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Cory Everson





(Incredible Pics!)

Strength Coach Tells You How

Midlife-Muscle SUPPLEMENT GUIDE Keep the Big-Gain Train Rolling FEBRUARY 2008 $5.99

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•Grow With the Pros—Joel Stubbs and Rusty Jeffers •Clarence Bass, Still Ripped at 70—Amazing! •Super Size Program—the Supersaturation Workout Free download from






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February 2008



62 TRAIN, EAT, GROW 100 The TEG men resurrect their metabolic momentum with the deadlift.

90 A BODYBUILDER IS BORN 31 Ron Harris mentally preps his young protégé for his first contest.

106 STILL RIPPED AFTER ALL THESE YEARS Clarence “Ripped to Shreds” Bass is 70—and looks incredible. How does he do it? Steve Holman interviews the man behind the muscularity.


CORY EVERSON Six-time Ms. Olympia Turns 50

126 SUPER SATURATION FOR SERIOUS SIZE Steve Holman and Jonathan Lawson’s unique twist on heavy/light power/pump mass training—perfect for the older, bolder bodybuilder.

150 HEAVY DUTY John Little channels the wisdom of Mike Mentzer. This month: variation.

166 MUSCLE MATURITY Rusty Jeffers has come into his own in pro bodybuilding at 43 years of age. Kris Gethin gets him to talk about his career, methods and philosophy.

180 TONIC IN A TEAPOT Jerry Brainum explores the research on tea, the health-fixer elixir that burns fat.


TRAINING PAST 40 Dave Draper’s Blond Bomber Insight

210 WORKOUT STRESS TEST Does training help reduce stress or add to it? Here’s the latest research.

218 TRAINING PAST 40 From the archives, legendary bodybuilder Dave Draper gives his views on staying huge after 40.

226 CORY AT 50 Babs Hogan talks with the most influential Ms. Olympia as she turns 50. Ms. E looks phenomenal. You won’t believe your eyes. Wow!

270 MIDLIFE-MUSCLE SUPPLEMENT GUIDE Which compounds can help you continue to build mass through middle age and beyond? Here’s a rock-solid list to help you stay rock-hard and ripped.

280 JOEL STUBBS This new up-and-coming pro shows you how to grow.

298 ONLY THE STRONG SHALL SURVIVE Bill Starr’s six-pack attack for midsection perfection.



Cory Everson, six-time Ms. Olympia and now 50-year-old mom, appears on this month’s cover, looking absolutely fabulous. Photo by Michael Neveux. Wardrobe Stylist: Diana Antin. Hair and makeup Teri Groves

Vol. 67, No. 2







(Incredible Pics!)

MIDSECTION PERFECTION Strength Coach Tells You How

Midlife-Muscle SUPPLEMENT GUIDE Keep the Big-Gain Train Rolling FEBRUARY 2008 $5.99

Please display until 2/5/08

C1_Feb2008-b_F.indd 1

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Cory Everson

PLUS: •Grow With the Pros—Joel Stubbs and Rusty Jeffers •Clarence Bass, Still Ripped at 70—Amazing! •Super Size Program—the Supersaturation Workout 12/3/07 8:04:32 PM



28 TRAIN TO GAIN Stretch to grow. Plus Joe Horrigan’s Sportsmedicine: leg extensions vs. squats.

42 SMART TRAINING Coach Charles Poliquin answers questions on size and strength.

48 EAT TO GROW Anti-aging power of NAC, compound your growth and foods to ease disease.

74 NATURALLY HUGE John Hansen outlines how to get big, strong and ripped.

84 SHREDDED MUSCLE Dave Goodin on dieting and dating. (“Pew, was that you or the dog?”)

88 CRITICAL MASS Steve Holman discusses building muscle in midlife and doing high reps to burn fat.

260 NEWS & VIEWS The world of bodybuilding

248 BODYBUILDING PHARMACOLOGY Jerry Brainum on steroids, supplements and liver damage.

254 MUSCLE “IN” SITES Eric Broser surfs the Web for sites for your eyes. His training wisdom is here too.

260 NEWS & VIEWS Lonnie Teper’s got the latest hits and misses from the bodybuidling world.

284 PUMP & CIRCUMSTANCE Ruth Silverman’s camera is always blazing at physique events. Who has she flashed lately? See for yourself. Also see full-page pics of the Ms., Fitness and Figure Olympia champs here.


254 MUSCLE “IN” SITES Surfing the Web

New stuff to get you buff, and IRON MAN Rising Stars too.

320 READERS WRITE Arthur Jones and awesome arms.


In the next IRON MAN:

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ONLINE VIEWERS CHOICE Here are the places that viewers recently clicked on the most:


COVERAGE Get the latest, greatest results, photos, video and blogs from the biggest events.

CLIPS LIBRARY >PDF >BEHIND >HOT THE SCENES Feel your heart Read and/or VIDEOS See and hear interviews with the stars of the muscle world.

race when you view these in-the-studio sessions with fit, gorgeous gals.

download some of our most popular features. Build your muscle-bulding collection.

We take you behind the scenes of amateur contest prep. What’s it like to train and diet like a madman and then win? You’ll find out and see how one competitor used D.C. training to push himself to victory. Speaking of victory, we have a feature on Victor Martinez, who discusses his runner-up placing at the Mr. O and what changes are in store. We’ll also have a look at 3D HIT one-set-per-exercise training, a program you have to try. Look for the muscle-making March issue on newsstands the first week of February.

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by John Balik

Separating the Men From the Boys No pain, no gain. That’s the bodybuilding mantra because the key factor in making a workout productive is intensity, and intensity causes pain. Being able to tolerate the pain is what separates the men from the boys and a good workout from a great one. “No pain no gain” is generally misinterpreted by the public in a negative context—as it relates to injury. Anyone who has trained for a while has probably experienced that twinge that says, “Stop now!” When it happens to you, never try to train through or around it; simply ice it ASAP. “Good” pain that stimulates growth is different. Good pain is there to tell us we are in the growth zone. Without the microdamage from an intense workout, there would be no gain. The recovery stage from the damage is where growth actually occurs, so that fleeting pain is a good measure of how far you are into the growth zone. Since the mind controls the body, the ability to tolerate pain is a psychological process. In a very real sense the intense workout not only teaches your muscle to be stronger but also strengthens your will. When your biceps burn so fiercely that it feels as if they’re shouting at you to stop, but you go on, you feel a sense of control that can be earned in no other way. The workout has the potential to strengthen more than your muscles. In modern life, where it’s usually not necessary to be physically dominating, mental strength is much more useful. The interesting thing is how having more strength and muscle makes you feel—how you see yourself. Everyone experiences daily (or even hourly!) stresses, and how you cope with them is a function of your mental and physical strength. The workout refills a reservoir of resilience: the ability to take the inevitable hits—like a great boxer—but then shake off the damage and keep fighting. The workout has the potential to enhance your life in general. I consider my workout a 45-minute vacation from stress. It’s immeasurably more effective at combating stress than any other way I could use the time. The workout is Midlife-Muscle true re-creation. Supplement The workout is the foundaGuide Compounds That Keep the MASS Coming Through Middle Age and Beyond tion for growth, but nothing T can be built to its highest quality if you don’t have the right materials. Discussing the nutritional elements that are fundamental to recovery is outside of the scope of this editorial. For an in-depth analysis of supplement support that’s especially relevant for older trainees, see Steve Holman’s “MidLife-Muscle Supplement Guide” on page 270. For more insight into stress, see Jerry Brainum’s “Workout Stress Test” on page 210. IM Clark Bartram, age 41

by Steve Holman

oo many people accept hitting age 40 as the start of a physical downhill slide. Not so. In fact, as Sherwin B. Nuland, clinical professor of surgery at Yale University, suggests in his book The Art of Aging, after midlife is when man’s creativity and ingenuity kick in. It’s when many discover their talents for such artistic endeavors as painting—or sculpting. And what better way to use that creativity than to sculpt and strengthen the very thing that can improve the quality of your life—your body. Yes, it’s true that a lot of the body’s processes begin to slow when you reach middle age, but the muscle-growth process doesn’t have to turn into a fight to maintain. You can still gain, and a number of supplements can help you sculpt a bigger, better physique. Many can improve your overall health as well, as in antiaging elixirs.




Publisher’s Letter

Founders 1936-1986: Peary & Mabel Rader

The research on PS, which is derived from soy lipids, started in Italy, where cyclists used it to reduce cortisol—the muscleeating stress hormone that also destroys testosterone— an average of 30 percent.

research shows that cortisol can damage brain tissue and that PS, by controlling cortisol, improves brain function, like cognitive ability and focus. Are you starting to see why this natural compound is so important, especially as we age? It’s anticatabolic not only for muscle tissue but brain tissue as well. It’s an antistress supplement that helps on a number of levels. That should be easy to remember—if you’re taking PS. Recommendation: Take 600 to 800 milligrams prior to your workouts. You may also want to take another 200 to 400 milligrams before bed, as research shows that cortisol spikes in the latter hours of sleep. [Note: If you use CortBloc, 600 to 800 milligrams is four capsules. See page 156 for more information.] Monteleone, P., et al. (1990). Effects of phosphatidylserine on the neuroendocrine response to physical stress in humans. Neuroendocrinol. 52:243-248. Fahey, T., and Pearl, M. (1998). The hormonal and perceptive effects of phosphatidylserine administration during two weeks of weight-training-induced overtraining. Biol Sport. 15:135-144 Crook, T. H., et al. (1991). Effects of phosphatidylserine in ageassociated memory impairment.

(continued on page 274) \ FEBRUARY 2008 271

270 FEBRUARY 2008 \

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It worked for aerobic athletes’ recovery and tolerance, but what about athletes whose anaerobic workouts are geared for building muscle? Enter Thomas Fahey, who spearheaded research at California State University, Chico, in 1998. He subjected experienced weight trainers to overtraining. The subjects who got the PS “had considerably less muscle soreness and a better perception of wellbeing than those who didn’t get the PS.” The study showed that a big part of the reason was a 30 percent reduction in cortisol—good news for any athlete, but especially those looking to gain muscle. There’s more good news. Older and newer

12/2/07 1:26:24 PM

MidLifeSupps_214_F.indd 271

12/2/07 1:27:08 PM

Publisher/Editorial Director: John Balik Associate Publisher: Warren Wanderer Design Director: Michael Neveux Editor in Chief: Stephen Holman Art Director: T. S. Bratcher Senior Editor: Ruth Silverman Editor at Large: Lonnie Teper Articles Editors: L.A. Perry, Caryne Brown Assistant Art Director: Brett R. Miller Designer: Chester Chin IRON MAN Staff: Mary Gasca, Vuthy Keo, Mervin Petralba, Contributing Authors: Jerry Brainum, Eric Broser, David Chapman, Teagan Clive, Lorenzo Cornacchia, Daniel Curtis, Dave Draper, Michael Gündill, Rosemary Hallum, Ph.D., John Hansen, Ron Harris, Ori Hofmekler, Rod Labbe, Skip La Cour, Jack LaLanne, Butch Lebowitz, John Little, Stuart McRobert, Gene Mozée, Charles Poliquin, Larry Scott, Jim Shiebler, Roger Schwab, Pete Siegel, C.S. Sloan, Bill Starr, Bradley Steiner, Eric Sternlicht, Ph.D., Randall Strossen, Ph.D., Richard Winett, Ph.D., and David Young Contributing Artists: Steve Cepello, Larry Eklund, Ron Dunn, Jake Jones Contributing Photographers: Jim Amentler, Ron Avidan, Roland Balik, Reg Bradford, Jimmy Caruso, Bill Dobbins, Jerry Fredrick, Irvin Gelb, Isaac Hinds, Dave Liberman, J.M. Manion, Merv, Gene Mozée, Mitsuru Okabe, Rob Sims, Ian Sitren, Leo Stern

Director of Marketing: Helen Yu, 1-800-570-IRON, ext. 1 Accounting: Dolores Waterman Subscriptions Manager: Sonia Melendez, 1-800-570-IRON, ext. 2 E-mail: Advertising Director: Warren Wanderer 1-800-570-IRON, ext. 1 (518) 743-1696; FAX: (518) 743-1697 Advertising Coordinator: Jonathan Lawson, (805) 385-3500, ext. 320 Newsstand Consultant: Angelo Gandino, (516) 796-9848 We reserve the right to reject any advertising at our discretion without explanation. All manuscripts, art or other submissions must be accompanied by a selfaddressed, stamped envelope. Send submissions to IRON MAN, 1701 Ives Avenue, Oxnard, CA 93033. We are not responsible for unsolicited material. Writers and photographers should send for our Guidelines outlining specifications for submissions. IRON MAN is an open forum. We also reserve the right to edit any letter or manuscript as we see fit, and photos submitted have an implied waiver of copyright. Please consult a physician before beginning any diet or exercise program. Use the information published in IRON MAN at your own risk.

IRON MAN Internet Addresses: Web Site: John Balik, Publisher: Steve Holman, Editor in Chief: Ruth Silverman, Senior Editor: T.S. Bratcher, Art Director: Helen Yu, Director of Marketing: Jonathan Lawson, Ad Coordinator: Sonia Melendez, Subscriptions:

26 FEBRUARY 2008 \

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Train to Gain Some exercise is important for delineated abs, but diet also plays a huge role (e.g., avoid the bread and rolls).

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Born Without Abs?

Neveux \ Model: Dave Goodin

A: First, everyone is born with abdominal muscles. You wouldn’t be able to stand if they weren’t there. They are there—probably beneath a layer of fat. There’s a phrase you hear in the fitness industry right now, “developing the core.” While developing your “core” is a good idea, you wouldn’t be able to walk if your abs were all that weak. There’s no more importance in working the abdominal area than any other area. The fact is, you work your abs a lot when you’re not even thinking about them. For example, you work your abs merely by walking; they hold your spine in place and flex when you do heavy triceps pushdowns or pullovers. Anyone who can walk has abs that are quite well developed. The same can be said of the spinal erector muscles, which are the opposing muscles to your lower abs. They hold your body upright. There is no need to work your abs for hundreds of reps—or, for that matter, on a special device or for days on end. Two simple exercises done a couple of days a week are all you need—plus a diet adjustment. I believe that everyone should do some type of leg raise. Hang from a pullup bar or lie on the floor. Do a few sets to failure twice a week, and include some type of crunch work as well. I start with leg raises. I lie on my back on the floor, put my hands behind my head and, with legs straight, raise them about two feet off the floor. Once I get to the point where my lower abs are no longer working to raise my legs, I lower my feet to about an inch from the floor, and then back up they go. I do leg raises until I can do no more. Then I bend my knees, cross my legs at the ankles and from the same position do simple crunches by bringing my elbows up to my legs, hands still behind my head. I do

those until failure, rest 30 seconds and then do the cycle again. I do that ab routine twice in an eightday workout schedule, and that’s all. I’m now 52, and all it would take is about a month of dieting to get my abs looking contest ready. What I believe you’re missing more than anything is the proper diet to help bring your abs rippling out to the surface. Here’s what you need to be eating: one to 1 1/2 grams of lean protein per pound of bodyweight a day, divided into four meals. Then, multiply 1.25 times your protein intake, and that should be your grams of carbohydrates, eaten in the form of vegetables and small amounts of fruit. If you want to see those abs, you can’t use anything refined. Fats should be minimal and should come only from nuts such as almonds or macadamias, a bit of avocado, tiny amounts of olive oil—and eight to 12 molecularly distilled fish oil capsules a day. When I train to bring out my abs, I don’t cook with any oil. I eat a handful of nuts with each meal and rely on them and the fish oils to help build testosterone and growth hormone most effectively. That’s the way to see your abs at midlife. —Paul Burke Neveux \ Model Dave Goodin

Q: I’m 45 years old and have never been able to see my abdominal muscles. Could I have a problem? Was I born without abs?

Middle-aged midsection perfection

Editor’s note: To contact Paul Burke, write to Burke has a master’s degree in integrated studies from Cambridge College in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He’s been a champion bodybuilder and arm wrestler, and he’s considered a leader in the field of over40 fitness training. You can purchase his book, Burke’s Law—a New Fitness Paradigm for the Mature Male, from Home Gym Warehouse. Call (800) 4470008, or visit His “Burke’s Law” training DVD is also now available.

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Q: My quads are coming along just fine, but my hamstrings are flat as pancakes. I train them just the way I do my thighs, but I get opposite results. I do about three exercises each for quads and hams, for three to four sets per movement. I always train to failure in the range of 12 to 15 reps. Typically, I do lying, seated and standing single-leg curls, but I change the order each time. I do stiff-legged deadlifts about once per month. What’s wrong here? A: I don’t know how long you’ve been following the same basic hamstring program, but I am often amazed at how much (wasted) time some trainees will spend doing a routine that achieves few to no results. If you’re not seeing any gains after six weeks on a particular regimen, ditch it! In other words, it’s broke, so fix it! Now, assuming you are using good form and are pushing yourself on hamstrings as much as you are on quads, you can make a few changes that might get your hams more in a mood to grow. First, I would like to see you lower your repetition range from 12 to 15 to six to 10. While the quads often respond well to higher reps, the hamstrings should be trained a bit more heavily. That’s because the hams have a greater percentage of type 2 muscle fibers, making them more responsive to greater loads. Next, start using stiff-legged deadlifts at each workout, along with just two curling movements. Alternate between barbell, dumbbell and Smith-machine stiffs from workout to workout, and on the fourth week use hyperextensions instead. With the hyperextensions, mentally leave your lower back out of the movement and focus on pulling with the hamstrings. The burn you get from the exercise can be quite intense once you zero in on it. On occasion try supersetting leg curls with either a stiff-legged-deadlift variation or hyperextensions for a killer pump. Finally, make sure you’re emphasizing the negative contraction. The negative causes more muscle trauma than the positive, so when you lower, focus on taking three to five seconds on each rep. With muscle trauma comes an intense growth response as the body attempts to repair the damage and make the muscles larger and stronger. If you’re truly hardcore, finish off your leg curls with some X-Rep partials down near the stretch position. My own hamstrings started making tremendous improvements when I started training them before my quads. I began doing that because my knees were causing me pain, and doing hams first helped to get some blood in there and warm them up. Once I saw how nicely the backs of my legs were rounding out, I never went back to training quads first. You may want to employ the strategy as well. —Eric Broser 30 FEBRUARY 2008 \

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Few things are as impressive as thick and meaty outer lats. Beefy wings really fill out a shirt, and they can even be appreciated when a physique is turned to the side. So how do you go about getting extreme development in this area? IFBB superstar and twotime Arnold Classic champion Dexter “the Blade” Jackson knows how. “I do wide-grip T-bar rows,” he says, “with the bar in the corner.” Critics say the exercise provides a somewhat limited range of motion. Not only is Dexter aware of that, but he says that’s exactly why he does it. “It’s meant to be a partial movement,” he explains. “The width of the 45-pound plates, together with your wide hand spacing, means that you can’t get your elbows too far back. You can’t pinch your shoulder blades together the way you can with most other rowing movements. And that puts the stress directly on the outer lats. Dexter Jackson. People always talk about wide-grip chins being the best way to get a wide back, but this version of T-bar rows will really spread those wings out—and make them thicker too.” Since Dexter’s back has been steadily improving over the years and regularly trumps those of rivals that outweigh him by as much as 50 to 80 pounds, his suggestion might be worth a try. Just be careful to maintain good form and an arch in your back. Any partial movement will let you use greater weight, which can in turn mean greater risk of injury if you’re careless with your form. —Ron Harris

YOU CAN BENCH BIG Add 20 Pounds to Your Bench Press Almost Overnight! How would you like a surge in upper-body power and a bigger bench press—say, 20 extra pounds on the bar—after only a couple of workouts? Sure, adding 20 pounds to your bench in two or three training sessions may sound crazy, especially if your bench press poundage has been stuck in neutral for a while. But nine times out of 10 this stall is due to an easily correctible muscle weakness—not in the pecs, delts or triceps but in a group of muscles known as the rotator cuff. The rotator cuff muscles stabilize the shoulder joint. During the bench press and almost all other upperbody movements these muscles protect the shoulder joint and prevent ball-and-socket slippage. If these muscles are underdeveloped, they become the weak link in the action and your pressing strength suffers, or worse, you injure your shoulder. One of the best ways to strengthen this area and create an upper-body power surge is with direct rotator cuff exercise. Once you start using the ShoulderHorn for two or three sets twice a week, your pressing poundages will skyrocket. This device allows you to train your rotator cuff muscles in complete comfort and with precise strengthening action. After a few weeks you’ll be amazed at your new benching power. There have been reports of 20-to-30-pound increases in a matter of days. A big, impressive bench press can be yours. Get the ShoulderHorn, start working your rotator cuff muscles, and feel the power as you start piling on plates and driving up heavy iron.

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Train to Gain / SIZE SURGE

Should You Stretch to Grow? Is a stand-alone stretching routine worth the time?

The gains in power are related to increases in muscle length, which lead to increases in muscle contractile velocity and force generation—all of which equates to more muscle power. The authors also note that the results of the study may not apply to a situation where stretching is combined with strength training. On the other hand, the study does show that stretching is beneficial—but perhaps as a workout in itself, not as part of a strength-training session. A similar scenario exists for aerobic training. Done prior to

Neveux/Model: Clark Bartram

Many recent studies have cast doubt on the value of stretching. While flexibility is vital for overall fitness, the notion that an extensive stretching program will help prevent injuries has been repudiated by some studies. Other studies show that engaging in lengthy stretching before or during strength training leads to a significant loss of muscular strength. What haven’t been examined, however, are the effects of doing extensive stretching routines alone; that is, not prior to a bodybuilding workout or athletic event. Studies that have looked at stretching alone found such benefits as increased range of joint motion—even increased muscle strength. A new study sought to answer the question of how a discrete stretching program affects muscular strength, endurance and power. In it, 38 college students were randomly divided into a stretching group, consisting of eight men and 11 women, and a control group, consisting of the same numbers of men and women. The study lasted 10 weeks and focused on a program of static stretching—assuming a stretch position, then holding for 10 to 30 seconds—made up of various stretches designed to work the lower body for 40 minutes per session, three times a week. Each subject was measured before and after the study for flexibility, power, strength and strength endurance. At the conclusion of the study, subjects in the stretching group showed an average 23.9 percent increase in muscular strength and a 29.5 percent increase in muscular endurance. They also had an average 18.1 percent increase in flexibility. The control group, who did no training or stretching, showed zero improvement. The study appears to confirm that stretching all by itself increases flexibility, strength, endurance and power. The authors suggest that the improvements in power and endurance in the stretching group are related to the increase in strength that resulted from the extensive stretching sessions.

or immediately following a weight workout, aerobic training can interfere with muscle and strength gains, but done at a separate time, it causes no interference. The study also shows that a stretching routine may be an effective way to exercise for those who, for one reason or another, cannot lift weights. That includes older people who are too feeble to lift any kind of weights. Research shows a clear connection between muscular fitness and mortality, and a stretching program for those too weak to lift weights can prove lifesaving. For all others, incorporating a stretching program distinct from weight training may supplement a bodybuilding program, leading to better overall results. —Jerry Brainum Kokkonen, J., et al. (2007). Chronic static stretching improves exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exer. 39:182531.

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Train to Gain / HARDGAINER

The Brothers Grimm “So, what’s wrong with how Yiannis and Stelios train?” you may have asked after reading the first installment of this series last month. If the way you train works well for you, stick with it. But if it isn’t working well, adopt a new regimen. How the Grimm brothers trained in the two workouts I outlined is similar to the way many people train. Let’s look at what was wrong with those workouts. Some of it may resonate with your own training. The cable crunch isn’t a bad exercise if it’s done correctly, but the brothers’ rep speed was too fast; they thudded into the top position of each rep and hyperextended their backs and then whipped themselves down on each rep. The stress on their abs was minimal, although they were using a substantial weight on the stack. It was a lot of effort to barely work their abs, but it did irritate their lower backs. What a sham their quads workout was. The Smith machine can be very harmful to the lower back and the knees. If your feet are well forward, you especially put your lower back at risk, and if your feet aren’t well forward, you especially put your knees at risk. You should lean forward when you squat with a barbell, but you shouldn’t round your back. Either squat properly with a barbell, or don’t squat at all. Forget the Smith machine for squatting. If you can’t squat properly with a barbell, use the leg press instead. And after your warmup sets, work hard on the leg press. I rarely see people train hard and correctly on the leg press. As soon as the intensity starts to crank up, they invariably put their hands on their thighs to help out, thus reducing the intensity of quad effort. Use as full a range of motion as is safe—safe for your knees and your lower back. Perhaps a better alternative to the leg press is the parallelgrip deadlift, which some people still call a trap-bar deadlift. It can be a great exercise, especially for bodybuilders who can’t squat well. It’s especially valuable for home-gym bodybuilders because the required bar is very low cost, whereas a good leg press machine is very expensive. The brothers’ primary calf exercise was the seated calf raise. While that can hit the soleus hard, it doesn’t do much for the gastrocnemius. (The calf is a group of seven muscles, of which there are two major ones—the meaty gastrocnemius and, beneath, the soleus.) The standing calf raise really hits the gastrocnemius, and it also hits the soleus. Much better to do a single calf exercise that works both major components of the calf than to wear yourself out on an inferior exercise. Stelios and Yiannis finished their lower-body workouts with three going-through-the motions sets of hyperextensions. They had given up on the deadlift because they couldn’t use correct technique. It was no surprise that they weren’t able to use good technique on barbell squats or deadlifts. With tight calves, tight hamstrings, tight adductors and tight glutes, they

A bodybuilding odyssey, part 2

were too jammed up to be able to do those movements safely and effectively. Glaring mistakes continued with their upper-body workout. The T-bar rows gave both of them back problems, especially Stelios. Had they not done such a high-risk exercise to begin with—or at least done a chest-supported version—they wouldn’t have irritated their backs. No wonder the triceps extensions bothered their wrists—they were using a straight bar. A parallel-hand position, done with a rope attachment, would have made a big difference. And if they’d used a shoulder-width grip on the close-grip bench press, rather than a very close grip, they wouldn’t have further irritated their wrists. While the “No pain, no gain” mantra may give some psychological solace, it’s at the root of much training foolishness and injury. Of course, you should experience muscular discomfort from hard, safe training, but you should never experience pain. Pain means something is wrong. At the end of the second workout I observed, the brothers realized that they only really pushed themselves on the small exercises in their routines. It was time they recognized that as a major explanation for why their muscles weren’t growing. What should Yiannis and Stelios have done instead? They should have trained smart: fewer and better exercises done correctly and with greater effort. In future they should start stretching regularly and safely to produce the flexible bodies that are essential if they are to deadlift and squat with a barbell correctly and effectively. Then, provided they are sleeping eight or more hours each night, eating as much food as they can without increasing their bodyfat (only quality, nutritious food—not junk) and allowing enough days between workouts for recuperation to take place, they will respond to the stimulation from their training by growing fractionally bigger muscles, which will enable them to get stronger. If they maintain that stimulation-recuperationprogress cycle for long enough, changing their training routines every three months or so, they will grow as big and strong as their genetics will permit. Next month I’ll start to go through precisely what the Grimm brothers’ should be doing to maximize their bodybuilding progress. —Stuart McRobert Editor’s note: Stuart McRobert’s first byline in IRON MAN appeared in 1981. He’s the author of the new 638-page opus on bodybuilding Build Muscle, Lose Fat, Look Great, available from Home Gym Warehouse (800) 447-0008 or www.

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Leg Extensions vs. Squats Know what your knees need

Neveux \ Model: Derik Farnsworth

There are still myths surrounding so-called healthful exercises for the knees. Fortunately, the myths aren’t as strong as they used to be. Many gym veterans will recall how doctors and other health-care providers maligned squats for decades. Squats were supposed to be bad for the knees. Leg extensions were supposed to be good for the knees. That led to the use of leg extension machines for rehabilitating knee injuries, and trainees in popular gyms knocked out set after set of heavy leg extensions. Olympic weightlifters, powerlifters, track and field athletes, football players and hardcore trainees, however, knew that wasn’t true and kept

performing squats with very few problems. The health-care professionals who recommended leg extensions and squats were overwhelmingly untrained individuals who didn’t have any scientific evidence to support their ideas. It would be very difficult to push ideas like that today. When you perform a leg extension, the major lower-leg bone, the tibia, slides forward. That stretches an important ligament in the knee, the anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL. We can only wonder how many athletes were told to perform leg extensions during rehab without any idea that it might be bad for their injured ligament. Various rehab leg extension machines were isokinetic, so they allowed only concentric, or positive, knee extension, or flexion. They often had the athlete perform leg or knee extensions at maximum speed and force. Eventually, people recognized the need for an anti-shear device to reduce the stress on the ACL. Biomechanics research on the knee has demonstrated

that during the squat and leg press, the tibia slides backward. That reduces the stress on the ACL. Another problem with the leg extension is that it maximally stresses the cartilage on the back of the patella, a.k.a. kneecap, at its thinnest area. The cartilage is not uniform in thickness. It’s thinnest at the top and bottom of the patella and thickest near the middle. Maximal pressure at the thinnest part of the cartilage can damage or crack it. Squats are often called “physiologic flexion” by biomechanists. When you perform a squat, the maximal stress lines up with the thickest area of cartilage on the patella. Human beings were clearly designed to do that. Much research is taking place that involves training in one way or another. At one time there was very little research, and what there was was mostly conducted by doctors who didn’t like strength training. Now, at last, the research has evolved. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research was accepted into Medline a few years ago. Other journals and researchers have explored training and clinical problems. I’ve quoted Frank G. Shellock, Ph.D., in this column before. Shellock has published more than 200 papers, has a doctorate in physiology, is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine and has competed as a powerlifter. Shellock and his co-researchers investigated leg extensions and one-leg squats in patients who had previously suffered dislocated patellas. During leg extensions, patellar displacement was more pronounced than during one-leg squats. Furthermore, the researchers found that during leg extensions, the patella rotated on the femur—thigh bone— while the one-leg squat could be characterized as the femur rotating underneath the patella. That difference may account for the problems with leg extensions. If you like to perform a set or two of very light leg extensions as part of your warmup on leg day, it’s not a problem. You don’t use enough weight to damage the cartilage. Perform them gently. I don’t advise that you add more weight or more sets or that you perform them explosively. —Joseph M. Horrigan Powers, C.M., Shellock, F.G., et al. (2003). Patellofemoral kinematics during weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing knee extension in persons with lateral subluxation of the patella: a preliminary study. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 33(11):677-85. Editor’s note: Visit for reprints of Horrigan’s Sportsmedicine columns that have appeared in IRON MAN. You can order the books, Strength, Conditioning and Injury Prevention for Hockey by Joseph Horrigan, D.C., and E.J. “Doc” Kreis, D.A., and the 7-Minute Rotator Cuff Solution by Horrigan and Jerry Robinson from Home Gym Warehouse, (800) 447-0008 or at

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Train to Gain / FEMME PHYSIQUE

Creeping obesity affects both sexes, with youthful, slim waistlines morphing into potbellies by the time most people are in their 40s. While men have obvious potbellies, women tend to store more fat in their upper thighs, hips and buttocks, so the effect of midsection fat is more subtle. In women, a roll of fat around the middle spills over their pants to create a muffin-top effect. Various studies show that American women, aged 25 to 44, gain an average of 0.5 to 1 kilogram (2.2 pounds) of fat each year. While such fat is undesirable from an aesthetic viewpoint, when it’s around the waist, it has a far more ominous portent because it’s a sign of deep-lying, or visceral, bodyfat. Fat in the abdominal area is closely linked to various degenerative diseases, such as insulin resistance, diabetes, high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. The good news is that it’s the first fat to go if you stick with a judicious program of exercise and diet. Several studies have shown that the body preferentially burns visceral fat during aerobic exercise. Emerging studies show that

Neveux \ Model: Jessica Paxson-Putnam

Women, Weights and Waistlines

you can get the same effect from weight training. A recent study illustrates the point. In it, 164 overweight women, aged 25 to 44, were divided into two groups. The first group weight-trained twice a week for two years. The other group received brochures suggesting that they do aerobic exercise at least 30 minutes daily. At the end of the two-year study the women in the weight-training group had lost 4 percent of their bodyfat, while those in the brochure group had lost none—they must have read about exercise rather than doing it. Those in the weight group also gained less abdominal fat than the other group—7 percent vs. the 21 percent gain in the brochure group. Based on those results, the authors suggest that young women who participate in a weighttraining program can expect to gain less bodyfat, especially abdominal fat, as the years go by. There are obvious benefits in appearance, as well as less obvious but more important benefits in health and longevity. Women should be aware that while aerobics is great for aiding bodyfat loss, it does little to improve body shape. You get that only from weight training. The best program includes both aerobics and weight training. As for the “muffins,” they’re best left in the oven or in the care of the Pillsbury doughboy—who, come to think of it, could stand to lose a little bodyfat himself. —Jerry Brainum Schmitz, K.H., et al. (2007). Strength training and adiposity in premenopausal women: Strong, Healthy, and Empowered study. Am J Clin Nutr. 86:566-72.

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Smart Training by Charles Poliquin

No Aerobics for Power? Q: I’ve heard that you believe aerobic training is overrated for most athletes. Is that true, and if so, why? A: That’s correct. For example, the average VO2 max in the NBA is only about 47, compared to about 42 for the average couch potato and about 80 for a world-class rower. If you look at the research, studies show that the higher your aerobic power, the lower your vertical jump. To make a basketball player—or, for that matter, any athlete who needs speed and power—perform a lot of aerobic work would be counterproductive. Now, a small amount of aerobic training can be used as a warmup, but the best warmup is the weight-training exercises in your program. Do about two sets of five, using increasingly heavy weight. If your first exercise is the deadlift and you expect to use 150 for your primary training weight, you could start with 95x5, followed by 135x5.

Q: I read that you majored in kinesiology and did graduate work in exercise physiology, but how did you get started in bodybuilding and then coaching? A: I was Canada’s second-youngest black belt in karate at age 14. One day when I was 14, I was the only one who showed up at the dojo because of a snowstorm, and my sensei said, “Well, there’s no one here. I’m going to go lift weights.” So I said, “Okay, I’ll do that too!” That was the first time I ever lifted weights. The first athlete I ever coached was a volleyball player. That was in 1980, and I was an Studies show that the higher undergrad at the

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you recommend? A: When people fail to make gains, I usually have them get a hormone-profile test to see if IGF-1 is low. They could have the testosterone count of six wolves, and it wouldn’t matter much. There’s more than testosterone involved in building muscle. I had a guy who weighed 260 pounds lose bodyfat and put on 28 pounds of muscle in 50 days with a testosterone count of 190. Training strategy also has a lot to do with it. People don’t know how to knock off as many motor units as possible. The other thing that happens is that they usually have structural imbalances. If you have a very weak trapezius 3 or trapezius 2, it could throw off your whole chain, and unless you strengthen it, you’re not going to make any gains. I work with a kid who’s been bodybuilding for seven years, and after I assessed which muscles were weak links in the chain, he gained seven pounds of muscle and lost seven pounds of fat in 25 days. He said that those were the best gains he’d ever made. On average the individuals I work with in the summer, for about 11 weeks, gain 18 pounds of muscle. Neveux \ Models: Lee and Alex Apperson


Smart Training

As we get older, out-of-whack hormone profiles— and not just low testosterone—can cause us to stop gaining muscle. time. He was a national team volleyball player—the Wayne Gretzsky of volleyball and the first foreigner to play in the Japanese professional league. Then I got some cyclists, and I’ve worked with athletes in Olympic sports since then. Q: My dad has been training for four or five years. He’s got a great physique, but he’s not getting any better. He’s hit a plateau. He makes changes to his nutrition and supplements, but not much really happens. He can get leaner but not more muscular. Most lifters go through that type of thing. What do

Q: Are superhigh-volume routines useful at all, or will they lead to overtraining? A: If you’re asking whether people can grow on 20 sets per bodypart, no. For most bodyparts 10 to 12 sets is the upper limit. I don’t see any point in training for longer than an hour. If you can actually train longer than that, it may be counterproductive. You’re probably making a lot of friends, though. Q: What do you think of creatine? I’ve heard the gains are just water weight. A: Creatine works for about 78 percent of the population, and the gains aren’t just water. Studies have shown it actually accelerates protein synthesis.

