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一釐米的百萬年

Nature := Slices of Space x Time 以時空切片定義自然場域之大禹嶺遊境設計 The Tour-Realm Design for Tayuling Mountain Area

東海大學建築研究所 建築碩士論文設計 研 究 生: 陳昀詩 , Yun-shih Chen 指導教授: 邱浩修 , Hao-hsiu Chiu 中華民國 102 年 2 月 , February 2013


.... 世間 世 的人為造化與大地的自然狀況之間蘊涵著豐富又必然的對立,是一種 種共 存 關係 存的 關 ,無論哪一方都以對方為自身存在的條件。 --- 馬丁 ‧ 海德格 , 1953

th her eree ex exis i t a fe is f rtilee an a d neece c ssary opposition between the artifice of the world and the . . ther .. n tu na tura r l co ra cond nd dittio on of o the ear a th, realizing that the one is symbiotically conditioned byy the othe ot herr an and d vi vice cee ver e sa sa.. Me M asur u e and boundary are two terms by which he tries to articulatee thee rreela th lati tion ti o sh on ship ip ip. p.

--- Martin Heidegger, 1953

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摘要 從場所精神的角度思考建築設計 建築的存在無法脫離環境,也就是其所立足的土地。通過地點和場所的概念和原則,環境應該成為建 築創作的本質。由此可以產生新的設計原則和方法,也就是優先考慮地點特殊性的原則和方法。 從高山重新定義自然為「時空複合體」 高山將人與都市的距離拉開,置身於純粹自然的環境:在都市中我們習慣用精準的尺寸及刻度來劃分 時空;但在高山上,時間與空間卻是由自然的力量所主宰。自然力量控制下的時空,是一個動態且相 互牽制的複合狀態:超乎人類時空尺度的巨大能量彼此交會衝撞或輕輕重疊;萬物並非等距等速排列, 而是各自有其迂迴輾轉的時間軸,在空間中交織重疊,我將這個狀態稱為「時空複合體」。一個地點 的自然事物在其特定時空下產生特有的邏輯,進而交織成這個環境的氛圍與狀態,這就是該場域在時 空架構下的場所精神。 建築物做為「切片」置入自然 切片,是代表整體的片段。從時空複合體中篩選出「切片」,作為代表整體的片段。切片並不阻斷時 空複合體的連續狀態及脈絡關係,而是建立一種擾動或遮罩,作為對照與體驗的基礎。面對自然「時 空複合體」,我將建築物以「切片」的方式置入自然場域中。 以三個時間切片完成遊境設計 在基地大禹嶺,劇烈的時間與空間尺度在短瞬間輕易地轉換,時空複合的狀態正是其重要的場所精神。 觀察基地上重要的自然現象,根據時空尺度歸結成 L、M、S 三個狀態,作為借代與體驗整個場域複合 體的三個切片。也就是由三個地點的場所精神產生邏輯及方法,分別放置適合的空間構造,設計大禹 嶺的遊覽路徑與場域。

關鍵字 004

大禹嶺 高山 場所精神 遊境 時空複合體 切片 板岩 台灣二葉松 鞍點


Abstract Consider Architecture Design on the basis of "Genius Loci" Architecture cannot exist without environment, that is to say, the land on which it erects. Through the concept of the site and the principle of settlement, the environment becomes the essence of architectural production. From this vantage point, new principles and methods can be seen for design. Princiles and methods that give precedence to the siting in a specific area.

Redefine Nature as “Time-Space Complex” by Studying High Mountains One has to be dragged far away from city to reach high mountains, thus place oneself in an absolutely natural environment. In city we use perfectly accurate scales and gauges to divide space and time. On high mountains however, space and time are dominated by the power of Nature. That the power of Nature controlling time and space achieves a dynamic and mutual-connected state: enormous powers beyond human imagination colliding or combining each other; creation proceeding in neither constant velocity nor equidistance, but each ones moving according to their own wandering time-tables, which could probably weave a complex net in the universe. The net, or state, could be named a “Time-Space Complex”, indicating that natural elements at a specific place form a special logic within the very time and space. Such logic emanates a unique atmosphere and condition, which is exactly the Spirit of the place (in a time-space point of view).

Architecture Entering Nature as a “Slice” A slice is a small piece of section representing the whole. We capture a “slice” from the time-space complex, to observe an overall condition of nature. A slice does not break the continuity of nature, nor does it block the relationship of elements inside and outside of the slice. A slice creates a turbulence or filter as the base to observe and experience Nature. Considering the Time-Space Complex, Architecture should be designed as a slice to enter a natural place.

Complete the Tour-Realm Design from Three Slices On the site, the Tayuling Mountain Area, time and space transform drastically between ephemeral and eternal in an instant flash. The status of time-space complex is the exact spirit of the place. By observing the natural phenomenon on the site, we gather three slices, namely L, M, and S, on the bases of time-space complex. The three slices indicates three places with their “genius loci”, from which we derive design logics and methods, and develop according programs and designs on each place. The three designs (slices) combined tells the complete story of Tayuling.

Key Words Tayuling High Mountain Genius Loci Tour-Realm Time-Space Complex Slice Slate Taiwan Red Pine Saddle Point

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目錄 004

摘要

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緒論

010   創作動機與目標 012   範圍及對象 013   架構與流程 014

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議題 015   名詞定義 016   概念探究 018   台灣高山樣貌 024   自然觀察與再詮釋 026   時間複合體與切片 028   態度定位與策略 030   案例分析 基地

034   基地印象 042   基地資訊

043        地理位置與鄰近景點 045        發展脈絡與現況活動

046   基地詮釋 048

策略

048   切片策略 050   機能定位 054

分析 055   分析方法 056   切片 L 分析

056        現況分析與設計方法 058        地質地形線交角分析

060   切片 M 分析

060        現況分析與設計方法 062        樹冠下虛空間分析 064        陽光投影分析    066        樹林圍蔽感分析 068        配置計畫與初步設計

070   切片 S 分析

070        現況分析與設計方法 072        雲霧路徑分析   

074   結論 076

設計

078   全境關係概觀 080   切片 L 遊客中心設計 088   切片 M 登山旅宿設計 098   切片 S 茶室廁所設計

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結語

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附錄 1: 過程設計與模型 附錄 2: 參考資料


Contents 004

Abstract

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Preface

010   Motivation & Goals 012   Range & Objects 013   Framework & Process 014

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Issue 015   Terms Definition 016   Concept Research 018   The High Mountains in Taiwan 024   Nature Observation & Interpretation 026   Time-Space Complex & Slices 028   Attitude and Strategy 030   Case Studies Site

034   Site Image 042   Site Information

043 Location and Nearby Scenic Spots         045 Development and Current Activities        

046   Site Interpretation 048

Strategy

048   Slice Strategy 050   Programming 054

Analysis 055   Analysis Method 056   Slice L : East Exit of Tunnel

056 Current Context Analysis & Design Method         058 Intersection of Geology & Topography Analysis        

060   Slice M : Ancient Trail in Pinewood

060 Current Context Analysis & Design Method         062 Analysis of Void Spaces Under Tree Canopy         064 Analysis of Sunlight Projection         066 Analysis of Forest Enclosedness         068 Space Planning & Preliminary Design        

070   Slice S : Ridge & Saddle Point

070 Current Context Analysis & Design Method         072 Analysis of Cloud and Mist Movement        

074   Conclusion 076

Design

078   Whole Relationship & Image 080   Slice L : Visitor Center Design 088   Slice M : Mountain Hostel Design 098   Slice S : Tea House / W.C. Design 108

Epilog

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Appendix A: Design Developments Appendix B: References

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緒論 Preface

如果僅根據經濟和技術的要求思考空間,就會對建築的地點視而 不見,這是現代建築的大敵。 --- 維托里奧 ‧ 格利高蒂 , 1983

The worst enemy of modern architecture is the idea of space considered solely in terms of its economic and technical exigencies indifferent to the ideas of the site.

--- Vittorio Gregotti, 1983

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建築的存在無法脫離場所,也就是其所立足的土地 Architecture cannot exist without place, that is, the land on which it stands.

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創作動機與目標 Motivation & Goals


追尋生長土地的源頭,來到高山。六百萬年前的造 山運動,板塊從海底拔升三千公尺,巍巍五大山脈 昂然聳立,孕育如今我們所居住的台灣島。台灣的 高山在短暫的距離內經歷幾千公尺的高度變化,所 佔國土的比例也高居全國之冠。 台灣的高山場域呈現敏感多變的樣貌,大自然脫離 了人為的尺度框架,更加豪放卻又細膩的揮灑著原 始而純粹的力量,面對這樣的震撼,敬畏之心便油 然而生。台灣壯麗絕美的高山吸引著許多愛好自然 的人們遊覽其中流連忘返。 然而在高山遊覽的經驗中,卻屢見台灣高山環境中, 形式突兀、無視景致遮蔽視野、空間經驗與平地無 異、甚至諸多欠於思考而破壞自然的觀光規劃及建 築設計,不禁感到可惜。 建築物進入高山如此特殊的環境氛圍時,應該從這 種時空瞬間變換的氛圍與精神中尋找脈絡,進而轉 化成設計的概念與手法。 以我的基地,合歡群山東側的大禹嶺山區為代表: 龐然的岩壁沿著溪流的源頭轟然崩落,枝葉藤根在 翻飛縹緲的雲霧中蔓生盤繞;劇烈的時間與空間尺 度在短瞬間輕易轉換,形成整個場域的空間氛圍。

Mountains in Taiwan experience drastic changes of height ranging within thousands of meters, exhibiting the highest area-proportion among the world the alpine region over national land. The alpine region of Taiwan displays a sensitive and unpredictable characteristic. Straining from artificial leash, Nature is able to spread out her primitive and absolute power, boldly as well as delicately. Beholding such enormous power of Nature, we people couldn’t but stand in awe. The beauty and magnificence of mountains in Taiwan are helplessly attractive for many nature-lovers. It could be quite a pity however, from many experiences of wandering the alpine areas, the moods of enjoyment were usually spoiled by badly designed tourism plans and architectures. Bad designs namely architectures with incongruent forms, blocking views or beautiful sceneries, bearing spaces equally copying that of facilities in the city. Moreover, there are still many buildings with inappropriate structures that cause great damage to nature environments on mountains. When architectures are to enter such a particular ambiance, the concept and method of design ought to be derived from such atmosphere of time-space changing instantaneously and drastically.

