BECOMING APPARENT IS THAT MANY OF HIS MOVEMENTS AND ACTIONS HAVE BEEN CARRIED OUT ALONE DURING THE FOUR DAYS FROM HIM LANDING IN THE COUNTRY AND COMMITTING THIS AWFUL ATTACK HEAD OF NORTH WEST COUNTER TERRORISM UNIT, DETECTIVE CHIEF SUPERINTENDENT RUSS JACKSON
delivering the bomb to target. Using two addresses to assemble the device was a tactic used by the 7/7 bombers, who learned IED ©Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue
Manchester had already experienced the largest bomb exploded on the UK mainland since World War II: by the Provisional IRA, who detonated a vast vehicle-borne device in the city centre on 15 June 1996.
©Tomasz "odder" Kozlowski/wikimedia
Multiple IEDs? There were fears Abedi had constructed a second IED when the uncovered stash of chemical explosives indicated there was enough to “build two or three bombs.” The threat level was temporarily raised to Critical in the UK, meaning an attack is imminent; troops were deployed at high-profile locations. Abedi is known to have Site of the blast in travelled from his home in the arena foyer the Fallowfield district of shows the vulnerability Manchester to a rented of the exit where people were crowding apartment in Granby Row to leave the event. where he assembled the IED components before
Floral tributes to the victims covered St Ann's Square in Manchester city centre.
fabrication at a training camp in Pakistan. Police previously suggested Abedi may have built the bomb in 24 hours following his return from Libya on 18 May, having met with Daesh militants. Among hundreds of returnees from Syria and other jihadist insurgencies, some will be trained Graphic of in explosives. the Manchester Arena shows the Daesh has long exits and the targeted gained a foothold foyer where 22 in Libya to plan concertgoers were killed.
and launch terror attacks in Europe. The presence of the abnormal The white Nissan Micra car Abedi bought on 13 April two days before leaving the UK for a month-long trip to Libya was used to store bomb parts and was captured on CCTV putting plastic barrels into the vehicle. The footage shows him purchasing more items for the bomb, including nuts ©PI Bill Warner from a DIY store and the tin uncovered “a number of suspicious container for the explosive: all purchases” of materials, and to have commonplace household items. collected pre-prepared bomb parts Detectives believe items were from the car for him to assemble – stored in it for a short period of time, alone – in his rented tower block flat. either material to make a bomb or The landlord claimed that the flat a pre-made charge. The actual smelled of chemicals – the ‘presence assembly of all the parts appears to of the abnormal’, – and recalls seeing have been in the days immediately other items which in hindsight were before the attack. Det Ch Supt Jackson said they had IED components.
NEW S2 DETK AND LETK. THE POWER OF SIMPLICITY.
The bomber targeted a weak point in venue security when crowds are leaving, and cramming the exits and routes to public transport. Reconnaissance was likely carried out for the perpetrator to choose the foyer for the attack. Extra Hydrogen security peroxide is a provisions prime ingredient in TATP (triacetone are urgently triperoxide) needed to homemade HE. secure exit points at such venues. A report in The Times in late June claimed that Abedi most likely learned how to construct his device from YouTube tutorial videos (see ‘Stray Dogs’, this edition). If this is ever confirmed, whether or not the failed university student had also received real-life training questions will resound over the accessibility of such material on the Internet.✺
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BBI DETECTION LISTENS, INNOVATES, DELIVERS AND PROTECTS XPLOSIVE
Unopened coloured containers are screened for explosives with Resolve, a new handheld system for through-barrier Hazmat, Explosives and Narcotics ID.
CBNW XPLOSIVE DEPUTY EDITOR DAVID OLIVER TALKS TO DR ROBERT J. STOKES, PRODUCT MANAGER FOR DETECTION AT COBALT LIGHT SYSTEMS. COBALT WAS ACQUIRED BY AGILENT TECHNOLOGIES IN JULY 2017.
INSIGHT AND RESOLVE All photos Â©Cobalt Light
Headquartered near Oxford in the UK, Cobalt Light Systems develops and produces instruments across a range of Raman applications for laboratory and industrial analysis. The underlying technology is exclusive to the company and was invented at the Science and Technology Facilities Council’s (STFC) Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK. CBNW Xplosive: Could you provide a short history of the company – and how it became involved in the market?
RJS: Cobalt spun out of the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire, UK in 2008. The core intellectual property (IP) is all based around novel variations on Raman spectroscopy. Agilent Technologies acquired the company in July of this year. Raman is a widely used technique whereby a laser is used to illuminate a material of interest. Some of the light is scattered back and can be used to generate a unique spectrum, allowing the material to be identified. An important and unique strand of Cobalt’s IP is based around a variant, spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS). This allows Raman to be used through coloured and opaque barriers, such as plastics, packaging, and coloured glass – removing the requirement to open or disturb potentially hazardous items in order to take a sample. The first products were deployed in the pharmaceutical industry in 2010, measuring content uniformity in manufactured tablets and verifying raw materials used in manufacturing: This continues as a major part of the business today. The liquids ban In 2006 the failed plot to bring down an airliner resulted in a ban on liquids, aerosols and gels (LAGs) in cabin baggage. Since then there has been a desire within European and other regulatory bodies to lift this ban, creating a requirement to screen and clear alarms on liquid explosives and precursors. Cobalt developed the ‘Insight’ series of desktop liquid explosives detection systems (LEDs) to meet
this demand. The technology quickly established itself as the best performing on the market in terms of detection and false alarm rate, whether used stand alone or in combination with other technology such as X-ray. To date, hundreds of Insight systems have been deployed worldwide both at small regional airports and major international hubs. Cobalt won the Royal Academy of Engineering MacRobert Award for the Insight100 in 2014 As Insight was becoming established in the aviation security market, Cobalt responded to a demand from the UK and US governments for a portable version of the same ‘through-barrier’ detection technology that would operate with a large library of 12,000-plus items in a wide range of conditions. From this programme the handportable ‘Resolve’ unit was developed and launched in 2016. This system dramatically increases Cobalt’s exposure to the market due to the huge range of applications a handheld SORS unit has. To date Resolve systems are successfully deployed in all of the fields it was originally intended for, including EOD, hazmat, CWA, search/recon, narcotics, ports and borders, and policing. CBNW Xplosive: How many staff does Cobalt employ and how many are involved in research and development?
RJS: The Cobalt headcount is currently around 55, split across the HQ in Oxfordshire, UK plus satellite offices in Reston Virginia USA, Hong Kong, and Germany. Around 25 are active in R&D. CBNW Xplosive: Can you explain the different explosive detection systems marketed under your main brands?
RJS: The Insight series of systems are desktop-sized and are deployed almost exclusively at airports in fixed, cooperative, security checkpoints. They are targeted specifically against liquid explosives and precursors and are highly tuned to that application. Resolve is a much more versatile, handheld system meaning it can be deployed in a much wider range of scenarios. The library is much larger and covers a wider range of threats. Both systems use Cobalt’s unique SORS technology to penetrate all non-metallic containers. Resolve can take as little as ~1min to scan an item and this is limited by the fact that it has to deal with a complex set of environmental conditions. This compares with the desktop, less environmentally challenged Insight systems, which take about five seconds to screen a container. The Insight also has an additional capability to screen metal containers- this feature is not available on Resolve. CBNW Xplosive: What are the advantages of your explosive detection systems over other products on the market?
RJS: Resolve’s primary advantage is SORS. Most handheld Raman systems use a standard ‘point-and-shoot’ mode, limiting substance ID to thin, transparent bottles and bags, and sampling vials. Resolve can operate in point-and-shoot and vial modes too, but SORS enables a brand new capability, allowing the operator to quickly identify materials concealed behind a wide range of barriers – including coloured plastics, dark glass, paper, card, wrapping, sacks and fabrics. It does this without having to open or disturb containers to obtain a sample, and without compromising the integrity of the packaging in any way. This means there is no risk of unknown material release, improving operator and public safety, and reducing any potential
The Insight200M liquid explosive detection system used for scanning at an airport security checkpoint.
The Insight200M screens all containers, including metals (Tetra Paks are foil lined).
environmental impact due to spillage. Some homemade explosives, such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP), look like benign white powders but can be sensitive to disturbance, and many materials can become less stable and more hazardous when a container is opened and the contents mixed with air. So keeping hazards contained during an operation, where possible, is often a good thing. Quick substance ID without taking samples also increases operational efficiency, and time spent by operators in protective gear can be kept to a minimum. A further advantage is that, due to our unique SORS optics, we don’t use a focused laser beam like other Raman systems on the market. This means that the energy is not focused in one place and sensitive explosives can be scanned with a significantly reduced risk of detonation or deflagration. We also use a longer-wavelength 830 nm laser coupled to a very efficient optical system. This means we can scan many materials that exhibit fluorescence- a common form
of interference in conventional Raman spectroscopy using 785 nm or lower, the wavelength typically used by most handheld Raman systems. CBNW Xplosive: Who are your main customers in the civil sector?
RJS: Airports are the major customers for the Insight series of instruments. Your readers will be able to see them deployed in checkpoints at major hubs such as London Heathrow, Amsterdam Schiphol and Paris Charles de Gaulle. In the civil sector Resolve is mainly deployed with Police forces and at ports and borders. In border applications the systems often screen for incoming new psychoactive substances (NPS), synthetic opioidsincluding fentanyls and precursors. Synthetic opioids in particular have hit the headlines recently due to their extreme toxicity in small doses. The combination of a fatal dose measured in micrograms combined with the possibility for transdermal
absorbance means that they present a significant hazard. Resolve’s ability to scan through a range of packaging and containers reduces the risk of exposure to the operator. This makes it an ideal tool for these applications. Our Police customers also deal with hazardous narcotics identification at manufacturing sites. These manufacturing sites can often be co-located with other activities, including explosives. Police operators also come across explosive manufacturing sites where again the through-barrier advantage is significant. TATP for example can look like a relatively benign material, but there have been examples of this being discovered in locations where there was no other indication of bombmaking activity. Therefore scanning with a Resolve without disturbing the container and without using a focused beam is a significant safety advantage. CBNW Xplosive: What percentage of your business is in the military/para-military sector?
RJS: I’m not able to say, but it’s significant. CBNW Xplosive: Who are your main customers in the
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military/para-military sector? The system is operated via seven large buttons designed for use in level A PPE.
RJS: It is a matter of public record that during the development programme we were funded by and worked with a branch of the US Department of Defense called the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) or Counter Terrorism Technical Support Office (CTTSO). As part of this, we worked with organizations within the ‘Five Eyes’ network. Our initial customers were focused in the US, UK, Canada and Australia. Since then we have deployed systems in many other countries for explosives applications. I’d refer your interested readers to test reports Resolve’s through-barrier SORS technology works with coloured and opaque plastics, dark glass, paper and plastic sacks and envelopes as well as clear plastic bags and clear glass vials.
such as ATOM (UK) to offer combined training to customers. Resolve training is focused around tactics used in the field to get the best results. The throughbarrier capability is genuinely new to operators. CBNW Xplosive: Where do you see the greatest potential growth sector for your products?
generated by the relevant authorities in those countries. Unfortunately I can’t openly share details of the organizations currently using Resolve. CBNW Xplosive: Can you explain what training you offer to customers?
RJS: We have trained hundreds of staff at many airport fixed security checkpoints. Here the objective is to operate the system efficiently within
a predefined system of multiple technologies. The key here is a CONOP (concept of operations), which is a one-page description of best-practice use of the system. Resolve is different as it can sometimes be deployed in isolation and in a wide range of operating procedures. We offer full training on the Resolve unit that covers all application areas. Classes can be tailored towards operators or we also offer train-the-trainer classes for larger organizations. We sometimes partner with EOD training companies
RJS: The aviation security market is large, well established and can involve intermittent periods of very rapid growth that is often driven by regulation. Regulatory approvals (e.g. ECAC – European Civil Aviation Conference) are a key requirement and maintaining these is critical to achieving full potential. Resolve has a much wider range of potential markets, where the advantages are truly game changing. We are seeing very rapid growth where the advantages of throughbarrier detection, safety and improved detection performance are key. The increasingly obvious use of sensitive homemade explosives by terrorist organizations means the demand for Resolve is increasing rapidly. Agency trials and the reports produced for cross-agency consumption replace the regulatory approvals in the aviation industry, but are easily as important. ✺
All photos ©Burdon Photography on behalf of Clarion Events
Thousands of security professionals visited Security & Counter Terror Expo in May this year, bringing experience and knowledge from over 114 different countries.
THE LATEST EDUCATIONAL CONTENT, EQUIPMENT AND SERVICES THAT WERE ON DISPLAY IN
he terrorist landscape has changed in recent years with extremists going to new measures to cause harm and disruption across the globe. In May, some 9,850 security professionals from over 114 countries travelled to London for the latest instalment of Security & Counter Terror Expo (SCTX). The show once again incorporated leading forensics show Forensics Europe Expo and Ambition – the event for the emergency preparedness, resilience & response (EPRR) community. Show organisers,
Clarion Events, reported that the number of visitors was up 3% on the 2016 event, with one in ten representing a police or counter terror force.