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The Manta Ray squat pad is great for comfort and variation. It’s available from

ing a percentage of the recruitment from the glutes and transferring it to the quads. It’s useful for athletes who have a tight Achilles tendon and can’t squat. Theoretically, you should be able to squat down to the floor in running shoes. Very few people are that flexible, so one of the advantages of using a board is that it can stretch the Achilles tendon to a point where you’ll be able to squat with your heels close to the ground within a few workouts. The Manta Ray is a good product for people who have a hard time tolerating the bar pinching their upper back. Also, it shifts the center of mass of the bar in relation to the center of gravity, so it becomes an exercise variation in itself. Louis Simmons’ group uses it just for a variation of the squat because the load isn’t the same.

IM: On squats, if I go all the way down to the point where I feel it in my hips, won’t my Squatting with butt grow? your heels CP: No. Look at the elevated can physique development help stretch of powerlifters vs. that of Olympic lifters: your Achilles Powerlifters have huge tendon so you glutes, while Olympic can eventually lifters’ glute developsquat flatment is not as promifooted. nent, and their legs are bigger. Research done with EMGs shows that people who go all the way down on squats have more leg development, like Olympic lifters.

A lot of the things you hear about water retention are crap. I think those people are just getting fat from taking fast carbs with the creatine. Guys who come into a contest with a gut and say they’re retaining water from the creatine— they’re just fat. Q: What’s your opinion of Mike Mentzer and his Heavy Duty approach to bodybuilding? A: I think Mentzer’s contribution is that he got bodybuilders to do less work and get away from 20 sets per bodypart. The problem is that he was too dogmatic. Many approaches work, and to say that one approach works for everybody all the time and forever is ridiculous.

Editor’s note:

Charles Poliquin is recognized as one of the world’s most successful strength coaches, having coached Olympic medalists in 12 different sports, including the U.S. women’s trackand-field team for the 2000 Olympics. He’s spent years researching European journals (he’s fluent in English, French and German) and speaking with other coaches and scientists in his quest to optimize training methods. For more on his books, seminars and methods, visit www. Also, see his ad on page 225. IM Neveux \ Model: Nathan De Tracy


Smart Charles Training Poliquin’s

IM: When doing squats, is it advantageous to place a small board under your heels for balance, and is the Manta Ray balancing apparatus any good for squats? CP: A board under the heels has the advantage of tak-

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\ JULY 2006 181

Nutrition With a Get-Big Mission NUTRITION SCIENCE

Got the NAC? N-acetylcysteine may have ergogenic as well as antiaging powers, but beware of high doses N-acetylcysteine is a nutrient popular with both bodybuilders and life-extensionists. It’s considered an antioxidant and is added to many food supplements targeted to bodybuilders and athletes. Its primary advantage is that it acts as a substrate, or precursor, of the body’s synthesis of glutathione. Glutathione is a tripeptide, which means that it consists of three bonded amino acids: cysteine, glycine and glutamate. Cysteine is the primary antioxidant

and is thought to be responsible for much of the detoxifying effects associated with glutathione. Glutathione is a primary antioxidant and, along with vitamin C, is the most common watersoluble antioxidant in the body. While every cell in the body has glutathione, it’s particularly important for immune function and concentrates in the liver, where it aids in the liver detoxification process. That latter effect makes glutathione of interest to athletes who use drugs that can accumulate in the liver and possibly lead to liver damage, such as oral anabolic steroids. Glutathione helps the liver make the drugs water-soluble so they can be excreted from the body. The liver uses glutathione to help detoxify other substances, such as NAC has muscle- pollutants, poisons and preserving chemicals. properties as well as antiaging Those with serious illeffects. ness, such as AIDS or cancer, are typically depleted of glutathione. Oral forms of glutathione are useless because Neveux \ Model: Carl Suliani


to Grow they degrade into the three amino acids that make up glutathione, essentially eliminating its potency. Supplementing cysteine would be more effective than using preformed glutathione; however, there are also problems with cysteine. It’s unstable and relatively insoluble, and it’s linked to kidney-stone formation when used in large doses. Other nutritional options for boosting glutathione include lipoic acid, whey protein (rich in cysteine) and NAC. Vitamin C helps recycle oxidized glutathione, another example of the synergy of antioxidant nutrients, while milk thistle, or silymarin, is particularly effective at increasing liver glutathione. Of glutathione’s nutritional precursors, NAC has long been considered the most reliable in terms of both practical and cost-effective use. Perhaps the most common medical application of NAC is its ability to detoxify the common over-the-counter pain reliever acetaminophen, sold under the trade name Tylenol. Few people realize that acetaminophen is extremely toxic to the liver. Taking as few as 12 tablets at once can cause liver failure, and alcohol amplifies the effect. Acetaminophen causes liver toxicity because a metabolite of the drug is generated by the liver’s detoxifying system. Large amounts of glutathione are required to detoxify the metabolite, which means glutathione can be rapidly depleted. Supplying NAC leads to rapid synthesis of additional glutathione, thus preventing liver damage. NAC is used to treat several other medical conditions, including AIDS, cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes. One hypothesis suggests that cancer can be effectively treated by blocking glutathione synthesis in tumors, then using NAC to prevent oxidant damage to normal cells.1 A recent study found that providing cysteine alleviated oxidative stress and insulin resistance produced by a high sugar intake.2 Research has demonstrated

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that NAC has ergogenic effects if it’s taken prior to exercise and that it can help prevent excess muscle catabolism. An intriguing study found that NAC curbs gambling addiction, restoring levels of glutamate in the nucleus accumbens area of the brain.3 It may also be useful in treating methamphetamine—a.k.a. speed—addiction. One theory of aging suggests that loss of cysteine or thiol groups in body tissues leads to many of the negative health effects associated with the aging process, explaining why NAC is popular with the lifeextension crowd. Cysteine is also the nutritional precursor of the amino acid taurine, which itself offers ergogenic benefits. The biochemical pathways of NAC are well-known. Like many other orally taken substances, NAC undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism in the liver and kidneys, resulting in low concentrations of it in the blood. The NAC that escapes initial metabolism travels in the blood back to the liver, where it’s rapidly converted into cysteine, which in turn immediately converts into glutathione. While the suggested supplemental dose of NAC is in the range of 600 to 1,200 milligrams daily, much larger doses are used therapeutically. Daily doses up to 8,000 milligrams are used without adverse effects, although a small percentage of people taking that much experience such side effects as nausea, vomiting and heartburn. As noted above, NAC is available as an over-the-counter supplement. Trouble is, spotty quality control during the manufacturing process can result in the premature oxidation of it. Because of NAC’s natural sulfur content,

the supplements tend to smell nasty, but that has no relationship to product potency, and it doesn’t mean that the supplement has degraded. Much more serious were the results of a recent animal study.4 When mice were given NAC, they produced a red blood cell–derived substance that fooled their bodies into thinking they were low in oxygen. The substance, nitrosothiol, bypasses the normal oxygen-sensing systems in the lungs. That made the pulmonary arteries narrow to conserve oxygen, resulting in a localized increase in blood pressure in the lungs, known as primary pulmonary hypertension. Left untreated, PPH results in right-sided heart failure and death. It made the news several years ago when the diet drug combination known as fen-phen was linked to it. In the study, the mice took NAC for three weeks. It was converted in their bodies into nitrosothiol and S-nitrosoacetylcysteine. The normal mice that got NAC developed PPH, but other mice in the study—mice that lacked an enzyme that produces nitric oxide from the amino acid arginine—didn’t convert the NAC and didn’t develop the disease. Primary pulmonary hypertension is a serious disease, and symptoms such as fatigue, heavy breathing and fainting often don’t show up in the early stages. The question is, Is NAC safe for human use? Nearly all the negative side effects are linked to intravenous use, not oral intake. Also, studies show that when NAC is taken orally, it rapidly degrades in the liver and kidneys. In contrast, the rodents in the new study were continuously exposed to amounts of NAC that were 40 times higher than the dose shown to cause hypoxia, or lack of oxygen, in humans. Finally, countless studies have demonstrated that what’s toxic to rodents isn’t necessarily toxic to humans, and vice versa. On the other hand, primary pulmonary hypertension is so serious that it would probably be prudent to avoid taking any more than 600

milligrams a day of NAC until humanbased studies solidify the research. Ironically, NAC is used to treat conditions involving lung inflammation, such as cystic fibrosis, with good results. Since the doses used in those treatments are relatively massive in comparison to normal supplemental intake of NAC, you’d think that many cases of NAC-induced PPH would have shown up by now, but none have. Then again, it may be a slowly progressive disease that would take years to show up in humans. In the meantime, you can effectively increase vital glutathione levels through other supplements, such as lipoic acid and whey protein, without any fears of future toxicity—or can you? More on that in future issues. —Jerry Brainum

References 1 Yildiz,

D. (2004). Inhibition of tumor growth by replacing glutathione with N-acetyl cysteine. Med Hypothes. 63:80-82. 2 Blouet, C., et al. (2007). Dietary cysteine alleviates sucrose-induced oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Free Rad Biol Med. 42:1089-1097. 3 Grant, J.E., et al. (2007). N-acetyl cysteine, a glutamate-modulating agent, in the treatment of pathological gambling: A pilot study. Biol Psychiatry. 62:652-657. 4 Palmer, L.A., et al. (2007). S-nitrosothiols signal hypoxia-mimetic vascular pathology. J Clin Invest. 117:25922601. \ FEBRUARY 2008 49

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Food Facts

Workouts produce stress, and your diet and supplementation should account for that.

Neveux \ Model: Greg Smyers

That can affect your workouts, weight and wellness


Destress Yourself Supplements to counter the catabolic effects of life Life can be stressful—work, relationships, people tailgating you on the freeway. Workouts can help you relieve some of that, but workouts themselves are stressful and raise cortisol, a stress hormone that can eat muscle. Training brutally hard is a double-edged sword. To make sure you stay on the good edge, there are a couple of anticatabolic supplements you should consider. Phosphatidylserine. PS is a soy lipid that studies have proven reduces cortisol by 30 percent in hard-training athletes. It’s especially beneficial to high-strung, type A personality types who tend to overproduce cortisol. The premier PS supplement is Cort-Bloc, and the recommended dose is three to four capsules (600 to 800 milligrams) prior to your workouts. You can also take a few capsules before bed, as cortisol spikes in the later hours of sleep. Glutamine. New research has brought this conditionally essential amino acid back in favor. The new studies show that glutamine aids in the development of heat-shock proteins, which are essential for systemic recovery and muscle growth. Researchers found that glutamine can block cortisol’s anti-anabolic actions. Taking a few grams with your postworkout drink is a good way to tip the scales toward muscle growth rather than catabolism. —Becky Holman

Wine drunk with a high-carb meal lowers the meal’s glycemic index considerably. That means a lower insulin response and potentially less fat storage. Apple peel contains triterpenoids, recently discovered antioxidants that have been shown to derail can-

cer growth. Remember, an apple a day... Omega-3 fats build muscle. In a study reported on in the Journal of Physiology, cows given omega-3 fatty acids made from fish oil built almost 15 percent more muscle. Mississippi is the first state that has a 30plus percent obesity rate in its adult population. Time to do some laps in that river, people! Lemon juice in your water can add to your vitamin C intake. According to the November ’07 Prevention, just one-half tablespoon of juice in each of your eight daily cups of water gives you nearly 20 percent of your vitamin C requirement. (As reported in a previous issue of IM, a vitamin C deficiency can inhibit fat burning, so be sure to get enough C every day!) —Becky Holman

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Food Stuff to Ease Disease

And move your metabolism

Peppers and heart disease. The main genus of peppers in the United States is Capsicum. You probably recognize the name from the arthritis cream many people use to reduce joint pain. The genus includes bell peppers and a number of hot peppers, ranging from pepperoncini to habaneros. According to researchers at Oregon State University, peppers “are a recognized source of vitamins C and E and are high in antioxi-


Neveux \ Model: Sagi Kalev

Coffee and diabetes. It was recently reported that drinking a lot of green tea or coffee every day can lower the risk of diabetes by 33 percent. Researchers in Japan suggested that caffeine was responsible, but University of Minnesota scientists have refuted that finding. In the Minnesota study those who drank lots of decaffeinated coffee—six cups or more per day—reduced their risk of diabetes as well, by 22 percent. That suggests that the antioxidants in coffee, not the caffeine, are what protect. Nevertheless, caffeine can stimulate the metabolism, which can help you burn more fat. dant content. These compounds are associated with the prevention of cardiovascular disorders, cancer and cataracts.” Oh, and peppers can also stimulate the metabolism, which can lead to more calorie and fat burning. Eat more peppers! —Daniel Curtis, R.D.


McDonald’s vs. Subway Cornell University researchers polled 500 diners as they left either McDonald’s or Subway to get their estimation of the calories they’d just eaten. The average McDonald’s eater said 875 calories, but in reality the average was 1,093. Subway diners guessed 495, but the real figure was 677. The lesson is that most of us are eating more than we think we are, which could be part of the explanation for the obesity epidemic (Prevention, November ’07). —Becky Holman

Not-so-Sweet Joint Tweaks According to physicians Michael F. Roizen and Mehmet C. Oz, sugar intake may have something to do with thinning hair and aching joints. Glycosylation is the name given to the binding of sugar and protein molecules in your bloodstream, which causes inflammation. The good doctors say, “Glucose also affects the collagen in your skin and joints so they become less elastic, which can lead to wrinkles, joint problems and arthritis.” One more reason to steer clear of refinedsugar products most of the time (you have to indulge once in a while). —Becky Holman

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Scouting the Supplement Scene Ever wondered about the various aromatase inhibitors on the market? Me too. Well, leave it to the boys at Baylor University to scientifically examine the stuff. They studied dosedependent effects of 6-OXO on body composition, serum hormone levels and clinical safety markers in resistancetrained males. For eight weeks 16 men took either 300 milligrams or 600 milligrams of 6-OXO. Compared to baseline, free testosterone increased by 90 percent in the 300-milligram group and 84 percent in the 600-milligram group. DHT, a.k.a. dihydrotestosterone, increased significantly overall by 192 percent and 265 percent, respectively. Free test and estradiol increased 53 percent and 67 percent, respectively. The lower dose increased estrone by 22 percent, and the higher dose caused a 52 percent increase. Despite the changes in serum hormones, no changes in body composition occurred; however, clinical safety markers were not adversely affected with either dose. The scientists concluded that “while neither of the 6-OXO dosages appears to have any negative effects on clinical chemistry markers, supplementation at a daily dosage of 300 milligrams and 600 milligrams for eight weeks did not completely inhibit aromatase activity.” Even so, free testosterone, DHT, and estradiol all increased significantly.1 What’s fascinating about the clinical trial is that androgen levels—like DHT, which is very androgenic—went up significantly even though body composition was unchanged. Would a longer supplementation period have helped? Three hundred milligrams of 6-OXO had the same effect on free T as the higher dose. So why take the higher dose (unless you want to elevate DHT)? Next up, thermogenic liquids! Coffee and soda to jack up your metabolism? It ain’t a far-fetched idea. Two studies show that those popular drinks are useful for fitness-minded people.


Fruit to Stay Astute Many bodybuilders avoid fruit because of its carb content, but that may be a bad idea for brain health. French scientists studied the diets of more than a thousand adults over 10 years, and those who got the most flavonoid antioxidants stayed the sharpest mentally. Those on fruit-heavy diets did better on memory and other mental-skill tests. Eat at least some fruit every day. If you’re worried about carbs, have most of your fruit in the morning, so you burn off the calories during daily activity. —Becky Holman

One study compared regular coffee to a coffee beverage containing additional caffeine, green tea extract, niacin and Garcinia cambogia (JavaFit™ Energy Extreme), determining the effects on resting energy expenditure and hemodynamic variables. The subjects who drank JavaFit experienced an average increase in resting energy expenditure of 14.4 percent (12.1 percent in males, 17.9 percent in females), while those who drank regular coffee had no change.2 The results indicated that fortified coffee can indeed be a great way to jack up your metabolic rate and perhaps burn fat. What about soda? Scientists compared the effects of 12 ounces of Celsius™, a thermogenic soda, and, on a separate day, 12 ounces of Diet Coke. Metabolic rate increased by 13.8 percent one hour later, 14.4 percent two hours later and 8.5 percent three hours later after the subjects drank Celsius, while they experienced only small, statistically insignificant increases in metabolic rate when they drank Diet Coke.3 Bottom line: Fortified coffees and sodas do indeed elevate metabolic rate better than the regular versions. I’d suggest you drink them precardio so you can burn additional fat. —Jose Antonio, Ph.D. Editor’s note: You can listen to Dr. Jose Antonio and Carla Sanchez on their radio show Performance Nutrition, Web and podcast at Dr. Antonio is the CEO of the International Society of Sports Nutrition— His other Web sites include,, www.Jose and,

References 1 Rohle,

D., et al. (2007). Effects of eight weeks of an alleged aromatase inhibiting nutritional supplement 6-OXO (androst-4-ene-3,6,17-trione) on serum hormone profiles and clinical safety markers in resistance-trained, eugonadal males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 4(1):13. 2 Taylor, L.W., et al. (2007). Acute effects of ingesting Java Fit™ energy extreme functional coffee on resting energy expenditure and hemodynamic responses in male and female coffee drinkers. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 4(1):10. 3 Mendel, R.W., and Hofheins, J.E. (2007). Metabolic responses to the acute ingestion of two commercially available carbonated beverages: A pilot study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 4(1):7.

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Compound Your Growth If you know something about muscle function, you realize that taking a couple of supplements together can help create exceptional anabolism—but not by supplying nutrients that build muscle. The compounds in question help you push harder on your work sets, which in turn stimulates the fast-twitch fibers with the most growth potential. The size principle of muscle fiber recruitment states that the first few reps of a set activate the low-threshold motor units, which brings in slowtwitch fibers and a few fast-twitch. As the reps get harder, toward the middle of the set, the medium-threshold motor units fire, which activates more fast-twitch fibers. The last few hard reps of a set, however, are what trigger the high-threshold STIMULANTS

Preworkout Stout According to new research, caffeine helps block painstimulating chemicals. A dose of caffeine, given to subjects in pill form prior to a training session, reduced pain by about 50 percent. Sounds like a good preworkout combo might be coffee and betaalanine, as the latter loads muscles with carnosine to buffer muscle burn. It should have you pushing into the pain zone on every set for new growth simulation. —Becky Holman

Neveux \ Model: Derik Farnsworth

Add caffeine for more pain-zone steam

motor units, finally bringing in the fasttwitch fibers that are most responsible for muscle growth. What that means is, if you can more readily push through the pain zone, you’ll stimulate more growth by getting at more of those key fast-twitch fibers. You can do that with two supplements. The first is creatine, which helps you regenerate ATP in the muscle. It’s a power-oriented supplement that enhances muscle energetics, and it’s perfect for helping you grind out more reps on lower-rep sets. The other supplement is beta-alanine, which converts to carnosine in muscle tissue. Carnosine buffers the burn during higher-rep sets, as well as on end-of-set forced reps and X-Rep partials. Studies show that the biggest bodybuilders have more than twice the carnosine of untrained individuals, no doubt an adaptation from intense workouts performed in the pain zone. New studies show that beta-alanine synergizes with creatine, making size and strength gains even more pronounced—a muscle-building smart bomb! (Med Sci Sports Exerc. 38:S126; 2006) —Steve Holman

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To Kick-Start Immediate Muscle Growth After You Train Breakthrough research in exercise metabolism now reveals this fact: What you consume (or don’t consume) immediately after training plays a critical role in determining your success or failure! That time period is known as the “anabolic window” of growth. The biggest mistake many bodybuilders make is eating a meal of chicken breasts, baked potato or rice and vegetables after a workout. This is an approach doomed to fail because by the time this meal digests, the anabolic window has slammed shut. The best way to produce this potent anabolic effect is simply by drinking an amino acidand-carbohydrate supplement within 15 minutes after training! RecoverX™ offers the ideal combination and provides the perfect blend of nutrients for postworkout anabolic acceleration. RecoverX™ contains 40 grams of the quickest-acting bio-available protein from hydrolyzed whey—extremely fast protein for immediate delivery—whey protein concentrate, glutamine peptides, arginine and 60 grams of carbohydrate to give you the necessary insulin spike.

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GRIND OUT THE GROWTH REPS™ Beta-Alanine Gives Your Muscles More Grow Power™ The biggest bodybuilders know that the last few grueling reps of a set are the key growth reps. It’s why they fight through the pain of muscle burn on every work set-—so they trigger the mass-building machinery. But sometimes it’s not enough; the burn is too fierce. Fortunately, there’s now a potent new weapon in this massive firefight to help you get bigger and stronger faster. Red Dragon is a new beta-alanine supplement that packs your muscles with carnosine—up to 60 percent more. Muscle biopsies show that the largest bodybuilders have significantly more carnosine in their fast-twitch muscle fibers than sedentary individuals for good reason: Carnosine buffers the burn to give muscles more “grow power” on every set. The bigger and stronger a muscle gets, the more carnosine it needs to perform at higher intensity levels. You must keep your muscles loaded with carnosine to grow larger and stronger. It all boils down to intensity and the ability to buffer waste products—hydrogen ions and lactic acid—so the muscle doesn’t shut down before growth activation. Straight carnosine supplements degrade too rapidly to reach the muscles; however, more than 20 new studies document that beta-alanine is converted to carnosine very efficiently. All it takes is 1 1/2 grams twice a day, and you’ll see new size in your muscles and feel the difference in the gym—you can double or triple your growth-rep numbers! Imagine how fast your size and strength will increase when you ride the Dragon! Note: Red Dragon™ is the first pure carnosine synthesizer—so powerful it’s patented. It contains beta-alanine, the amino acid that supercharges muscle cells with carnosine.

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Train, Eat,


Muscle-Training Program 100 From the IRON MAN Training & Research Center


Neveux \ Model: Skip La Cour

t’s important to look back in time at workouts that helped you achieved your best muscle gains. That’s how you learn what works and what doesn’t—if you can figure out what it was that created those great gains, that is. Sometimes there are too many factors—maybe you were a beginner and you started eating right and joined a gym—but usually you can narrow it down and rotate in key mass superchargers every so often when the time is right. For example, we’ve been looking back at Jonathan’s amazing 20pounds-of-muscle gain he made in 10 weeks back in the ’90s (see his before and after photos at the far right). True, he was regaining a bit of muscle he’d lost by backing off on his training because he’d all but given up on bodybuilding at the time. Still, he packed on a lot of new mass in that short period—and lost inches around his waist at the same time. We looked back at his twophase Size Surge program to decode its mass-building magic. What was it that made that program so effective? Here are a few of the things we came up with: 1) Big exercises in phase 1. Jonathan used mostly basic exercises for the first five weeks on a three-days-per-week split routine. Monday and Friday workouts were almost identical,

with one to three intense sets for legs, chest, back, delts and calves; Wednesday was deadlifts, calves, biceps, triceps, forearms and abs.(You can see a version of phase 1 on page 144.) 2) Full-range training in phase 2. The second five weeks Jonathan moved to full 3D Positions-of-Flexion routines for each bodypart and used an everyother-day split. In other words, he trained legs, chest and triceps at one workout, rested the next day, then hit back, delts, biceps and abs, with a day of rest after that. Then he went back to the first workout, and so on. That provided a lot of unique stress to his muscles, including stretch overload with stretch-position exercises, like incline curls for biceps, overhead extensions for triceps and one-arm dumbbell rows for midback. If you’ve read our e-books, you know that we often cite the animal study that produced a 300 percent muscle increase after only one month of progressive-stretch overload. That shows the hypertrophic power of elongating the muscle against progressive resistance—which Jonathan did in the second fiveweek phase. 3) Phase training throughout the 10 weeks. After the first four

weeks he reduced the intensity of his workouts for one week. He did the same exercises but stopped each work set one or two reps short of exhaustion. That made for a supercompensation effect—a growth spurt from pushing blood into the muscles without overstressing the muscle fibers as you do when training to exhaustion. He did that again after weeks six through nine on the 3D POF program. So week five and week 10 consisted of only medium-intensity workouts. Phase training is a critical technique no matter what program you’re using. 4) Anabolic acceleration. We often refer to phase 1 as the anabolic-primer phase because every workout began with either squats or deadlifts. Those are the


After 10 weeks.

Holman \ Model: Jonathan Lawson

by Steve Holman and Jonathan Lawson \ FEBRUARY 2008 63

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© 2005 IRON MAN Magazine

It’s a big blast of workout information, motivation and muscle-building science in your e-mail box every week—and it’s all free! Tons of practical training tips, analysis and size tactics are jam-packed into this e-zine from the IRON MAN Training & Research Center, where there’s more than 50 years of training experience to get you growing fast! Here are a few of the latest editions’ titles (online now):

Train, Eat,


IRON MAN Training & Research Center Muscle-Training Program 100 Workout 1A: Chest (H), Lats (L), Triceps (H), Abs (L) Smith-machine incline presses (X Reps) Incline flyes (drop; X Reps) Bench presses (X Reps) Superset Wide-grip dips (X Reps) Pushups (X Reps) Flyes (drop; X Reps) Chins Parallel-grip chins Pulldowns Superset Machine pullovers Rope rows Decline extensions (X Reps) Overhead dumbbell extensions (drop; X Reps) Kickbacks (X Reps) Incline kneeups Tri-set Ab Bench crunches Twisting crunches End-of-bench kneeups

3 x 5, 7, 9 1 x 8-10(8) 2 x 5, 9 1 x 7-9 1 x 7-9 1 x 8-10(8) 1 x 10-15 1 x 10-15 1 x 10-15 1 x 9-12 1 x 8-10 3 x 5, 7, 9 1 x 8(8) 1x8 2 x 12-15 1 x 10-12 1 x 10-15 1 x 9-12

Workout 1B: Chest (L), Lats (H), Triceps (L), Abs (H) Smith-machine incline presses Incline flyes (drop) Bench presses Wide-grip dips Flyes (drop) Chins (X Reps) Parallel-grip chins (X Reps) Pulldowns (X Reps) Superset Machine pullovers (X Reps) Dumbbell pullovers (X Reps) Decline extensions Superset Pushdowns Bench dips Pushdowns Cable pushouts Incline kneeups (X Reps) Tri-set Ab Bench crunches (X Reps) Twisting crunches (X Reps) End-of-bench kneeups (X Reps)

2 x 10-15 1 x 8-10(8) 2 x 10-15 2 x 10-15 1 x 8-10(8) 2 x 5, 7 1x9 1 x 8-10 1x8 1x8 2 x 10-15 1x8 1x8 1 x 10-15 1 x 10-15 2 x 8-10 1x8 1 x 8-10 1 x 8-10

Workout 2A: Delts (H), Midback (L), Biceps (H), Forearms (L) Seated laterals/upright rows (X Reps) Superset One-arm cable laterals (X Reps) Incline one-arm laterals (X Reps) Forward-lean laterals (X Reps) Smith-machine presses (X Reps) Seated dumbbell presses (X Reps) Bent-over laterals (drop; X Reps)

3 x 5, 7, 9 1x8 1x8 1x8 2 x 5, 7 1x9 1 x 8(8)

Horizontal chins Bent-arm bent-over laterals (drop) Superset High rows (drop) Dumbbell shrugs Preacher curls Cable curls (X Reps) Incline curls (drop; X Reps) Concentration curls (X Reps) Incline hammer curls (X Reps) Tri-set Dumbbell reverse wrist curls Forearm Bar reverse wrist curls Dumbbell reverse wrist curls Tri-set Behind-the-back wrist curls Forearm Bar wrist curls Dumbbell wrist curls Rockers

2 x 10-15 1 x 8(8) 1 x 8-10(8) 1x8 2 x 5, 7 1x9 1 x 8(8) 1x8 1 x 8-10 1 x 10-12 1 x 8-10 1 x 8-10 1 x 10-12 1 x 8-10 1 x 8-10 1 x 20-30

Workout 2B: Delts (L), Midback (H), Biceps (L), Forearms (H) Seated laterals/upright rows Superset Forward-lean laterals Standing laterals One-arm cable laterals Smith-machine presses Seated dumbbell presses Bent-over laterals (drop) Bent-over rows Horizontal chins (X Reps) Cable rows (drop; X Reps) Superset High rows (X Reps) Dumbbell shrugs (X Reps) Preacher curls Cable curls Superset Concentration curls One-arm spider curls Rope hammer curls Superset Dumbbell reverse wrist curls (X Reps) Forearm Bar reverse wrist curls (X Reps) Superset Dumbbell wrist curls (X Reps) Forearm Bar wrist curls (X Reps) Rockers

2 x 10-15 1x8 1x8 1 x 10-15 1 x 10-15 1 x 10-15 1 x 10-15 2 x 5, 7 1x9 1 x 8(8) 1x8 1 x 10 1 x 10-15 1 x 10-15 1x8 1x8 1 x 10-15 1 x 8-10 1 x 8-10 1 x 8-10 1 x 8-10 1 x 10-15

Friday Workout Deadlifts (substitute for back workout)

2 x 9-12

(Workouts continue on page 66) Note: Where X-Reps are designated, usually only one set or phase of a drop set is performed with X Reps or an X-Rep hybrid technique from the e-book Beyond XRep Muscle Building. See the X-Blog at for more workout details.

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Wednesday: Chest (L), lats (H), triceps (L), abs (H)

exercises most responsible for testosterone increases and metabolic momentum for overall mass effects. Those big, basic workouts set the stage for the second phase of full-range 3D POF workouts, heightening their effectiveness. But even in the second phase Jonathan did squats every other workout, so he was still getting plenty of anabolic acceleration.

Thursday: Off Friday: Delts (H), midback (L), biceps (H), forearms (L) Weekend: Off (with cardio)

Week 3 Repeat Week 1

We thought we were using all of those protocols. After looking over things, though, we realized that we weren’t getting enough of that important anabolic acceleration (item 4). (We need to reread our stuff more often!) Here’s our current split (H = heavy; L = light): Week 1

After deadlifts on Friday we usually follow with a direct lat or midback exercise. (L), abs (H)

Monday: Chest (H), lats (L), triceps (H), abs (L)

Weekend: Off (with cardio)

Tuesday: Quads (H), hamstrings (L), lower back (H)

Week 2

Wednesday: Delts (L), midback (H), biceps (L), forearms (H)

Monday: Delts (H), midback (L), biceps (H), forearms (L)

Thursday: Off

Tuesday: Quads (L), hamstrings (H), lower back (L)

Friday: Chest (L), lats (H), triceps

Neveux \ Model: Idrise Ward-El

Our Current Split

We work legs only once a week, so we’re squatting only on Tuesdays. The other workouts are tough, but there’s no real anabolic-acceleration exercise. Solution: deadlifts every Friday.

Dead-On Results Almost all top bodybuilders use the deadlift to get an anabolic kick and to pack their backs with mounds of muscle. We haven’t used it in years, but after reevaluating our current workout, we decided it was time. That’s what looking at Jonathan’s 20-pounds-of-muscle-in10-weeks program did for us. As we go to press, we’re in the fall season, so it’s the perfect time to rekindle the deadlift’s super size-building power. As the above

IRON MAN Training & Research Center Muscle-Training Program 100: Legs Workout 3A: Quads (H), Hamstrings (L), Calves (H), Lower Back (L) Leg extensions (X Reps) 2 x 8, 10 Squats 2 x 7-9 Hack squats 2 x 7-9 Leg extensions (X Reps) 1 x 10 Sissy squats (X Reps) 1 x 7-9 Feet-forward Smith-machine front squats 1 x 10-15 Walking lunges 1 x 10-15 Leg curls (drop) 1 x 8(6) Stiff-legged deadlifts 1 x 7-9 Knee-extension leg press calf raises (X Reps) 3 x 10, 12, 14 Superset Standing calf raises (X Reps) 2 x 10 Hack-machine calf raises (X Reps) 2 x 10 Donkey calf raises (X Reps) 1 x 10-15 Hyperextensions (X Reps) 1 x 10-15

Workout 3B: Quads (L), Hamstrings (H), Calves (L), Lower Back (H) Leg extensions Squats

2 x 10-15 2 x 10-15

Hack squats Leg extensions Feet-forward Smith-machine front squats Walking lunges Leg curls (drop; X Reps) Stiff-legged deadlifts Knee-extension leg press calf raises Superset Standing calf raises Hack-machine calf raises One-leg calf raises Lower-back machine (X Reps)

2 x 10-15 1 x 15-20 1 x 7-9 1 x 7-9 1 x 8(6) 2 x 7-9 2 x 20 2 x 15 2 x 10 1 x 15 1 x 10-12

Note: The leg workout is always performed on Tuesday; that is, legs are worked only once a week every week—seven full days of recovery—with workouts 3A and 3B alternating.

Note: Where X-Reps are designated, usually only one set or phase of a drop set is performed with X Reps or an X-Rep hybrid technique from the e-book Beyond XRep Muscle Building. See the X-Blog at for more workout details.

66 FEBRUARY 2008 \

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Train, Eat,

split outline indicates, we train four days a week and squat every Tuesday. So the best place for the deadlift is Friday because with our current rotation we train either lats or midback on Friday, as depicted in our split. We don’t take drugs, so our recovery ability is limited (not forgetting that Steve’s approaching 50). Because of that we aren’t going to simply add deadlifts into our back workout. We decided to do recovery-draining deadlifts in place of our back workout every Friday. We usually do two work sets after warmups, and after the deadlifts we sometimes do one or two sets of a direct back exercise. For example, if lats fall on Friday, the back workout usually looks like this: Deadlifts Chins

2 x 9-12 1-2 x 9-12

If midback falls on Friday, that workout looks like this: Deadlifts Machine rows or bent-over rows



2 x 9-12 1-2 x 9-12

Friday deadlifts give us some residual leg work. It’s like we’re almost doing direct leg work on Tuesday, then indirect leg work on Friday with deadlifts—although, to tell you the truth, doing fullrange deads feels like direct work for legs, back and almost every other muscle group. The deadlift is definitely a full-body exercise, which is the key to its incredible ability to activate overall hypertrophy and metabolism. If you use it correctly—a few days away from your squat workout—and carefully, you can get some impressive surges in muscle size. We think our Friday deadlift workouts are going to do some great things for our big-gain hunting. See our blog at X-Rep. com for how it’s going and how our routine is evolving. Note: For Jonathan’s 20pounds-of-muscle-in-10-weeks program as well as supercharged versions, see the e-book 3D Muscle Building, available at

Besides anabolic acceleration,

Jonathan and Angeliina Lawson were married on October 5, 2007. Best wishes to the happy couple, pictured here on their honeymoon—during which Jonathan apparently was working his arms with coconuts and palm fronds. Editor’s note: For the latest on X Reps, X e-books and the training and supplement X-blog, visit www. The latest training ebooks are shown below. IM

X-traordinary Workouts — X-ceptional Results!

The Ultimate Mass Workout. This is the original X-Rep manual. Includes the ultimate exercise for each muscle and workouts.

Beyond X-Rep Muscle Building. More on X Reps and X-hybrid techniques, including X Fade and Double-X Overload.

3D Muscle Building. Positions-of-Flexion mass training. Includes the 20pounds-of-muscle-in-10weeks size surge program. Free download from

X-traordinary MuscleBuilding Workouts. The big 10 mass-program arsenal. Includes Heavy/Light, 20Rep Squat, Power Pyramid.

by John Hansen, Mr. Natural Olympia

Big, Strong and Ripped? Neveux \ Model: David Perry

Q: I’m currently about six weeks into an eightweek program to build my strength (I recently did 225 pounds in the deadlift for five reps and 250 for one). My goal is to lose about a foot off my gut as well, but I really don’t want to lose any of my hardearned strength and muscle. My waistline is hovering right around 40 inches and needs to go down to 30 or 31. The interesting part is that I may look like an endomorph, but my body type is ectomorphic—I put on muscle slowly (if I shove down meal after meal), but I lose size very quickly if, for example, I get ill. I’m starting to add cardio four to five days a week (30 minutes in the morning) and limit my carb intake to oatmeal in the morning, some additional complex carbs during lunch and then sticking with

veggies in the evening. I’m also trying to keep up the protein intake. Here’s my diet: 1) 9 or 10 a.m., breakfast: eight egg whites scrambled (with some onions and capsicum), two slices of whole-wheat toast (a little butter and honey) and tea or a cup of oatmeal with some honey and skim milk 2) Noon, lunch: fish or chicken and a cup of rice and veggies

It’s possible to get bigger, stronger and leaner at the same time, but training and diet must be precise.