我嘗試在基地上,從時空尺度劇烈變換的場所精神 中尋找脈絡,產生新的設計原則和方法,進行與時 空環境呼應的遊憩路徑與建築地景設計,讓前來遊 覽的人們置身其中,從環境的邏輯產生活動,以自 然的角度體驗大禹嶺山域的時空氛圍。

Take, for example, Tayuling, an alpine region at the east of Hehuan Mountains, the site of my project. That gigantic cliff collapsing along the origin of streams into ashes, leaves and branches sprawling and coiling into misty clouds, form the atmosphere of Tayuling. The ambiance of this place demonstrates the drastic transformation between time and space within breathes, in an amazingly manner.

Searching for the origin of the land we live on, I found the mountains. Six million years ago, plates having been colliding aroused from beneath the sea for more than 3000 meters. Gradually, five mountain ranges were formed, rouse, and stood as the majestic cradle of this island on which we live today.

The goal here is to develop new principles and methods for the design of recreational routes and landscape design, according to the place’s spirit which time and space mutual-transforming. People who come to visit Tayuling would perform activities related to the environment, experience the its atmosphere from nature’s point of view.

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範圍及對象 Range & Objects

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理論基礎

Research & Theory

觀察基地大禹嶺山區,自然事物與現象的 時間脈絡,探討各自在環境中如何依其生 長邏輯或周期繁衍蔓延,及彼此在時空中 互相影響的關係。歸結出場所的精神概念, 研究轉化其時空法則成為設計策略與手法。

Observe the time context of natural things and phenomenon on the site, Tayuling mountain area. Learn how they grow and spread according to natural logics and rules. And study their relationship in consideration of time and space. Combine the above mentioned to derive my concept, and from which design strategies and methods are transformed.

實際操作

Design Manipulation

針對穿越基地的越嶺古道、縱走稜線、中 橫公路等,帶來不同族群的遊客及活動, 提出一套設計,作為深入體驗及遊覽大禹 嶺山區的介面。

There are ancient trails, mountain-climbing lines, and traffic roads traversing the site, bringing numerous groups of visitors and activities. According to which I propose a project, design an interface to intimately experience and tour the region of Tayuling.

設計的主要目標為創造「體驗場所時空精 神」的活動及空間,因此使用的對象針對 願意深入體驗自然,順應環境步行棲居者, 而非追求舒適方便的遊覽方式。

The main purpose is to create activities and spaces through which people can experience the places time-space ambiance. The objects therefore would focus on people willing to walk or climb to adjust themselves to the environment, rather than sight-seers seeking comfort and convenience.


架構與流程 Framework & Process

高山 High Mountains

大禹嶺場域 Tayuling Region 場所精神 Genius Loci

時空複合體 Time-Space Complex

環境特質

Environment Characteristics

地質構造 生態物種 消長演替 氣候氣象 文明歷史 經濟發展 觀光人文

Geological Structure Ecological Species Vicissitude and Evolutions Climate and Weather Civilization History Economic Development Tourism Culture

案例研究 Case Study 範圍及對象 Range and Object

切片 Slice

設計置入的態度與定位 Attitude and Role of the Design

基地現況分析 交通動線 族群活動分布

三個切片

Site Studies and Analysis Traffic Circulation Visitors with their Activities

需求與潛力

Demands and Potentials

限制與負載力

Limitation and Capacity

3 Slices largest, longest

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隧道東口 East Exit of Tunnel

遊客中心 Visitor Center

medium

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松林古道 Ancient Trail in Pinewoods

登山住宿 Mountain Hostel

smallest, shortest

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稜線鞍點 Ridge and Saddle Point

茶室廁所 Tea House & W.C.

場所概念分析

設計策略與方法

遊境設計

Analysis of Concept of Sites

Strategy & Method

Tour-Realm Design 013


議題 Issue

自然元素的色彩、群山和天空、雲朵過濾的光線、月亮 和夕陽,都昭示了時光的流逝,分秒的變幻。所有這些 都是不可捉摸的,人們可以通過觀察,或者因為受到有 形自然元素的影響,而感覺到它們的存在。 --- 安東尼 ‧ C ‧ 安東尼亞德斯 , 1992

The worst enemy of modern architecture is the idea of space considered solely in terms of its economic and technical exigencies indifferent to the ideas of the site.

--- Anthony C. Antoniades, 1992

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名詞解釋 Terms Definition 場所 狹義上指基地、環境,廣義上指土地或脈絡。 「是具有物質的本質、型態、質感及顏色的具 體 的 物 所 組 成 的 一 個 整 體。」( 諾 伯 舒 茲, 1979)也就是對於一個地點的物件現象,總和 所有客觀解釋及主觀詮釋後,被理解認知的存 在狀態整體。

Place

場所精神 詞彙來自於拉丁文,指的是土地、場所(Loci) 的精靈(Genius),在古羅馬時期人們便認為 每個場所皆有其神靈的存在。挪威建築師諾伯 舒茲提出場所精神概念(《場所精神──邁向建 築現象學》,諾伯舒茲,1979),場所中物的 總和決定了一種「環境的特性」,亦即場所的 本質,主宰一個地方的精神。

Genius Loci

都市時間 在本論文中指人為定義的時間,如分、秒、小時 等,經機械計算後制定刻度劃分的時間單位; 用以強調生活節奏由這些人為時間控制的概念。

Urban Time

Narrowly refers to site or environment. Speaking broadly, it means land or context. “We mean a totality made up of concrete things having material substance, shape, texture and colour.” (Norberg-Schulz, 1979) That is to say, it indicates the perceived entirety of all existing things and phenomena being interpreted, both objectively and subjectively, at a place.

The term originated from Latin, meaning the elves (genius) of land or place (loci). In ancient Rome people believe that each place has its gods. The idea of Genius Loci was brought up by Norwegian architect NorbergSchulz, ( Genius Loci: Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture, Norberg-Schulz, 1979) in which relating that “together things determine an ‘environmental character’, which is the essence of place.”.

In this paper refers to the artificially defined time, seconds, minutes, and hours for instance. All these are time units derived from mechanical calculation and setting up scales.

Natural Time 自然時間 指自然中各種事物現象,因其生長變化的步調 及速率,所各自代表的時間規則與系統;並強 調其超乎人類習慣的尺度,各自不同、不等距 不等速的狀態。

It refers that all kinds of things and phenomena, due to their speed and rate of growth, have its own time rule and system. By that we emphasize on the condition that all those speeds or rates are different, and beyond the scale that we human are familiar with.

Tour-Realm 遊境 指以遊憩路徑、基礎構造物、散置的建築等, 所完成的提供遊覽場域、體驗環境的整合設計。

Refers to an integrated design for touring a place and experiencing the environment. Such design is composed of recreational paths, basic constructions, or scattered architectures.

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概念探究 Concept Research 思考物質材料乃至構造構件,如何與自 然的變動對話,或反映自然的動態樣貌 Studies of how substances, materials, components or structure react or reflect with Nature’s movements and changes.

概念模 A 由不同材料組成的板片,使一側貼觸鹽水,靜置一段時 間後,觀察不同材料對水的滲透程度,及乾燥後鹽粒結 晶,在不同材料,與材料彼此交接之處所留下的痕跡。 Conceptual Model A A plate composed of several materials, with one side attached above saline for a while, was used for observing the relationship between water penetration and materials. Dried salt crystals indicate the traces of water moving along each material or realms where different materials intersect.

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概念模 B 想像一承載落葉的構築單元,高山上松林的針葉飄 落,或穿越或堆積在其中。富含油脂的松針在秋天 落葉的季節累積堆集,入冬後形成密實的牆面,保 持空間溫暖;隨著松葉逐漸腐朽,至溽夏則已流失 成中空的牆面,空間也因此通透涼爽。

概念模 C 造山運動仍在進行,看似靜止的岩塊,其實正 不斷抬升與崩落。想像一個建築物的結構體, 承載活動的平台,彼此間以可垂直滑動的軌道 環環相連,隨著板岩的崩落,表面地形的微變 動被吸納並反映在人使用的活動面中。

Conceptual Model B

Conceptual Model C

This is to imagine a constructive unit which collects falling leaves. The pine leaves falls, some pass through while the others fill and pile up in the units. The pine leaves are rich of oil, and most of them fall in autumn, thus till winter form an almost solid wall to protect the space from cold and wet. With the leaves decaying and washed away, the wall gradually becomes transparent. Winds were able to traverse the wall, driving away heat and damp when it reaches summer.

While orogeny is still in process, the seemingly still rocks are actually either rising or collapsing all the time. This model tends to imagine a structure system which composed of several platforms, each connecting to another, and each was able to slide vertically. The small movements of terrain thus could be tolerated and noticed.

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台灣高山樣貌 The High Mountains in Taiwan

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島嶼的生成

The Birth of Formosa Island

位於歐亞大陸的太平洋沿岸,三大板塊:歐亞大 陸板塊、菲律賓板塊,以及南海板塊,不斷的撞 擊擠壓,抬升海底的河流沉積物,台灣於是在 600 多萬年前露出海面。板塊持續擠壓,台灣島 的高度也不斷上升,逐漸形成今日島上的五大山 脈,與兩百多座 3000 公尺以上的高山。

Situated on the Pacific Coast of Eurasian Continent, three plates, namely the Eurasian Plate, the Philippine Sea Plate, and the South China Sea Plate, have been colliding and compressing since hundreds of million years, uplifting river sediments on seabed. 6 million years ago Taiwan has emerged above sea surface. The plates continuously compressing, the height of Taiwan Island kept increasing, gradually forming the five mountain ranges today, and more than 200 peaks which are 3000 meters above sea level or higher.

