Γέφυρες συνεργασίας - Αλέξανδρος Κωστόπουλος

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°∂ºÀƒ∂™ ™À¡∂ƒ°∞™π∞™ ™Ã∂¢π√ MAP™A§ ∫∞π ∂§§∞¢∞


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∏ ·ÚÔ‡Û· ¤Î‰ÔÛË Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈ‹ıËΠ̠ÙËÓ Â˘ÁÂÓÈ΋ ¯ÔÚËÁ›· Ù˘ EY, Ù˘ Cisco Î·È Ù˘ Lockheed Martin, ˘fi ÙËÓ ·ÈÁ›‰· ÙÔ˘ EÏÏËÓÔ·ÌÂÚÈηÓÈÎÔ‡ EÌÔÚÈÎÔ‡ EÈÌÂÏËÙËÚ›Ô˘.

™¯Â‰È·ÛÌfi˜ Â͈ʇÏÏÔ˘: ¢ËÌ‹ÙÚ˘ PÂÎÔ˘ÓÈÒÙ˘

© ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ¤Î‰ÔÛË: EΉfiÛÂȘ ÿηÚÔ˜ & FORESIGHT Strategy & Communications © ÁÈ· ÙȘ ʈÙÔÁڷʛ˜: ∂ÏÏËÓÈÎfi §ÔÁÔÙ¯ÓÈÎfi Î·È πÛÙÔÚÈÎfi ∞Ú¯Â›Ô ISBN 978-960-572-192-3


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∞§∂•∞¡¢ƒ√™ ∫ø™∆√¶√À§√™

°∂ºÀƒ∂™ ™À¡∂ƒ°∞™π∞™ ™Ã∂¢π√ MAP™A§ ∫∞π ∂§§∞¢∞

EÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ÂÈ̤ÏÂÈ·: ª∞ƒπ√™ ∂ÀƒYµπ∞¢∏™

IKAPO™


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¶∂ƒπ∂Ã√ª∂¡∞

A§E•AN¢PO™ Kø™TO¶OY§O™

70 XPONIA META, ¶IO E¶IKAIPO ¶APA ¶OTE – AÓÙ› ÚÔÏfiÁÔ˘

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KøN™TANTINO™ MHT™OTAKH™

∏ ™∏ª∞™π∞ ∆√À ™Ã∂¢π√À MAP™A§ °π∞ ∆∏¡ ∂§§∞¢∞

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GEOFFREY PYATT

BUILDING BRIDGES OF COOPERATION

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∞§∂•∞¡¢ƒ√™ ºπ§ø¡

TO ™Ã∂¢π√ MAP™A§ ∫∞π H ∂§§∞¢∞

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¶ANA°IøTH™ I. K. ¶A¶AZO°§OY

¢IAXPONIKA E¶IKAIPO

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NTENH™ ¶§E™™A™

XTIZONTA™ °EºYPE™ ™YNEP°A™IA™

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ª∞ƒπ√™ ∂ÀƒYµπ∞¢∏™

TA ¢YO MI™A TOY I¢IOY KAP¶OY

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°EºYPE™ ™YNEP°A™IA™ – ™XE¢IO MAP™A§ KAI E§§A¢A ∂π™∞°ø°∏ ™THN Aã EK¢O™H

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1. ∏ ª∂∆∞¶√§∂ªπ∫∏ ∞¡∞™À°∫ƒ√∆∏™∏: ∆√ ¢√°ª∞ TPOYMAN ∫∞π ∆√ ™Ã∂¢π√ MAP™A§

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2. ∏ ∂§§∞¢∞ ª∂∆∞ ∆√¡ µã ¶∞°∫√™ªπ√ ¶√§∂ª√

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2.1 H ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ηٿÛÙ·ÛË ÛÙËÓ ∂ÏÏ¿‰·

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2.2 H ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋ ηٿÛÙ·ÛË ÛÙËÓ ∂ÏÏ¿‰·

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3. H ∂¡∞ƒ•∏ TH™ ∞ª∂ƒπ∫∞¡π∫∏™ µ√∏£∂π∞™

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4. OI π¢π∞π∆∂ƒ√∆∏∆∂™ °IA THN ∂º∞ƒª√°∏ ∆√À ™Ã∂¢π√À MAP™A§ ™∆∏¡ ∂§§∞¢∞

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5. H ∂º∞ƒª√°∏ ∆√À ™Ã∂¢π√À MAP™A§

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5.1 H ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ÚfiÓÔÈ·

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5.2 H ‰ËÌfiÛÈ· ˘Á›·

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5.3 T· ‰ËÌfiÛÈ· ¤ÚÁ·

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5.4 H ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ·ÂÚÔÔÚ›·

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5.5 H ·ÂÚÔʈÙÔÁÚ¿ÊËÛË

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5.6 ∏ ËÏÂÎÙÚÔ‰fiÙËÛË

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5.7 H ˘‰ÚÔ‰fiÙËÛË Î·È Ë ·Ô¯¤Ù¢ÛË

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5.8 TÔ ÂÚÁ·ÙÈÎfi ΛÓËÌ·

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5.9 H ‚ÈÔÌ˯·Ó›·

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5.10 O ÔÚ˘ÎÙfi˜ ÏÔ‡ÙÔ˜ Î·È ÔÈ ÂÍÔÚ‡ÍÂȘ

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5.11 OÈ ÌÂÙ·ÊÔÚ¤˜

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5.12 O ÙÔ˘ÚÈÛÌfi˜

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5.13 H ÁˆÚÁ›·

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5.13.1 H ‰È·¯Â›ÚÈÛË Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋˜ ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ·˜ ÛÙË ÁˆÚÁ›·

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6. H ∞ª∂ƒπ∫∞¡π∫∏ √π∫√¡√ªπ∫∏ µ√∏£∂π∞ ™∆∏¡ ∂§§∞¢∞: MIA ™YNTOMH A¶OTIMH™H 109

∂¶π§√°√™

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µπµ§π√°ƒ∞ºπ∞

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™YNTMH™EI™

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70 ¯ÚfiÓÈ· ÌÂÙ¿, ÈÔ Â›Î·ÈÚÔ ·Ú¿ ÔÙ¤ AÓÙ› ÚÔÏfiÁÔ˘

¶ÔÏÏÔ› ϤÓ fiÙÈ ÙËÓ IÛÙÔÚ›· ÙË ÊÙÈ¿¯ÓÔ˘Ì ÌfiÓÔÈ Ì·˜. E¿Ó ·Ó·ÏÔÁÈÛÙԇ̠ÙÔÓ ÙÚfiÔ ‰È·¯Â›ÚÈÛ˘ Ù˘ ÌÓËÌÂÈÒ‰Ô˘˜ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋˜ ÎÚ›Û˘ Ô˘ ‚·Û·Ó›˙ÂÈ ÙË ¯ÒÚ· Ì·˜ Ù· ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ¯ÚfiÓÈ·, ÙȘ ÂÈÏÔÁ¤˜ fiÏˆÓ Ì·˜ Ó· ÂÌÈÛÙ¢fiÌ·ÛÙ ÙÔ ı˘ÌÈÎfi Ì·˜ ·ÓÙ› ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÎÚÈÙÈ΋ ÛΤ„Ë Î·È ‰Ú¿ÛË, Ó· ÚÔÙÈÌ¿Ì ‡ÎÔÏ· „¤Ì·Ù· ·ÓÙ› ÁÈ· ‰‡ÛÎÔϘ ·Ï‹ıÂȘ ηÈ, ΢ڛˆ˜, Ó· ÂÚÈ̤ÓÔ˘Ì ¿ÓÙ· οÔÈÔ˜ Ó· Ì·˜ ÛÒÛÂÈ, Ë IÛÙÔÚ›· Ô˘ ÊÙÈ¿¯ÓÔ˘Ì ‰ÂÓ Ì·˜ ÙÈÌ¿ ȉȷ›ÙÂÚ·. MÚÔÛÙ¿ Û ·˘Ùfi ÙÔ Ù¤Ú·˜ Ô˘ ¤¯Ô˘Ì ÌfiÓÔÈ Ì·˜ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ‹ÛÂÈ, ηı›ÛÙ·Ù·È ·Ó·Áη›Ô Ó· ÛÙÚ¤„Ô˘Ì ÙÔ ‚ϤÌÌ· ÛÙÔ ·ÚÂÏıfiÓ Î·È Ó· ·ÓÙÏ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ÁfiÓÈÌ· ÛÙÔȯ›· Ô˘ ı· Ì·˜ ıˆÚ·Î›ÛÔ˘Ó ·¤Ó·ÓÙÈ Û ϿıË Î·È ·‰˘Ó·Ì›Â˜ Ì·˜, ı· Ì·˜ ÈÛ¯˘ÚÔÔÈ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ·¤Ó·ÓÙÈ ÛÙȘ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˜ Î·È ÔÏ˘‰È¿Ûٷ٘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜ Î·È ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈΤ˜ ÂÍÂÏ›ÍÂȘ (ÔÏϤ˜ ·fi ÙȘ Ôԛ˜ Ô˘‰¤ÔÙ ¤¯Ô˘Ì ·Ó·ÁÓˆÚ›ÛÂÈ ‹ Û˘˙ËÙ‹ÛÂÈ) ηÈ, ΢ڛˆ˜, ı· Ì·˜ ÂÈÙÚ¤„Ô˘Ó Ó· ‰È·ÌÔÚÊÒÛÔ˘Ì Ӥ˜ ÛÙÚ·ÙËÁÈΤ˜ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙÒÈÛ˘ ÙˆÓ Û‡ÓıÂÙˆÓ ‰ÈÂıÓÒÓ ÚÔÎÏ‹ÛˆÓ, ÔÈ Ôԛ˜ ··ÈÙÔ‡Ó ÌÂÁ¿Ï˜, ÎÚ›ÛÈ̘ Î·È ÁÂÓÓ·›Â˜ ·ÔÊ¿ÛÂȘ. ™ÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ ·˘Ùfi, ÔÈ ÔÏ˘‰È¿Ûٷ٘ Û¯¤ÛÂȘ ÌÂٷ͇ EÏÏ¿‰Ô˜ Î·È HÓˆÌ¤ÓˆÓ ¶ÔÏÈÙÂÈÒÓ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÌÈ· ȉȷ›ÙÂÚË ‚·Ú‡ÙËÙ· ·Ó ·Ó·ÏÔÁÈÛÙԇ̠ÙË ‰È·¯ÚÔÓÈÎfiÙËÙ·, ÙËÓ ÈÛ¯‡ Î·È ÙÔ Â‡ÚÔ˜ ÙˆÓ Û¯¤ÛÂˆÓ ÙˆÓ ‰‡Ô ¯ˆÚÒÓ. ™¯¤ÛÂˆÓ ÚˆÙ›ÛÙˆ˜ Û˘ÓÂÚÁ·Û›·˜, ۯ‰fiÓ Û οı ‰›Ô Ù˘ ˙ˆ‹˜, Ô˘ ÍÂÂÚÓÔ‡Ó ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈΤ˜ ·ÓÙÈÏ‹„ÂȘ, ÈÛÙÔÚÈΤ˜ Û˘ÁÎ˘Ú›Â˜ Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈΤ˜ ÂÈÏÔÁ¤˜. ŒÓ· ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi ÎÂÊ¿Ï·ÈÔ ·˘ÙÒÓ ÙˆÓ Û¯¤ÛÂˆÓ ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÙÔ ™¯¤‰ÈÔ M¿ÚÛ·Ï, Ë ÛËÌ·Û›· ÙÔ˘ ÔÔ›Ô˘ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÔÚ›· Ù˘ ¯ÒÚ·˜ Ì·˜ ÛÙ· ¯ÚfiÓÈ· ÙÔ˘ ÂÌÊ˘Ï›Ô˘ ÔϤÌÔ˘ Î·È ÛÙ· ÚÒÙ·, ‰‡ÛÎÔÏ· ÌÂÙ·ÔÏÂÌÈο ¯ÚfiÓÈ· ¤¯ÂÈ ÂÏ¿¯ÈÛÙ· Û˘˙ËÙËı› –ȉȷ›ÙÂÚ· ÛÙȘ ÓÂfiÙÂÚ˜ ÁÂÓȤ˜–, ÂÓÒ ÔÈ ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚ˜ ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›ÛÂȘ ÂÁÎψ‚›˙ÔÓÙ·È ÛÙ· ÛÙÂÓ¿ ÔÏÈÙÈο fiÚÈ· Î·È ÛÙȘ ‰È·¯ÚÔÓÈΤ˜ ·Á΢ÏÒÛÂȘ Ô˘ ‚·Û·Ó›˙Ô˘Ó ÙȘ ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚ˜ Û˘˙ËÙ‹ÛÂȘ ÛÙÔÓ ÙfiÔ Ì·˜. 9