3) Midafternoon: salmon or chicken, salad 4) 5 or 6 p.m.: Muscle Milk Light Shake and 20 ounces of 1 percent skim milk 5) 7 to 10 p.m.: workout, during which I have Scivations Xtend (about 30 to 40 grams of BCAAs and 10 grams of glutamine) in 1.5 liters of water plus Substance WPI (whey protein, 44 grams) 6) 45 minutes after my workout, dinner: chicken or salmon and salad or steak and veggies Now, I do screw up my eating from time to time, and I get in only five meals, which are a challenge to get down anyway. My supplements are Universal Animal Pak, Universal Mstack, Universal Stack2, sometimes CLA and sometimes omega-3s (three times a day with meals). I do three to four work sets of the following exercise after warmup sets:

Neveux \ Model: Dan Decker


Naturally Huge

Monday, legs: squats, sissy squats, leg extensions, Romanian deadlifts, leg curls, calf raises, seated calf raises (continued on page 102)

Tuesday, chest: bench presses, incline dumbbell presses, decline dumbbell presses, incline- or flat-bench flyes Wednesday, back: deadlifts,

74 FEBRUARY 2008 \

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(continued on page 78)

Naturally Huge was so embarrassingly weak when I started last year and my strength has improved so much that I fear getting on a cutting cycle is going to wash out all my strength. What should I do after the cycle is over? I was thinking of following a 5 x 5 program and continuing my cardio about five days per week, for 30 to 45 minutes in the morning. I was planning on eating the same or upping my carbs a bit and changing some of my supplements.

Milk contains lactose, which is a sugar. When dieting, you should eliminate as many simple sugars as possible.

pulldowns (I’m trying to do chins but am just not strong enough yet), bentover rows, hyperextensions

(continued from page 74)

Thursday, shoulders: barbell or dumbbell presses, wide-grip upright rows supersetted with laterals (I need to improve my medial deltoids), incline bench laterals, shrugs Friday, arms and abs: close-grip bench presses, dips, overhead extensions, barbell curls, incline curls, preacher curls or concentration curls (I sometimes superset triceps and biceps) It’s basically an eight-week program on which the three primary lifts start out at 10 reps and end with a one-rep max at the end of week 8 (done for three working sets). All other exercises hover around eight to 10 reps. Starting 1RM (several cycles ago): Bench press: 155 pounds Deadlift: 135 pounds Squat: 140 pounds Lifts as of this week: Bench press: 225 pounds (3RM) Deadlift: 225 pounds (5RM) Squat: 290 pounds (4RM) So my strength levels are definitely improving. I don’t want to get on a cutting cycle for fear of losing size and strength. Actually, it’s primarily because I

A: You’re trying to do two things at the same time—add muscle and strength while simultaneously losing fat. That is possible. I had a client last year who was training consistently but had let himself go and gained a lot of bodyfat. He started training harder and eating better when he started training with me, and he made incredible progress. He began with a 42-inch waist at 194 pounds in December 2006. In October 2007 he competed in a bodybuilding contest weighing 155 pounds with a 28-inch waist. He lost an amazing 14 inches off his waist while increasing his muscle mass and strength. The diet you’re on now looks very good for building muscle and losing fat. It’s high in protein and very moderate in carbohydrates. You’re smart to eat most of your carbs in the morning and afternoon, as the fat stores in your body aren’t as insulin sensitive in the morning as they are at night. If the diet is working, I think you should continue eating the way you are—with a couple of alterations. First, take out the whole-wheat bread with honey and butter and replace it with oatmeal. The oatmeal is lower on the glycemic index and will probably contain more fiber than the bread. You might also want to eliminate the milk from your oatmeal and your protein drink. Milk contains lactose, which is a sugar. When I’m dieting to lose fat, I always eliminate as many simple sugars as possible. Another suggestion would be to include a recovery drink immediately after your training. Studies have shown that taking in simple carbohydrates along with an easy-to-digest form of protein like whey protein isolate greatly enhances muscle recuperation and growth by shuttling those important carbs and amino acids directly into the muscle cells after a hard workout. Optimum Nutrition has a product called 2:1:1 Recovery, which contains 35 grams of protein and 70 grams of carbs, or try Muscle-Link’s RecoverX, which contains 40 grams of protein and 60 grams of carbs. Either one would make a big difference in your diet. You could have the drink immediately after your workout and still eat your dinner about 30 to 45 minutes later. Also, make sure that you space your meals about 2 1/2 to three hours apart so your blood sugar stays stable. Waiting too long between meals allows your blood sugar to drop, and then, when you eat your next meal, the blood sugar rises more than normal. When you’re losing fat, you don’t want that yo-yo effect on your blood sugar; you want to eat consistently so it’s always stable. If the diet doesn’t work to lower your bodyfat, you should begin writing down everything you eat and counting the calories as well as the grams of protein, carbohydrates and fats. When you can look at your diet in black and white, you can often see mistakes you might be making or what’s working and what isn’t. As for your training program, it’s obviously increasing your strength, which is important. I think you could cut

78 FEBRUARY 2008 \

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Naturally Huge back your training from five consecutive days to only four days a week, with one rest day after two days of training. I don’t agree with training that many days in a row if you’re trying to increase muscle mass. Your body needs a full day of rest after two or three days of heavy, hard training. You could include training a smaller bodypart with a larger bodypart a couple of days a week, which would give you an extra day of rest. For example, train your triceps on your chest day and your biceps on your back day. The arms consist of small muscle groups that don’t require a lot of sets. Make sure you’re not using more than 25 total work sets at any workout. I don’t think you need cardio five times a week. That’s

weight training the next day. The other reason is that, if the type of postworkout carbohydrate has no effect on protein synthesis and glycogen replacement is completed before the next training session regardless, using lower-G.I. carbs won’t cause a drastic insulin spike. So fat burning continues to take place and is not delayed for several hours, as it would be with high-G.I. carbs. What exactly is your opinion on the topic?

Neveux \ Model: Jose Raymond

A: I think your training routine is right on target. Even if you’re trying to lose fat, you still want to train the muscles heavy with the basic exercises and make sure you take off enough days during the week to recuperate. So many people still make the mistake of going Keep training heavy lighter and doing more reps, but that only makes and build as much the muscles smaller while you cut back on calomuscle as possible ries. Keep training heavy and build as much while you’re trying muscle as possible while you’re trying to lose fat. to lose fat. As for eating oatmeal instead of high-G.I. carbs after your workout, I think you should go back to the high-glycemic carbs. Even if it doesn’t affect the rate of protein synthesis, you still want the carbs to be stored in the muscles very quickly. If you eat a carb such as oatmeal, it will be digested much more slowly because of its highfiber content. Always remember that a simple sugar will raise your insulin level, which will shuttle both the carbs and protein into the muscle cells much faster than a slower-digesting carbohydrate. I used to have a drink that was carb only after my workout till Chris Aceto recommended that I add whey protein because, he said, in addition to the simple carbs restoring the glycogen, I’d also be restoring the amino acids in my muscle cells by combining the simple carbs with the easy-totoo much if you’re on a good fat-loss diet. Cut your cardio digest whey protein. back to two to three days a week and give the diet a chance I always prefer to have a recovery drink rather than a to do its job. If you’re trying to increase your muscle mass whole-food meal after my workout because a drink is diand strength, doing cardio almost every day will affect your gested much faster. I have it immediately after my workout. recuperation and slow down your gains. I drink it in my car as I’m leaving the parking lot. When I get home, I prepare my next meal, which is Q: My first question is whether there’s a specific lunch, since I train in the early afternoon. It usually conroutine that you recommend for someone who’s sists of lean ground turkey, sweet potato and broccoli and losing fat for an extended period of time. My current provides the protein and complex carbs I need after my program is fairly simple: I use a split routine comworkout, working in conjunction with the recovery drink. posed almost entirely of basic compound lifts that I You’re worried about slowing down the fat-burning perform as heavy as possible, keeping my total sets process by raising your insulin level. That doesn’t apply for the day at 35 or under, four days per week. I vary after a workout. Your body is in a unique metabolic state my rep ranges for each set, usually beginning at after a heavy training session, and it needs those carbs and 12 or 10 with lighter weight, finishing at six or four protein immediately—so you actually do want to raise your with considerably heavier weight. My second quesinsulin level to get those nutrients into your muscles right tion concerns postworkout nutrition. For the past away. month or so I’ve changed from my normal high-glycemic-index carbohydrate-and-whey protein mix Editor’s note: John Hansen has won the Natural Mr. to whey protein with whole oats as my carb source. I Olympia and is a two-time Natural Mr. Universe winner. did it for a couple of reasons. One is that I’ve heard Visit his Web site at You can (though I’m not certain how accurate it is) that the write to him at P.O. Box 3003, Darien, IL 60561, or call tolltype of carbohydrate you take in after weight trainfree (800) 900-UNIV (8648). His new book, Natural Bodying has no effect on the rate of protein synthesis, building, and new training DVD, “Real Muscle,” are now the only variable being the speed of glycogen storavailable from Home Gym Warehouse, www.Home-Gym age, which would take a little longer to refill. Even .com or (800) 447-0008. IM so, it should make no appreciable difference before 80 FEBRUARY 2008 \

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by David Goodin

Dieting and Dating

times. I’ve addressed a number of issues in recent conversations on this topic with young bodybuilders. Gas (flatulence). This one has to be first because it can be a total deal killer! Just because (nutritionally) you can eat all the broccoli that you want doesn’t mean that you should—especially if you’re planning to spend some time with that special someone. Stuffing yourself with high-fiber vegetables just to fill up your stomach is a really bad idea if Q: I met a girl I really like. I’m about to start conyou’re going out on a date. Another thing you shouldn’t do test prep, and I don’t want to scare her away. I know is stack a meal and a protein drink or a meal and a protein that you’ve been single for a long time, and I wonbar. We all know how foul that can be, and it’s just a recipe dered if you had any tips for dating while dieting for for disaster! When you know that you’re going to spend a show. time with your girl, keep your meals smaller, and don’t throw fuel on the fire. A: That’s a really great question because you don’t want Dining out. While we’re on the subject of food, let’s to have to abandon your social life for three to four (or talk about dining out. For God’s sake, don’t take your girl more) months each year. You can’t have balance in your to a restaurant for dinner and then pull out your Tupperlife like that, and without balance (or fun) you’ll end up ware containers of chicken and brown rice. Bad move! It’s abandoning bodybuilding. I’ve seen it happen all too many very embarrassing for your date. You can almost always find grilled chicken or fish on the menu, along with a Dating don’t: Even if salad or steamed vegetables. My best advice is to find it’s carb day, never several restaurants that have dishes that are suitable order the flatulotta at for you and stick with those while you’re dieting. I a Mexican restaurant. love the grilled chicken at Chili’s. I often go to the one near Hyde Park Gym in Austin and modify their salad so much that they eventually put a special key on the register for “Dave’s Salad.” If you’re at an unfamiliar restaurant, just tell the waitperson that you are on a special diet and tell them exactly what you want. As long as you’re courteous about it, they will most likely be more than willing to accommodate your needs. Training and diet talk. Many of us end up dating others who also work out and share our interest in fitness. But even if your significant other is interested in training and nutrition, you don’t have to talk about it all the time. I’ve had close friends who couldn’t talk about anything else during their precontest training. Even I got tired of hearing about it. Go easy on the training and diet talk with your date. Even if she asks you about it, keep in mind that it could be that she’s just being thoughtful because she knows how important it is to you. Moodiness. This is a tough one. There are going to be days when you just wake up hungry, tired and in a foul mood. You should warn someone you’re really interested in that there are going to be days when you’re not going to want to be around anyone. If you’re in a bad mood more often than not, then you’re dieting too hard or severely overtraining—or maybe you’re just not too excited about competing. I always tell people that you need to enjoy the journey, not just the destination. Enjoy the fact that you’re getting leaner and looking better. Look forward to achieving the best condition of your life. Sometimes you really have to make an effort to focus on the positives. If it were easy, everyone would walk around lean and muscular all the time. Think about the great things that are happening with your body. You’ll be happier, and so will everyone else around you. Neveux \ Models: Skip La Cour and friend


Shredded Muscle

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Sex will not make you weak in the knees. That was just an old coaches’ way of making sure that you were at home in bed at a decent hour. Alcohol. A drink every now and then won’t ruin you. precontest training. If you have to live like a hermit to get Drinking regularly will hurt your condition, and getting ready for a show, you’re going to miss out on too much life drunk could totally throw you off track. Don’t drink so and too much love. Let people who care about you know in much that you lose control and then eat poorly. Don’t have advance that it’s a difficult process, and let them know what drinks that contain the sweet mixers that add sugar and to expect. That will help. You also have to make some sacriexcess calories. An occasional glass of wine or your favorite fices and compromises, however, and expend some effort liquor on the rocks won’t kill your condition. to keep your social life intact. My mom always taught me to Workout times. While you don’t want to miss any be considerate of others and to treat people the way I’d like workouts, especially during precontest training, you’ll to be treated. Those are great words to live by at all times. sometimes need to be flexible about your workout times. If Editor’s note: See Dave Goodin’s new blog at www.Iron someone cares about you, she is going to know how Click on the blog selection in the top tant your training is to you. You can show her how much menu bar. To contact Dave directly, send e-mail to TXyou care by occasionally adjusting your workout times to accommodate her schedule and doing what she wants to IM do. Always keep in mind that your loved ones are very often making sacrifices for you because they want you to be successful. Reciprocate! Sex. Last but certainly not least—I recently had a conversation with a “Schiek products are a CUT above the rest. Train with the best quality gear!â€? young bodybuilder about the loss of Jay Cutler, Mr. Olympia interest in sex during contest preparaour k out at tion. It’s kind of strange. We’re successChec website om new .schiek.c ful at putting on muscle because we’re www high-testosterone guys. Normally we have sex on the brain about 98 percent of the time. Anyway, my buddy said that his girlfriend had been very patient and supportive but that his dieting had been very hard on her. One of the problems was that his interest in sex had waned, and her feelings were hurt. It was difficult for her to understand and impossible for him to explain. He was so relieved when I told him that I’d experienced that phenomenon early in my bodybuilding career. I suspect that it’s a result of dieting too hard and/or overtraining. I haven’t experienced it in recent memory. In fact, with one girlfriend I had a few years CONTOURED Dowel style ago, we were having sex so frequently shown above WRIST LIFTING BELT PLATINUM SERIES that one of my training partners s Comfortable hip-and-rib LIFTING STRAPS SUPPORTS LIFTING GLOVES contour (patented) thought that I must not be training and s Easy-removal fins (patented) sâ€? thick and 2-1/2â€? s Straps and wrist support s Patented conical shape wide neoprene for all in one s Washable/Non-Bleeding dieting hard enough for my show—I s Patented closure system extreme comfort s Lasts 3 times longer than s Gel padding (palm and thumb) s Durable two-year warranty had too much energy. 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Critical Mass by Steve Holman

Midlife Muscle

Q: I’m a 47-year-old man who has been an ectomorphic hardgainer. (At my age and with a very different metabolism, who knows what I am now?) I’m 180 pounds at 6’ tall with a bodyfat level in the high teens—17 percent, if you can believe the calipers. So I look fit and athletic for 47, but I’d prefer a lot more muscle and definition. I’m applying pretty good basic science to my regimen, but consistency has been a problem because of some nagging shoulder-inflammation issues. Flat-bench presses, for instance, seem to be out of the question. Inclines are somewhat better. Declines I’m still experimenting with, but I can’t go heavy with any of them. Okay, here are my questions: 1) If I have to pull bench presses, what are my best alternative pec moves, and how should I reconsider your prescribed workouts? 2) What can I reasonably expect in terms of muscle growth? I’m terrified to take in surplus calories for fear of storing fat.

Neveux \ Model: Steve Holman


Steve Holman’s

A: I think I can address your questions, as I’m 47 and a hardgainer with a minor shoulder problem from powerlifting in my 20s. Let’s look at your bench-press situation first. I’ve found wide-grip dips to be an excellent alternative to bench presses. If you can’t do those, you may have to resort to using preexhaustion—cable flyes followed immediately by machine bench presses or even pushups. I’ve found that my chest responds well to pushups; you can use the DXO technique (an X Rep at the bottom after each full rep) to make them more difficult and effective—that provides excess stress at the important semistretch position, where fiber activation is maximized. Also, elevating your feet and supporting your hands on a pair of pushup stands to increase difficulty and

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Full-range pushups can be a good substitute for bench presses. They’re more ergonomically correct and can help those with low neuromuscular efficiency in the pecs to feel their chest muscles working.

Neveux \ Model: Jonathan Lawson

range of motion (if your shoulder can tolerate that) is something you can try, although standard pushups will do in a pinch. Now, as a 47-year-old, what muscle growth can you reasonably expect? It’s more difficult to build muscle after 40, but you can still make impressive progress. It’s especially important to cycle your training the way we do—more abbreviated strength and size training in the winter (for example, the 3D Power Pyramid program in the X-traordinary Muscle-Building Workouts e-book), then move to size and strength as you reduce bodyfat in the spring and summer. Note the change from strength as the primary target in winter, with size as secondary; flip-flop those priorities when spring rolls around. It’s also important to cycle down your intensity every four to six weeks; that is, four to six weeks of all-out workouts alternated with one or two weeks of subfailure training. That ensures that your muscle, nervous and endocrine systems recover completely before you ramp up intensity again. Keep in mind that the leaner you are, the larger and more muscular you will look. If you got your bodyfat down to 10 percent, you would notice a distinct difference in appearance and muscularity. It doesn’t take a lot of calories to build muscle; you just need to eat clean most of the time and be sure you get enough protein. Hardgainers tend to need more carbs, so you could cycle in higher-carb days once or twice a week to refill glycogen stores in the spring and summer. Winter, when strength is more of a priority, eat 50 percent carbs every day—your calories should be above maintenance, but don’t let your bodyfat get out of control.

A: I think the best way to train, especially after age 40, is with Positions of Flexion. It’s based on picking exercises that work each muscle through its full range. In case you’re not familiar with 3D POF, a good example would be this triceps routine: close-grip bench presses, pushdowns, overhead extensions. That’s midrange work (arms moving perpendicular to the torso), contracted work (arms down next to torso) and stretch work (arms extending overhead). You work the triceps through its full arc of flexion, or contractability, which not only develops the muscle more fully but strengthens the tendons and ligaments in all the critical positions as well. That prevents injury and enhances mobility. Each muscle group has a midrange, contracted and stretch position. There’s more information on 3D POF at Q: I’m fairly big, so now I figure I’d better think about ripping up. Some bodybuilders at my gym

A: The general consensus these days is that bodybuilders shouldn’t do high reps for muscularity for the reasons you mentioned; however, I believe that using a few high-rep sets, or at least longer tension-time sets—40 to 50 seconds—with drop sets and double drops will help you get leaner via two specific pathways: 1) More muscle burn, which in turn triggers growth hormone release. Growth hormone is a potent fat burner. 2) More pump and occlusion, or blood flow blockage, which forces development of the endurance components Mitochondria in the muscles, including the development in mitochondria. muscle means

more fat-burning potential.

Now, that doesn’t mean you should do all of your work sets in the 12-to-20 zone. You need a variety of rep ranges to stress all of the various muscle-building pathways—lower reps for maxforce generation and higher reps for endurance-component work. If you do high reps only, you miss stressing the important max-force characteristic, and you can lose size in key fast-twitch power fibers. If you use 3D POF, you can do lower reps, seven to nine, on the midrange exercises; medium reps, nine to 12, on the stretch-position exercises; and higher reps, 12 to 15, on the contracted-position moves. Longer tension times on contracted-position exercises, like leg extensions for quads, are especially important, as those exercises bring the most occlusion, so they’re best for developing the mitochondria, where fat is burned for fuel. Neveux \ Model: Jonathan Lawson

Q: I read your all of your articles, books and e-books and was wondering if you had any workouts specifically for old guys like me? At 65 it’s hard to hang on. I was Mr. Detroit in 1965, and I’ve got old injuries—knees, shoulders, back. It’s tough to find workouts that fit in. Can you help?

said that I should start doing higher reps, but I’ve read that higher reps don’t burn many more calories and aren’t that great for muscle gains. I’m confused. Will high reps help me get cut?

Editor’s note: Steve Holman is the author of many bodybuilding best-sellers and the creator of Positionsof-Flexion muscle training. For information on the POF videos and Size Surge programs, see the ad sections beginning on page 96 and 296, respectively. Also visit for information on X-Rep and 3D POF methods and e-books. IM \ FEBRUARY 2008 89

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A Bodybuilder

Is Born Episode 31 The Mind Game of Competitive Bodybuilding

by Ron Harris Photography by Michael Neveux

Models: Jay Cutler and Darrem Charles


ven though I’ve been electronically crucified more than once on popular Internet bodybuilding message boards, I cruise around them to see what’s going on in my little muscle world. The Net is still a wonderful tool for the rapid dissemination of information. In the old days bodybuilders had to wait for weeks, sometimes months, for the magazines to come before we could find out who’d won the latest contest, like the Mr. Olympia. Until the advent of the telegraph and the telephone all we had to deliver news were the Pony Express, the railroad and ships and barges. Example: When Mortimer H. Henckenfuster won the Mr. Physically Robust Gentleman in October of 1884 in Las Vegas (population at the time: four), muscle fans on the East Coast didn’t get the full contest report until the week before the 1885 edition of the show. Mortimer stood 5’11” and tipped the scales at a paltry 160 pounds, a far cry from

Ronnie Coleman’s 296 at the same height. Henckenfuster used to promote a “health tonic” with questionable ingredients, such as bear urine, gorilla poop and the gunk from the corner of a lion’s eyes when it wakes up in the morning—gathered, no doubt, on his rounds as a zookeeper. Apparently, it didn’t do him much good, since he died in 1901 at the age of 38. Medicine wasn’t so advanced back then, so the cause of death was listed only as something called “melancholy spleen.” Ah, the good old days. But back to the now and the travails of my protégé, Randy. I was cruising around my favorite message board—I’ll call it Muscle Madness—when something led me to the section on upcoming NPC events. It must have been my Spidey sense, as I haven’t so much as glanced at that area of the site in many months. The thread, as each individual topic is called, was titled “Anyone else doing the New England?” The screen name under the thread topic, indicating the starter, was FordMuscle250. Hmm. Randy sold Ford cars, he was a young muscle man, and 250 happened \ FEBRUARY 2008 91

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A Bodybuilder

Is Born Randy was so insecure and doubtful of his chances at the show that he was praying for an easy win over a field of bodybuilding misfits.

to be what he wishes he weighed. I was almost certain it was the little rascal, and when I opened up the thread, my suspicions were confirmed. I’ve copied and pasted it here exactly as it appeared: “Hey, what’s up. Anybody out there doing the New Englands on May 8? What weight class? I’ll be a light heavy, and this is my first show. Post some pics up!” Randy, of course, did not feel the need to provide a photo of his own. And I knew why.

This thread was cleverly (or so he thought) disguised as good-natured camaraderie among local competitors. As if. With 15 weeks left until the show, he was already freaking out about who he might have to go up against in the open light heavies. I know what he wanted in his desperate state of mind. He was secretly hoping that every other guy he would be competing against would find his way to this thread and post photos. Wait, that’s not all. What he really wanted was for all of them to suck—and suck bad. He wanted to see guys with potbellies, stick legs, concave chests, lats so high they inserted just under the armpits and arms that looked as if they belonged on Urkel. Hold on, the actor Jaleel White might have had some guns underneath his nerdy clothes, so make that Horschak. (For you younger readers, in the Old Testament of TV sitcom dorks, Horshak begat Screech, and Screech begat Urkel. And if you’re too young to even know the show “Family Matters,” maybe you need to stop reading this for a minute so Mommy can offer you a warm bottle.) Randy was so insecure and doubtful of his chances at the show that he was praying for an easy win over a field of bodybuilding misfits. But as I explained in a previous episode, that wasn’t going to happen at the New Englands. We have only one NPC show a year in the state of Massachusetts, with a population of 6 million people and 5 million Dunkin’ Donuts franchises. That’s only one of the several New England states, of course. Others include New Hampshire, Rhode Island and several more where nobody pronounces their R’s, and directions are often given in terms of landmarks (when you see the tree that looks like a giraffe, turn left and go five miles until you come to a field with an

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A Bodybuilder abandoned ’72 Pinto on its side). What I’m trying to say is that since there are so few contests for the bodybuilders in our region, the shows tend to be packed, and there’s never a shortage of talent. It wasn’t going to be easy at all for Randy, despite the improvements he’d made to his physique in the time I’d known him. Sure enough, soon a few of the other guys doing the contest started responding to the thread. I knew Randy was growing increasingly distressed, as it was obvious from some of the photos that there were some big dudes getting ready for the show. It was tough for me not to contact Randy, but I had to wait for him to come to me. These days we don’t get to train together more than once a week, and sometimes it’s every other week. So close to two weeks had gone by since I’d noticed his thread before we met to hit chest and shoulders. In that time almost a dozen men and four women had announced their intent to do the New England, and most had provided photos—some of how they

Is Born presently looked and others from previous contests they’d done. Four and possibly five of the men were going to be in the light heavies. The fifth one wasn’t sure if he was going to make weight. All of them, however, looked—how should I put it?—like they could all potentially kick Randy’s ass all over the stage. Randy really belonged in a novice division, but the contests around these parts just don’t have them. “I don’t know about the show,” Randy started as he warmed up on the incline barbell press. “You’re doing the show,” I said coldly. “The thing is,” he said as he racked the weight, “my work is getting really busy right now. You know spring is our biggest time of the year at the dealership.” “I saw your thread on Muscle Madness, jackass.” “You, ah, you saw that?” “Yep,” I replied as I slid on more weight for me. “You’re getting cold feet because you saw what you’re up against.” I did my last warmup set. “Well, jeez, did you see that Rocky

kid?” he whined. “He looks like a pro, for God’s sake. His arms must be 22 inches.” “He said he was 5’6”, and he’s planning on weighing about 185, so I kinda doubt his arms are anywhere near that,” I said. “But they’re pretty big and have good shape.” “And that Tom guy? What the hell? He won this show a few years ago, so why is he even doing it again? What a jerk-off!” Randy did his set, face set in anger—not the usual aggression generated and directed at the weights. He was furious at those guys for having the audacity to enter the same weight division he was competing in, and he was already conceding defeat—although things really did appear grim. Not as grim as the chances of a long and happy marriage for Paris Hilton, but grim nonetheless. It was time to give him the advice that I never was able to follow myself. Isn’t that what mentors are for? “You need to stop worrying about those other guys, seriously. People don’t under- (continued on page 100)

Miller \ Model: Mike Icolari

“People don’t understand that bodybuilding is really more of a mind game than it is lifting weights and eating chicken breasts and broccoli.”

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A Bodybuilder (continued from page 94) understand

that bodybuilding is really more of a mind game than it is lifting weights and eating chicken breasts and broccoli. Unless you know for sure that you’re so incredible that no other human has a chance of beating you, it’s only natural to worry about who you’re going to go up against and what they’ll look like. But that does nothing to make you look better on the day of your show. In fact, the constant stress might cause you to lose some muscle, and the worrying distracts you from what should be your real focus, getting into the best condition you can.” “But those guys,” Randy cried. “I can’t beat them!” “Maybe and maybe not,” I said. “I have been through this a few times myself, so I can give you some insight. Some of those people will drop out of the show. They might get scared. They might get injured, lose their job. Their cat might get sick— who knows? That’s one thing. “Another thing is that not everybody gets in shape. Some guy you’re biting your nails over might show up smooth as a baby’s butt, and you’ll feel like an idiot for worrying about him all that time. Others are showing themselves only from certain angles or from the waist up, so they could be hiding significant physique flaws. I’m not trying to make you think you’re going to have an easy time up there, because you won’t. It’s your first contest, and you’ll be up against guys who have been doing this a lot longer than you have. The light-heavyweight class is very tough in any show. That’s where the guys with the really nice blend of size and shape often show up. Many times the light heavy wins the overall.” Randy was crestfallen. I had to perk him up before he started looking for the nearest bridge to jump off of. The Tobin Bridge was only about 15 miles away, and that sucker has a long drop down. “Here’s what I want you to do, Randy. Stay off that thread because it’s only going to mess with your head. Just worry about you. It doesn’t matter if you win, take fifth or come in dead last this time, as long as you get into the best shape you can and present yourself on-

Is Born stage like a veteran. We’ll work for a solid hour on your quarter turns and mandatories after this workout, and you’ll need to devote at least a half hour of posing practice every day on your own. One other thing.” “What’s that?” he asked. “Got your checkbook on you, Junior?” He gave me a strange look. Perhaps I was going to charge him for all the training and advice, making it retroactive for the past 2 1/2 years? “Yeah, out in my car. Why?” “Great.” I dug around in the plastic bag I carry around the gym floor with all my wraps, straps, training

log and assorted junk I need when I work out. I produced an entry form and an envelope, already addressed to the promoter of the New England and stamped. “When we’re done today, you’re going to fill this out, we’re going to go to your car, and you’re going to write a check for your entry fee. Then I’m going to mail it. You’re doing the show.” Randy looked relieved, as if a burden had been lifted from him. “I owe you, Ron. I had the wrong attitude about this thing.” “Yes you did. And you do owe me—41 cents for the postage.” IM

“It doesn’t matter if you win, take fifth or come in dead last, as long as you get into the best shape you can and present yourself on stage like a veteran.”

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Still Ripped After All These Years

Clarence Bass

Reveals His Secrets for Staying Lean and Muscular at 70 by Steve Holman Photos Courtesy of Clarence Bass


f you’ve been around bodybuilding since the ’80s, you know the name Clarence Bass. Did he win the Mr. Olympia? No, but he brought to the forefront the principles of eating and training properly to get that extreme-lean look Mr. Olympias strive for. A selfconfessed musclehead and attorney, he got down to 2.4 percent bodyfat, something unheard of even today, and he did it with clean eating, sensible training and no drugs—and he was over 40 when he achieved that milestone. Today he’s 70, and he looks incredible—not just for his age but for any age. If you’re interested in how he does it, read on. IM: You appear almost as ripped and muscular on the cover of your new book, Great Expectations, as you did in your earlier books, like Lean for Life and Challenge Yourself, when you were 50 and 60. What’s been the most difficult adjustments you’ve had to make as you got older to stay in that condition? CB: Thanks for the compliment. People need to know that it doesn’t have to be downhill after

50. That’s the main message in my new book; that’s why I wrote it. I’ve basically kept on doing what I’ve always done. I had my hip replaced in January of 2006, but I continued training right up to the surgery and lost little if any size or strength. I had a new surgical procedure where they go between rather than cut any major muscles. I was back in the gym in a few weeks and back up to speed in a few months. The body keeps responding to the demands of sensible training far longer than most people think. To accomplish something you must believe that it’s possible—and that you can do it. My new book gives readers reason to

have great expectations. IM: Do you think your years of weight training were the reason you needed hip-replacement surgery? CB: It’s impossible to know for sure. I trained steadily for more than 50 years before having my hip replaced. It may have just worn out. It’s also possible that my hip would’ve given out earlier without training. I have a congenital curvature in my spine, which may have played a part as well. Most doctors would agree that joints do best when they are used regularly (not over- manm \ FEBRUARY 2008 107

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Clarence Bass

Class win at the ’78 past-40 Mr. America.

used). One of the chapters in my book gives the details of my hip replacement, including the role of weight training before and after. IM: In Ripped you said your bodyfat was measured in a hydrostatic-weighing device at 2.4 percent. Have you had your bodyfat measured lately? CB: I monitor my bodyfat every

week using a Tanita Body Composition Scale, which is quite accurate if used consistently. That’s been a boon to my training because I no longer have the expense and hassle of having myself weighed under water. According to the Tanita scale, my bodyfat was about 5 percent when the book photos were taken; it varies, plus or minus, based on time

of day and hydration level. IM: Do you feel you’re still improving, or is it more of a maintenance game now? CB: I always try to improve. Training to maintain is no fun and a motivation killer, and I avoid it like the plague. I can almost always find ways to improve. I set goals in every workout. That doesn’t mean that I’m improving in a linear way—I’m obviously not. But that’s my mind-set, and I believe it has a lot to do with my continuing success. IM: In the past you were a staunch high-intensity advocate, training all out to failure along the lines of Mike Mentzer’s recommendations. Do you still believe in that approach, and is it the best way to train for someone past middle age? CB: I’m a strong believer in the “less is more” philosophy. I don’t train to all-out failure. I know when I can’t do another rep and stop. Where I differ with Mike’s approach is that I train in up-anddown cycles and always include aerobics. I think it’s important for older lifters to continue challenging themselves and take care to allow time for recovery between workouts. IM: What weight-training and cardio programs do you follow now, and how has that changed over the past decade—or has it? CB: My workouts are equally balanced between weights and aerobics. I approach aerobics the same way I do weights: hard and infrequent. I prefer to do weights and aerobics on separate days, so I can give equal attention to both. I train two or three times a week and walk on off days. On weights, I do one hard set after warmup. On aerobics, I focus on high-intensity intervals. My weight workouts last a little over an hour and my aerobics sessions about 25 minutes. IM: Are there exercises you think older bodybuilders should steer clear of? How about squats and deadlifts? CB: I believe both old and young trainers should avoid movements that hurt. If it hurts, don’t do it.

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Snatching 225 at age 24.

Laszlo Bencze

Squats and deadlifts are fine as long as they don’t cause joint pain. Allowing time for recovery is especially important for the squat and deadlift. Doing squats one week and deadlifts the next works well for most people. IM: Do you do a lot of warmup sets before your one work set for each exercise? CB: It depends on the exercise. For multijoint exercises such as squats, deadlifts or bench presses, I generally do two or three warmup sets. For curls and other singlejoint movements, one or two. Reps for warmup sets are usually eight to four, with progressively heavier weights. My theory is that warmup sets are to prepare the body for the work set and shouldn’t wear you out. IM: Is your training program in your new book? CB: Yes. I explain the changes

I believe in training the whole body aerobically, and the Airdyne does that very well.

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Clarence Bass I’ve made recently, including those made after my hip replacement. IM: Early in your weighttraining career you were an Olympic lifter. Do you think those lifts—the clean and jerk and the snatch—are safe? What were some of your best poundages? Age 15, two years into his lifting career.


Age 45.

CB: The Olympic lifts put a lot of stress on the joints and must be approached with care. Power cleans and power snatches are much easier to learn and are probably best for most people. I do have some joint problems that I trace back to my Olympic lifting days—I have a weakness in my left shoulder and arthritis in my lower back. I avoid movements that aggravate either condition. Training through pain or injury

is a bad idea. My best lifts were 275 press, 245 snatch and 325 clean and jerk. IM: What’s your favorite cardio exercise, and how do you attack it for best results? CB: My favorite cardio machine is the Schwinn Airdyne, an exercise bike with a push-pull arm action. I believe in training the whole body aerobically, and the Airdyne does that very well. What many forget is that 50 percent or more of the

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Clarence Bass

Positive feedback showing progress toward a meaningful goal is the ultimate motivator. I always have a goal. Ripped beyond belief at age 61.

Pat Berrett

benefit of aerobic exercise takes place in the muscles and that only the muscles that are used benefit. A good performance monitor, like the one on the Airdyne, is important so you can train progressively. As I said earlier, I always try to improve. IM: In the days of Ripped your diet was higher carb, medium protein and low fat, with reduced calories when you wanted to get ripped. How do you eat now? CB: The main change that I’ve made in recent years is the addition of “good” fat, usually salmon. Good fat slows the absorption of food and is good for the heart and circulatory system. I eat a balanced diet of mostly whole foods. I eat three main meals and three snacks a day and never miss a meal. The bulk of my diet is vegetables, fruits and whole grains. In addition, I make a point of having some fat and high-quality protein with each meal or snack. I never allow myself to get overly

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Clarence Bass

“I believe that regular exercise— weights and aerobics— and a balanced diet are all that most people need to maintain testosterone at normal levels.”

hungry. I don’t starve myself. IM: Does being a semi-vegetarian hamper your testosterone production? Doesn’t that type of diet make it harder to build muscle, especially as you age? CB: I had my testosterone checked during my last health and fitness exam at the Cooper Clinic in Dallas. The blood test showed that my testosterone is in the mid-range of normal; you can read the details on our Web site ( I believe that regular exercise— weights and aerobics—and a balanced diet are all that most people need to maintain testosterone at normal levels. IM: What’s your favorite supplement for aging bodybuilders? CB: I like creatine, which works especially well for people who don’t eat much meat. I’ve taken it for years. IM: What keeps you motivated to stay in such solid, lean shape? Who’s your inspiration? CB: I enjoy my training, a key element in staying motivated. Realistic and challenging goals are also im-

With his wife Carol in Santa Fe, New Mexico, 2007.