營力作用旺盛 改變地表形態的力量稱為營力,分為內營力與外 營力。台灣山區因旺盛的內外營力作用,呈現景 觀多變的地形樣貌。內營力是來自地球內部的熱 能,造成板塊擠壓,產生斷層、摺曲等現象;高 熱岩漿循地層裂隙湧出,形成分佈各地的火山 錐、溫泉、硫磺氣孔等奇景。外營力則是太陽輻 射影響產生的營力,形成風化、侵蝕、崩壞、凍 融、堆積作用,產生碎石坡、峽谷、冰斗、沖積 扇等多樣的地形面貌。

高山島嶼 台灣平均海拔 660 公尺,山地和平原面積約為 7:3 的比例,是個山多平原少的島嶼。台灣山地的高 度相當高,地質年輕快速隆起,且山地起伏劇烈, 地形崎嶇多變,山勢陡峭,潛在山崩災害的危險 性高,非常不利土地開發與交通建設。 台灣高山密度極高,居於世界首位,3000 公尺 以上高山區則占全島面積高達 1%,多達 258 座。

五大山脈與分佈 台灣是個年輕的島嶼,山地高竣陡峭,多斷層摺 曲,島上高大的山脈被稱為「新摺曲山脈」。依 稜脈延伸的完整性,大致可分為中央山脈、雪山 山脈、玉山山脈、阿里山山脈和海岸山脈。五大 山脈走向相互平行,其中中央山脈最長、平均高 度也最高,為台灣陸地的主體骨架,與河流主要 的分水嶺與源頭。

Lively Process The force that changes landforms are called process, including edogenetic process and exogenetic process, both are vigorous and strong in Taiwan. Therefore the mountains of Taiwan are sculptured into various landforms and peculiar landscapes. The edogenetic process refers to the forces from the heat within Earth, causing the plates to compress, generating faults or bending. The heat also turns into magma and emits along strata fissures, then form volcanic cones, hot springs or sulfur. Exogenetic process indicates forces that generated from the influence of solar radiation, causing functions such as weathering, erosion, collapse, freezing and thawing, and stacking. Then produces various landscapes namely gravel slope, canyon, cirque, and alluvial fan.

High Mountain Island Taiwan is an island which has much mountain and few plain, with an average elevation of 660 meter, and the area of mountain and plain ratio being approximately 7:3. The mountains in Taiwan are rather high, with the geology being young and rapidly uplifting. Dramatic rise and falls, representing a rugged and diverse terrain with steep mountains, gives Taiwan a high risk of potential landslides. Development and transportation construction are quite unfavorable. The high-mountain density in Taiwan is extremely high, being the world’s highest. Alpine zone above 3000 meters occupy 1% of the nation’s land, with as many as 258 peaks.

Five Mountain Ranges and their Distribution The mountains in Taiwan are mostly tall and contain faults and bends. The high mountains on the island are thus named “Young Fold Mountain.” According to the completeness of the structure of ridges, we can divide the mountains into five parallel ranges, namely Central Mountain, Snow Mountain, Yushan Mountain, Alishan Mountain, and Coast Mountain Range. The highest and longest Central Mountain Range is the main structure of Taiwan’s land, containing most of the watersheds and sources of the rivers.

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高山地景與自然現象 Alpine landscape with natural phenomena Alpine Grasslands

多分佈在台灣 3000 公尺以上高山的稜頂 向陽坡面。因強風多雨溫差大,土壤層 薄,生長環境相當惡劣,喬木難以生長, 適應力強的高山箭竹叢於是取得生長優 勢;且因風強土薄,生長高度受到限制, 大多箭竹植株都貼附地面,形成低矮叢生 如草原般的景致。

Distributed on ridges and slopes facing the sun, at 3000 meters and higher above sea level, the grass is actually niitakayamensis (arrow bamboo). With strong winds, surplus rains, large temperature variation, plus the thin soil, the environment is harsh for arbors to grow. Thus the more adaptable niitakayamensis become the dominant plants on these ridges. The strong winds and thin soil also cause niitakayamensis to grow shortly along the ground, therefore form the scene of alpine grasslands.

雲霧變幻

The Changing Clouds

台灣四周環海,水氣供應充足,山區極易 產生雲霧。尤其開口朝東,河谷長直的 蘭陽及立霧溪谷地,每天都可見早晨的嵐 霧及傍晚的雲海不斷翻飛變幻,或清晰澄 澈,或氳靄朦朧,呈現仙境般夢幻景致。

Surrounded by ocean with water vapor is sufficient in supply, clouds and mist are prone to generate in mountains of Taiwan. Especially in long and straight river valleys such as Lanyang and Liwu rivers, where every day fog hazes in the morning and sea of clouds flows in the evening. The cloud continuously changes, sometimes clear and sometimes misty, exhibiting sceneries of fantastic wonderland.

冰河遺跡

Glacier Relics

冰河在七至一萬年前曾經發生,在台灣高 山區遺留下眾多的冰斗地形,也就是位於 源頭的圓弧形窪地。另外還有圈谷、冰蝕 湖、冰蝕啞口、圖案地以及 U 形谷等壯 麗又優美的景緻。

There are many cirques in the alpine area of Taiwan, which were left by glacier’s visiting 70 – 10 thousand years ago. That explains the arc-shaped depressions located at sources of several rivers. Glacier also brought other magnificent and beautiful sceneries namely glacial lake, col, patterned ground, U-shaped valley, etc.

高山湖泊

Alpine Lakes

台灣高山因為有冰蝕痕跡,或因為地質構 造的張力裂隙,在許多起伏的稜頂谷坡常 能看見湖泊隱匿於山谷之中,或壯闊或婉 約,景致絕美,有的較小則被稱為池。

In the high mountains of Taiwan, sometimes lakes can be found hidden in topographical basins. Some form by glaciers, and others by geological fissures. These alpine lakes, or pools, for smaller ones, usually combine magnificence with gracefulness, showing spectacular views.

高山草原

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河流搶水與向源侵蝕

Stream Piracy and Regressive Erosion

台灣山區河川坡陡流急且侵蝕旺盛,因 而出現向源侵蝕、河流搶水等成特殊景 觀。向源侵蝕指河川逐漸向上游也就是 源頭發生侵蝕崩塌的現象,崩塌物質不 斷被運至下游,在頂部形成湯匙狀地貌。 河流搶水更是全球少有的地形現象:河 流發育過程中,海拔較低的低位河向源 及側向侵蝕力旺盛,最後切穿分水嶺將 高位河的水搶了過來。

Most rivers in Taiwan Mountains flow rapidly and swiftly, with intense erosion. Thus results in special landscapes such as Regressive Erosion and Stream Piracy. Regressive Erosion means that a river gradually erodes towards its source, causing collapsed rocks and substances being shipped to the downstream. The river’s source region then forms a spoon-shaped landscape. As for Stream Piracy, which was a rare phenomenon to be seen on earth, it indicates that two neighbor rivers, one at a higher altitude and the other lower, the lower one continuously erodes and finally cut through the watershed, robbing over the water of the higher river.

森林大火與二葉松林

Forest Fire and Red Pine

台灣高山森林覆蓋率高達 60%,甚至在 地質脆弱的板岩地區都有二葉松林生長。 台灣二葉松為台灣特有種,主要分布於 海 拔 750~3000 公 尺 間 的 山 地, 高 可 達 35m*。由於其強勁盤繞的根能抓住岩石, 深入岩縫中的土壤扎根,故能在板岩崩 塌地帶生長;易引發森林火燒,大火後 其種子能從灰燼中迅速獲得養分,冒出 新芽,因而常形成大面積純林。

The forest coverage in Taiwan alpine reaches a high percentage of 60. Even on the geologically fragile slate lands, Red Pine grows and prospers. The Red Pine endemic to Taiwan, distributed on mountains at 750 to 3000 meters above sea level, with tree height at most 35m. The tree has strong, coiled roots which are able to seize the rocks, extreme deep into the soil in the crevices. That is why the Red Pine grows in the collapsing zone of slate lands. The Red Pine also causes forest fires, with its seed quickly absorbing nutrients from the ashes, then sprout and prosper. Thus results into a pure Red Pine forest.

高山植物

Alpine Plants

森林線以上的植物,由於氣候變遷 ( 台灣 近幾十萬年曾發生數次冰河事件 )、地形 錯縱複雜等因素,許多植物種被限制在 台灣高山上,經歷千萬年的演化繁衍, 形成如今樣貌繁多的高山植物。高山上 的花卉因常受強烈紫外線的照射,植物 改變形體或產生類胡蘿蔔素和花青素等 物質來保護自己,所以花朵多小巧或顏 色特別豔麗。

The plants above forest lines, due to climate change (there were several glacier visits in Taiwan the past ten thousand years) and the complexity of geology and landforms, were restricted in the high mountains long ago. Through evolutions of thousands of years, Taiwan’s alpine plants now show the diversity of species and variety of appearances. The alpine flowers, to protect themselves from intense ultraviolet rays, change form or generate several substances such as carotenoid and anthocyanin, therefore cause the petals small or intensely colorful. 023


自然觀察與詮釋 Nature Observation & Interpretation

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自然是一種動態糾結的狀態,所有的事物都是交 織並存的。一個場所無法被抽離出來的單一物件 所定義,而必須同時考量這些物彼此相互作用的 關係,每個物有其自身的邏輯,物與物之間又有 其相互作用的法則,組成錯綜複雜又隨時在改變 的關係網,定義了自然的各個場所。

Nature is always exihibiting a dynamic and tangled state. All the things are intertwined and existing at the same time and space. A natural place cannot be defined by one single object, but should be described by considering all things and their inter-relationships. Each object has its own logic, and still more laws lies within. All these relationships and logics form an intricate net, which is changing all the time, to define the places in nature.


崩落 落的板岩形 的板 板岩形 岩 成碎 成碎石坡 石 ,二 石坡 二葉松 松根纏 纏繞立 繞 足,針葉 葉夾雜 夾雜其他 其他秋葉 其他 秋葉 葉 鋪落,初 鋪落 ,初春草 初春草 春草本植 本植物的 本植 物的嫩芽 物的 嫩 從隙 從隙縫中 縫中 中繁衍 繁 新綠 綠 Collllllap Co a si sing ng g plaate tes fo tes form rm min ng gr grav aveel gro roun roun un nds dss; th ds; he ro roo otts of Taiwaan Re R d Pi Pine ine ne win wi wind nd din ing to sta ing tand nd,, wh nd whil hille co coni oni nife ffeero rous to og get ethe theer wi with h oth her er aut utum umn leeavveess spre sp read re ad din ing g on n gra rave vels ve ls; th ls ls; thee he herrb rbacceous eo ou uss pllaant n s fr from rom om witthi hin ssllit lit its ts raadi diat atin ing in g new ne w bu buds ds’’ g grree eeni nish sh she heen en in early ea y sp ea spri ring ri ng g.