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MÔÏÔÓfiÙÈ Â›Ó·È ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ fiÙÈ ÔÏÈÙÈΤ˜ Î·È ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜ Û˘Óı‹Î˜ ÂΛӢ Ù˘ ÂÔ¯‹˜ ‰ÂÓ Â¤ÙÚ„·Ó ÛÙËÓ EÏÏ¿‰· Ó· ÙÔ ·ÍÈÔÔÈ‹ÛÂÈ fiˆ˜ Ë ˘fiÏÔÈË E˘ÚÒË ÁÈ· Ó· ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ‹ÛÂÈ ‚ÈÔÌ˯·ÓÈΤ˜ Î·È ÚÔ·ÓÙfi˜ ·Ú·ÁˆÁÈΤ˜ ˘Ô‰Ô̤˜, ÙÔ ™¯¤‰ÈÔ M¿ÚÛ·Ï ÂԇψÛ ÙȘ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈΤ˜ ÏËÁ¤˜ Ù˘ K·ÙÔ¯‹˜ Î·È ÙÔ˘ EÌÊ˘Ï›Ô˘ Î·È ‚Ô‹ıËÛ ÙËÓ EÏÏ¿‰· Ó· ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆ›ÛÂÈ ÙȘ ÚÒÙ˜ ·Ó¿ÁΘ Î·È Ó· ÂÈÛ¤ÏıÂÈ, ΢ڛˆ˜ ÌÂÙ¿ ÙËÓ ˘ÔÙ›ÌËÛË ÙÔ˘ 1953, Û ÌÈ· ÙÚԯȿ ·ÏÌ·ÙÒ‰Ô˘˜ ·Ó¿Ù˘Í˘, Ô˘ Û ۯÂÙÈο ÌÈÎÚfi ‰È¿ÛÙËÌ· ÌfiÚÂÛ ӷ ·ÏÏ¿ÍÂÈ ÙË Ê˘ÛÈÔÁӈ̛· Ù˘ EÏÏ¿‰Ô˜, ›Ûˆ˜ fi¯È Ì ÙÔÓ ÙÚfiÔ Ô˘ Û‹ÌÂÚ· ı· ı¤Ï·ÌÂ, ·ÏÏ¿ Û›ÁÔ˘Ú· Ì ÙÔÓ ÙÚfiÔ Ô˘ ÙfiÙ ‹Ù·Ó ·Ó·Áη›Ô˜. TÔ ™¯¤‰ÈÔ M¿ÚÛ·Ï ÂÈÛ‹Á·Á ÌÈ· ÛÂÈÚ¿ ‰ÔÌÈÎÒÓ ÌÂÙ·ÚÚ˘ıÌ›ÛÂˆÓ ÛÙËÓ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›·, ÂÈÙÚ¤ÔÓÙ·˜ ÙË Û‡Ó‰ÂÛË ·ÌÔÈ‚ÒÓ Î·È ·Ú·ÁˆÁÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜, ÙËÓ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË Ó¤ˆÓ ÌÂıfi‰ˆÓ ‰ÈÔ›ÎËÛ˘, ·Ó·Áη›ˆÓ ÁÈ· ÌÈ· Ó¤· ÌÂÙ·ÔÏÂÌÈ΋ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›·, ÂÓÒ ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛ ÙÔÓ ıÂ̤ÏÈÔ Ï›ıÔ ÁÈ· ÙË ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈ΋ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË ÙˆÓ ‰ÂηÂÙÈÒÓ ÙÔ˘ ’50 Î·È ÙÔ˘ ’60. K˘Ú›ˆ˜ fï˜ ·¤‰ÂÈÍ –Î·È Â‰Ò ‚Ú›ÛÎÂÙ·È Ë ‰È·¯ÚÔÓÈ΋ Î·È ÂÍ·ÈÚÂÙÈο Â›Î·ÈÚË ÛËÌ·Û›· ÙÔ˘– fiÙÈ ÂÊfiÛÔÓ ˘Ê›ÛÙ·Ù·È Ù¯ÓÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋ ۯ‰›·ÛË Î·È ·ÍÈfiÈÛÙË ˘ÏÔÔ›ËÛË, Û˘ÓÂ‹˜ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ÛÙfi¯Â˘ÛË, ¤ÏÂÁ¯Ô˜ Î·È ·ÍÈÔÏfiÁËÛË, ÙfiÙ ٷ fiÔÈ· ΢‚ÂÚÓËÙÈο Û¯¤‰È· Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈΤ˜ ·Ú¤Ì‚·Û˘ ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· Û˘ÓÂÈÛʤÚÔ˘Ó ÂÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌËÙÈο ÛÙËÓ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ· ·ÓÙ·ÁˆÓÈÛÙÈ΋˜ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋˜ ·Ó¿Ù˘Í˘ Î·È ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋˜ ¢ËÌÂÚ›·˜. A˘Ùfi ‰ÂÓ ÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ fiÙÈ ‰ÂÓ ˘‹ÚÍ·Ó Î·È ·ÛÙÔ¯›Â˜ ‹ ÈÛÙÔڛ˜ ·ÔÙ˘¯›·˜. A˘Ùfi ¿ÏψÛÙÂ Â›Ó·È Ô˘ οÓÂÈ ÙÔ ™¯¤‰ÈÔ M¿ÚÛ·Ï Â›Î·ÈÚÔ Î·È ¯Ú‹ÛÈÌÔ. ¢ÈfiÙÈ ·Ó·‰ÂÈÎÓ‡ÂÈ ÙÔ ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ fiÙÈ, ÌÔÏÔÓfiÙÈ Î¿ı ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· Â›Ó·È Â˘ÚfiÛ‰ÂÎÙË Î·È ıÂÌÈÙ‹, ÔÊ›ÏÂÈ Ó· ÂÚÓ¿ÂÈ ·fi ÙÔ Ú›ÛÌ· Ù˘ ·˘ÙÔ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ·˜. °È·Ù› η̛· ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ÈηӋ ·fi ÌfiÓË Ù˘ Ó· ÂÙ‡¯ÂÈ ÙÔÓ ÛÙfi¯Ô Ù˘ Â¿Ó ‰ÂÓ ÊÈÏÙÚ·ÚÈÛÙ› ·fi ÙÔ Ú›ÛÌ· ÙˆÓ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎÒÓ ·Ó·ÁÎÒÓ Î·È Ù˘ ÔÚıÔÏÔÁÈ΋˜ ıÂÒÚËÛ˘ ÙˆÓ Û˘ÌÊÂÚfiÓÙˆÓ ÌÈ·˜ ¯ÒÚ·˜ ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È Ù˘ ·ÓÙ›Ï˄˘ ÙˆÓ ÔÏÈÙÒÓ ·Ó·ÊÔÚÈο Ì ÙȘ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈΤ˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ·Ó¿ÁΘ, ÙÔÓ ÚfiÏÔ ÙˆÓ ›‰ÈˆÓ, ÙȘ ˘Ô¯ÚÂÒÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘˜ ˆ˜ ÔÏÈÙÒÓ Î·È ÙÂÏÈο ÙÔ fiÚ·Ì¿ ÙÔ˘˜ ÁÈ· ÙË ‰È΋ ÙÔ˘˜ ˙ˆ‹ Î·È ÙÔ ·‡ÚÈÔ ÙˆÓ ·È‰ÈÒÓ ÙÔ˘˜. ™‹ÌÂÚ·, Ô˘ ÙÔ ¤Ú·ÛÌ· ÙÔ˘ ¯ÚfiÓÔ˘ ¤¯ÂÈ ÂÓÛÙ·Ï¿ÍÂÈ ÙËÓ ··Ú·›ÙËÙË ˆÚÈÌfiÙËÙ· Î·È „˘¯Ú·ÈÌ›· ÛÙË ıÂÒÚËÛË ÙˆÓ ÈÛÙÔÚÈÎÒÓ ÁÂÁÔÓfiÙˆÓ, ·ÏÏ¿ Ô˘ ÔÈ Ó¤Â˜ Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›Â˜ Î·È Ù· ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο ‰›ÎÙ˘· ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÂÈÙÚ¤„ÂÈ ÌÈ· ÂÍ·ÈÚÂÙÈο ·ÌÊÈÏÂÁfiÌÂÓË ˘ÂÚÏËÚÔÊfiÚËÛË Î·È Â˘ÎÔÏ›· ÎÚÈÙÈ΋˜, fiÏ· Ì·˜ Ê·›ÓÔÓÙ·È ‰Â‰Ô̤ӷ Î·È ·˘ÙÔÓfiËÙ·. 10