World Counter Terror Congress One of the main attractions at this year’s event was the World Counter Terror Congress, which was attended by 1,050 delegates including diplomats and high-ranking police
officers. Covering policy and strategy in a number of key areas, such as de-radicalisation and preventing attacks, the congress featured dozens of world-renowned speakers, including Sir Malcolm Rifkind, Europol’s Rob Wainwright and Lucy D’Orsi, Deputy Assistant Commissioner, Metropolitan Police. In her presentation, Lucy D'Orsi addressed the threat posed by both international and home-grown terrorists stating the importance of
THE RECENT ATTACKS IN LONDON, MANCHESTER AND PARIS HAVE HIGHLIGHTED THE VITAL IMPORTANCE OF ENSURING THAT NATIONS, SECURITY PROFESSIONALS AND THE PUBLIC, ARE FULLY AWARE OF THE BEST WAY TO TACKLE TERRORISM. THIS YEAR, THE PROGRAMME WAS SPECIFICALLY DEVELOPED TO INFORM AND EDUCATE VISITORS ON THE MOST EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES TO PROTECT THE PUBLIC AND INFRASTRUCTURE. DAVID THOMPSON, EVENT DIRECTOR AT SECURITY & COUNTER TERROR EXPO
emerging trends this year. Key speakers included Dr. Louis Marinos, NIS R&A expert, Paul Thorlby, CTO at Qinetiq and John Godwin of UK Cloud. Talal Rajab, techUK’s Head of Programme, Cyber, National Security, added: “The cyber The new Counter IED Zone terrorism threat grows at SCTX brought immeasurably year-ontogether hundreds of year and we as an EOD, CIED, CBRNE, defence, law enforceindustry must grow, ment, counter terror adapt and react in equal and security measure. Security & professionals. Counter Terror Expo provides opportunities to learn from and meet with some of the key figures in the sector addressing the educating children in schools on most important issues we face today.” the ‘Run, Hide, Tell’ message. Rob Wainwright, the head of Europol, spoke about the use of the ‘dark web’ CNI and Business and how extremists can buy a British Reliance passport for as little as £750. He The Critical National Infrastructure went on to condemn the encrypted & Business Reliance conference Russian messaging app Telegram, featured a series of presentations with its refusal to cooperate with the authorities in discovering and preventing attacks before they happen. Richard Walton, former Head of Counter Terrorism for the Metropolitan Police Service added: “The biggest change we’ve seen from terrorists over the past year is the move towards simplifying their attacks as much as possible. This has completely changed the goalposts in how we must prepare and try to prevent these atrocities from happening. Motor vehicles are now one of the most common weapons of choice which presents a completely new challenge for security professionals to face. Events such as the World Counter Terror Congress are key to examining the policy and strategy bringing the industry together to responses to today’s terror threat. overcome these challenges and keep Among the 20 high-ranking officials us one step ahead of the terrorists.” and academics who presented was James Brandon, Director of Cyber Threat Intelligence Geopolitical Risk – Stirling Assynt. He discussed the threat assessment Presented by techUK, the Cyber challenge for critical business and Threat Intelligence Conference infrastructure protection in the UK: brought together those who work to “Carrying out accurate threat prevent cyber terrorism and crime – assessments on a regular basis can one of the security industry’s biggest be challenging with the continuously concerns in today’s world. Among changing environment, however it the topics discussed was an analysis is vital in maintaining a security of the top cyber threats and
DRONES AND ANTI-DRONES
This year saw a focus on drone and anti-drone technology. With technology developments enhancing their capabilities, these devices are becoming increasingly important to the security industry. As a result, a number of leading businesses, including Diametrex, Drone Defence and Aerial Academy showcased their latest solutions at the show. AARONIA AG was proud to demonstrate the latest in anti-drone technology with its Real-Time Spectrum Analyzer drone detection system. Founder, Thorsten Chmielus, commented: “It’s a constant battle to keep up with the developing drone technology. We are working with drone manufacturers looking at every new model that comes to market.”
SCTX 2017 saw a focus on drone and anti-drone technology. With technology developments enhancing their capabilities, these devices are becoming increasingly important to the security industry.
procedure that is both up-to-date and appropriate to the threat posed to that particular building.” Border & Transport Security Atatürk international airport in Turkey and both Brussels airport and metro station have been subjected to recent terrorist attacks. Transport links are increasingly a target for terrorists, with aeroplanes, mass transit buses, rail terminals, ports, vehicles and transport facilities all
facing the risk of future attacks. The SCTX Border & Transport Security conference focused on airport security, anti-trafficking, customs and immigration. The conference attracted key stakeholders from Border Agencies, Border management and Immigration professionals, customs and security policy makers and practitioners, rail, air, sea, national and homeland security advisors, law enforcement and diplomats and foreign affairs officials. Public and private sector buyers, influencers and government delegations from across the globe attended SCTX to explore how the latest technology can be matched to their current and future needs. Advanced Technologies Live played a key role in delivering this as visitors were able to see and hear more about innovative solutions that the industry has to offer through a
series of live demonstrations. In the Advanced Technologies Live zone, Risk GOC displayed their smart stab-proof clothing. Despite being as thin as a t-shirt, the item is designed to protect the wearer from a knife attack with the blade unable to penetrate through the material. Clarion Events announced that the next edition of SCTX will return to London on 6-7 March 2018 for UK Security Week. Event Director, David
Thompson, added: “The 2017 show was highly successful and we aim to build on that next year by providing a conference programme and exhibition that ensures the world’s security professionals can source innovations and identify new tactics and strategies. We look forward to working with all our key partners over the coming months to develop an event that serves the needs of all our stakeholders.” ✺
For all exhibitor enquiries, please contact Sophie McKimm, Event Manager on +44 (0)20 7384 7894 or by email Sophie. McKimm@clarionevents.com. Security & Counter Terror Expo is co-located with leading emergency preparedness, resilience and response event, Ambition – the EPRR Event, and Forensics Europe Expo, the only dedicated international exhibition and conference for the entire forensic sector and supply chain. To register your interest to attend as a visitor and receive a notification when online registration opens, please visit the website at www.sctx.co.uk/register
David Thompson is responsible for running Security & Counter Terror Expo. Attracting security professionals from across the globe, the event showcases the latest counter terrorism technology and delivers high-level presentations from leading industry figures. David and his team ensure that the content of the show provides invaluable information to the people tasked with keeping civilians and assets safe.
Visitors view breaching charges.
All photos ©Alford Technologies
The term Counter-IED has evolved in recent years to encompass disrupting the entire IED timeline – from the planning phase of potential IED attacks to gathering forensic evidence that can help to identify the perpetrators and learning to defeat new designs of IED. Roland Alford describes his company’s pioneering role in the disruption of IEDs before they can detonate.
lford Technologies is a British company that lives in the specific period immediately before the device detonates, and the company’s raison d’être is to develop tools that can disrupt and therefore render safe IEDs before they can detonate. In the mid-1970s, the company’s founder and chairman, Dr Sidney Alford realised that in the constant cat and mouse game between the bomber and the bomb technician, conventional barrelled disruptors, which were essentially gun barrels that shoot water at IEDs, would eventually meet their match – by IEDs being made too strong or too big or triggered too fast to be disrupted by such tools.
High-speed water Dr Alford realised that the best way to overcome these limitations would be to use high explosives to drive water at immense speeds and power and set about inventing an entirely new type of disruptor. Forty years later, the company he founded is still at the cutting edge of disruptor technology and has recently been teaming up with Finnish Explosive company Forcit Defence to develop pre-filled versions of some of the company’s products. This marks a significant
Visitors view firing serials pre-set ups.
departure for the company which has always championed the benefits of user-filled charges, but it is clear that while such charges do, indeed, offer many benefits, there are situations where a pre-filled charge, which can be taken out of stores and fired at a target are preferable. Next-generation disruptor Indeed, Alford Technologies recently won a significant contract to develop a next-generation disruptor which will be filled by Forcit with FPX V40, one of their explosive plastic bonded explosives that will allow the system to meet the customer’s stringent Insensitive Munitions (IM) requirements. The two companies see this new collaboration as the ideal combination of Alford’s patented technologies and Forcit’s ability to fill complex charge designs with their own explosive
compositions. The relationship began a few years ago and has been growing over the last couple of years, firstly when Forcit provided their PETN based plastic explosive PENO for the successful demolition of the remaining structure of Didcot Power Station in the summer of 2016. In order to achieve what many had considered an impossible task, Alfords used tools and techniques from both military demolition and counter-IED to bring the structure down fully remotely. CT Expo 2017 demos For a number of years, Alford’s had held Demonstration Days of their equipment at their range facilities in the West of England. These days are timed to be on the day before the start of the Counter-Terror Expo in Olympia, London. Over the years, these events had grown in size and in 2016 Alford’s
Successful deflagration is achieved (after shot).
Charge set up
MajorMod is fired at an IED through the side of a vehicle (before and after shot).
Firebreak cuts command wires. It will also cut detonating cord without causing initiation.
invited Forcit to join them for these events. In 2017, the demonstration day was attended by an invited audience of 60 both military and commercial people who attended from many countries across our global agent network, including Denmark, USA, Italy, Hungary, Singapore, Poland, Finland, Middle East reps (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE), and the UK. The demonstration began with a brief talk about the various tools being demonstrated followed by a walk around the various targets. The companies’ subject matter experts were on hand to explain how the various tools work, explain the set-up and describe the expected results. A scrap car was set-up with a number of simulated IEDs in order to allow a range of tools to be deployed and fired against them. The Window Breaker was used to gain access to the vehicle while a MajorMod was fired through the car door to directly disrupt an IED in the footwell of the vehicle. Finally a Bottler Charge was used to disrupt the Time Power Unit of the IED before a Bootbanger was fired beneath the boot of the vehicle in order to extract the main charge of the IED from the back of the car.
Elsewhere on the range a live BL755 Hunting bomblet was low-ordered underwater using the company’s flagship Vulcan disruptor and some doors were set up for a breaching demonstration of the Alford Strip which is used to blow doors down using very light explosive loads. Forcit were able to demonstrate their HailStorm anti-vehicle charge. Two variants of their Mini Hailstorm were fired against scrap cars. The first has normal steel balls in it while the second has higher density tungsten balls which have significantly greater penetrating power for the same amount of explosive. There can be no better way to attend an exhibition than by going to a range in an area of outstanding natural beauty in fine weather and firing a load of explosives and without exception, those lucky enough to have attended the demonstration left having learned a great deal about explosives – and had a great day blowing stuff up. ✺ Roland Alford is the Managing Director of Alford Technologies. He has been involved in the business since he was a small child and considers explosives to be in his blood and is the inventor and co-inventor of many new and novel explosive systems.
STRAY DOGS In June 2017 reports emerged from the police investigation into Britain’s worst suicide bombing atrocity since 7 July 2005 that Salman Abedi reportedly learned how to make the bomb he used to kill 22 people at a pop concert in Manchester from YouTube tutorial videos.
WE MAY BE ENTERING AN ERA NOT OF
LONE WOLF, BUT STRAY DOG ATTACKS.
EXPLORES THE EXTENT
WESTERN SECURITY OFFICIAL
TO WHICH TERRORISTS USE THE
in the four days prior to t the heart of the AND OTHER SOURCES the attack. investigation following TO DEVELOP THE the explosion of a single backpack IED in the exit Online instruction BLACK ART OF foyer of the Manchester Arena on A source “with knowledge BOMB MAKING 22 May, every effort was being made of the investigation” was to understand whether Abedi had reported to have told The Times learned how to make what appeared in late June that Abedi used the to be a well-constructed device – video platform YouTube to learn either online, in Libya, or in the about the manufacture of IEDs, UK (possibly as part of a self-starter and downloaded material from from a series called ‘Jihadi Ideas cell) – or all of the above. other websites about the chemical for Lone Lions’ detailed how to By 4 June Greater Manchester compound – TATP (triacetone make an improvised device from Police (GMP) established that triperoxide) used in the bomb. TATP and using easily obtained the bomber bought most of the The highly unstable HME household items. components used to make the (homemade explosive) TATP has The video was taken down from IED himself and that his previous: it was also used by YouTube but the information about CCTV movements and actions Daesh in the Paris and how to construct devices using TATP shows the were "carried out alone" Brussels attacks. Peroxideis accessible on a range of online Manchester based explosives were also bomber Salman ©Press TV Abedi shopping used in both the 7/7 four hours before Daesh transit attacks in London the attack. has made and the subsequent failed inroads into Underground attacks three Libya. weeks later, and before then, in many Middle East-based jihadist bombings. Following the Manchester attack, ©BBC News a 22-minute video on social media
sources, including the dark (encrypted) web. It regenerated the controversy over terrorist-related material that can be found on the Internet, and specifically, social media – a communications revolution in itself. Preventing posts of bomb-building and other weapons-based instruction online will fall greatly under the responsibility of the social media platform giants. Facebook has launched an ‘Online Civil Courage Initiative’, and has now partnered with the Jo Cox Foundation, Community Security Trust, Tell MAMA, Imams Online and the Institute for Strategic Dialogue to help keep terrorism-related content off the site. However, this is a tall order – even for multi-billion-dollar companies – given that hundreds of videos and
posts are uploaded every minute. There is also a load of rubbish on the Web, including that pertaining to IEDs.
THE GUY WAS ABLE TO BUILD A BOMB, BUT THE BOMB FAILED. MOST OF THESE ATTACKS FAIL BECAUSE THESE GUYS ARE
Training camps: ‘Real Men’ It is still to be established if Abedi had training in Libya, which he visited in May, returning on 18 May. He was reported to have met with Daesh-linked militants while in Libya. Aside from video-based training, Daesh bomb experts, or just one, could certainly have provided Abedi with the wherewithal to acquire the materials and components, mix and store the explosive, and construct the device – all possibly within 24 hours of his return, according to GMP. As well as training alongside Daesh in Syria and Iraq, camps for
NOT TRAINED. CLAUDE MONIQUET, EUROPEAN STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY CENTRE, BRUSSELS
al-Qaeda as well as Daesh are reappearing in Afghanistan. The Taliban released a multilingual video about its ‘Abdullah ibn Mubarak Jihad Training Camp’ entitled ‘Real Men’, which exhorts Muslims from all countries to wage violent jihad. Daesh – and before and at the same time as them, al-Qaeda – issued exhortations in May 2016 for lone operators inspired by their toxic message to take action in whatever way they can.