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Clarence Bass

Laszlo Bencze

“I train two to three times a week and walk on off days. On weights, I do one hard set after warmup. My weight workouts last a little over an hour.”

portant. Positive feedback showing progress toward a meaningful goal is the ultimate motivator. I always have a goal. When I achieve it, I set another one. Training becomes more important with each passing year. I never miss a scheduled workout. Bill Pearl has always been my favorite role model. My dad and I were in the audience when he won the ’53 Mr. America. I love the fact that he still gets up at about 4 a.m. to train six days a week. IM: What’s your training and diet advice to bodybuilders who are moving past middle age? CB: I’d tell them that regularity in training and diet is the most important thing. The only diet or training regimen that will work is one you

are willing and able to continue indefinitely. Don’t bite off more than you’re really willing to chew. IM: Do you keep up with the current bodybuilding scene? CB: I don’t follow competitive bodybuilding as closely as I once did. My impression is that the top guys and gals are so good that normal people can’t relate to them. Bodybuilding for health and fitness, however, has never been more popular. Carol and I just heard that (continued on page 122)

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“Don’t bite off more than you’re really willing to chew. Regularity in training and diet is the most important thing. The only diet or training regimen that will work is one you are willing and able to continue indefinitely.” (continued from page 118) Gold’s Gym

is planning to open several new gyms in our hometown of Albuquerque, New Mexico, which already has a ton of fitness centers. My sense is that the over-40 market may be the fastest growing segment. For those who want to stay young and strong, bodybuilding is the key. IM: Obesity is rampant in the United States, and children are more sedentary than ever before, which is adding to the

epidemic and creating a health crisis. Any ideas on how we as a society can reverse that trend? CB: I wish I knew the answer. I’m pretty sure that treating the overweight as victims isn’t it, however. With very few exceptions, whether we are fit and lean or sedentary and fat is a choice. Our Web site, books and DVDs are aimed at helping people who want to help themselves. IM: You’ve written countless books over the years—Ripped

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Clarence Bass 1, 2 and 3; The Lean Advantage 1, 2 and 3; Lean for Life; and Challenge Yourself. Why the new book,

Great Expectations? What’s different about it? CB: I began training when I was about 13 and never stopped, so I’m one of the very first of a new breed—a breed that I expect to grow rapidly in the years to come. I’m an example of the benefits of exercise and healthy eating over a lifetime. In Great Expectations I provide authoritative evidence that we do not have to get weaker and fatter as we age. As I indicated earlier, vibrant health, fitness and leanness are there for those who choose to train, eat and live well. What’s more, suffering is not required or even helpful, which is another main theme of the book. Its subtitle is Health Fitness Leanness Without Suffering. The bodybuilding lifestyle can and should be a joy. It’s a wonderful journey that begins with the first step and ideally never ends. IM: Any parting comments about life and lifting for those of us who are cruising into our 50s and 60s? CB: Yes, keep training. I also want to thank you, Steve, and John Balik for their interest in me over the years. My first exposure was in Iron Man years ago when Peary and Mabel Rader were at the helm. One constant in my bodybuilding life has been IRON MAN. May it continue to thrive and prosper forever. Editor’s note: For more on Clarence Bass, visit his Web site, To order his new book, Great Expectations, visit, or call (800) 447-0008. IM

“Vibrant health, fitness and leanness are there for those who choose to train, eat and live well. What’s more, suffering is not required or even helpful.”

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saturation for Serious Muscle Size

A Unique Twist on Heavy/Light Power/Pump Mass Training by Steve Holman and Jonathan Lawson Photography by Michael Neveux


ver heard the saying, Go heavy or go home? Don’t believe it! You don’t have to go heavy at every workout, just every other—and it builds muscle fast. Do a pump session a few days after every heavy one, and you can almost watch the muscles get bigger and more detailed every week because of the all-out anabolic activity, as well as recovery, you’re getting. It’s the light workouts that most people don’t do—and that’s the reason they miss out on so much size stimulation.

Pump, Supersaturation and Muscle Recovery The first important point about lighter, subfailure workouts done with higher reps is that they fill up the muscles, making them look bigger, denser and more detailed. You do a light workout a few days after an all-out heavy workout. You

may recognize that as the way a lot of bodybuilders in the presteroid era of the ’50s and early ’60s trained. Those who used the system correctly got huge—no drugs, no supplements. The reason it works is that you damage the muscles with heavy training at one workout and then at the next session give them subfailure pumping sets for supercompensation and supersaturation of glycogen—in other words, higherrep flushing sets. This is not a muscle-building theory. It works, big time! It will pack new size on your frame, just as it did for the bodybuilders of the golden era. Why? One reason is that muscles are more than 70 percent water. What pulls water into muscles to make them big and full? Glycogen from carbs. Basically, the more glycogen you can force into your muscles, the bigger they’ll get. That’s the reason we suggest you take in 20 to 40 grams of carbs about 45 minutes to an hour before every heavy/light workout, along with about 20 to 30 grams of protein. (You also need even more

carbs and protein immediately after you train—60 grams and 40 grams, respectively; it’s best to get them from a postworkout supplement like RecoverX.) No, that won’t make you fat. Research shows that even 100 grams of carbs eaten around the time an intense workout takes place won’t feed fat stores. A good example of how well this works is the last week of contest prep for bodybuilders. They do a light pumping workout for each bodypart as they ramp up their carbs. That’s the perfect way to get full muscles via complete glycogen replenishment and, possibly, hopefully, supercompensation; that is, higher-than-normal glycogen retention after weeks of lower-carb contest dieting. If everything goes right, they can get considerably bigger and more detailed in that last week, primarily from driving more water into their muscles.

Slow Down to Muscle Up Another reason light workouts do good things for muscle size is tension time. A recent study showed \ FEBRUARY 2008 127

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Supersaturation Super saturation how well slow, controlled light training works. (Tanimoto, M. J App Physiol. 100:1150-1157; 2006) Three groups used different styles of training: 1) Low intensity, 50 percent of one-rep max (light), with slow movement and tonic force generation, taking three seconds each to raise and lower the weight窶馬o relaxing phase.

The reason it works is that you damage the muscles with heavy training at one workout and then at the next session give them subfailure pumping sets for supercompensaton and supersaturation of glycogen.

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Model: Cesar Martinez

2) High intensity, 80 percent of one-rep max (heavy), taking one second to raise the weight and one second to

Supersaturation Super saturation lower it, with one second of relaxing between reps—the conventional style of training. 3) Low intensity with normal speed (same as 2). The workout consisted of three sets done three times a week for 12 weeks. The first two groups experienced significant muscle gains, with no gains occurring in group 3. That brings to light another key factor of effective light workouts: rep speed. We recommend using slower reps for light workouts— about five seconds per rep instead of the three-second reps done on heavy day. In other words, light workouts are similar to what group 1 did in the study—using the sustained-tension technique and longer muscle activation, which produces the greatest amount of muscle-oxygen deficit. Once again light training produced gains similar to what other subjects got when they used heavier weights in the conventional training style. That has huge implications for muscle building—and verifies the heavy/light concept (those old-timers back in the ’50s and ’60s knew what they were doing). While you get unique muscle stimulation, light, high-rep, slower “feel” sets also increase the release of growth hormone and localized insulinlike growth factor 1. Plus, they trigger nitric oxide production, which stimulates the development of muscle satellite cells—a key to muscle hypertrophy. For those who are afraid that light training won’t do much for muscle size or will make you shrink, that study should help deprogram you. You’ll build more muscle via the supersaturation of glycogen and amino acids with lighter, slower, continuous-tension workouts and also get the unique longer tension times that build muscle without as much stress as higher-intensity heavy workouts. What’s more, your joints, tendons and ligaments will get more time to recover without sacrificing muscle. Heavy/light programs build mass big time, you just have to follow a few rules:

Q: You talk about forcing muscle supercompensation with the heavy/light method. Doing a lighter, subfailure workout a few days after heavy training is supposed to create a pump that forces glycogen [from the carbs you eat prior to the workout] into the muscle for a supersaturation effect. It makes sense, and I already feel bigger using it. My problem is that my pumps aren’t that great. Should I add sets to the light workouts? The program only calls for a few for each bodypart. A: First, be sure you’re doing the program exactly as prescribed. For example, you said that light workouts are subfailure, but that applies only to the big, more taxing midrange exercise for each bodypart, like squats or curls. On the more isolated exercises, like leg extensions and concentration curls, you still train to exhaustion on each phase of a drop set—hitting failure at eight reps, reducing the weight and immediately repping out again, getting five or six more. Going to failure on those less-taxing-but-more-focused exercises provides the most occlusion and should flush the target muscle—triggering supersaturation, a.k.a. excess glycogen storage. Also be sure you are hitting the higher-rep range listed in the program on your big exercises on light day. You want to lighten the weight enough from your heavy-day weight that you get 10 to 15 reps on each set—and each rep should last about five seconds. Rep speed is very important for tension-time hypertrophy as well as muscle engorgement. If you still don’t pump up big, try pushing the reps even higher—like 15 to 18. It’s important to engorge the muscles fully at your light workouts. You also may want to try a vasodilator supplement before you train (see the question and answer below).

Q: You mentioned taking about 30 grams of carbs and 30 grams of protein an hour before every workout, and you also mentioned taking a vasodilator. What kind of supplement is that, and why do I need it? A: Most vasodilators are precursors of nitric oxide, a compound that helps open up blood vessels to give you an incredible pump. Yes, a big pump is motivating, but you’re getting a lot more than that—by opening up the blood vessels, you create an environment for better nutrient delivery in the muscles. Remember, light day is for max flood flow, so you send more glycogen from carbs into those still-recovering muscles. Glycogen helps them hold more water and get huge (muscle is more than 70 percent water, after all). [Note: For more on NO and vasodilators, see “Just Say Yes to NO” by Jerry Brainum, which appeared in the January ’08 IRON MAN.]

1) Use all-out intensity on heavyday sets, with lower reps that you perform like controlled explosions. 2) Use slow, continuous-tension sets on light day, with about 12 reps that last five seconds each.

Supplement Standouts Something that you can do to enhance the process is to use nitric oxide–precursor supplements, or

vasodilators, which open the blood vessels for maximum pump and nutrient delivery during your workout (exactly what you’re striving for in your light workouts). Keep in mind, however, that digestion shuts down during intense activity, like your workout, so you want to get your carbs and aminos 45 minutes to an hour before you hit the gym. They need to be circulating in your bloodstream, ready to be flushed into your muscles during your pump sets. (continued on page 134)

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Supersaturation Super saturation Q: I get a lot of crap at my gym when I do the light [subfailure, pump] workouts from your heavy/light program. My friends razz me because I stop short on the big exercises like squats and bench presses. Why can’t I just go to failure on light day too? There aren’t that many sets, so I think I can still recover.

Sample H/L Workout Okay, enough of the reasons that it works; you probably want a specific example. Here are the biceps and triceps routines from the quick four-days-per-week heavy/light program listed in X-traordinary Muscle-Building Workouts (arms are trained on Monday and Thursday):

Model: Mike Morris

A: If it bothers you that much, you can try it (we always encourage experimentation), but keep in mind that the point of heavy/light is that you don’t burn glycogen from the target muscle on light day; you use subfailure high-rep sets to force more into storage via a big pump. That’s the important supersaturation effect that pulls more water in, making you look bigger and fuller workout after workout—a true size-surge effect. If you train to failure at both workouts, you’ll short-circuit the supercompensation effect. That’s one of the basic principles behind heavy/ light, and it’s a very good one, as bodybuilders in the presteroid era would tell you—they got very big very quickly using it. Many called the higher-rep, pumping workouts “spinning.” Back in those days there was a big controversy over what worked better to build mass, spinning or grinding (low-rep heavy workouts). Of course, the smartest guys used both, alternating them, much like our heavy/light program. It makes a lot of sense, not only from a recovery standpoint but from a variety perspective as well—you give the muscles something new at every other workout. That will help you grow faster too, rather than doing the same thing every time.

We also suggest beta-alanine, a.k.a. Red Dragon, as it loads your muscle tissue with carnosine, which helps buffer fatigue so you can crank out more growth reps—hitting the high-threshold motor units via big weights plus X-Rep partials on heavy workouts. In other words, you get longer tension times as you push into the burn zone on light days.

(continued from page 130)

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Supersaturation Super saturation

On heavy day you follow the big, midrange exercise with a stretchposition move, like incline curls, for more target-muscle trauma.

Model: Dan Decker

On light day you follow the midrange exercise with a contracted-position move, like concentration curls, for more continuous tension and a skinstretching pump.

Biceps Biceps

Heavy Barbell curls 3 x 5, 8, 9 Heavy Incline curls curls (drop set) 1 x3 8(5) Barbell x 5, 8, 9 LightIncline curls (drop set) 1 x 8(5) Barbell curls Light (subfailure) 2 x 10-15 Barbell curls Concentration curls (subfailure) 2 x 10-15 (drop set) Concentration curls 1 x 8(5) (drop set)

Triceps Triceps

1 x 8(5)

Heavy Decline extensions 3 x 5, 8, 9 Heavy Overhead extensions Decline extensions 3 x 5, 8, 9 (drop set) extensions 1 x 8(5) Overhead 1 x 8(5) Light (drop set) Decline extensions Light (subfailure) Decline extensions 2 x 10-15 Pushdowns (drop set) 1 x28(5) (subfailure) x 10-15 Pushdowns (drop set) 1 x 8(5) (continued on page 140) 136 FEBRUARY 2008 \

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Supersaturation Super saturation (continued from page 136)

Model: Dan Decker

On the heavy day you reduce the poundage on each set of curls and decline extensions so you get the neuromuscular stimulation of a reverse pyramid and tap into as many high-threshold muscle fibers as possible (depleting glycogen stores quickly as well). On light day you do higher reps but not to failure—remember to slow down your reps and feel the muscle working. Lighten the poundage enough that you can get more than 10 reps per set doing it that way. On the second exercises, concentration curls and pushdowns, you keep your reps slow and do go to failure. Use one drop set—do eight reps to exhaustion, reduce the weight and immediately do about five reps to exhaustion. That creates an extreme pumping effect and forces glycogen into the muscles without depleting it (heavy day is for depletion and damage). You enhance recovery and glycogen deposition, which will result in an eye-popping, full-muscle look. If you’re familiar with 3D Positions of Flexion, you may have noticed that barbell curls and lying extensions are midrange exercises for biceps and triceps, respectively. On heavy day you follow with incline curls for bi’s and overhead extensions for tri’s, stretch-position exercises; on light day you follow with concentration curls for bi’s and pushdowns for tri’s, contractedposition exercises that will pump the muscle and create occlusion, a blockage of blood flow that’s a big player in building muscle size via capillary expansion and mitochondria development. In other words, you’re training the biceps’ and triceps’ full arcs of flexion, a.k.a. 3D POF—midrange, stretch and contracted—over two workouts. That helps you attack all facets of muscle growth, from max force to stretch overload to continuous tension and occlusion. For the uninitiated, here are overviews of each position, using biceps as the example:

Another reason light workouts do good things for muscle size is tension time. Studies show that extending the time under tension can expand bodyparts.

• Midrange position: Barbell curls work the biceps with the upper arms slightly out in front of the torso. You also get synergy, or muscle teamwork, from the front delts. Synergy is a hallmark of

most midrange-position exercises because they are the big, compound mass movements. • Stretch position: Incline curls put your biceps in a com-

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You generate the most force with the big, compound exercises, so you do them at every workout; however, you do vary the rep range.

• Contracted position: Concentration curls train your biceps with your upper arms up and out close to your head. In that position your biceps can fully contract with a cramping flex on every rep. You also get continuous tension and occlusion, as described—blood will rush in at the end of your sets for an incredible

flush! The descriptions of the three positions show why training a muscle at those three points is vitally important for maximizing muscle growth while doing very few sets. Does it work? Jonathan got his arms up over 19 inches using 3D POF, about five sets each for biceps and triceps at each arm workout. Many experts say that shouldn’t be possible because Jonathan’s wrists only measure seven inches. Supposedly, a bone structure that slight shouldn’t

Model: Skip La Cour

plete stretch when your arms are straight, hanging down behind your torso. Stretch overload has been linked to everything from fiber splitting to anabolic receptor proliferation in muscle tissue. (One animal-based study saw a 300 percent mass increase after only one month of progressivestretch overload. We talk more about that in the last chapter of our e-book X-traordinary MuscleBuilding Workouts.)

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Model: Lee Apperson

Supersaturation Super saturation be able to support 19-plusinch arms. Hmm. So, if you’re after as much muscle as possible with efficient, precise workouts, 3D POF should be a part of your plan. Use it in conjunction with the heavy/light system, and you will supersaturate your muscles from every angle, getting them bigger and more engorged than ever before—with very few sets. Note: A more basic H/L program appears on page 144. It’s a variation of phase 1 of the 10-Week Size Surge program Jonathan used to gain 20 pounds of muscle in 2 1/2 months. Editor’s note: For two complete printable heavy/ light programs, see the ebook X-traordinary Muscle-Building Workouts, available at X-Workouts .com. It also includes many more complete mass-building programs based on the heavy/light concept, including Volume/Intensity Fusion and Traumatic/Nontraumatic (T/NT). IM

Supersaturation Super saturation Heavy/Light 101 Program (Based on the 10-Week Size Surge Phase 1 Program) Monday


Squats* (H)

2 x 5, 9

Leg extensions (H; drop) 1 x 8(5) Semi-stiff-legged deadlifts* (L**)

1 x 10-15

Leg curls* (L; drop)

1 x 8(5)

Bench presses* (H)

2 x 5, 9

Flat-bench flyes (H; drop)

1 x 8(5)

Incline dumbbell presses (H)

2 x 5, 9

Deadlifts* Standing calf raises (L**)

Friday 2 x 7-9 2 x 15-20

2 x 8, 15

Lying triceps extensions* (H)

2 x 5, 9

Flat-bench flyes (L, drop)

Pushdowns or kickbacks (H; drop)

1 x 8(5)

Incline dumbbell presses (L**)

1 x 12-18 1 x 9-12

Bent-over rows* (L**)

2 x 10-15

Incline kneeups (H)

2 x 8, 12

Leg press or donkey calf raises (H)

Seated calf raises* (H/L**)

1 x 8(5)

Hammer curls

1 x 8(5)

1 x 8(5)

Concentration curls (H; drop)

2 x 10-15

Dumbbell upright rows (H; drop)

Leg curls (H; drop)

2 x 5, 9

Chins or pulldowns* (L**)

2 x 5, 9

2 x 10-15

Leg extensions (L, drop) 1 x 8(5)

Barbell curls* (H)

Wrist curls

Dumbbell presses* (H)

Squats* (L**)

Ab Bench crunch pulls or full-range crunches (H; drop) 1 x 12(8)

Bench presses* (L**)

2 x 10-15 1 x 8(5) 2 x 10-15

Chins or pulldowns* (H) 2 x 5, 9 Bent-over rows* (H) Dumbbell presses* (L**) Dumbbell upright rows (L, drop)

2 x 5, 9 2 x 10-15 1 x 8(5)

2 x 9, 12

*Do one to two light warmup sets with about 50 percent of your work weight on the first and 80 percent on the second prior to your two work sets. **Subfailure sets—stop one or two reps short of positive failure.

Heavy/Light 101 Program: This is a variation of the first five weeks of the Size Surge program Jonathan used to pack on 20 pounds of muscle in 10 weeks (see his before and after photos at right). One of the get-big keys here is that every workout begins with a big anabolicacceleration exercise, either squats or deadlifts. Plus, you get a recovery day after every workout, two after the Friday workout. Notice that you only train arms directly once a week, on Wednesday, and all sets are heavy. That’s because biceps, triceps and forearms get a lot of indirect work on Monday and Friday, when you train chest, back and Jonathan’s before and after photos. He gained 20 triceps. Abs also get lots of indirect work on those other pounds of muscle in 10 weeks, and the first five two training days, so you only train them directly on weeks was a variation of the above workout. Wednesday as well—with heavy work. Push all exercises to positive failure, except where indicated with a (L**). Stop those sets one to two reps short of failure, as they are higher-rep pump-and-recovery sets intended to help flush the target muscle with nutrients for supersaturation of glycogen to enhance fullness. This program will work well for almost anyone, but it’s especially good for over-40 bodybuilders who have some training experience, as the heavy/light concept gives you more recovery time and less joint stress than you get while going all out all the time. Editor’s note: The second phase of Jonathan’s Size Surge program was an every-other-day 3D Postions-ofFlexion program. For his complete 10-week Size Surge program as well as other 3D Positions-of-Flexion discussions and workouts, see the e-book 3D Muscle Building, available at

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Heavy Duty Q&A

The Wisdom of Mike Mentzer by John Little


: In looking into the various approaches bodybuilders take in trying to build more muscle, the one constant seems to be variety. They try one training approach for a while and then another. That doesn’t look like a bad thing, as some of the champions that I read about seem to have built quite a bit of muscle that way. It seems as though all approaches work at a given point in a trainee’s career. What were Mike’s thoughts on that?


: While Mike viewed questioning all endeavors as desir-

able—no one ever learns all there is to know about any subject—he nevertheless found that most bodybuilders who flit like birds from one routine to the next do so for one reason: Their current routine doesn’t yield appreciable results. As Mike once said: “I’ve found in the vast majority of cases the almost hysterical pursuit of information by bodybuilders stems from a profound uncertainty regarding the direction of their training. Many bodybuilders seem to regard the nature of muscle growth as a mystery, and if they just keep trying different routines, they’ll eventually happen upon one that works.” Apart from the genetic factor, which I discussed last time in some detail, the “quite a bit of muscle” that the champions display is also the result of using growth drugs. That’s an important point if you’re a natural trainee. It’s also important if you’re attempting to keep the number of variables down to a minimum in assessing the potency of a training protocol. The stimulus of muscle growth, however, can’t be that diverse. Otherwise one subset of the population would need progressive overload to stimulate muscle growth—one of the fundamental principles of exercise physiology— and another subset could achieve

growth simply by washing dishes. Now, you’ll never see dishwashing as a stimulus for building a 20-inch arm, but you will see progressive overload. That tells you that not “everything” works—irrespective of the “point in a trainee’s career.” Mike explained why more than two decades ago: “There’s no mystery about the nature of muscle growth. The cause and effect have been known for years. The biochemical changes within the body that result in muscle growth are essentially the same in all human beings on the face of the earth. If the laws of physiology weren’t immutable, if they were subject to constant change, the science of medicine couldn’t exist. The fact that the data derived from research conducted on a few specific individuals can be applied to the entire human population makes modern medicine a viable discipline. It follows logically, then, that the stimulus required to induce the biochemical changes that result in additional muscle growth is also universal. What is that stimulus? High-intensity muscular effort.” Physical exercise is the only stimulus that can effect progressive alterations in the body’s capacities and composition. That’s why progressive overload wins out over dishwashing (continued on page 155) \ FEBRUARY 2008 151

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Heavy Duty

Neveux \ Model: Jonathan Lawson

“In addition to the demand having to be of a specific nature, it must also be stressful enough to induce largescale and rapid rates of improvement.�

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“The closer we come to performing at a level where we cause a muscle to contract up to 100 percent, the greater the possibility of inducing a size and strength increase.”

(continued from page 151) every time.

There are many types of physical exercise, however, so what you want is the type mostly likely to produce an increase in muscle mass.

Specificity of Exercise Exercise physiologists have known for decades that specific demands imposed on the body result in specific neurophysiological adjustments. The word used to describe this well-authenticated scientific fact is specificity. According to Mike: “In addition to the demand having to be of a specific nature, it must also be stressful enough to induce large-scale and rapid rates of improvement. As a rule of thumb, the level of stress must exceed 50 percent of the individual’s existing capacity. The more the stress exceeds the 50 percent level, the greater the rate of improvement. Therefore, if you wish to achieve the greatest and most rapid improvement that your genetically predetermined capacity will allow, you must exercise at the 100 percent level of your existing functional capacity.” Experts have noted that somewhere within the overall physical system is the mechanism that regulates muscle growth. Some researchers, such as Dr. Doug McGuff, have

suggested that the element is the gene HGF-8, which regulates the production of the protein myostatin. Once an individual matures to a point of normal or average adult muscular size and strength, the sensory part of the mechanism signals the growth-stimulating portion to stop, as you don’t need more growth for everyday living. As long as our muscular activity remains within “normal” limits, our muscular size and strength levels will remain essentially unchanged, along with our percentage of reserve ability. In order to trigger another growth cycle—growth that transcends normal adult levels of size and strength—activity must be increased beyond normal. Let’s hear from Mike again on that important point: “Remember that to induce specific physiological changes—additional muscle growth in this case—specific demands must be imposed. The specific demand required to effect the fastest possible increases in muscular size and strength is directly related to the intensity of muscular contraction. The closer we come to performing at a level where we cause a muscle to contract up to 100 percent, the greater the possibility of inducing a size and strength increase.”

Right and Wrong Types of Stress The lack of success many bodybuilders experience confuses them and leads them to a type of training that improves their cardiovascular endurance rather than builds muscle. It has largely to do with activities that extend beyond 60 to 70 seconds and thus tax the aerobic pathways at a level equal to their anaerobic pathways, which results in a compromise of the stimulus; that is, a certain portion is directed toward size and strength increase, and the other portion is directed toward endurance. As McGuff and others have pointed out, performing exercises at a high anaerobic threshold will actually produce significant aerobic benefits. Performing exercises at a largely aerobic pace will do very little to stimulate muscle size and strength. Those who train often and for long periods—as with the six-days-a-week, two-hourper-day routine—are imposing the wrong type of stress on their bodies if muscle growth is what they want. As Mike pointed out: “The fact that they’re training for long periods precludes even the possibility of high-intensity muscular contraction. If you were to graph momentary intensity, you’d note (continued on page 158) an inverse \ FEBRUARY 2008 155

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Heavy Duty

(continued from page 155) relation-

ship between intensity and time. For every increase in momentary intensity of muscular effort, there is and must be a corresponding decrease in the amount of time in which you can engage in an activity at a particular level of intensity. What that means in practical terms for bodybuilders is that in order to train at the intensity level required to induce rapid increase in muscle growth, you can’t train for long periods. Sure, anyone can train at high intensity for short periods and then drastically reduce the intensity and continue training at a lower plane—and many do. The problem is that low intensity of effort doesn’t induce muscle growth but does place a drain on our precious energy reserves, which must always be replenished for growth to take place. Consequently, such an approach leads to a slowdown of progress. In cases of gross overtraining at low intensity, an actual regression of capacity occurs.” If your reason for training is to

bring about the largest and most rapid increases in size and strength possible for your genetic potential, then you must train so that the highest possible percentage of muscle mass is involved. How do you do that? Following is what Mike Mentzer recommended to ensure thorough muscle stimulation: “All exercises should start from a prestretched position. A definite requirement for a muscle to contract maximally is that it start in a fully extended position where the muscle actually involved is being mildly stretched. The prestretching sets up the myotatic reflex, a neurological stimulus that enables maximum contraction. “The performance of all of your exercises must be conducted at a relatively slow rate of speed. Exercises that are initiated with a sudden jerk or thrust and then continued to the contracted position rapidly involve very little muscle mass in the completion of the movement. Once the speed exceeds a certain rate, the muscle slacks, and momentum

takes over. Start all of your exercises deliberately, with no sudden thrust, and continue to the contracted position in a likewise slow and deliberate fashion. That practice will save you a lot of wear and tear on your connective tissues as well as increase the amount of muscle involved in your routines. “The range of movement of your exercise should be as great as possible. Since our muscles contract by producing movement, they must have the fullest possible range of movement if they are to contract fully. When I speak of full-range movement, I am referring to movement that causes muscle to work against a resistance from a position of full extension to full contraction.” Not only that, but the resistance imposed on the muscle must be sufficient to require it to contract maximally. The all-or-nothing principle of muscular function states that individual muscle fibers are incapable of performing varying degrees of work. They’re working either as hard as pos- (continued on page 162)

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“All exercises should start from a prestretched position. A definite requirement for a muscle to contract maximally is that it start in a fully extended position where the muscle actually involved is being mildly stretched.”

Neveux \ Model: Luke Wood

“The range of movement of your exercise should be as great as possible.”

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Heavy Duty (continued from page 158) sible or not

“A little thought and improvisation will lead you to exercises that provide resistance in the fully contracted position.” Balik

at all. Performing a light movement doesn’t require the slight involvement of the entire muscle. Only the exact number of fibers needed to perform that movement will be involved, but they’ll be contracting to the limit of their momentary ability. As Mike put it: “To involve the entire bulk of a muscle in a movement, you have to impose a load that requires all of the fibers of that muscle to contract. Since a muscle must be in its shortest (or fully contracted) position to involve all of its fibers in a contraction, sufficient resistance must be provided in the contracted position.

Neveux \ Model: Mike Semenoff

“On many conventional exercises there’s no resistance at all in the contracted position, which makes it impossible to induce maximum growth stimulation.”

On many conventional exercises, like the barbell curl, there’s no resistance at all in the contracted position, which makes it impossible to induce maximum growth stimulation. A little thought and improvisation will lead you to exercises that provide resistance in the fully contracted position.” I hope pointing out these four techniques has removed some of the mystery from your training. When you learn all of the requirements, including monitoring volume and frequency of your workouts and how to best apply your knowledge, you’ll be able to guide your own training efforts without having to solicit “opinions” from others or change your training in the mistaken notion that it needs to be constantly different. Editor’s note: For a complete presentation of Mike Mentzer’s Heavy Duty training system, consult his books Heavy Duty II, High Intensity Training the Mike Mentzer Way and the newest book, The Wisdom of Mike Mentzer, all of which are available from Mentzer’s official Web site, www.Mike John Little is available for phone consultation on Mike Mentzer’s Heavy Duty training system. For rates and information, contact Joanne Sharkey at (310) 316-4519 or at, or see the ad on the opposite page. Article copyright © 2008, John Little. All rights reserved. Mike Mentzer quotations provided courtesy of Joanne Sharkey and are used with permission. IM

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Comes Into His Own as a Pro at Age 43 by Kris Gethin Photos Courtesy of Rusty Jeffers


ew York, 1964, marked the birth of an artist who would never miss an opportunity to learn, create, mold and display his work. Even in his teen years you could see his potential for bodybuilding. Today, in his 40s and a resident of Phoenix, Rusty Jeffers is wellknown because he obliterated the other contenders at the ’04 Masters Nationals. He had passed the boundaries of the amateur ranks, and it was time to showcase his masterpiece on a professional stage. He’s beginning to move up the ladder and seems to be getting better with age. How is he doing it? What’s his strategy? Let’s find out. KG: Does bodybuilding competition inspire you, or does working out in the gym feed your motivation? RJ: When I was a teenager, I was into wrestling and football,

but I actually liked training for the sports better than participating. Now my motivation is to get a better photograph. If I see photographs of myself after a competition and they look better than the last, I know I’m training in the right direction. KG: When you pose, the audience is warped back to a time of legendary posers like Robby Robinson, Frank Zane and Ed Corney. Is that the era of bodybuilding you admire most? RJ: Yes. Back then there was a lot of skill behind the posing. I remember back in 1980 or so they would kick you out if you started dancing onstage. Everybody just posed and put a lot of time and effort into it because it was a way of exhibiting their art. It’s graceful and pleasing. Today, there’s more leeway on the dancing moves. KG: Do you think there is a place for the type of physique we saw in the ’70s on today’s stage? RJ: Everything should get better over time, so it’s hard to reverse the

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Rusty Jeffers

Rusty’s Arm Routine Fast Facts

Rusty Jeffers’ Training Split

Age: 40 Height: 5’9” Weight: 245-260 off-season; 230 contest

Monday: Legs

I do all my arm work using supersets. I start with barbell curls supersetted with triceps pushdowns, as follows: 60 pounds x 12 reps on each exercise (warmup)

Tuesday: Arms

Current residence: Phoenix, Arizona

Wednesday: Glutes, hamstrings


80 pounds x 12 reps on each exercise 100 pounds x 12 reps on each exercise

Friday: Chest, biceps

Meal 1: Egg whites and cantaloupe plus two Tetrazene ES50 fat burners for energy boost

Saturday: Shoulders, triceps


Sunday: Rest

Meal 2: Postworkout shake— protein, carbohydrates, BCAAs, glutamine and creatine

120 pounds on barbell curls and 140 on pushdowns x 12 reps each

Thursday: Back

Note: He typically trains abs and calves every training day.

Meal 3: Chicken breast, riceand vegetables


evolutionary wheel. The standard now is to have striated glutes and shredded hamstrings; that’s what it takes to even place in top pro events because everybody’s become so obsessed with condition. I don’t think we can go back and accept a less impressive physique. Don’t get me wrong—I preferred the old-time physiques because the emphasis was placed more on shape. KG: Are you willing to go the more-is-better route with the risk of distorting your shape if it will move your placings higher in future shows? RJ: I’m always trying to get bigger, if that’s what you’re asking, but there is a point where big can become too big. I don’t see myself reaching that in the near future, but if I could show up onstage 10 pounds heavier than my last show and just as shredded, I’d be happy. KG: Are you currently taking new steps to come in bigger for your next show? RJ: I’ve learned more about nutrition, which I believe is helping. In regard to training, over the years I’ve obviously developed lots of strength, and as I become stronger, I’m getting more size. It doesn’t mean I’m necessarily lifting more weight, because I think that strength can be measured in many different ways. For example, time-under-tension strength is something that I practice. If I’m holding a weight statically and my time under tension has

Meal 4: The two Ts—tuna and tomato Meal 5: Protein drink Meal 6: Steak, potato, salad

—K.G. increased from one minute to four, then obviously my strength is increasing and my muscle adapts by increasing its size. KG: Are there any nutrition, training and supplementation principles from the ’80s that you follow and that you find are disregarded by athletes today? RJ: Back then everything was regarded more as a religion; it was just something you had to do, and you did it every day without a second thought. Today it seems that the bodybuilding philosophy is geared more toward science because there’s been much more research. I try to mix the best of both worlds to come up with the best formula available to me. KG: It seems that many of the classical poses are disregarded on today’s bodybuilding stage. Do you believe bodybuilders have become lazy when it comes to their presentation? RJ: Yes, and understandably so. So much rides on condition now that the presentation seems to fall by the wayside. The IFFB sent out a voting petition so we could vote on whether the posing round should count. I don’t know whatever came

135 pounds on barbell curls and 160 on pushdowns x 12 reps each Next, I like to do incline kettlebell curls—or you can use dumbbells—supersetted with close-grip pushups, three rounds. I use 40-pound kettlebells for 12 reps with perfect form, then immediately go to close-grip pushups, performed very slowly for about 15 reps. Last, I do two rounds of preacher curls supersetted with a 21-rep triceps move—decline extensions followed by tight-range pullovers followed by close-grip bench presses. You should be dying after this—if you can even raise your arms, you didn’t do it right. Warning: Don’t drive right after this workout! —Rusty Jeffers

of that, but it doesn’t seem that the posing round counts toward our overall score anymore. I do understand that it’s a physique competition and whoever is in the best shape should win; however, I would like to see more points awarded for the posing round. A lot of the other athletes probably wouldn’t like that, though. I was talking to Dave Fisher [another over-40 pro], and he thinks the posing round shouldn’t have anything to do with the athlete’s outcome at all. So it comes down to individual opinion. Some people want to see Melvin Anthony doing

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Rusty Jeffers “I like to mix up my training. For a period of time I follow a typical Dorian Yates-style workout—very heavy and intense. Following that phase I mimic Arnold’s type of training for a while. Both seem to work great for me.”

the splits and a body wave; others want to see dramatic, static posing. KG: I posted pictures of you on a Web site two days prior to this year’s IRON MAN Pro. The majority of responses said that they’d love to see your shape and symmetry get rewarded with a top-five placing and thus qualify you for the Mr. Olympia. Why didn’t it happen? RJ: Some of the other guys were a little harder. I don’t know if the big money in the sport has anything to do with who’s placing where, but it seems that most of the guys with the big-money sponsorship deals place higher. Hopefully, I will get a sponsorship from one of the larger companies, which would definitely help my exposure and career. KG: Is there anything unorthodox about your training, or would you regard it as standard issue? RJ: I don’t think anything’s unorthodox anymore, considering all of the extreme ways of training that have been introduced. Everybody

should try various ways of training and through trial and error find out exactly what works for them. So many people respond differently because we are different. I like to mix up my training. For a period of time I follow a typical Dorian Yates-style workout—very heavy and intense. Following that phase I mimic Arnold’s type of training for a while. Both seem to work great for me. KG: You’ve really grown into your physique over the past few years, and you didn’t turn pro until the age of 40. Why do you think you are making better gains now? RJ: I think it’s due to finally figuring out the formula for my body. I’ve made a lot of mistakes over the years, but I’ve ironed out many of those creases in the more recent

part of my career. Overtraining was one of my bigger downfalls. KG: Do you recommend cardio to a bodybuilder during the off-season? RJ: From a competitive standpoint, it all depends on the individual. If you tend to be on the heavier side during the off-season, then I recommend it. It helps with increased recovery between sets so

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“The standard now is to have striated glutes and shredded hamstrings; that’s what it takes to even place in top pro events because everybody’s become so obsessed with condition. I don’t think we can go back and accept a less impressive physique.” you can train harder. From a health standpoint, some cardio is necessary across the board because we should all be taking care of our heart health to extend our longevity. If you want to be pushing up daisies 10 years from now, maybe it shouldn’t be a concern, but what you do today will determine what you’ll be doing tomorrow. I like to do 30 minutes three times a week in the off-season. When I’m

in precontest mode I do 30 minutes twice a day. KG: High-fat, low-carbohydrate diets are becoming increasingly popular among bodybuilders. Have you tried it, and did it work for you? RJ: I’ve tried it, and I can make it work for me, but I prefer the highercarbohydrate, lowfat route because I tend to feel better and recuperate faster from my workouts.

