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The Story for Ou Story for Our Fu for Our Future b Our Future Is H FutureIs Here. THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION The WILD11 Jaipur Declaration

1 Policy Briefing 2020.03 | WILD Foundation | Wilderness Foundation Global | Wilderness Specialist Group (IUCN/WCPA)


Contents 3-6 FOREWARD As The Future Thunders 7-8 PROLOGUE The Revolution is Now 9-16 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Story for Our Future — Policy Recommendations 17-48 APPENDIX 32 Calls to Action in 11 Target Areas — References WILD11, the 11th World Wilderness Congress, was scheduled for Jaipur India, 18-27 March 2020, but was indefinitely postponed in early March due the Covid-19 pandemic. The agenda of WILD11 was well-set and practical outcomes were ready for launching -- numerous of which have since occurred. In the few months following the postponement, the WILD11 Executive Committee worked with many of the key partners and experts involved with program planning and also with members of the IUCN Wilderness Specialist Group to integrate many of the expected policy recommendations into a single document. The WILD11 Jaipur Declaration is the first global conservation policy briefing and recommendations framed as a story, because the programme format of WILD11 was purposefully structured around the power and importance of story-telling in effectively communicating our collective work, aspirations and solutions for a wilder and better world. We are very grateful for the invaluable comments and advice provided by (in alphabetical order): Anish Andheria, Wildlife Conservation Trust; Christopher Beaton, International Institute for Sustainable Development; Susan Canney, Department of Zoology, Oxford University; WILD Foundation; Catalina Gonda, Climate Action Network (CAN) & FARN (Fundación y Recursos Naturales); Swati Hingorani, IUCN Global Forest Programme; Tristan Irschlinger, International Institute for Sustainable Development; Holly Jonas, ICCA Consortium – Territories and areas conserved by indigenous peoples and local communities; Cyril Kormos, Wild Heritage, Earth Island Institute; Amy Lewis, WILD Foundation; Harvey Locke, HLConservation; Andrew Muir, Wilderness Foundation Africa; Bittu Sahgal, Sanctuary Nature Foundation; Trevor Sandwith, IUCN Global Protected Areas Programme; Shruti Sharma, International Institute for Sustainable Development; James E.M. Watson, Wildlife Conservation Society; Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation Science, University of Queensland; Karl Wagner, Consultant; Virginia Young, Australian Rainforest Conservation Society Citation: Sylvén, M., Wagner, K., & Martin, V.G. (2020). The Story of Our Future: The Survival Revolution: The WILD11 Jaipur Declaration. The WILD Foundation. wild.org/wilderness-specialist-group. wild11.org/outcomes. THE STORY OF OUR FUTURE — THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION. THE WILD11 JAIPUR DECLARATION.

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FOREWA RD A Short Story

As The Future Thunders T

HE CHAIRMAN OF OUR SESSION placed before us a map of a place that no longer exists Ěś GuaĂ­ra Falls, which once saddled the border between Brazil and Paraguay. Beneath the map was a more current photo, a placid lake created by the Itaipu Hydroelectric Dam that inundated the once mighty and thundering falls. White circles, numbered one through seven, drawn on the photo hovered above the surface of the waters, 2-dimensional monuments to the seven most voluminous of the cascades. The caption beneath stated that the falls were twice as large as Niagara.

My colleagues in the meeting clucked over the loss of this time-trapped treasure. Their nods initiated the inevitable ritual of regret and rationalization. The dam, after all, is the lifeblood of economies. I shifted uncomfortably. In times like these I am tempted to speak and tempted to stay silent at the same time. To speak about the future 3


AS TH E F U TU R E TH U N D E RS

created by these little rituals. The one in which it’s all about blood and economies until one lost river, one lost forest, one lost coastline leads to a time when there’s nothing left but blood and economies, until even those things don’t exist. But my temptation to remain silent won out again. What is the point in saying pointless things few people will openly support? The only fulfillment is my longing to say them. As I began to put on a show of agreement, the bright warning aura of an impending migraine flickered in my left eye. Surrender is never without its costs, personal and otherwise.

It was in northern India I’d last experienced an aura such as this, perched on a hilltop along the cusp of night, adrift in the warbled prayers emanating from a temple in the valley below. I would have been dangerously close to slipping into a trance that night were it not for the lightning flashes of the oncoming migraine and the irregular thunder of the caged leopard’s growls. We had just lost the sun to the horizon, and I shivered. The leopardess paced as she awaited release, making known her displeasure from the confines of her cage, a truck-bed palanquin. The air thickened with her ferocity. The men surrounding her shifted from foot-to-foot anxiously, excitedly. It’s hard not to be nervous around another’s tightly-coiled irritation, especially when that other is a leopard who could as quickly take a man in her jaws as she could silently ascend into the treetops. Hotter, brighter my migraine flared as if in response to the leopard’s bellows. As my elemental pain called back to her in signals of light only I could

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AS TH E F U TU R E TH U N D E RS

see, it occurred to me that what I was about to witness wasn’t so much the restoration of an injured cat to the wilds, as it was the liberation of a caged goddess. And the role I played in that immense drama was nothing, excepting that I was a witness. Night black, chill deep, head throb, roar returned. A second leopard was in the trees, patrolling, prowling, curious or something more. Its presence complicated her release.

The rangers deemed it would be better to take her elsewhere. And in the thickening night, I descended my hilltop perch and departed, uninitiated still. Since then I have, in dreams and pauses, detected the pent-up storm of her presence - tense and demanding. I can see her at these times, eyes fixed on mine, the insistent chant of the prayerful surrounding us. She is still pacing, inside a cage, waiting urgently. And I am with her. Together we await the ones who have the courage to drawback the lock; we await release from constraint; the surge of freedom; our holy reunion with the wild place. Together, we await ourselves. One radiant stab of pain and my awareness returned to the meeting and the acceptance ritual of impending destruction. But now I’m no longer nodding. I take a breath and gaze meaningfully at the meeting chair. Silence is just another kind of inevitability. “I have something I’d like to say . . .”

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AS TH E F U TU R E TH U N D E RS

The Story of Our Future Begins with...

Our Voices,

the Thunder of The Survival Revolution. Amy Lewis, June 2020

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Prologue THE REVOLUTION IS NOW Not so long ago in geologic terms (approximately one million years ago), we all lived under the African sun. That means in one sense we are all Africans, our common ancestors heralding from that vast continent. In those days, our lives were clearly determined by the rules of nature. And by the rules of nature, we adapted and grew. We feared being hunted by lions and other predators, so we grew alert and observant. We scavenged, relying mainly on gathering plants, rarely killing large wildlife ourselves, and innovated new ways to feed ourselves more efficiently. Finally, these gifts we inherited from our wild habitat empowered us to manage fire, which opened up a new array of foods and nutrients to fuel our future growth. Then, a mere 10,000 years ago, the real revolution started. First, we discovered how to manipulate the lives of a few wild animal and plant species in the Agricultural Revolution. It seemed good and was necessary as our hunting had already begun to massively decrease the number of wild animals. Yet, we became dependent on the efficient production of a caloric surplus generated by farming. We were faced with the new dangers of living within settlements, including infectious diseases transferred from domestic animals. During this time old threats intensified and spread - war, inequality, and hierarchy based on wealth, gender and ethnicity. But even still, the agricultural revolution was powerful enough to withstand these threats...for a time. As a result, the human population exploded from an estimated 10 million to today’s 7.8 billion. With the start of the 16th century, when Europe conquered Africa, Asia, Australia, Oceania and the Americas, the world began the journey of becoming homogenized, sharing the same political systems and common hierarchies: geopolitical, economic, legal and scientific. In the 1700s, a new revolution began: the Industrial Revolution, the “revolution of energy conversion”. We learned how to harness and convert fossil fuel sources (coal, oil, natural gas) and began exploiting previously inaccessible raw materials from ever more distant locations. One outcome of this revolution was the transformation of agriculture and food production to an industrial scale, soon to become heavily dependent on synthetic chemicals, and industrial fisheries, which brought havoc to the living world on which we utterly depend.

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Exponential population growth began. Combined with industrialized exploitation of the natural world, the threats to our well-being and survival were immense, but were not immediate enough for many to see. What was apparent were the immediate benefits of the revolution – more wealth, more technology, more population. Always more. And, so the level of degradation of nature and disruption of global natural processes – at a scale never before experienced in Earth’s history – continued apace. Three hundred years is all it has taken to get us to the tipping point where we are now, teetering on the chaotic edge of climate and species destruction. But wait…it has only taken 30 years for the Digital Revolution to enable local/global information at-a-click. We were promised more leisure time, a global community and life-enrichment. What we got was faster problem solving, more equitable access to information (but only as governments allowed and finances enabled), accelerated consumerism, polarized politics, and abundant/divisive conspiracy theories. As a result, our lives are more enriched and more stressful, our environment more imperiled. Even though we have more stuff and more information, our human race has never been more vulnerable. And the more we take, the more vulnerable we become. Some of us have tried to halt this trend. We have had two Earth Summits: Rio (1992) & Rio+20. We developed a term called ‘sustainability’ which tied our aspirations to the vision of a more efficient global market that could last longer because it supposedly depleted nature more slowly: and we developed the 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals. But did ‘sustainability’ halt the destruction, and do we see the words ‘love’ and ‘respect’ in these SDGs? Incremental progress has been made. We have reduced extreme poverty and hunger in some parts of the world, improved health, family planning, and education. But the biggest crises still loom - climate breakdown and the planet’s 6th Mass Extinction. It is likely we now need to add a third crisis to that list, the almost certain reoccurrence of another global pandemic. Strangely enough, the COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown of the world in 2020 might be the opportunity to reverse some of the negative trends. There is a growing acknowledgement of the inescapable connection between human health and a healthy planet. Maybe, there is a possibility of a ‘green transition’ as a key element in pandemic recovery plans? However important, such small and incremental steps are not enough to create the world we need. A new revolution is essential! We need a SURVIVAL REVOLUTION through which to act and implement the bold solutions that ALREADY have been identified. Some of these solutions are identified in this document, "The Story for Our Future, The WILD11 Jaipur Declaration". We know what to do – now the implementation is needed. Join our Survival Revolution!

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Executive Summary The Story for Our Future — The Survival Revolution The WILD 11 Jaipur Delcaration

INTRODUCTION A set of 11 priority target areas under five solution headings were identified and endorsed by the global community preparing for the 11th World Wilderness Congress, in order to: » » » » »

reduce the risk of the planet’s 6th Mass Extinction Crisis meet the 1.5॰C target of the climate Paris Agreement strengthen the global response to the threat of the climate crisis help avert increased risk of zoonotic disease transmission, and create a livable environment for society worldwide

In the Appendix, 32 specific actions are presented in detail. These actions address 9 of the 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with the most actions relating to Climate Action (#13), Life Below Water (#14) and Life on Land (#15).

THE CHALLENGE Planetary meltdown It is hard to face the facts, but we must. Today, human activities have substantially modified more than 77% of land (excluding Antarctica) and 87% of the ocean. From 1993 to 2009, an area of terrestrial wild nature larger than India – a staggering 3.3 million square kilometers – was lost to human settlement, farming, mining and other pressures. In the ocean, areas free of industrial fishing, pollution and shipping are almost completely confined to the polar regions. Over a third of the planet’s original forest cover has been cleared including half of the tropical forests, much of that in the last 60 years. The wetlands have declined between 64-71% in the 20th century, with 30% in the last 40 years alone. If we continue with this pace, if we do not reverse the trends, in a couple of decades we will live on an entirely exploited, overheated planet largely devoid of biodiversity and natural beauty--- with little ability to provide for a healthy human society. Two generations of humans will have squandered Earth’s riches for themselves, leaving a bare shadow of Earth’s uniqueness for the coming generations.

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The escalating impact of multiple, human-caused drivers on ecosystems may soon reach levels that in the past have triggered long-lasting global change. In some cases, we may have already passed unrecognized, so-called “tipping points,” with a trajectory to new ecological systems. Climate change is often the main driver but sometimes impacts like deforestation could trigger a tipping point. For the Amazon, it has been postulated that if just 20–25% of the rainforest were cut down, the area could reach a tipping point causing the eastern, southern and central Amazonia to flip to a savannah-like ecosystem, especially in combination with forest fires and a drier climate.