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TfiÛÔ ·˘ÙÔÓfiËÙ·, Ô˘ ›Ûˆ˜ ͯӿÌ Ò˜ ı· ‹Ù·Ó Ë ˙ˆ‹ Ì·˜ ·Ó ‰ÂÓ Â›¯Â ˘¿ÚÍÂÈ ÙÔ ™¯¤‰ÈÔ M¿ÚÛ·Ï Î·È ·Ó ‰ÂÓ Â›¯·ÌÂ Û˘ÌÂÚÈÏËÊı› ÛÙË ‰˘ÙÈ΋ ÏÂ˘Ú¿ Ù˘ ÙfiÙ ÁˆÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜ ÛηÎȤڷ˜. TfiÛÔ ·˘ÙÔÓfiËÙ·, Ô˘ ‰ÂÓ ‚ϤÔ˘Ì fiÏ· ·˘Ù¿ Ù· ÔÔ›· ηıËÌÂÚÈÓ¿ ÚÔÛÂÚÓ¿ÌÂ Î·È ÔÊ›ÏÔÓÙ·È ÛÙÔ ™¯¤‰ÈÔ M¿ÚÛ·Ï. TfiÛÔ ·˘ÙÔÓfiËÙ·, Ô˘ ̤۷ ·fi ÙÔ ™¯¤‰ÈÔ M¿ÚÛ·Ï ‚ϤÔ˘ÌÂ Û˘Ó‹ıˆ˜ fiÏ· ·˘Ù¿ Ù· ÔÔ›· ÔÏϤ˜ ÊÔÚ¤˜ Ì¿˜ ÂÓÔ¯ÏÔ‡Ó ‹ Ì·˜ ·ÔÁÔËÙÂ‡Ô˘Ó ·fi ÙËÓ Â͈ÙÂÚÈ΋ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ÙˆÓ HÓˆÌ¤ÓˆÓ ¶ÔÏÈÙÂÈÒÓ Î·È Í¯ӿÌ ÙȘ ÂÈÏÔÁ¤˜ ÌÈ·˜ ¿ÏÏ˘ AÌÂÚÈ΋˜, ·˘Ù‹˜ ÙÔ˘ T˙¤ÊÂÚÛÔÓ, ÙÔ˘ °Ô˘¤ÌÛÙÂÚ, ÙÔ˘ ¢Ú. X¿Ô˘, ÙÔ˘ §›ÓÎÔÏÓ, ÙÔ˘ M¿ÚÛ·Ï, ÙÔ˘ K¤ÓÂÓÙÈ, ÙˆÓ ÙfiÛÔ ÔÏÏÒÓ Î·È ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎÒÓ ÊÈÏÂÏÏ‹ÓˆÓ ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÙˆÓ EÏÏ‹ÓˆÓ Ù˘ ‰È·ÛÔÚ¿˜ Ô˘ ‰È¤Ú„·Ó Î·È ‰È·Ú¤Ô˘Ó ÛÙËÓ AÌÂÚÈ΋. AÓÂÍ¿ÚÙËÙ· fï˜ ·fi ÙÔÓ ÙÚfiÔ Ì ÙÔÓ ÔÔ›Ô Ô Î·ı¤Ó·˜ ‚ϤÂÈ Ù· Ú¿ÁÌ·Ù·, ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚԇ̠·Ú¿ Ó· Û˘ÌʈӋÛÔ˘Ì fiÙÈ ˙ԇ̠۠ÌÈ· ÂÔ¯‹ ηٿ ÙËÓ ÔÔ›· Ë ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓˆÓ ÁÂÊ˘ÚÒÓ Û˘ÓÂÚÁ·Û›·˜, ÊÈÏ›·˜ Î·È È‰ÂÒÓ Î·ı›ÛÙ·Ù·È ·Ó·Áη›·. MÔÚ› ÔÈ ·ÂÈϤ˜ ÙÔ˘ ·ÚÂÏıfiÓÙÔ˜ Ó· ¤¯Ô˘Ó ϤÔÓ ÂÎÏ›„ÂÈ, ¤¯Ô˘Ó ·Ó·‰˘ı› ˆÛÙfiÛÔ Ó¤Ô˘ Ù‡Ô˘ ÚÔÎÏ‹ÛÂȘ, ·¤Ó·ÓÙÈ ÛÙȘ Ôԛ˜ ÌfiÓÔ Âӈ̤ÓÔÈ ÌÔÚԇ̠ӷ ·ÓÙ·ÔÎÚÈıԇ̠·ÔÙÂÏÂÛÌ·ÙÈο. H ÙÚÔÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·, Ë ÂÌÔÚ›· ·ÓıÚÒˆÓ Î·È ÙÔ ÚÔÛÊ˘ÁÈÎfi, Ë ¤Í·ÚÛË ·ÎÚ·›ˆÓ ·ÓÙÈÏ‹„ˆÓ, Ë ˘·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË Î·È Ë ·ÓÂÚÁ›·, Ë ·fiÏ˘ÙË ÊÙÒ¯ÂÈ·, Ë ˘Ô‚¿ıÌÈÛË ÙÔ˘ ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙÔ˜ Î·È Ë ÎÏÈÌ·ÙÈ΋ ·ÏÏ·Á‹, fiÏ· ·˘Ù¿ ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Ó ·ÂÈϤ˜ Ô˘ ˘ÂÚ‚·›ÓÔ˘Ó Ù· ÂıÓÈο Û‡ÓÔÚ·, Ô˘ ı¤ÙÔ˘Ó Û ΛӉ˘ÓÔ ÙËÓ ·ÓıÚˆfiÙËÙ· ÛÙÔ Û‡ÓÔÏfi Ù˘, ÍÂÂÚÓÒÓÙ·˜ ȉÂÔÏÔÁ›Â˜ Î·È ÂÌÌÔÓ¤˜ ÙÔ˘ ¯ı˜. ™Â ¤Ó· Ù¤ÙÔÈÔ ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ, fiÔ˘ ··ÈÙÔ‡ÓÙ·È ÌÂÁ¿Ï˜, ÎÚ›ÛÈ̘ Î·È ÁÂÓÓ·›Â˜ ·ÔÊ¿ÛÂȘ, ¤¯ÂÈ ¤ÚıÂÈ Ë ÒÚ· Ó· οÓÔ˘Ì ÌÈ· ÁÂÓÈÎfiÙÂÚË ıÂÒÚËÛË Î·È ›Ûˆ˜ ·Ó·ıÂÒÚËÛË ÙˆÓ ÂÏÏËÓÔ·ÌÂÚÈηÓÈÎÒÓ Û¯¤ÛˆÓ, ¤Ú· ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ̇ıÔ˘˜ ‹ ÙÔ ·ÚÂÏıfiÓ, Ó· ı¤ÛÔ˘Ì ۷Ê›˜, Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤Ó˜, Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ÂȉÈÒÍÂȘ, Ô˘ Ì ‰˘Ó·ÌÈÛÌfi, Û˘Ó¤ÂÈ· Î·È ÛÔ‚·ÚfiÙËÙ· Ó· ·Ó·‰ÂÈÎÓ‡Ô˘Ó ÙÔÓ ÚfiÏÔ ÙÔÓ ÔÔ›Ô ÌÔÚ› Ó· ‰È·‰Ú·Ì·Ù›ÛÂÈ Ë ¯ÒÚ· Ì·˜, Ì ¿ÍÔÓ· fi¯È ÎÂÓÔ‡˜ Î·È ·ÔÙ˘¯Ë̤ÓÔ˘˜ ÌÂÁ·ÏÔ˚‰Â·ÙÈÛÌÔ‡˜ ÙÔ˘ ¯ı˜, ·ÏÏ¿ ÙȘ ÚÔÔÙÈΤ˜ Ô˘ ÎÚ‡‚Ô˘Ó ÔÈ ¿ÓıÚˆÔ› Ì·˜ Ì ÙÔÓ ÔχÏ¢ÚÔ ÏÔ‡ÙÔ ÙÔ˘ ÙfiÔ˘ Ì·˜. AÊ‹ÓÔÓÙ·˜ ›Ûˆ ·Úˆ¯Ë̤Ó˜ ·ÓÙÈÏ‹„ÂȘ Î·È ‰ÔÁÌ·ÙÈÛÌÔ‡˜ ÙÔ˘ ·ÚÂÏıfiÓÙÔ˜ Î·È ÍÂÂÚÓÒÓÙ·˜ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜ ÂÚÈÛÙ·ÛÈ·ÎÒÓ Î·È ·ÔÛ·ÛÌ·ÙÈÎÒÓ ÔÏÈÙÈÎÒÓ ÂÈÏÔÁÒÓ, Û‹ÌÂÚ· ··ÈÙÂ›Ù·È ÌÈ· Û˘ÏÏÔÁÈ΋ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ· Ô˘, ̤۷ ·fi ÙËÓ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋ 11


