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ILIANNA KLIANI CARC1025 TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT

GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN ARCHITECTURE, YEAR 4 UNIVERSITY FOR THE CREATIVE ARTS CANTERBURY SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE


TABLE OF CONTENTS Design Objectives 1 Glue Laminated Construction Technology 2 Glulam Precedents 3 Ground Floor Plan 4 First Floor Plan 5 Building Section 6 Water Harvesting 7 Site Section 8 Umbrella Rainwater Collector (URC) Structure 9 URC Program 10 URC Irrigation Calculations 11 Bibliography 12

*Please see Design Submission for correct sizes and further information.


DESIGN OBJECTIVES

DESIGN STATEMENT

Goals & Onjectives It is important for the scheme to promote the idea of a “walkable environment”. Even though the project is considered as a commercial use development and it has a certain target user, the design considers that everyone can access this project and on multiple levels. The goal is to create a strong base for future development.

The Landscape There are 3 main access points into the site. the roads are wide enough for trucks to enter for farming equipment, produce collection etc. The farms are zoned according to different irrigation systems needed for different crops, and are raised higher than the zero level so that there is no immediate access from the public. There are public zones set in the organic farm making this a public park with an educational/cultural centre making it also a toutistic destination.

Design / Access elements The project is a mixed use development where the mix has been achieved vertically and horizontally by responding to the site requirements and the functions needs. The development comprises of a railway station, ferry terminal, urban organic farm, and an open city market. Introduction of transportation network, comprising of a railway and a road network working together inorder to connect, enter, exit, and transfer in different layers without any impact of each on others. Scale The components proportion have responded to the city skyline scale by respecting the maximum existing heights. There is afocus on certain elements in the proposed design to improve the feeling of the “landmark”. Landscape Special care has been addressed towards the design of the landscape in terms of the quantities as well as the type of the selected elements. The goal is to select a durable material that can last for the whole life of the project. The landscape design cannot be seperated from the whole masterplan design, rather being a background and major part of the whole masterplan without affecting the “architectural statements” on the development components. This is because it is responsible to add human value to the outdoor spaces by making them safe, accessible, and aesthetically pleasing in a simple way.

The Building Arrangement The undulating landscape of the garden allows for a smooth raise of the ground closing up to the first level of the building where the main entrance is. On the ground floor we find the platforms of the train, the covered carpark under the raised ground and all the main services of the building. All of this appears to be underground. The first level accommodates both the train station and ferry terminal. Vertical circulation to the platforms on the ground level, and horizontal circulation through the platform brigde connection to the ferry boats etc. Car access can be directly on the first level in front of the main entrance or from the carpark entrance directly into the building. Pedestrian access is not interrupted by the car movement and is direct through the landscape to the main entrance. A secondary walkway through the building leads to the top of the roof and under to the side of the market. This keep the public circulation separate butat the same time introduces tem to the building through the overview of the large roof glass. The Shape The roof’s size and height was derived from the functions inside, reflecting the need for higher ceiling (open/public space) in the middle and lower on the sides (offices and services). The two shells of the roof intertwined represent the two sites coming together through the building itself. The fluidity of the roof is related to the smooth movement through and across the two sites without the blockage of the rail tracks. The movement in and around the building takes into consideration the pedestrian usage of the site, linking all activities to each other.

TECHNOLOGY Introducing an umbrella structural element for pure rain water collection. The amount, size and positioning of these umbrellas are as per calculations of rainfall numbers in the UK and irrigation requirements, as well as surface water collection etc. This system will sustain the irrigation of the farm as well as the water usage inside the building.