SOLUTION 1 Safeguard completely the remaining primary, high-functioning wild nature on land and sea, and commit to restoration of the rest.

“Protecting intact ecosystems is humanity’s most cost-effective defense against climate change and the loss of biodiversity and may also prove to be the most cost-effective way of meeting many of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s)”. James E.M. Watson et al., “Protect the last of the wild”, Nature 563 (2018): 27-30

1.1 Protect existing, wild, primary ecosystems on land and in the ocean To stay below a 1.5°C rise, we need moratoriums on land and sea conversion by 2030. One critically important category is existing primary, intact forests as carbon storage. Carbon storage in virtually untouched temperate and boreal forests is between 30% and 138% higher than managed forests. High-functioning ecosystems provide the best defense against climate change and, as these biodiverse systems are degraded or destroyed, their carbon-sequestration potential decreases dramatically. Conserving primary, wild areas is imperative for biodiversity conservation. As disturbance-sensitive species disappear from human-dominated landscapes, wild areas are becoming their last remaining strongholds. Wilderness areas host highly unique biological communities and therefore act as a buffer against extinction risk. To secure the ecological integrity of the planet’s wild places, the last-remaining highly intact ecosystems across the world must be urgently protected through international treaties such as the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Seas (UNCLOS). The protection of wild nature is a major public health issue. The critical need for protected wilderness and high-functioning nature areas, free of human development or modification, is essential for human health. The potential for zoonotic spillover pandemics has been forecast THE STORY OF OUR FUTURE — THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION. THE WILD11 JAIPUR DECLARATION.

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with regularity for over two decades. A significant driver of this potential is human expansion into wild areas and increasing human/wildlife contact through land conversion and unregulated/unwise commercial trade of wildlife. The economic impact of such an occurrence far outweighs the cost of precaution and protection.

1.2 Safeguard existing wild, free-flowing rivers & restore the rest Given the importance of free-flowing rivers (FFRs) for biodiversity, water quality, magnitude and timing of droughts and floods as well as for the resilience of aquatic and riparian ecosystems to climate change, all governments and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses must protect all remaining FFRs in systems of protected and conserved areas, but especially through “Universal Rights of Rivers”, and by finding alternative solutions to renewable energy provision and farming, such as wind, solar, micro-hydropower and decentralized energy and water solutions. To revive the world’s rivers, all governments must design and implement different options for restoring rivers such as dismantling and partial decommissioning of dams, modifications (e.g. fish ladders) and re-operations (improving the possibilities for release of water) of dams, revitalization of river landscapes and dismantling harmful subsidies, taking a river catchment approach.

1.3 A Global Deal for Nature – Scale-up the protection and restoration of the planet Despite global investments in protected areas and adoption of wildlife conservation policies that have produced many ecological, economic, health, and social benefits, we continue on a trajectory toward global tipping points that can reshape the entire web of life by the end of this century or earlier. In response, two similar concepts were conceived and launched: Nature Needs Half (NNH, 2009) and Half Earth (2016), based on the science that with half the global area protected, at least, 85% of all species would be secured. Traditional knowledge refers to this simply as “reciprocity,” giving back to nature. Based on a recent extensive review of the literature, “the global protection of a minimum of 30% and up to 70%, or even higher, of the land and sea on Earth” is required, with a “call for 50% as a mid-point” to avoid biodiversity loss and ensure ecosystem services for people, including carbon storage. To ensure that climate targets are met while preventing species extinctions and the rapid erosion of biodiversity, a Global Deal for Nature (GDN) is proposed as a “companion pact” with the Paris Climate Agreement. When coupled with a transfer to renewable energy production, the GDN can be achieved through a combination of formally protected areas and “Other Effective Area-based Conservation Measures” (OECM), and/or Climate Stabilization Areas (CSAs) such as high carbon and species-rich corridors. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) should recognize the Nature Needs Half/ Half Earth perspective as a central aspiration to avoid biodiversity loss, ensure ecosystem services for people, and also enhance carbon storage.

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The need for ambitious targets for protected area coverage increases every year. We should strive for the target of “protecting and connecting half” as soon as possible. Increased ambition to assure human survival and well-being is needed, so why not as early as 2030? With the increasing rate of environmental decline now evident, it is very uncertain in what state the planet will be by 2050. What is certain is that with the global development plans underway, with an expected 250,000 km of new roads, hundreds of dams, and more, the cost of restoration will increase by magnitudes as each year goes by. There is no time like the present…and the need is now.

1.4 Exclude fisheries from the high seas and half of the national waters Ecological extinction caused by overfishing precedes all other pervasive human disturbance to marine ecosystems, including pollution, degradation of water quality, and – until now – anthropogenic climate change. To ensure more healthy, functional oceans beyond national jurisdiction, covering 60% of the Earth’s surface, without the devastating impact of industrial fisheries, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Seas (UNCLOS) should introduce a complete fishing ban on the ‘high-seas commons’ as part of the new treaty agreed under UNCLOS, which could give rise to large gains in fisheries yields in national waters. Based on the known fast recovery of fish stocks and the entire marine ecosystem as a result of excluding fisheries in marine protected areas and no-take zones – or “replenishment zones”- and the urgent need for protecting coastal waters which harbor a substantial proportion of all known marine life on Earth, all coastal governments should protect half of the coastal areas under their jurisdiction (Exclusive Economic Zones) against fishing. This would allow a replenishment of seriously depleted global fish stocks, as well as protect critical “blue carbon” habitats for the global climate carbon balance, such as mangroves, seagrass areas, saltmarshes and sea shelf sediments.

1.5 Restore nature’s functionality – Rewilding The process to rebuild “the structural and functional complexity of degraded ecosystems while gradually reducing the human influence” has been called “rewilding”. Rewilding is now regarded as an important conservation tool on every continent with the potential of becoming a central concept in the UN Decade of Ecosystem Restoration, 2021-2030 (UN Decade). To catalyze scaling-up of the rewilding concept across the world, a “Global Charter for Rewilding the Earth: Advancing nature-based solutions to the extinction and climate crises” was adopted in March 2020 by the Resolutions Committee of the 11th World Wilderness Congress, Jaipur, India. The charter provides a vision, objective, rewilding definition and application as well as a set of eleven principles and calls to action for specific target groups. As of June 2020, 100+ organizations have endorsed the Charter, representing a wider network of 3200+ partners and organizations on every continent except Antarctica, encompassing some of the most innovative rewilding projects in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe and North and South America. To rebuild functional nature – the Web of Life - and ecosystem resilience, the concept of rewilding should be adopted and implemented by the CBD, the UN Decade, and the Bonn Challenge THE STORY OF OUR FUTURE — THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION. THE WILD11 JAIPUR DECLARATION.

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for restoring forests, with financial support by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) and multilateral development banks (MDBs).

1.6 Implement nature-based climate solutions The concept of nature-based solutions is now “mainstream” as part of the climate emergency agenda. Using and leveraging the inherent ability of forests, peatlands, wetlands, grasslands, and coastal and marine ecosystems to sequester and store carbon, offers a very sizable mitigation potential. Nature-based solutions could provide over one-third of the cost-effective climate mitigation needed between now and 2030 to stabilize warming below 2oC. Protection and restoration of these ecosystems not only provide valuable benefits for biodiversity and climate but also yields co-benefits to local communities via other ecosystem services, such as providing water and habitat for fish, supplying food, directly improving their health, and reducing the impact of storms and flooding during extreme weather events. The degradation of the land-based and marine ecosystems has evidently played a much larger negative role in the climate change process than usually recognized, which also means that the restoration of these systems probably has a much greater potential than generally understood. However, we must pursue a protect and restore perspective that informs and guides our actions. We urgently need a protection and restoration plan for the planet, taking into account the several options available, like “proforestation”, restoring degraded land and sea areas (actively and through natural regeneration), introducing ecological management of ecosystems used for extraction (like temperate and boreal forests), rewetting peatlands, reducing/ stopping non-sustainable natural resource use practices (e.g. trawling by fisheries), rebuilding biomass carbon in the sea (e.g. fish stocks), and magnifying carbon sequestration in ecosystems through enhancing the natural functionality by rebuilding the web of life. The plan needs strong funding mechanisms at all levels of government and policy.

SOLUTION 2 Empower Indigenous Peoples 2.1 Recognize the key and irreplaceable role of Indigenous People With tenure rights to at least 38 million km2 in 87 countries, the world’s 370 million Indigenous Peoples and communities steward territories that cover a quarter of the land worldwide, intersects with 40% of all land-based protected areas and ecologically intact landscapes, and contains an estimated 80% of the world’s biodiversity. The greatest diversity of Indigenous Peoples coincides with the world’s largest tropical forest wilderness areas in the Americas (including the Amazon), Africa, and Asia. However, Indigenous Peoples and communities legally own only 11% of the world forestlands. Besides being guardians of their collective lands, waters and territories for millennia, Indigenous Peoples have exceptional place-based knowledge systems of how to care for and manage these territories and areas, which is of high relevance THE STORY OF OUR FUTURE — THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION. THE WILD11 JAIPUR DECLARATION.

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and value for climate change adaptation. Indigenous Peoples need and deserve a strong and effective voice in safeguarding the planet. The world community should urgently strengthen the participation and influence of Indigenous Peoples in the political processes regarding climate change (UNFCCC) and biodiversity (CBD) as well as other decision-making processes that affect them such as the UN negotiations towards a binding instrument on transnational corporations and human rights. Indigenous Peoples should also be invited to elect representatives in the governance structures (Assembly & Council) of the Global Environment Facility.

SOLUTION 3 Reduce threats & provide critical financial

support

“Greening the food sector or eating up our planet: this is what is on the menu today.” Professor Johan Rockström, Stockholm Resilience Centre

3.1 Reduce the threat of industrial, chemicalized and non-organic agriculture Food production - including fisheries - is the single most important driver of biodiversity loss and cause of environmental change worldwide. To reduce the negative impacts of food production and consumption, the world community must facilitate the transition from industrial farm production to one based on the principles of agroecology. This “Great Food Transformation” should reorient farming from focusing on producing large quantity to producing high quality, healthy food. It should aim to halving food losses and wastage, always maintaining the perspectives of Nature Needs Half/ Half Earth and staying below a 1.50C rise in average global temperature. Nations should also adopt a Planetary Health Diet, with specifications for each country and region.

3.2 Turn harmful subsidies for unsustainable farming, fishing and fossil fuels into true services for people and the planet “A subsidy - or government incentive - is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy, thereby helping people achieve a certain standard of living.” Governments around the world allocate hundreds of billions of dollars in mostly unwise subsidies for energy, agriculture and fishing. With a total of at least US$ 939 billion (energy sector US$ 400 billion, agriculture US$ 504, fisheries US$ 35 billion), this amounts to about 1% of the global economy (value of around US$ 86 trillion), but could be much higher. Subsidies can be directly harmful to society by contributing to destruction of the environment and over-exploitation of natural resources, and exacerbating inequality: producers in poor countries often face unfair competition from THE STORY OF OUR FUTURE — THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION. THE WILD11 JAIPUR DECLARATION.

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subsidized producers in wealthier countries. There is an urgent need to reallocate harmful subsidies towards the protection and restoration of the planet: fossil fuel subsidies to renewable energy solutions; fisheries subsidies to sustainable practices including the protection and restoration of the marine environment; and subsidies related to industrial agriculture to agroecology systems.

SOLUTION 4 Integrate political action – A Global Treaty for Nature

4.1 For a “Stabilized Earth Pathway “- Unify the political agendas for biodiversity and climate At the 1992 Rio Earth Summit, three separate UN Conventions were created on biodiversity, climate change, and desertification. Since that time, the inseparable linkages between climate change and biodiversity agendas and crises have been identified by both the UNFCCC and the CBD. Both the UNFCCC and the CBD work in parallel on the interlinkages e.g. recognizing “that climate change is a major and growing driver of biodiversity loss, and that biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services, significantly contribute to climate change adaptation, mitigation and disaster risk reduction”. For meeting the urgent needs of integration, and to put humanity on a “Stabilized Earth Pathway”, the UNFCCC and CBD must agree on common targets, actions, reporting, finance and outreach anchored in a joint narrative as proposed by the Climate Action Network International. Building on the process of a “Global Pact for the Environment”, the UN should agree on a Global Treaty for Nature.