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Ù˘ ‰Èψ̷ٛ·˜ ÙˆÓ ÔÏÈÙÒÓ, ÙÔ˘ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÔ‡, Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›·˜ Î·È Ù˘ Ô˘ÛÈ·ÛÙÈ΋˜, ·ÓÙ·ÁˆÓÈÛÙÈ΋˜ Î·È ‚ÈÒÛÈÌ˘ ·Ó¿Ù˘Í˘, ı· ÂÈÙÚ¤„ÂÈ ÛÙË ¯ÒÚ· Ì·˜ Ó· ÂȉÈÒÍÂÈ, ÌÂ Û˘Ó¤ÂÈ· Î·È Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓÔ ÙÚfiÔ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜ ÛΤ„˘ Î·È ‰Ú¿Û˘, Ó· ‰ÔÌ‹ÛÂÈ ÂÈÏÈÎÚÈÓ›˜ Î·È Û˘ÏÏÔÁÈο ÂˆÊÂÏ›˜ ‰ÈÂıÓ›˜ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈΤ˜ Û¯¤ÛÂȘ Î·È Ó· Û˘ÌÌÂÙ¿Û¯ÂÈ ÛÙȘ ÂÍÂÏ›ÍÂȘ, ÔÈ Ôԛ˜ Â›Ó·È Ú·Á‰·›Â˜ Î·È ‰ÂÓ ÂÚÈ̤ÓÔ˘Ó Î·Ó¤Ó·Ó. ™ÙÔ ¯¤ÚÈ Ì·˜ Â›Ó·È Ó· Û˘ÓÂȉËÙÔÔÈ‹ÛÔ˘Ì fiÙÈ Ë Î¿ı ¢ηÈÚ›· Î·È ÙÔ Î¿ı ۇÁ¯ÚÔÓÔ ™¯¤‰ÈÔ M¿ÚÛ·Ï Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ‰ÈÂΉÈÎËıÔ‡Ó Î·È Ó· ·ÍÈÔÔÈËıÔ‡Ó Ì¤Û· ·fi Ù· ٷϤÓÙ·, ÙȘ ÈηÓfiÙËÙ˜, ÙÔÓ ‰˘Ó·ÌÈÛÌfi Î·È ÙÔ Ó‡̷ Û˘ÓÂÚÁ·Û›·˜ ÙÔ˘ ηıÂÓfi˜. ™ÙÔ ¯¤ÚÈ Ì·˜ Â›Ó·È Ó· ·Ó·˙ËÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ÛÙÔ Ó‡̷ ÙÔ˘ ™¯Â‰›Ô˘ M¿ÚÛ·Ï, ÛÙȘ ÂÈÙ˘¯›Â˜, ÛÙȘ ·ÔÙ˘¯›Â˜ Î·È ÛÙËÓ ·‰È·ÌÊÈÛ‚‹ÙËÙË ÎÏËÚÔÓÔÌÈ¿ ÙÔ˘ Ó¤·, ˘ÂÚ‚·ÙÈο Û¯¤‰È· Ô˘ÛÈ·ÛÙÈ΋˜ ·Ó¿Ù˘Í˘ ÁÈ· fiÏÔ˘˜, Ӥ˜ Á¤Ê˘Ú˜ Û˘ÓÂÚÁ·Û›·˜, Ô˘ ı· ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÚÔÔÙÈΤ˜ ÁÈ· ‰Ô˘ÏÂÈ¿ Î·È ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ›·, Ӥ˜ ÛÙÚ·ÙËÁÈΤ˜ –¯·Ú·Á̤Ó˜ ·fi ·ÓıÚÒÔ˘˜ Ì ÁÓÒÛÂȘ Î·È ÂÌÂÈڛ˜–, ÈηӤ˜ Ó· ı¤ÛÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ EÏÏ¿‰· Î·È ÙËÓ ÔÚ›· ÙÔ˘ ηıÂÓfi˜ Ì·˜ Û ÌÈ· Ó¤· ÙÚԯȿ, ¯ˆÚ›˜ ‚·Ú›‰È· Î·È ÂÌÌÔÓ¤˜ ÙÔ˘ ·ÚÂÏıfiÓÙÔ˜. πÔ‡ÏÈÔ˜ 2017

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H ÛËÌ·Û›· ÙÔ˘ ™¯Â‰›Ô˘ M¿ÚÛ·Ï ÁÈ· ÙËÓ EÏÏ¿‰·

