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ISSN (ONLINE) : 2045 -8711 ISSN (ONLINE) : 2045 -8711 ISSN (PRINT) : 2045 -869X

ISSN (PRINT) : 2045 -869X

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY & CREATIVE ENGINEERING

Y 20 15 2016 MA AUGUST VOL-5 NO-5

VOL- 5 NO - 8

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.5 NO.5 MAY 2015

UK: Managing Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering 1a park lane, Cranford London TW59WA UK E-Mail: editor@ijitce.co.uk Phone: +44-773-043-0249 USA: Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering Dr. Arumugam Department of Chemistry University of Georgia GA-30602, USA. Phone: 001-706-206-0812 Fax:001-706-542-2626 India: Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology & Creative Engineering Dr. Arthanariee. A. M Finance Tracking Center India 66/2 East mada st, Thiruvanmiyur, Chennai -600041 Mobile: 91-7598208700

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.5 NO.5 MAY 2015

From Editor's Desk Dear Researcher, Greetings! Research article in this issue discusses about motivational factor analysis. Let us review research around the world this month. Artificially Reactivating Positive Memories Can Reverse Depression by artificially reactivating happy memories that were formed before the onset of depression, MIT neuroscientists have shown that they can cure the symptoms of depression in mice. The findings, described in the June 18 issue of Nature, offer a possible explanation for the success of psychotherapies in which depression patients are encouraged to recall pleasant experiences. They also suggest new ways to treat depression by manipulating the brain cells where memories are stored. The researchers believe this kind of targeted approach could have fewer side effects than most existing antidepressant drugs, which bathe the entire brain. Once you identify specific sites in the memory circuit which are not functioning well or whose boosting will bring a beneficial consequence, there is a possibility of inventing new medical technology where the improvement will be targeted to the specific part of the circuit, rather than administering a drug and letting that drug function everywhere in the brain. Image compression may be lossy or lossless. Lossless compression is preferred for archival purposes and often for medical imaging, technical drawings, clip art, or comics. Lossy compression methods, especially when used at low bit rates, introduce compression artifacts. Lossy methods are especially suitable for natural images such as photographs in applications where minor (sometimes imperceptible) loss of fidelity is acceptable to achieve a substantial reduction in bit rate. The lossy compression that produces imperceptible differences may be called visually lossless. Reducing the color space to the most common colors in the image. The selected colors are specified in the color palette in the header of the compressed image. It has been an absolute pleasure to present you articles that you wish to read. We look forward to many more new technologies related research articles from you and your friends. We are anxiously awaiting the rich and thorough research papers that have been prepared by our authors for the next issue.

Thanks, Editorial Team IJITCE

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Editorial Members Dr. Chee Kyun Ng Ph.D Department of Computer and Communication Systems, Faculty of Engineering,Universiti Putra Malaysia,UPMSerdang, 43400 Selangor,Malaysia. Dr. Simon SEE Ph.D Chief Technologist and Technical Director at Oracle Corporation, Associate Professor (Adjunct) at Nanyang Technological University Professor (Adjunct) at ShangaiJiaotong University, 27 West Coast Rise #08-12,Singapore 127470 Dr. sc.agr. Horst Juergen SCHWARTZ Ph.D, Humboldt-University of Berlin,Faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture,Asternplatz 2a, D-12203 Berlin,Germany Dr. Marco L. BianchiniPh.D Italian National Research Council; IBAF-CNR,Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015 MonterotondoScalo (RM),Italy Dr. NijadKabbaraPh.D Marine Research Centre / Remote Sensing Centre/ National Council for Scientific Research, P. O. Box: 189 Jounieh,Lebanon Dr. Aaron Solomon Ph.D Department of Computer Science, National Chi Nan University,No. 303, University Road,Puli Town, Nantou County 54561,Taiwan Dr. Arthanariee. A. M M.Sc.,M.Phil.,M.S.,Ph.D Director - Bharathidasan School of Computer Applications, Ellispettai, Erode, Tamil Nadu,India Dr. Takaharu KAMEOKA, Ph.D Professor, Laboratory of Food, Environmental & Cultural Informatics Division of Sustainable Resource Sciences, Graduate School of Bioresources,Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie, 514-8507, Japan Dr. M. Sivakumar M.C.A.,ITIL.,PRINCE2.,ISTQB.,OCP.,ICP. Ph.D. Project Manager - Software,Applied Materials,1a park lane,cranford,UK Dr. Bulent AcmaPh.D Anadolu University, Department of Economics,Unit of Southeastern Anatolia Project(GAP),26470 Eskisehir,TURKEY Dr. SelvanathanArumugamPh.D Research Scientist, Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, GA-30602,USA.