SOLUTION 5 Recognize the environment as a fundamental

human right

5.1 Recognize a healthy environment as a fundamental human right in the UN Declaration on Human Rights Today, 130 States are parties to regional treaties - in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Middle East - explicitly incorporating the right to a healthy environment. In more than 110 States, this environmental right enjoys constitutional protection. It is also included in environmental laws of over 100 States. In total, at least 155 States recognize, in law, the right to a healthy environment – but not yet the UN, neither through its Charter, nor the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

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The 75th United Nations General Assembly 15-30 September 2020, coinciding with the 5th anniversary of the launch of the SDGs, to formally recognize the universal human right to a healthy environment -- including clean air, safe water and adequate sanitation, healthy and sustainably-produced food, healthy biodiversity and ecosystems, a non-toxic environment, and a safe climate -- as a fundamental human right under the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

11 TARGETS

To Protect, Rewild, & Revive Our Planet 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

 ecognize a healthy environment as a fundamental human right R in the UN Declaration on Human Rights Protect existing wild primary ecosystems on land and in the ocean Safeguard existing wild free-flowing rivers & restore the rest Restore nature’s functionality – Rewilding Protect & Restore: Implement nature-based climate solutions  Global Deal for Nature - Scale-up the protection and restoration A of the planet Empower Indigenous Peoples Reduce the threat of industrial marine fisheries  educe the threat of industrial, chemicalized and non-organic R agriculture

10. Turn harmful subsidies for unsustainable farming, fishing and 11.

fossil fuels into true services for people and the planet Integrate political action – Global Treaty for Nature

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Appendix The Story for Our Future — The Survival Revolution The WILD 11 Jaipur Delcaration

32 CALLS TO ACTION IN 11 TARGET AREAS To reduce the risk of the planet’s 6th Mass Extinction Crisis, to meet the 1.5oC target of the climate Paris Agreement of strengthening the global response to the threat of the climate crisis, and to create a livable environment for society worldwide, the following set of 32 call to actions in 11 target areas have been identified and endorsed by the global community preparing for the 11th World Wilderness Congress (WILD11, Jaipur, India, 19-26 March 2020) but which was indefinitely postponed due to the coronavirus pandemic. The substance has been approved by the WILD11 Resolutions Committee.

RECOGNIZE THE ENVIRONMENT AS A FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHT 1. Recognize a healthy environment as a fundamental human right in the UN Declaration on Human Rights Rationale: The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, proclaimed by the UN General Assembly in Paris on 10 December 19491, declares that human rights are universal and every person around the world deserves to be treated with dignity and equality. Basic rights include freedom of speech, privacy, health, life, liberty and security, as well as an adequate standard of living. However, after almost 50 years since the Stockholm Declaration in 1972, we still lack a formal recognition by the UN of a healthy and life-supporting environment as a fundamental human right2. It has been argued that “everyone, everywhere has the right to live, work, study, and play in a healthy and sustainable environment”3. Over the past 50 years, this right has been defined as including procedural and substantive elements. The procedural rights include access to information, participation in decision-making, and access to justice. The substantive elements include clean air, safe water and adequate sanitation, healthy and sustainably produced food, healthy biodiversity and ecosystems, a non-toxic environment, and a safe climate.   Today4, 130 States are parties to regional treaties - in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East - explicitly incorporating the right to a healthy environment. THE STORY OF OUR FUTURE — THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION. THE WILD11 JAIPUR DECLARATION.

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In more than 110 States, this environmental right enjoys constitutional protection. It is also included in environmental laws of over 100 States. In total, at least 155 States recognize in law, the right to a healthy environment – but not yet the UN, neither through its Charter5, nor the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

PROPOSED TARGET: 1.1 The 75th Anniversary of the United Nations and United Nations General Assembly6: In recognition of the urgent need to find long-term sustainable solutions to the biodiversity and climate emergencies, WE CALL on the 75th United Nations General Assembly 15-30 September 20207, coinciding with the 5th anniversary of the launch of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)8, to formally recognize the universal human right to a healthy environment -- including clean air, safe water and adequate sanitation, healthy and sustainably-produced food, healthy biodiversity and ecosystems, a non-toxic environment, and a safe climate -- as a fundamental human right under the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This would send a positive signal to the world community, especially the young generation, that all governments as well as the international institutions linked to the UN will give more recognition to the urgent need of finding long-term, sustainable solutions to the environmental challenges for a better life of all human beings. Sustainable Development Goals relevance:

2 ZERO HUNGER

3 GOOD HEALTH

& WATER 7 AFFORDABLE CITIES & 6 CLEAN 11 SUSTAINABLE CLEAN ENERGY & SANITATION COMMUNITIES

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13 CLIMATE ACTION

BELOW ON 14 LIFE 15 LIFE WATER LAND

RESPONSIBLE CONSUMPTION & PRODUCTION

PROTECT & RESTORE 2. Protect existing, wild, primary ecosystems on land and in the ocean Rationale: Humanity has a profound impact on the Earth. A century ago9, only 15% of the surface was used to grow crops and raise livestock. Today, human activities have modified more than 77% of land (excluding Antarctica) and 87% of the ocean. As late as between 1993 and THE STORY OF OUR FUTURE — THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION. THE WILD11 JAIPUR DECLARATION.

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2009, an area of terrestrial wild nature larger than India – a staggering 3.3 million square kilometers – was lost to human settlement, farming, mining and other pressures. In the ocean, areas free of industrial fishing, pollution and shipping are almost completely confined to the polar regions. Over a third of the planet’s original forest cover has been cleared including half of the tropical forests, much of that in the last sixty years10. The wetlands have declined between 64-71% in the 20th century, with 30% in the last 40 years alone11. Three quarters of the world’s terrestrial ecoregions have lost their ecological intactness12 and the ones with least impact are found in the most remote regions with the lowest population density, such as in the northern boreal and tundra areas, the arid regions of Africa and Australia, and parts of the Amazon. The areas that lost most of their intactness during the period 1993-2009 were New Guinea, Borneo, the Middle East, Central and East Africa, Brazil and several ecoregions in Asia. To stay below a 1.5°C rise, we need moratoriums on land and sea conversion by 203013. One critically important category is existing primary, intact forests. Carbon storage in virtually untouched temperate and boreal forests is between 30% and 138% higher than managed forests14. A characteristic of such forests is large, old trees. A global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species shows that for most species, mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size15. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree16. Allowing trees to reach full size and maintaining large trees is therefore important. In one study, the largest 1% of trees was found to account for half of above ground living biomass17. Intact forests may also hold half or more of carbon as organic soil carbon or in standing and fallen trees that eventually decay and add to soil carbon. Older forests continue to sequester additional organic carbon in soil and bind soil organic matter more tightly than younger ones1819. A recent analysis showed we are underestimating the impact of degrading forests by up to 626%20. Generally, high-functioning ecosystems provide the best defense against climate change and, as these biodiverse systems are degraded or destroyed, their carbon-sequestration potential decreases21. The climate impact of degrading such primary natural areas is often underestimated. A good example is in tropical forests22, where the carbon loss has been underestimated by a factor of six when taking into account additional negative impacts related to clearance of the forests, such as selective logging, foregone carbon sequestration, edge effects, and defaunation. Conserving primary wild areas is imperative for biodiversity conservation. As disturbance-sensitive species disappear from human-dominated landscapes, wild areas are becoming their last remaining strongholds. Wilderness areas host highly unique biological communities and therefore act as a buffer against extinction risk. It has been shown that the extinction risk for species within wilderness communities is, on average, less than half that of species in non-wilderness communities23. Wild areas are important sources of “propagules” and populations for restoration and rewilding efforts and serve as a baseline reference24. Protecting wilderness areas is also important because they provide high-value ecosystem services which are being lost THE STORY OF OUR FUTURE — THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION. THE WILD11 JAIPUR DECLARATION.

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in landscapes modified and degraded by humans. High-functioning ecosystems sequester and protect large amounts of carbon, regulate local climate regimes including hydrological cycles, and provide a direct defense against climate related hazards such as floods, sea-level rise and cyclones. “Protecting intact ecosystems is humanity’s most cost-effective defense against climate change and the loss of biodiversity and may also prove to be the most cost-effective way of meeting many of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s)”25. The urgent need is, therefore, to immediately stop the destruction of what is left of such areas of wild nature on land and in the sea, which should be explicitly recognised and written into both the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Wilderness - or wild, high-functioning nature - is not explicitly referred to by the CBD or UNFCCC, but the concept of ecological integrity is. It is a foundational principle of international environmental law and policy, starting with the Rio Principle 7, and continuing through the CBD (Aichi Target 10), the UNFCCC (the Paris Agreement) and other national and international policies26. In 2018, the CBD COP14 also agreed on the value of ecosystem integrity to climate mitigation, adaptation and disaster risk reduction27. For delivering on the Paris Agreement28 it has been noted that national governments have an “obligation to ensure the integrity and resilience of natural ecosystems be considered when deciding which, where, and how climate actions are to be undertaken nationally”. Since the concept of ecological integrity is a continuum of different aspects of ecological sustainability, it has been argued that those areas with highest ecological integrity are synonymous with the wilderness concept, and therefore should be given highest priority29. The critical importance of ecological integrity for setting global biodiversity targets was identified by an international workshop organized by the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) and the IUCN Global Protected Areas Program30.

PROPOSED TARGETS: 2.1 Secure ecological integrity of the planet’s wild places through the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD): Building on the commitment of securing ecological integrity for biodiversity and climate, and which also has been recommended by Motion 041 to the IUCN World Conservation Congress 202031, WE CALL on the CBD to “prioritize the critical need to secure the integrity of the last-remaining highly intact ecosystems on the planet”, i.e. wilderness areas, using agreed ecosystem-based intactness metrics32 as part of the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework;

2.2 Maintain ecological integrity of wild ecosystems to meet the goals of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC): With reference to the Paris Agreement commitment to ecological integrity, and the outstanding carbon storage, mitigation and adaptation capacity of wild ecosystems, WE CALL on the UNFCCC to give immediate attention and highest priority to the protection of all existing wilderness areas on land and in sea, as reflected by the budget priorities of the UNFCCC Green Climate Fund33 as well as in the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs); THE STORY OF OUR FUTURE — THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION. THE WILD11 JAIPUR DECLARATION.

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2.3 Protect the Earth’s remaining marine wilderness as a fundamental principle of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Seas (UNCLOS): Since almost two-thirds of ‘marine wilderness’ lies in international waters beyond national jurisdiction34, as well as considering the Rio Principle 735, WE CALL on the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) as part of the on-going negotiations of a new binding treaty36 to adopt the principle of protecting the Earth’s remaining ‘marine wilderness’ off-limits to all exploitation;

2.4 Ensure the immediate, urgent protection of wild areas at national level: Based on international and national inventories of remaining wild and intact areas, WE CALL on all national governments to give highest priority to the immediate protection of all remaining wild areas, including sufficient, financial support. Sustainable Development Goals relevance: WATER 6 CLEAN 13 CLIMATE & SANITATION ACTION

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3. Safeguard existing wild, free-flowing rivers & restore the rest Rationale: Almost half of the global river volume is altered through dams and diversions37. Only 37% of rivers longer than 1,000 kilometers remain free flowing over their entire length and 23% flow uninterrupted to the ocean. Very long free-flowing rivers (FFRs) are largely restricted to remote regions of the Arctic and of the Amazon and Congo basins. In densely populated areas only few very long rivers remain free flowing, such as the Irrawaddy (Myanmar) and Salween (China, Myanmar, Thailand)38. In a world of accelerating hydropower development and a shift to low-carbon economies, forward-looking system-scale approaches to energy planning are required to minimize loss of river function while meeting energy targets39. Equally important is the need to find sustainable solutions to close the gap between irrigation demand and extreme water stress. Dams devastate river ecosystems and undermine the right and livelihoods of affected communities40. By moving from industrial food production to systems based on agroecology principles, there is also an interesting and largely unexplored possibility of saving water41. Shared basins are home to more than 40% of the world’s population and account for an estimated 60% of global freshwater flow42. Transboundary cooperation in adaptation is therefore THE STORY OF OUR FUTURE — THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION. THE WILD11 JAIPUR DECLARATION.