自然場所的整體狀態很難被單一感官描述,透過 身體加上所有感官與環境互動後,能更加全面的 體會一個場所的重要精神,意識到主宰環境的自 然力量,或是藉由活動遊覽更親密地接觸到場所 中的事物。進入甚至成為整個場所中的一部分。 一個地點的自然事物在其特定時空下產生特有的 邏輯,進而交織成這個環境的氛圍與狀態,這就 是該場域在時空架構下的場所精神。

The overall condition of a natural place could hardly be described by one single sense. The main and more complete spirit of natural place would be experience however by interacting with environment of our body and all sensory organs. We can then be aware of the dominant natural power of a place, or more intimately contact with the things in a place through touring around. To sum up, we actually enter the place and become a part of it. Natural elements at a specific place form a special logic within the very time and space. Such logic emanates a unique atmosphere and condition, which is exactly the Spirit of the place (in a time-space point of view).

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時空複合體 & 切片 Time-Space Complex & Slice

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從時間與空間的角度來看,整體自然是一些巨大 ( 超乎想像,人類難以掌握 ) 的時間力量孕育凝煉 而成,動態且相互牽制的複合狀態,萬物並非等 距等速並進排列,而是各自有其迂迴輾轉的時間 軸,在空間中交織重疊。

身處在自然場域,人們眼睛所視的環境景致與自 然現象,則是「現在」這個時間點,在時空複合 體中的一小段「切片」。此切片分布在峰巔深谷、 溪畔樹梢等各個場所,每個場所又是「現在」這 個切片中更小的一段切片。

我將這個交織動態的複雜狀態稱為「時空複合 體」。複合體這個原本是化學及天文學的用語, 在這裡用來表示事物聚集交織,糾結複雜的此種 網體狀態。

人們在自然中遊走,不經意間便跨越了超乎想像 的時空。


From the aspect of time and space, the whole Nature is composed and accumulated of several enormous powers. That the power of Nature controlling time and space achieves a dynamic and mutual-connected state: enormous powers beyond human imagination colliding or combining each other; creation proceeding in neither constant velocity nor equidistance, but each ones moving according to their own wandering timetables, which could probably weave a complex net in the universe. This net, or state, I name it the “Time-Space Complex”. The originally chemical and astronomical term

“complex” here, is transferred to the meaning of things gathering and interacting thus forming an intertwined, complicated status, or net. Situated in a natural place, all the things, views, phenomenon that we see, are actually a “Slice” of the Time-Space Complex of “now”, this very moment. The slice reaches through high hills and deep valleys, from riversides to tree tops and elsewhere. Each place is a smaller slice of the "now" slice. By roaming and wandering in nature, we are actually crossing time and space, unwittingly and unconsciously.

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態度定位與策略 Attitude and Strategy

切片,是代表整體的片段。從時空複合體中擷取的「切片」為代表整體自然的片段。切片並不 阻斷時空複合體的連續狀態及脈絡關係,而是建立一種擾動或遮罩,作為對照與體驗的基礎。 A slice is a small piece of section representing the whole. We capture a "slice" from the Time-Space complex, to observe an overall condition of nature. A slice does not break the continuity of nature, nor does it block the relationship of elements inside and outside of the slice. A slice creates a turbulence or filter as the base to observe and experience Nature.

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人類源於自然,而面對文明發展遭受莫大破 壞的自然環境,最佳的復育方式其實是從此 不再碰觸,將環境回歸原始狀態。但如果保 護自然的結果是人類從此遠離自然,又矯枉 過正且消極可笑。

Human was born from Nature. While facing natural environment which has been seriously damaged through the development of human civilization, the best way to restore is to keep away. Let the environment regain its original health on its own. Yet how passive or ridiculous it is while protecting natural resulting in human being separated from nature!

建築物,或者所有人造事物,要進入自然場 域,勢必會對原本的環境產生改變與擾動。 此改變與擾動未必是破壞,反而能成為一種 「切片」,也就是所謂的「融入」,讓建築 物或人造物,甚至人的活動本身,成為整體 環境的一部份,成為場所精神的重要元素。

Architecture, or all kinds of artificial things, when entering a natural field, is inevitably to cause changes or disturbances. Nevertheless, those changes and disturbances are in no way an unavoidable damage; rather it could be a “slice”, which means to be “fitted in”. Architecture and artificial things, even the activities of visitors can thus be part of the overall environment and become an important element to compose the Genius Loci.

環境 environment 邏輯 logic

建築物 / 人造物

architecture/ artificial things

切片

Slice

從複合體與切片的觀點來看自然,每個場所 皆有其在時空架構下的場所精神,一個地點 的自然事物在該特定時空下產生特有的邏 輯,進而交織成一個環境的氛圍狀態。

The Time-Space Complex and Slice indicates that natural elements at a specific place form a special logic within the very time and space. Such logic emanates a unique atmosphere and condition, which is exactly the Spirit of the place.

觀察自然環境,找出形成一個場所特有氛圍 的邏輯,成為建築物轉化成切片的設計手 法,由此設計能成為場所精神本身的建築物 或人工構造物。

The strategy of this project is to first study a place; conclude a logic following which a place’s unique atmosphere was formed. From this logic we then generate the methods to transfer and design architecture as slices. The design itself is actually the Genius Loci.

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案例研究 Case Studies

船屋 Boat House

摩西之橋 Moses Bridge

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此兩個案例皆以「切片」的方式將建築物或人工構造物置入自然,也就是使自身 成為體驗自然的憑藉基礎,某種程度擾動了原本環境的狀態,但不破壞或阻斷自 然的動態與連續性,而是使自身的存在與自然取得一種平衡,反映場所的精神。 These two cases perform the strategy of position architecture or artificial constructions into nature as “Slices”. They meant to make themselves as bases of experiencing nature. By that they somehow disturbed the original environment, yet never in a way to block or break the dynamic and continuous state. Actually they exist in a fashion of reaching balance between Nature and themselves, and express the spirit of the place.

Architect TYIN tegnestue Location More og Romsdal, Norway Time 2011 Material Wood, Recycled Materials

Architect RO&AD Architecten Location Halsteren, Netherlands Time 2011 Material Accoya wood


岩石是建築物立足的基礎,通常是屬於活動平 面以下,被隱藏隔絕的事情。此 TYIN 建築團 隊所設計的,位於挪威的船屋,使自然的岩塊 在作為基礎的同時,切了一角進入室內空間, 既不需要剷平岩盤,又使室內的活動同時體驗 自然,模糊自然與人為的界線,更直接看到建 築物置身於自然的方法與關係。

Rocks are bases on which architecture perches, and are usually below the level of people’s activity, meant to be hidden and separated. This Boat House in Norway designed by TYIN Architects, made rocks not only as basis but also as part of the indoor space. By that the house requires no need to dig into the ground, and let people experience nature when indoor activities take place. This design blurs the border of artifice and nature, and also displays the relationship and methods of how architecture enters nature.

橋讓人跨越阻礙通行的流水,人被高抬於水面 之上遠眺,與河水相隔。RO&AD 建築團隊的 摩西之橋,將橋置於與水同高的平面,重新將 河水定位為環境、自然本身而非阻礙。人的過 橋是切入自然的動作,並不阻斷河水的連續 性,反而是讓人更直接意識到水的流動與橋本 身的存在意義。 Bridges are for crossing over waters that hinder ways. People are lifted high above the water, overlooking the river from a far distance. The Moses Bridge, designed by RO&AD Architects, was however lowered down to the same level with the water. This action redefined the river as environment, nature itself, rather than obstruct on the way. That people walking across the bridge, is an action of cutting into the Nature, and remaining the continuity of river. In this way actually, that people recognize directly the flow of water and the meaning of existence of the bridge.

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基地 Site

禹嶺崔巍受環拱,直上如登萬仞梯 ... 峯迴路折梨山近,夜來風雨轉淒其 --- 宋鍔《橫貫公路紀遊寄興》 Tayuling embraces the magnificant might, with a thousnad ledders up into the sky. ...roads turn and suddenly Lishan is nearby, the wind and rain chilling into the night.

--- E Song, Cross-Island Highway Traveling Poem

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大禹嶺   別 名|合歡埡口   山 脈|中央山脈主稜鞍部   高 度|海拔 2564.67 公尺   位 置|花蓮縣秀林鄉富世村/台 8 線 112K   分水嶺|大甲溪/立霧溪

Tayuling Alias | Hehuan Bealock Mountain | Saddle on Main Ridge of Central Mountain Range Height | 2564.67 Meters above sea level Location | Fushi, Xiulin Township, Hualien County / Provincial Highway No.8 Watershed | Tachia River / Liwu River

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基地印象 Site Image

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懷著敬畏的心爬升至海拔兩千七百公尺的中央山脈北 段稜線上,綿延的山稜突然轉了個彎 Climb with respectful heart onto 2700 meters above the sea, where the northern part Central Mountain Range stands, we see the mountain ridges suddenly winding a drastic turn.


大禹嶺見證各個時代各個方向前來的人們 翻越、穿鑿、驅車而過的痕跡 更乘載多股龐大的自然力量在此交織匯集 有的激發了山川崩移的磅礡巨變;有的綿 延滲透,隨著季節不斷的消長更替;有些 則以輕盈飄渺之姿,轉瞬輕拂而過

Tayuling witnessed the traces of crossing, traversing, and driving by people of all times coming from all directions. Still more, the place carried the gathering and colliding within numerous enormous Nature powers. Some powers inspired the majestic changes and dramatic crashes of the mountains; some wandered, permeated and altered with seasons; still others brushed by rapidly in a lithe and aerial manner.

035


百萬年來的板塊造山,岩層經由海底抬升與褶皺 擠壓,變質而成層層劈理的板岩地質。裂縫沿著 板岩岩塊的節理滋長崩落。 Million years of orogeny performed by the plates, with the rock stratum being raised from seabed, compressed and bended, the geology is transformed into slabs rich in layers and cleavage. Cracks grow along the joints of slabs, and then rocks collapse.