∏ ÈÛÙÔÚ›· ÙÔ˘ ™¯Â‰›Ô˘ ª¿ÚÛ·Ï Î·È Ë ÛËÌ·Û›· ÙÔ˘ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÔÚ›· Ù˘ ¯ÒÚ·˜ ÛÙ· ¯ÚfiÓÈ· ÙÔ˘ ÂÌÊ˘Ï›Ô˘ ÔϤÌÔ˘ Î·È ÛÙ· ÚÒÙ·, ‰‡ÛÎÔÏ·, ÌÂÙ·ÔÏÂÌÈο ¯ÚfiÓÈ· ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÂÏ¿¯ÈÛÙ· Û˘˙ËÙËı› ÌÂÙ¿ ÙË ÌÂÙ·Ôϛ٢ÛË. ø˜ ¤Ó·˜ ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ Ôχ Ï›ÁÔ˘˜ Ô˘ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ·ÔÌ›ÓÂÈ ·fi ÂΛÓÔ˘˜ ÔÈ ÔÔ›ÔÈ ¤˙ËÛ·Ó Ù· ÁÂÁÔÓfiÙ· Ù˘ ÂÔ¯‹˜, ı· ·Ó·ÊÂÚıÒ Û ·˘Ù¿, ·ÊÔ‡ ÚÒÙ· ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿Ûˆ ÙÔ ÔÏÈÙÈÎfi ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ Ù˘ ÂÚÈfi‰Ô˘ ÂΛӢ, οÙÈ ·fiÏ˘Ù· ·Ó·Áη›Ô ÁÈ· Ó· Û˘ÓÂȉËÙÔÔÈ‹ÛÂÈ Î·Ó›˜ ÙË ÛËÌ·Û›· Ô˘ ›¯Â ÁÈ· ÙË ¯ÒÚ· Ì·˜ Ë ÚˆÙÔ‚Ô˘Ï›· ÂΛÓË ÙˆÓ ∏ÓˆÌ¤ÓˆÓ ¶ÔÏÈÙÂÈÒÓ Ù˘ ∞ÌÂÚÈ΋˜. ∏ ∂ÏÏ¿‰· ÌÔÚ› Ó· ΤډÈÛ ÙÔÓ fiÏÂÌÔ Ù˘ ∞Ï‚·Ó›·˜, Û˘ÓÙ·ÛÛfiÌÂÓË Ì ÙÔ ÛÙÚ·ÙfiÂ‰Ô ÂÎÂ›ÓˆÓ Ô˘ Ê·›ÓÔÓÙ·Ó ÙfiÙ ËÙÙË̤ÓÔÈ Î·È ÚÔÛʤÚÔÓÙ·˜ ÛÙÔ˘˜ ™˘ÌÌ¿¯Ô˘˜ ÔχÙÈ̘ ˘ËÚÂۛ˜ ÙËÓ ÈÔ ‰‡ÛÎÔÏË ÒÚ· ÙÔ˘ ÔϤÌÔ˘, ·ÏÏ¿ ‰ÂÓ ÌfiÚÂÛ ӷ ·ÓÙÈÛÙ·ı› ÛÙËÓ ÂÈÛ‚ÔÏ‹ ÙˆÓ °ÂÚÌ·ÓÒÓ Ô˘ ·ÎÔÏÔ‡ıËÛ ÌÂÙ¿ ÙËÓ ÈÙ·ÏÈ΋ ‹ÙÙ·. ∏ ηÙÔ¯‹ ·fi ÙÚÂȘ ¯ıÚÈΤ˜ ‰˘Ó¿ÌÂȘ, ÌÂ Î·Ù·Ï˘ÙÈ΋ ÂÍ ·˘ÙÒÓ ÙË ÁÂÚÌ·ÓÈ΋ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·, ‚ڋΠÙȘ ·Ú·‰ÔÛȷΤ˜ ÔÏÈÙÈΤ˜ ‰˘Ó¿ÌÂȘ ÙÔ˘ ÙfiÔ˘ ÂÍÔ˘ıÂӈ̤Ó˜. ∂›¯Â ÚÔËÁËı› ¿ÏψÛÙÂ Ë ÙÂÙÚ·ÂÙ‹˜ ‰ÈÎÙ·ÙÔÚ›· ÙÔ˘ ªÂÙ·Í¿, Ô˘ ›¯Â ·Ô‰˘Ó·ÌÒÛÂÈ Ù· ·Ï·È¿ ÔÏÈÙÈο ÎfiÌÌ·Ù· Î·È Â›¯Â ۯ‰fiÓ ÂÍÔÓÙÒÛÂÈ ÙÔ KÔÌÌÔ˘ÓÈÛÙÈÎfi KfiÌÌ·, ÔÏÏ¿ ·fi Ù· ÛÙÂϤ¯Ë ÙÔ˘ ÔÔ›Ô˘ ›¯·Ó ·Ó·ÁηÛÙ› ›Ù ӷ ηٷʇÁÔ˘Ó ÛÙËÓ ·Ú·ÓÔÌ›· ›Ù ӷ οÓÔ˘Ó ‰‹ÏˆÛË ÌÂÙ·ÓÔ›·˜. ∞ÓÙ›ıÂÙ· fï˜ Ì fi,ÙÈ Û˘Ó¤‚Ë Ì ÙÔÓ ·Ï·Èfi ÔÏÈÙÈÎfi ÎfiÛÌÔ, ÙÔ ∫∫∂ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙÒÈÛ ÙËÓ K·ÙÔ¯‹ Î·È ÙËÓ AÓÙ›ÛÙ·ÛË ˆ˜ ÌÈ· ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ¢ηÈÚ›·. ∂ÓÒ ÙÔ ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚÔ Ì¤ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ ·Ï·ÈÔ‡ ÔÏÈÙÈÎÔ‡ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘, ÎÔ˘Ú·Ṳ̂ÓÔ Î·È Ì·ÎÚÈ¿ ·fi ÙÔ Ï·˚Îfi ·›ÛıËÌ·, ¤ÌÂÈÓ ·‰Ú·Ó¤˜, ÙÔ ∫∫∂ Ì‹Î ‰˘Ó·ÌÈο ÛÙËÓ AÓÙ›ÛÙ·ÛË, ÔÚÁ·ÓÒÓÔÓÙ·˜, ̤ۈ ÙÔ˘ ∂∞ª, ¤Ó· Ì·˙ÈÎfi Ï·˚Îfi ΛÓËÌ· ·ÓÙ›ÛÙ·Û˘ ηٿ ÙˆÓ Î·Ù·ÎÙËÙÒÓ. ŸÌˆ˜ Ë ‰È·ÎËÚ˘Á̤ÓË Âȉ›ˆÍË ÙÔ˘ ∫∫∂ ‰ÂÓ ‹Ù·Ó ÌfiÓÔ Ë ·ÂÏ¢ı¤ÚˆÛË. ∆ÂÏÈÎfi˜ ÛÙfi¯Ô˜ ÙÔ˘ ‹Ù·Ó, ‰˘ÛÙ˘¯Ò˜, ·fi ÙËÓ ÚÒÙË ÛÙÈÁÌ‹, Ë ‚›·ÈË Î·Ù¿ÏË„Ë Ù˘ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜. ∆Ô ∫∫∂ ¤‰ˆÛ ÙÔ ÛÙ›ÁÌ· ·fi ÙÔÓ ÚÒÙÔ ÂÌʇÏÈÔ, fiÙ·Ó ÚÔÛ¿ıËÛ ӷ ÂÍÔÓÙÒÛÂÈ, ‹‰Ë ·fi 13


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ÙÔ 1943, fiÏÔ˘˜ ÂΛÓÔ˘˜ Ô˘ ›¯·Ó ÔÚÁ·ÓÒÛÂÈ ¯ˆÚÈÛÙ¤˜ ·fi ÙÔ ›‰ÈÔ ·ÓÙÈÛÙ·ÛȷΤ˜ ÔÌ¿‰Â˜. ∏ ÌfiÓË ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ Ô˘ ‰ÂÓ ¤˙ËÛ ÙÔÓ ÚÒÙÔ ÂÌʇÏÈÔ ‹Ù·Ó Ë ∫Ú‹ÙË, fiÔ˘ ˘‹Ú¯Â ÙÔ ‰ÈÎfi Ì·˜ ‰˘Ó·ÌÈÎfi ·ÓÙ›‚·ÚÔ. ∫·È ·ÔʇÁ·ÌÂ, ı· ¤ÏÂÁ·, ۯ‰fiÓ Î·È ÙÔÓ ÙÚ›ÙÔ Á‡ÚÔ ÙÔ˘ EÌÊ˘Ï›Ô˘, ‹ ¿ÓÙˆ˜ ÂËÚ·ÛًηÌ ÏÈÁfiÙÂÚÔ ·fi ·˘ÙfiÓ, ÁÈ· ÏfiÁÔ˘˜ ÔÏÈÙÈÎÔ‡˜ Î·È ÁˆÁÚ·ÊÈÎÔ‡˜. √ ÙÚ›ÙÔ˜ Á‡ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ EÌÊ˘Ï›Ô˘ ÍÂΛÓËÛ Ì ȉȷ›ÙÂÚ· ‰‡ÛÎÔÏÔ˘˜ ÔȈÓÔ‡˜, ηıÒ˜ ¿Ú¯È˙Â Ë ÂÔ¯‹ ÙÔ˘ æ˘¯ÚÔ‡ ¶ÔϤÌÔ˘. √È ™Ô‚ÈÂÙÈÎÔ› ‰ÂÓ ·Ó·Ì›¯ıËÎ·Ó ‚¤‚·È· ÂÓÂÚÁ¿ ÛÙË ‰È·Ì¿¯Ë, fï˜ ÔÈ ‰˘Ó¿ÌÂȘ ÙÔ˘ ÏÂÁfiÌÂÓÔ˘ ¢ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈÎÔ‡ ™ÙÚ·ÙÔ‡ ›¯·Ó ÙËÓ ·ÓÔȯً ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· ÙˆÓ ‚ÔÚ›ˆÓ ÁÂÈÙfiÓˆÓ Ì·˜, ÛÙËÓ ·Ú¯‹ Î·È ÙˆÓ ÙÚÈÒÓ Î·È ·ÚÁfiÙÂÚ· ÙˆÓ ‰‡Ô. ∂ÓÒ Ë ¿ÏÏË ÏÂ˘Ú¿, Ô ∂ıÓÈÎfi˜ ™ÙÚ·Ùfi˜, ‚ÚÈÛÎfiÙ·Ó Û ı¤ÛË ·‰˘Ó·Ì›·˜ Î·È ‰ÂÓ ‰È¤ıÂÙ ÙÔ˘˜ fiÚÔ˘˜ Ô˘ ı· ÙÔ˘ Â¤ÙÚÂ·Ó Ó· ‰ÒÛÂÈ ·ÔÙÂÏÂÛÌ·ÙÈο ÙË Ì¿¯Ë. ∏ ¯ÒÚ· ›¯Â ‚ÁÂÈ, ¿ÏψÛÙÂ, ·fi ÙÔÓ fiÏÂÌÔ Î·È ÙËÓ K·ÙÔ¯‹ Ï‹Úˆ˜ ηÙÂÛÙÚ·Ì̤ÓË. ∂ÎÙfi˜ ·fi ÙȘ ÙÂÚ¿ÛÙȘ ·ÒÏÂȘ Û ÂÓfiÏÔ˘˜ Î·È ·Ì¿¯Ô˘˜ (¿Óˆ ·fi 500.000 ¿ÓıÚˆÔÈ ¯¿ıËÎ·Ó ÙËÓ ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô 1940-44), ˘‹Ú¯Â Ì·˙ÈÎfi˜ ˘ÔÛÈÙÈÛÌfi˜, ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔÈ ·fi 1 ÂηÙÔÌ̇ÚÈÔ ¿ÛÙÂÁÔÈ, ÙÔ ¤Ó· ٤ٷÚÙÔ ÙˆÓ ÎÙÈÚ›ˆÓ Ù˘ ¯ÒÚ·˜ ηÙÂÛÙÚ·Ì̤ӷ ‹ Ì ÛÔ‚·Ú¤˜ ˙ËÌȤ˜, ÙÂÚ¿ÛÙȘ ˙ËÌȤ˜ ÛÙȘ ÌÂÙ·ÊÔÚÈΤ˜ Î·È ÂÓÂÚÁÂȷΤ˜ ˘Ô‰Ô̤˜, ۯ‰fiÓ ·Ó‡·ÚÎÙË ‚ÈÔÌ˯·ÓÈ΋ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹, ·Ô‰ÂηÙÈṲ̂ÓË Ó·˘ÙÈÏ›·, ÓfiÌÈÛÌ· Ï‹Úˆ˜ ··ÍȈ̤ÓÔ Î·È ÂıÓÈÎfi ÂÈÛfi‰ËÌ· ÛÙÔ ¤Ó· ÙÚ›ÙÔ ÙÔ˘ ÚÔÔÏÂÌÈÎÔ‡. ∆ËÓ ÈÔ ÎÚ›ÛÈÌË ÛÙÈÁÌ‹ ÙÔ˘ EÌÊ˘Ï›Ô˘, Ë ∂ÏÏ¿‰· ÂÓÒıËΠfiÙ·Ó Ì‹Î ÂÈÎÂÊ·Ï‹˜ ÛÙÔÓ ·ÁÒÓ· Ô £ÂÌÈÛÙÔÎÏ‹˜ ™ÔÊÔ‡Ï˘. ∂ÚfiÎÂÈÙÔ ÁÈ· ¤Ó·Ó ¿ÓıÚˆÔ ÌÂÁ¿ÏˆÓ ÈηÓÔًوÓ, ÁÂÓÓ·›Ô, „‡¯Ú·ÈÌÔ, Ô˘ ·Ú¿ ÙË ÌÂÁ¿ÏË ÙÔ˘ ËÏÈΛ· ‰Èˇı˘Ó ÙË Ì¿¯Ë ÂΛÓË Ì ÛȉÂÚ¤ÓÈÔ ¯¤ÚÈ. Œ¯ˆ ÂÈ Î·È ¿ÏϘ ÊÔÚ¤˜ fiÙÈ Ë „˘¯‹ ÙÔ˘ £ÂÌÈÛÙÔÎÏ‹ ™ÔÊÔ‡ÏË Î¤Ú‰ÈÛ ÙÔÓ ÂÌʇÏÈÔ fiÏÂÌÔ. ∏ ·Ó¿ÏË„Ë Ù˘ ¢ı‡Ó˘ Ù˘ ‰È·Î˘‚¤ÚÓËÛ˘ ·fi ÙÔÓ ™ÔÊÔ‡ÏË ÎÈÓËÙÔÔ›ËÛ ÙȘ ÊÈÏÂχıÂÚ˜ ‰˘Ó¿ÌÂȘ. √ ÊÈÏÂÏ¢ıÂÚÈÛÌfi˜, Ô˘ ÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÙ·È ÛÙÔÓ ÔÚıÔÏÔÁÈÛÌfi, ÛÙÔ Ì¤ÙÚÔ Î·È ÛÙËÓ ·Á¿Ë ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÏ¢ıÂÚ›·, ‚Ú›ÛÎÂÙ·È, Î·È ‚ÚÈÛÎfiÙ·Ó ¿ÏψÛÙ ¿ÓÙ·, ÛÙÔÓ ·ÓÙ›Ô‰· ÙÔ˘ ÎÔÌÌÔ˘ÓÈÛÌÔ‡. √È ÂıÓÈΤ˜ ‰˘Ó¿ÌÂȘ, ÔÈ ‰˘Ó¿ÌÂȘ Ù˘ ÂÏ¢ıÂÚ›·˜, ¤‰ˆÛ·Ó ¤ÙÛÈ Âӈ̤Ó˜ ÙË Ì¿¯Ë. ∞Ó fï˜ ‰ÂÓ Â›¯Â ˘¿ÚÍÂÈ Ë ÎÚ›ÛÈÌË ˘ÏÈ΋ ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· ÙˆÓ ∞ÌÂÚÈηÓÒÓ, Ë Ì¿¯Ë ‰ÂÓ ı· ›¯Â ÎÂÚ‰Ëı›. ∂›Ó·È ‚¤‚·ÈÔ fiÙÈ, ·Ó Ë ∂ÏÏ¿‰· ‰ÂÓ Â›¯Â ÙË ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· ÙÔ˘ ™¯Â‰›Ô˘ ª¿ÚÛ·Ï Î·È ÙÔ˘ ¢fiÁÌ·ÙÔ˜ ∆Úԇ̷Ó, Ô ÂÌʇÏÈÔ˜ fiÏÂÌÔ˜ ı· ›¯Â ¯·ı›. 14