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crucial. The 1997 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses - the Water Convention - is the only treaty governing shared freshwater resources that is of universal applicability43. It is a framework convention, in the sense that it provides a framework of principles and rules that may be applied and adjusted to suit the characteristics of particular international watercourses. Some key guiding principles include: the equitable and reasonable utilization of international watercourses; the application of appropriate measures to prevent harm to other States sharing an international watercourse; and the principle of prior notification of planned measures. Initially negotiated as a regional instrument, it has now been amended to become universally available. As of March 2016, all Member States can accede the Convention, and currently 43 countries have decided to do so, most of them in Europe44. Article 20 of the Convention45 stipulates: “watercourse States shall, individually and, where appropriate, jointly, protect and preserve the ecosystems of international watercourses”, and Article 23, further highlights the obligations to “to protect and preserve the marine environment, including estuaries”. Since the overarching legal system of rivers treat them “as property under law, something that can be bought and sold for profit”46, and that only a few rivers has been given fundamental rights under national law (e.g. Vilcamba River Ecuador, Whanganui River – New Zealand, and Atrato River – Colombia), a “Universal Rights of Rivers” has been elaborated47.

PROPOSED TARGETS: 3.1 Protect all remaining wild, Free-flowing Rivers: Given the importance of free-flowing rivers (FFRs) for biodiversity, water quality, magnitude and timing of droughts and floods as well as for the resilience of aquatic and riparian ecosystems to climate change, WE CALL on all governments and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses to give adequate protection to all remaining FFRs in systems of protected and conserved areas, but especially through given “Universal Rights of Rivers”, and by finding alternative solutions to renewable energy provision and farming48, such as wind, solar, micro-hydropower and decentralised energy and water solutions;

3.2 Revive the World’s Rivers: WE CALL on all governments and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the NonNavigational Uses of International Watercourses to design and implement different options for restoring rivers such as dismantling and partial decommissioning of dams, modifications (e.g. fish ladders) and re-operations (improving the possibilities for release of water) of dams,49, revitalisation of river landscapes and dismantling harmful subsidies50, taking a river catchment approach;

3.3 Globalize the Water Convention: Due to the critical importance of preserving and restoring the world’s rivers, WE CALL on all THE STORY OF OUR FUTURE — THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION. THE WILD11 JAIPUR DECLARATION.

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countries sharing a watercourse with another country to join and ratify the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses. Sustainable Development Goals relevance: WATER 12 6 CLEAN & SANITATION

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4. Restore nature’s functionality – Rewilding Rationale: With the gradual degradation of all ecosystems on the Planet, we are rapidly eroding the way nature works – we are destroying the entire Web of Life, nothing less. The composition of species communities is changing through habitat loss, climate change and exploitation of wildlife, with potentially serious consequences for the resilience of essential ecosystem functions on which humans depend51. The process to rebuild “the structural and functional complexity of degraded ecosystems while gradually reducing the human influence”52 has been called rewilding. The rewilding concept, first used in the literature some 30 years ago by Foreman, Soulé, Noss, etc.53, has evolved into a very interesting and diverse concept for creating resilient, socio-ecological systems54 of significant relevance for biodiversity conservation as well as climate change mitigation and adaptation. Rewilding is now referred to as an important conservation tool on every continent - in Africa55, Asia56, Australia57, Europe58, Latin America59 and North America60. Rewilding has the potential of becoming a central concept in the UN Decade of Ecosystem Restoration 2021-203061. To catalyze the scaling-up of the rewilding concept across the world, a “Global Charter for Rewilding the Earth: Advancing nature-based solutions to the extinction and climate crises” was adopted in March 2020 by the Resolutions Committee of the 11th World Wilderness Congress, Jaipur, India. The charter provides a vision, objective, rewilding definition and application as well as a set of eleven principles. As of early May 2020, some 96 organizations have endorsed the Charter, representing a wider network of 3500+ partners and organizations on every continent except Antarctica, encompassing some of the most innovative rewilding projects in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe and North and South America. The Charter was conceived as an aspirational statement on the critical need and potential for global rewilding, building on a “Call to Action”, the following targets have been selected addressing a set of international institutions as well as financing opportunities.

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PROPOSED TARGETS62: 4.1 Incorporate rewilding as a key concept for ecosystem restoration in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD): With reference to the Global Charter for Rewilding the Earth, WE CALL on all parties to the CBD to adopt rewilding as key concept for ecosystem restoration as part of the Post-2020 Global Diversity Framework;

4.2 Adopt rewilding as a key concept for United Nations Decade on Ecosystem Restoration (UNDecade): With reference to Global Charter for Rewilding the Earth, WE CALL on the UN Environment Program (UNEP) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) as lead organizations63 to recognize the important contribution rewilding can make to meeting the objectives of the U.N. General Assembly to the “2021–2030 Decade of Ecosystem Restoration” of carbon sequestration and storage, wildlife comeback, and repairing degraded landscapes and ecosystems on land and in sea64, and to invite the informal Global Alliance of Expert Rewilding Practitioners unified through the Charter to join as partner;

4.3 Implement rewilding as a modern, key concept in the Bonn Challenge65: WE CALL on the Government of Germany and the IUCN as initiators of the Bonn Challenge for restoring 350 million hectares of the world’s deforested and degraded land by 2030, with particular emphasis on forest landscape restoration, to adopt the concept of rewilding, and the principles, objective, definition and application as outlined in the Global Charter for Rewilding the Earth, as a key, modern concept for implementation, which will help achieving ecological integrity;

4.4 WE CALL on the Global Environmental Facility to recognize the potential of rewilding as a key principle in enhancing the ecosystem services through large-scale restoration efforts, as outlined in the “New direction in the GEF Partnership to Protect and Restore the Global Environment”66;

4.5 For establishing a financing facility for rewilding across the world, WE CALL on Multilateral development banks (MDBs) to follow the example of the European Investment Bank which, in partnership with Rewilding Europe Capital, set up a specific mechanism for rewilding under the EU Natural Capital Financing Facility67.

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Sustainable Development Goals relevance:

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5. Protect & Restore: Implement nature-based climate solutions Rationale: The “imbalance between total emissions and total sinks reflects a gap in our understanding” of the global carbon cycle, with particular uncertainties when it comes to the terrestrial and marine ecosystems and their role68. Dynamic global vegetation model simulations suggest that CO2 emissions from land-use change have been substantially underestimated, that terrestrial uptake of CO2 is larger, and that terrestrial ecosystems might have greater potential to sequester carbon in the future69. The cumulative release of GHGs from fossil fuels during the period 1711-2011 have been reported at 375 GtC, with an additional contribution from land use change of 180 GtC, so a 70/30% ratio, however, with “uncertainties in land use emissions”70. Based on detailed global land use analyses, the net losses in above-ground biomass ranged from zero in 1500, to 110–325 GtC by 2100. Historically, net losses were estimated to be relatively modest to the middle of the 19th century, accelerating rapidly through the 20th century as the rate of regrowth of biomass was not able to keep up with emissions related to land-use changes, and with divergent estimates over the 21st century. However, this study only assessed the above-ground biomass carbon, but a significant part of the forest carbon is stored in soils (in grasslands71 it’s even higher!), with the highest soil levels in boreal forests and lowest in tropical forests. For example, according to data in the Global Forest Watch72carbon in the forests of Brazil in 2000 amounted to a total of 117 GtC with 48% in the soil. Corresponding data for Russia gives a total of 367 GtC with 91% in the soil. When forests are converted to farmland, the soil carbon loss ranges from 52% in temperate regions followed by 42% in tropical and 31% in boreal areas73. So, the above reported loss of forest-related carbon is highly underestimated, which indicates total, historical land use emissions of at least the same magnitude as from fossil fuels, maybe even higher! The ocean is by far the largest carbon sink in the world: it accumulates 20-35% of atmospheric carbon emissions and some 93% of the Earth’s carbon dioxide is stored and cycled through the oceans74. To date, much of the scientific focus of the oceanic carbon cycle has been on the roles of phytoplankton and zooplankton in carbon sequestration and there is much yet to be discovered regarding the intricate biological pathways involved in carbon cycling and the associated implications for climate regulation75. The role of higher-level marine life, the vertebrates, in global climate change and carbon sequestration is largely ignored and not included in most models of carbon cycling76. In the oceans, vertebrates offer important climate services, such mediation of carbon sequestration (incl. trophic cascades), twilight zone carbon contributions, THE STORY OF OUR FUTURE — THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION. THE WILD11 JAIPUR DECLARATION.

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release of carbonates for reducing acidification, and so-called “deadfall” carbon. While marine vertebrates store only a small percentage of total oceanic carbon, the life spans of large and deep-dwelling sea marine vertebrates are prolonged, and sequestration in the tissues of large vertebrates is comparable to the centennial timescale of carbon storage associated with terrestrial forests77. Unfortunately, the biomass of predatory fish in the world’s oceans has declined by two-thirds during the last 100 years due to overfishing78, leading to a higher abundance of the prey species lower down the trophic levels with negative impacts also on the marine carbon budget. Whales, for example, support the growth of phytoplankton79, which stores 40% of all carbon produced through their nutrient rich fecal plumes80. A one percent increase in phytoplankton production is equivalent to 2 billion mature trees. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has estimated the climate value (carbon capture, phytoplankton production increase) of a single great whale at more than $2 million - which amounts to more than $1 trillion for the current stock of great whales81. If we would allow the whale populations to return from today’s 1.3 million individuals to the pre-whaling number of 4 to 5 million, the carbon value would be even higher! The critical role of animals in shaping and increasing the diversity of ecosystems through “trophic cascading”82 has been demonstrated in many places, both on land and in the sea. Less known is the pivotal indirect role animals play in mediating biogeochemical processes83. Such indirect effects can cause animals to have disproportionately large impacts on rates and amounts of carbon uptake, storage and release relative to their biomass representation in ecosystems. So called “Apex predators” are key in marine and terrestrial ecosystems and their absence can result in very different ecosystems84. Removal of the top predator can present a situation in which species in a lower trophic level, such as lower level predators or herbivores, become increasingly abundant. An overabundance of herbivores can place vegetated ecosystems under stress, which can lead to less carbon sequestration in vegetated areas. Therefore, the potential of using food web dynamics to manage carbon is high, where different species play a critical role in the function of nature - be they small or large, carnivore or herbivore. Such impacts have been documented for a range of species, indicating a magnification potential of carbon sequestration by 20-140%, in some cases even more. Sometimes a single species can play an important ecological role without creating a trophic cascade. Examples are the “marine vertebrate carbon services”85; beavers creating meadows and dams at the landscape level86; and rhinoceroses, elephants, equids, and camelids shaping nutrient transport in grasslands, thereby reducing fire regimes and mobilizing landscape-scale vegetation changes while having the lowest methane emissions87. The concept of nature-based solutions has become mainstream as part of the climate emergency agenda. At the UN Climate Action Summit88 in New York, September 2019, transformative initiatives in 12 critical areas were launched, one of them being Nature-based Solutions for Climate (NBCS). In the NBCS Manifesto89, four priority areas had been identified by the NBS coalition, one of them to scale up NBS for mitigation through the conservation and restoration of forests and other terrestrial ecosystems, freshwater resources, and marine and ocean ecosystems. The NBS Manifesto refers to a widely cited study “Natural climate solutions” from 2017 THE STORY OF OUR FUTURE — THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION. THE WILD11 JAIPUR DECLARATION.