民國四十年的中橫公路開鑿,工程進行到大禹嶺 時,由於脆弱易崩塌的板岩地質,一條 180 公 尺長的隧道幾乎徒手開挖。這個地方也因為築路 難如大禹治水,而被命名為大禹嶺。 When the construction the Central Cross-Island Highway preceded to Tayuling, the geology were found to be extremely vulnerable, which was of high possibility for landslide. So the tunnel at Tayuling was almost entirely dug by the workers’ bare hands. Considering that building the road was as difficult as the ancient saint Ta-Yu dredging rivers, the place was thus named Tayuling (Ta-Yu Peak).

徒手開挖     木襯砌    混凝土灌漿    拆除襯砌 Digging with Bare Hands

036

Wood Supports

Grouting Concrete

Removing of Wood Supports


037


038


脆弱的地質讓二葉松成為優勢的樹種 樹根不斷地糾結盤繞 種子在森林大火後再度重生 先人們一腳一步踩踏出來的越嶺古道 隨著季節更替 鋪落滿徑的松針與高山植物的開花落葉 交織了五彩繽紛的地表外衣 Given the fragile geology, the Red Pine became the dominant specie since the tree’s roots could tangle and toil in to the soil, with its seeds reborn after forest fire. Our ancestors trod stampeded foot by foot, walking the way of crossing trail. As the season changing, Pine needles cover the paths and alpine plants blossom and wither, weaving a colorful landscape.

039


大禹嶺原本的名字─合歡啞口 暗示了嶺上馬鞍一般的地形 立霧溪谷向原侵蝕的結果 中央山脈的稜線在大禹嶺向西轉了一個大彎 水氣跟隨陽光推擠著湧入河谷 下一秒跳躍追逐著越過了山嶺 在山的另一頭沉寂凝聚成流向天邊的雲海

The original name of Tayuling, Hehuan Bealock, indicated a saddle-like terrain. The Liwu River continuously erodes toward the source, causing the ridges of Central Mountain Range to bend a large curve towards west. Water vapor, following the sun light, huddled to influx the valley and in the next second jump over the ridges. Spectacular sea of clouds then is then formed at the other side of the mountains.

040


041


太魯閣國 太魯 閣國 國家公 公園 大甲溪 大甲 梨山 台8線

福壽山農 福壽 福壽山農 山農場 場 合歡群山 合歡 群山 山

畢祿山 羊頭 畢祿山 畢祿 羊頭山 頭山

台 8線 屏風山 屏風 山

立 溪 立霧

奇萊 奇 萊北峰 北峰 線

042

14 甲

大禹嶺 大禹治水般艱難的築路史 連接中台灣山區觀光景點 公路通行的交通樞紐 昔日登山活動重要據點 今日觀光運輸補給中繼


基地資訊 Site Information

地理位置與鄰近景點 Location and Nearby Scenic Spots

大禹嶺位於中央山脈北段稜線上,屬花蓮縣秀林 鄉富世村,太魯閣國家公園境內,作為分水嶺分 隔了立霧溪與大甲溪兩個流域。 大禹嶺是原中橫公路(台 8 線)的最高點,也是 其與現行中橫公路(台 14 甲線)的交會點,在 921 大地震後,原中橫公路部分坍方,大禹嶺於 是成為梨山地區往台灣東西部必經的道路,以及 台灣中部山區重要地點的交通中繼節點。 四周群山環抱,可以眺望屏風、合歡群山、南湖、 中央尖、奇萊北等群山,以及俯望深峻的溪谷。 每年雪季,遊客必須由此轉搭計程車或徒步上合 歡山區賞雪。

Tayuling is situated on the northern part of main ridges in Central Mountain Range, located in Fushi Village, Xiulin Township, Hualien County. It is within Taroko National Park as a watershed that separated two river basins, Liwu and Tachia. Tayuling is the highest point of the old Central Cross-Island Highway (Provincial Highway No.8), and also where the old Highway meets the current one (Provincial Highway No.14 A). Since the 921 Earthquake in 2001, the old Highway collapsed, and Tayuling became the place where people must pass from Lishan to eastern or western Taiwan. Thus Tayuling became an important traffic node connecting the Central Mountain Spots. Surrounded by mountains, Tayuling overlooks PingFeng Mountain, Hehuan Mountains, Nanhu, Central Tip, Chilai North Mountains, and the deep and steep valley. In every year when snow falls, visitors would park here and take taxi or walk onto the Hehuan Mountains to watch snowy views.

043


昔日活動動 動 落鷹山莊

越嶺古道

賞雪遊客

公路隧道開鑿 大禹嶺農場 大禹嶺山莊

公共廁所 休息停車 蔬果販賣 小吃餐廳 雪鍊維修 登山民宿 松林複育

今日活動 今日 活 活動 044


發展脈絡與現況活動 Development and Current Activities

大禹嶺的發展與越嶺古道、中橫公路等幾條路徑 有著密切的關係。嶺上方的越嶺古道最早為原住 民部落的獵徑;1914 年日本殖民政府討伐太魯閣 原住民,興建軍用道路;後將原路線變更,興建 經濟道路,路線大致是現今合歡越嶺古道;國民 政府來台後於民國 40 年開始興建中橫公路,歷經 十年開通,以開路艱難如大禹治水為大禹嶺命名。 曾經有救國團大禹嶺山莊,為民國 60 到 70 年代 登山活動鼎盛時的重要據點,於 921 地震後因地 基崩塌而拆除。 今日大禹嶺成為遊客來往中部山區景點如合歡、 梨山、福壽山農場以及太魯閣國家公園等,必經 的休憩停留點,也是山區活動如中橫健行、稜線 縱走、賞雪等重要的補給接駁據點。目前現有一 廢棄派出所、一座公共廁所、兩間民宿以及兩三 間經營小吃餐廳、販賣農產品等店家。 The development of Tayuling was highly connected with several paths, namely the ancient Crossing Trail, the Central Cross-Island Highway and other mountain climbing trails. The Crossing Trail was originally the hunting trail of the aborigines. In 1949 the Japanese

colonial government built up the path for army to crusade the aborigines. After the crusade the Japanese rebuilt the road for economical use, which was mostly identical to the Hehuan Ancient Crossing Trail. In 1951, after the Taiwan government came, the construction of Central Cross-Island Highway has begun, and a more ten years it was finished. The place was named Tayuling in memory for the difficulties of construction. There was once a Tayuling Villa belonged to the China Youth Corps. The Villa was an important stronghold of the 1970 – 1980’s, when mountain activities were in a period of great prosperity. However the villa was demolished due to the collapse of its foundation after the 921 earthquake. Today’s Tayuling has become a resting place for people who are touring the scenic spots such as Hehuan mountains, Lishan, Fushoushan Farm, and Taroko National Park. It is also the stronghold for shuttle or supplying mountain activities such as Cross-Island Highway walking, Central Mountain Ridges Traversing, or Snow Watching. Currently there has one abandoned police station, one public toilet, two B&B’s, and two or three shops that provide food, drinks, or agricultural products. 045


環拱的谷 環 谷地與鞍背稜點,大禹嶺因著地勢形貌, 迎 了從 迎接 了 各個方向湧入的自然力量及人群活動。 所 的事 所有 的 物、現象 現象 象 及族 及族群, 群 都 都帶 帶 著自 著自己的 己的時間 己的 軸與 與 運作邏輯,在大禹嶺相遇,因而產生續多 交 撞擊,形成一個織網繁複,交錯縱橫的時 交會 空複 複 合體 合體。呈現多變豐富,意寓深刻的環境, 給 既壯 給予 既 麗粗 粗曠, 曠 又秀緻微妙的基地條件。 046

With its encirclin ng valley and sad ddlled d rid dgee, Tayuling’s unique landform embrr ac a es natural forces of all directions and n people from everywhere with their acti tivi v ties. All the things, phenomenon, and population, each carry its own timetable and logic, meet and collide at Tayuling. Therefore a complicated, net-like, interlocked, and intertwining Time-Space Complex is being composed. The site thus exhibits a rich and varied environment, presenting both magnificence and delicacy.


基地詮釋 Site Intepretation 047


on on 板塊撞擊 Plate collisio 造山運動 Orogeny mor orph phis issm 板岩變質 Slate Metam nclilino nc ncli no ori rium rium m 大禹嶺複向斜 Tayuling Syn ttit ittud u e 地層位態 Formation Att

策略 Srategy

斷層作用 Faulting 分水嶺 Watershed ng Poi ng oint ntt 稜線轉折 Ridge Turnin oods oo ds 二葉松林 Red Pine Wo form form m 鞍部地形 Saddle Landffo rosi sion si on 向源侵蝕 Backward Ero grap gr phy 河谷地形 Valley Topog ghtt 與樹冠高度 Tree Canopyy Heiigh ion n 植物演化 Plant Evoluttio sssin ing g Tr Traiil 越嶺古道 Ancient Cross s-Is Isla Is land la and Hig ighw hwaay hw ay Exc xcav a at av atio ion io n 中橫開鑿 Central Crosssrnat atio at io on 季節交替 Season Alteern V lllley eyy 雲霧湧入河谷 Clouds Influxx Va nseet 日出 / 日落 Sunrise/Sun 雲海 Cloud Sea

切片策略

ouds ove ouds ver Hi ver H llss 雲霧翻山變幻 Climbing Clo

the Slice Strategy 大禹嶺作為時空複合體,承載各種自然事物及現 象,其中最具代表性者所發生的場所,便是代表 基地整體樣貌的切片。 包括板岩地質、中橫開鑿、二葉松林、越嶺古道、 分水嶺上稜線及鞍部地形,與其所造成的雲霧劇 烈變幻等。依時間的長短,這些事物與現象大致 可分為長、中、短三組時間性;且各自在基地場 域內的某個特定場所特別茂盛、純粹或顯著,主 導了場所的氛圍與精神,因而這三個場所便作為 切片各自代表了一種時空尺度。 將建築物以前所定義「切片」的方式置入,建立 人藉以體驗場所精神的立足點,同時依族群活動 的分佈,與所欲創造的場所氛圍,配置使用機能。 分析這些場所中事物現象的邏輯與法則,再轉化 為建築物設計的方法,使場所與所置入的建築物 以同樣或相容的邏輯並存共置,最後創造出設計 後整體遊境中的重要 ( 場所 ) 切片。

048

Tayuling, as Time-Space Complex, carries all kinds of natural things and phenomena. The most representative ones occur at certain places, which are Slices representing the whole appearance of the site.