The Tsarnaev brothers who set off two pressure-cooker IEDs at the finishing line of the Boston Marathon on 15 April 2013, killing three and injuring hundreds more, could have learned how to create them from an al-Qaeda online magazine, according to testimony to investigators by the surviving brother, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev. Inspire is slickly produced by the Yemen-based branch of Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP). In the first issue of Inspire in 2010, a now well-known and infamous article, ‘Make a Bomb in the Kitchen of Your Mom’, instructed would-be violent jihadists how to use materials commonly found in a household kitchen, such as a pressure cooker. Berger also criticised the media for over-egging the content and influence of Inspire, claiming it furthered its reach.
INSPIRE IS ONE OF MANY JIHADI PUBLICATIONS IN ENGLISH, AND IT’S DONE A LOT OF THINGS SLIGHTLY BETTER THAN ITS PREDECESSORS. BUT ITS MOST MEANINGFUL INNOVATION HAS BEEN TO COMBINE BOTH THE INCITEMENT TO JIHAD WITH THE HOW-TO OF TERRORISM. J.M. BERGER, AUTHOR OF JIHAD JOE: AMERICANS WHO GO TO WAR IN THE NAME OF ISLAM
FBI photo of emptied fireworks recovered from Dzhokhar Tsarnaev's backpack, found in a landfill. The surviving brother claimed they learned how to make the devices from the al-Qaeda online magazine Inspire.
Right: Pressure cooker fragment from one of the two IEDs planted by the Tsarnaev brothers in the Boston terror attack in April 2013.
TATP is difficult to detect because it contains no nitrogen – a key element of ammonium nitrate HME made from fertilizer.
TERRORISM Stray dogs A faulty explosives recipe found online is believed to have been behind the failed attempt on 20 June by a Daesh adherent, Oussama Zariouh, to detonate with the intended force a device at Brussels Central train station. According to Belgian police, he tried to prepare a batch of TATP in his Brussels apartment, which turned out to be a flammable substance – with the double detonation only starting a fire instead of producing the requisite explosive power. Thankfully no one was injured, but the intended victims had to flee before the attacker was shot dead. The device contained nails, and gas canisters – reflecting a growing trend in improvised incendiary devices (IIDs). ©D4444n/Wikimedia
Belgian Police close the area around Brussels Central train station after a failed attack by a Daesh follower to detonate a TATP device.
A lack of training and expertise of this new breed of inspired, but not directed or instructed, attacker may lead to failures in their aim to take life and limb. But that very lack of direct connection to a terror command chain makes them difficult to track. And as seen in the Manchester bombing and scores of others, when they succeed the results are mass murder and hundreds of severely injured.
● Oxygen ● Carbon ● Hydrogen
Traditional training It has also been said that making TATP and other HME can be found in commonly available chemistry textbooks, as anyone who as oldest terrorist group, the IRA, a schoolkid liked playing learned how to make the with stuff that goes bang biggest variety of IEDs The Provisionals knows. The world’s constructed in the advanced the black art pre-Internet era of bomb-making long before the Internet era. The 30-kg through military commercial-explosive IED manuals, selfthat exploded at the annual educated trainers, Conservative Party conference at Brighton’s Grand Hotel on word of mouth, trial 15 October 1984 was on a and error, family and long-delay timer taken from community learning a video recorder - its first use for this purpose. and tradition, training camps, technically trained sympathizers, and finally, the highly covert and rigorously organized ‘Engineering Department’ of master bomb-makers. The IRA handed down, or set examples, to many other groups via their IED TTPs (tactics, techniques, procedures) and similar proliferation emanated from the Taliban, al-Qaeda, and Hezbollah. Military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan (as well as Syria and Yemen) have indirectly served as incubators for bomb-makers to develop their TTPs and spread their lethal knowledge: for example, pressure-cooker devices were used by the Taliban in Afghanistan and also in India. In the age of the Internet and social media, in countries where bomb materials are harder to acquire, some of these black arts can be acquired off a bedroom laptop and will not require such a lengthy evolution as previous terrorist groups. It’s hit-and-miss for lone operators learning off the Web; but when they hit, the consequences ©Romaine/Wikimedia are always deadly. ✺
DAVID OLIVER DESCRIBES MISSION-ORIENTED COUNTER-IED
SWISS ARMED FORCES THE
ENTRY OF THE
With the aim of reducing the risks posed by IEDs, several companies, including Switzerland’s RUAG Defence, are developing counter-IED capabilities – with a particular emphasis on education and training, doctrine development, and improving countermeasure technologies
EDs are one of the main causes of casualties among troops and exact a heavy toll on local populations. An improvised explosive device is a type of unconventional explosive weapon that can take any form and be activated in a variety of ways. They target soldiers and civilians alike. In today’s conflicts, IEDs play an increasingly important role and will continue to be part of the operating environment for future military operations. C-IED is not just about stopping or neutralising an IED once it is already in place, but is also about identifying and disrupting the
networks that create and initiate IEDs. C-IED efforts encompass work, research, testing and training and the Swiss Armed Forces are focusing their C-IED training on the behaviour of the soldiers. Simulation in action RUAG supports its customers with a complete, scalable set of IED training systems. These are based on the family of universal explosive simulation devices – the COSIM pyrotechnic audio-visual cueing systems. RUAG IED Defeat Training systems can be installed in the field,
either fixed or mobile, in buildings and cars, and even on persons to allow for full scenario exercises. These systems provide situational awareness, improving the skills of soldier to identify and avoid IEDs early – thus reducing the number of victims to avoid losses caused by improper actions in the event of an IED attack. They are quick, easy and safe to deploy, can easily be adapted to changing IED scenarios, and have undergone and successfully achieved safety approvals of different national safety verification authorities. A wide portfolio of COSIM-
2016 RUAG won a public tender competition to operate them for DETECT AN IED IN THEIR AREA? the next five years. The RUAG system enables forces to teach the appropriate Collaboration between the behaviour before and after an IED attack. These include how to Defence Ministry of Switzerland search for devices, how to avoid triggering devices, and how to (DDPS) and RUAG has produced one respond if one is triggered. of the world's most advanced training The company provides devices that can be deployed like real centres, the latest being CTC West. IEDs and set up to detonate in a variety of ways. The detonation is Located at Bure military base in then simulated with the aid of pyrotechnics and the effects transnorthwest Switzerland close to the mitted to a training system such as the Gladiator Man Worn Unit. French border, the CTC, which This comprises a helmet unit, integrated harness unit, and opened in 2011, is equipped with laser unit which makes it possible to practice IED detection and laser simulation systems developed avoidance within the widest possible variety of training scenarios by RUAG which is also directly – in open and built-up terrain – without involving live ammunition. responsible for all services related to simulation platforms, technology, logistics and infrastructure along RUAG with support and management technicians at of the centre. Bure clean and Training for up to 600 reload simulated landmines with soldiers and 100 vehicles is pyrotechnic provided at a specially cartridges. constructed village complex, named Nale, with 30 instrumentequipped buildings with 1,400 laser receivers, 6,600 ultrasonic sensors for localization within 0.5 m, 367 video cameras, 854 pneumatic opening doors and windows, and 33 computer management systems.
DO SOLDIERS DO WHEN THEY SEE OR
Thirty buildings at the Nale training village are fitted with laser receivers, ultrasonic sensors and cameras.
compatible pyrotechnic cartridges with various smoke types (black, white, grey and coloured) as well as flashes and bang effects are readily available. However, not only the audio-visual effects of IEDs are replicated, the training devices also support jamming training and direct feedback on casualty assessment. This forces leaders to take proper action when exercise participants in the proximity of a simulated explosion are automatically tagged as wounded or killed. The kill information can be injected into Tactical Engagement Simulators (TES) such as MILES via standard
interfaces to integrate with in-service training capabilities. The RUAG IED Defeat Training system can be upgraded from single group training to full Combat and MOUT (Military Operations in Urban Terrain) training centre integration. RUAG offers a basic IED defeat training kit that allows customers to start their training with less than one hour of instruction. It is quick and easy to set up and completely safe. Swiss Army training The system is used at the two Swiss Armed Forces Combat Training Centres (CTCs), for which in March
Equipment for exercises The complex is used for Simulation Support for Fighting in Built-Up Areas (SIM KIUG) exercises. The village is surrounded by a 7-km-long, 3-kmwide field simulation range used for Simulation Support for Combat Exercises (SIMUG). For realistic combat in the field, minefields can be simulated with COSIM pyrotechnic audio-visual cueing systems or simply overlaid on the combat commander’s mapping tablet. The fixed-field transponders and the GPS-controlled vehicles and soldiers transmit combat data to the command centre (EXCON) to monitor the progress of exercises in real time and can be played back for after-action reviews (AAR). These can take place at CTC’s 200-seat briefing/ debriefing hall or be downloaded directly from the system. The AAR can also include radio traffic analysis, as everything transmitted during the exercise is recorded. RUAG provides and maintains 6,000 pieces of equipment for
The Exercise Control Centre (EXCON) at Bure.
RAUG’s IED simulator replicates the effect of an explosion without involving live ammunition.
Troops wearing Gladiator harnesses with a CV90 equipped with RUAG’s laser simulator systems at Nale training village.
soldiers, and more than 200 Swiss Armed Forces vehicles have been equipped with RUAG’s laser simulator systems, including Leopard 2 MBTs, CV90 IFVs, Pirahna 3 8x8 AFVs, Duro multipurpose vehicles and Eagle light tactical vehicles. Course duration Training at the CTC is carried out 50 weeks a year with a total of 1,500 hours, and comprises 16 different courses. These include initial and advanced training for professional military personnel in conjunction with the relevant superior employment and career management branches and those responsible for employment and career management in the training units. It also provides preparatory and basic training for professional military personnel throughout the armed forces in conjunction with the Armed Forces Senior Cadre Training organization and the training units. RUAG instructors support major units at the CTC in achieving basic and operational readiness – from
basic training service periods and formation training periods, and during mission-oriented training. All Swiss armoured battalions, mechanical battalions, armoured engineer battalions and artillery regiments attend the CTC every two years for continuation training, while Special Forces are regular users. Supply of kits The CTC is integral to establishing the principles of weapon training and combat techniques up to major unit level, for training that is applicable to all training units in conjunction with the Swiss Armed Forces Training Command and Operations Command, and to produce the necessary written regulations. It also maintains a trials staff at the trials site to support armed forces-wide projects as part of the armaments procurement process for new weapons, devices and equipment. Last year RUAG Defence delivered to the German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr) an unspecified number of C-IED training kits for indoor and
outdoor training plus simulated suicide attacks. These kits were used from October 2016 for training at the German Army’s Combat Training Centre (GÜZ), located in the Altmark district of Saxony-Anhalt. The kits consist of laser radios and pyrotechnics, serving for simulating blasts controlled by one From 1 January 2018 the Bure Land Forces Training Centre will become the Armed Forces Training Centre under an officer of three-star rank, while its facilities and training capabilities will be expanded. modular low-weight control station. The components interact with the personal detector harnesses the soldiers wear, whereby data can be recorded for AAR to be carried out. The delivery also included systems that can be worn by the soldiers directly on the body, simulating a suicide vest. The effect consists of powder being detonated, thereby avoiding the soldier wearing pyrotechnics on his body. ✺ CBNW Xplosive Deputy Editor David Oliver is the author of 18 defence-related books, a former IHS Jane's consultant editor, and a regular correspondent for defence publications in the UK, USA, France, Poland, Brazil and Thailand.
A Vision of IB Consultancy
Join the worldâ€™s leading CBRNe event series! In 2018, we will host events in six continents, including our first event in South America. At our events in Tokyo and The Netherlands we expect over 500 participants with the largest CBRNe exhibitions in Asia and Europe. In 2018 NCT Europe will again host the only outdoor CBRNe exhibition showcasing (large) equipment from different companies and end users. IB Consultancy is proud to work with the Syrian Opposition hosting workshops on IEDs and the use of Chemical Weapons in Syria at all our 2018 events! NCT South America, 13-14 February 2018, Bogota, Colombia www.nctsouthamerica.com NCT USA, April 2018, Washington DC, USA www.nct-usa.com NCT Asia Pacific, 29-31 May 2018, Tokyo, Japan www.nctasiapacific.com
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NCT Europe, 3-5 July 2018, NTC Vught, The Netherlands www.nct-europe.com
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NINE LIVES All photos ©Felix Fund
Felix Fund is a small but important tri-service military charity. We assist with the well-being of individuals within the wider Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) community, both serving and veterans and their dependents through welfare support and financial assistance.
he charity has been in existence since April 2011 when it was established to meet the then urgent needs of British bomb disposal experts and their families. This small and unique trade within the British Army had very specific requirements which could not be adequately met by general service charities, particularly following their experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan. As a totally self-funded charity we rely on donations, grants and volunteer fundraising events and activities to keep our work running. Mindfulness So how do we help? In the first years of its existence Felix Fund provided normalisation breaks for over 100 EOD teams on their return from Afghanistan. These breaks proved vital in reducing the risk of poor mental health among individuals in these teams. Today Felix Fund continues to focus on the important issue of mental health among serving military and, in late 2015 we launched a new welfare programme providing training in mindfulness techniques. Known as the Dashboard Courses, the aim is to provide individuals with tools and techniques which will enable them to recognise warning signs of stress and other mental health illnesses. These will allow them to develop their ability to relax, clear their minds, and focus on positive aspects of their life – and this will then feedback into a more productive and stress reduced work and home environment. The Dashboard courses have
proved massively popular and very effective. How many training programmes will get a group of soldiers, sailors or airmen doing yoga and breathing exercises and running around a room playing catch with a fluffy toy?! The key to the programme is a totally relaxed environment away from work and home stresses, where each individual can focus on themselves. To date we have had nearly 200 people through the programme from all ranks and all areas of the EOD community.