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∆· 1.676 ÂηÙÔÌ̇ÚÈ· ‰ÔÏ¿ÚÈ· Ô˘ ‰fiıËÎ·Ó ÙËÓ ÂÔ¯‹ ÂΛÓË ·fi ÙȘ Hӈ̤Ó˜ ¶ÔÏÈÙ›˜ ÛÙËÓ ∂ÏÏ¿‰· (500 Û ÛÙÚ·ÙȈÙÈ΋ ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· Î·È 1.176 Û ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋) ‹Ù·Ó ¤Ó· Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈο ÙÂÚ¿ÛÙÈÔ ÔÛfi. πÛÔ‰˘Ó·ÌÔ‡Û Ì ٤ÛÛÂÚȘ ÊÔÚ¤˜ ÙÔ ÚÔÔÏÂÌÈÎfi ÂÏÏËÓÈÎfi ÂÙ‹ÛÈÔ ÂıÓÈÎfi ÂÈÛfi‰ËÌ· Î·È ‹Ù·Ó ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚÔ ·fi fiÏ· Ù· Â͈ÙÂÚÈο ‰¿ÓÂÈ· Ô˘ Ú¿ÁÌ·ÙÈ ÂÈÛ¤Ú·ÍÂ Ë ∂ÏÏ¿‰· ·fi ÙÔ 1821 ̤¯ÚÈ ÙÔ 1930. ¶·Ú¿ ÙÔ ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ fï˜ fiÙÈ Ë ∂ÏÏ¿‰· ¤Ï·‚ ÙË ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚË Î·Ù¿ ÎÂÊ·Ï‹Ó ÂÓ›Û¯˘ÛË ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ ÙÔ˘ ™¯Â‰›Ô˘ ª¿ÚÛ·Ï, ÂÓ ·ÓÙÈı¤ÛÂÈ Ì fi,ÙÈ Û˘Ó¤‚Ë ÛÙȘ ¿ÏϘ ¯ÒÚ˜ Ù˘ ∂˘ÚÒ˘, ‰ÂÓ ÌfiÚÂÛ ӷ ÙËÓ ·ÍÈÔÔÈ‹ÛÂÈ fiˆ˜ Ë ˘fiÏÔÈË ∂˘ÚÒË ÁÈ· Ó· ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ‹ÛÂÈ ‚ÈÔÌ˯·ÓÈΤ˜ ηÈ, ÚÔ·ÓÙfi˜, ·Ú·ÁˆÁÈΤ˜ ˘Ô‰Ô̤˜. ∫˘Ú›ˆ˜ ‰ÈfiÙÈ ·Ó·ÁοÛÙËΠӷ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈ‹ÛÂÈ Ù· ¯Ú‹Ì·Ù· ·˘Ù¿ ÁÈ· ÛÙÚ·ÙȈÙÈÎÔ‡˜ ÛÎÔÔ‡˜ Î·È ÁÈ· ¿ÌÂÛ˜ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜ ·Ó¿ÁΘ, ȉ›ˆ˜ ÁÈ· ÙË Û˘ÓÙ‹ÚËÛË Î·È ÛÙ¤Á·ÛË ÙˆÓ ÚÔÛʇÁˆÓ. ∆ËÓ ÂÔ¯‹ ÂΛÓË Ë ˘fiÏÔÈË ∂˘ÚÒË ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÔ‡Û ÙË ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· ·˘Ù‹ ÁÈ· Ó· ‚ÚÂÈ Î·È ¿ÏÈ ÙÔÓ ‰ÚfiÌÔ Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋˜ ÚÔfi‰Ô˘. ∏ ¿ÚÔ‰Ô˜ ÙÔ˘ ¯ÚfiÓÔ˘ Î·È Ù· ÔÏÈÙÈο ÁÂÁÔÓfiÙ· Ô˘ ¤ÎÙÔÙ ÌÂÛÔÏ¿‚ËÛ·Ó Ì·˜ οÓÔ˘Ó ÔÏϤ˜ ÊÔÚ¤˜ Ó· ͯÓԇ̠ÙËÓ ÈÛÙÔÚÈ΋ Û˘ÓÂÈÛÊÔÚ¿ ÙˆÓ ∏ÓˆÌ¤ÓˆÓ ¶ÔÏÈÙÂÈÒÓ ÛÙË ÛˆÙËÚ›· Ù˘ ∂˘ÚÒ˘. ∏ ∂˘ÚÒË ÔÏfiÎÏËÚË ¯ÚˆÛÙ¿ ÙË Ó›ÎË Ù˘ ηٿ ÙÔ˘ Ê·ÛÈÛÌÔ‡ ÛÙËÓ ∞ÌÂÚÈ΋. Èڛ˜ ÙËÓ ∞ÌÂÚÈ΋, ÔÈ °ÂÚÌ·ÓÔ› ‰ÂÓ ı· ›¯·Ó ËÙÙËı›. ∂¿Ó fï˜ Ë ˘fiÏÔÈË ∂˘ÚÒË ¯ÚˆÛÙ¿ ÙËÓ ·ÓÂÍ·ÚÙËÛ›· Ù˘ ÛÙȘ ∏ӈ̤Ó˜ ¶ÔÏÈÙ›˜, Ë ∂ÏÏ¿‰· ÙË ¯ÚˆÛÙ¿ ‰‡Ô ÊÔÚ¤˜. ª›· ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ··ÏÏ·Á‹ Ì·˜ ·fi ÙË ÁÂÚÌ·ÓÈ΋ ηÙÔ¯‹ Î·È Ì›· ÁÈ· ÙË ÛˆÙËÚ›· Ì·˜ ·fi ÙËÓ Ù‡¯Ë Ô˘ ı· ›¯Â Ë ¯ÒÚ· Ì·˜ ·Ó ›¯Â ¯·ı› Ô ÂÌʇÏÈÔ˜ fiÏÂÌÔ˜. ∆‡¯Ë ·Ó¿ÏÔÁË Ì ·˘Ù‹Ó ÙˆÓ ‚ÔÚ›ˆÓ ÁÂÈÙfiÓˆÓ Ì·˜, Ù˘ ∞Ï‚·Ó›·˜ Î·È Ù˘ µÔ˘ÏÁ·Ú›·˜. ∆Ô ™¯¤‰ÈÔ ª¿ÚÛ·Ï, ÙÔ ‚·ÛÈÎfi ÂÚÁ·ÏÂ›Ô Ù˘ ·ÌÂÚÈηÓÈ΋˜ ·Ú¤Ì‚·Û˘ ÙËÓ ÂÔ¯‹ ÂΛÓË, ‹Ù·Ó ÌÈ· ÛˆÛÙ‹ Î·È ÁÂÓÓ·›· ÔÏÈÙÈ΋, Ë ÔÔ›· ·Ó‡„ˆÛ ÙÔ˘˜ ∞ÌÂÚÈηÓÔ‡˜ ÛÙË Û˘Ó›‰ËÛË ÙˆÓ ∂˘Úˆ·›ˆÓ Î·È fiÏˆÓ ÙˆÓ ¿ÏÏˆÓ ÎÚ·ÙÒÓ ÙÔ˘ ÂχıÂÚÔ˘ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘. Ÿˆ˜ fï˜ ‹Ù·Ó Ê˘ÛÈÎfi, ÛÙ· ¯ÚfiÓÈ· Ô˘ ·ÎÔÏÔ‡ıËÛ·Ó Û˘ÁΤÓÙÚˆÛ fiÏ· Ù· ˘Ú¿ Ù˘ ·ÚÈÛÙÂÚ‹˜ ÚÔ·Á¿Ó‰·˜. ªÈ·˜ ÚÔ·Á¿Ó‰·˜ ·Ó·ÌÊ›‚ÔÏ· ‰˘Ó·Ù‹˜ Î·È ·ÔÙÂÏÂÛÌ·ÙÈ΋˜, Ë ÔÔ›·, ÌËÓ ÌÔÚÒÓÙ·˜ Ó· ·ÌÊÈÛ‚ËÙ‹ÛÂÈ ÙÔ Ì¤ÁÂıÔ˜ Ù˘ ·Ú¤Ì‚·Û˘, ÚÔÛ¿ıËÛ ӷ Ï‹ÍÂÈ ÙË ‰È·¯Â›ÚÈÛ‹ Ù˘. ∏ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· Â›Ó·È fiÙÈ Ë ∂ÏÏ¿‰·, ·Ú¿ ÙȘ ÙÂÚ¿ÛÙȘ ·‰˘Ó·Ì›Â˜ Ù˘ ÎÚ·ÙÈ΋˜ Ì˯·Ó‹˜ ηٿ ÙËÓ ÂÚÈfi‰Ô ÂΛÓË, ·ÍÈÔÔ›ËÛ ٷ ¯Ú‹Ì·Ù· ·˘Ù¿ ÁÈ· ÙÔ˘˜ ÛÎÔÔ‡˜ Ô˘ ›¯·Ó ‰È·ÙÂı›. ÕÏψÛÙ ÔÈ Î˘‚ÂÚÓ‹ÛÂȘ Ù˘ ÂÔ¯‹˜ ÂΛӢ ‹Ù·Ó ΢‚ÂÚ15