All of those include the slate geology, the construction of Central Cross-Island Highway, the Red Pine Woods, the ancient crossing trail, watershed, the line of ridges, the saddle landform, and caused by which the drastic changes of mist and cloud. According to the length of time, those things and phenomena could be generally categorized into three groups of long, medium, and short time-spans. Each of them is prosperous, absolute or obvious in a certain place within the site region, dominate the atmosphere and spirit of the vary places. Therefore I chose the three places as three slices with each representing a scale of time and space. Architectures are to be put as the above defined Slice into the places. Then construct standing point for people to experience the spirit of the places. Meanwhile the functions are provided according to the distribution of different groups’ activities, or the atmosphere that is to be created. Analyze the logics or laws of these things and phenomena at the chosen places, and transform them into method for designing architectures. The architecture and the place then exist together by the same or corresponding logics. Finally the tour-realm composed by important (place) slices are designed and created.


049


機能定位 Programming

隧道東口 East Exit of Tunnel

人造與自然的切換介面:面對巨大的自然 An interface of switching between artificial and natural: Confronting the gigantic Nature

「大禹」嶺的命名 名:築路難如大禹治水 Naming Tayuling (“T Tayu” Ridge) : the construction of road is as difficcul u t as Tayu regulating rivers.

古道終點 Ancient Trail in Pinewood

人進入自然內部的棲居行為:身體與自然互動關係 People’s dwelling behavior in the inner Nature: the relationship of body interacting with nature.

合歡越嶺古道:路徑穿梭蔓繞在松樹林間 Hehuan Crossing Trail: An ancient path that wanders and roams in the pinewood.

稜線鞍點 Ridge & Saddle Point

原地名合歡「埡口」:鞍點地形 The original name of the place was Heehuan "Bealock": indicating the sad ddle landform

人跨越自然的劇烈轉換:意識時空尺度的瞬時切換 People crossing drastic nature conversation: to sense the rapid switch of time-space scales.

050


中 央 山 脈稜線 縱走

梨山

畢祿山

合歡群山

羊頭山

台中

越嶺古道縱走

中橫健行

屏風山

登山旅客 Mountain climbers

埔里

太魯閣

清境 合歡

開車遊客 Visitors came by car

花東

奧萬大

遊客中心 Visitor Center

從公路進入大禹嶺遊境的轉換介面 An interface to transfer from Provincial Highway to Tayuling Tour-Realm

資訊服務 餐廳 / 廚房 集會 / 彈性空間 食 / 用品販賣 公共廁所 汽車檢修站 小客車停車位 管理辦公室 小巴士接駁

Information Service Restaurant / Kitchen Assembly / Multiple Use Food / Grocery Selling Public W.C. Car Repair Car Parking Manage Office Small Shuttle Bus

登山旅宿 Mountain Hostel 彈性休息空間

住宿床位

Multi-use and rest space

登山客中繼站 與接駁補給地點 Mountain climbing relay station & supply and shuttle place

廁所 W.C.

Sleep Spaces

淋浴空間 Shower Space

管理室

Management Office

儲藏室 Storage 簡易炊事空間

Cooking Spaces

茶室 + 廁所 Tea House + W.C.

登山客歇腳與遊客觀景休息地點 Resting place and belvedere for mountain climbers and visitors.

茶亭 觀景台 廁所 步道

Tea House Belvedere W.C. Paths

051


052


053


分析 Analysis 真山水之山谷,遠望之以取其勢,近看之以取其質 ... 如此一山而兼數十百山 之意態,可得不就乎 ? --- 郭熙《林泉高致》, 北宋 (1023 -1085) For the landscape of great nature, overlooking from afar we get its atmosphere, whilst observing closely we learn its essence… with such a mountain containing images and concepts of tens and hundreds ones, how could we not take a grasp?

--- Xi Guo, the Heart of Woods and Streams, Northern Song Dynasty (1023 -1085)

054


分析方法 Analysis Method

針 對 基 地 的 三 個 切 片,L、M、S, 分 別 以地質岩層、二葉松樹林、以及鞍點稜線 地形影響的雲霧現象為主要觀察與分析對 象。研究這些事物現象在環境中的存在邏 輯,轉化成為建築設計的依據原則。 The main observation and analysis objects for the three slices, L, M, S, on the site, are, respectively, Geological Stratum, the Red Pine Woods, and the Phenomena of cloud and mist caused by ridge and saddle landforms. Study the existing logic of these objects, things or phenomena, in the environment at each place, and transformed them into design principles.

055


切片 L:隧道東口 Slice L:East Exit of Tunnel

現況分析與設計方法 Current Context Analysis & Design Method 台灣高山有 2/3 以上的地區屬板岩地區,尤其 中央山脈地層,因受造山運動擠壓頁岩變質,從 海底抬升而成。 2/3 of Taiwan’s mountain region is of the slate stratum. Especially in the Central Mountain Range, which was squeezed and raised from the sea due to orogeny, causing shale metamorphose into slate.

較能承受垂直於劈理面的力 More capable to withstand the force perpendicular to cleavage plans

易順劈理崩落 Tend to collapse along cleavage

板岩最主要的特性,是它具有發達的葉理面 (也稱為板劈理)這些面狀構造均是濳在的破 裂面,也就是工程上常稱的弱面或不連續面。

056

The main characteristic of slate is its developed foliation surface (as known as rock cleavage). These planar structures are all potential fracture plans, or the so-said weak or discontinuous surface which are often termed in engineering.


量體與地形的關係:讓建築物從平面及剖面上來看,都像是從地形線 延伸而出,或補足地形上的缺角,減低建築物出現在山中的突兀感。 The relationship between building and landform: let the architecture be extending from contour curves or supplement for breaches, from both plan and section views. In this way reduce the conflict between the architecture and surrounding.

人的活動創造了水平的基準面,而地形原本的坡度 則是我們所看到自然的基準面,在這之下還有地質 潛在的基準面,各以不同的方向角度存在於空間之 中,卻彼此相關。 Human activities bring artificial horizontal plans; the slope of original terrain provides nature plans; and beneath those are geological latent plans. These plans exist in space respectively with different direction and inclinations, yet mutual-related.

活動面碎化成多個小平面,如板岩般從岩塊中剝 落,減低大塊整平的需求與量體的尺度,並讓建築 物如從地形的裂縫延伸出來般,人們在遊走中見到 自然的基準面。 Plans for activities are chopped into small pieces, as slate chippings flaking from rock. In this way the need for leveling and the scale of building are both reduced. The architecture extends from cracks in the terrain, and people wandering within would see natural plans.

藉由結構呈現人造物與地質潛在基準面間的關係: 尋找地形上較穩定的地方,置放穩定用的重結構, 再藉由較輕的木結構延伸出使用空間,並以斜向木 柱朝垂直於板岩劈理的方向回撐,壓住板岩塊體。 The structure exhibits the relationship between artificial and latent geological plans: relatively stable places on the terrain are found for installing heavy structures, from which lighter wood structures are extended to generate spaces. The extended parts then press back with wood columns perpendicular to the direction of slate attitudes, thus stabilize the slate rocks.

057


地質地形線交角分析 Analysis of Intersection between Geological & Topographical Lines

地質圖上大禹嶺地區的板岩位態,標示了 此地區版岩層以四十度的傾角,朝向東南 的方向隱沒。

地形等高線與地質的岩層走向越趨近平行,就代表坡體 的重量由越少層岩層承受,也就越容易順著劈理整片滑 落崩塌;反之交角接近垂直,則相對較穩定。

The slate attitude on the Tayuling Geological Map indicates that the slate stratum here immerge towards south-east with a 40 degree inclination angle

The more the contour lines approach parallel with the geological stratum, the fewer slate layers there are to share a certain block of slope weight. Therefore the whole layer is more likely to fall along the cleavage. On the contrary, the contour lines become perpendicular to stratum, it is more stable.

058 40o south-east


危險

安全

Dangerous

Safe

分析基地等高線與地質走向的交角,交角越大 顏色越深,也就代表越安全,越淺白的地方則 代表越高的崩塌傾向。由此產生設計的原則: 在穩定的地方置入較重的結構體,易崩塌的地 方則如槓桿般以輕架構回撐的方式延伸空間。

Analyze how the site’s contour lines intersect with the stratum direction. The larger the intersection angle is, I gave darker colors, which means more secure. The lighter colored places however, have higher potential to collapse. Then a design principle was formed: the heavier structures are installed at stable places, while the lighter structures extending spaces and suppressing rocks backward like the level.

059


切片 M:古道終點 Slice M:Ancient Trail in Pinewood 現況分析與設計方法 Current Context Analysis & Design Method

大禹嶺周遭脆弱的地質,使台灣二葉松成為優勢樹種 Taiwan Red Pine Trees have become the dominant species in Tayuling mountain region due to the vulnerable geology.

台灣二葉松的根部不斷蜿蜒盤繞,尋找岩縫中的土壤扎根,抓住 容易碎裂的岩塊。樹幹垂直向上,即使隨地層崩塌傾倒,木質部 組織會再自動調整,朝著逆地心引力的方向繼續生長。 二葉松常形成密度高的純林,為爭取陽光與水分不斷向上拔高, 最高可至約 35 公尺,而下部少分支,樹冠下主幹長至少有全株 高度的 1/3,因此行走在林間多見到為筆直的松樹樹幹。 The roots keep winding and coiling, finding soils in the crevices to grow, and therefore grip the rocks which are tending to crash. The trunks grow vertically upward. That is, even after landslide or collapse that caused the tree to tilt, the xylem organization would automatically readjust and grow again toward the direction inverse of gravity. The Red Pines tend to become pure forests of high tree density. The trees, in order to catch water and sunlight, grow upward continuously until reaching a height of at most 35M. The lower parts of the trunks have few branches, and are at least about 1/3 of the total height of the trees. Thus when walking in the woods, we see mainly perfectly straight pine trunks.