This lady is the wife of a serving soldier. She has MS and was unable to get out with her young family until Felix Fund helped pay for a wheelchair.
Hardship grants & financial support Another key area for Felix Fund is providing hardship grants, to serving military, veterans and their family members when they find themselves in times of need. THE DASHBOARD COURSE GAVE ME SKILLS I CAN USE FOR LIFE IN AND OUT OF THE MILITARY. IT HAS MADE ME A MORE RELAXED PERSON.
This can be as wide ranging as home adaptations such as the installation of a lift for a multiple amputee, funding for a specially adapted vehicle and in the purchase of specialist equipment, such as electric wheelchairs, and bespoke sporting equipment. Some of our most recent support has been towards sporting wheelchairs. Two former Sappers, both of whom lost their legs in Afghanistan, have been provided with a rugby wheelchair and a racing version respectively – which has now enabled them both to be selected
This son of a serving soldier has a new specially adapted buggy which allows him to attend school and go out with his family.
MELANIE MOUGHTON RELATES HOW
This was a rundown building at Marlborough Barracks, Kineton. With funding from Felix Fund and other organizations it has been transformed into a community centre for all families.
Former Sapper Clive Smith (left) in his specialist rugby wheelchair. Clive has recently been selected to take part in the Invictus Games in Toronto.
A yoga session is part of one of the Dashboard courses.
EOD SUPPORT MY LIFE HAS HONESTLY
for the Invictus Games in Toronto later in the year. We also provided the young disabled son of a former Sapper with a football wheelchair. His family had moved and he was not able to borrow a chair at his new team, meaning he could no longer play. Now he has his own and is back on the pitch. The charity is not just here for the serving and more recent veterans; our help goes as far back as those involved in World War II. We have purchased a stair lift for the widow of a WWII Sapper and a specialist chair for a former RAF WWII bomb disposal veteran. From wheelchairs to replacement windows and funeral costs, the charity prides itself on tailoring the help we give to exactly what individuals need. Another area in which we help the serving military is by providing limited grants to units to enable them to engage in adventure training activities. These trips away may be considered a part of general military life but, they are hugely beneficial in reducing work related stress and enabling greater team bonding. All of which helps with the general well-being of our forces. Sustaining memories The final area that Felix Fund concentrates on is in sustaining the memories of those who gave their lives in the line of duty. From those bomb disposal personnel killed in
The EOD memorial at the National Arboretum was dedicated in June 2016.
CHANGED; I KNOW MYSELF IN A WAY I HAVEN’T FOR YEARS.
Felix Fund is helping all areas of EOD & Search across all three services.
the troubles in Cyprus in the 1950s through the 1970s and 1980s in Northern Ireland, where many paid the ultimate price – to those we lost in Iraq and Afghanistan. We help with the upkeep of the various memorials to those men and women, as well as ensuring that they are never forgotten by the EOD community as a whole. The charity is also on hand to help and support any family members left behind who might find themselves in need. Who do we help? We are all fully aware of the recent increase in terrorist activity; the Manchester bombing and attacks in London have had a national impact. There is a group of people who are on call 24/7 to assist the emergency services with such events: the men and women of the EOD community who are continually on the front line protecting the country. You rarely see or hear of their
contribution but members of specialist military EOD units and SO15 – the Metropolitan Police Counter Terror Unit – play a pivotal role in exploiting and, where possible, preventing terrorist attacks. More often than is reported in the media bomb disposal experts risk their lives to prevent explosions that could endanger the lives of the general public across the UK. Every day they deal with highly pressurised situations. This continued exposure to intense stress can have lasting effects, both physically and mentally. This is where Felix Fund comes in as we continue to help this unique group of men and women. When the charity was first set up the trustees agreed that Felix Fund would remain in existence while there was a need. That need has changed slightly, with fewer troops deployed overseas, but we continue to provide the help and support to the wider EOD community across all three services, as it is required. If you would like to know about the charity or to make a donation please get in touch at enquiries@ felixfund.org.uk Visit our website www.felixfund. org.uk or follow us on Facebook and Twitter. ✺
Melanie Moughton has been CEO of Felix Fund since 2015, drawing on over 10 years’ experience in the ‘third sector’, having assisted the Board of Trustees through strategic and operational transformations needed to help today’s EOD community. Her professional links to the military go back to an early career role with the Ministry of Defence and her personal connection with the armed forces goes back further still: her father was an Ammunition Technical Officer for 37 years while her brother is still serving as an Ammunition Technician today — his experience stretches over 26 years in the Army.
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©Craig McInally NPA
Outline of pressure plate IED buried by Daesh in Iraq.
Stockpile of 48 main-charge canisters for pressure-plate IEDs.
©Craig McInally NPA
Rendered safe by Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA): exposure of pressure plates and main charge.
Against the background of enduring conflict in Iraq, Syria and Yemen, Brian Clesham considers the critical contribution of some niche private enterprises in mitigating the explosive remnants of war
s the dust settles over Mosul, there continues to lurk the threat to life and limb as the local populace strive to return to normality and repair the physical and psychological scars of conflict. Mines and the remnants of war including munition stores, randomly dispersed unexploded ordnance (UXO), booby traps and other battlefield detritus continue to reap victims. They are the innocent inhabitants of the city, aid agency workers, specialist practitioners who risk their lives to survey, remove, destroy or render safe the warring parties’ deadly legacy. Amidst unprecedented destruction and the direst humanitarian circumstances it is always challenging to execute a comprehensive
RISING FROM THE ASHES
mitigation plan. Some of these munitions might be visible and accessible; some not, deliberately concealed; others are partially exposed or lying in the open, unstable, in various concentrations and potency. Elsewhere in the world, amidst long-running mitigation programmes, explosive remnants of war continue to be brought to the surface over time, exposed by indigenous farmers or urban construction engineers, eroding within forests, hidden within the undergrowth, underwater or fenced off with warning signs, or in random as yet unknown locations… waiting. UXO: full-spectrum response A lack of host nation capability
and resource is backfilled by governments, International Organisations and NGOs (nongovernmental organizations) who have garnered substantial UXO programme and practitioner expertise, developed internally over time and drawn from private enterprise. Combined with the local delivery of training and education, they support a full-spectrum response tailored to requirements in more than 70 countries around the world. The figures for those directly impacted by UXOs are very disturbing; thousands of innocent people are afflicted every year. An estimated 40% are children, while the indirect effects impact on recovery and economic development. Practitioners themselves, many of
©Craig McInally NPA
The Valent Applications fully portable MONICA can rapidly drill, sample and decontaminate suspect chemical devices or sealed containers.
One of many examples of battlefield detritus, all of which must be cleared.
whom are trained locally, also fall victim – particularly where the sophistication, potency and quantity of UXOs may be substantial. Some legacy areas are also overgrown with vegetation and inaccessible for safety reasons, while the vast array of modern and improvised weaponry that are synonymous with current conflict can carry significant risk.
Mine Advisory Group This article considers some of the niche capabilities that support a safe and secure return to normality and brings home the need for coordination and cooperation between many actors. In many cases, manual clearance and the cascade of training to local teams remains a common and effective method of mitigation; but it can be
painstakingly slow. The City of Manchester is home to the global headquarters of the ‘Mine Advisory Group’, one of a number of major NGOs that that is funded through institutional donors, governments, foundations and other charities. It acts as an umbrella organization executing major removal and disposal programmes, including local self-help training, education, and dissemination of public information to a broad range of stakeholders. The removal and disposal of UXOs inevitably involves their coordination and integration with a wide range of enterprises, each bringing its capabilities that can be adapted to the local situation. One of the early challenges is to identify the extent of the problem which can be an immense undertaking for any organization, often run in parallel with an international humanitarian response. The identification and categorisation of UXOs and arms stockpiles will be vital for the safety of all, with niche private enterprises bringing key capabilities and benefits throughout the programme. Expertise for mitigation Fenix Insight Limited is a private enterprise at the forefront of delivering high-end technical expertise in support of host nation authorities, International Organizations and NGOs, as well as managing its own independent contracts and projects. Fenix’s work includes planning and preparatory activities such as visits to operational sites and expert manual disassembly to assess the practical and technical implications of proposed projects. They carry out in–depth risk
assessments before developing safe procedures and systems for those who will then execute the mitigation programme. They place great importance in the monitoring of operations once they are underway, adjusting systems and procedures where required, and reporting to clients to keep them informed. Other methods to delineate the scope of the problem may also prove necessary. First Line Defence Ltd provide specialist intrusive and non-intrusive geological survey to determine the properties of soils at various depths, including below water, gathering geo-technical data of ferrous content to identify anomalies, and the extent of UXO coverage. Crucially, their intrusive survey can also be conducted at depths beyond the detection capability of non-intrusive magnetometer surveys. Information gleaned through intrusive and non-intrusive methods can be captured and reproduced on an anomaly situation map, providing focus, reduced timelines and costs as the programme moves forward. Armtrac Ltd are a UK company that manufacture a range of armoured mechanical manned and robotic machines for demining, removal of UXOs and countering IEDs. They also provide unmanned survey. Such solutions are entirely practical when the risk to generalist and specialist operators may be significant â€“ and where there has already been loss of life in undertaking mitigation by generalist and manual methods. The ARMTRAC 20T robot is a flexible and immensely robust remote controlled unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) weighing 2,230kg. It is a highly effective multi-tool; for instance, it can be fitted with a demining flail, tiller and rear excavator that can itself also be fitted with different attachments. For counter-IED and search operations or where munitions
Cluster munitions pose particular threats due both to their size and their expansive and random deposition on the ground. Their size means they may easily be picked up by the unwary, or concealed within vegetation and soil over time.
are partially damaged or unstable, a detector system can be mounted on the front and a disruptor can be fitted on the rear arm. A fork to fit to the front of the Armtrac 20T has also been designed to lift pressure-plate IEDs that have been fitted with anti-lift devices, thus separating the operator from the threat. Unquestionably, Armtrac greatly reduce cost and timelines for removal and disposal while ensuring much greater levels of occupational safety. Canine contribution Away from mechanical solutions, the use of dogs for detection of mines and UXOs is now well established. It is not just their olfactory skills at detecting concealed metallic as well as non-metallic munitions, but also their size, weight and work rate provide ease of access and rapid results in all types of terrain, supporting the rapid assessment and delineation of urban threats, routes, crossing points and over random terrain. Dealing with ICDs There may also be the need to determine precisely the content of munitions or sealed containers, the more so in regions that have been subject to the delivery of chemical weapons, improvised chemical
devices (ICDs), or where toxic industrial materials abound and have been left in an unsecure state, or are randomly discovered. Valent Applications Ltd (formerly MMIC EOD Ltd), with 16 yearsâ€™ experience in CBRN and HAZMAT, now produce a suite of equipment that can reduce the complexity and cost of working with such hazards, bringing multiple capabilities for the investigation and remediation of all vessels and closed systems, regardless of size, shape and material. Common endeavour There is no silver bullet solution for the removal and disposal of the explosive remnants of war. There is a plethora of organizations and private enterprises that contribute to a multi-spectral response to the problem. There are many areas of the world where, through their joint efforts and enterprise, such dangers have been cleared and banished. The challenges that remain are significant and in many cases they are both complex and particularly severe. In such circumstances, private enterprises and niche capabilities have a critical role to play. Ultimately the aim is to ensure though common endeavour that communities can return to normality and stand on their own two feet. âœş
Brian Clesham MBE was commissioned into the Gurkha Rifles. A former Director of Peace Support Operations at the NATO School and a graduate of the NATO Defence College, he currently works for Scott Safety Limited. His work has been commended by UN Under Secretary General Peacekeeping Operations.
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6-7 March 2018 Olympia, London
FRANK G. RANDO LAYS OUT PRE- AND POST-DETONATION RESPONSE PLANNING ©Digital-Designs/Wikimedia
FOR TERRORISM EVENTS INVOLVING ENERGETIC MATERIALS
Within eight minutes of the alarm being raised during the attack on London Bridge on 3 June, when terrorists drove a van into pedestrians before stabbing people in nearby Borough Market, police shot and killed the three perpetrators.