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by Griscom, B.W. et al. 90, indicating that NBS could provide over one-third of the cost-effective climate mitigation needed between now and 2030 to stabilize warming below 2oC, with the highest potential through reforestation, avoided forest conversion, natural forest management, coastal and peat restoration. To stay below a 1.5°C rise in average global temperature we need both an extremely rapid reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (UNEP says 7.6% per year, starting now91) combined with large scale carbon dioxide removal (CDR) from the atmosphere. Given the risks, costs and uncertainties associated with technological CDR solutions such as Bio-energy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS92) the most plausible way to achieve the latter is by increasing natural sinks through the restoration of terrestrial and marine ecosystems. In April 2019, an extensive “One Planet” analysis was published93 concluding that a 400 GtCO2 withdrawal from the atmosphere through land and sea restoration globally is required to stay below a 1.5°C rise. This would need recreating carbon storages of a total of about 110 GtC94, or only slightly less than the current, total carbon stock (117 GtC; biomass + soil) of the 515 million hectares of forests in Brazil95! When it comes to forest restoration, there is a huge difference in carbon sequestration potential through natural regeneration or through plantations. If the 3.5 million km2 of degraded land committed by countries in the Bonn Challenge are reforested through natural regeneration they would capture 42 GtC by 2100 compared with 1 GtC through plantations96. There is an interesting possibility of transferring the existing, managed forests into ecosystems with more qualities of intact forests. Such a process has been termed “proforestation” and could serve as a low-cost approach for immediately increasing atmospheric carbon sequestration to achieve a stable atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration that reduces climate risk97. “Proforestation” also provides long-term benefits for biodiversity, scientific inquiry, climate resilience, and humans. This approach could be mobilized across all forest types. It has been suggested98 that “proforestation” provides the most effective solution to the dual global crises – climate change and biodiversity loss – and that “it is the only practical, rapid, economical, and effective means for atmospheric CDR (carbon dioxide removal) among the multiple options that has been proposed”. Although the majority of terrestrial species ranges are projected to shrink significantly with a global warming of 1.5oC99, by limiting the increase to this level and not 2.0oC, the global natural areas at risk of climate-related degradation (especially tundra and boreal forests) would halve and reduce other biodiversity risks (e.g. forest fires, invasive species expansion, ocean acidification, and a decrease of ocean oxygen levels)100. Coral reefs are particularly vulnerable to climate change and are projected to decline to 10 to 30% of former over at 1.5°C warming and to less than 1% of former cover at 2°C warming101. In conclusion: The degradation of the land-based and marine ecosystems has evidently played a much larger, negative role in the climate change process than usually recognised, which also means that the restoration of these systems probably has a much greater potential than generally understood. However, we must pursue a protect and restore perspective: unless we stop the on-going loss and degradation of, especially, primary ecosystems, the restoration will have much less impact of solving the degradation of the planet. Nature-based solutions, THE STORY OF OUR FUTURE — THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION. THE WILD11 JAIPUR DECLARATION.

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such as leveraging the ability of forests, peatlands, wetlands, grasslands, and coastal and marine ecosystems to sequester and store carbon, offer a very sizable mitigation potential102. Protection and restoration of these ecosystems therefore not only provide valuable benefits for biodiversity and climate but also yields co-benefits to local communities via other ecosystem services, such as providing habitat for fish, supplying food, and reducing the impact of storms and flooding during extreme weather events.

PROPOSED TARGETS: 5.1 Agree on a joint UNFCCC/CBD ecosystem protection and restoration plan for the Planet: WE CALL on the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) and the IPBES (Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services) to form a joint working group to develop a proposal for how to optimise the protection and restoration of natural ecosystems with regard to the climate emergency, both through mitigation (i.e. largescale carbon dioxide removal, CDR) and adaptation, as well as reducing the negative trends in the biodiversity crisis. Such a plan should come up with a concrete proposal on how to withdraw at least 400 GtCO2 from the atmosphere by 2050, taking into account the several options available, like “proforestation”, restoring degraded land and sea areas (active & through natural regeneration), introducing ecological management of ecosystems used for extraction (like temperate and boreal forests), rewetting peatlands, reducing/stopping non-sustainable natural resource use practices (e.g. trawling by fisheries), rebuilding biomass carbon in the sea (e.g. fish stocks), and magnifying carbon sequestration in ecosystems through enhancing the natural functionality by rebuilding the web of life;

5.2 Recognize the critical importance of Proforestation for a healthy planet: WE CALL on the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement to adopt the concept of “proforestation” as a key mechanism for nature-based climate solutions.

5.3 Establish a strong funding mechanism for the protection and restoration of natural ecosystems as part of global climate emergency action: WE CALL on the UNFCCC Green Climate Fund in its “Areas of Work”103, radically increase the funding available for Nature-Based Climate Solutions, recognizing the critical importance of protecting and restoring intact ecosystems, changing management practices, and rebuild functional ecosystems for both mitigation and adaptation to climate change;

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5.4 Mainstream the role of natural ecosystems as nature-based climate solutions in the UNFCCC Nationally Determined Contributions, NDSCs, aligned with the CBD NBSAPs: As part of their post-2020 climate actions, WE CALL on each country to urgently assess the nature-based climate solution (NBCS) potential from protection and restoration of natural ecosystems in their territories supported by an investment plan with concrete targets. Such NBCS should not substitute for a rapid fossil-fuel phase out. The NDCs should be aligned with National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs) under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).

5.5 Urgently identify the best nature-based climate solutions as part of the United Nations Decade on Ecosystem Restoration (UNDecade): WE CALL on the UN Environment Program (UNEP) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) as lead organizations104 to pay particular attention to the importance of protection and restoration of ecosystems and ecological functions as nature-based climate solutions in designing and implementing the U.N. General Assembly “2021–2030 Decade of Ecosystem Restoration”105; Sustainable Development Goals relevance:

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6. A Global Deal for Nature - Scale-up the protection and restoration of the planet Rationale: In the 150 years since the emergence of the conservation movement and the array of land/sea/wildlife-protecting activities it has advocated, approximately 15% of the Earth’s land surface and 10% of the oceans have been conserved to various degrees, with far less strictly protected from exploitation106. While global investments in protected areas and adoption of wildlife conservation policies have produced many ecological and social benefits107 and slowed the pace of biodiversity loss108, the current ecological trends are starkly negative— plummeting wildlife populations109, ocean acidification dying coral reefs110, more frequent and prolonged marine heatwaves111, dramatically higher greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere than at the onset of the Industrial Revolution112, and a million species at risk of extinction113. We are on the trajectory towards global tipping points, reshaping the entire web of life by the end of this century or earlier114.

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Though conservation is known to be effective - such as through creating formally protected areas - the scale at which it has been implemented has been ineffective to reverse the negative trends. A recent study, alongside evidence of ongoing erosion of intact forest landscapes, highlights that areas until recently considered to be of low vulnerability are in fact where anthropogenic disturbance is increasingly putting species at most risk of extinction115. For example, landscapes in the Brazilian Amazon still exceeding 80% forest cover have lost 46-60% of their conservation value. These data show that new large-scale efforts to reduce both degradation and loss of intact natural landscapes in combination with large-scale restoration efforts are urgently needed to protect against an intensified wave of extinctions in the world’s last natural areas. In response, two interrelated concepts have been launched: Nature Needs Half (NNH) and Half Earth116. It has been argued that with half the global area protected, at least, 85% of all species would be secured. Based on a recent, extensive review of the literature117, “the global protection of a minimum of 30% and up to 70%, or even higher, of the land and sea on Earth” is required, with a “call for 50% as a mid-point” to avoid biodiversity loss and ensure ecosystem services for people, including carbon storage. The critical importance of intact, functional ecosystems to “avoid regime shifts” – or trajectories of the Earth System118 and tipping points119 - and “maintain keystone species” has been highlighted. The NNH/Half Earth perspective has already been used as a baseline for the safe operating space for global food production120. To ensure that climate targets are met while preventing species extinctions and the rapid erosion of biodiversity, it has been proposed to create a Global Deal for Nature121, a companion pact with the Paris Climate Agreement. Coupled with a transfer to renewable energy production, it is envisioned that a combination of protected areas and “Other Effective Area-based Conservation Measures” (OECM) - or Climate Stabilization Areas (CSAs), like high carbon and species richness corridors122 - has a real potential of realizing this vision. A first milestone of conserving at least 30% of the Earth’s surface by 2030 could serve as a valuable step towards the larger end target of half of the planet by 2050. However, since biodiversity is unevenly distributed on Earth, the global milestone and target need to be translated into smaller geographical entities – ecoregions – while also taking into account other factors such as the rarest, most range-limited species, and intact ecosystems connectivity between key conservation areas. Some regions, especially the Amazon, Congo Basin, Southeast Asia, boreal forests and tundra, need much more under protection to sustain species and ecological processes and to avoid biospheric feedback from release of GHGs after conversion. It has even been argued that the only way of enabling a climate-resilient future is to implement a fast-track, 50% protection and restoration of all-natural habitats by 2030123! Recognizing the challenges of local implementation of global targets, the IUCN “Beyond the Aichi Targets Task Force”124 has developed an enabling framework consisting of three global conditions, the 3Cs125. The 3Cs framework evaluates land-use drivers and human pressures to establish a baseline state of three broad terrestrial conditions: Cities and Farms cover 18% of land (C1), Shared Lands 56% (C2), and Large Wild Areas 26% (C3). It maps all but Antarctica and THE STORY OF OUR FUTURE — THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION. THE WILD11 JAIPUR DECLARATION.

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enables development of suites of conservation responses and production practices appropriate for each condition that are clustered on a continuum from those appropriate to the most heavily impacted areas to those best suited to the wildest areas remaining on Earth. These include: • C  1, Cities & Farms: Increase conservation efforts to secure endangered species and protect all remaining primary ecosystem fragments. Mainstream sustainable practices such as protecting good farmland, practicing productive regenerative agriculture, and keeping nitrogen out of freshwater. Maintain pollinators and increase ecological restoration. Green cities to reduce carbon emissions, prevent urban sprawl, and provide access to nature for urban dwellers’ health and well-being. • C  2, Shared Lands: Establish “ecologically representative and well-connected systems of protected areas (PAs)” while increasing coverage of Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs); restore and maintain ecological processes and viable populations of native species (ensure area protected is in the range of 25-75% per ecoregion). Across landscapes integrate sustainable natural resource extraction and activities such as tourism, grazing and use of wildlife (where appropriate and sustainable) with Indigenous knowledge and well-managed, equitable and properly funded PA networks. • C  3, Large Wild Areas: Retain overall ecological integrity and associated global processes such as carbon storage and rainfall generation, fluvial flows and large migrations; prevent further fragmentation allowing only rare nodes of intense industrial development enveloped in a largely wild matrix. Remove and restore anomalies. Establish large PAs and Indigenous and community conserved areas. Secure Indigenous knowledge and livelihoods.

PROPOSED TARGETS: 6.1 Adopt the Half Earth/Nature Needs Half concept as a minimum global aspiration for the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD): WE CALL on the Parties to the CBD to recognize the Half Earth/Nature Needs Half perspective as core aspiration to avoid biodiversity loss and ensure ecosystem services for people, including carbon storage in the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework126, consisting of a combination of protected areas and Other Effective Area-based Conservation Measures (OECM) covering both land and sea. The Three Global Conditions (3Cs) framework could facilitate implementation on land while a complementary system for the marine environment needs to be developed, taking into account the concepts of EEZs and the High Seas.

6.2 Adopt the concept of Climate Stabilization Areas as a core, joint concept for the future work on biodiversity and climate emergency: WE CALL on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) to identify Climate Stabilization Areas (CSAs) in the THE STORY OF OUR FUTURE — THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION. THE WILD11 JAIPUR DECLARATION.

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terrestrial and marine ecosystems across the world, like high carbon and species richness corridors, and develop a plan for their protection, with joint CBD/UNFCCC responsibilities. Sustainable Development Goals relevance:

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EMPOWER INDIGENOUS PEOPLES 7. Recognize the key and irreplaceable role of Indigenous People Rationale: With tenure rights of at least 38 million km2 in 87 countries, the territories of the world’s 370 million Indigenous Peoples and communities cover a quarter of the land worldwide, intersects with 40% of all land-based protected areas and ecologically intact landscapes127, and contain an estimated 80% of the world’s biodiversity128. Also, the greatest diversity of Indigenous Peoples coincides with the world’s largest tropical forest wilderness areas in the Americas (including the Amazon), Africa, and Asia. However, Indigenous Peoples and communities legally own only 11% of the world forestlands. Indigenous Peoples often live in regions particularly affected by climate breakdown, such as polar regions, humid tropical forests, high mountains, small islands, coastal regions, and arid and semi-arid lands129. Their economic, social and cultural activities also depend on renewable natural resources that are most at risk to climate variability and extremes, making them particularly vulnerable. Besides being guardians of their collective lands, waters and territories for millennia, Indigenous Peoples have exceptional place-based knowledge systems of how to care for and manage these territories and areas, which is of high relevance and value for climate change adaptation130. However, peoples are also on the frontlines of extreme weather and climate changes and their practices are struggling to keep up with the rapid changes underway, such as melting permafrost, retreating sea ice and major shifts in wildlife behavior and ecology131. The tragic reality is the mortal dangers Indigenous Peoples’ communities and their leaders face when defending their territories against unwanted – and often illegal – industrial activities. In the last 15 years, assassinations of environmental defenders have increased by 100%, to at least 4 per week, most of them Indigenous and community leaders132. They also face a spectrum of forms of criminalization and harassment133. THE STORY OF OUR FUTURE — THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION. THE WILD11 JAIPUR DECLARATION.