060

> 1/3 h


密度

隱私性

Density

Privacy 高 High ----------- 洗澡

----------- 如廁

----------- 睡覺

合歡越嶺古道來到大禹嶺上方的這一段,大致沿著稜線分佈,穿梭 在二葉松樹間。一路向西,松樹密度越來越高,至台 14 甲線 41K, 現存的古道終點處,達到約每兩公尺見方就有一棵松樹。 不論開拓古道的先人們,還是今日的登山遊客,甚至野生動物,都 逡巡在筆直的松樹間,找尋行走與棲息的容身之處,也不斷在經歷 不同樹幹密度包圍所形成的空間氛圍。 While the ancient Hehuan Crossing Trail reaches Tayuling, the path stretches mostly along the ridges, and wanders in Red Pine Woods. With the path going west, the forest grows denser. At 41K of Provincial Highway No.14 A, the end of existing parts of the ancient trail, there presents a high density of about one tree per 2m x 2m square. People of the past who explored the ancient trail or those of nowadays mountain climbers and travelers, even the wild animals, all were or are wandering around straight pine trees, finding places to walk or rest, experiencing atmospheres form by different trunk densities.

----------- 梳洗

----------- 起居

----------- 休息

----------- 用餐

----------- 行走

低 Low

利用垂直元素 ( 8cm x 8cm 松木角料 ) ,與基地上原生樹木的配合, 控制密度變化,形成不同隱私層級的使用空間。 Use vertical materials (pine structure wood with section of 8cm x 8cm) and match them with the existing trees on the site to control density, forming spaces of different privacy level.

進一步利用樹冠高度與樹木大小, 作為隱私的圍塑與空間序列的指示 Use the pine trees' canopy and size to further achieve privacy and indicate spatial sequences.

061


樹冠下虛空間分析 Analysis of Void Spaces Under Tree Canopy

森林密度: 1 顆 / 2 公尺見方 Forest Density:1 tree/ 2m x 2m

062

平均樹高:約 20 公尺 Avg Tree Height:about 20M

樹木高度 亂數產生 Random Generation

Tree Height

樹幹直徑與分佈 Trunk Diameter & Distribution

樹冠直徑 Canopy Diameter


x

1 3

樹冠下虛空間等高線圖 Contour Map of Void Spaces Under Canopy

樹冠立體形狀 3D Tree Canopy

由地面往上的相對高度,每公尺畫一條等 高線,用來決定樹林中可以活動的虛空間。 Draw a contour line with every meter of the relative height from the ground. This is used to derive the void space for activity in the woods.

063


陽光投影分析 Analysis of Sunlight Projection

樹冠立體模型 3D Canopy Model

064

時間

陽光位置與照射角度

投影

Time

Sun Position & IrradiationAngle

Project

地形立體模型 3D Landform Model


08:0 08 :00 :0 0 |

09:0 09 :00 :0 0 |

110 0:0 00 |

111:0 :00 |

12 2:00 :0 00

陽光投影至地表圖 Map of Sunlight Projection on the Ground

面對高山上濕冷的環境,將較需要隱私的空間安 排在陽光能照射到的地方,以緩和寒冷與潮濕。 Consider the clammy environment on the high mountain, spaces that require more privacy are to be put at places where could be exposed to the morning sun, thus to ease the cold and damp. 065


樹林圍蔽感分析 Analysis of Forest Enclosedness

森林密度 Forest Density

066

木樁格點系統 Grid System of Wood Columns

進入樹林 ( 空間密度改變 ) Into the Woods (Change of Space Density)

在松林中置入與樹木密度相當 (1 棵 /4m ) 的 格點木樁,作為設計範圍的軟性邊界。

進入格點系統 ( 空間密度加倍 ) Into the Grid System (Space Density Doubled)

Place into the Pine Woods a wood column grid which is of the same density with the trees (one /4m2). The grid is to form a soft or blurred border for the design region.

2


m x 2m 的 訂定, 格點 點 系統 統 為 2m 定 除了 了 因 原 樹林 密度 度外, 外,也來 也來自松 也來 自松木角 自松 木角材常 角材常 常見的 的生產 生產尺寸 尺寸倍數 尺寸 倍數 (4m) m 、小貨車 貨 能運 運送的 的長度 度 (4m),以及人 ,以 以及人的起 的起 居活動常需單 居活 需 位尺 尺寸 ( 如:床的 床的長度 床的 長度 ) 等。 等 In additio on to the he origi igi ginal fo f rest density ty, the ty de d ecision of the grid to o be e 2m x 2m 2 was a also o made ma de by th the e co comm m on mm o pro roducttio ro ion size ze of pine n wo ood colu umns, th he leng ngth off materi ng rial a sma ri m ll t uc tr uck k co cou uld d ca carrry, y, whi hich are re all 4m, and nd d the un nit siz ize e of peopl ple’ pl e’ss li e’ livi ving vi ng g activ vities, suc uch h ass a be bed’ss le eng n th h.

對每個格點 For Each Grid

鄰近 8 格點

陽光投影至地表圖

8 Neighbor Grid Points

Map of Sunlight Projection on the Ground

投影 Project

樹冠下虛空間等高線圖

樹冠下虛空間立體模型

Contour Map of Void Spaces Under Canopy

3D Model of Void Spaces Under Canopy

格點於樹冠底層 Grids under Canopy

平均距離 Average Distance

-1

7 個等級 7 Levels 大:開放 Large:Open

小:圍蔽 Small:Enclosed

067


配置 計畫 Spac 設計 e Pla 初步 nning 想像 Prelim inary Desig n

068


配置計畫與初步設計 Space Planning & Preliminary Design

依據原本樹林的空間密度,配置不同層及隱 私的機能分佈,再補充木樁達到需要的空間 圍蔽成度。 Place function spaces of different privacy requirement in accord with the original forest enclosedness. Then put wood columns to achieve the required degree of shelter.

密度是漸變而連續的,層層由外包圍到內, 產生隱私由低到高的空間序列。 The change of density is gradient and continuous, with layers surrounding from outside to inside, generating space sequence from open to private.

069


切片 S:稜線 / 鞍點 Slice S:Ridge & Saddle Point

現況分析與設計方法 Current Context Analysis & Design Method 凹型山坡 Concave Hillside: 僅有降水洗刷為主的搬運作用 較不易發生迅速向下崩塌 草木植被可以顯著降低趨勢

Rapid downward collapse is less prone to occur. On nly transportation caused by rainfalls. Vegetation can significantly reduce the collapse.

大禹嶺上的鞍點,兼具凹凸型山坡的特性, 既穩定又脆弱,既是最高也是最低點,地形 本身就具有強烈的二元相對特性。 The saddle point at Tayuling, has both the characteristics of concave and convex hillside. It was a place both stable and fragile, being both the top and bottom. The landform itself has a strong characteristic of duality.

凸型山坡:

容易因土壤潛變或雨水侵蝕,表 面土壤或岩石殘屑向下風化崩落

The surface soil or o rock debris tend to weather and collapse downwaard, due to soil creep or rain erosion.

跨越了兩溪流域、新舊中橫、隧道、以及稜線在此轉折, 且頂上以箭竹灌木為主形成的高山草原,讓人置身天地 之間,時空就在身旁腳下,極短順的片刻間劇烈變化, 形成原始而純粹的高山氛圍。 Crossing two river basins, the old and current Central CrossIsland Highway, the tunnel, with the ridge making a turn here, and the Fargesia shrubs forming grassland, the place exhibits an original and pure alpine atmosphere. When people stand here between only sky and land, space and time are drastically changing beside and below within a short blink. 070


稜線是由許多個頂點相連形成的線,鞍點是其中一個特殊的點,許多力量在 此交會,因此環境的變化迅速而顯著。設計上強調點、線與地形之間的關係。 Ridges are a line formed by connecting many top points, of them there is one special point being the saddle point. Many natural forces colliding at this point thus provides a rapidly and significantly dynamic environment. The relationship between points, lines, and landform is thus emphasized in the design.

呼應環境本身的二元性,在鞍點上利用端景 的對照,強調兩側雲霧不斷變換的迅速狀態 On the saddle point, in respond to the duality characteristic of the environment, use the comparison of two ends’ scenes to emphasize the rapid status of cloud and mist continuously changing at two sides of the mountain.

稜線本是一條看不見的線,利用反折地形的 手法呈現稜線。並以抬高的兩翼,示意稜線 為往兩側眺望的至高處之特性。 The ridge line is in reality an invisible one. Design the architecture as reflexed terrain, thus revealing the ridge line. The lifted two wings indicate the characteristic that the ridge being the highest point overlooking the two sides of mountain.

071


鮮苔植物幫助水氣吸收與蒸散,濕 冷的雲霧又替鮮苔植物營造合適的 生長環境。多見於大禹嶺北側坡面 Moss and lichen plants help absorption and evaporation of water vapor, the damp, cold air of cloud and mist in return create a suitable environment for lichen and moss plants. The phenomenon is often seen at the north hillside of Tayuling.

傍晚 晚自合歡山 山區返 返回沉 回 降的雲霧水氣 水氣 Water er vap apor ap or for formin m g clou o d and d mist that returns from frrom fro the Hehuaan mountains and fa f lls bacck at Tayuling. n ng.

072

雲霧路徑分析 Analysis of Cloud and Mist Movement


來自中北 來自 中北部山 部 區,湧入 湧 大甲 湧入 大 溪谷 溪谷的雲霧水 的雲 雲霧水 水氣 Water Wa e vap vapor formin in ng clou oud ou d and mis mistt that h co comin mi g min f m the fro h Nor Northe thern the n and d Ce Centr ntr ntral trall mou mounta mo ntain nta in are area, a and inf n lux u in nto the Ta Tachi chi hiaa Rive iverr vall a ey. al y

雲霧每日自清晨順著地形湧入,聚積在河谷,至中午後山頂 氣溫升高,熱氣蒸散,雲霧變順著氣流上升、翻越山頂,形 成爬山雲的現象。傍晚時山上空氣冷卻沉降,雲霧又回降至 河谷,形成壯麗的雲海。 Every day, cloud and mist in early morning flow along the terrain, influx and accumulate in the valley. Until noon, temperature at mountain peak rises and hot vapor evaporates, cloud and mist hence rise along and cross the peaks. This is the phenomenon called climbing cloud. In the evening the air cools and falls down, along drops the cloud and mist, generating magnificent sea of cloud.