RING A LOUDER
As horrific as the attack was on London Bridge and Borough Market on 3 June, in which three terrorists killing eight and injured 48 pedestrians – what would the implications have been for crisis and consequence management had the vehicle been rigged with explosives and the Hostile-vehicle mitigation perpetrators had detonated a high-yield barriers have been explosive device? Or if it had been a installed on London Bridge to prevent fuel-laden gasoline or liquefied natural future attacks. gas truck being used as a mobile fire bomb?
imilarly, what if the perpetrator had driven his cargo van into the crowd of worshipping Muslims leaving Ramadan prayers at a north London mosque with an improvised ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO) or fougasse device on board? For one thing, the operational paradigm and tempo would have shifted somewhat and the ensuing fatalities and casualty load would have more than likely been amplified considerably. The actual response phase would have given responders at all levels a heightened sense of
caution to expect secondary devices or stealthy-armed assault or snipers designed to maim and kill arriving first responders. Multiple attacks, multiple response A more robust and extensive ‘tactical overwatch’ operation is designed to protect responders and bystanders from armed snipers, suicidehomicide bombers and secondary devices. The pre-hospital EMS mass casualty plan would have had to take into account extensive blast and burn trauma. The local healthcare and
public health infrastructure would have to be able to expand its surge capacity to accept a mixed casualty matrix involving explosive blast injuries, burn victims, as well as the ability to handle the “worried well” and those suffering from traumatic stress. Across the emergency services sector, emergency managers and first response agencies would have had to rule out the possibility of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) or hazardous material release which may have been released intentionally, or as a consequence
of the explosion or resultant fire. In addition, structural collapse and victim entrapment may have resulted due to the effects on nearby buildings and homes by the explosive blast and/or fires. Medico-legal investigative and mortuary assets may have also been overwhelmed. The investigative and law enforcement aspects also have to adapt to the nature of the event. A louder alarm If properly planned, a terrorist attack is very likely to succeed once it has moved to the operational phase. Once ‘zero hour’ has been determined and the attack is initiated, it is very difficult to interdict or otherwise stop it. Such vehicle-borne attacks are all too common in conflict-ridden areas dominated by Daesh, al-Qaeda and other groups. In explosive or incendiary terrorism, authorities have to deploy more specialized resources – EOD assets and bomb and arson investigators. The plans, operational response, and recovery phase for these types of terrorism events are escalated and significantly modified to meet the unique requirements of an energetic materials-related terrorism event. The basic tenets of emergency management include preparedness/ planning, mitigation, response, community resilience and recovery. For terrorism, we ‘ring a louder alarm’ – due to the intent and heinous nature of the event. Exploitation Exploitation is a primary
EMERGENCY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Include local resources and responders in training and exercises Identify key entry and exit points Establish procedures for evacuation and shelter-in-place Develop plans for media and counselling Fully develop and analyse After-Action Reports and Incident Plans following exercises, training and actual events
Size-up: One of the most critical activities undertaken by emergency service agencies and applicable to an all-hazards approach. It begins on receiving the dispatch notification and is an on-going process throughout the entire operational period of an event. Safe staging area: responding units should try to alter their staging practices in the event that terrorist operatives were able to observe and ascertain their staging routines during prior responses. Scene safety: of first responders and public is the first priority – always. Don appropriate PPE. Respiratory protection is essential. Assess safe routes of ingress and egress.
objective of the terrorist operation, which must be properly and adequately publicized to achieve the desired effect. The best way to elicit widespread coverage is to carry out spectacular, brazen, and particularly violent acts or attacks. Because of the ensured sensationalism, the media will ‘fan the flames’ by providing timely and constant coverage of the attack. The first arriving units must assess, report out, and implement outward signs of physical damage; estimated number of victims; potential structural damage and collapse, if any; potential hazardous materials involvement; uncover any suspect devices; recognize and request additional resources; establish initial Incident Command System (ICS) while awaiting supervisory/command response, and inner and Car bombs are ubiquitous and outer perimeters; and – constant in Iraq, the first step in most of which are establishment of launched by Daesh and al-Qaeda, killing perimeters – locate the hundreds of civilians seat of the explosion. a year.
response, primary response, secondary response, and recovery. These response phases will encompass initial notification and dispatch, life/scene safety, creating security perimeters, identifying and mitigating scene hazards such as fallen power lines and gas leaks, fire suppression, conducting noninvasive searches of victims leaving scene, tactical overwatch, rescue, medical triage, treatment and transport, public information and media relationships, rehabilitation and demobilization, victim recovery, medicolegal/mortuary issues, investigatory, evidentiary and intelligence efforts, criminal apprehension and prosecution, and site/community recovery efforts. The continued threat of political and tactical ultraviolence utilising explosives and incendiaries continues to rear its ugly and deadly head. Our efforts must continue to prevent, plan, prepare, respond and recover from these acts against innocent civilians in our communities. ✺
Vital phases Scene control is of the essence and is a critical step in supporting all crisis and consequence management activities. This is primarily the responsibility of law enforcement authorities. The response is divided into distinct phases: immediate
Frank G. Rando is a national SME, trainer, and first responder with over 30 years’ experience in emergency management, tactical, disaster and special operations medicine, environmental health and safety, public safety, and counterterrorism.
WE HAVE THE WATCHES…
RON ALEDO FOCUSES ON TERRORISM IN
EXPLAINS HOW THE
AS BIG A THREAT NOW AND IN THE FUTURE
BUT THEY HAVE THE
TIME With all eyes on the recent fighting in Iraq and Syria against Daesh and the two dozen other radical groups in the latter, war-ravaged country – and with the tragic attacks in Western Europe by jihadists – many observers are not current with one of the world’s hottest spots for terrorism and insurgency fighting: Afghanistan.
t was in Afghanistan where all began back in 2001 after the September 11 terrorist attacks. Furthermore, if we really want to go back to the root of those atrocities, we can also estimate that Afghanistan was where all began – with the jihadist fight against the Soviet Army back in the late 1970s and early 1980s (at that time with Western money supporting the Jihadists). The truth is that Afghanistan has been, and still is, at the centre stage in the fight against terrorism. Back in 2001 it was the regime of the Taliban – the Sunni radical fighters born out of the resistance against the Soviets, the ones who protected and harboured Osama bin Laden and all his al-Qaeda captains. After the September 11 attacks, the US was fast to link with the Northern Alliance, comprising mostly Tajiks and Uzbeks, to fight the Taliban, mostly Pashtun – and remove them from power in Kabul. The hunting down of al-Qaeda culminated 10 years later with the death in Pakistan of bin Laden. Still, the Taliban threat is stronger than
ever in Afghanistan and more than 15 years of occupation and war has done little to contain the threat. The longest war After the US and NATO invasion and the fall of the Taliban came the long insurgency war – the longest in US history. Out of power and driven from Kabul, the Taliban went to the southeastern parts of the country, to the Pashtun lands to continue the war. This time the insurgents were fighting against the US-imposed government (mostly the Northern Alliance converted into a National Government with the help of supportive Pashtuns). While the Taliban remained very much alive during the years of high-level deployments from the US and NATO, they went into their ancient tactic of waiting for the invaders to leave, that means low intensity attacks without exposing themselves into open battle, while waiting years until the invaders actually leave. From the British colonial times to the Soviets, and now the US and NATO, that has been the Taliban tactic.
With the dramatic reduction in NATO troops and the change of mission in 2014 from fighting to advising, the Taliban took a more aggressive approach and began to engage in open battle and to regain terrain, mostly in the southwestern areas of the country, again in the Pashtun lands. A plague of IEDs The trend ever since remains unchanged with the Taliban gaining more terrain, controlling larger segments of the rural population every year. Unusual and new attacks in the usually quiet northern parts of the country are stretching beyond capabilities the new, large but far from effective Afghan Army. Massive and extensive use of IEDs, mainly basic pressure-plate devices but also massive VBIEDs, continued as the persistent method of military area denial (particularly in Helmand, against NATO troops) and as terror weapons on civilians. Enter Daesh Another factor in the equation is that many young Taliban, usually fighters
©Sgt Mark Fayloga/US Marines
The car bomb is the ubiquitous weapon of choice for the Taliban and, more recently, Daesh.
US Marines with EOD destroy an IED cache in southern Afghanistan during the height of the war in June 2010. It included two directional fragmentation IEDs, 5 m of det cord and a haul of ammonium nitrate and aluminium powder.
mostly government forces, and might be related to air support, as foreign troops. helicopter attacks is the most Because of this the Taliban and effective weapon against the Taliban. other groups regularly attack Kabul Actually, while the Afghan Army with car bombs, explosives, small and Police are doing most of the fight, arms, and so forth – as they lack the it is air support that is keeping the force there to carry on Kabul government alive. If air direct military and support is removed from Afghanistan, Two large containers conventional attacks. the Taliban would take over the packed with homemade Other factor of country in months. Most likely the explosives discovered at ©PJHQ/ UK Forces Media Ops extreme importance new troops are a last effort to try to Forward Operating Base Talibjan during the height is that poppy save Afghanistan, the aim being to of the insurgency in 2010, by production in the secure the Afghan government under 35, got tired of the which time in Afghanistan Taliban-controlled position while negotiation and a waiting strategy of their the use of IEDs had become unprecedented. areas is a high as peace agreement are reached. masters and, inspired by ever. The poppy is I believe that is the one actual the all-action approach of exported via Central possibility to end this long and costly Daesh, switched allegiance and Asia countries to the Russian war in Afghanistan: negotiate with declared themselves the Islamic mafia and then distributed to Europe the Taliban. While neither the West State in Afghanistan. and East Asia as heroin and its nor the Afghan government will ever Most of the very violent terrorist derivatives. This is a major source be able to negotiate with Daesh – this attacks, no-prisoners approach and of income for the Taliban that must be eliminated – it can reach even decapitation of soldiers and allows it to finance itself and get some kind of peace agreement with policemen are due to Daesh, not in all kinds of supplies. the Taliban. the Taliban. In comparison now the The soon-to-arrive Taliban looks like the ‘moderates’ reinforcements can provide the when talking about ‘the Islamic Redeployment and… Afghan government with a position State’. negotiation of strength from which they can Most recently, the Trump negotiate a better deal. If no deal is administration said it will soon Hybrid tactics reached, the Taliban will continue send about 4,000 troops to The Taliban and the other groups with their classic strategy of Afghanistan to join the 5,000 soldiers use a hybrid tactic of attack: in the outwaiting the enemy – and we will countryside, where they control large already there (plus contractors and be looking ahead to many, many US Government civilians). I can areas under their direct government, more years of war in the country. ✺ imagine that most of these troops they launch massive conventional military attacks as an organized insurgency against the government Ron Aledo M.A. is a military and intelligence professional. A former forces. In the large cities under contractor analyst for the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) and the DIA solid control of the Kabul (Defence Intelligence Agency), he was also a Director of the Liaison government, the Taliban launch office of the Department of Homeland Security for classic terrorist attacks – targeting Mexico and an operations officer for the Joint Staff, Just one ©Al Jazeera Foundation for Defence of Democracies
the Pentagon. He also served as an intelligence advisor for the Afghan Police in Kabul.
©UK Forces Afghanistan
weapon haul by the UK Forces Brigade Reconnaissance Force (BRF) in 2011 included dozens of pressure plates - the basis of hundreds of Taliban IEDs - along with 40 kg of HME.
UNDER PRESSURE All photos ©Med-Eng
DR JEAN-PHILIPPE DIONNE AND DR ARIS MAKRIS
EOD programme managers and Bomb Disposal commanders will be interested to learn about the testing of EOD suits and helmets, and what to look for when evaluating information presented to them by suppliers.
EXPLAIN THE VITAL
hen an IED is identified, a manual approach is often conducted after all other remote options have been conducted or ruled out. Inevitably, a military EOD operator or public safety bomb disposal technician must make the ‘long walk’ downrange after donning a bomb suit to protect against primary or secondary devices. A bomb suit must protect against the four main blast threats: overpressure, fragmentation, impact and heat. More specifically, it must protect the body (e.g., lungs, bowels, heart, brain) from the powerful blast waves generated by the detonation of an IED, and stop high-velocity fragments from penetrating the body. It must protect the fragile head and back areas from impact with obstacles or the ground when the body is propelled by the blast, and shield the operator from the fireball emanating from a detonation. Of course, these protective requirements must be balanced by the need for mobility. The V50 rating The bulk of a bomb suit’s weight is based on fragmentation protection, which is evaluated in laboratory testing using the so-called V50 rating. The V50 is the striking velocity at which the probability of a specific projectile penetrating a target is 50%, based on a set number of shots within a velocity range. To allow for weight reduction and mobility, protective coverage will be highest over life-critical organs such as the heart and lungs, and lower elsewhere, e.g., arms, lower legs. Accordingly, the V50 ratings will vary. Contrary to what might be expected, it is misleading to simply add the V50 ratings of individual materials. For example, one cannot add the rating for a soft armour vest to that of a hardplate over it. The materials must be stacked as an armour system and tested together. This fact is not widely known or appreciated.
FACTORS INVOLVED IN BOMB SUIT TESTING
In the foreground of this pre-trial photo of an instrumented mannequin wearing the Med-Eng EOD 10 Bomb Suit, the C4 charge is placed on top of the cardboard stand.
In this post-blast photo of an instrumented mannequin wearing the Med-Eng EOD 10 Bomb Suit after facing a simulated pipe bomb, no fragments penetrated the suit in any of the life-threatening areas, despite damage to the left shoulder/neck and upper thigh regions.
1 The testing must be conducted by a qualified independent laboratory 2 The velocity readings must be taken as closely as possible to the strike surface of the material being tested, as opposed to the initial velocity coming out of the rifle muzzle 3 When determining the V50 rating of multiple layers of materials, and especially when stacking two types of materials, the materials must be tested together
Overall protection While fragmentation protection is a popular means of comparing two or more suits, it is still only one of the four main threats. In order to evaluate blast overpressure protection for a range of IEDs, different combinations of charges (size and distance) are often tested. Bomb suits are typically tested against smaller explosive threats at armâ€™s length, such as a standoff of 60 cm, and against higher charges at a standoff of 3 m. Such tests should be conducted using anthropomorphic test dummies (ATD), equipped with pressure sensors to capture the effects of blast. When comparing ATDs protected by bomb suits versus those that are unprotected, significant reductions are observed in chest and ear overpressure, as well as in head acceleration (reductions in excess of 90% in many cases), clearly confirming the effectiveness of certain bomb suits at protecting from blast overpressure. Helmet testing In larger blasts, the body can be propelled, causing the head and back to impact with rigid obstacles such as a wall or the ground. To quantify blunt impact protection, EOD helmets should be evaluated using a test methodology similar to that used for motorcycle helmets.
BOMB SUITS Estimating the combined V50 by adding component values is inaccurate and results in misleading V50 values and false expectations of protection.
to successfully carry out their missions. An optimal balance must be achieved between protection and flexibility. It is very important for programme managers to consider whether a bomb suit has been scientifically tested at all for ergonomics, human factors, and operational effectiveness in realistic EOD test scenarios. Adding layers of protection is one thing. Designing a protective system that allows mobility and flexibility is another challenge altogether, and can be more difficult to quantify in a statement of requirements. If overlooked during a programme evaluation, this can
Helmets must be fitted on a proper headform, and dropped on a drop tower apparatus, onto metallic anvils at different temperatures and helmet impact locations. The headform acceleration is then recorded and compared to maximum allowable values according to Head Injury Criteria. A drop tower test methodology is also used to quantify the blunt impact protection provided by back protectors. Protection and flexibility While protective performance is understandably the primary evaluation criteria, bomb suits must be designed to maximize free motion and allow for bomb technicians
Standard Human Factors and Ergonomics User trials: Climbing over an obstacle while carrying a disruptor.