KG: Do you believe that having a training partner is an advantage? RJ: Yes. My wife has been my training partner for years. Sometimes you just need someone there, not necessarily to assist you with the exercise but to give you extra confidence to complete the reps required on an exercise. Just knowing that my wife is there when I’m pushing out a 1,000-pound (continued on page 175) \ FEBRUARY 2008 171

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Rusty Jeffers

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“I prefer the highercarbohydrate, lowfat route because I tend to feel better and recuperate faster from my workouts.” leg press makes it easier because I don’t have to break my concentration worrying about getting stuck under that weight. KG: Does your training change when you’re preparing for a show? RJ: Yes, my intensity increases.

(continued from page 171)

I think when you have a goal, you tend to train a little harder. It’s human instinct. KG: What is your most memorable competition? RJ: It was the first competition I won, which was the ’80 Teenage Mr. Arizona. I trained so hard for that competition because I’d competed

in two contests prior to that and I didn’t even place. I had something to prove to myself, and on that day I did it. KG: Who was your main source of inspiration back in those days? RJ: If you’re from Arizona, the name Carlos Rodriguez might ring a bell. He had a gym called the Tucson Health Studio, and he used to run the Mr. Tucson and the AAU Mr. Arizona. His gym was an old train warehouse, and it was filled with ancient weights and lots of bizarre things. There would be rings hanging from the ceiling so we could put our feet up on a bench to do flyes with them. KG: Who inspires you now? RJ: Ahmad Haider inspires me. He has a very nice, balanced physique, and he’s a good-looking guy to boot. To me that’s bodybuilding. IM \ FEBRUARY 2008 175

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Tonic in a Teapot The Health-Fixer Elixir Helps Burn Fat and Build Muscle Too

Neveux \ Model: Alex Azarian

by Jerry Brainum

The story goes that the Emperor Shen Nong was boiling a pot of water in 2737 B.C., when a gust of wind blew a tea leaf into the water. The emperor was pleased with both the taste and effects of the new beverage. He declared that “tea can provide vigor of body, contentment of mind and determination of purpose.” Chen Zang, a famous pharmacist of the Tang Dynasty noted, “Every medicine is the only medicine for a specific disease, but tea is the medicine for all diseases.” Another pharmacist, Want Ang, proved himself prescient when he said that drinking tea for a long time can eliminate fat. (continued on page 184) \ FEBRUARY 2008 181

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Tonic in a Teapot Today tea is the second most popular beverage in the world, trailing only water. The three main types of tea are black, green and oolong. All are derived from the plant Camellia sinensis, specifically its leaves. The main differences between the teas lies in the degree of fermentation, with black tea being the most fermented and green tea the least. Green tea is produced

from steaming fresh leaves at high process, has the lowest catechin temperatures, which inactivates content, though it has some unique oxidizing enzymes but leaves intact ingredients that also impart health the polyphenol antioxidants that are benefits, as we’ll see. its primary active ingredients. Though tea is primarily categoBlack tea accounts for 78 perrized as an antioxidant, its effects cent of worldwide tea consumpextend well beyond that, with a vertion, green tea for 20 percent and satility that few other supplements oolong less than 2 percent. Green or foods can match. Green tea offers and oolong teas are drunk mainly in cardiovascular protection, cancer Asia, while black tea is more popupreventive effects, brain protection lar in Europe and the United States. and fat-loss properties. How? Read Oolong is considered an intermedion. ate between black and green tea, in that it’s partially fermented. Another variety, white tea, contains both leaves and tea buds, which impart a pale color. The polyphenols in tea are known chemically as flavonols or catechins, the latter of which make up 30 to 40 percent of the dry weight of green tea. The major and most active catechin in green tea is epigallocatechin gallate, or EGCG, 65 percent of total catechin content. A cup of green tea contains 100 to 200 milligrams of EGCG.1 Other catechins found in green tea are also in chocolate, black grapes, red wine and apples. Black tea, beGreen tea offers cardiovascular cause of the greater fermentation protection, cancer preventive effects, brain protection and fat-loss promotion.

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Tonic in a Teapot Regular tea consumption can get you healthier and leaner. It’s not just milk that does a body good.

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Tea Metabolism There’s some controversy about the extent to which the human body can absorb flavonols. While in vitro, or test-tube, studies show a number of beneficial effects, they don’t seem to occur in the body. Catechin uptake is very limited—0.2 to 2 percent of the amount taken in. The maximum absorption in the blood

Neveux \ Model: Lee Apperson

is reached 1.4 to 2.4 hours following intake, with EGCG lasting the longest, an average of five hours.2 The kind of food that you wash

down with tea affects polyphenol absorption. Tea polyphenols have an affinity for an amino acid called proline, which is contained in casein. In some countries, such as England, milk is commonly added to tea. In the case of black tea, this doesn’t make much difference, since black tea is relatively low in active polyphenols. Some studies show that the casein in milk can completely negate the activity of the polyphenols by binding to them. Other studies show that this doesn’t occur.3 Green tea polyphenols form strong complexes with iron, which some studies show blunts their activity. One study found that eating meat, which is rich in iron, along with casein decreased green

tea’s antioxidant activity.4 The same study demonstrated that, at least in test tubes, vitamin C enhanced the tea’s antioxidant properties. Another study, however, which used 30 human female subjects who had low iron (continued on page 192)

Researchers found that giving mice the human equivalent of six cups of green tea per day inhibited the development and spread of prostate cancer. \ FEBRUARY 2008 187

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Tonic in a Teapot

(continued from page 187) stores, revealed that tea did not affect the absorption of non-heme iron, a type of iron found in plant and animal foods.5 Still, tea’s binding effect on iron applies only to non-heme iron and would not work with heme iron, the type of iron found in red meat. In any event, taking vitamin C,

cancers of the prostate, breast, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, colon, lung, skin, liver, bladder and ovaries. According to scientists who study the mechanisms of cancer, the ideal qualities of a cancer-preventive substance should include the following:7

Tea Against Cancer A number of studies show that tea polyphenols help inhibit tumor formation and growth. The diseases affected are leukemia, as well as

• Known mechanism • Human acceptance • Little

Neveux \ Model: Tiffany Richardson

A Japanese study showed an inverse relationship between breast cancer and tea intake after seven years.

which boosts iron uptake, can help overcome any absorption impairment. In regard to other minerals, tea polyphenols interfere with the uptake of sodium and aluminum—a good thing—but not of manganese, calcium or magnesium.6

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Neveux \ Model: Derik Farnsworth

The study suggests that green tea may prevent the impact of testosterone on prostate cancer.

or no toxicity • High effectiveness • Can be taken orally • Low cost • Stable active form • Proven effective in the laboratory All of those factors apply to tea, yet proof of its strength against cancer is not definitive for a number of reasons. The amount of tea that protects animals from cancer is far more than most humans drink. Some studies estimate that the minimum you need is 10 cups a day. The mechanisms through which tea blocks tumors in animals may not be applicable to humans. Many known carcinogens in animals don’t affect humans, and vice versa. Even so, tea is a plausible anticancer agent. It interferes with the pathways that tumors exploit to grow. Tea polyphenols can block cell proliferation, a hallmark of cancer, \ FEBRUARY 2008 193

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Tonic in a Teapot and may also help active cancer cells self-destruct.8 A study involving mice, which develop prostate cancer more or less the way humans do, found that giving them a dose of polyphenols equilvalent to six cups of green tea inhibited the development and spread of prostate cancer.9 The levels of insulinlike growth factor-1 and

2 and 9. Tumors spread in the body via angiogenesis, the name given to the formation of new blood vessels. To grow, tumors require a rich blood supply, and if something interferes with the growth of new blood vessels, the tumor will shrink and die. That’s a major focus of cancer research, and many scientists are investigating experimental drugs that may inhibit it—important because 90 percent of all cancers are curable before they begin to spread. A study reported in the journal Nature in 1999 by researchers from the Karolinska Instutute in Stockholm, Sweden, focused on one

Tea polyphenols can block cell proliferation, a hallmark of cancer, and may also help active cancer cells self-destruct.

Smoking is the greatest risk factor for lung cancer. One experiment found that drinking two cups of black tea a day reduced the incidence of lung cancer by 66 percent in 855 males.

insulinlike growth factor-binding protein-3 were inhibited by 70 to 83 percent. That’s significant because IGF-1 stimulates tumor proliferation by way of cell proliferation. The study also showed that green tea inhibited other markers of tumor spread: vascular endothelial growth factor, urokinase plasminogen activator and matrix metalloproteinase

group of four mice that got tea as their sole source of fluid and another four mice that got plain water only. The authors used gene therapy to stimulate the abnormal growth of blood vessels in the eyes of the rodents. The ones that drank only the green tea had 35 to 70 percent less blood vessel growth than the water-drinking mice.

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Tonic in a Teapot

Overcooking meat is linked to colon cancer because welldone meat contains carcinogens called heterocyclic mutagens.

One reason that testosterone is thought to stimulate prostate cancer is that it increases the activity of ornithine decarboxylase, an enzyme in the prostate gland. ODC is known to be overabundant in prostate tumors. In one study mice were treated with testosterone and then given ODC in their drinking water, which led to a significant increase in ODC activity in the mice.10 Then the mice were given green tea, and ODC activity decreased by 40 percent. The study suggests that green tea may eliminate the impact of testosterone on prostate cancer. Although studies in the United States show no relationship between the intake of tea and breast cancer, a Japanese study turned up an inverse relationship between breast cancer and tea intake after seven years. That may be due to green tea’s interference with estrogen metabolism, which is known to stimulate breast cancer. It’s noteworthy for bodybuilders who are concerned about estrogen. An alarming report a few

years ago linked esophageal cancer to tea drinking. An analysis of 28 human studies of green tea and cancer reported a link between decreased cancer rates and green tea intake in 17 of the studies. Seven showed a higher rate of cancer among green tea drinkers, while another five linked esophageal cancer to drinking particularly hot tea. Scalding tea is known to damage cells in the esophagus, which could lead to cancer. The solution is simple: Don’t drink tea so hot that it burns your throat. Smoking is the greatest risk factor for lung cancer. One experiment found that drinking two cups of black tea a day reduced the incidence of lung cancer by 66 percent in 855 male smokers in Uruguay. Another study discovered that regular intake of green tea may offer some antioxidant protection against the carcinogens in tobacco smoke by preventing the DNA damage that sets in motion the development of precancerous cell mutations.11 Green tea boosted the self-destruction of cancer cells and prevented the miscoding of DNA through gene regulation, and it activated the liver enzymes that can spur the breakdown and excretion of tobaccosmoke carcinogens. Purdue University researchers suggest that green tea may block cancer by interacting with quinol oxidase, or NOX, an enzyme found on the surface of cancer cells that the cells use to grow and spread. Normal cells also use NOX for growth phases, when it’s stimulated by growth hormone. Cancer cells can produce the enzyme without the hormone, and drugs that block the enzyme inhibit tumor growth. Studies of cell cultures found that while black tea inhibited the activity of the enzyme, green tea was 10 to 100 times more potent. The Purdue researchers found that drinking four or more cups a day was enough to diffuse the cancer-causing effects of NOX without adversely affecting normal cell growth. Spanish and British researchers came up with another theory of how green tea inhibits cancer. They found that EGCG binds to dihydrofolate reductase, an enzyme (continued on page 204) that helps

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Neveux \ Model: Alex Azarian

Tonic in a Teapot

produce DNA by activating folic acid in cells. The chemo drug methotrexate also binds to and inhibits DHFR, but ECGC has less chance of damaging healthy cells in the process. Still, since DHFR is also required to convert folic acid into its active form in the body, this raises the question of whether green tea may interfere with folic acid uptake and, paradoxically, encourage cancer. A recent test-tube study found that EGCG can indeed interfere with the uptake of folic acid in the intestine

(continued from page 196)

by interfering with DHFR.12 Overcooking meat is linked to colon cancer because well-done meat contains carcinogens called heterocyclic mutagens. One rat study found that drinking black and green teas inhibited the formation of those carcinogens in cooked meat and fish. A 5 percent brew of green tea decreased the carcinogen activity by more than 90 percent, chiefly because the tea stimulated the detoxification properties of liver enzymes.13 The effect of green tea on cancer

is best summed up by a recent review: “Our conclusion is that daily large consumption of green tea, specifically 10 cups and over a day, will add a little lifetime to those who already lived the average life span of about 80 years, but it will help to prolong the lifetime of those aged below the average life span by avoiding premature death, specifically that caused by cancer.”14 Next time we’ll cover tea’s cardiovascular- and skin-strengthening effects, as well as how it can reduce

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1 Zaveri, N. (2005). Green tea and its polyphenolic catechins: Medicinal uses in cancer and noncancer applications. Life Sci. 78(18):2073-80. 2 Yang, C.S., et al. (1999). Inhibition of carcinogenesis

Photo:B. Miller


Neveu \ Model: Tiffany Richardson

bodyfat and improve brain function.

Green tea offers cardiovascular protection, cancer preventive effects, brain protection and fat-loss properties.

by tea: Bioavailability of tea polyphenols and mechanisms of actions. Proc Exper Biol Med. 220:213-217. 3 Leenen, R., et al. (2000). A single dose of tea with or witout milk increases plasma antioxidant activity in humans. Eur J Clin Nutr. 54:87-92. 4 Alexandropoulou, I., et al. (2006). Effects of iron, ascorbate, meat and casein on the antioxidant capacity of green tea under conditions of in vitro digestion. Food Chem. 94:359-65. 5 Ullman, U., et al. (2005). Epigallocatechin gallate (ECGC) does not impair non-heme iron absorption in man. Phytomedicine. 12:410-15. 6 Bravo, L. (1998). Polyphenols: Chemistry, dietary sources, metabolism, and nutritional significance. Nutr Rev. 56:317-35. 7 Mukhtar, H., et al. (1999). Mechanism of cancer chemopreventive activity of green tea. Pr Exp Biol

Med. 220:234-238. 8 Yang, C.S., et al. (2000). Tea and tea polyphenols in cancer prevention. J Nutr. 130:472S-478S. 9 Vaqar, M.A., et al. (2004). Oral consumption of green tea polyphenols inhibits insulinlike growth factor-1 induced signaling in an autochthonous mouse model of prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 64:8715-32. 10 Gupta, S., et al. (1999). Prostate cancer chemoprevention by green tea: In vitro and in vivo inhibition of testosterone-mediated induction of ornithine decarboxylase. Cancer Res. 59:2115-20. 11 Llang, W., et al. (2007). Does the consumption of green tea reduce the risk of lung cancer among smokers? ECAM. 4:17-22. 12 Alemdaroglu, N., et al. (2007). Inhibition of folic acid uptake by catechins and tea extracts in caco2 cells. Planta Med. 73:27-32. 13 Dashwood, R.H., et al. (1999). Cancer chemopreventive mechanisms of tea against heterocyclic amine mutagens from cooked meat. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 220:239-43. 14 Nakachi, K., et al. (2003). Can teatime increase one’s lifetime? Aging Res Rev. 2:1-10. IM \ FEBRUARY 2008 205

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Workout Does Training Help Reduce Your Stress or Add to It? by Jerry Brainum Photography by Michael Neveux


hile everyone who lifts weights wants to look better, health benefits are a major accessory to an improvement in body composition. Initially, research showed that doing aerobic exercise had potent preventive effects against cardiovascular disease. More recent studies have proven that lifting weights replicates many of the cardiovascular protections you get from aerobic training. An often overlooked effect of exercise is its role in stress reduction. Whether stress is good or bad news for your health depends on how you perceive stress. What’s stressful to some may be invigorating to others. Still, in today’s fastpaced society, it’s nearly impossible to avoid negative stressors that take a toll on health. Merely listing stress-related diseases would fill a magazine article. Suffice it to say that unchecked stress plays a major role in disease—even longevity.

When scientists look at factors associated with longer life span, stress is always one of them. In the brain, lifetime release of the stress hormone cortisol selectively destroys cells in the areas associated with learning and memory. The memory lapses that gradually increase with age—so-called senior moments— are often linked to recent stressful events. Older people who remain healthy, with full cognition, usually are those who are not overwhelmed by stress, instead taking things as they come. They don’t succumb to stress-related maladies, including cardiovascular disease. Exercise helps because it provides an avenue for stress release. To be sure, exercise itself is a form of stress, but it’s categorized as a “eustress,” or stress that is beneficial, as opposed to negative stress. On the other hand, exercise can easily turn negative if you overtrain, which releases an excess of stress hormones, such as cortisol. Among the functions of cortisol are its ability to break down muscle protein, leading to muscle loss. A less severe symptom is a lack of regular gains in muscle size and strength.

Since training itself is a form of stress, many scientists suggest that it conditions the mind and body to deal with other forms of stress in life, particularly mental stress. Whether training does help in that regard was the question posed by a recent study. Twenty-two trained elite athletes were compared with 22 untrained men after both groups were exposed to psychological tests used to measure mental stress response. The subjects were tested for salivary cortisol levels, heart rate and various psychological responses, such as mood, calmness and anxiety, before and after stress exposure. The trained men showed less cortisol and lower heart rates than the untrained men when both groups were exposed to stress. Under highstress conditions the trained men were calmer and had significantly less anxiety than the untrained men. The authors suggest that trained men view stress as less threatening and more controllable than untrained men do. Animal-basedstudies show that whether stress induces illness depends on how it’s perceived—the keynote being the

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Model: Kiyoshi Moody

Stress Test \ FEBRUARY 2008 211

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Model: Dave Perry

Workout Stress

Regular training leads to less cortisol release during workouts, which explains why beginners have far more cortisol than more-advanced trainees.


Arnold is widely reported to be particularly adept at handling stress in his life.

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If your shoulder and elbow joints are less than perfect or you want to keep them free of stress and injury, you might consider adding the Motion Transfer Cable Attachment (MTCA) to your arsenal of workout accessories. IRON MAN first highlighted this unique piece of patented equipment in our August’ 05 issue (IM Research Team). I get many so-called revolutionary pieces of equipment to try. Nine times out of 10, those of us who train at the IRON MAN Training and Research Center try it for a workout or two, and it quickly moves to the nice-ideabut... box, never to be used again.


Arnold’s ability to deflect stress helped him pack on maximum muscle in his bodybuilding heyday.

and discipline that he developed from his years of competitive bodybuilding. Arnold is widely reported to be particularly adept at handling stress in his life. Exercise produces many of the hormone and biochemical changes that occur with other forms of stress, and its effect is that when you train, you’re conditioning both your mind and your body against the onslaught of stress. So when negative stress does occur, you’re far more prepared to deal with it. You can ride the wave of stress reactions with little or no negative consequences. That, in turn, leads to more self-confidence under high-stress conditions, which leads to less stress, and so on. Regular training also leads to less cortisol release during workouts. It’s a case of conditioning, in which the body adapts to the imposed stress of exercise. It also explains why beginners have far more cortisol than more-advanced trainees—and why certain food supplements, such as HMB, a branched-chain amino acid derivative, work for beginners but not for those who are more advanced. Ditto for protein supplements: They, too, produce better results for beginners precisely because novice trainees produce more cortisol after training, and protein negates the rise in cortisol.

Motion-Transfer Cable Attachment: Avoid the Stress of Injury

The stress hormone cortisol can eat muscle tissue and attack brain cells. Controlling cortisol is key in preventing its debilitating consequences. belief that stress is controllable. If you think that imposed stress can’t be dealt with, it turns deadly. Scientists who study the effects of stress say that regular exercise produces a sense of mastery that becomes dominant in all aspects of life. Indeed, Arnold Schwarzenegger frequently attributes much of his success to the self-confidence

Rimmele, U., et al. (2007). Trained men show lower cortisol, heart rate, and psychological responses to psychosocial stress compared with untrained men. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 32:62735. IM

The MTCA is different. It’s an elegant solution to a problem caused by the fixed-hand position on the usual cable attachment. When you do your pulldowns, cable rows and the like, the solid bar locks your shoulders and elbows into an unnatural, fixed position. The MTCA lets your joints find your unique pulling position so you rotate naturally through the motion. You can use heavier weights in the safest possible way, and that’s a prescription for building maximum muscle. —John Balik Editor’s note: The Motion Transfer Cable Attachment is available at www.Home-Gym .com, or call (800) 447-0008. \ FEBRUARY 2008 213

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40 40 Presents

Training Past


Learn, Think, Power On, and Press On and that, where I once went for that last rep, I must hold back or else possibly suffer another injury that might halt my training for good.

by Dave Draper

Photography by Michael Neveux


f you’ve been training since your teens or 20s and you’re now over 40, you know, of course, you’re hooked. You can’t let go. But then conventional wisdom slaps you in the face and tells you you’re in for a change in your training and expectations.

Be Glad

Conventional Wisdom Being well past my 40s, I’ve discovered that the most intimidating enemy in the process of advancing years is conventional wisdom. Constantly we’re told that we must hold back, that training, regardless of age, stresses our muscles, which leaves slight tears, which in turn leaves scars, eventually resulting in injuries, and that the older we get and the longer we train, the more injuries accumulate. Caution must be the order of our days as we pass 40. Decreasing muscle response and increasing skin elasticity also take their toll, we’re told, so look for other benefits. Don’t expect to make gains. Give it up. Settle for mainte-

nance. For a few years in my 40s, I submitted to conventional wisdom. I did hold back, feeling the accumulated injuries of more than 30 years of bodybuilding, especially in my shoulders, elbows and lower back. The injuries were real, and their persistence convinced me that I could no longer train as fast as I had in my youth, that I required longer recovery periods, that my durability wasn’t what it used to be

I persuaded myself I should simply be glad I’m alive, that, along with cumulative injuries, age brings compensatory gains in wisdom and that I should put that wisdom to use by accepting age gracefully. Now I see that just as the mere awareness of age can affect your ego and attitude, so can a more confident and determined attitude awaken you to the fact that the other side of 40 holds a valid promise for improving your physique. A hint of that has always been with me, even in my more timid years. There’s not much difference in my training now vs. when I was in my 20s. I’m still doing some of the same things—old-fashioned stuff I

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My Inspiration

“Bodybuilding is no longer a subculture but embraced by the public, and seeing it around me fuels my enthusiasm all the more.”

My marriage to Laree revived that spirit, and opening our World Gyms enabled it to range. I see lots of youngsters around me training vigorously, and I yearn to do it also. I want to be part of the training. Gradually I stepped out of the maintenance level and looked toward greater intensity in my training, reincorporating that same locomotion and thrust in the movements that I’d always had, always loved and still do. I’m looking for what I can do at this new stage of my life in pursuing gains, but there’s a difference now, one that can come only with maturity. I find myself wanting to practice wisdom and not be foolish. I see myself progressing in my weights, but instead of gulping it all at once, I’m now sipping it gradually, savoring it and enjoying it more, taking my time to get up there, stretching out the goals. Never have I competed with others in my workouts. Never have I tried to keep up with others in the gym. That’s even more important now. I’ve always been in competition only with myself.

Nutritional Advances

Model: Dave Goodin

I do feel fortunate to be entering a new stage of life hand in hand with nutritional advances such as amino acid technology and better supplements. Modern innovations allow me to get a tighter rein on my body and its improvement. They also enable me to remove many perceived restrictions to over-40 training and instead set more goals, approaching my training aggressively rather than defensively. I do everything I have to do with more attention and more experimentation rather than just plunging forward and pounding away. At my stage of life, I don’t need as much work because I know how to train better. In fact, I suspect that I’ve overtrained all my life. Now, by holding back somewhat, watching my training and having another kind of patience, it’s possible that I can step forward and make some significant gains. Once you’re accustomed to overtraining, however,

was doing years ago—and I do them now with as much vigor and enjoyment as I did then. In fact with more enjoyment than I had then. No longer do I have the apprehension when approaching my workouts that was there when I was younger. I also notice I’m reluctant to hold back, that I love to push to the limit. That’s when I’m happiest, and age has not at all been able to

quell those feelings. Bodybuilding’s new popularity fed the feeling. It’s no longer a subculture but embraced by the public, and seeing it around me fuels my enthusiasm all the more. Just as I’m constantly reminded of cumulative injuries when I train, I’m constantly reminded by those around me of my love of bodybuilding.

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it’s difficult to relax or cut back, regardless of your age. Even now I experiment with power training, going for single reps here and there. That’s mingled with supersetting, although just once a week I do a heavy squat day and heavy benches.

“No longer do I have the apprehension when approaching my workouts that was there when I was younger.”

Reduce Your Workouts

Model: Dave Draper

Since I’ve reduced my workouts from six days a week to three on/one off, I encounter fewer injuries, plus my strength is coming up. The biggest problem is adapting to it and breaking the old habit, even though the new system is, I’m now convinced, a better way to train. That’s why stepping out of an overtraining schedule, persuaded by the issues of age, may enable me to proceed to another plateau. I also find that my mental focus is now on the finer mechanisms of the body rather than on simply a brutish workout and ego gratification. I now use more full-range movements and quality training with a good flow. Certainly I also do more stretching and warming up, especially for the lower back, hamstrings and shoulders. I’m working chest and back one day, legs on day two, and shoulders and arms on day three. That gives me upper body, lower body, then upper body again and a day off, and it gives each bodypart more recuperation time. Aerobics have also increased, specifically in my use of Lifecycles and Stairmasters. I’m looking forward to gradually increasing powerful workouts. For chest and back it’s four sets of bench presses supersetted with wide-grip pulldowns, but now incorporating \ FEBRUARY 2008 221

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“I want to appear good to people [at the gym], set a good example in both physique and performance of the exercises.”

Model: Dave Draper

more power. I love that. After the supersets, however, I do two or three more sets of bench presses, taking my time, in the attitude that it’s my profession—more of my profession than it’s ever been—since I currently own a gym. I want to appear good to the people there, set a good example in both physique and performance of the exercise movements. It’s fun, and they like to see it. I also now do some single reps, putting power behind them, primarily for the fun of it. As the power increases in my workouts, I’m also dropping my reps from 10 to 12 to more like eight to 10. You resist age just as a young bodybuilder builds mass: If you want to maintain, go with

the higher reps; if you want to proceed, you have to lower them. Just be careful how far you push it; don’t always do that one last rep.

Good Eating Is a Must I also notice that I have to do lots of good eating—plenty of good protein and complex carbs every two to three hours. The body must be constantly fed for both repair and fuel during a hearty workout. I keep my electrolytes higher and am experimenting more with branched-

chain amino acids. Essentially, I’m trying to put everything in my favor as age advances—keeping my workouts slower and more concentrated, making sure I harness that hyperenergy in my movements, doing regular deadlifts instead of stiff-legged deadlifts, paying attention to reps, thinking about my lower back and knees and trying to go consistently heavier. On leg day, I warm up with leg extensions and go right into squats, then extend that into pretty much a power routine. While a certain

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training approach worked for me when I was younger, I’m facing the question of what will work best for me now, at a later age. What can I now do not merely to maintain but to actually improve?

Plateau Busting I feel there’s probably one plateau from ages 40 to 45 and another from 45 to 50, but with each one I can strive to go a little above the one that preceded it. I have to keep adjusting my goals according to my capabilities, but I always keep my goals out there, and they generate a good energy, constant and fresh. As a gym owner, I’ve taken another new step in my life, and such attempts outside training help generate that energy. The most profound discovery I made after passing 40 is that life is more and more a learning experience. In youth, education seems to be the lowest of priorities, for there are appetites to be explored and egos to be nurtured. Beyond 40, however, a maturity normally occurs in which your appetites change. That’s a result of time, and we’re struck with the realization that there’s so much more to life that can provide gratification than we can possibly assimilate. Suddenly our simple hungers seem insignificant.

The Journey

Model: Dave Goodin

That’s when the journey be“When I harness hyperenergy, I yond 40 becomes a reward. It’s a often do regular deadlifts instead reawakening to what more there of stiff-legged deadlifts.” is to life. It’s an awareness that you’re just starting—actually, that you’re always just starting. What I’ve learned over the past 10 years I want to triple over the next 10. I find that I have so a young mind. A “youthful mind,” many more feelers out there trying on the other hand, absorbs so to absorb everything. I noticed that much more. Perhaps that’s the I didn’t learn what I should have greatest irony of aging: You in previous years, so now I’d better don’t acquire a youthful—hunscurry around and pay a lot more gry—mind until you’ve been attention. liberated from being young. These days I realize how blessed I Editor’s note: For more am to have the energy and desire to train as I do, and I thank the Lord for articles by Dave Draper, visit that. Everything I’ve said must seem and IM obvious, but little of it may sink into 224 FEBRUARY 2008 \

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Cory The Most Influential Ms. Olympia Ever Still Rocks the House—at the Half-Century Mark


er goal is no longer to win the Ms. Olympia, which she did seven times. Now it’s to build a great life as well as a great body. At 50 Cory Everson’s priorities are home, family and relationships with friends. She still trains religiously; it’s just not the focal point of her life. She continues to support adoption agencies and saving lost dogs—and encouraging full, happy living through her books and seminars. Today Cory looks fit and strong and doesn’t seem to notice her age. Shannon Farar-Griefer, a close friend, says she can’t believe Cory is 50. “Does she know this?”

by Babs Hogan Photography by Michael Neveux, John Balik and the Cory Everson Archives Wardrobe Stylist: Diana Antin Hair and Makeup: Teri Groves

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Others agree. “She may be retired from bodybuilding,” Cory’s sister, Cameo Kneuer Bernard, says, “but she hasn’t stopped building for a minute.” She is always building something: landscapes for neighbors, gift baskets for the elderly, relationships with agencies for families seeking to adopt children. Cory and her husband, Steve Donia, D.D.S., are responsible for nine international adoptions for American families. Their own two children, Boris and Nina, were adopted from Russia. With her family set, Cory’s lifelong dream of motherhood finally came true. Cory’s fans know how hard she trained as a bodybuilder, but few know that her strong work ethic began early. “Cory was an intense, hardworking athlete, determined to get it right,” says former high school gymnastics coach Barb Jirka. Her one-time training partner Tom Spagnola recalls their first workout, which took place many years later, as Cory prepared for her second Ms. O contest: “It was leg day, and although I’d been training hard with the guys for several years, I threw up three times during the workout. Cory is relentless. The first week with her was a living nightmare.” With a smile, he adds, “But the three years I trained with her were the greatest years of my life.” The same work ethic propelled her in other areas. Recipient of an academic/athletic scholarship from the University of Wisconsin—Madison, Cory was expected to excel in both worlds. No one was disappointed. In addition to winning the Big 10 Pentathlon four years in a row, she graduated number one out of 1,500 from the university’s school of interior design. “It is unusual to encounter a student with as many diverse talents as Cory,” says art professor Robert Bartholomew. “She excelled in design and was an outstanding illustrator—one of the best I had the pleasure of teaching. She was also driven to succeed.” Cory began to train seriously as a bodybuilder after graduating from college. During a contest prep in 1981, blood clots in three veins in her left leg almost ended her athletic career and threatened to end her

life. Doctors discovered a protein C deficiency, a condition that causes blood to clot too easily. As the size of her leg doubled, unrelenting pain, constant fever and the inability to walk plagued her. For 10 weeks she remained in intensive care. When Cory saw her emotionally strong mother cry for the first time, she realized that having a blood clot was indeed serious—dead serious.

With only a few personal setbacks in her young life, she had little to draw on to face the crisis. Before today’s anticlotting drugs were developed, clots were difficult and risky to treat, and amputation was a life-saving measure. The use of an anticoagulant drug called Streptokinase successfully dissolved the clots. Cory’s high level of fitness also played a role because blood

More Things You Didn’t Know About Cory BH: What’s your favorite junk food? CE: Beefaroni, without a doubt. BH: What’s your favorite movie? CE: “Somewhere in Time” and “The Notebook.” BH: What TV shows do you enjoy watching? CE: Oh, I have lots: “Dancing with the Stars,” “Rescue Me,” “Damages,” “24,” “American Idol,” “Grey’s Anatomy.” BH: Favorite actor? CE: Sean Connery or Tom Hanks. BH: Favorite hobby? CE: Interior design is one of my greatest passions. In addition, I love to landscape. BH: Where do you like to shop? CE: Craigslist. BH: What is your favorite store? CE: Costco. BH: What is your son’s best tear-jerker? CE: Boris says, “Mom, you are like my angel who saved me and will always be there to protect me.” BH: And your daughter’s? CE: Nina tells me, “Other moms tried to adopt me in Russia, but I waited for you because I knew my mom had muscles.” BH: Is there a secret in your closet? CE: My friends laugh because I don’t have many real fancy outfits or shoes. I do not enjoy getting dressed up. I live in my sweats. When I get dressed up, I wear jeans. I am a wash-and-wear kind of gal. BH: What’s your weirdest habit? CE: I go to McDonald’s a few times a week to buy my dog a vanilla ice cream cone. She loves them. BH: What is your favorite holiday? CE: Oh, it’s Christmas, because I love to decorate and the feeling that comes with it of goodwill, gratitude and love. It is less important for Steve, the kids and me to exchange gifts among ourselves. Instead, we make gift baskets for the elderly. That was the kids’ idea. BH: Describe your high school sweetheart(s). CE: There was just one; a very handsome class act named Chris. We dated for six years. He was a tall, muscular swimmer with blond hair, built like a Greek god. He had fantastic parents and a wonderful family. I miss them all. I often times think about how grateful I am that Chris was the guy I matured with and the guy who set such high standards for me. BH: Describe your college sweetheart(s). CE: I dated an athlete named Mike, a hockey player. He left college early to play for a professional team in Pittsburgh. It broke my heart because I fell head over heels for him. Mike was rugged, mysterious, honest, humble, athletic, sexy and very intriguing. He was a one-of-akind guy and very special. \ FEBRUARY 2008 229

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vessels in fit people more readily adjust to the demand for blood flow. The road to recovery was challenging both physically and mentally, requiring her to redefine herself as an athlete and as a person. After weeks of inactivity, muscle atrophy in her leg was severe due to ischemia—meaning lack of oxygen. The scars in her veins reduced the flexibility in her leg so much that she couldn’t walk. Cory remembers taking her first steps in therapy: “I moved my feet forward in increments of two to three inches. Each week my stride increased. Gradually, as my walking improved, I was able to swim a few laps and bike a few blocks.” After 12 weeks of therapy, Cory returned to the weight room. Pondering both the triumph and fallibility of being human, she vowed to take vigilant care of herself every single day. The gut-ripping reality is that her life still depends on keeping her vow. Regular exercise combined with daily drug therapy keeps her ongoing medical problem at bay. Cory continues to train like a bodybuilder, with


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Cory Comments About Cory Larry Scott (the first Mr. Olympia): “Cory is one of those unique champions who keep getting better the longer you know her. She never let herself believe all the wonderful press that was written about her. She was always my hero: charming, beautiful and a great athlete.” Frank Zane (legendary bodybuilder): “Cory was perhaps the best Ms. Olympia ever. She had it all: muscle, shape, proportion, aesthetics, beauty, presentation—and along with all that she is a very nice, pleasant person. I’m glad to know her.” Bev Fancis (former competitor): “I love her. We met back in 1986, and even though we were competing against each other, we got on really well. Our friendship grew with every Ms. Olympia; however, it was in postcompetition years, after we both became mothers, that we really became close. She is a wonderful person, and I consider her one of my best friends!” Jim Manion (NPC president and IFBB Pro League chairman): “Cory Everson is a champion both on and off the stage. With her beautiful physique, smile and personality, she always represented the IFBB and our sport in the best image possible and always did the right thing. When I think of Cory, I see a great person and champion and a lifelong friend of my family, including my wife, Debbie, and son J.M. Happy birthday, Cory, and many more.” Bo Jackson (legendary athlete): “Cory is one of the few people I’ve worked with who is still down to earth. She treats people the way she wants to be treated. I love and respect her.” Michell LeMay (fitness personality): “Cory is a shining example of how to age gracefully. I think that’s not only because she’s kept herself in top physical condition but also because she’s a kind, generous and fun person who truly cares about others. I’ve seen her shower her fans with inspiration. Now, as she and her husband work as a team in raising their adopted children, she glows with new knowledge and enthusiasm as she relates to other moms and shares a new form of inspiration. Cory is a legend who deserves the respect she has commanded in the industry, because she’s real!” Clark and Patty Sanchez (IFBB and NPC judges) Patty: “I’ve always said Cory is like an iceberg— you only see the top. There’s this whole other huge part of her no one ever sees. Cory is an enigma. She is an artist (draws, paints), a gardener, a very hard worker, educated and also in every sense smart, very personable and with a very big heart. On top of that she’s a beauty with a down-home-gal personality!