來 太平 來自 太 洋,湧入 入立霧 立 溪谷的雲 雲霧水 霧 氣 Water vapo or fo f rming cloud d and d mi m stt thaat coming g fro r m the Pacificc Oc O ean and in nfl f ux into to the h Liwu River va valllllley e .

073


結論 Conclusion

Time Span

Natural Phenomena

Location

台 8 線與台 14 甲線交會點 LONG

Intersection of Provincial Highway No. 8 and No. 14 A

合歡隧道東側出口 East Exit of Hehuan Tunnel

合歡越嶺古道終點 MEDIUM

End of Ancient Hehuan Crossing Trail

台 14 甲線 41.1 公里 41.1K of Provincial Highway No. 14 A

稜線上越嶺古道 The Ancient Crossing Trail on Ridges

SHORT

合歡隧道上方鞍點 Saddle point above Hehuan Tunnel

074


Program

Environment Logic

Design Principle

遊客中心 Visitor Center

停車場

板岩劈理方向性

地形線的延伸 , 裂縫穿切

Parking Lot

Slate Cleavage Direction

Extend of contour curve, passing through cracks

地形與地質線 Contour & Geology Curve

穩定力矩 + 回撐木構點 Stable torque + Surpressing wood structure points

登山住宿 Mountain Hostel

松樹垂直特性 Verticality of Pine Trees

垂直線性圍蔽感 Vertical, linear enclosedness

樹冠底層高度

樁點密度控制隱私

Canopy Height

Wood piles controlling privacy

茶室 + 廁所 Tea House + W.C.

古道路徑 Ancient Trail

瞬時變幻 Rapid Changing 地形特性 Landform Properties 流動與透明度 Fluidity & Visibility

結構與地形點相接 Structure and Landform connect at points

建築形式顯現環境線 Architecture form revealing envoronment Lines.

075


076


設計 Design

077


全境關係概觀 The Whole Relationship & Image

古道終點 Ancient Trail in Pine Woods

078

登山旅宿 Mountain Hostel


稜線 / 鞍點 Ridge & Saddle Point

廁所 / 茶室 W.C. & Tea House

隧道東口 East Exit of Tunnel

遊客中心 Visitor Center

079


切片 L : 遊客中心設計 Slice L : Visitor Center Design

080


力矩作用的結構反映地質與地形的相互關係,地形線延伸而出活動的 面與坡度,遊客在人為定義、自然地形、與潛在地質基準面之間遊走。 The structure’s torque action shows the relationship between geology and topography. From the contour lines the stages and slopes for activities are extended. Visitors wander within artificial defined plans, natural terrain plans, and latent geological plans. 081


082

Roof Floor Plan Scale 1:300

N


083


084

Ground Floor Plan Scale 1:300

N


085


086


087


切片 M : 登山旅宿設計 Slice M : Mountain Hostel Design

8cm x 8ccm 的松角 8 松角木定 木定義垂 木定 定義垂 垂直 直方 方向 向的 的密度 度變化 變化,在 在樹 樹幹 幹 筆 的二 筆直 二葉松 松林之 之中 中, ,圍繞 圍繞出不同 同隱私層級 隱私層級 隱私 級的 的居 居宿 居宿空 宿空 空間 間。 。 The Pine strucctu T ure re woods of 8c 8 m x 8c 8 m in in section are use sed d to o define the distribution of density. Thuss in n the forest whe h re wee se seee vertical Red Pine trunks eveery rywh wher ere, er e, the hese str truc u tu ture re col o um umns nss defined living and d ressting tiing plaace ces of dif ces iffe ffe fere rent re ntt pri riva vacy va cyy lev evel els. ls. s

088


089


090


Ground Floor Plan Scale 1:200

N

091


092


Upper Floor Plan Scale 1:200

N

093


Section A Scale 1:200

Section B Scale 1:200

094

Section C Scale 1:200


095


096


097


切片 S : 茶室 / 廁所設計 Slice S : Tea House / W.C. Design

098


建築形式與端景不斷對照環境,點接地結構反映路徑與地勢 轉折,茶室與廁所分躆鞍點與偏西稜點上,點與點相連形成 稜線,等距木樁標示的路徑則成為霧氣濃度指示計。 The architecture form, sight, and views keep corresponding to the environment. The structures that connect land at points show the turning of landform and paths. The tea house and toilet, standing at saddle point and ridge point to the west respectively, indicate that the connection of points makes ridge lines. The equidistant sequence of wood piles then become an indicator of mist thickness.

099


100


Roof Floor Plan Scale 1:300

N

101


102

W.C. / Ground Floor Plan Scale 1:200


Tea House / Ground Floor Plan Scale 1:200

N

103


Section C1

Section C2

Secton A Scale 1:200

104


Secton B Scale 1:200

Section C3

105


106


107


結語 Epilog

遊山淺, 遊山 淺 見山 淺, 見山膚澤 膚澤;遊 遊山深 深,見山魂 魂魄。 魄 1794 94 − 185 8577) ---- 魏 魏源《 源 遊山 源《 遊山吟》 吟》, 清 (17 吟》 As for mountains, a slight visit we see their colors and appearance, whilst an in in-d - ep e th tour we meet their spirits. Poem em of Touring in Mountains, Qing Dynasty (1794 − 1857) --- Yuan Wei, Po

108


三個地點與其設計是三道時空切片,可以分別體驗, 闡述各自的場所精神;加起來則完成大禹嶺遊境,表 現整個基地的複合狀態,也就是三個設計的整合體驗 後,人們經歷意識到的即大禹嶺高山區域的場所精神。 The three designs with each place are three time-space slices. They can be experienced separately to explain the spirit of one place at a time. Or they can together combine the Tayuling Tour-Realm, exhibiting the whole complex state of the site. Which means touring throughout three places’ designs, people sense and learn the Genius Loci of Tayuling alpine area.

109


附錄 A : 設計發展過程 Appendix A : Design Developments

110


111


112


113


附錄 B : 參考文獻 Appendix B : References 中文參考書目 Chinese Bibliographies 羅偉 ,五萬分之一 臺灣地質圖說明書 圖幅第二十七號 大禹嶺,經濟部中央地質調查所,民 82 王鑫,地─太魯閣國家公園地形 ‧ 地質景觀資源,內政部營建署太魯閣國家公國管理處,民 78 劉枋,路 : 東西橫貫公路開拓簡史,內政部營建署太魯閣國家公國管理處,民 78 楊建夫,台灣的山脈,遠足文化事業有限公司,民 99 連鋒宗,臺灣百岳全集 - 中央山脈北段,上河文化股份有限公司,民 96 汪燮之,實用隧道工程學,大中國出版社,民 73 鄒豹君,小地形學,開明書店,民 62 潘國樑,山坡地地質分析,科技發行,民 75 鄧勝發等,山岳隧道施工技術之研究,經濟部,民 77 李建中等,樁基礎施工,行政院國軍退除役官兵輔導委員會榮民工程事業管理處,民 78 羅時瑋、關華山,山裡的天空線,建築向度設計與理論學報 5,東海大學工學院建築研究中心,民 94 高琇瑩、賴美麗、簡碧蓮,山徑百年,內政部營署太魯閣國家公園管理處,民 96 台灣省公路局編,東西橫貫公路工程專輯,台灣省公路局印行,民 55 崔征國譯,大屋準三原著,圖解新擋土計畫,詹氏書局,1922 劉柏宏譯,Finlayson,Statham 原著,山坡地分析 ,科技圖書,民 78 田丰、李旭明,環境史:從人與自然的關係敘述歷史,北京:商務印書館,2011 賴國祥,合歡北峰台灣二葉松林火燒後之天然更新,2005 陳志雄,談台灣的高山植物,科博館館訊第 202 期,2004 王鑫,自然的思維,科學發展第 440 期,2009

英文參考書目 English Bibliographies Anthony C. Antoniades, Poetics of Architecture: Theory of Design, New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1992. Kenneth Frampton, Studies in Tectonic Culture: The Poetics of Construction in Nineteenth and                    Twentieth Century Architecture, Cambridge, MIT Press, 1995. Christian Norberg-Schulz, Genius Loci : Towardsa Phenomenology of Architecture, New York, Rizzoli, 1979. Aaron Betsky, Landscrapers :building with the land, New York, Thames & Hudson, 2002. Virginia McLeod, Detail in contemporary landscape architecture, London, Laurence King, 2008. Vicente Guallart, Geo logics :geography, information, architecture, Barcelona, Actar, 2008. Peter Zumthor, Atmospheres :architectural environments, surrounding objects, Basel, Birkhauser, 2006. Preston Scott Cohen, Contested symmetries and other predicaments                      in architecture, New York, Princeton Architectural Press, 2001. Günther Vog, Alice Foxley, Distance and Engagement: Field Trips to Landscapes, Lars Muller Verlag, 2010. 2G Magazine, Landscape architecture: strategies for the construction of landscape, Barcelona, Gustavo Gili, s.a., 1997. Topos Magazine, About landscape : essays on design, style, time, and space, Munchen, Callwey Verlag, 2003.

參考網站 Websites 行政院農委會林務局 [http://www.forest.gov.tw/] 經濟部中央地質調查所 [http://www.moeacgs.gov.tw/main.jsp] 中華民國山岳協會 [http://www.mountaineering.org.tw/] 中橫健行隊 - 官方網站 [http://http://skyhike.tw/]

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太魯閣國家公園 歷史人文 山徑百年 [http://www.taroko.gov.tw/zhTW/Content.aspx?tm=4&mm=2&sm=5] Landezine : Landscape Architecture Work! [http://www.landezine.com/] M.T.N. Architects [http://www.mtnarchitects.com/] Mountain Living [http://www.mountainliving.com/] VOGT Architects. [http://www.vogt-la.com/en] Preston Scott Cohen, Inc. [http://www.pscohen.com/]

一釐米的百萬年 / Nature := Slices of Space x Time  

以時空切片定義自然場域之大禹嶺遊境設計 Tour-Realm Design for Tayuling Mountain Area

一釐米的百萬年 / Nature := Slices of Space x Time  

以時空切片定義自然場域之大禹嶺遊境設計 Tour-Realm Design for Tayuling Mountain Area

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