Standard Human Factors and Ergonomics User trials: searching a vehicle in a prone position.
result in acquiring a suit that is stiff, unbalanced and restraining. Setting the standard In recognition of the life-saving nature of bomb suits and their importance to public safety, the US National Institute of Justice (NIJ) recently released the NIJ 0117.01 standard for Public Safety Bomb Suits. This standard includes an array of requirements related to protection against the main blast threats and functionality (ergonomics, field of view, optics) relevant to EOD operations. Unfortunately, this standard only includes a qualitative blast overpressure assessment, whereby the ensemble integrity is only visually evaluated after blast exposure. To address this, an ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) committee involving the military, government and industry is currently developing a test methodology to quantify the blast overpressure mitigation of bomb suits. It is hoped
that this ASTM test method will be released in the 2018-19 timeframe. Bomb suits must also be compatible with CBRN protective equipment, to protect against explosive dispersal of hazardous chemical or other agents. Bomb suits must allow for chemical protective undergarments (CPU) to be worn underneath, and EOD helmets must integrate with respirators and self-contained breathing apparatuses (SCBA). Military and public safety agencies will typically have an existing respiratory system, but because each model has its own physical form, consideration must be given to whether it will fit properly under the EOD helmet’s visor. Overall, the ability of a suit and helmet to function as CBRN-EOD multi-threat protective system should be formally evaluated in specialized, independent laboratories. There are other bomb suit nzeige CBRN A5 quer_Layout 1 07.08.2017 09:08 Seite 1 features that EOD programme managers and bomb disposal
commanders should consider. These include the ability of a suitand-helmet ensemble to comply with Electro-Magnetic interference standards, such as EMC Class A. This assures the user that their system’s electronics are shielded from disruption by harmful RF signals, and prevents their own RF signals from reaching an IED. In summary, bomb suits must provide protection against a wide array of threats, while offering mobility, flexibility and other operational functionalities (lighting, communication, ventilation). Thankfully, there exist standardized test methodologies to appropriately evaluate the effectiveness of bomb suits. It is important for programme managers and commanders to look closely at the testing a given bomb suit has undergone, and ask questions to fully understand the methods used to ascertain testing results. Was testing against each blast threat conducted? Was it performed
by independent laboratories? What about ergonomic trials? The current climate of limited budgets only underscores the importance of thoroughly examining the reliability and completeness of information presented by suppliers. Bomb suits are expected to save lives and be deployed for several years. Time spent evaluating the quality of information put forward will be time very well spent and have life-saving consequences. ✺ Dr. Jean-Philippe Dionne is Director of Research Engineering at Med-Eng and Dr. Aris Makris is Med-Eng’s Chief Technology Officer. As graduates of McGill University, each holds over 20 years of expertise in the fields of numerical simulations and live testing of detonations, blast waves and combustion. They have led the development of several generations of life-saving personal protective equipment to protect against blast effects.
Federal Ministry of the Interior
4th International Symposium on
Development of CBRN Protection Capabilities Outdoor Demo & Ice-Breaker
Conference & Exhibition
Call for Papers / Terms and Conditions at
03 September 2018 Schloss Diedersdorf 15831 Großbeeren (near Berlin) Bus-Transfer from / to Hotel Maritim rd
04th - 05th September 2018 Maritim Hotel proArte Friedrichstraße 151 10117 Berlin
KIER HEAD TAKES THE DEADLY GAME OF CAT AND MOUSE INTO THE AIR All photos ÂŠLFF Kirintec
Drones are relatively cheap and now readily available across the world. When their success in the Middle East as a weapon of Daesh is considered, it is likely that many insurgent groups will invest time and resources to incorporating this capability into their arsenals
e described insurgent innovation in manufacture and the use of IEDs, coupled with the Security Forces' response to this threat, in the 2015 debut edition Xplosive. It concluded that of CBNW Xplosive the future for jammers will be to use the latest, cutting-edge advances in electronics and battery technology and couple that to threatdriven, well-written software loadsets. Air dropped IEDs That conclusion is still extremely valid. However, one supposedly new innovation by insurgents in the Middle East has recently become the focus
A weaponised drone is recovered and examined for forensic evidence after being rendered explosively safe.
of significant attention. Although Hezbollah have used drones in a hostile manner as early as 2004, it is the recent dropping of grenades or other explosive payloads which has caused concern to regular forces. As the technology spreads, criminals and cranks will also adopt this capability and it becomes a much wider problem. Venues such as concerts, sporting events, airports and border security posts all face the same issue and it is already a wellknown problem for prisons as a method of smuggling contraband. TTPs for drone attacks Insurgents have used drones as described because they can be relatively quiet, hard to spot and especially hard to shoot down using conventional small arms. They can offer tactical video footage of an area, highly useful to any insurgent
A CounterDrone Sky Netâ€™s antennae are installed.
DOWNING 48 XPLOSIVE
Kirintec Sky Net protects a stadium during a concert.
at very little risk to the operator. In particular, the Suicide Vehicle Borne IEDs (SVBIED) ‘handlers’ can now look at their opponent from a bird’s eye view, identify weaknesses in defences, work out routes in and the best time of day for the attack. Once this information has been gathered, the drone can also be used to guide the SVBIED onto its target, reacting to Friendly Troop changes immediately. All of this can be done with the important, valuable, hard-to-replace ‘handler’ being away from the incident. In the past he would normally be close by and at risk of capture; now distance away gives him a significant measure of protection from that. Countering drones Security Forces must use their costly and high-tech equipment, coupled with their dynamic TTPs (tactics, techniques & procedures) to counter that ever-developing threat. Countering SVBIEDs is a complete article in its own right; however, to
counter the UAS (unmanned aerial system) aspect, some companies have produced directional electronic countermeasures. This means an operator has to identify a target drone, aim the antenna (normally in the shape of a weapon) – and keep it on the drone until it lands or crashes. This has applicability to some scenarios, but it means you must train the operator – which can be a significant investment in time and resource. The operator must locate the drone, meaning bad weather or nightfall causes problems there and then he can only deal with a single drone at a time. The cat and mouse game of TTPs means the insurgent then considers swarm attacks to over-match the new TTP. Directional vs omnidirectional If you can have more than enough power to break the video and control links of a drone at distances exceeding standard ‘detect’ ranges, why not fit omnidirectional antenna
Directional antenna on Kirintec Sky Net.
THE DRONES XPLOSIVE
to give you that ‘bubble of protection’, just like the counter-IED jammers do? Now, you don’t need to actively spot a drone and target it with ECM (electronic countermeasures); you can just switch on and nothing can approach you, even high overhead. The training consists of ‘here is the on button’ and swarms are dealt with exactly as a single target is. Suddenly, countering drones
being used against you moves from one man with a ‘raygun’ from an old B-movie to the press of some buttons giving you guaranteed X, Y and Z axis protection to several kilometres from your position. Clearly this use of active RF (radio frequency) energy needs to be incorporated into the communications plan for the battlefield. However, a counter-drone product such as Kirintec’s Sky Net range uses
A Sky Net fit in a civilianised vehicle.
well-known counter-IED jamming technology, familiar to all communication specialists and communication staff officers. Direct digital synthesis The latest-generation jammers are direct digital synthesis (DDS) jammers. These use pure digital techniques to generate complex jamming outputs. These outputs can be programmed to cover spot frequencies with maximum power and tight precision. This combination of speed and accuracy is particularly efficient but DDS jammers also have the ability to be reprogrammed quickly. Not being limited by their hardware means new and evolving threats can be countered easily and quickly with an updated ‘fill’ or loadset of software. Typical drone threat frequencies are likely to be from 400 MHz up to 5.8 GHz – but dynamic software generation is vital to counter new
Police raid a suspect bombmaking factory while preventing drones filming their tactics.
Lt Col (Retd) Kier Head was a Royal Logistic Corps Ammunition Technical Officer (ATO) in the British Army, serving for over 23 years. He deployed to numerous operational theatres as an EOD operator and ECM user, including Northern Ireland and Afghanistan. Retiring five years ago he is currently working for Kirintec Ltd as their Operations Director.
systems, and copies that look like the real thing, but work on slightly different frequencies. This range could dip back to 27 MHz too, if the old remote-controlled helicopters start to be used again. With the complexity of jamming systems, the user must select his system provider very carefully. Just delivering a big box with lots of antennae proves little. Only a supplier who installs the equipment properly and teaches the user how to use and maintain it will provide a genuinely useful product. The vital last step is finding a supplier who develops a full understanding of the threat faced by the customer and updates their software to counter new threats immediately.
Top to Bottom: Weaponised drones head towards their target.
Communications through inhibition (CTI) The use of counter-UAS jammers can cause issues to the user as well as the insurgent. Imagine any modern dismounted Infantry patrol, and the ammunition, water and equipment every man must carry. Although the weight and bulky nature of man-portable drone jammers means it may well be static, its use can disrupt communications between the user and other Friendly Forces. A cutting-edge development is the ability to link radios to the jammer being used, therefore ensuring they are compatible. Using the technique commonly known as communications through inhibition (CTI), a commercial patented product called XChange is the first system to offer this ability. Available with both MERCURY Counter-IED and Sky Net Counter-UAS systems, the user can now talk normally on any modern Professional/Private Mobile Radio (PMR)/ Combat Network Radio (CNR) type radios linked in to either jamming system. This allows frequency hopping in clear or secure modes with minimal degradation to the jamming signal. The future: cunning cat wins TTPs used by Security Forces – and their opponents – will both continue to evolve. The strategic effect of low Net Explosive Quantity (NEQ) grenades from an unseen drone will cause panic at the lowest levels but few actual casualties. A much more dangerous tactic is the accurate targeting of large SVBIEDs, where the Security Forces examine the aftermath of an attack without realising the drone’s involvement. Daesh’s success with these techniques recently in Mosul and Raqqa means any military force needs to add counter-UAS provision to its suite of countermeasures. Other non-military organizations such as airports, large sport or music venues, prisons, and so on must consider how they defeat this threat. New technology such as DJI’s ‘Tapfly’ means a drone can fly to a map location given to it by a smartphone – and then avoids obstacles without instruction. This and other new technology will require software upgrades to stay ahead with the cunning of the cat – rather than the blind running of the mouse! ✺ XPLOSIVE
In cases of unexploded subsoil ordnance a remote investigation is typically done by visual interpretation of available historical aerial photographs. Modern techniques can combine geophysical and survey methods with modern electromagnetic and magnetic detectors.
his provides digital mapping of UXO contamination with the aim to better target subsequent excavations, reducing the cost of digging on every metallic contact and speeding the clearance process. Magnetometer probes can detect UXO and provide geotechnical data before drilling or piling is carried out. Much of the cost of UXO removal comes from removing
may be dug carefully and disposed. But if the bomb is a buried one then it becomes a huge task. A team is formed to find the precise location of the bomb, using the best available metal detection systems before the earth can be dug carefully and the bomb disposed. An innovative new aerial metal detection system is being developed in Austria by Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH. The company is the only manufacturer to deliver a
of which the TerraStar is one. Based on the Multi-Purpose Platform (MPP) variant of the DA42 that was introduced in 2007, the TerraStar is the first aerial turnkey sensor platform worldwide that carries very low frequency (VLF) radiation detection and magnetometer sensors. These can conduct VLF radiation and magnetic monitoring during one single flight, saving both time and money. The solution for aerial
The bubble canopy gives the TerraStar’s pilot excellent visibility for accurate low-level tracking.
non-explosive items that the metal detectors have identified, so improved discrimination is critical. New techniques such as shape reconstruction from magnetic data and better de-noising techniques will reduce cleanup costs and enhancing recovery. UXO (unexploded ordnance) or UXBs (unexploded bombs) as they are called in some countries, are broadly classified into buried and unburied. UXO reconnaissance Disposal teams carry out reconnaissance of the area and determine the location of the ordnance. In case it is unburied it
full line of aircraft that combine innovative airframe technology, advanced avionics systems and modern electronically controlled single-lever jet fuel piston engines. Detection from the air To date, Diamond has delivered more than 4,000 all-composite aircraft, including the four-seat DA42 Twin Star that first flew in 2002 – with 860 produced to date. Diamond established a subsidiary, Austro Engine, to manufacture the AE300 diesel power plants for its aircraft, as well as a dedicated division, Diamond Airborne Sensing, to support the growing market for special-mission aircraft,
radiation and magnetic is easily combined with a wide variety of sensor systems for increased mission options. Wide-area coverage The DA42 MPP is capable of the rapid coverage of huge areas – more than 1,000 line km per flight with an endurance of up to eight hours. The aircraft has an ideal signal/noise ratio due to the low interference rate of its composite construction. Worldwide operability is offered due-to multi-fuel certified engines that can use Jet-A, Jet-A1, TS-1, RT, JP-8, or No. 3 Jet fuels combined with a long maintenance interval at 100 hours.