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Unfortunately, Indigenous Peoples have also struggled to get their voice heard in the international process of the UNFCCC134. In response, an International Indigenous Peoples’ Forum on Climate Change (IIPFCC) has been formed135 “to strengthen the knowledge, technologies, practices, and efforts of local communities and Indigenous Peoples related to addressing and responding to climate change, to facilitate the exchange of experience and the sharing of best practices and lessons learned on mitigation and adaptation in a holistic and integrated manner and to enhance the engagement of local communities and Indigenous Peoples in the UNFCCC process”. A formal “facilitative Local Communities and Indigenous Peoples Platform, LCIPP ”136, half of which are representatives of Parties, and half of which are representatives from Indigenous Peoples organizations, was formed at COP 24 in Krakow, December 2018, to assist with knowledge, capacity for engagement, and climate change policies and actions under the UNFCCC. This convergence of biodiversity-significant areas, climate change frontlines and Indigenous territories presents the unique opportunity to address several essential needs: • To further unite and greatly strengthen the combined forces of Indigenous self-determination and self-governance and contemporary conservation to better combat the increasing onslaught of industrial development that is a common adversary to both these movements; • T  o support existing and expand efforts to conserve and restore biodiversity and nature beyond protected areas and, in so doing, work cooperatively with Indigenous Peoples and communities to address structural and systemic issues of equality and justice; and • To more effectively address climate change.

PROPOSED TARGETS: 7.1 Give Peoples a strong and effective voice in safeguarding the planet: WE CALL on the world community to urgently strengthen the participation and influence of Indigenous Peoples in the political processes regarding climate change (UNFCCC) and biodiversity (CBD), as well as other decision-making processes that affect them such as the UN negotiations towards a binding instrument on transnational corporations and human rights137. As part of those mandates, it is essential to recognize the fundamental rights of Indigenous Peoples as stipulated by the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples – including the rights to self-determination and self-governance and to their collective lands, territories and resources138.

7.2 Strengthen the stewardship of land and sea by the Indigenous Peoples: At the international level WE CALL on Convention on Biological Diversity to strengthen co-management of nature through Indigenous Community Areas139 and Indigenous Protected Areas140.

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7.3 Create a formal role of Indigenous Peoples in the Global Environment Facility (GEF) Governing Structure: Based on the GEF Principles and Guidelines for Engagement with the Indigenous Peoples141, and in addition to the guidelines for “Representation of Civil Society and Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities to participate in GEF Council Meetings”142 invite representation of Indigenous Peoples on the GEF governance structures, e.g. Assembly (183 Member countries) and Council (32 constituencies:14 for developed countries, 16 for developing countries and 2 for economies in transition). Sustainable Development Goals relevance: WATER 6 CLEAN 13 CLIMATE & SANITATION ACTION

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REDUCE THREATS & PROVIDE CRITICAL FINANCIAL SUPPORT 8. Reduce the threat of industrial marine fisheries Rationale: Currently, 90% of fish stocks are used up – fully exploited, overexploited or depleted143. In a 118-years perspective144, the availability of bottom-living fish in UK waters has declined by 94% due to bottom trawling, indicating “that seabed ecosystems have undergone a profound reorganization since the industrialization of fishing and that commercial stocks of most bottom-living species, which once comprised an important component of marine ecosystems, collapsed long ago”. In a longer-term, historical perspective, the decline and change of marine ecosystems due to overfishing is even larger145. This has also resulted in a complete change of the carbon budget of the oceans146. Sea shelf sediments, which are severely negatively impacted by industrial fisheries, provide an example. Globally147, bottom trawling impacts up to 75% of continental shelf sediments with almost 20 million km2 of sediments subject to trawling once or more per annum. Bottom trawling affects sedimentary carbon storage through re-mineralization of the re-suspended sedimentary organic carbon, altering the depth and rate of organic carbon burial and by changing seabed communities. Repeated trawling in the north-western Mediterranean148 has already caused a reduction in organic carbon storage in the top 10cm of sediments of up to 52%. Fishing down marine food webs149 results in a decline of top-predators and late-maturing species and the THE STORY OF OUR FUTURE — THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION. THE WILD11 JAIPUR DECLARATION.

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increase of small-sized species populations. Besides having serious, negative impacts on the sustainability of fisheries with stagnating or declining catches, this also affects profoundly the marine vertebrate carbon services150 and the role of wildlife in animating the carbon cycle151. Ecological extinction caused by overfishing precedes all other pervasive human disturbance to marine ecosystems, including pollution, degradation of water quality, and – until now – anthropogenic climate change152. “To reverse fishery declines, safeguard marine life and sustain ecosystem processes, extensive marine reserves that are off limits to fishing must become part of the management strategy”153. Only complete and permanent protection from fishing can protect the most sensitive habitats and vulnerable species. Fishery management measures outside protected areas – such as prohibition of the most damaging equipment, areas closed to particular equipment, precautionary quotas, by-catch quotas, and modification of fishing equipment and practices to reduce the collateral damage of fishing - are necessary to complement the protection offered by marine reserves but cannot substitute for it. A way forward is to close down fisheries in the high seas, which potentially could give rise to large gains in fisheries profit (>100%) and fisheries yields (>30%) in the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ), and better fish stock conservation (>150%)154. The currently negotiated marine treaty, which is an international legally binding instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction155, is a once in a generation opportunity to give that necessary protection to high seas wildlife; if we fail to take that opportunity now, by the time it next comes up, maybe 20, 30 years from now, it will be too late for many species156. By removing fisheries from the high seas, we would eliminate one of the major threats to 95% of the habitat occupied by life on Earth157!

PROPOSED TARGETS: 8.1 Exclude fisheries from the high seas: To ensure more healthy, functional oceans beyond national jurisdiction, covering 60% of the Earth’s surface, without the devastating impact of industrial fisheries, WE CALL on United Nations Convention on the Law of the Seas (UNCLOS) to introduce a complete fishing ban as part of the new treaty agreed under UNCLOS, which also could give rise to large gains in fisheries yields in national waters;

8.2 Establish marine protected areas and no-take fishing zones covering half of the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ): Based on the known fast recovery of fish stocks and the entire marine ecosystem as a result of excluding fisheries in marine protected areas and no-take zones – or replenishment zones158 – and the urgent need for protecting coastal waters, which harbor a substantial proportion of all known marine life on Earth, WE CALL on all coastal governments to protect half of the coastal areas under their jurisdiction against fishing. This would allow a replenishment of overall fish THE STORY OF OUR FUTURE — THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION. THE WILD11 JAIPUR DECLARATION.

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stocks, which currently are under severe pressure from industrial fisheries as well as protect critical blue carbon habitats159 for global climate carbon balance, such as mangroves, seagrass areas, saltmarshes and sea shelf sediments. Sustainable Development Goals relevance:

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9. Reduce the threat of industrial, chemicalized and nonorganic agriculture Rationale: The environmental impact of the world’s current food production is tremendous160. Industrial agriculture - chemicalized, non-organic, unsustainable practices that destroy biodiversity - accounts for 75% of the ecological damage done to the planet161. Agriculture uses 70% of all freshwater withdrawals globally, and up to 95% in several developing countries – an important cause for the disappearance of wetlands and falling water tables worldwide. Largescale commercial agriculture causes 40% of forest conversion in the tropics and subtropics. A third of the Earth’s soil is acutely degraded due to agriculture, leading to decreasing productivity on 20% of the world’s cropland, 16% of forest land, 19% of grasslands, and 27% of rangelands162. Agrochemical residues have contaminated our environment and poisoned human food163, with dramatic impacts on people and nature. With nearly one billion suffering from hunger and malnutrition, two billion exposed to obesity and diabetes, and countless others suffering from diseases caused by the poisons in our food, food production is considered the single biggest health problem in the world164. Industrial farming is the leading factor behind the eutrophication of inland water, coastal areas and land ecosystems165, with a tripling of phosphorus levels and doubling of reactive nitrogen in the environment compared to natural levels166. Food production is responsible for up to 30% of the global GHG emissions167. All these facts have led to the conclusion that food production (including fisheries) is the single most important driver of biodiversity loss168 and cause of environmental change worldwide169. Unfortunately, the awareness of the food sector threat to nature is generally very low among consumers and the general public across most countries170. All our food originates in nature, although very few plant and animal species constitute the main parts of current global food production. Rice, maize and wheat provide close to 50% of all calories consumed and in marine capture fisheries 10 species account for 30%171. The reliance on a small number of species means that the main food production is very vulnerable to disease outbreaks, biodiversity loss and climate breakdown, but there are interesting opportunities to diversify and create a more robust food base in the future172. Only 30% of the food we eat comes from large-scale industrial farms; the other 70% comes from small-scale farmers working on small plots of land173. THE STORY OF OUR FUTURE — THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION. THE WILD11 JAIPUR DECLARATION.

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Agroecology, anchored in the integration of ecological and social principles and with the emphasis on farming in harmony with natural cycles and processes174, is seen as the future of farming worldwide. This would reduce GHG emissions and all other negative impacts of current industrial agriculture, such as soil degradation and erosion, water withdrawals, forest conversion, pollution from agrochemicals, etc. A study in Europe175 demonstrates the feasibility of going green by maximizing the use of ecological processes and the adoption of healthier diets. Besides supporting biodiversity in Europe by creating more diverse agricultural landscapes with much more semi-natural habitats, closing nutrient cycles reduces eutrophication of inland waters and coastal regions, like the Baltic Sea. The report also recommends a “stop to importing tropical deforestation” by “phasing out vegetable protein import” for livestock raising.  In a study on the environmental impact of food globally, it was found that meat and dairy provide just 18% of calories and 37% of protein and uses the vast majority – 83% – of farmland and produces 60% of agriculture’s greenhouse gas emissions176. This and other studies, therefore, conclude: “avoiding meat and dairy is the single biggest way to reduce your impact on Earth”177. Together with a list of complementary measures, such as an increase in food production efficiency by 75%, radical improvement of the use of water and fertilizers (nitrogen & phosphorus), increase of high-quality output, reduction of food loss and waste by 50%, and mitigating climate impacts, it has been shown that the adoption of a “Planetary Health Diet” could put the world on a sustainable path for global food production without jeopardizing biodiversity and climate change, with a Half Earth/Nature Needs Half perspective identified as a global benchmark178. Such a transformation would require a 50% reduction in global consumption of unhealthy foods such as red meat and sugar, and a greater than 100% increase in consumption of healthy foods, such as nuts, fruits, vegetables, and legumes. However, the changes needed differ greatly by region. Such dietary changes would substantially benefit human health and meet the needs of a global population of 10 billion people forecasted for 2050. Dietary changes could free-up several million square kilometers of land, and with a no animal-source food, global CO2 emissions could be reduced by up to eight billion tons per year, which corresponds to more than 20% of the current level of human GHGs emissions179.

PROPOSED TARGETS: 9.1 Transition from an industrial farm production system to agroecology: Applying the agroecological principles for farming, undertake a “Great Food Transformation”180, and reorient farming from producing large quantities to high quality, healthy food, WE CALL on the world community to sustainably intensify food production, and halve food loss and waste, always with a Half Earth/Nature Needs Half perspective included, and make sure to stay below a 1.5°C rise in average global temperature.