Clark: “Onstage Cory was a phenomenon. Her face was filled with loving spirit that poured out to everyone, and her unbeatable body exuded superstar charisma.” Randy Bernard (brother-in-law and CEO of Pro Bull Riders): “It’s been very exciting to see a woman have such a successful career chasing her dreams and accomplishing them with passion, sweat and a true kindness to everyone she comes in contact with. She is a great role model, not because of her accomplishments but because of her actions and her commitment to whatever she sets her mind to. Kevin Sorbo (actor): “Cory is a blast!” Gregg Hartley (vice president, Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association): “When asked about Cory, I simply reply, she is an alien. Not only is she the best female bodybuilder the sport has ever known or will know, but Cory is a world-class artist and a better mother and wife than either a bodybuilder or an artist. Simply put, Cory, with her own inspirational grace and style, is the woman who made it okay for women to be sexy, muscular and fit! Jennifer Chandler (director of outreach programs and ’76 Olympic gold medalist in diving): “Cory is a magical mixture of inspiration, humor, love and gentleness. She’s a pillar of strength and faith, loyal to the end and selfless as a saint. You can’t truly choose your family, but she’s an important part of mine—my dear sister and dearest friend.” Robert Bartholomew (professor emeritus, University of Wisconsin—Madison): “It is unusual to encounter a student with as many diverse talents as Cory. For example, she excelled in design, was an outstanding illustrator—one of the best I had the pleasure of teaching—and a noted athlete, which helped her stand out among other students. She often attended class in her sweats and called me ‘coach.’ Cory was always an outgoing and friendly person with a great sense of humor. She was also driven to succeed. Her athletic achievements following graduation earned her a legendary status among many students here at UW—Madison.” Barb Jirka (high school gymnastics coach): “Cory was always a joy to work with! Her sweet, loving spirit and great sense of humor always kept our workouts lighthearted and fun. She was a serious competitor, though, and always put her heart and soul into every competitive experience, win or lose. Knowing Cory and looking at what she has accomplished in her life just shows how she’s used the talents and gifts God has given her. What a great example you are!”

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one exception: She uses lighter weights. Three to four days a week she and Cameo hit the weight room, pushing each other just like old times. Leg day still causes them to gasp for breath at the end of each set, and it remains their favorite workout. They do a 45-minute cardio session first to ensure that the entire workout is completed. On the topic of nutrition, Cory admits to being a cookie-dough freak. She eats it raw because she tends to burn everything if she cooks. Neighbor Erin Landrum says, “I don’t want to hurt Cory’s feelings, but I just got a call from North Korea’s President Kim Jong-Il, asking for her recipe because it is well known that her cooking is considered to be a threat to all mankind!” Cory also loves chocolate, but her weight hasn’t changed much since high school, hovering between 145 and 148, an ideal weight for a 5’9” woman. “I love it when teenagers drive by and honk or do a doubletake when I’m out walking my dogs,” she says. “I laugh at what they would think if they knew my age.” While many 50-year-olds experience constant fatigue, Cory’s energy matches that of a 20-year-old. She is engaged by many issues, such as the growing problem of childhood obesity. In an effort to find solutions, she meets with Washington, D.C., policy makers, serves on childhoodnutrition and physical-education committees across the country, and is considering writing a book on the topic. Many opportunities to serve come her way, but her perfectionist tendencies lead her to tackle only a handful. She recently painted a kinetic image of Muhammad Ali, which brought $7,500 at a charity auction. A central theme repeats itself in Cory’s life. “The pessimist sees difficulty in every opportunity,” she says. “The optimist sees opportunity in every difficulty.” She quotes children’s author Madeleine L’Engle in that regard: “We can’t take credit for our talents; it’s how we use them that counts.” On gym days Cory works hard to build her body. Other days are dedicated to building lives. In spite of a medical condition that threatens her productivity, she quietly greets

From Her Sister, Cameo Kneuer Bernard Cory is my sister, my best friend, my role model, and I can’t live without her. As far back as I can remember she’s always protected me, encouraged me and pushed me to become the best person and athlete that I could become. She never let me quit, give up or say no. That’s how she’s always lived her own life and expected that same attitude out of everyone around her. She wasn’t always the best at everything, but she worked her butt off to become the best at whatever she put her mind to. Whether that was schoolwork, art or athletics, she was determined to do her best at it. Cory has always been kind, loving and generous with her time and has never lost her Midwestern roots. She’s still the same Cory that she was long ago but even better—she’s just getting better with age. It’s funny: the whole concept of Cory being a bodybuilder. It’s perfect because it’s relative to everything she does in life. She’s building families—her own by adopting her kids, Boris and Nina. She’s helping other families build families (seven adoptions so far); she’s designing and building homes, building landscapes, building furniture, building morale by speaking to women’s groups and military groups, building relationships in Washington. She just continues to build the world around her to be better. She never quits, and I don’t expect she ever will. I am so proud to call her my sister because I know who she is, what she’s done and how hard she’s worked to become what she’s become. Whenever someone asks me what it’s like to be her sister, it’s easy to say that I’m so lucky and grateful to have the greatest role model anyone could ever have. Happy birthday, Corinna. I love you, and let’s get a lot done in the next 50!

From Arnold Schwarzenegger: “Cory set the standard for women’s bodybuilding. She is the all-time winner of the Ms. Olympia title, and we were privileged to recognize her with the Arnold Lifetime Achievement this year.”

each morning with a whisper: “I’m alive. I won again.” BH: Turning 50 is a major milestone in life. What does it mean to you? CE: I actually hadn’t even known I was turning 50 until a friend reminded me and asked if we had something special planned. I’m just grateful for everything I have in my life. I don’t honestly feel any differ-

ent than I did in my 40s or 30s or 20s or even teens. Am I supposed to all of a sudden break down and feel old? It won’t happen in my lifetime. BH: What do you want for your 50th birthday? CE: I don’t want a party—that’s for sure—and definitely not a cake with 50 candles. California’s already had enough fires this year. BH: As you reflect on your \ FEBRUARY 2008 235

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Cory life, what character trait(s) propelled you forward? CE: I have a passion for doing my best. I hate not giving my all. I don’t have to win; I just have to give 100 percent. Win or lose, the most important thing to me is to feel good about my efforts. In school, I have to admit that I was an overachiever, and to this day I’m not sure why. Maybe it was my way of being noticed by my peers.

Or maybe it was my way of trying to be special. If I had any energy left after finishing a project, that meant that I didn’t put enough effort into it. I have to see all of my options first. I still overanalyze almost everything. My husband jokes about it. After two years I haven’t decided what color to paint my house. I don’t do a ton of things, but the ones I do, I try to do well. Mediocrity is unac-

ceptable. I don’t mind not being the most famous superstar anymore. I strive to be the best mom, wife and friend that I can possibly be. I am what I call a lifer: If you’re a true friend, you will be my friend for the rest of my life. BH: What else moved you forward? CE: My mom propelled me throughout (continued on page 240)

Cory’s Training at 50 Q: How many days a week do you train with weights, and how long do your workouts last? CE: I try to train four days a week, and each workout usually lasts no more than 1 1/2 hours. Each session is quick and intense. I meet Cameo, my training partner, at the gym after the kids catch the bus. Currently, we do 40 to 60 minutes of cardio before weights, which includes a combination of the treadmill and elliptical machine. In the weight room we focus on increasing muscle tone and staying lean and place less emphasis on getting more muscular. Following is a typical workout for legs and low back. Leg extensions supersetted with leg curls: Start with a warmup set of up to 20 reps on each, followed by four supersets of 12 to 15 reps. If I don’t get a major pump, I just do more sets until I reach that point. We do each exercise slowly and try to hold for a beat at the top. We always perform the negative motion under strict control. Leg presses: Start with a warmup set of up to 20 reps, followed by four work sets of 12 to 15 reps. At the end of each set Cameo and I do tiny little pumps to fully engage the muscle fibers, causing a major burn. Squats: Start with a warmup set of up to 20 reps, followed by four work sets of 12 to 15 reps. We use light weight on the Smith machine and do very strict and controlled reps. Our muscles are already fatigued, so we don’t need much weight at all. While one of us is doing our reps, the other is doing squats with no weights while holding onto a pole for support. Calves: I never work calves. Low back: We end our leg day with hyperextensions and love them. I need them for my bad back. Abs: After each workout, we work abs using a variety of styles, including machine crunches, lying crunches on a bench and bicycles. Stretching: Last but not least is stretching, which is my favorite part because it revitalizes my muscles and leaves me feeling flexible and youthful—like a million bucks. Q: How do you split your bodyparts now, or

do you work full body every time? CE: Here’s how I usually do it: Day 1: Legs, lower back, abs and stretch Day 2: Back, biceps, triceps, lower back, abs and stretch Day 3: Chest, shoulders, abs, lower back and stretch Day 4: Generally, we do legs again, but we use pyramid sets instead of supersets. We do a 20-rep warmup set, then pyramid down for four sets without rest. For example, on leg extensions we begin with 12 to 15 reps at 70 pounds, 12 to 15 reps at 60 pounds, 10 to 12 reps at 40 pounds, and 10 reps at 30 pounds. To finish, we do maximum reps at 20 pounds. That kills and creates the best pump ever. We do that on all of the exercises except squats; on day 4 we don’t do them. We end day 4 with abs and stretches. I work full body only if I can’t get a couple days in that week or if I had taken some days off. Then, I like to always start with a general full-body workout to break back into the routine. Q: Do you train intensely (to positive failure on work sets), or do you take a more moderate approach? CE: I have never used training to failure. I just don’t believe it is the right thing for your body. I did try it once, and it just does not suit me. I want to feel rejuvenated, toned, lean and strong—not beat up. You can train intensely using light weights, heavy weights, high reps or low reps. I’ve always drifted toward doing higher reps using lower weights vs. fewer reps using heavier weights. I enjoy having muscle endurance vs. brute strength. Plus, I think that it’s safer in the long run and I get better results in reaching my goals, including nice muscle definition and a lean, long, athletic look. I believe that after the age of 40, using higher reps is a good thing. It places less stress on your joints and connective tissue while it pumps oxygen-rich blood into the targeted muscles for best growth and recovery. Hey, it works for me, and it also lubricates the joints, which can be helpful as well in preventing injury.

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Dad and his girls.

Author Babs Hogan with Cameo and Cory. With superathlete Bo Jackson.

Cameo and Cory ready to fly.

With Frank Zane.

“I actually hadn’t even known I was turning 50 until a friend reminded me and asked if we had something special planned. I’m just grateful for everything I have in my life. I don’t honestly feel any different than I did in my 40s or 30s or 20s or even teens.”

Honored by Arnold.

(continued from page 236) life. She continues to be a hero and role model to me. When I was growing up, she was so powerful and athletic and loved by all. She is still so gorgeous. Even today she still beats people less than half her age in paddleball and tennis. Boy, those 20-somethings hate losing to a 70something! She was always proud of her athleticism even when she outshone the guys and was different from other women. I’ve seen her rebuild a lawn mower, cut down a 50-foot tree and make a new table with her own hands. Amazing. If I were stranded on a deserted island with only one person, I hope that it would be my mom. BH: Is there a personality trait that people might not know you have?. CE: I hate to see others in pain. I can’t stand injustice. It hurts me to see a person alone or helpless—a trait I inherited from my parents. My mom is constantly helping friends and neighbors who can’t do things themselves and never expects anything in return. My dad also has a helpful spirit. I think that I inherited the “helpful” gene, and I am damned glad I did. I love that about our family. BH: Looking back at your childhood, did you lack anything?

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CE: I didn’t have much self-confidence and courage when I was young. I didn’t understand my own personality strengths until I was in my 30s. When I was a child, I had so much athletic potential and didn’t even realize it. My entire family was athletic; it seemed normal to me. Looking back, I should have trained for the Olympics as a swimmer, but as a young girl, I didn’t think I was

good enough, so I didn’t push myself. I never felt beautiful as a kid—just average. Thankfully, my achievements defined me, not my appearance. Today I still see myself as average in appearance. When I come home from a photo shoot for a magazine, I know that without the professional help from the makeup artist, hair stylist, wardrobe assis-

From Lynn Conkwright (former competitor): “I’ll never forget the first year that Cory was in the Ms. Olympia competition. I immediately knew she would win it all. I told her right from the start that she would be our sports’ new and continued champion. She was light-years above all of us.”




>The Greatest Bodybuilders In The World Will Be At The >2008

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From Joe Weider: “Cory was one of the most amazing fitness women the IFBB ever had. Not only is she a woman of beauty and charm but a woman with a big heart. I could see her heart going out to everyone she came into contact with, even children, and I knew she should have children of her own to give her love to. God bless you, Cory, and my hope for you is that your fitness, health, husband and children bring you great pleasure. I love you, Cory, and always will!�

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>>>>> >Don’t Miss the 19th Annual

Cory and family (from left): Boris, Steve, Mom and Nina. tant and photographer, I’d look just okay. Steve laughs about always seeing his so-called cover girl in baggy sweats and baseball hats. BH: Tell us about your husband, Dr. Steve Donia. CE: Steve is one of the finest cosmetic dentists in the United States. His work was recently featured on ABC’s “Extreme Makeover.” We met in 1992. He absolutely refused to date me until I was emotionally healed from my divorce, which was one of the toughest times in my life. I fell in love with him for his playfulness, maturity, joy of life, great morals and love of his family. Plus, he is incredibly smart, which I find so attractive. We had a double wedding with my sister Cameo and her husband, Randy Bernard, CEO of the Pro Bull Riders, in 1998. We all wore cowboy boots and jeans. Steve didn’t know anything about bodybuilding when I met him. He didn’t even know that I was in the sport. He just thought I was this really strange, weird girl who laughed uncontrollably throughout my dental office visits. We adopted our first child in 2000 from a Russian orphanage and our second in 2003. It takes a secure man to handle that experience. He was my strength throughout the process and continues to be my knight in shining armor. BH: How has having a family changed your life? CE: It’s slowed me down in a good way. I can and often do sit back and smell the roses. I was so directed

and driven and focused while competing that it shut my eyes to other areas of joy. I now can maintain an acceptable shape with very limited exercise and more relaxed diet. I don’t need to be ripped and pumped anymore. My kids are my focus, as they are in everyone’s family. I let them watch any educational show—“Planet Earth,” the History Channel and anything they want on TV Land. I grew up with all those clean and classy shows, and I feel totally comfortable having them watch. BH: You’ve been featured in hundreds of magazines. Tell us some things about yourself that most readers don’t know. CE: 1) You know about the blood clot that almost killed me when I was 20, but did you know that it happened again when I was 37? 2) I crashed my Honda 50 into a ditch with Camy on the back when I was 13 and never told my parents. 3) I had black hair when I was born and looked like an Asian baby. 4) I hated my high cheekbones and slanted eyes in high school. 5) I beat up a boy in high school who threw an egg yolk on me. 6) My mom was approached by my grade-school gym teacher about having me train for the Olympics in track. 7) My mom beat me in a running race when I was in high school. 8) We put ex-lax into cookies once, and somehow it got to our relatives visiting from Germany.

Saturday, February 16, 2008

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Cory’s routines and stage presence took women’s bodybuilding to a new level.

9) I would sit in the closet at parties when I was a kid and cuddle with the fur on all the jackets. 10) We rode down our street naked with clown wigs and rubber rain boots when we were in grade school. Don’t tell my mom. BH: If you could relive your life, what career would you choose? CE: I would have been a reconstructive surgeon to help disfigured children. BH: How did Jeff Everson help ignite your bodybuilding career? CE: Jeff was the first person to really make me focus on my talents. As a result, my self-awareness and confidence increased. Before Jeff came into my life, I was shy and insecure and lacked self-confidence. BH: He must have helped you when you were in the hospital for the first time with your blood clot illness. CE: When I was in the hospital, he camped out at my side for weeks. He kept telling me to focus on my internal strengths and mentally guide myself to heal. I believed in me mostly because he believed in me. As I recovered, I don’t think anyone was ever as proud of me as Jeff. BH: What do you consider to be a once-in-a-lifetime experience? CE: Definitely, it would be landing on the nuclear aircraft carrier

From Bill Pearl (legendary bodybuilder): “Cory brought women’s bodybuilding to national recognition by way of the IFBB Ms. Olympia titles. She and Rachel McLish did their utmost to keep femininity in the sport. Her best-selling books have motivated men and women to better themselves. Cory has been a real inspiration to me. I think the world of her.” with my sister Camy. The catapult take-off was amazing and scary. BH: What do you regret not doing? CE: I was invited three times to fly with the F-18 top gun pilots and Thunderbirds. I declined every time—fear of getting sick. BH: Do you have any obsessions? CE: I’m obsessed with promoting older-child international adoption. Too many people fear adopting these kids. They are truly a gift, and we end up being the lucky ones to have them in our lives. BH: Do you have any other obsessions? CE: My neighbor Erin and I are always saving stray dogs. I can’t stand to see a dog without a home. BH: Where are you most at home? CE: I want to be anywhere with my family and friends. I love being outdoors, in the mountains, or anywhere in nature. I hate being indoors—yuck.

BH: What advice would you offer people in their late 40s as they approach 50? CE: I would say don’t fret about it. If you give it negative attention, you’ll have a negative response. So many people fear admitting their biological age. Who really cares? Fifty is honestly yesterday’s 40 and so on. Our health is the determining factor in how we look and feel. Take care of yourself as a teen, as a young adult, and you will reap the benefits long into later years of your life, when others are complaining about all their aches and pains and sagging skin. Don’t smoke, don’t drink, make the obvious smart choices, and you’ll look and feel years younger than those who took the alternative road. If you are in your late 40s and haven’t focused any part of your life on being healthy, it is darn right the time to start. It’s never too late. Editor’s note: Cory’s Web site is IM

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by Jerry Brainum

Steroids, Supplements and Liver Damage Testosterone is a primary anabolic hormone, and the huge size of many bodybuilders and athletes is a direct result of anabolic steroid usage combined with heavy training. That last aspect, exercise, seemingly obvious, is often overlooked. Breathless mass-media distortion leads much of the public to think that merely using anabolic steroids results in huge mass and extraordinary athletic ability—a magic pill. The results vary. For example, I’ve seen countless bodybuilders duplicate the precise drug regimes favored by champion bodybuilders yet never approach championship muscularity. Clearly, genetics plays a role. The same holds

true in sports: The notion that using a certain combination of drugs empowers you to set a home-run record or win the Tour de France, is specious at best. While drugs do play a role, you can’t discount genetic ability or the skill acquired through high-level training. On the other hand, all things being equal, drugs do enable most people to reach a muscular size that simply doesn’t come naturally. While many drug-free bodybuilding competitors have impressive physiques, they pale in comparison to the average pro bodybuilder. You can surmise just how much drugs contribute to the pros’ physiques by observing them when they aren’t on a drug cycle. That’s when their bodies appear more mortal. It’s also a misconception that bodybuilders and other athletes enjoy using anabolic drugs. Having known many of them, I can attest that that’s not the case at all. Most use drugs simply to even the playing field. Without drugs, even the most genetically gifted bodybuilder wouldn’t stand a fighting chance against a less gifted but more juiced competitor. The athletes are all too aware of the risks they’re taking with their health by using drug doses far in excess of what’s prescribed for therapeutic reasons. They feel the rewards are worth it. In truth, despite the vast amounts of various drugs used by pro athletes, reports of serious health consequences are rare. Some suggest that they will emerge in the future. While that’s logical, most experts also agree that although athletes have been using anabolic steroids extensively for

Breathless mass-media distortion leads much of the public to think that merely using anabolic steroids results in huge mass and extraordinary athletic ability—a magic pill.

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more than 40 years, there are no reports of extensive health used to blunt male-pattern baldness. If you want to know damage among former users. Indeed, published reports whether you might take a hit like that, look at your matersuggest that nearly all side effects linked to steroid use nal grandfather. If he went bald, you’ve likely got the genes reverse after the athletes no longer use drugs. to continue that unfortunate family legacy. The consensus among athletes is that some anabolic After realizing that oral doses of testosterone rapidly desteroids are considerably more dangerous than others. Ingrade in the liver, scientists began manipulating the basic jectable drugs, which bypass liver metabolism, are thought test structure in the late 1950s. The result was hundreds of to be safer than oral drugs. All anabolic steroids, however, possible commercial compounds—most of which never are manipulated versions of three left the lab because of steroid hormones: testosterone, potential problems. nandrolone and dihydrotestosTheir molecular terone, a.k.a. DHT. All have their structures, however, advantages and disadvantages. were recorded in Testosterone, which is most some chemistry texts, commonly injected, can convert notably one written into estrogen through the actions in the 1960s, and a of the enzyme aromatase found in few years ago several body tissue, mainly fat and muscle. of these formulas A man with excess estrogen is were resurrected and subject to various effects, such as sold over the counter a buildup of fat under the skin, as “pro-hormone” water retention and gynecomastia, supplements. Flash pejoratively known as “bitch tits.” forward to 2005, To combat those effects, athletes when the governresort to either estrogen-recepment banned the last tor blockers, such as Nolvadex, or generation of proThe nandrolone drugs, such as Deca-Durabolin, are aromatase-inhibiting drugs, such hormones because popular with athletes because they apparently don’t as Arimidex. they were potent and have side effects. On the other hand, one advanpotentially toxic—extage of testosterone injections plaining why the is the absence of effect on highdrug companies that density lipoprotein, a protective cholesterol carrier in the developed them 40 years ago never released them. blood. Most other steroids, especially the oral versions, are Because oral doses of testosterone aren’t of much use, notorious for acutely lowering HDL. Luckily, depressed scientists tweaked its structure to prevent its premature HDL returns to normal when the drugs are no longer used. destruction in the liver. The most common tweak involved Nandrolone has a reputation as a “gentle” anabolic C-17 alpha alkylation—clinicspeak for preventing the liver steroid most suitable for those concerned about avoiding from rapidly degrading the drug. The flip side, however, androgenic-related side effects like male-pattern baldwas that the drugs tended to accumulate in the liver and ness and acne. True enough, nandrolone doesn’t convert cause hepatitis, a general term indicating a liver inflaminto either estrogen or DHT, but it does operate a little like mation—precisely what occurs with large doses of oral progesterone, another steroid hormone, which stimulates anabolic steroids. (wait for it) gynecomastia. A lot of bodybuilders don’t realThe liver is remarkably plastic. By that I don’t mean that ize that. What’s more, nandrolone is probably the worst we are all walking around with synthetic livers. I mean that steroid to use if you’re looking at drug-tested events. Its the liver has remarkable regenerative powers. That was residue can readily be detected in the body for more than no accident, as the liver is the body’s primary detoxifying a year. organ, performing thousands of functions constantly. You The DHT-based anabolics are popular and are often can remove three-quarters of the liver and survive, alconsidered highly anabolic because they don’t convert into though it’s not something you should try at home. estrogen. Even so, you’re looking at male-pattern baldThe sturdy liver can take a lot of abuse before it finally ness and acne—plus prostate problems. Some users opt says, No more! Without a functioning liver, eating even for drugs that block 5-alpha reductase, the enzyme that protein would prove poisonous. When that happens, you converts testosterone into DHT. Propecia, for example, is die, unless you can somehow wrangle a liver transplant.

Despite the vast amounts of various drugs used by pro athletes, reports of serious health consequences are rare. Some suggest that they will emerge in the future. While that’s logical, most experts also agree that although athletes have used anabolic steroids extensively for more than 40 years, there are no reports of extensive health damage among former users. \ FEBRUARY 2008 249

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Jerry Brainum’s Bodybuilding Pharmacology

The sturdy liver can take a lot of abuse before it finally says, No more! Without a functioning liver eating even protein would prove poisionous. The good news about the bad news is that there are many warning signs before the ultimate hepatic catastrophe ensues—your skin and eyes become jaundiced (yellow) because of the backup of bile in the liver from excessive inflammation. More subtle cues include a rise in liver enzymes that point to inflammation and act as a harbinger of imminent damage. While elevated liver enzymes are a good barometer of liver health, some enzyme measures can be confounded by intense exercise. The enzyme I’m talking about shows up not only in the liver but also in muscle. When muscles are damaged through intense exercise, it shows up during routine blood tests. A muscle enzyme spike can easily be identified by measuring other liver enzymes. If they aren’t elevated, it’s often a false alarm. Bodybuilders and athletes have taken various measures to combat the adverse effects of oral steroids on the liver. Several herbs have been shown to help prevent alcohol- or drug-induced liver damage, one of which is the herb silymarin, or milk thistle. I reported in this space a few years ago on a study proving that bodybuilders who simultaneously took silymarin and oral steroids had a lower liver enzyme count, hence far less liver inflammation, than bodybuilders using the drugs minus the silymarin. Other suggested liver-protecting nutrients include gamma linoleic acid, as found in evening primrose oil or borage oil supplements. Anything that increases glutathione, the primary liver antioxidant, would also help protect the liver. Supplements that raise liver glutathione include silymarin, N-acetyl cysteine and lipoic acid—plus whey protein because of its rich cysteine content. Glutathione is composed of three amino acids: cysteine, glutamic acid and glycine, with cysteine the most vital to glutathione synthesis. A soon-to-bepublished study from Greece tested the effects of a nutritional supplement they called Compound N for how well it protected liver function in bodybuilders who were on self-prescribed high-dose steroid regimes that included extensive use of 17-ankylated oral drugs, such as Winstrol and Dianabol. B-complex vitamins can help in Three hundred

and twenty healthy athletes, aged 20 to 45—116 women and 204 men—were divided into three groups: 1) 44 self-administered steroid users who took Compound N, two capsules, three times daily 2) 116 self-administered steroid users who didn’t take Compound N 3) 160 athletes who didn’t use any drugs All subjects had their liver enzymes tested before, at 10-day intervals and at the end of the eight-week study. They all used the same training program and ate the same diet. At baseline all groups showed normal liver enzymes, with one exception. The amount of creatine kinase, an enzyme linked to exercise-induced muscle damage, was elevated in all groups, but it was considered normal. At the end of the study all groups had elevated liver enzymes, but the amount in both the drug-free control group and the Compound N group were still in the normal range. Those who took steroids but not Compound N had liver enzymes significantly above the normal range as well as liver damage, but those who used the nutrient combination did not. By this time you’re probably wondering what was in Compound N. The supplement consisted of the following: 1) 300 milligrams of natural phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine, a.k.a. lecithin. 2) 6 milligrams of thiamine, a.k.a. vitamin B1 3) 6 milligrams of riboflavin, a.k.a. vitamin B2 4) 6 milligrams of pyridoxine, a.k.a. vitamin B6 5) 6 micrograms of vitamin B12 6) 30 milligrams of nicotinamide 7) 6 milligrams of vitamin E The rationale for those particular ingredients was that lecithin provides both of the unsaturated fatty acids needed to protect cellular membranes and methyl groups, which helps the liver break down fat. Increased fat in the liver is an early sign of impending liver failure. Lecithin has reversed the damage of liver cirrhosis in baboons. Lecithin helps keep liver-cell mitochondria stable and healthy, while the B-complex vitamins in the formula provide an added antioxidant effect that aids the liver detox process. Because the experiment seems to prove the effectiveness of the supplement, it’s curious that no glutathionerelated nutrient was included. That more than likely would have increased the effectiveness of the formula, because glutathione is a big-time liver protector and detoxifier. Nonetheless, the study demonstrates that a degree of liver protection is available to those who use oral anabolic steroid drugs. Pagonis, T.A., et al. (2007). Multivitamins and phospholipids complex protects the hepatic cells from androgenic-anabolic steroid-induced toxicity. Clin Toxicol. In press. IM

liver detoxification.

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Eric Broser’s

Muscle “In” Sites If you find something on the Web that IM readers should know about, send the URL to Eric at

> I’ve been involved in the bodybuilding and fitness field for about 20 years, and one thing I’ve learned is, there’s always more to learn. Even though I’ve built up a tremendous knowledge base in training, nutrition, supplementation, contest prep and the like, I’d be a fool to think that I’ve acquired even 1 percent of everything there is to know. To that end, I’m always on the lookout for sites that provide true cutting-edge information delivered by people in the industry who think on a higher plane. is just such a site. With the writers who are onboard—Will Brink, Lyle McDonald, William Lewellyn, Patrick Arnold and John Berardi, to name a few—you’re guaranteed to learn something new. What I find most intriguing about is its wide array of unique topics. Aside from basic training and nutritional advice, you’ll find articles on neuroscience, philosophy, fat loss and cell biology, health and longevity, supplementation and drugs. While the articles include some pretty high-pitched info, much of it will be immediately applicable to your own program. The only drawback is that there’s so much interesting material to read, you may find yourself with very little time afterward to surf the Web for Internet por—uh, updates on the Middle East. So my friends, if you’re hungry for knowledge, check out, where they serve quite a “meal.”

> In the world of bodybuilding, fitness and athletics, personal trainers and strength coaches are a dime a dozen. Of course, some set themselves apart by virtue of their advanced education, years of experience, pure talent and good old-fashioned brilliance. They write the books and articles that the rest of the industry learns from. Truly elite coaches are often recruited by pro bodybuilders, athletes and sports teams to help them reach higher levels through specialized training and dietary protocols developed from thousands of hours of clinical and in-thetrenches research and practice. Charles Poliquin is undoubtedly one of the best and most sought-after strength coaches in the world. He’s coached Olympic medalists in 12 different sports and trains athletes on more than a dozen professional sports teams. He’s lectured all over the globe, written 500-plus articles for Web sites, magazines and journals and published five successful books. Charles’ work is so in demand that it has been translated into seven languages (including the three he speaks himself). As avid IRON MAN readers know, Charles also pens a monthly column for these pages called Smart Training, and if I can be honest, it is the first thing I read every month. I’ve personally learned so much from him that I feel I should send him a nice check…or, um, how about I just urge all of you to check out his Web site, where you can read valuable articles on training and nutrition, order specially designed sports supplements, find out about his seminars and learn about the many services that the Poliquin Performance Center (located in Tempe, Arizona) provides. And if you take just a few minutes to register as a site member (it’s free), you’ll have access to even more essential information. So whether you’re an athlete, bodybuilder, personal trainer or strength coach, you’d be wise to take advantage of all this site has to offer.

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>Video Review: 1993 IRON MAN PRO Just the other day I was watching footage from some recent pro-bodybuilding competitions (because my nephew was hogging my damn Wii), and I began pondering on just how much physiques have changed over the past 10 to 15 years. I kept asking myself whether I would have been motivated to take up the sport if the pros of today had been my role models rather than the guys who were around when I first got bitten by the iron bug. Today’s bodybuilders are more freaky and massive for sure, but are they better? Is bodybuilding progressing or regressing? I guess it depends on how you look at it and what each individual considers “progress” as it relates to the human form. With that in mind, I thought hard about whose physique (past or present) represents what I would consider the ideal. Taking into consideration the parameters related to bodybuilding—size, shape, condition, symmetry, proportion and presentation—the man who popped into my overloaded brain was Flex Wheeler. But not just any Flex Wheeler! The Flex who stood onstage in his first-ever IFBB show, the ’93 IRON MAN Pro Invitational. Knowing that I had that videotape (sorry, no DVDs back then) somewhere in my collection, I began rummaging through my closet. After finding an old pair of pants that I thought were lost and every Playboy that ever featured Pamela Anderson (sorry, honey, I’m not throwing them away), I located the tape. I then grabbed some popcorn (okay, a few unsalted almonds) and sat down to watch Flex Wheeler’s first pro victory. Some would argue that Flex looked better when he won the Arnold Classic a week or so later, but I liked the extra fullness he displayed at the IRON MAN. His muscle bellies were so round, his conditioning so crisp and his structure so beautifully proportioned that nobody could touch him. And that’s saying a lot when you look at who else competed at that show: Lee Labrada, Vince Taylor, Robby Robinson, Paul Dillett (also making his pro debut), not to mention Mr. Natural Mike Ashley, former Mr. Olympia Samir Bannout and “giant killer” Flavio Baccianini, to name just a few. Actually, it might have been one of the best lineups ever! And guess what? The competition is still available at, and for only $9.95. If you don’t have this one, I highly recommend it. It could come in handy if someone is hogging your Wii!

>New E-book: X-traordinary Arms So you want a gnarly pair of massive veinstreaked arms ominously hanging out of your shirt sleeves, huh? Guns that stretch the tape to 20 inches? It can be done, and without drugs. Jonathan Lawson, co-author with IM editor in chief Steve Holman of the new e-book X-traordinary Arms, has arms that measure more than 19 inches—and he’s never taken a steroid. Plus, his wrists measure just under seven inches. Most experts say giant arms like his can’t be built with wrists that small. His results say otherwise (that’s his arm on the cover). So how did he do it? Many of his precise arm-training tactics are presented in the new e-book. He’s used Positions of Flexion, a full-range training concept developed by Holman over the years, but the e-book isn’t a rehash of

POF. In fact, Lawson and Holman show you how to choose specific exercises from the POF arsenal to affect different areas of the biceps and triceps. They present precise POF programs for biceps and triceps width, so your arms look like 20-pound hams hanging by your sides. And they include different POF biceps and triceps programs for peak and sweep, respectively. Every angle is covered, so your guns look loaded whether they’re relaxed or up and flexed. Each program gives you four to six sets of smart-bomb muscle building and includes X Reps, but at specific spots on the stroke of certain exercises for special size effects—peak, width or sweep. Exciting stuff. Check out this new e-book at and turn your guns into cannons! \ FEBRUARY 2008 255

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Eric Broser’s >Net

Results Q&A

The Power/Rep Range/Shock innovator answers your questions on training and nutrition. Q: How many sets do you recommend per bodypart? I’m natural and train four days per week, each bodypart only once. A: It’s hard to make a blanket recommendation regarding how many sets you should do for all of your bodyparts. Individuals have varying ability to recover from training and a lifestyle that’s more or less conducive to the demands of intense weight training (for example, do you sit at a desk all day, or do you perform physical labor?). In addition, you must consider which bodyparts are strong and which are weak in order to determine how much time you should spend on each of them. For instance, if your chest grows easily but your delts lag behind, you might want to add extra sets for shoulders while decreasing sets for pecs. That would keep overall volume the same, so your system can recover, while enabling you to prioritize a weaker bodypart. Your supplementation and nutritional regimen, training intensity and experience level must also be taken into consideration. With these issues in mind, however, I can make a general recommendation, giving you a range of sets that I feel is just about right for most natural lifters with normal recovery ability and average lifestyles (not overly physically or mentally demanding) who also pay close attention to proper nutrition. Quads Lats Chest Shoulders Hamstrings Triceps Biceps Traps Lower back Calves Abs

8-10 sets 8-10 sets 7-9 sets 6-8 sets 6-8 sets 5-7 sets 4-6 sets 3-4 sets 3-4 sets 3-4 sets (twice per week) 3-4 sets (twice per week)

Q: I’m a college student and can only work a part-time job, so I don’t have a lot of money to spend. I’m very dedicated to getting the physique I want, so I put the majority of my cash toward food and a gym membership. I do have a little extra left over, however, which I’d like to use for some helpful supplements. I don’t want to waste my money on nonsense products. Can you please tell me the best basic supplements I should have in my regimen and a schedule for taking them? A: You raise a very common yet very intelligent question. While some excellent sports supplements are available, there are far more “all hype, no results” products lining the shelves of health food stores. You’re very smart for not buying into the outrageous claims that some companies make for their products. People who spend hundreds of dollars a month on supplements are usually looking for a “magic bullet” when they should be focusing on their training program and dietary strategy. I simply shake my head when I overhear a bunch of skinny guys in the locker room discussing their exotic supplement stacks when just moments before I saw them performing 10 sets on the leg extension machine instead of doing some real work in the squat rack or leg press. Now that my little rant is over, let me answer your question. Following are supplements that I have found to be the most useful, and they remain in my program for the majority of the year. • Multivitamins, taken with breakfast and your evening meal. • Mixed EFA oil, 2 to 4 tablespoons per day with meals. • Whey protein, as your preworkout and postworkout protein source. • Creatine, 5 grams along with your postworkout shake. • Glutamine, 5 to 10 grams upon arising and 30 minutes before preworkout and postworkout shakes. • BCAAs, 5 to 10 grams upon arising and 30 minutes before preworkout and postworkout shakes. • Essential amino acid mixture, 5 to 10 grams sipped slowly throughout your workout. IM

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Season’s End Dept.