Developed countries such as Australia, Canada and USA have invested heavily in systematic airborne magnetic surveys of their respective continents and surrounding oceans, to assist with map geology and in the discovery of mineral deposits. There are a number of DA42s on the Australian register equipped with a nose-mounted magnetometer. Advanced mapping Diamond Aircraft has worked with another Austrian company in developing the TerraStar system. Geoprospectors GmbH develops and assembles innovative survey systems for the detailed motorized
industry (mapping and subsequent exploration). The use of multisensor technology increases efficiency and saves money for environmental monitoring, nuclear deposit and hazard detection. Nuclear reconnaissance Missions include contamination mapping and detection of radioactive waste storage, industrial sites and nuclear power plants, emergency response, the detection of fallout and nuclear
performance data acquisition/ data-logging unit with data acquisition (DAQ) and Windows interface. In addition the TerraStar has a VLF sensor in the nose, wing-mounted magnetic sensor heads, a wingtip spectrometer switch panel, and a lightweight high-precision magnetometer. These can detect ferrous metals used in weapons, ammunition or
DAVID OLIVER TAKES OFF IN ADVANCED AIRCRAFT FOR DETECTING
TERRASTAR mapping, investigation and evaluation of various soils and contained subsurface structures. Only proven non-invasive geophysical measurement technologies, such as electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar and gamma ray spectroscopy, are used. TerraStar is equipped with highly sensitive state-of-the-art detectors which are compliant with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and include advanced data analysis and processing. Geophysical airborne surveys are made of geological structures of inaccessible and remote areas for the hydrocarbon and mining
contamination, and the detection and mapping of natural and artificial radioactive emanations, or gamma rays. The DA42 MPP configured for VLF radiation and magnetic monitoring is equipped with a bellymounted gamma ray detector, an autonomous working spectrometer with single 4 litre or 8 litre crystals. The spectroscopy system has raw multi-channel analyzer (MCA) data, energy stabilization factors and energy stabilization spectrum. The signal processing includes digital baseline restoration, field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based pulse shaping and pile-up rejection. The computer specifications include a high
ordnance even if they are buried under sand or under water. Flight guidance is provided by GPS and an inertial measurement unit (IMU)-based stabilized and tracking system for real-time processing and visualization.
Flying the TerraStar The DA42 MPP can be flown by one of two pilots with one of two observers. Its bubble canopy allows a better view for the pilot especially at low altitudes while the operator station is a modular interior configuration in the rear seats. Colour-coded maps show the regional magnetic field and its anomalies due to natural and artificial sources are relayed
on the observer’s full HD screen. Analysis of longitudinal and transversal magnetic structures indicates subsurface geological structures or artificial lines. Three-dimensional models allow a picture of the subsurface for a better understanding of earth layering, in order to explore natural deposits with hot-spot visualization of point sources, such as UXO. The TerraStar is equipped with Garmin G1000 avionics, a fully integrated glass cockpit with synthetic vision technology, and a In mid-2016 trails of the TerraStar system were carried over disused live firing ranges in Austria to detect used shells, and two aircraft have been sold to a West African customer.
The nosemounted very-low frequency sensor mounted on the DA42 TerraStar.
flight management system with fully integrated three-axis GFC700 autopilot. The aircraft is equipped with The wingtip large ‘sharklet’ wingtips ‘sharklet’ of the Diamond Aircraft that increase yaw stability UXO Control DA42 for precision flights. An TerraStar. equipment rack can replace the co-pilot seat and it is also possible to remove the rear seats to increase payload and replace it with additional equipment. Although the TerraStar has a maximum speed of 213 mph (343 km/hr) it can be flown at low altitudes at only 100 mph (156 km/ hr) where the low noise and vibration levels and stability of the aircraft reduce pilot and observer fatigue. A typical search pattern for detecting and tracking buried ordnance is flown at an altitude of 140-420 ft (50-150 m). Flying at 280 ft (100 m) the track width is equal to the DA42’s wingspan of 44 ft (13.40 m). Because of low-altitude flying, Diamond Aircaft is working on a head-mounted augmented reality system for the TerraStar which lets the pilot see all important flight parameters including flight path guidance. This means the pilot does not need to look down – he can always keep his eye outside – which is very important for low-level ©David Oliver flying. ✺
CBRNe SUMMIT ASIA 2017 PHNOM PENH, CAMBODIA | 12-14 DECEMBER
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The Wizard disruptor pictured here on the Nexter robot (and on the tripod) incorporated a single cartridge regardless of the projectile used and had no firing pin.
The Wizard disruptor fitted on the Icor robot.
CATHY PARKER PRESENTS A NEW ADDITION FOR THE
WE ENTER A NEW ERA IN
REVOLUTION 56 XPLOSIVE
As our community advances toward smaller, lighter, more agile robotic platforms, bomb technicians require a general-purpose disruptor that can meet operational requirements - without the damaging recoil on All photos ©Proparms Ltd shoulder joints and on manipulators on their robots
e are all aware that the face of terrorism has changed. One attack after another dominates the headlines, and in response so are the ‘tools, tactics and procedures’ (TTPs) of the bomb disposal community. Proparms Limited is at the forefront of cutting-edge disruptor technology. It has been responsible for many significant developments in our industry such as the 3 m stand-off, and for introducing the world to recoilless disruptors. Founded in 1973, Proparms is a Canadian manufacturer of EOD equipment. Disruptors have been their main product line. They have clients worldwide in over 80 countries, representing police forces, military, government agencies and related government authorities. One-Shot and Wizard Proparms recoilless disruptors would revolutionize the way in which operators could use these invaluable tools. Squads were no longer restricted to big, heavy and cumbersome robotic platforms: now they could deploy disruptors from small robots and tripods as well. This trend would take hold and soon other disruptor companies were scrambling to develop recoilless disruptor technology too. Following the success of their recoilless technology, Proparms developed a disposable
The Wizard on tripod
disruptor, the One-Shot – a compact, lightweight and inexpensive alternative to larger disruptors. It favoured rapid deployment for dynamic or dismounted operations and was self-contained, allowing for momentum to be maintained. Proparms was unwilling to maintain the status quo and therefore continued to work on future generations of recoilless technology: hence, the Wizard disruptor was born. It would be a significant departure from previous recoilless disruptors and would allow for quick deployment – and could be fired from both the front and back of the barrel. Wizard simplified the selection of a cartridge as it incorporated a single cartridge, regardless of the projectile used, and had no firing pin – thus maintenance was negligible. Responding to Boston On 15 April 2013 the benefit of training, integration and interoperability of public safety bomb technicians and SWAT teams was proven in the response to the terrorist bombing attack in Boston, where two pressure-cooker IEDs exploded at the end of the city’s annual Marathon, killing three and injuring over 200. The collaborative effort between these specialized teams was a major effort in the fight against the emerging threat from criminals who choose to use IEDs as their primary tool against law enforcement. FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) Deputy Administrator Richard Serino testified to a Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs on ‘Lessons Learned from the Boston Marathon Bombings’. His testimony focused on the importance of training
SWAT teams to integrate bomb technicians into tactical operations. In the dawn of this tragedy came the call from technicians for ‘tactical’ disruptors. Proparms Ltd and other disruptor manufacturers would answer the call – and smaller, lighter, disruptors that could be carried in a tactical backpack or bag and deployed quickly emerged. This new tool would allow bomb technicians to support SWAT, by rapidly mitigating booby-traps and IED threats impeding the ability of SWAT teams to manoeuvre and deal with complex scenarios that address IEDs in support of tactical success. The adventures of Merlin The Merlin disruptor was the smaller ‘brother’ of the Wizard disruptor. Similar in design, it could be fired from either end of the barrel, employed a single cartridge, didn’t have a firing pin, and is smaller and lighter. Both the Wizard and Merlin disruptors are capable in some situations of being used at ranges much longer than 3 m, if operational and safety needs dictate this. Additionally, these disruptors were developed to meet the needs of the most recent types of IEDs often designed or inspired by Daesh. Now operators can use a disruptor rather than a HE counter-charge where applicable. Further information plus a video of the Wizard demonstrating its remarkable recoilless abilities is available on www.proparms.com Proparms continues to push out the envelope in developing cutting-edge ‘disruptive’ technology for the EOD/IED community. With an enhanced 2015 ISO approval at the company’s HQ in Canada – its US branch sources US-made materials for disruptors and ammunition – Proparms is well positioned to serve bomb technician requirements for the foreseeable future. Stay tuned. ✺
Cathy Parker is Global Marketing Manager for Proparms Ltd headquartered in Canada with a subsidiary in the US. As a respected member of the EOD/ IED community, she has worked for several high-profile technology-based companies for more than 20 years and is a long-time Member of the International Association of Bomb Technicians and Investigators (IABTI).
Major supplier of systems against Chemical, Biological and Radiological threats in the fields of defence, security and industry
defence NBC-SYS Today, from design to production, all the way through to customer support, NBC-Sys masters many technologies to combat chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear threats (CBRN). Our products are in service throughout the world in the ﬁelds of defence, security and industry. NBC-Sys is an expert in individual protection equipment, ﬁltration systems, chemical and biological detection and decontamination.
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GREGORY LABZOVSKY INTRODUCES A GROUNDBREAKING
SCANNING SYSTEM TO SPOT PERSONBORNE DEVICES
Aptec’s HSR is a breakthrough in people screening technology.
The vulnerability of crowded places to terrorist attack has never been more apparent. Recent high-profile terrorist incidents involving the combined use of firearms and personborne improvised explosive devices (PBIEDs) have highlighted the increasing unpredictability of terrorism while exposing the serious shortcomings of existing security measures.
ccording to the 2016 Global Terrorism Index, deaths from terrorism have increased the most dramatically in economically developed countries (650% up from the previous year) and the atrocities committed by Daesh in Paris, Brussels and Turkey’s capital Ankara were amongst the most devastating in the history of these countries. Between 2010 and October 2016 the vast majority of non-car bomb related fatalities caused by acts of terror were due to suicide belts; the threat is clear.
Screening crowds However, when it comes to implementing a practical security regime to protect crowded places from suicide attacks, current solutions have proven to be inadequate. Often they are too restricted, too slow and expensive to operate, and represent a significant gap in capability – which fails to deter terrorism and results in a continued
and concerning state of jeopardy. All too often, conventional screening solutions result in large crowds building up as they queue to be screened. These become attractive targets in their own right; the vulnerability is simply displaced to the outside of the perimeter of the crowded space. To stay ahead of these security challenges, society needs innovative solutions that address the significant gap in current capabilities.
All photos ©Apstec
Human Security Radar Considerable international effort has gone into trying to fill this capability gap. Organizations such as NATO and the US Department of Defense have established working groups, research projects and provided funding to identify promising technologies and approaches which could be applied to counter the threat of suicide attacks to crowded places. One of the award winners and
HSR has particular applicability in mitigating threats to large crowds at major events.
HSR automatically detects threats, locates them on the body, and identifies the carrier in order to facilitate an effective and proportionate response.
funding recipients recognized for its ability to protect vulnerable crowded places from the risk of terrorist attack, without causing delay to intensive people flow, is Human Security Radar (HSR), developed by Apstec Systems. HSR is the culmination of years of work by specialists in the fields of radio physics, electronics and software engineering and the consultation of leading security and counterterrorism practitioners. Automated screening HSR is a fully automatic, walkthrough system that simultaneously screens multiple subjects in real time for PBIEDs and firearms hidden under clothes and in backpacks – without the need for someone to operate the system; the inspection and alert process is fully automated. The system is based upon active centimetre wave technology and is able to discriminate explosives from other benign materials. The technology is used in several modes, enabling the detection of explosives and metal, including shrapnel (shipyard confetti) and automatic firearms. HSR has undergone numerous successful trials with leading national police and counter-terrorist organizations, demonstrating the technology’s high accuracy rate and
an unparalleled throughput with the capacity to screen up to 10,000 people per hour. Extra security layer Apstec’s HSR is a unique capability that provides high levels of safety and security in vulnerable crowded public places with minimal disruption and inconvenience. This breakthrough technology was not designed to replace existing security measures, but rather to ensure an extra layer of security to vulnerable crowded places at a time when these boundaries have proven to be at great risk of terrorist attack. HSR is an effective, functional and streamlined option in places where conventional security systems are not present or practical. This type of solution has wideranging applications. It potentially has a big role to play in helping mitigate risks to critical national infrastructure, including government, commercial premises, hotels and other potentially vulnerable locations. Moreover, because HSR is particularly well suited to securing crowded places where screening people using conventional methods is impractical, it can be used to bring security to places such as sports and other major event venues, transport hubs, landside of airports, shopping
The prevalence of PBIEDs requires a step change in capability to protect crowded places.
malls, places of worship, sea ports, and cruise liners. Such locations are increasingly vulnerable to suicide attacks and typical checkpoint-style security – and screening solutions are often deemed impractical, unsuitable or inappropriate. While there are no ‘silver bullets’, this paradigm-shifting approach to security can make a real difference today through significantly improving the security of these potentially vulnerable crowded places, by providing high levels of safety and security that seamlessly fits within our daily lives and routines. Counter-terrorism and security requires a proactive approach to tackle the ever-changing threat landscape. With the worrying trend of terrorism and suicide bombers, it’s a wake-up call for organizations to proactively address existing security measures. Solutions like Apstec’s HSR offers forward-thinking governments and organizations the opportunity to deploy cutting-edge security technology which could enable them to take a quantum leap forward in the capability to combat the threat of terrorism and help make the world a safer place for us all. ✺
Gregory Labzovsky is CEO of Apstec Systems. A physicist by training and a software engineer by profession, he has extensive experience of developing and commercializing technology solutions as well as managing world-leading product development organizations. As CEO of Apstec Systems, he leverages his considerable expertise in technology to develop breakthrough security solutions that help make the world a safer place.