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GLUE LAMINATED TIMBER What is Glue Laminated Construction Glued laminated timber, sometimes called “glulam” or “gluelam”, is a manufactured timber product that is produced by gluing together other smaller pieces of machined timber using advanced adhesives. The final result is a single, large and very strong piece of structural timber that can be manufactured to be exactly the right length and shape as required. Glue laminated timbers can be used for straight beams and vertical columns but more often are used to produce great curved beams and arching timbers. Why Use Glue Laminated Timber Glued laminated timber represents an efficient use of timber. In a time when are forests are under greater pressure than ever before, it makes sense to use the smaller otherwise wasted pieces of timber by combining them to form bigger more useable timbers. In this way glue laminated timber can be considered to be an environmentally friendly alternative. Benefits Of Glue laminated construction There are many benefits associated with Glue laminated construction: • Versatility, Glulam can be made to almost any size or shape • Great for sweeping curved beams and arches • No cladding needed • Very large spans can be achieved • Good strength to weight ratio • superior fire performance • corrosion resistant

Visible Beauty, Hidden Strength There are some projects where beams made from glue laminated timber are the obvious choice. Glulam has a reputation for being used in striking applications such as vaulted ceilings and other designs with soaring open spaces. In churches, schools, restaurants, and other commercial buildings, glulam is often specified for its beauty as well as its strength. And for good reason; glulam embodies the classic, natural wood appearance that holds a timeless appeal. Glulam beams – longer spans The superior strength of glulam allows longer clear spans than solid-sawn lumber. This opens up the design possibilities in both commercial and residential construction. In commercial design, custom glulam beams can span more than 100 feet. In reticulated glulam framed dome structures, glulam arches span more than 500 feet. Glulam trusses also take many shapes, including simple pitched trusses, complicated scissors configurations and long span bowstring trusses with curved upper chords. When designed as space frames, glulam truss systems can create great clear spans for auditoriums, gymnasiums, churches, and other applications requiring large, open-floor areas.

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Drogheda Pool by Newenham Mulligan & Associates, and Arup Drogheda swimming pool is a well detailed building that appears to be light, airy and welcoming. It was completed in 2006 as part of a new generation of buildings which are both suitable for use in a swimming pool environment and exploits the advantages of the materials to their limit. Drogheda Swimming Pool has been shortlisted for a structural award for sports structures by the Institute of Structural Engineers in the UK.

Earth Centre entrance building by Dill Dunster, and MLDE

Anaheim ice arena by Frank Gehry, and Matt Constructions

The building is engineered almost entirely from recycled timber in both structural and mechanical terms. The columns were manufactured from recycled telegraph poles and the glulam beams were made from small strips of low grade timber.

Glulam Arches Create Flowing Shapes For Disney ICE. The roof system is a combination of southern yellow pine glulam girders and solid sawn Douglas-fir purlins. Curved supporting columns are steel encased in 3 concrete.


Ground Floor Plan

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First Floor Plan

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Section A-A

Engineered wood for the construction of Folkestone terminal benefits both budget and aesthetics. 1) 9 rows of large double-curved Glulam beams spaced at 10 meters span. Moment splices were utilized to facilitate transport of the curved Southern Yellow Pine Glulams. SYP is recommended for curved members due to its material properties, particularly radial tension strength.

3) The building is formed from overlapping shells that allow a clerestory window to throw indirect light into the main waiting hall. Lateral stability is provided by the structural form, along with the use of a solid timber roof deck which eliminates the need for any cross bracing.

2) The facility features fluid curves with glu-lam construction and aluminum cladding to house services for both Train and Ferry terminals. The Folkestone station provides offices for the train station and ferry terminal, underground carpark, retail shops, kitchen and an open plan waiting hall connecting all facilities.

4) The building uses curved glulam beams, tapered circular glulam columns under the solid timber roof, which also provides aesthetic finish. Careful positioning of columns and the use of pairs of glulam beams reduced the structural depth while also allowing for discrete connections between columns and beams. The space between the pair of beams is used to conceal steel fixing plates and to overcome the high stress concentrations at the connections.

The finish roofing and exterior walls are clear anodized acid-washed aluminum panels, which help to create a strong sculptural form. The standing seam cladding reinforces the “curvilinear� shape of the double shell.

The focus of the structural design was to make the building appear to be light, airy and welcoming. 6


RAINWATER HARVESTING The rainwater is led through a down pipe leaf catcher acting as a coarse filter into a plastic underground tank with calmed inlet. To use the water for irrigation the pump starts automatically, providing rainwater. If the irrigation device or the shut-off valve is closed, the pump is automatically switched off. In case of an empty tank, e. g. after a prolonged dry period, the automatic switch ensures that the pump does not start.