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Ó‹ÛÂȘ ÔÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈΤ˜, Ì ÂÈÎÂÊ·Ï‹˜ ·ÓıÚÒÔ˘˜ Ì ȉȷ›ÙÂÚË ·›ÛıËÛË ÙÔ˘ ηı‹ÎÔÓÙÔ˜, fiˆ˜ Ô £ÂÌÈÛÙÔÎÏ‹˜ ™ÔÊÔ‡Ï˘ ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È Ô ·Ú¯ËÁfi˜ ÙÔ˘ ÏÂÈÔ„ËÊÔ‡ÓÙÔ˜ §·˚ÎÔ‡ ∫fiÌÌ·ÙÔ˜, ∫ˆÓÛÙ·ÓÙ›ÓÔ˜ ∆۷ω¿Ú˘, Ô ÔÔ›Ô˜, Ì ÙË ÁÂÓÓ·ÈfiÙËÙ¿ ÙÔ˘ Ó· ·Ú·¯ˆÚ‹ÛÂÈ ÙË ı¤ÛË ÙÔ˘ Úˆı˘Ô˘ÚÁÔ‡ ÛÙÔÓ ·Ú¯ËÁfi ÙÔ˘ ÌÈÎÚfiÙÂÚÔ˘ ÎfiÌÌ·ÙÔ˜, ‰È·ÛÊ¿ÏÈÛ ÙfiÙ ÙËÓ ÂÓfiÙËÙ· Ù˘ ÂıÓÈ΋˜ ·Ú·Ù¿Íˆ˜. ∞Í›˙ÂÈ ÂÌ›˜ ÔÈ ŒÏÏËÓ˜ Ó· ı˘ÌfiÌ·ÛÙ ٷ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈο ÂÚÈÛÙ·ÙÈο ÂΛӢ Ù˘ ÂÚÈfi‰Ô˘. ªÈ·˜ ÂÚÈfi‰Ô˘ ÎÚ›ÛÈÌ˘ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂıÓÈ΋ Ì·˜ ÔÚ›·. ¶·›¯ÙËΠÙfiÙÂ Ë Ù‡¯Ë ÙÔ˘ ÂÏÏËÓÈÛÌÔ‡, Î·È Ûˆı‹Î·Ì fiÙ·Ó Â›¯·Ì ÊÙ¿ÛÂÈ Î˘ÚÈÔÏÂÎÙÈο ÛÙÔ ¯Â›ÏÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ ÁÎÚÂÌÔ‡. ∂Î ÙˆÓ ˘ÛÙ¤ÚˆÓ ÌÔÚ› ηÓ›˜ Ó· ·Ó·Ï‡ÂÈ Ù· ÁÂÁÔÓfiÙ· Ì ÙËÓ ·fiÛÙ·ÛË Ô˘ ÚÔÛʤÚÂÈ Ô ¯ÚfiÓÔ˜ Î·È Ë ÁÓÒÛË Ù˘ ÙÂÏÈ΋˜ ¤Î‚·Û˘. ŸÛÔÈ fï˜ ˙‹Û·Ì ÙËÓ ÂÔ¯‹ ÂΛÓË ÁÓˆÚ›˙Ô˘Ì fiÙÈ Ë ‚‚·ÈfiÙËÙ· ÙÔ˘ ·ÔÙÂϤÛÌ·ÙÔ˜ ‹Ù·Ó οı ¿ÏÏÔ ·Ú¿ ‰Â‰Ô̤ÓË. À‹ÚÍ·Ó ÛÙÈÁ̤˜ ÛÙË ‰È¿ÚÎÂÈ· ÙÔ˘ EÌÊ˘Ï›Ô˘ Ô˘ ÙÔ ÎÚ¿ÙÔ˜ ÎÏÔÓ›ÛÙËÎÂ, ÔÏÏÔ› ÏÈÔ„‡¯ËÛ·Ó Î·È ‹Ù·Ó ¤ÙÔÈÌÔÈ Ó· ÂÁηٷÏ›„Ô˘Ó ÙÔÓ ·ÁÒÓ·. ∏ ÙÂÏÈ΋ Ó›ÎË ‹Úı ¯¿ÚË ÛÙÔÓ ·ÁÒÓ· ÙÔ˘ ∂ıÓÈÎÔ‡ ™ÙÚ·ÙÔ‡, ÛÙË ÛÙ·ıÂÚfiÙËÙ· Ù˘ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜ ËÁÂÛ›·˜, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÛÙËÓ Î·Ù·Ï˘ÙÈ΋ ˘ÏÈ΋ Î·È ËıÈ΋ ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· ÙˆÓ ∞ÌÂÚÈηÓÒÓ. ÃÚˆÛÙԇ̠¢ÁÓˆÌÔÛ‡ÓË ÁÈ· ÙË ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· ÂΛÓË. ¢ÂÓ Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÙÔ ÏËÛÌÔÓÔ‡ÌÂ. ∫·È ‰ÂÓ Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ·Ê‹ÓÔ˘Ì ·Ó˘ÂÚ¿ÛÈÛÙË ÙËÓ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ÂΛÓË ÁÈ· ÏfiÁÔ˘˜ Ô˘ Û˘Ó‰¤ÔÓÙ·È Ì ÙË ‰ËÌÔÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· ÛÙÔÓ ·ÚfiÓÙ· ¯ÚfiÓÔ. ÃÚÂÈ¿˙ÂÙ·È Ó· ı˘ÌfiÌ·ÛÙ ÙÈ Ú¿ÁÌ·ÙÈ Û˘Ó¤‚Ë ÛÙË ‰È¿ÚÎÂÈ· Ù˘ ‰‡ÛÎÔÏ˘ ÂΛӢ ÂÚÈfi‰Ô˘ Ù˘ ÈÛÙÔÚ›·˜ Ì·˜. ¡· ÙÔ ı˘ÌfiÌ·ÛÙ fi¯È ÙfiÛÔ ÂÌ›˜ ÔÈ ÂÏ¿¯ÈÛÙÔÈ ÂÈ˙ÒÓÙ˜ Ù˘ ÁÂÓÈ¿˜ Ì·˜ –ÁÈ· ÂÌ¿˜ Ù· ÁÂÁÔÓfiÙ· ·˘Ù¿ ı· ·Ú·Ì¤ÓÔ˘Ó ·ÓÂÍ›ÙËÏ· fiÛÔ ·ÎfiÌ· ‚ÚÈÛÎfiÌ·ÛÙ ‰Җ, fiÛÔ ÔÈ ÓÂfiÙÂÚ˜ ÁÂÓȤ˜, Ô˘ Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÁÓˆÚ›˙Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ ÈÛÙÔÚÈ΋ ·Ï‹ıÂÈ·. ¡· ÁÓˆÚ›˙Ô˘Ó ÂΛÓÔ˘˜ Ô˘ ı˘ÛÈ¿ÛÙËÎ·Ó ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÏ¢ıÂÚ›·, Ó· ηٷÓÔÔ‡Ó ·˘ÙÔ‡˜ Ô˘ ·Ú·Ï·Ó‹ıËÎ·Ó Î·È Ï‹ÚˆÛ·Ó ·ÎÚÈ‚¿ ÁÈ· Ù· ÈÛÙ‡ˆ ÙÔ˘˜ Î·È Ó· ÌËÓ Í¯ÓÔ‡Ó ÂΛÓÔ˘˜ Ô˘ η›ÚÈ· ‚Ô‹ıËÛ·Ó ÁÈ· Ó· ‚Úԇ̠ÙÂÏÈο ÙÔÓ ‰ÚfiÌÔ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ Î·È Ù˘ ¢ËÌÂÚ›·˜, ÙȘ Ôԛ˜ fiÏÔÈ Û‹ÌÂÚ· ·fi ÎÔÈÓÔ‡ ·ÔÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÔ˘ÌÂ. ∆ÂÏÂÈÒÓÔÓÙ·˜, ·ÈÛı¿ÓÔÌ·È ÙËÓ ·Ó¿ÁÎË Ó· ÚÔÛı¤Ûˆ οÙÈ ÂÈϤÔÓ: H ∞ÌÂÚÈ΋ ÙfiÙ ÂÈÙ¤ÏÂÛ ÙÔ ¯Ú¤Ô˜ Ù˘. ∞Ó·Ï·Ì‚¿ÓÔÓÙ·˜ ÙÔÓ ‰ÈÂıÓ‹ Ù˘ ÚfiÏÔ, ¿ÏÏ·Í ÙËÓ ÔÚ›· Ù˘ Ë›ÚÔ˘ Ì·˜ – Î·È ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ˘ ̤ÚÔ˘˜ Ù˘ ·ÓıÚˆfiÙËÙ·˜. √Ê›ÏÔ˘Ì ӷ ·ÓÙÏ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ‰È‰¿ÁÌ·Ù· ·fi ÙËÓ ÂÔ¯‹ ÂΛÓË. ∫·È Ó· ·ÍÈÔÔÈ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ٷ ‰È‰¿ÁÌ·Ù· ·˘Ù¿ ÛÙÔÓ ÎfiÛÌÔ ÙÔ˘ Û‹ÌÂÚ·. 16