Kai Greene.

L.T.’s 2007 Awards Who were the brightest stars? Dennis Wolf.

Melvin Anthony.

Desmond Miller.

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Bodybuilder of the Year.

Contest photography by Roland Balik and Merv

The year 2007 is history, and we’re on to a great ’08. But before we go, let’s honor those who shined brightest. PRO BODYBUILDER OF THE YEAR: Silvio Samuel, who else? Samuel began the season with a controversial fourth-place finish at the IRON MAN Pro, but he didn’t let that stop him from proving he’s one of the game’s prime-time players. He competed an incredible eight times in 2007, earning victories in both the open and 210-and-under divisions at the Europa Super Show in August before he ended the year with a powerful seventh-place showing at the Olympia. MOST IMPROVED: Kai Greene, who else? The enjoyable Greene went from hoping to place in the top 15 in 2006 to winning the Colorado Pro in ’07. In between came his sixth-place finish at the New York Pro, followed by a third-place landing at the Keystone Classic. MOST POPULAR UP-AND-COMER: Dennis Wolf, who else? Dennis won the Keystone, then captured the fans’ vote during Bodybuilding.Com’s Olympia Webcast—despite taking sixth in the official balloting. The big, bad Wolf has now put himself among the favorites in the gang who’ll be trying to unseat Jay Cutler at next year’s Big Dance. BEST POSER: Melvin Anthony, who else? It’s all subjective, especially when it comes to this round of competition, but I didn’t give the man the moniker “Marvelous” back in 1994 for nothing. Anthony will always win this vote from me. Best of all time. ROOKIE OF THE YEAR: Desmond Miller, who else? The ’07 NPC National Overall champ took fourth in his flex-for-pay-debut at the New York Pro, then grabbed the runner-up slot at the Keystone Classic. BEST DRESSED: Kenny Jones, closely followed by Rick Bayardi, the dapper NPC state chair for Ohio and West Virginia. BEST HAIR: J.M. Manion, who else? J.M.’s thick, weaved, er, combed coif is tough to beat, though rumor has it Manion is not only a part owner of Hillerman’s Hair Club for Men in Pittsburgh but also a member. SAY WHAT? AWARD: Shawn Ray, who else? In September Sugar

POINTED HUMOR Who’s giving—and getting— the finger now? Page 261

TRENDS What the best dressed fans were wearing Page 265

REMEMBERING REG The passing of a legend Page 265

Shawn told me, “I’m over bodybuilding—I’m done!” In October Ray signed a multi-year deal with Muscular Development, the “World’s Biggest Bodybuilding Magazine.” Guess Steve Blechman and crew are going back to covering mainstream sports. BEST NEW INTERNET SHOW: “The Experts,” starring the Swami, Yogi Avidan and Lifter Hinds, what else? Is this the most shameless plug ever? Absolutely. BEST NEW SIGNATURE POSE: The Yogi point. See photo of the Experts. NPC BODYBUILDERS OF THE YEAR: Ben White and Evan Centopani (tie). BEST NEW CONTEST: the NPC Arnold, with around 250 competitors in its initial outing.

Ben White. Evan Centopani.

NPC Nationals SWAMI STRIKES AGAIN—Okay, for those who’ve been quick to point out the Swami’s supposed slump in recent times, whaddaya have to say for yourselves now? First came the accurate prediction that Jay Cutler would successfully defend his Mr. Olympia crown. Now we have the stunning double pick of Evan Centopani and Kristy Hawkins to win the 25th-anniversary edition of the NPC National Bodybuilding Championships. Yes, the Italian Battalion copped both the superheavyweight and overall titles at the Dallas show in November, while Hawkins, as I predicted many months ago, was able to overcome a busy schedule that includes working 12 hours a day in the lab at Cal Tech in Pasadena, California, to mirror Evan’s achievements in Texas. Check out Ruthless Ruth Silverman’s interviews with Kristy at for more on this wonderful physique athlete. Centopani, a 25-year-old from Trumbull, Connecticut, carried 258 pounds of hard, defined beef on his 5’11” frame and was markedly improved over the physique he displayed in his first crack at the Nationals a year earlier, when he finished second to Desmond “Wheels of Steel” Miller, who took the overall. Evan reminds some of Mike The Experts. Matarazzo, early in Mike’s career, with big calves and guns, but what impressed



Hair Club meeting.

Shawn and Kristie Ray.

Rick Bayardi and Ken Jones. \ FEBRUARY 2008 261

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me the most was the way Centopani has stepped up the density and detail in his quads, hams and back. Dallas continues to be a location of frustration for Northern California’s Grigori Atoyian; the last time Grigori did the Nationals in Texas, in 2004, he was so disappointed with his second-place trophy that he took it off the stage and left before the media could snap photos of the top five. History repeated itself this time around when he took runner-up to Evan. Now, I know how exasperating it is to get so close to a pro card—yet be so far. Things happen in the heat of the moment, but Atoyian has the goods to make it to the next level, for sure, and I hope he’ll work harder on not letting his emotions get the best of him. Another successful Swami pick was A.D. Cherry to take the heavyweight class. Okay, so I picked him to win it last year, when he finished second, but, hey, what’s one year off? The 5’10”, 235-pounder out of Modesto, California, had the smallest waistline in the show in Dallas—at least the tiniest among the dudes in the heavier weight classes—and deserved his unanimous win over phenom Brandon Curry and Florida’s Lee Banks, both of whom are pros in waiting. Curry edged Banks by a single digit for second. The anticipated battle in the light-heavyJose weight division between Peter Putnam and Raymond. Charles “Mason” Dixon never materialized—at least on paper. Dixon, a 5’3”, 209pounder from Piedmont, South Carolina, took the class unanimously (after the top-three and bottom-three scores were tossed out), with Putnam getting second and his USA nemesis, Al Auguste, on his heels in third. How did I see this division? Apples and oranges. Putnam was definitely in better condition than he was at the USA last summer, when he took the class. He was especially tighter in his glutes and hamstrings. Dixon, who generally Carlo appears to carry Filippone. more muscle, inch for inch, than Peter, had him on thickness again. So, as it was at the previous show, it came down to the 5’7”, 208-pound Putnam’s superior lines vs. Dixon’s mighty mass. This time around Charles, who should have earned his pro card at the ’06 Nationals, got the nod. Check out the interview I did with him at IronManMagazine .com, and you’ll know the Dave secret—Charles finally got to Candy. be interviewed by the Swami, and the stupendous karma it brought got him over the hump. No worries, Charlie. I don’t charge that much cash for such favors. Putnam showed class in defeat, not making excuses

Arnold Schwarzenegger

Leonardo Ortiz.

Charles Dixon.

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A.D. Cherry.

Roland Balik

Isaac Hinds \

Kristy Hawkins and L.T.

Nga Azarian

Jeff Olcsvary.

Alex Azarian three days out (left) and onstage.

and promising to come back better next year at either the USA or Nationals. He has done wonderfully for himself as an amateur, including several covers of major magazines, a contract with Met-Rx and, of course, his marriage to pro figure starlet Jessica Paxson-Putnam, Yogi’s favorite babe. In the middleweights it was another title for Jose Raymond, but this year’s USA Middleweight champ looked the absolute best I’ve ever seen him, and that’s saying a mouthful. The former Team Universe Overall winner, out of Woburn, Massachusetts, was a powerful 5’4” and 168 pounds onstage as he swept to the crown with straight ones across the board. The show also ended a terrific year for Guy Cisterino, who followed up his class win at the Junior USA with the runner-up spot behind Jose, setting himself up as one of the faves to win the division in 2008. Carlo Filippone, the New Jersey muscle chef, was ticked at the Swami for leaving him out of the Nationals predictions. As I told Cut Carlo, I had no idea he was even doing the show, and he should have put his pots and pans down long enough to let me know he was ready to go. Carlo was hard as nails, and it took all of that conditioning to edge Stoil Stoilov by a single digit to take the class. Stoilov has a terrific physique, but his Lee Haney lack of biceps, which stood out significantly against and Jim the rest of his sublime body, kept him from getting the Manion. victory. In the lightweight class a tough battle emerged Abbas between Leonardo Ortiz and Travis Rogers, with Ortiz scorKhatami. ing a two-point win. Ortiz, a 150-pounder from Las Piedras, Puerto Rico, got all he could handle from Rogers, a 150-pounder from Levittown, Pennsylvania. The kid I liked in this one was Jeff Olcsvary, a 151-pounder out of Lake Charles, Louisiana, who got a great 22nd birthday present with an impressive third-place finish. It will be hard to keep this fella out of the winner’s circle next season. Based on precontest photos he posted on various Web sites, Alex Azarian with his crazy conditioning looked to be the favorite in the lightweights, but after several things went haywire during the last week, he ended up in eighth. The two biggest problems: He looked great at 162 a month out from the show, and I encouraged him to go in as a welterweight. Azarian, understandably, did not want to take that gamble in his first Nationals, so he dropped 10 pounds to make weight and, in the process, flattened out big time. The second snag was that his competition color (Azarian did not paint himself) could have been the nastiest of any competitor I’ve seen in years, perhaps ever. Alex, who is Armenian, looked darker than most of the black athletes by the time he hit the stage, and with the unnecessary extra color, plus oil.… Well, you get my drift. There was no chance he would be compared with the top five at that point. Azarian realizes the mistakes he made and said he will be back onstage “the right way” next year. Perhaps in a heavier division. Dave “Sugar” Candy, a 143-pounder from Pittsburgh, took the bantamweight class, which resulted in another second-place finish for California’s Fernanco Abaco.

ADD NATIONALS—As it was the 25th anniversary of the Nationals, it figured that several former champs would be on hand. The man who started it all in 1982, Lee Haney, was present, as were Gary Strydom (’86), Shawn Ray (’87), John Sherman (’92), Don Long (’95), Victor Martinez (’00) and Bill Wilmore (’05). We were able to round up most of them to come up onstage and be recognized—and pose for a commemorative photo with women’s champion Kristy Hawkins and NPC Pres Jim “Lats” Manion (see page 284). \ FEBRUARY 2008 263

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ALL-STAR PERFORMANCES—So many dudes to mention here, but one guy really stood out for me. Abbas Khatami, who came back with a vengeance after rumors of his “retirement” proved false, gets a huge thumbs-up. The 5’8”, 222-pounder from Irvine, California, was one of the most conditioned men in the entire show and finished fourth in the toughest class, the heavyweights, behind A.D. Cherry, Brandon Curry and Lee Banks. Even with the depth of the class, Abbas got two first-place votes—and they were not from Southern California judges. If you haven’t seen my interview with Khatami, which took place right after the finals, find it at He can’t wait for ’08, and for good reason. As always, the Nationals ran extremely smoothly; kudos to all those involved behind the scenes, especially to the promotional team of Pam Betz and Steve Karel.

Photo courtesy of Ed Corney

Later in the evening, Haney presented Manion with a proclamation from the President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sport acknowledging Jim’s contributions to the world of sport and fitness over the past 25 years. Lee, who’s one of the greatest bodybuilders of all time and the man who remains tied with Ronnie Coleman as the winner of the most Mr. Olympia titles—eight—is an even finer human being than he is a bodybuilder. I’m looking forward to hosting the first Lee Haney Challenge, to take place in Shreveport, Louisiana, in early May.

Ed Corney and Cathy LeFrancois.

People CORNEY IS STILL GOING STRONG—Fast Eddie Corney, who turned 74 on November 4, made it two shows in a row again this year, first attending the Olympia Weekend at the end of September and then making his usual appearance at the NPC San Francisco, which I emceed, a week later. As I was introducing Ed, who was going to present a trophy, my mind shifted to John Balik’s description of the breathtaking posing routine that Corney performed at a famous exhibition at New York’s Whitney Museum that took place some 32 years ago. Wish I could have been there. Corney says he’s still training six days a week on a double-split routine. As you can see in the photo with Cathy LeFrancois, taken at the NPC show in Hayward, Ed’s smile still lights up a room. Especially when he has a lovely lady on his arm! Don’t miss his Web site,


L.T. and John Hansen.

TONEY SPRINGS INTO ACTION—Toney Freeman appeared on the “Jerry Springer Show” on November 4 (to be aired at a later date), playing the head bouncer. Todd Greene, president of Headblade (which is one of Toney’s sponsors), set up the episode, in which the defending IRON MAN Pro champ was also a champ in breaking up several fights that took place during the show’s three segments. Freeman said the producers really liked him—my Lord, why wouldn’t they?—and that he’s due for a repeat engagement. My question to the X Man: Are you due for a repeat engagement at the IM Pro on February 16 to defend your title? You can buy me a birthday dinner (everyone remember that date if you want to send money, gift cards, etc.) with the prize money. More on the upcoming ’08 IM Pro and Arnold Schwarzenegger Classic weekends next month. 264 FEBRUARY 2008 \

Toney Freeman and Jerry Springer.

Reg Park and L.T.

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JOHN HANSEN UPDATE—Ran into the IRON MAN columnist at the Olympia banquet, and the hardworking former Mr. Natural Olympia told me of a couple of projects he’s put together, one completed and one on the way. John will be promoting his second bodybuilding show, probably called the John Hansen Natural Bodybuilding Classic, on March 8, 2008, at Romeville High in Romeville, Illinois. Additionally, his new DVD, “Natural Bodybuilding Seminar and Competitions,” is now available. You’ll find all the info at

UP, DOWN AND ROUND THE NATIONALS Photography by Ron Avidan




1) Figure pro Krissy Chin and fitness pro Kendra Elias pretty up the ALRI booth. 2) “Muscle Chef” Carlo Fillippone is as conditioned as the statue he won. 3) Phil Heath shows how MetRx products can get you to 270 pounds. 4) Deann Godwin and Timea Majorova look good for SAN. 5

5) Bill Wilmore greets the tattooed man.


Reg Park—1928–2007 It was a sad Thanksgiving here in the States as the news came out of South Africa that Reg Park, who had been battling metastatic melanoma, had died at age 79. The man who inspired Arnold Schwarzenegger recently celebrated his 55th wedding anniversary to the lovely Mareon; I was lucky enough to sit at the same table with the couple at the Arnold Classic banquet last March. I remember getting a call from IM Publisher John Balik about 20 years ago. “Reg Park is coming into town,” he said. “Would you like to interview him?” I responded, “Would I like Jon Jon Park, John Balik, Reg Park and to find a cure for male-pattern baldness?” Gene Mozée. Park’s message for his well-wishers, which is posted at, shows the class Park exemplified all of his life. The industry has lost a great human being. Condolences to the Park family. May Reg rest in peace after so much suffering in recent times. IM To contact Lonnie Teper about material possibly pertinent to News & Views, write to 1613 Chelsea Road, #266, San Marino, CA 91108; fax to (626) 289-7949; or send e-mail to \ FEBRUARY 2008 265

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Clark Bartram, age 41

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Supplement Guide Compounds That Keep the MASS Coming Through Middle Age and Beyond

by Steve Holman


oo many people accept hitting age 40 as the start of a physical downhill slide. Not so. In fact, as Sherwin B. Nuland, clinical professor of surgery at Yale University, suggests in his book The Art of Aging, after midlife is when man’s creativity and ingenuity kick in. It’s when many discover their talents for such artistic endeavors as painting—or sculpting. And what better way to use that creativity than to sculpt and strengthen the very thing that can improve the quality of your life—your body. Yes, it’s true that a lot of the body’s processes begin to slow when you reach middle age, but the muscle-growth process doesn’t have to turn into a fight to maintain. You can still gain, and a number of supplements can help you sculpt a bigger, better physique. Many can improve your overall health as well, as in antiaging elixirs.


Phosphatidylserine The research on PS, which is derived from soy lipids, started in Italy, where cyclists used it to reduce cortisol—the muscleeating stress hormone that also destroys testosterone— an average of 30 percent.

It worked for aerobic athletes’ recovery and tolerance, but what about athletes whose anaerobic workouts are geared for building muscle? Enter Thomas Fahey, who spearheaded research at California State University, Chico, in 1998. He subjected experienced weight trainers to overtraining. The subjects who got the PS “had considerably less muscle soreness and a better perception of wellbeing than those who didn’t get the PS.” The study showed that a big part of the reason was a 30 percent reduction in cortisol—good news for any athlete, but especially those looking to gain muscle. There’s more good news. Older and newer

research shows that cortisol can damage brain tissue and that PS, by controlling cortisol, improves brain function, like cognitive ability and focus. Are you starting to see why this natural compound is so important, especially as we age? It’s anticatabolic not only for muscle tissue but brain tissue as well. It’s an antistress supplement that helps on a number of levels. That should be easy to remember—if you’re taking PS. Recommendation: Take 600 to 800 milligrams prior to your workouts. You may also want to take another 200 to 400 milligrams before bed, as research shows that cortisol spikes in the latter hours of sleep. [Note: If you use CortBloc, 600 to 800 milligrams is four capsules. See page 156 for more information.] Monteleone, P., et al. (1990). Effects of phosphatidylserine on the neuroendocrine response to physical stress in humans. Neuroendocrinol. 52:243-248. Fahey, T., and Pearl, M. (1998). The hormonal and perceptive effects of phosphatidylserine administration during two weeks of weight-training-induced overtraining. Biol Sport. 15:135-144 Crook, T. H., et al. (1991). Effects of phosphatidylserine in ageassociated memory impairment.

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Midlife-Muscle Supplement Guide cardio workouts. BCAAs are especially critical if you do cardio on an empty stomach for enhanced fat burning, but anytime is a good time. Your body is constantly looking for reasons to reduce muscle, but circulating BCAAs can slam the door on that catabolic cascade. Recommendation: BCAAs should be used liberally throughout the day, especially with solid-food meals. As you age, digestion and protein utilization aren’t as efficient as they need to be, so taking two to four BCAA capsules with meals will ensure that you have muscle-building blocks available immediately, independent of solidfood digestion.

Neurol. 41:644649.

BranchedBranchedChain Amino Acids Acids Amino acids are the building blocks of muscle tissue, so it only makes sense that liberal use of a branched-chain-amino-acid supplement will enhance muscle growth. New studies show that taking as little as two grams of BCAAs before exercise preserves muscle tissue. That can be effective prior to weight and

Matsumoto, K., et al. (2007). Branched-chain amino acids and arginine supplementation attenuates skeletal muscle proteolysis induced by moderate exercise in young individuals. Int J Sports Med. 28:531–538.



Author Steve Holman, age 48

Remember this: NO begets better blood flow. NO is nitric oxide, and its primary precursor is the amino acid L-arginine. In his feature “Say Yes to NO” in the January ’08 IRON MAN, Jerry Brainum discussed the work of scientist Louis J. Ignarro, a professor of pharmacology at UCLA who is a staunch advocate of using arginine as a means of increasing NO production in the body. In his book No More Heart Disease he suggests that increasing NO production through supplemental arginine will prevent heart attacks and strokes. That’s reason enough to add NO precursors like L-arginine to your supplement arsenal, but it can also facilitate the muscle-building process. Better blood flow means better nutrient delivery to muscles, and that’s even more important once you reach middle age. Why? Efficient use of protein, glycogen and other nutrients becomes somewhat impaired as you get

older. It also means you get better pumps during your workouts. Big pumps lead to more motivation to keep training hard (us old guys need all the motivation we can get). Speaking of hard, did you know the drug Viagra works via nitric oxide production? See, a bigger, better pump is a good thing on a number of different levels. Recommendation: Take before your workout, as directed on the bottle of your chosen NO-precursor supplement. Using it before cardio is also a good idea, as enhancing blood flow can improve fat burning (take it with your BCAAs).

L-Carnitine L-Carnitine L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine are known as fat-to-muscle supplements because they can enhance the fat-burning process. How? They shuttle fat to the mitochondria, which are the furnace of cells. Studies also show that carnitine may enhance muscularforce production, a key to stimulating muscle growth. Researchers found that it improved the contractile force in the latissimus dorsi of dogs by 34 percent and overall force production by 31 percent. A new study shows that after 21 days of carnitine supplementation, the numbers of androgen receptors on muscle were increased. Androgen receptors interact with testosterone, which can result in more muscle growth. Bonus: Carnitine has been used successfully to treat male sexual dysfunction. Recommendation: Take 1,500 milligrams before breakfast and another 1,500 milligrams before lunch. Kraemer, W.J., et al. (2003). The effects of L-carnitine L-tartrate supplementation on hormonal responses to resistance exercise and recovery. J Strength Cond Res. 17:455-462.

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Kraemer, W.J., et al. (2006). Androgenic responses to resistance exercise: Effects of feeding and L-carnitine. Med Sci Sports Exer. 38:1288-1296.

Creatine Creatine If you’ve been around bodybuilding for any length of time, you know that creatine is one of the most researched and resultproducing supplements you can use—if you’re a responder.

It fortifies muscle energetics, which means it helps you grind out more reps on lower-rep power sets. It can also help volumize muscles by bringing in more fluid. What you may not know about creatine is that it’s a health builder as well as a muscle maker.

New research shows that creatine has significant antioxidant activity and may help protect against diseases like cancer. It also appears to help protect the skin from ultraviolet-light damage—as in fewer wrinkles. Plus, it has brainbuilding characteristics. In fact, the brain loads creatine for energy production just the way muscles do. More good news: Research says it’s completely safe, with no adverse side effects if you avoid dehydration. Remember, creatine

Midlife-Muscle Supplements Supplement


• Phosphatidylserine (PS)

600 to 800 milligrams

• Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs)

2 to 4 grams

• Vasodilators (L-arginine based)

• L-carnitine

As indicated on label

2 to 3 grams

• Creatine

5 grams

When to Take It Before workouts and/or before bed

Before workouts and with solid-food meals

Before workouts (weight and cardio sessions)

Before breakfast and before lunch

After workout

• Beta-alanine

3 to 6 grams

Upon awakening in the morning

• L-leucine

4 to 6 grams

After workout

• L-glutamine

3 to 6 grams

Before and/or after workout

• Omega-3s (fish oil)

2 to 3 grams

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Midlife-Muscle Supplement Guide

Sestili, P., et al. (2006). Creatine supplementation affords cytoprotection in oxidatively injured cultured mammalian cells via direct antioxidant activity. Free Rad Biol Med. 40:837-849. Lenz, H., et al. (2005). The creatine kinase system in human skin: Protective effects of creatine against oxidative and UV damage in vitro and in vivo. J Invest Dermatol. 124:443-452. Dechent, P., et al. (2006). Increase of total creatine in human brain after oral supplementation of creatine monohydrate. Am J Physiol. 277:R698-R704.

Beta-Alanine Beta-Alanine It’s a simple muscle-building equation: Drive out more reps, and you stimulate more growth. It all boils down to the size principle of fiber recruitment. On the first few easy reps of a set you engage the low-threshold motor units—mostly slow-twitch fibers; on the middle reps you engage the mediumthreshold motor units, which recruit a few more fast-twitch fibers. The problem is, you don’t get to the fasttwitch fibers with the most growth potential until the last hard reps of a set. That’s when the high-threshold motor units kick in.

Unfortunately, if you do reps in the hypertrophic zone—eight to 12—muscle burn can stop you before you get at many, if any, high-

threshold motor units. Beta-alanine can help, as it converts to carnosine in muscle tissue. Carnosine acts as a buffering agent that postpones the burn. Result: You power out more growth reps on every set. Betaalanine works especially well in

Dave Goodin, age 48


pulls fluid into muscle tissue, so drink plenty of water. Recommendation: Take five grams after your workout. That’s the anabolic window when the muscles are most receptive to refilling depleted stores.

conjunction with creatine, but there’s more good news—on the health front. Beta-alanine has antioxidant properties in that it increases glutathione and taurine levels in the liver. So it appears to be a natural liver protector that also heightens the organ’s detoxifying power. Recommendation: Take three grams upon awakening, on an empty stomach. [Note: If you use Red Dragon, two capsules equals three grams. See page 153 for more information.] A tingling-skin effect is normal and an indicator that you’re getting real beta-alanine. Lee, S.Y., et al. (2006). Effect of beta-alanine administration on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity. Amino Acids. 33:543546.

L-Leucine You know that amino acids are the building blocks of muscle, but one of the most essential in the muscle-building process appears to be L-leucine. New research shows that taking just a few grams of L-leucine immediately after you train gives an extra boost to protein synthesis, kick-starting the anabolic process. As you get older...ah, you know the rest—we older guys need to maximize all the anabolic kicks possible. Recommendation: Take four to six grams postworkout to heighten the anabolic environment. Willoughby, D.S., et al. (2006). Effects of resistance training and protein plus amino acid supplementation on muscle anabolism, mass and strength. Amino Acids DOI. 32:467-477.

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Midlife-Muscle Supplement Guide

Wischmeyer, P.E. (2006). Glutamine: The first clinically relevant pharmacological regulator of heat shock protein? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 9:201-206.

Omega-3s You’ve no doubt read about the health benefits of fish oil. Modern man’s diet has an imbalance in the ratio of omega-6s to omega3s, primarily because of grain-fed animals. Grass-fed livestock has a balance of the omega fats, whereas grain-fed animals have too much

Neveux \ Model: Clark Bartram

L-Glutamine L-Glutamine A conditionally essential amino acid, L-glutamine is known as an immune-system booster and muscle-recovery enhancer. New research says it’s more anabolic than was previously thought. It encourages the synthesis of heat shock proteins and blocks cortisol’s antianabolic effects by interfering with the stress hormone’s interaction with myostatin, a muscle-growth-governing substance in the body. A lot of research suggests that reduced myostatin is why some people are more genetically suited to extreme muscle mass, so myostatin is bad for muscle growth. According to researcher Jerry Brainum, “That finding casts glutamine in a new light, indicating that it has enormous potential for stimulating anabolic effects in muscle. Once again, however, the effects are likely to become apparent only with high-intensity exercise.” In other words, when you’re training hard, take glutamine. Recommendation: Take three grams pre- and/or postworkout— or even more. Coach Charles Poliquin is such a big proponent of glutamine that he takes up to 80 grams spread throughout the day, with a lot of it preworkout.

of the 6s and too little 3s. Omega-6s are linked to inflammation, which is believed to be the cause of a number of diseases, including cancer; omega 3s have anti-inflammatory effects. So what does that have to do with building muscle? As Nicholas Perricone, M.D., writes in his latest book, The Perricone Weight-Loss Diet, “Omega3 essential fatty acids can improve athletic performance, helping to make muscle cells stronger and more efficient; actually build muscle and lose bodyfat. There are even steroidlike substances in the body, like PPARs, that can help achieve these goals when activated by omega-3s.” The essential fatty acids have also been linked to testosterone production, which, as you know, is highly anabolic and can help you burn bodyfat, especially around the middle. Recommendation: Fish-oil capsules, two to three grams, with every solid-food meal—at least three doses a day. Now, you don’t have to take every supplement listed, and you may

want to cycle some—for example, creatine, which has been shown to be less effective with prolonged use due to decreased receptor efficiency. Pick and choose so you use the ones you think will be most effective, or rotate a few in and out of your regimen. Me? I tend to use more of the above during the spring and summer, when my training is most intense, and then taper off in the fall and winter. What’s interesting is that, with these supplements and the evolution of my training, I’ve made the best gains of my life in my mid-40s—even better than when I was in my early 20s. That’s exciting and fuels my motivation to press on with a vengeance. Do I train to maintain? Hell, no—I train to grow. Note: For the specific supplements Holman uses, see his “Size Surge Supplements” feature and training blog at Editor’s note: Steve Holman is 48 years old and has written more than 15 books and e-books on building muscle and burning fat. His newest work, still in progress, is titled The Mature Man Muscle Plan. IM

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About February: • NPC Nationals • Hot New Pros • Pump Pourri


Photography by Ruth Silverman, Roland Balik and Merv

MISS NEW BOOTY Tina Durkin, an Air Force Reservist, trainer and mom from Virginia, took the fitness overall with those fateful words emblazoned on her back.

CONDITION, CONDITION, CONDITION Question: What’s the secret to success in women’s bodybuilding? For Kristy “Crazy Legs” Hawkins (near left), a graduate student from Pasadena, California, it’s those three little words. The shredded light heavyweight flexed to an overall victory over heavyweight Bev DiRenzo (pictured) and a couple of other class champs who were not so shredded. As one athlete observed, “The judging was confusing.” Yeah, but the results made more sense than you think. Check out the photo galleries and video from the NPC Nationals, held in Dallas in November, at IronManMagazine. com.

THE COMPANY SHE KEEPS Kristy shares a photo-op with eight-time Mr. Olympia Lee Haney and a slew of his fellow former NPC overall champs to celebrate the Nationals’ 25th anniversary (from left): Don Long (’95), Victor Martinez (’00), NPC President Jim Manion, Haney (’82), Bill Wilmore (’05), John Sherman (’92) and Shawn Ray (’87). 284 FEBRUARY 2008 \

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NEKOLE HAMRICK More posing drama from the heavyweight secondplacer.

AWESOME POSING Newcomer Yasha took second in the middleweights with a dramatic routine that built to a rousing, gospel-hip hop finale TEXAS IN THE HOUSE Middleweight champ Tina Chandler and fellow Houstonian Carolyn Bryant swap biceps shots. Other Lone Star State standouts included Beni Lopez, Yasha, Kristina Rojas and Kristy Hawkins, who’s originally from Dallas.

BODS ON THE MOVE 1) Nice. Beni Lopez, last seen tying for last at the North American Figure Championships in September, switched to bodybuilding and became the new symmetrical sensation, winning the lightweights at age 45. 2) Mission statement. “I’m 41 and proud of it,” declares middleweight thirdplacer Janet Kaufman. Well, heck, it is our over-40 issue.

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3) Left jab, right jab. Tara Guzman says the secret to her newly trim midsection is boxing, which she took up as a fitness activity. 4) Fascinating female. Heavyweight vet Yamille Marrow proves a fun interview—lawyer, college teacher, firefighter and, of course, bodybuilder.

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NOT FROM TEXAS But a ringer for Texas’ greatest gift to women’s bodybuilding, Rachel McLish, is California girl Tanya Merryman, who returned to the stage in a big way to win her class at the Nationals. The 34--yearold fitness star, trainer and mom is a double-barrelled threat—a killer bod, killer routine skills and the kind of sparkle you just don’t get from a tube. Guess that makes her a triple-barrelled threat.

GUESS WHO Kim Chizevsky poses with number-two son Morgan James Nicholls. To find out why the four-time Ms. Olympia and Morgan’s dad, Chad Nicholls, pulled the plug on their All-Star Pro Fitness, at least for 2008, read my blog at MORE MOMS IN THE NEWS Michelle Flake (three daughters) looks pretty pleased with herself, and well she should.

HONORED TO BE HERE Photojournalist and IFBB Women’s Historian Steve Wennerstrom was honored with a lifetime achievement award for all he’s done to support the women’s physique sports—and the athletes. A former UCLA track coach, he has been involved in women’s bodybuilding since the late ’70s, but his interest was sparked even earlier, he has said, when “the writings of Dr. Al Thomas in Iron Man opened my eyes to how very special the muscularly developed woman really was.” Aukland, who presented the composed but misty-eyed honoree with a beautiful trophy and some $4,500 in checks and gift certificates from a grateful generation (or two or three) of athletes at the Nationals, organized the award. Originally, she said, she’d hoped to buy him a digital camera setup, but friends of the iconoclastic Wennerstrom, who is famously the last holdout in the press pit still shooting film, convinced her he was too old school to switch.

After laying low during most of ’07, Michelle eased into the post-Olympia Sacramento and Kentucky shows to pick up a couple of easy wins—without breaking a sweat, it seems. CLASS ACT Breann Robinson won me over with her polished Elvis routine.

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F I T N E S S N AT ’ S

The Future of Fitness

CHEERS 20-year old Kristina Rojas, a former arena football cheerleader, took the short class in a split decision.

LOW (BABY) FAT 16-year-old Victoria Larvie celebrated her fourth appearance at the Fit Nat’s by moving up to fourth.

FRESHEST NEW FACE I SAW ALL YEAR Even at the end of a long season, Violet Mundy had the wattage to get a battle-weary reporter’s attention at first sight (see the following page). Fourth in the tall class, the 5’8” former stuntwoman from Fort Lauderdale, Florida, is like a lot of the newer fitness recruits— just beginning to hone her routine skills but brimming with potential. Plus, she knows how to hold for the money shot. MORE NEW PROS

The runners-up in fitness also earned pro cards. Tall to short, from left: 1) Tracy Redding looked slick enough to slide into second behind Tanya Merryman. 2) Siene Silva proved a most graceful—and strong—Dracula and finished behind Tina Durkin. 3) Tonya Burkhart impressed the judges with her rock ‘n’ roll routine and her rockin’ body and came within five points of catching Kristina Rojas. 1


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Victoria and Regina Larvie plan their postcontest banquet. Hot wings at Hooters, says Mom. Works for me.


Below: A couple of chicas sitting around the GNC booth—Adela Garcia and Michelle Adams. Thanks for the bar samples, guys. Couldn’t have made it through the season without you. Far left: The real voice of bodybuilding, Kenny Kassel, reintroduces me to Melissa Pearo, a software engineer for the FAA and figure pro. You gotta love it. Left: Bev DiRenzo clicks her heels three times, praying her abs will still be in when she opens them.

Photography by Ruth Silverman

Texas couples stroll the lobby. Above left: Bernadette Galvan and new hubby/longtime beau Anthony Delagarza. Above: Iris Kyle and John Sherman.

Backstage buds and sometime rivals Dr. Michelle Neil and Sheila Bleck. Sheila, who passed on competing at this one, choreographed Michelle’s sensuous new routine.

Flavia Crisos, Monica Martin and Lauren Powers were all over the Fairmont Hotel like heavy on metal.

To find out what I really had to say about the ’07 NPC Nationals, read my Pump & Circumstance blog at

Striking. Violet Mundy catches the camera’s lens at the weigh-in.

WORKING HARD AND HARDLY WORKING—The IRON MAN team gathers to carb-load and strategize before the men’s judging (from left): L.T., Roland Balik, yours truly and mighty Merv Petralba.