AN INNOVATIVE CONCEPT FOR EXPLOSIVES DETECTION
he unique capability offered by T-REX, delivered by an innovative combination of three technologies (Surface Acoustic Waves, fluorescence, Quartz Crystal Microbalance), gives it a significant advantage over the competition in the EVD field and indeed, over all other portable explosives detection systems dedicated to second level or random control. The high level of assurance provided by the sensors array T-REX has created what we believe is the unique selling point for the system. This level of assurance will offer up an unprecedented level of confidence to security commanders. T-REX can detect and identify in a short response time (10 seconds to two minutes) military and commercial explosives (TNT, DNT, EGDN) and homemade explosives (hydrogen peroxide, nitromethane, TATP, nitrobenzene) or taggants (nitrotoluene) with an alarm (sound and graph). ✺
• • • • •
Civil support teams
Mass transit Aviation security First responders Counter-terrorism task force
KHANDELWAL EXPLAINS THE VALUE OF LIGHTWEIGHT SUITS FOR MINEFIELD BREACHING AFTER THE CONFLICT IS OVER
In this Argentinian minefield laid in 1982 at Port William in the Falklands, clearance is inhibited by boggy terrain.
From Afghanistan to Cambodia, and from Angola to Colombia, landmines pose a great threat to civilian lives even years after the war is over. Egypt is still struggling to clear out the landmines that date back to the North African campaigns of World War II.
haracteristically, landmines are very durable and can pose a safety hazard even after decades of being laid down. Throughout history, they have been used rampantly by militaries and warring factions. For them, a landmine is a decisive weapon, usage of which can vary from eliminating a soldier to destroying a tank. By planting mines across a vast expanse of land, militaries can fortify their positions and thwart any enemy advancement. However, when the conflict is over, these landmines remain behind – neatly entrenched under the battlegrounds as hidden killers – as fatal threats to innocuous civilians as soon as they are stepped upon.
Landmine casualties According to Landmine Monitor 2016, on average 18 people are killed or injured every day by landmines or unexploded explosive ordnance
(UXO). There are several countries across the world with seriously landmine infested border areas around battle zones. This has become a serious problem with far-reaching and long-term economic and civilian safety implications. Therefore, for humanitarian purposes, it is essential to clear the landmines and other UXO from the conflict zones – and deminers play a crucial role in achieving this objective. Demining – an arduous task The job of demining is not a glamorous gig. The soldiers and trained professionals in detection and removal of anti-personnel landmines have to wear ballistic armoured suits that can weigh anything up to 30 kg, depending on the job at hand. From sweltering heat of deserts to humid rain-forests, the deminers operate in extreme
hostile climate and terrain conditions. The deminers cautiously move ahead step by step – while probing the ground with magnetic detectors or manual excavation tools, to detect any metallic debris which could be a potential landmine. Each alarm is then carefully checked by the deminers to distinguish the landmines from metallic debris. Once a landmine is identified, the deminers either excavate it from the ground to diffuse it, or it is remotely blown up. The only protection the deminers have from a potential accidental landmine explosion while detecting or diffusing it is in the form of a demining suit. Suits for demining A demining suit is specially designed for Army specialists and trained professionals who search for buried landmines and other UXO. The suit is designed to provide protection against fragments and projectiles
from possible accidental detonation of anti-personnel landmines. For maximum protection, the suit envelops the wearer from head to foot, but it weighs him down and also limits his limb movements while kneeling to detect and diffuse a landmine. Considering that deminers are enveloped with a heavy suit while operating in hot temperatures, it is necessary to understand that for the wearer of a demining suit the temperatures would be significantly higher. This results in profuse sweating, which makes the demining suit uncomfortable to wear and hinders the performance of the deminer. A small lapse in concentration of the deminer can trigger the accidental detonation of the landmine. Hence, it is necessary that the demining suit is comfortable to wear for a deminer. Lightening the load MKU is a leading manufacturer of ballistic armour protection and surveillance solutions, and offers the MDS range of demining suits – which have been innovatively designed to
landmine accidentally. The boots of be lightweight, comfortable and the MDS demining suits have been stress-free to the wearer. The MDS specifically designed to withstand an demining suit and its aprons are explosion force of an average mine. created with world-class composite By providing deminers with materials to make it lightweight and comfortable demining suits that give optimum comfort to the wearer, enhances their performance while even in hot and humid conditions. clearing the landmines from The body and apron armour of contaminated fields, the objective the demining suit provide ballistic of humanitarian demining can be protection against fragments achieved to restore peace and travelling at a speed of 500 m/s in security at the community level. accordance with NATO STANAG 2920 Post-conflict, once the land is free standards. from landmines, it can be safely The MDS demining suit is easy used for farming and infrastructure to wear and take off with detachable rebuilding – leading to faster components, giving deminers the economic development of flexibility and mobility that enables conflict-torn regions. ✺ them to bend their knees without compromising on protection. In the event of an explosion, the outer collar of the demining suits has been designed to vent the blast MDS IV: upwards away from the face all-round 360o of the personnel conducting protection when ©MKU probing densely operations. infested stretches The most important part of ground. to provide protection from a landmine explosion is to the foot – that is, if a deminer steps on a
This safety ordnance dump shows the daily finds from one single specialist-team in Cambodia.
Minefield breaching requires flexible protection as personnel on the job need freedom of movement and heightened awareness.
Manish Khandelwal is a Director at MKU Limited heading Personal Protection Product Vertical. With 21 years of experience in the defence industry, he plays an important role in steering product development initiatives at MKU and has innovative patents to his credit in ballistic personal protection.
ADVERTORIAL: BCTL / FIELD FORENSICS
CTL Co. provides software to streamline your operations. Plan your operation details (personnel, Safety Protocols, sites) using Mystic HQ. Information is downloaded to tablets running Mystic Patrol so that you can more efficiently and accurately Execute in
MYSTIC ★ HQ ™
● Setup the Project ● Push to the Field
the field. Patrol is used to record GPS locations, plant virtual flags, capture images, keep daily activity logs, and fill out your forms. At the end of the mission, information is uploaded to HQ where it is instantly available for QC approval. Mystic HQ automatically
generates the necessary Reports complete with digital signatures. By using the Mystic Software system, you can save up to 15% of your project costs and virtually eliminate data recording and transfer errors. All data is secured in DoD approved AWS GovCloud (US).✺
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BCTL is not just a solution provider, we are your personal software company, working hand-in-hand with you to support your back office and field operations. We want you to be successful and are here to support your efforts. Call 727-787-2071 or email email@example.com for a free trial.
All photos ©Field Forensics
ield Forensics has introduced the updated ELITE ™ series for trace detection of military, commercial and home-made explosives (HME). The two basic kits in the product line are the EL100 and the EL200. The EL100 detects dozens of explosives at trace levels and can also be used on visible amounts of explosives with just one swab/ sample. The EL200 detects chlorates, bromates, peroxides and
perchlorates whether solid, liquid or vapour. This means that even if TATP (triacetone triperoxide) is stored under alcohol, the EL200 can react to the TATP vapour in the headspace of the container. ELITE ™ is currently in use with military, police and commercial security forces for explosives screening, post-blast investigations and counter-terrorism operations. In August Field Forensics additionally introduces the EL300. The EL300 detects with a single sample, nitro aromatics, nitro aliphatics, nitrate esters, inorganic nitrates, chlorates, bromates and peroxides. So – with yet again a kit that can fit in a shirt pocket – the EL300 can do more than any other such kit. The kits can quite literally be kept in a shirt pocket, are self-contained, and can be used when needed. They each have a shelf life of three years
under virtually any storage condition, even under water. The updated product line consists of versions of the EL100, the EL200 and the EL300. Each can be used individually or in a complementary way – the chemistries are different and mutually confirmatory: simple, rugged and reliable.✺
ADVERTORIAL: NEXTER ROBOTICS / TELEDYNE
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TELEDYNE ICM LAUNCHES THE FLATSCAN XS
eledyne ICM, the portable X-ray experts, have just released a brand new range of extra slim and light portable X-ray scanners for the security market. Building on the tremendous success of its predecessor the FLATSCAN range, the all-new FLATSCAN XS is a direct response to the evolving portable X-ray market. Experts in many fields such as EOD, customs and law enforcement
green…). In case GPS is not available (indoor use for example), the robot can be equipped with a 2D-mapping system which automatically makes a map of local environment (also with colours according to measured contamination). When detector and robot are loose coupled, a micro-camera watches the embarked detector display, which then appears as picture-in-picture on the remote control station. ✺
hen suspecting a CRN-e threat, a short response time is required. But this is challenging as first-responding needs staff to don protective clothing and to use heavy-to-deploy equipment. Use of light, robust and fast ground robots can drastically improve this critical phase: with a weight below 4.5 kg (10 lb), the NERVA-LG robot from Nexter Robotics is easily transportable. Its speed is over 15 km/h (9 mph) and it can support drops over 2 m (6 ft) in height. But the most interesting comes from its high modularity and versatility. Indeed, beyond its native reconnaissance capabilities (four on-board cameras for 360° vision), the robot can be equipped for free with almost all existing CRN-e detectors or effectors, provided their weights comply with the
agencies are constantly requiring lighter, more compact and ever more mobile X-ray solutions. With the increasing use of EOD robots and the constant weight of 80-lb (36-kg) bomb suits, extra-light equipment is a godsend for many operators. This new digital panel comes in two distinct sizes. The FLATSCAN30 XS enjoys a detection area of 30 in (76 cm) across, enabling scanning of large objects in one single shot, while the FLATSCAN15 XS is a reduced
panel of 15 in (38 cm) - perfectly fit for Teledyne ICM’s new backpack solution. Flat panel, generator, and tablet can easily fit into one single backpack, enabling the end user to carry this carbon-based detection equipment with ease and comfort. Combined with Teledyne ICM’s unique constant potential X-ray sources CP120B - CP160B and their reduced focal spot, the new FLATSCAN XS scanners deliver sharp, clear and detailed images of any object at unbeatable speed. Now backed by high-tech software, Teledyne ICM’s expertise is more than ever at your fingertips. With improved resolution, added image editing capabilities, and stitching functionalities, the updated FLATSCAN software can reveal with extended accuracy the content of any item. On the battlefield, in a crowded airport, or at a busy checkpoint, FLATSCAN XS scanners answer the needs of many X-ray professionals around the world. ✺ For more information: http:// www.teledyneicm.com/security
SAAB SM-EOD FOR SAFE MINE AND UXO DISPOSAL
M-EOD is a system for selective and contact-free disposal of mines, unexploded ordnance (UXO), and improvised explosive device disposal (IEDD) that is either covered with soil or underwater. It is used for the destruction of all kinds of unexploded ordnances, including anti-personnel mines and anti-tank mines from 5 g to more than 1,000 kg that have to be disrupted without physical contact. UXOs and mines are disposed with either high- or low-order missions. The family product range of six systems range from the SM-EOD 20, which weighs 72 g, has an explosive mass of 11.5 g, a stand-off range of 0-450 mm, and a maximum penetration of 55 mm - to the 14.1-kg SM-EOD 190, with an explosive mass of 7.8 kg, a stand-off of maximal 10 m and a maximum penetration of 1.900 mm. The waterproof detonator socket is mounted on a lightweight adjustable tripod which is included in the weight of the system. SM-EOD can be deployed in civil and military use to quickly perforate UXOs buried deep under rock, road, bitumen and all types of hard and soft material. The SM-EOD family has been qualified and the small calibre charges can be shipped by air to meet emergency situations, as they have the Hazard Classification (HC) 1.4D. The SM-EOD charges were designed, produced, and qualified to exacting military standards and they fulfil the requirements for operation within a wide band of climatic conditions.
All photos ©Saab
ADVANTAGES THAT EQUAL A SAFE MISSION:
◗ Trusted system to achieve low-order disposal ◗ High and constant density of explosive body plus high detonation velocity and uniform spreading, excellent jet formation, and superior penetration performance.
◗ High stand-off, no digging, tools or touching, with simplified and fast operation. ◗ Plastic housing, water resistant, no electromagnetic interference, and broad environmental use. ◗ No self-filling of tools, disposable, ready to use, on-the-fly intervention, and fast operation. SM-EOD 20 and SM-EOD 33 as well the projectile building charge SM-EOD 33P are used for low-order missions. SM-EOD 67, 130 and 190 are used for high-order missions. SM-EOD products have been used in more than 50 countries by many different organizations such as independent military forces; NATO military deployments; United Nations (UN) peacekeeping forces; Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) demining operations; and for non-governmental organization (NGO)
mine clearance operations. Training is simple and effective. An operator can be safely trained in as little as two days and includes an encyclopedic reference manual. Inert models are available to assist in training courses. Customized training is available with training carried out at customer facilities. Accessories on offer include a simple, reusable eye-safe laser-aiming device for more accurate targeting, a mine prodder, ready-to-use kits, linear charges, and detonator caps. ✺ Saab Boforts Dynamics Switzerland Ltd. T: +41 33 227 74 74 E: firstname.lastname@example.org
A TRUE PARTNER When there’s no room for doubt. No space for error. No half measure.
FLATSCAN15® & 30® by Teledyne ICM: Portable X-Ray Threat Detection Solutions…
Always by your side.
Time, Precision, Simplicity
CBNW X PLOSIVE
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NERVA LG ®
The Agile Recon Robot
Terrains change. Recon methods change. Missions change. So should your robot. The NERVA®LG from NEXTER ROBOTICS is a mini multi-purpose unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) which can be used for different applications like: reconnaissance missions, as an EOD platform, CBRNe detection platform, smoke generator, transportation platform, etc. RADIOLOGIC DETECTION
2D MAPPING CAPABILITIES
Demining from the air
CREATING NEW REFERENCES IN ROBOTICS
NEXTER ROBOTICS 13, route de la Minière • 78034 Versailles Cedex • France Phone: + 33 1 39 49 33 22 • Fax: + 33 1 39 49 85 22 email@example.com
Flying the Terrastar
STRAY DOGS The Manchester massacre
NINE LIVES Felix Fund supporting EOD
UNDER PRESSURE Bomb suit testing