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¢ÈfiÙÈ Î·È Û‹ÌÂÚ· Ô ÎfiÛÌÔ˜ Ì·˜ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆ›˙ÂÈ ÙÂÚ¿ÛÙȘ ÚÔÎÏ‹ÛÂȘ. ∏ ÙÚÔÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·, Ë ÂÌÔÚ›· ·ÓıÚÒˆÓ, ÙÔ Ï·ıÚÂÌfiÚÈÔ fiÏˆÓ Î·È Ó·ÚΈÙÈÎÒÓ, Ë ˘·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË, Ë ·fiÏ˘ÙË ÊÙÒ¯ÂÈ·, Ë ˘Ô‚¿ıÌÈÛË ÙÔ˘ ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙÔ˜ Î·È Ë ÎÏÈÌ·ÙÈ΋ ·ÏÏ·Á‹, fiÏ· ·˘Ù¿ ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Ó ·ÂÈϤ˜ Ô˘ ˘ÂÚ‚·›ÓÔ˘Ó Ù· ÂıÓÈο Û‡ÓÔÚ·, Ô˘ ı¤ÙÔ˘Ó Û ΛӉ˘ÓÔ ÙËÓ ·ÓıÚˆfiÙËÙ· ÛÙÔ Û‡ÓÔÏfi Ù˘. À¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó Û‹ÌÂÚ· ÂÚÈÔ¯¤˜ ÙÔ˘ Ï·Ó‹ÙË Ô˘ ÂӉ¯Ô̤ӈ˜ Ó· ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÙȘ ›‰È˜ –‹ Î·È ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚ˜– ·Ó¿ÁΘ ·fi ÂΛӘ ÙȘ Ôԛ˜ ›¯Â Ë ∂˘ÚÒË ÙËÓ ÂÔ¯‹ Ô˘ ¤‚Á·ÈÓ ηÙÂÛÙÚ·Ì̤ÓË ·fi ÙÔÓ fiÏÂÌÔ. ∏ ·ÔÙÂÏÂÛÌ·ÙÈ΋ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙÒÈÛË ÙˆÓ ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈˆÓ ·˘ÙÒÓ ÚÔÎÏ‹ÛÂˆÓ ··ÈÙ› Ó· ‰Â›ÍÔ˘ÌÂ Î·È ¿ÏÈ ÈÛ¯˘Ú‹ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ‚Ô‡ÏËÛË, ··ÈÙ› Ó· ‰Â›ÍÔ˘ÌÂ Î·È ¿ÏÈ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ÁÂÓÓ·ÈfiÙËÙ·. ∞·ÈÙ› ÌÈ· ÈÛ¯˘Ú‹ ∞ÌÂÚÈ΋, Ô˘ ·˘Ù‹Ó ÙË ÊÔÚ¿ ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› –Î·È ‰ÂÓ Ú¤ÂÈ– Ó· Â›Ó·È ÌfiÓË Ù˘. ¶Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ¤¯ÂÈ ‰›Ï· Ù˘ Î·È ÌÈ· ÈÛ¯˘Ú‹ ∂˘ÚÒË, ÌÈ· ∂˘ÚÒË ·˘ÙfiʈÙË, ‰˘Ó·ÌÈ΋ Î·È ·ÔÙÂÏÂÛÌ·ÙÈ΋. ª·˙› ÔÊ›ÏÔ˘Ì ӷ ·ÓÙ·ÔÎÚÈıԇ̠ÛÙȘ ··ÈÙ‹ÛÂȘ ÙˆÓ Î·ÈÚÒÓ, Ó· ÛÙ·ıԇ̠ÛÙÔ ‡„Ô˜ ÙÔ˘ ·Ó·Ù˘ÍÈ·ÎÔ‡ Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈÎÔ‡ ÚfiÏÔ˘ Ô˘ ηÏԇ̷ÛÙ ӷ ‰È·‰Ú·Ì·Ù›ÛÔ˘ÌÂ. ª·˙› ÔÊ›ÏÔ˘Ì ӷ ‰Ô˘Ï¤„Ô˘Ì ۋÌÂÚ· ÁÈ· Ó· ¤¯Ô˘Ì ¤Ó·Ó ıÂÙÈÎfi ÚfiÏÔ ÛÙ· ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ· Ú¿ÁÌ·Ù·. πÔ‡ÓÈÔ˜ 2007

∫ø¡™∆∞¡∆π¡√™ ª∏∆™√∆∞∫∏™ ÚÒËÓ ¶Úˆı˘Ô˘ÚÁfi˜

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Building Bridges of Cooperation

It is my honor to represent the United States during this important period in the U.S.-Greek bilateral relationship. It is a particular privilege to serve as U.S. Ambassador to Greece as we celebrate the 70th Anniversary of the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan. As we look to the future of the transatlantic alliance between the United States and our European partners, it is important to remember the world as it existed in 1947. The devastation of World War II brought Europe to the brink of collapse. In a display of great generosity and strategic foresight, President Harry S. Truman stepped in to assist the people of Europe in their time of need. Secretary of State George Marshall observed that “the United States should do whatever it is able to do to assist in the return of normal economic health in the world, without which there can be no political stability and no assured peace.” This unpopular but momentous decision to spend billions of U.S. dollars rebuilding Europe laid the groundwork for our modern transatlantic partnership – one of the United States’ most enduring and important relationships. As Mr. Costopoulos illustrated in this excellent book, Marshall Plan assistance rebuilt and revitalized Greece. Greece received massive ammounts of military, economic, and diplomatic assistance from the United States. U.S. support to Greece, through the Marshall Plan and other post-War programs, amounted to about two billion U.S. dollars – which would be worth more than 21 billion dollars today. This assistance helped Greek citizens recover and thrive after the devastation of war. The relationship forged between the United States and Greece during the Marshall Plan years also firmly secured Greece’s place in the West. History has proven that the Marshall Plan was one of the United States’ wisest foreign assistance investments. We are very proud to have supported Europe dur19


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ing its time of need. To me, the Marshall Plan is a reminder of how critically important it is to care for our allies and friends. The United States and our transatlantic partners continue to defend and support each other as we face complex challenges of our increasingly interconnected world. We are at our best and can accomplish truly great things when we cooperate with our transatlantic partners. The Marshall Plan was a pivotal moment in the United States’ relationship with Greece. Greece currently faces another challenging period in its history, but the U.S. Government will continue to do everything we can to help Greece emerge from its long economic crisis as a strong and stable member of the European Union. We remain committed to our common goal of promoting global freedom, democracy, and the rule of law – the values at the very core of the relationship between the United States and the European Union. The 70 years since the Marshall Plan have demonstrated the United States’ strong commitment to our relationships with Greece and our other European Allies. Our resolute partnership with Europe, which began with the Marshall Plan, is the starting point for almost everything the U.S. wants to accomplish around the world. I am confident this commitment and partnership will remain unchanged in the years ahead. July 2017

GEOFFREY R. PYATT U.S. Ambassador to Greece

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