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9.2 Adopt a Planetary Health Diet: As part of the Great Food Transformation, and for meeting the UN Sustainable Development Goals, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Paris Agreement and targets agreed by the Convention on Biological Diversity, WE CALL on the world community to urgently move towards the benchmarks set for the universal healthy reference diet – the Planetary Health Diet, with specificities for each country and region; Sustainable Development Goals relevance:

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10. Turn harmful subsidies for unsustainable farming, fishing and fossil fuels into true services for people and the planet Rationale: “A subsidy - or government incentive - is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy181, thereby helping people achieve a certain standard of living.” Governments around the world allocate hundreds of billions of dollars in subsidies for energy, agriculture and fishing. With a total of at least US$ 939 billion (energy sector US$ 400 billion182, agriculture US$ 504183, fisheries US$ 35 billion184), this amounts to about 1% of the global economy (value of around US$ 86 trillion185), but it could be much more, since many governments are not transparent about their subsidies total support levels186. Subsidies are very expensive for governments and they cause inefficiencies in production or the misuse and over-use of resources187. Arguably, they adversely affect the functioning of global markets by creating perverse incentives leading to inefficient and unsustainable patterns of resource allocation, especially in the absence of adequate environmental regulation. Subsidies can be directly detrimental, or harmful, to society. They contribute to the destruction of the environment and the over-exploitation of natural resources and exacerbate inequitable outcomes: producers in poor countries may have to face unfair competition from producers in wealthier countries who are subsidized 188. Just 15% of the US$700 billion a year given to farmers is used to benefit the environment189. Environmental problems which have been associated with subsidized agriculture and fisheries include the promotion of high-emission cattle production, forest destruction, pollution from the overuse of fertilizer, and overfishing. In 2018, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, UNCTAD190 warned that “fisheries subsidies must stop” - which in 2018

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amounted to US$ 35 billion191 - since “90% of the fish stocks are used up”. The Sustainable Development Goals 14.6 target192 recommends “by 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, and eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing, and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the WTO fisheries subsidies negotiation.” Currently, around 60% of fisheries subsidies – or 22.2 billion out of 35.4 billion annually – are used for capacity enhancing measures193. In particular, the subsidies for fossil fuels have actually increased as a proportion of total subsidies. Subsidies are not in themselves needed to ensure affordable food, and the cost of the damage currently caused by industrial agriculture and fishing is higher than the value of the food produced194. The damaging way the world currently produces food and uses land and sea causes $12 trillion a year in hidden costs to the environment, human health and development. Producing healthy, sustainable food would actually cut food prices, as the condition of the land and sea improves. By phasing out subsidy regimes driving agriculture expansion (incl. biofuel mandates) and redirecting $300-350 billion per year of the perverse subsidies could free up 1.2 billion hectares of land for restoration of natural ecosystems by 2050.195 According to International Monetary Fund, the fossil fuel sector is benefiting from global subsidies of $5.2 trillion a year196, based on a definition of subsidy that includes pricing that is too low to cover the full social costs, including air pollution and climate impacts. Such subsidies are inefficient, costly to governments and undermine clean alternatives. To end the fossil fuel subsidies was one of the four demands of the UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres to be undertaken by governments ahead of the UN Climate Action Summit in New York, 23 September 2019197. Just 10-30% of the fossil fuel subsidies could pay for a global transition to clean energy198. Currently, governments are allocating only $100 billion in subsidies annually for renewable energy production. The subsidy swap concept could not only make the clean energy revolution possible but also save taxpayers’ money for other priorities, such jobs, public health and gender equality199. There are opportunities for higher-impact swaps by supporting largescale on-grid renewables and implementing mechanisms that mobilize private finance into clean energy projects. And it’s already happening. India, for example, petroleum product subsidies have fallen dramatically since 2014, while funds for renewable energy increased by over 300%, contributing to the development of leading wind and solar industries. However, the reform of subsidies alone is not enough to meet global emissions targets, it is a good first step. Ultimately, the cost of each energy source should reflect its social and environmental impacts. That means increasing taxes on dirty energy and redirecting subsidies to align with the renewable alternatives. Food systems depend on biodiversity and the ecosystem services that support agricultural productivity, soil fertility, and water quality and supply. Various estimates have been provided for the cost of halting human-induced extinctions and safeguarding important sites for biodiversity. In 2012, a CBD assessment concluded it would cost US$ 150–430 billion per year between 2013 and 2020 to meet all the Aichi targets200, which constitutes 0.002 to 0.008% of global THE STORY OF OUR FUTURE — THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION. THE WILD11 JAIPUR DECLARATION.

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GDP201. However, the confidence in the estimates varies greatly between the different targets, and many of the targets are interrelated and interdependent such that the approach, resourcing and effectiveness of the delivery of one target will often be influenced by the investment in others. It is concluded that although significant national and international investments will be required to meet the targets, evidence from other studies indicates that the scale of the benefits to the economy and society significantly outweigh the costs. There is a need for increasing the annual biodiversity conservation cost worldwide from the current US$ 4-10 billion annually to US$ 100 billion202. A reallocation of about 10% of the current subsidies for energy production (most of that from the fossil fuel sector), agriculture and fisheries --the main drivers for negative climate and biodiversity impacts --could lead us a long way towards financing a healthier planet! In the Strategy of the United Nations Decade on Ecosystem Restoration203, the need for “redirecting fossil fuel, agricultural and fishing subsidies to conservation and ecosystem restoration” has been identified. If government also instituted programs to pay for nature resource use in sectors like seafood, agribusiness and forest products204, and grant secure tenure, this could support Indigenous Peoples and communities to defend their collective lands and territories against industrial threats.

PROPOSED TARGETS: 10.1 Reallocate harmful subsidies towards the protection and restoration of the planet: As part of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Post-2020 Global Diversity Framework, WE CALL on the Parties to agree on a target to allocate US$ 100 billion annually to the protection and restoration of nature, where the financing mainly should come from reallocated harmful subsidies from the fossil fuel, industrial agriculture and industrial fisheries sectors. As part of the financing, taxes on natural resource use in the seafood, agribusiness and forest product sectors should also be considered.

10.2 Reallocate fossil fuel subsidies to renewable energy solutions: To stay at 1.5oC, fossil fuel emissions must be entirely phased out by 2050205, with the biggest reduction for coal (-95%), oil (-78%) and natural gas (-56%), WE CALL on the Parties of the UNFCCC Paris Agreement to agree and implement this transition. During this period basically all fossil fuel subsidies need to shift and support renewable energy solutions.

10.3 Phase out and reallocate harmful subsidies to fisheries: Based on the mandate fixed under the Ministerial Decision from the WTO’s 11th Ministerial Conference, and the UN Sustainable Development Goal Target 14.6, WE CALL on the WTO negotiators206 to secure an agreement in 2020 to eliminate subsidies to illegal unreported and unregulated fishing and for prohibiting certain forms of fisheries subsidies that contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, with special and differential treatment for developing and least-developed countries. At the national and local levels, governments should phase out THE STORY OF OUR FUTURE — THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION. THE WILD11 JAIPUR DECLARATION.

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harmful subsidies, using the savings to ensure a fair transition process that protects the most vulnerable communities and develops other types of support for sustainable fisheries, such as the protection and restoration of the marine environment through protected areas and/or notake, replenishment fishing zones. Such reform should include fuel subsidies, which also have negative climate change implications and are among the support types that are the most likely to lead to excessive fishing levels.

10.4 Subsidize the transition from industrial agriculture to agroecology systems: Every agriculture subsidy system must allocate a significant funds for the transition to an agroecological production system. One example is the proposal to shift 50% of the funding under the EU Common Agriculture Policy to Rural Development and primarily earmarked for an agroecology premium207. WE CALL on all national governments and international entities regulating farming subsidies (like the EU), to design and implement a transition from an industrial agricultural system to one based on agroecological principles. Sustainable Development Goals relevance:

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INTEGRATE POLITICAL ACTION – GLOBAL TREATY FOR NATURE 11. For a Stabilized Earth Pathway - Unify the political agendas for biodiversity and climate Rationale: At the Rio Earth Summit, three separate UN Conventions were created, on biodiversity, climate change, and desertification. Since that time, the inseparable linkages between climate change and biodiversity agendas and crises have been identified by both the UNFCCC208 and the CBD209. Both the UNFCCC and the CBD work in parallel on the inter-linkages. One example is the conclusion in the lead up process to the UN Climate Action Summit on 23 September 2019, that nature-based climate solutions “are a major part of the climate solution, as they are the most effective, long-term, cost-efficient and globally scalable approach to reduce greenhouse emissions”210. Another is the CBD, COP 14, November 2018, Decision 14/5, on biodiversity and climate change211, which recognizes “that climate change is a major and THE STORY OF OUR FUTURE — THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION. THE WILD11 JAIPUR DECLARATION.

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growing driver of biodiversity loss, and that biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services, significantly contribute to climate change adaptation, mitigation and disaster risk reduction”. The resilience of many ecosystems is likely to be exceeded this century by an unprecedented combination of habitat loss, pollution, over-exploitation of resources, climate breakdown and associated disturbances (e.g., flooding, drought, wildfire, insect outbreaks, ocean acidification)212. Over the course of this century, net carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems might peak before mid-century and then weaken or even reverse, thus amplifying climate change213. Overall, the uptake of carbon into Earth’s intact tropical forests already peaked in the 1990s, with a more rapid decline in the Amazon compared to the Congo Basin214. Given that the global terrestrial carbon sink is still increasing in size, independent observations indicate greater carbon uptake into the Northern Hemisphere landmass215. The escalating impact of multiple anthropogenic drivers on ecosystems may soon reach levels that in the past have triggered long-lasting global change. In some cases, we may have already passed unrecognized, so-called tipping points, with a trajectory to new systems216. Climate change is often a main driver of the change, but sometimes impacts like deforestation could trigger a tipping point. For the Amazon, it has been postulated that if just 20–25% of the rainforest were cut down, it could reach a tipping point at which the eastern, southern and central Amazonia would flip to a savannah-like ecosystem, especially in combination with forest fires and a drier climate217. For meeting the urgent needs of integration, and to put humanity on a “stabilized Earth pathway218, the UNFCCC and CBD must agree on common targets, actions, reporting, finance and outreach anchored in a joint narrative as proposed by the Climate Action Network International219. Maybe it’s time to consider establishing a new overarching Global Treaty for Nature220? A process assessing the options for a Global Pact for the Environment is already underway221. Ultimately, success depends on achieving integrated approaches to solving both crises!

PROPOSED TARGET: 11.1 Conclude a Global Treaty for Nature: To optimize implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) and other related global and regional instruments, WE CALL on the United Nations to establish an overarching, supervisory Global Treaty for Nature ensuring that actions under the Paris Agreement of the UNFCCC and CBD are coherent,

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integrated and co-beneficial, taking into account target setting, investments, technical guidance, enabling conditions, work programs, and monitoring/reporting. In view of the urgency of the biodiversity and climate crises, the negotiations for such a treaty should commence and be completed as a matter of priority, using the already started discussions on a Global Pact for the Environment. Sustainable Development Goals relevance:

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ENDNOTES 1 https://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/index.html 2 http://web.unep.org/environmentassembly/un-special-rapporteur-human-rights-and-environment 3 http://web.unep.org/environmentassembly/un-special-rapporteur-human-rights-and-environment 4 http://web.unep.org/environmentassembly/un-special-rapporteur-human-rights-and-environment 5 https://www.un.org/en/sections/un-charter/un-charter-full-text/ 6 https://www.un.org/en/un75 7 https://www.un.org/esa/forests/events/un-general-assembly-75th-session/index.html 8 https://www.unenvironment.org/explore-topics/sustainable-development-goals 9 https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-07183-6 10 https://primaryforest.org/intacts-statement-of-principles/ 11 https://www.ramsar.org/sites/default/files/documents/library/bn7e_0.pdf 12 https://conbio.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/conl.12692 13 https://www.oneearth.org/the-one-earth-climate-model/ 14 https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/ffgc.2019.00027/full 15 https://www.nature.com/articles/nature12914 16 https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/ffgc.2019.00027/full 17 https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/ffgc.2019.00027/full 18 https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.5822/978-1-61091-891-6_14 19 https://academic.oup.com/nsr/article/6/6/1080/5567446 20 https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/10/eaax2546 21 https://www.nature.com/articles/nclimate2918 22 https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/10/eaax2546/tab-pdf 23 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1567-7#disqus_thread 24 https://www.nature.com/articles/sdata2017187.pdf 25 https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-07183-6 26 https://www.cbd.int/api/v2013/documents/E79D8AF0-98D0-E568-1571-een further2B91F9FAACD7/attachments/WCS. pdf 27 https://www.cbd.int/decisions/cop/?m=cop-14 28 https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/903.pdf 29 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1877343517302828 30 h  ttps://www.bfn.de/fileadmin/BfN/ina/Dokumente/Tagungsdoku/2020/ Workshop_report_Quality_metrics_for_protected_and_conserved_areas_BF.pdf 31 https://www.iucncongress2020.org/motion/041 32 For example: https://conbio.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/conl.12692 33 https://www.greenclimate.fund 34 https://www.iucncongress2020.org/motion/041 35 «  States shall cooperate in a spirit of global partnership to conserve, protect and restore the health and integrity of the Earth’s ecosystem»: https://www.jus.uio.no/lm/environmental.development.rio.declaration.1992/7.html 36 https://www.un.org/press/en/2019/sea2118.doc.htm 37 https://wwf.panda.org/wwf_news/?282370/Living-Planet-Report-2016 38 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1111-9 39 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1111-9 40 https://www.internationalrivers.org/sites/default/files/attached-files/damremovalbrochure.pdf 41 https://www.elementascience.org/articles/10.1525/elementa.211/ 42 https://www.unece.org/info/media/presscurrent-press-h/environment/2020/world-water-day-2020-how-water-andclimate-change-are-inextricably-linked-and-how-unece-instruments-help/doc.html 43 https://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/transboundary_waters.shtml 44 https://www.unece.org/env/water.html 45 https://legal.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/conventions/8_3_1997.pdf 46 https://www.ecologicalcitizen.net/pdfs/v02n2-13.pdf 47 https://www.internationalrivers.org/campaigns/the-rights-of-rivers 48 https://www.internationalrivers.org/solutions 49 https://www.internationalrivers.org/campaigns/dam-removal 50 https://www.living-rivers.eu/about-us