You can contact Ruth Silverman, fitness, figure and women’s bodybuilding reporter and Pump & Circumstance scribe, in care of IRON MAN, 1701 Ives Ave., Oxnard, CA 93033; or via e-mail at

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’07 Ms. Olympia

Iris Kyle

Photography by John Balik, Roland Balik and Merv

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’07 Figure Olympia

Jenny Lynn First Place

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’07 Fitness Olympia

Adela Garcia First Place \ FEBRUARY 2008 291

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Jen Hendershott

Adela Garcia

Kim Klein

Oksana Grishina

’07 Ms. Olympia

’07 Figure Olympia

1) Iris Kyle 2) Dayana Cadeau 3) Yaxeni Oriquen-Garcia 4) Lisa Aukland 5) Heather Armbrust 6) Betty Pariso 7) Bonny Priest 8) Nicole Ball 9) Sarah Dunlap 10) Annie Rivieccio

1) Jenny Lynn 2) Gina Aliotti 3) Sonia Adcock 4) Jennifer Gates 5) Amanda Savell 6) Amber Littlejohn


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’07 Fitness Olympia 1) Adela Garcia 2. Kim Klein 3) Jen Hendershott 4) Tanji Johnson 5) Tracey Greenwood 6) Julie Palmer 7) Oksana Grishina 8) Julie Lohre 9) Julie Shipley-Childs 10) Mindi O’Brien

Model: Derik Farnsworth

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Only the Strong Shall Survive



In Quest of Those Abominable Abdominals by Bill Starr Photography by Michael Neveux


t Johns Hopkins I could always tell when it was getting close to spring break. The situp stations would be busy all day. The quest for a six-pack was under way in earnest for both men and women. Knowing that their bodies would soon be under full scrutiny on a beach in Florida or Texas was sufficient motivation for attacking their abs. When I trained at commercial gyms across the country, I could spot the men who were having an illicit affair or who were recently divorced. Serious ab work was suddenly an integral part of their workouts. Why abs? Simple. If you want to appear physically fit and healthy for the opposite sex—or even your own—you have to have a toned midsection. Beer guts and love handles just don’t cut it. To most, the condition of the abdominals is the best barometer of a person’s overall fitness. A person with big arms and a big chest may indeed be strong, but if his middle is flabby, he’s not fit. That’s why I’m not that impressed with the current crop of bodybuilders. They lack the eye-popping abs that were standard for the top men when I first got involved in weight training. There was even a time when the best abs got special recognition at the Mr. America contests. I always thought that was a great

idea, enabling some of the smaller we know that’s not the case, not athletes to gain rewards for their by a long shot. To shed unwanted hard work on some bodypart. pounds and transform your abs As most older readers know, Zabo into distinct rows of muscle takes Koszewski dominated the Best Abs time and concentrated effort. If the category at major contests for many spirit is willing, then the flesh will years. He had no peer, and that was respond, for the abs can handle the long before steroids and specialwork and respond favorably. ized ab machines. Zabo and others I witnessed an example of exlike him achieved extraordinary treme ab training when I helped a ab development the old-fashioned gym startup in Edgewood, Maryway—lots of hard work on the baland. Back then men and women sics. I never verified it with him, trained separately, so the facilbut the story goes that Zabo started ity contained two workout areas. doing situps to help repair damage Donna and I were in charge of from a double hernia and ended up instructing the new female memdoing as many as a thoubers. I handled the sand a day. primary exercises, Which brings me to a and she took care salient point about the of the rest, includabs—they can handle a ing ab exercises. great deal of work. Once Because she felt the base is solid, abs can that doing an exerbe exercised for extended cise with a person periods and several times helped motivation, during the day. That’s why she worked right I’m a bit doubtful about alongside memthe programs advertised bers she taught to in the media that promise do situps and leg startling results in just a raises. I agreed few minutes a day, three with her, although times a week. A person I had no idea how who’s already trim may get she did those noticeable results with that two exercises all approach, but anybody carday and into the rying excess weight around night. She told the waist is going to have to me she figured Zabo Koszewski. do a lot more than that. A that on one busy whole lot more. Monday she did more than If it were as easy to achieve a 1,500 situps and almost as many leg six-pack as the marketers profess, raises. Needless to say, she could then the majority of those who have done her laundry on her abs, train would have them. Of course, and she was an inspiration to the \ FEBRUARY 2008 299

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The Ab Bench has a rounded back pad for full-range action. It’s the Rolls-Royce of ab machines (available at

Model: Tom Voss

members to put in more effort for their midsections. One of the reasons you don’t see very many examples of fit abs is the quick-fix mentality that dominates our present culture. Whatever we want, we want now. Forget lay-away; put it on the credit card. Need to drop some weight? Take a pill— faster and a hell of a lot easier than dieting and exercising. That attitude is what prompts the marketing machines and fitness programs to promise an easy, fast, painless solution to getting rid of pounds around the middle. I’m not saying that all of those programs and machines aren’t effective, because some of them can be if they’re worked consistently and vigorously enough. To contend that dramatic results can be achieved

Cable crunches are a good alternative to on-the-floor crunches, but don’t jerk your torso down. Feel your abs working.

Model: Dan Decker

Six-Pack Attack

with a minimum of effort only a few days a week, however, is totally false. The masses always embrace comfortable solutions to a problem over difficult ones, but when your goal is to burn off fat and build muscle in its place, you must take exactly the opposite course: Seek out a demanding routine and attack. Creating a six-pack requires much more than just exercising your abs rigorously and consistently. Quite often you have to alter your eating habits drastically and become more active. You may be able to build a nice set of abdominals through hard work, but if you’re still carrying excess weight, nobody—including you—will be able to see that newly formed muscle. I don’t plan on going into depth on diet. Excellent articles dealing with the subject appear in IRON MAN each month—especially the ones written by Jerry Brainum, which provide valuable insight into how to lose weight while maintaining your strength. Nevertheless, here are a few tips that might help you get started on shedding some unwanted pounds. • Eliminate all junk foods and others that only provide empty calories. • Eat fewer carbs and build your diet around protein. • Take supplements to ensure that you’re getting all the vital vitamins and minerals as you lower your

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Six-Pack Attack

Model: Federica Belli

on your nontraining days. A friend of mine loves to garden and work on his lawn, and every summer he drops a dozen pounds doing just that. For older trainees the quest for a six-pack is even tougher than it is for the younger set, and it has nothing to do with eating habits or how active they are. It all comes down to Mother Nature. Until the age of 40, men produce an adequate amount of testosterone and women estrogen. That helps control fat allocation, keeping it away from the abdomen, and when the hormones begin to decline, the fat starts flowing from the legs, hips and arms to the abs, accumulating deep inside the belly. To add insult to injury, once you hit 30, your lean muscle mass decreases by about a pound a year. Those who aren’t active enough discover that muscle gets quickly reHanging kneeups. placed by fat. You can’t Tough but effective. change the facts, but it’s not a lost cause. Two studies that analyzed the effects of strength training in adults between 50 and 70 calorie intake. years old showed a 10 to 15 • Cut way back on percent decrease in belly sugar and products fat despite no loss of bodyhigh in sugar content, weight. which includes many A study published in beverages. the Journal of the AmeriAt the same time can Medical Association increase your in 2003 explained that activity level. It women who exdoesn’t have to ercised 30 to 45 be an organized minutes a day, class or regimen. five days a week, Just start walking a for a year cut their bit farther or participatbelly fat by 3 to 6 pering in some athletic activity. cent. The more exercise Here’s a truism that’s been they did, the more belly fat around for a long time: If you they lost. burn more calories than you While we can’t do a hell absorb, you’re going to lose weight. of a lot about getting older, If you eat more than you burn off, we can stay active and, if we you’ll gain. Every little bit counts. follow a sensible eating plan, keep Find something you enjoy, and do it from becoming chubby with a pro-

TOO-QUICK FIX? Should none of this advice appeal to you, you might want to try what a physique contestant did in Erie, Pennsylvania, where I was a judge. To convey the illusion that he had a six-pack, he shaved his midsection, leaving thin, horizontal strips of hair to make it appear that he was well-defined. It didn’t work, but had I been awarding points for creativity, I would have given him high marks.

BOOMER ALERT While I don’t think that men under 40 need to be concerned about their testosterone levels, it’s a good idea for those older than that to be checked out by a doctor. It’s a simple blood test and will determine whether your level is below normal and needs to improve. If it does, the doctor can prescribe testosterone in a variety of forms: injections, cream, patches and pills. Many of my contemporaries use some type of testosterone supplementation and swear by it. All contend that the additional hormone gives them extra energy, helps them feel healthier and gives them a more positive outlook on life. And testosterone has been shown in research to heighten fat burning, especially in the midsection. truding gut. Hey, I like sweets and high-carb foods, too, and can’t say I really enjoy pounding away on my abs six days a week. After a trip to the supermarket or mall, though, I come home determined that I won’t permit myself to get so lazy that I look like 90 percent of the men I see waddling around like whales out of water. Laziness is what it’s all about in the final analysis, laziness and lack of discipline, which in a way are the same thing. Battling the bulge has much greater implications than mere vanity. Accumulated belly fat can cause serious health problems. Research has associated it with increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and some forms of cancer. Two types of fat have to be reckoned with: 1) the subcutaneous kind, which that

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Bigger, Stronger and Leaner Faster Than Ever Before! You don’t have to burn hard-earned muscle as you melt away fat. Now you can actually build more muscle size and strength as your abs get razor sharp and you get ripped. That’s the attention-grabbing look you want now, and the new Fat to Muscle 2 shows you how. You’ll discover:

Precise nutrition guidelines and diets— eat to max out your muscle mass as pounds of ugly bodyfat disappear. (Learn the CarbStacking strategy that can transform muscle size and stoke the fat-burning furnace.) Which substance—found in almost any kitchen—is the ultimate aid for energy, better muscular response and fat burning. How dairy can help you burn fat— yogurt, cheese and milk can get you leaner. How to increase fat use with a minimum of aerobic exercise, and why aerobics may be a waste of time for a lean, muscular look. The amazing direct/indirect Fat-toMuscle 2 training program—with this innovative routine it appears as if you train a bodypart only once a week, but you really train each twice thanks to indirect work (and each workout takes less than an hour). The 8 key nutrients for faster fat burning, including how much to take of each. Top 6 fat-to-muscle tricks. (Great info!) The 10 rules for super energy. The secrets to melting away bodyfat as you build lean, ripped muscle are all packed in this bulletin—eating plans, workout routines, metabolism-acceleration techniques and the best fat-to-muscle nutrients. Stop dieting Pack On Le an away muscle—pack As You Shed Mass Bodyfat Includes carb on more as you burn -sta diets, grow cking and carb-reducti th on horm one activatio fat-burning n, wor fat, and look your and the 10 kouts and supplements Rules for Sup er Energy hard, muscular best in record time!

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Model: Joey Gloor

lies just under the skin, and 2) visceral fat, which develops deep inside the abdomen and is the more troublesome of the two. The underlying fat hampers the liver’s processing of cholesterol and insulin, as well as the normal functioning of other tissues and systems. A study conducted by the VU Medical Center in Amsterdam found a link between accumulated visceral fat and capilI’m very aware of lary inflammation, the criticism about which contributes situps, that they to heart disease, involve the hips and as well as insulin legs too much. I don’t resistance, a preconsider that a bad cursor of diabetes. thing. So if you’ve let yourself pack on too many extra pounds around your middle, it’s time to get rid of it. Change your eating habits, get in motion, and begin a systematic routine for your abs. The good news is that you can alter the process, and there are plenty of ab exercises to choose from—many that you can do at home without any sort of equipment. My favorite has always been bent-knee situps. You can do them lying flat on the floor with your toes hooked under the edge of a couch, but I prefer doing them on Excess blubber requires a slight incline. Am I the only one extreme action. who’s noticed that situp boards have vanished from gyms and fitand then slowly elevate the incline ness facilities? They were always so that he or she has to continuousan essential part of every gym until ly work harder. Yet it’s not an abrupt the supposedly more effective spechange. cialized pieces came along. Situp I’m very aware of the criticism boards are now considered obsolete. about situps, that they involve the In a pig’s eye. Give me a situp board hips and legs too much. I don’t with a ladder so that the angle can consider that a bad thing. It’s the be changed and a willing subject, reason I have athletes do situps as and I can convert his flabby middle part of their warmup. I want the to a six-pack. One reason I like an other groups to be part of the act, adjustable situp station is that I can and, regardless of whether the hips start someone on the lowest rung

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Six-Pack Attack to scorch your abs, you need to do very high reps. That doesn’t mean you should avoid the various forms of kneeups. They help strengthen the abs, particularly the lower ones, and that, in turn, enables you to do higher reps on other ab movements. Plus, they add variety to the overall ab program. Keep in mind that the lower abs require more at-

Situps and crunches primarily hit the upper abs and leg raises and reverse crunches the lower, so they make a perfect team.

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Model: Joey Gloor

but it sure worked. When I went to the gym, I took advantage of a chinning bar to do another ab exercise, kneeups while hanging from the bar. They served as warmups for my weight workout and helped add to the workload for my abdominals. They’re also called frog kicks, and we used to do them after an isotonic-isometric workout at York, not so much to strengthen our abs as to relieve stress to the back. The only problem with hanging kneeups and kneeups done while locked in a piece of equipment especially designed for the purpose is that you can’t do very many, and

Model: Ceasar Martinez

and legs are helping out, when you move your situps from 100 reps to 200, your abs are carrying the bulk of the load. The adjustable situp station is also great for leg raises, another of my preferred ab exercises. Situps primarily hit the upper abs and leg raises the lower, so they make a perfect team. As in all ab exercises, you bend your knees. Start with your feet just off the situp board, and then lift them up until your legs are vertical. That’s as high as they need to go. As with situps, start at a low angle, and when you reach a certain goal, move the board up a bit higher to increase the resistance. Another excellent lower-ab exercise you can do on an adjustable slant board is the kneeup. You do it much the way you do the leg lift, but instead of raising your entire leg, you pull your knees only up toward your chest. I like doing both kneeups and leg raises; each works the abs a bit differently, and that’s always a positive factor. Having an adjustable slant board available at home is most helpful in your quest for a sixpack. It enables you to do ab work on your nontraining days, and that extra work will bear dividends over time. I’m not sure slant boards are even sold anymore, but they’re not that hard to make. Once I discovered that the Church College Gym in Laie, Hawaii, didn’t have a situp board, I decided to get one and use it at home, which was a small house. I nosed around and found an old discarded two-by10 and carried it home. I propped it on my back stairs, padded it with a towel, used my lifting belt as a strap and was able to do situps, leg raises and kneeups rather easily. Whenever I reached a certain number of reps, I raised the incline to make the exercises harder. Not fancy,

Six-Pack Attack

Model: Tom Voss

tention than the upper: The upper abs are involved in numerous exercises, while the lower aren’t. Squats, triceps pushdowns, straight-arm pullovers, benches, inclines and even curls influence the upper abs much more than the lower ones. It should go without saying that every ab exercise affects all bodyparts to some degree. Crunches are helpful in trimming belly fat. They have two advantages over situps: They’re much easier to do and can be done in almost any way. All you need is a floor. You can do crunches with your feet on the floor, but they’re more beneficial if you place your feet on a chair or couch. A few form pointers: • Keep your lower abs flat As we age, hormone and contracted throughout decline can make ripped the exercise. abs harder to achieve— • If your lower abdomen but it can be done. extends up and down during the crunching movement, the A common problem with exercise is less productive. crunches is that your neck • At the end of each rep, squeeze starts hurting long before your abs as tightly as you can. your abs tire. That makes many people stop Dave Goodin, age 48. doing the exercise, but that’s the wrong approach. Stick with them, and increase your reps slowly. Your neck’s hurting because it’s relatively weak. As you increase the reps, your neck will get stronger, so you can add even more reps to the exercise. Or you can take another course of action to speed the strengthening of the weak area. While recuperating from hip surgery, I was unable to do either situps or leg raises, so I decided that crunches were my next best choice. By the time I got to 100 reps at my first session, my neck started cramping, and I had to stop. Knowing I needed to strengthen my neck if I planned on doing higher reps, I began dynamic-tension exercises for my neck at night while watching TV. It helped right away. The next day I was able to do 125 before my neck gave out, and the following day I reached 150. Between the dynamic-tension exercises and

moving up each time I crunched, my neck got considerably stronger—so much so that after a few months I’d increased to 550 reps. I could have done even more, but I figured that was enough. Plus, I was bored out of my mind and was tickled when I could finally do situps and leg raises again. I still work crunches into my program at least once a week, however, because I think it activates the abs in a manner different from other exercises. Reverse crunches provide variety, and I often mix them in with regular crunches. You can do them lying on the floor or on an incline bench. Place your hands behind your head—or on the floor should you need them to aid with balance—and elevate your legs to a vertical position while keeping your glutes flat. Now lift your hips and glutes up for about six inches. That slight movement may not seem like much until you’ve counted a couple dozen reps.

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Ab-solute sex appeal. A tight, toned midsection makes you more confident and attractive. Then you’ll feel it in your lower abs. It’s another ab exercise that you can do anywhere, so it’s good to know how to do it. The ab wheel is an apparatus that’s been around for some time and can definitely help you gain that elusive six-pack. It’s very handy, can be used in a small space and travels well. What you need to understand about the ab wheel, however, is that it’s an advanced piece of equipment, not a toy. When it was first introduced, hundreds of men and women injured their shoulders, backs and abs at the initial workout. Once you start the wheel in motion, you must have sufficient strength in nearly all your muscles to be able to control it. Otherwise, it will just keep on rolling. With that in mind, start out cautiously. Stay on your knees until you’re confident that you can handle the stress, and then get up on your toes. One drawback to the ab wheel is that very few people can do high reps due to a weakness in some area. That means you have to do several sets to achieve significant results—which is okay. Intersperse the sets throughout your workout, or use the wheel on your nonlifting days. If your fitness facility has a lat machine, you can make it into a useful ab station. Some machines come equipped with a small Vshaped attachment for that pur-

pose. On some you can face the machine, whereas on others you must have your back to it in order to get a full range of motion without the cable bothering you. Also, certain machines let you sit on a bench and do the exercise. On most, you have to kneel. Wrap a towel around the bar or attachment, lock it against your forehead, and pull down into a tight crunch. In the event a lat machine isn’t available, get help from a training partner. Roll up a towel, grip the two ends, and hold them against the sides of your head. Your partner locks on to the center of the towel and provides resistance as you crunch. Both forms of the exercise are extremely effective, as you’ll quickly learn. I covered specific exercises for the obliques and transverse abdominis when I talked in this space about lateral strength (Only the Strong Shall Survive, December ’07), so I won’t go into them again. Just remember that they should be a part of your overall ab routine, since they also help shape the midsection. Try to do at least one exercise for the lower abs and one for the upper at every session. I like to break them up by doing situps as part of my warmup and leg raises to finish off. There’s no reason you can’t do additional ab work on your nontraining days. There’s plenty you can do without any specialized equipment. It’s mostly a matter of how badly you want an impressive midsection. Eat a healthful diet, get active, and hit your abs diligently. Even though you may not achieve that elusive six-pack, at least you won’t look as if you’re carrying a keg under your shirt.


Editor’s note: Bill Starr was a strength and conditioning coach at Johns Hopkins University from 1989 to 2000. He’s the author of The Strongest Shall Survive—Strength Training for Football, which is available for $20 plus shipping from Home Gym Warehouse. Call (800) 447-0008, or visit www.Home-Gym .com. IM

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Blast Not, Lose Much Don’t stop pumping


e need to talk. Where have you been lately? You’re not at the gym; we haven’t seen you at the health food store, and it’s reported you no longer jog around the park. Going through your garbage, we found crushed pizza boxes, empty beer cans (you should recycle), Big Gulp containers and Twinkie wrappers. We’re worried about you—we being the notorious Bomber Online Muscle Bureau, or BOMB, Squad. We’ll stop at nothing to restore your commitment to blasting the iron. He who blasts, lasts. What possesses a man or woman to abandon his or her training has long been a mystery to the Bomber psychotherapeutic clinicians. There are countless reasons blended with assorted excuses, and many are valid: loss of interest and disappointment, troublesome, tiresome and painful. All are sufficient grounds for giving up mere exercise. Ah, but not for aborting one’s solid and bold training. Exercise and training are as alike as Playschool and Princeton, the Book-of-the-Month Club and the Marines. Exercise is walking, occasional jumping jacks and eating your veggies. Training is pushing the iron with passion and balancing your protein intake with valuable carbohydrates, fats and micronutrients. Exercise is cute; training is powerful. Bombers are either training or discovering training. They have exercised and endured and are evolving as ironheads with calluses, a repertoire of routines for power, mass and muscular definition and a cupboard full of supplements. Mere exercise has been replaced with a training lifestyle that positively affects everything in their lives, job, sport, relationships, health, nature, mind and soul. As so aptly avowed in the hallowed pages of Zen and the Resounding Clang of Iron, training is not time-consuming; training is. Training is not effortful; training is. How, then, do they become the center of a BOMB Squad investigation? Why and where did they go wrong? Are they in a slump, under a spell, over a bar-

rel, in the closet or out to lunch? The depths of a man’s mind are unfathomable. An aggressive confrontation with the “what ifs?” of the situation will resolve the matter. No man or woman of sound mind can walk away from the steel-hard, iron-cold truth. What if I don’t train and what if I do? Let’s take a look at the possibilities and make a choice. Remember, training is the devoted practice of well-planned weightlifting, smart eating and daily care and rest. Training is not walking the dog, eating celery sticks and holding your stomach in. What if I don’t train? Holy smoking guns! Just presenting the notion causes me to cringe, like I made a blasphemous statement before the raging spirits of muscle and power. The thunder I heard, that flash of light—tell me these were my imagination. Let’s try that again. Ask yourself, What if I don’t train? • You shrivel up and die within seconds. Just kidding! It takes days. Still kidding. Personally, I’m hoping humor will protect me from obliteration, an old-fashioned superstition steeped in mystery and fact. When I don’t train (never happens), I slyly wear a wooden cross around my neck to guard me from demons. • Guilt is immediate and eats away at the soul. • The muscles die from lack of stimulation and tender, loving care. • You become confused—life and things become less clear. Disorder rules, collapse is inevitable. • You care less, as there is less to care for and care about. • Stress mounts, as that which dissipated the dreadful disease is no longer present. • People point and stare and whisper about your squishy arms and jelly belly. People can be cruel. • What once was light in weight becomes indescribably heavy. Oooff is an unappealing (and most revealing) sound you make more and more frequently, like, when carrying out the garbage. • Your snug T-shirt fits like a sack and your baggy sweatpants like a leotard. Cute. • You find it fatiguing to order pizza and beer from Joe’s Place. You wish they’d just send it automatically. • Great energy is expended moving Neveux \ Model: Hidetada Yamagishi



308 FEBRUARY 2008 \

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from the recliner to bed after the late show, never mind moving iron from the squat rack to the bench press after work. • The only discipline you exhibit is when your dog drags you around the block for the evening poop ’n’ scoop. Down, Spot. What if I do train? • Your stored fat and sugar will supply the fuel to get you in motion and recommence the muscle-building process. • Guilt vanishes, attitude brightens, and you glow. • Life makes sense and purpose returns, and friendly calluses appear on your strong hands. • Stress evaporates with each set and rep and groan of exertion. • Daily living is less of an effort, or rather, no effort at all, and between supersets you find yourself pleasantly daydreaming of a long and productive retirement. Focus! No daydreaming between sets! • The sun shines, the birds sing, the flowers grow and little children play again. Hi, Mister, what big muscles you have. • Walk past a construction site, girls, and the guys whistle. Guys are as dumb as wood. • Pizza and beer are replaced by Bomber Blend Muscle Makers. • You consider canceling your will and life insurance. Who needs it? • Discipline is restored, procrastination is eradicated, and tasks become incidentals. • Joy is discovered in labor, and thanks are given on all occasions. • Energy is restored and perseverance is revived, and both are applied as regularly as breathing in and breathing out. • True self-confidence replaces fragile wishful thinking. I can do this! When confronted with the grim choice, to train or not to train, don’t think about it. That’s not a choice; that’s a no-brainer. Go to the gym and engage the entire body in a healthful, sporty and muscle-building workout. More thoughts for the earnest: • Anything is better than nothing. Just be there. It only gets better. • Do what you want to do and what you like to do, not what you think you must do. Don’t be a taskmaster. Not yet, anyway! • Good workouts are alive with the sound of music. Listen. Sing along, hum, tap your feet. Do something! • The first exercise is the hardest. The first sets and reps count. Engage! Momentum is near and momentum builds. • Training is not going through the motions, an irritable thing to be gotten out of the way or a chore to be over and done with. • Training is a primary source of light and life. Wake up, breathe deeply, look around and give thanks. You are here and now, the beginning and end. Hello. • Basic and simple, push and pull, trust, be consistent and develop. • No junk food, no whimpering, no leaving till you’re done. In doubt, fed up, lost, up to your ears and otherwise blue? Train every other day with the weights for 30 to 60 minutes, and cycle and work midsection on the alternate days for 30 minutes. All better now! Choose five push and pull exercises for three sets of eight to 10 repetitions (my choice: dumbbell incline presses, seated rows, low-reaching lying triceps extensions, barbell curls and bentover lateral raises). That’s all it takes to jump-start a winged machine. Once she’s sputtering, she’ll pick up speed and catch some air, and flight is as real and miraculous as the stars in the sky. They went that away, sky high and

star bound. —Dave Draper Editor’s note: For more from Dave Draper, visit www.Dave and sign up for his free newsletter. You can also check out his amazing Top Squat training tool, classic photos, workout Q&A and forum.

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study out of New Zealand suggests that honey can improve age-related memory decline and some types of stress. In the animal-based experiment the mice that got honey as part of their diets had better spatial memory and were less anxious. It could be due to key antioxidants that honey contains. —Becky Holman


Meditation Sensation


ccording to Michael F. Roizen, M.D., and Mehmet C. Oz, M.D., “One of the secrets to controlling your immunity is the vagus nerve. It provides a high-speed line of information to the brain from the gut, where battles with bugs are continually raging. Knowledge of the vagus’ role is all about mind over matter.” The good doctors go on to explain that meditation is excellent training for the vagus nerve, which is why putting yourself in a relaxing trance regularly helps bolster the immune system as you age. Hmm, aren’t your weight workouts like meditation? A little self-hypnosis on the beach may help too. —Becky Holman \ FEBRUARY 2008 309

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MIND/BODY BodySpace Physique of the Month


hether it is her amazing physique or distinctive look I am not sure, but Ava Cowan demands attention. Ava was an unknown in the fitness business just two years ago. As a matter of fact, she wasn’t even fit. By her own description she was 5’4”, 135 pounds, 22 percent bodyfat and had no muscle definition. She had abused herself with drugs and alcohol. As she said, “If you are attractive, it is easy to hide being unhealthy, even from yourself.” At 34, she knew she needed a change and decided that maybe a career as a physical trainer might be a good idea. Odd, considering she wasn’t even going to the gym, but it turned out to be a good plan. Inspired by magazines and the ever amazing Monica Brant, she worked hard and decided that competing in figure might be in her future. Ava shared that plan with her guy at the time (he’s long gone now), who thought it was a terrible idea. Telling Ava no is not how you get her to back down or keep her around. In the past two years Ava’s journey has taken her to the competition stage. You may have seen her in magazine features, on the covers of many of them. She writes and encourages the health and fitness goals of others. Every day all kinds of people, especially women, write to Ava asking about losing weight, prepping for shows and getting healthy. Her favorite place to interact with all is on BodySpace at BodyBuilding. com. “BodySpace has helped me reach out to so many like-minded people who have a real interest in health and fitness and truly have legitimate questions.” And that, says Ava, is her life’s goal and purpose. —Ian Sitren Editor’s note: You can visit Ava Cowan at AvaCowan.

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Photography by Ian Sitren \ SecondFocus

Ava Cowan W


Washing Up Down


new study suggests that Americans aren’t washing up in public restrooms. Researchers observed the behavior of more than 6,000 people in New York, Atlanta, Chicago and San Francisco and found that 77 percent washed their hands after a restroom visit, compared to 83 percent in 2005. You may think that’s an uninteresting statistic, but consider that many infectious diseases are spread via germs on the hands. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the single most important thing we can do to keep from getting infectious diseases and spreading them to others is to clean our hands. Colds, flu and many food-borne illnesses are spread by unclean hands—so take a little extra time and wash up! —Becky Holman

Hardgainers, Get Happy! Guess which body type ladies love most f you’re an ectomorph, a thin, hardgainer type, often frustrated because it’s so hard to add muscle—there’s much to be thankful for. Your body type is the one most women find sexiest. Most women find bulbous pecs grotesque, and ponderous thighs that touch from crotch to knee make us flee. It’s the leaner look that gets us ready to cook! Yes, I’m biased. My husband is the ectomorphic type, but that’s what first attracted me to him—lean with just the right amount of muscle. As he’s a bodybuilder, his lack of hyper hypertrophy has often caused him grief. If you’re in that boat, a new study should perk you up. UCLA researchers analyzed the photos that 141 women chose as most desireable from a physical standpoint. The photos were of shirtless men. Almost all of the women picked leaner guys over those with excessive muscle mass. The researchers believe it’s a choice governed by the biological instinct to seed a healthy, nonthreatening mate. —Becky Holman Neveux \ Model: Brent Kutlesa


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reak Fix is the first molecularly enhanced muscle-synthesizing protein matrix created to assemble 100 percent pure, unadulterated muscle. Forged from unique musclemodifying factors, including an ultrarefined, biologically enhanced whey protein, Freak Fix is doctored with an insanely anabolic amino acid profile. The formulation is so potent, even the lipid sources are designed to enhance your muscularity. Here is its powerful, unorthodox ingredient profile: • Whey Protein. An indispensable part of the bodybuilding diet, it provides the amino acids used in the maintenance and building of critical muscle tissues, various regulatory functions and energy production. • Creatine monohydrate. Enhances the ability to produce higher muscular force and/or power output, aids in postworkout recovery and increases lean muscle mass. • Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). L-leucine, L-isoleucine and L-valine are considered essential components of the human diet and make up one-third of muscle protein in humans. More important, L-leucine is associated with increased phosphorylation in skeletal-muscle tissue, stimulating protein synthesis and anabolism. • Taurine. This amino acid can support cell volumization and insulin sensitivity. • Betaine. An osmolyte and methyl donor—osmolytes play a role in maintaining cell hydration, cell volume and fluid balance. Research shows that cellular hydration is important for anabolism and protein synthesis. Betaine is also involved in important biochemical reactions in the body that involve methyl groups. The body uses methyl groups to help in detoxification processes and even to help generate important muscle-building compounds, such as creatine. • Beta-alanine. A powerful muscle-building agent that is a precursor of

the dipeptide carnosine (beta-alanyl-Lhistidine). • Medium-chain triglycerides. Because they’re a specialized fatty acid that’s easily absorbed, digested and used as energy, they don’t get stored in adipose cells the way other forms of dietary fat do. MCTs help conserve lean body mass by preventing muscle protein from being used as energy. • Essential fatty acids. These vital nutrients play a critical role in hormone production, increasing insulin sensitivity, and improving the anti-inflammatory response to intense training. Driving the extremely powerful Freak Fix formula is a state-of-the-art breakthrough wave pulse technology. Specifically designed to improve dynamic nutrient transport, delivery and uptake, wave pulse technology gives Freak Fix the power to invade damaged muscle tissue for extreme muscle growth. For more on Altered State and other new and innovative Muscle Asylum Project products, vist

References DiPasquale, M. (1997). Amino Acids and Proteins for the Athlete: The Anabolic Edge. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Graham, A.S., and Hatton, R.C. (1999). Creatine: A review of efficacy and safety. J Am Pharm Assoc. 39(6): 803. Craig, S. (2004). Betaine in human nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 80:539-49.

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abrada Nutrition has just released its Bananas and Cream Hi-Protein Milk Shake in resealable containers. It’s the third flavor in the ready-to-drink line; the others are chocolate ice cream and vanilla ice cream. According to Lee Labrada, Labrada Nutrition CEO and IFBB pro bodybuilding hall-offamer, “The new Lean Body Bananas and Cream shakes taste great yet contain zero sugar and are low in fat. They taste just like a fresh, cold, creamy milk shake you make in a blender with bananas and ice cream!” Lean Body ready-to-drink shakes provide athletes and bodybuilders with a quick, all-in-one nutrition solution for building muscle and burning fat. Here’s what you get in every 17-ounce shake: • Award-winning taste—just like a delicious, creamy milk shake! • 40 grams of protein, 25 percent more than the leading RTD. • Half the fat of the leading RTD. • Zero sugar—great for low-carb

diets. • Lactosefree—no bloating or stomach upset. • 20 percent of the recommended daily intake of fiber— to improve digestion and cardiovascular health. • No trans fats. • 22 vitamins and minerals. • Patented container with resealable top—delivers more undenatured protein than canned protein drinks. Labrada products are distributed nationally and internationally through health food stores, fitness centers and gyms and other retail outlets. Or you can click your way to the company’s Web site,

Best Sellers DVDs/Videos: 1) “Jay Cutler—One Step Closer”

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4) “IRON MAN’s Swimsuit Spectacular #9” 5) “’07 IRON MAN Pro” Books: 1) 10-Week Size Surge by IRON MAN Publishing 2) The 7-Minute Rotator Cuff Solution by Joseph Horrigan, D.C., and Jerry Robinson

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M IN D/BODY I R O N M A N R isin g S t a r s

Brooke Brusch Height: 5’6” Contest Highlights: ’07 NPC USA Figure Championships, D class, 5th; ’07 Colorado Figure Championships, 2nd Factoids: She owns two pug puppies (her babies) and loves to make people laugh.

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Weight: 198 (contest) Height: 5’8” Contest Highlights: ’07 Junior NPC Nationals, light heavyweight, 2nd; ’07 USA Championships, light heavyweight, 7th Factoid: first-generation American; German mother, Filipino father. \ FEBRUARY 2008 317

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Readers Write February 2008

Arthur Jones Jubilation I was sad to hear of Arthur Jones’ passing but overjoyed that one bodybuilding magazine, IRON MAN, recognized his phenomenal accomplishments in the fitness and bodybuilding world. The man was a genius, no doubt in my mind. Sure, he had an eccentric streak, but that’s what made him such a memorable character. One oversight on IM’s part, however, was leaving out Casey Viator’s before and after photos from the Colorado experiment. As far as bodybuilding goes, that was one of Jones’ crowning achievements. Helping Casey pack on 60 pounds of muscle in four weeks was nothing short of amazing! Jerry McFarland via Internet Editor’s note: We were so concerned about having plenty of photos of Arthur in the tribute by Roger Schwab that we forgot to include Casey’s photos from that sensational case study. Here they are. By the way, did you know that Jones trained with Casey during the experiment, and, although already past middle age and nursing a bad cold, he put on an impressive 20 pounds of muscle in that same four weeks—with just 12 30-minute workouts.

Casey Viator built 60 pounds of muscle in four weeks with Arthur Jones pushing him at every workout.

Nonembarrassing Mag I want to thank you for a couple of things. First for the magazine itself. IRON MAN is the only sane, nonembarrassing bodybuilding magazine. Also, thank you for keeping Mike Menzter and his work alive and your recent tribute to Arthur Jones in the December ’07 issue. I never met Jones in person, but I did converse with him over the telephone, and despite his gruff reputation, he was very nice. I am saddened that the original Nautilus machines are now history pieces. I have trained with everything out there since the 1970s, and the best equipment line I ever experienced was the original Nautilus hooked up to compressed air for added negative emphasis. Few people used [Nautilus machines] correctly or got the supervision they needed [to get the best results]. I just wanted to thank you and let you know that there is a silent crowd (the nonbonehead bodybuilder majority?) out there that loved the original Nautilus

machines and learned a great deal from Jones. Bill Nolan via Internet Editor’s note: Sane, nonembarrasing bodybuilding magazine. We like that and couldn’t have said it better ourselves. We don’t want our readers to have to tell the cashier at the newsstand that they are buying it for their weird, unstable cousin.

Awesome Arms I want to comment on Paul Burke’s Mature Muscle column in the November ’07 issue [“Bigger Arms: Short-Biceps Solutions”]. He wrote that anyone with a wrist measuring 6 3/4 inches or less would never be able to build arms to a size approaching 20 inches. That’s incorrect information. My wrists measure 6 3/4 inches, and I built my upper arms to almost 22 inches. I’ve trained with numerous men over the years who built arms over 19 inches, and the majority of them had small wrists. I have also trained men with big wrist measurements who couldn’t build arms over 17 3/4. Wrist size has absolutely nothing to do with potential arm size. The real determining factors are the numbers and types of muscle fibers in the biceps and triceps and the length of the muscle bellies of those muscles. Of course, training smart is vital also. Jim Hafer via Internet Editor’s note: We agree and have proof here in our own backyard. Jonathan Lawson’s wrists measure less than seven inches, and his arms measure more than 19 inches—and they’re still growing. For info on his training see the review of his new e-book, X-traordinary Arms, written with Steve Holman, on page 255, or visit www .X-Rep. Jonathan Lawson’s 19-plus-inch arm com. measurement—wrists less than seven inches Vol. 67, No. 2: IRON MAN (ISSN #0047-1496) is published monthly by IRON MAN Publishing, 1701 Ives Ave., Oxnard, CA 93033. Periodical Mail is paid at Oxnard, CA, and at additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to IRON MAN, 1701 Ives Ave., Oxnard, CA 93033. Please allow six to eight weeks for change to take effect. Subscription rates—U.S. and its possessions: new 12-issue subscription, $29.97. Canada, Mexico and other foreign subscriptions: 12 issues, $49.97 sent Second Class. Foreign orders must be in U.S. dollars. Send subscriptions to IRON MAN, 1701 Ives Ave., Oxnard, CA 93033. Or call 1-800-570-4766. Copyright © 2008. All rights reserved. No part of this magazine may be reproduced in any manner without written permission from the publisher. Printed in the USA.

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Ironman Magazine 2008-02  


Ironman Magazine 2008-02