Rain barrels, garbage cans, corrugated tanks… most water collection systems have a problem: they’ve got ugly written into their DNA. An unfortunate evolution, granted that rainwater storage has been practiced for more than 2,000 years. One would have hoped for a more elegant design by now! “People usually water their plants and garden with tapwater although rainwater is free and known to be better for greens growth.” Trading tap water for rain storage is an easy way to lessen your impact on strained water systems while saving money on your bill.

Rainpod’s Water Harvesting System The Rainpod stands a bit taller than a person on three legs sourced from local timber. Its vaulted stature gives it enough gravitational draw and reach for just about any watering application, while an expandable screen maximizes its rain collecting radius. Its simplicity and ease of deployment would make it a great garden addition, and with a proper treatment system it could be used for applications where potable water is needed.

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Site Section 1:500

Umbrella Rainwater Collector (URC) A simple, sleek design that uses only one operating principle: gravity. The umbrellas are architectural elements being used as directional signs and gathering points scattered around the site, strategically placed according to the usage of the farm area. They act as a flexible hub for social activities, allowing facilities flow into each other. Umbrellas provide shade and collect rainwater for local irrigation and to sustain the main building.

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Wooden Structure.

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Inner Shell- Fibreglass.

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Outer Shell- Fibreglass.

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Filter Mesh.

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Elevated Steel Post.

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Water Entrance to Storage Tank.

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Rain Water Harvester.

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Storage Tank.

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Overflow to sewage.

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Filtration System.

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Irrigation Pump.

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Distrubution Outlets.

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Maintenance Entrance.

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Scale 1:50

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STATISTICS

WATER COLLECTOR

UK rainfall intensity per hour = 50-80mm/m2

propose 20 collectors to collect 675m3 rain = 34m3 rain each collector

1m2 can collect 50-80mm of water per hour

1m2 = 0.06m/hr m2

1m2 surface(1.2m height) = 1.2m3 rain for 24hr

24hrs = 1.44m3

12mm of rainfall can produce 5,000 gallons = 22,500L This gives over 400 hours of irrigation time

x m2 = 810m3 1m2 = 1.44m3

1gallon = 4.5L

x m2= 810 / 1.44 = 563m2

1m3 = 1000L

Area = 563 / 20 = 28m2 each collector

1000L = 222gallons

28m2 = 3.14r2

trees placed every 25m2 = 30gallons

r2 = 28 / 3.14 = 8.9

1m2 green = 3gallons

r = 3m2

total area - number of trees = quantity of water needed for green

*if 20 collectors : 3m radius collector ring

(x + 3gallons for green ) + ( x + 30 gallons/ tree ) = x gallons required =xL = x m3

WATER REQUIRED 50,000m2 total farm area = 150,000gallons of water for green 1,000 trees = 30,000gallons of water for trees 150,000 + 30,000 = 180,000gallons total irrigation water required 180,000 x 4.5L = 810,000L = 810m3 water required for irrigation 810,000L / 1.2m3 = 675m3 rain required to irrigate a surface of 1.2m3

STORAGE TANK 810m3 / 20 collectors = 40.5m3 storage required for each collector 40m3 + 3 days storage tank = 120m3 storage for one collector (for 3days) 50,000 / 20 = 2,500m2 per collector

IRRIGATION BY ZONES group of 3 collectors cover 7,500m2 on ground 3 x 120 = 360m3 underground water tank for storage of 3 collectors size of 360m3 tank = 10w x 12l x 3h

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Porteous, Jack. 2007. Structural Timber Design. Wiley-Blackwel F, Hall. 1987. Plumbing Technology, 2nd edition. Longman Heather Kinkade-Levario. 2007. Design for Water. New Society Publishers

WEBSITES pdf.archiexpo.com/pdf/kaufmann-holz/glulam-brochure-mayr-melnhof-kaufmann/60685-26901-_17.html www.dynea.net/index.html www.ukrha.org www.rainwaterharvesting.co.uk

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