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51 https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms10122 52 https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/pdf/10.1098/rstb.2017.0433 53 https://rewilding.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/RewildingBiod.pdf 54 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332669996_Rewilding_complex_ecosystems 55 https://www.peaceparks.org/watch-rewilding-africa-a-journey-of-a-thousand-animals/# 56 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/ece3.1287 57 https://rewildingaustralia.org.au 58 https://rewildingeurope.com 59 http://www.proyectoibera.org/en/download/boletines/newsletter_rewilding_3.pdf 60 https://rewilding.org 61 https://www.unenvironment.org/news-and-stories/press-release/ new-un-decade-ecosystem-restoration-offers-unparalleled-opportunity 62 When it comes to international institutions in the climate change field where the rewilding concept is applicable, see section 5; 63 https://www.decadeonrestoration.org/partners 64 https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/30919/UNDecade.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y 65 https://www.bonnchallenge.org/content/challenge 66 https://www.thegef.org/sites/default/files/publications/gef_beyond_numbers_august_2019.pdf 67 https://rewildingeurope.com/news/bank-on-nature-european-investment-bank-boosts-rewilding-europe-capital/ 68 https://www.globalcarbonproject.org/carbonbudget/19/files/GCP_CarbonBudget_2019.pdf 69 https://www.nature.com/articles/ngeo2882 70 https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/6_lequere13sed2.pdf 71 http://www.fao.org/3/i1880e/i1880e00.htm 72 h  ttps://www.globalforestwatch.org/?map=eyJkYXRhc2V0cyI6W3siZGF0YXNldCI6ImZkYzhkYzFiLTI3MjgtNGE3OS1iMjNmLWIwOTQ4NTA1MmI4ZCIsImxheWVycyI6WyI2ZjY3OThlNi0zOWVjLTQxNjMtOTc5ZS0xODJhzRjYTY1ZWUiLCJjNWQxZTAxMC0zODNhLTQ3MTMtOWFhYS00NGY3MjhjMDU3MWMiXSwib3BhY2l0eSI6MSwidmlzaWJpbGl0eSI6dHJ1ZX1dfQ%3D%3D 73 https://www.nature.com/articles/srep04062 74 https://www.oceanfdn.org/sites/default/files/FishCarbon.pdf 75 https://bradfordlab.files.wordpress.com/2013/10/schmitz-et-al-2013-ecosystems.pdf 76 https://www.oceanfdn.org/sites/default/files/FishCarbon.pdf 77 https://www.oceanfdn.org/sites/default/files/FishCarbon.pdf 78 https://www.int-res.com/articles/theme/m512p155.pdf 79 h  ttps://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/11/whales-carbon-capture-climate-change/?utm_source=sfmc&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=2707520_Agenda_weekly-6December2019-20191204_094335&utm_term=&emailType=Newsletter 80 https://www.oceanfdn.org/sites/default/files/FishCarbon.pdf 81 https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2019/12/natures-solution-to-climate-change-chami.htm 82 h  ttps://www.cell.com/trends/ecology-evolution/fulltext/S0169-5347(16)30137-9?_returnURL=https%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS0169534716301379%3Fshowall%3Dtrue 83 https://bradfordlab.files.wordpress.com/2013/10/schmitz-et-al-2013-ecosystems.pdf 84 h  ttp://www.greenpeace.to/greenpeace/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Carbon-in-Marine-Ecosystems-TechnicalReport-March-2017-GRL-TRR-03-2017.pdf 85 https://www.oceanfdn.org/sites/default/files/FishCarbon.pdf 86 https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/grl.50710 87 https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rstb.2017.0440 88 https://www.un.org/en/climatechange/un-climate-summit-2019.shtml 89 h  ttp://wedocs.unep.org/xmlui/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/29705/190825NBSManifesto. pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y 90 https://www.pnas.org/content/114/44/11645 91 UNEP Emissions Gap Report 2019 (https://www.unenvironment.org/interactive/emissions-gap-report/2019/) 92 https://d2ouvy59p0dg6k.cloudfront.net/downloads/wwf_1_5c_position_paper___carbon_dioxide_removal_including_ carbon_sequestration_in_natur_1.pdf 93 https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-030-05843-2 94 https://www.globalcarbonproject.org/carbonbudget/19/files/GCP_CarbonBudget_2019.pd, With a conversion rate of 1 GT = 3.664 GtCO2; 95 See: Global Forest Watch database; 96 https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-01026-8 97 https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/ffgc.2019.00027/full THE STORY OF OUR FUTURE — THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION. THE WILD11 JAIPUR DECLARATION.

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147 https://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/111/24/8861.full.pdf 148 https://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/111/24/8861.full.pdf 149 https://science.sciencemag.org/content/279/5352/860 150 https://www.oceanfdn.org/sites/default/files/FishCarbon.pdf 151 https://bradfordlab.files.wordpress.com/2013/10/schmitz-et-al-2013-ecosystems.pdf 152 https://science.sciencemag.org/content/293/5530/629.long 153 https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/abs/10.1098/rstb.2004.1578 154 https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1001826 155 https://www.un.org/press/en/2019/sea2118.doc.htm 156 https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=714214905642041 157  https://www.un.org/depts/los/global_reporting/8th_adhoc_2017/Technical_Abstract_on_the_Conservation_and_ Sustainable_Use_of_marine_Biological_Diversity_of_Areas_Beyond_National_Jurisdiction.pdf 158  https://appliedecology.cals.ncsu.edu/absci/wp-content/uploads/Review-of-the-Benefits-of-No-Take-Zones_Final. pdf 159 https://www.thebluecarboninitiative.org 160 http://www.fao.org/3/CA2227EN/ca2227en.pdf 161 Vandana Shiva, “Who really feeds the world?”, Zed Books Ltd, 2015 162 https://knowledge.unccd.int/sites/default/files/2018-06/GLO%20English_Executive_Summary.pdf 163 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/fes3.108 164 Vandana Shiva, “Who really feeds the world?”, Zed Books Ltd, 2015 165 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749199000913 166 https://www.wri.org/blog/2012/08/how-food-production-impacts-water-quality 167 https://www.nature.com/news/one-third-of-our-greenhouse-gas-emissions-come-from-agriculture-1.11708 168 https://wwf.panda.org/our_work/food/ 169 https://www.thelancet.com/commissions/EAT 170  http://awsassets.panda.org/downloads/wwf___we_don_t_know_but_we_do_care___understanding_public_awareness_of_the_food_system_s_1.pdf 171 http://www.fao.org/3/i9037en/i9037en.pdf 172 http://www.fao.org/3/CA3129EN/ca3129en.pdf 173 Vandana Shiva, “Who really feeds the world?”, Zed Books Ltd, 2015 174 http://files.panap.net/resources/Agroecology-PAN-International-Position-Paper-en.pdf 175 https://www.iddri.org/sites/default/files/PDF/Publications/Catalogue%20Iddri/Etude/201809-ST0918EN-tyfa.pdf 176 https://science.sciencemag.org/content/360/6392/987 177  https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/may/31/avoiding-meat-and-dairy-is-single-biggest-way-to-reduce-your-impact-on-earth?CMP=share_btn_link 178 https://www.thelancet.com/commissions/EAT 179 https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2019/08/Edited-SPM_Approved_Microsite_FINAL.pdf 180 https://www.thelancet.com/commissions/EAT 181 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subsidy 182 https://www.iea.org/topics/energy-subsidies 183 https://data.oecd.org/agrpolicy/agricultural-support.htm 184 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X19303677 185 https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD 186 https://www.iisd.org/gsi/ 187 https://www.iisd.org/gsi/ 188 https://www.cbd.int/financial/fiscalenviron/g-subsidyperverse-iucn.pdf 189 https://www.foodandlandusecoalition.org/global-report/ 190 https://unctad.org/en/pages/newsdetails.aspx?OriginalVersionID=1812 191 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X19303677 192 https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/rulesneg_e/fish_e/fish_e.htm 193  https://www.openchannels.org/sites/default/files/literature/updated_estimates_and_analysis_of_global_fisheries_ subsidies.pdf 194 https://www.foodandlandusecoalition.org/global-report/ 195 https://www.foodandlandusecoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/FOLU-GrowingBetter-GlobalReport.pdf 196  https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WP/Issues/2019/05/02/ Global-Fossil-Fuel-Subsidies-Remain-Large-An-Update-Based-on-Country-Level-Estimates-46509 197  https://unclimatesummit.org/?gclid=CjwKCAjw2qHsBRAGEiwAMbPoDM1Xz-gWT4mmBaU2JdME6URaoitxmqTMIGVeNvVaX72VPFA49vG2JhoCA_cQAvD_BwE 198 https://www.iisd.org/gsi/news-events/reforming-subsidies-could-help-pay-clean-energy-revolution-report THE STORY OF OUR FUTURE — THE SURVIVAL REVOLUTION. THE WILD11 JAIPUR DECLARATION.

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199 https://www.iisd.org/gsi/news-events/reforming-subsidies-could-help-pay-clean-energy-revolution-report 200 https://www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/fin/hlpgar-sp-01/official/hlpgar-sp-01-01-report-en.pdf 201 https://blog.conservation.org/2014/10/the-global-cost-of-protecting-biodiversity-less-than-you-think/ 202 https://science.sciencemag.org/content/360/6388/486/tab-e-letters 203 https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/31813/ERDStrat.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y 204 https://science.sciencemag.org/content/360/6388/486/tab-e-letters 205 https://www.carbonbrief.org/in-depth-qa-ipccs-special-report-on-climate-change-at-one-point-five-c 206 https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/rulesneg_e/fish_e/fish_e.htm 207 http://www.ipes-food.org/pages/CommonFoodPolicy 208 https://unfccc.int/news/life-depends-on-climate-biodiversity-inextricable-link-let-s-defend-it 209 https://www.cbd.int/doc/publications/cbd-ts-89-en.pdf 210 https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/WP-Nature-Based-Solutions.pdf 211 https://www.cbd.int/decisions/cop/?m=cop-14 212 https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/03/ar4_wg2_full_report.pdf 213 https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/03/ar4_wg2_full_report.pdf 214 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2035-0 215 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2035-0 216 https://www.pnas.org/content/115/33/8252 217  https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-00508-4?utm_source=Nature+Briefing&utm_campaign=0e3dab548d-briefing-dy-20200226&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_c9dfd39373-0e3dab548d-44010177 218 https://www.pnas.org/content/115/33/8252 219 http://www.climatenetwork.org/publication/can-position-climate-and-biodiversity-june-2019 220 https://www.climatechangenews.com/2019/05/10/can-biodiversity-climate-crises-tackled-together/ 221 https://globalpact.informea.org

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Profile for WILD Foundation

The Story for Our Future  

WILD11, the 11th World Wilderness Congress, was scheduled for Jaipur India, 18-27 March 2020, but was indefinitely postponed in early March...

The Story for Our Future  

WILD11, the 11th World Wilderness Congress, was scheduled for Jaipur India, 18-27 March 2020, but was indefinitely postponed in early March...

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