Review Board Members Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic& Ceramic Materials,CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Private Bag 33, Clayton South MDC 3169,Gate 5 Normanby Rd., Clayton Vic. 3168, Australia Dr. Zhiming Yang MD., Ph. D. Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Science,1550 Orleans Street Rm 441, Baltimore MD, 21231,USA Dr. Jifeng Wang Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois, 61801, USA Dr. Giuseppe Baldacchini ENEA - Frascati Research Center, Via Enrico Fermi 45 - P.O. Box 65,00044 Frascati, Roma, ITALY. Dr. MutamedTurkiNayefKhatib Assistant Professor of Telecommunication Engineering,Head of Telecommunication Engineering Department,Palestine Technical University (Kadoorie), TulKarm, PALESTINE.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.5 NO.5 MAY 2015 Dr.P.UmaMaheswari Prof &Head,Depaartment of CSE/IT, INFO Institute of Engineering,Coimbatore. Dr. T. Christopher, Ph.D., Assistant Professor &Head,Department of Computer Science,Government Arts College(Autonomous),Udumalpet, India. Dr. T. DEVI Ph.D. Engg. (Warwick, UK), Head,Department of Computer Applications,Bharathiar University,Coimbatore-641 046, India. Dr. Renato J. orsato Professor at FGV-EAESP,Getulio Vargas Foundation,São Paulo Business School,RuaItapeva, 474 (8° andar),01332-000, São Paulo (SP), Brazil Visiting Scholar at INSEAD,INSEAD Social Innovation Centre,Boulevard de Constance,77305 Fontainebleau - France Y. BenalYurtlu Assist. Prof. OndokuzMayis University Dr.Sumeer Gul Assistant Professor,Department of Library and Information Science,University of Kashmir,India Dr. ChutimaBoonthum-Denecke, Ph.D Department of Computer Science,Science& Technology Bldg., Rm 120,Hampton University,Hampton, VA 23688 Dr. Renato J. Orsato Professor at FGV-EAESP,Getulio Vargas Foundation,São Paulo Business SchoolRuaItapeva, 474 (8° andar),01332-000, São Paulo (SP), Brazil Dr. Lucy M. Brown, Ph.D. Texas State University,601 University Drive,School of Journalism and Mass Communication,OM330B,San Marcos, TX 78666 JavadRobati Crop Production Departement,University of Maragheh,Golshahr,Maragheh,Iran VineshSukumar (PhD, MBA) Product Engineering Segment Manager, Imaging Products, Aptina Imaging Inc. Dr. Binod Kumar PhD(CS), M.Phil.(CS), MIAENG,MIEEE HOD & Associate Professor, IT Dept, Medi-Caps Inst. of Science & Tech.(MIST),Indore, India Dr. S. B. Warkad Associate Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Priyadarshini College of Engineering, Nagpur, India Dr. doc. Ing. RostislavChoteborský, Ph.D. Katedramateriálu a strojírenskétechnologieTechnickáfakulta,Ceskázemedelskáuniverzita v Praze,Kamýcká 129, Praha 6, 165 21 Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic& Ceramic Materials,CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Private Bag 33, Clayton South MDC 3169,Gate 5 Normanby Rd., Clayton Vic. 3168 DR.ChutimaBoonthum-Denecke, Ph.D Department of Computer Science,Science& Technology Bldg.,HamptonUniversity,Hampton, VA 23688 Mr. Abhishek Taneja B.sc(Electronics),M.B.E,M.C.A.,M.Phil., Assistant Professor in the Department of Computer Science & Applications, at Dronacharya Institute of Management and Technology, Kurukshetra. (India). Dr. Ing. RostislavChotěborský,ph.d, Katedramateriálu a strojírenskétechnologie, Technickáfakulta,Českázemědělskáuniverzita v Praze,Kamýcká 129, Praha 6, 165 21

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.5 NO.5 MAY 2015 Dr. AmalaVijayaSelvi Rajan, B.sc,Ph.d, Faculty – Information Technology Dubai Women’s College – Higher Colleges of Technology,P.O. Box – 16062, Dubai, UAE Naik Nitin AshokraoB.sc,M.Sc Lecturer in YeshwantMahavidyalayaNanded University Dr.A.Kathirvell, B.E, M.E, Ph.D,MISTE, MIACSIT, MENGG Professor - Department of Computer Science and Engineering,Tagore Engineering College, Chennai Dr. H. S. Fadewar B.sc,M.sc,M.Phil.,ph.d,PGDBM,B.Ed. Associate Professor - Sinhgad Institute of Management & Computer Application, Mumbai-BangloreWesternly Express Way Narhe, Pune - 41 Dr. David Batten Leader, Algal Pre-Feasibility Study,Transport Technologies and Sustainable Fuels,CSIRO Energy Transformed Flagship Private Bag 1,Aspendale, Vic. 3195,AUSTRALIA Dr R C Panda (MTech& PhD(IITM);Ex-Faculty (Curtin Univ Tech, Perth, Australia))Scientist CLRI (CSIR), Adyar, Chennai - 600 020,India Miss Jing He PH.D. Candidate of Georgia State University,1450 Willow Lake Dr. NE,Atlanta, GA, 30329 Jeremiah Neubert Assistant Professor,MechanicalEngineering,University of North Dakota Hui Shen Mechanical Engineering Dept,Ohio Northern Univ. Dr. Xiangfa Wu, Ph.D. Assistant Professor / Mechanical Engineering,NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY SeraphinChallyAbou Professor,Mechanical& Industrial Engineering Depart,MEHS Program, 235 Voss-Kovach Hall,1305 OrdeanCourt,Duluth, Minnesota 55812-3042 Dr. Qiang Cheng, Ph.D. Assistant Professor,Computer Science Department Southern Illinois University CarbondaleFaner Hall, Room 2140-Mail Code 45111000 Faner Drive, Carbondale, IL 62901 Dr. Carlos Barrios, PhD Assistant Professor of Architecture,School of Architecture and Planning,The Catholic University of America Y. BenalYurtlu Assist. Prof. OndokuzMayis University Dr. Lucy M. Brown, Ph.D. Texas State University,601 University Drive,School of Journalism and Mass Communication,OM330B,San Marcos, TX 78666 Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic& Ceramic Materials CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Dr.Sumeer Gul Assistant Professor,Department of Library and Information Science,University of Kashmir,India Dr. ChutimaBoonthum-Denecke, Ph.D Department of Computer Science,Science& Technology Bldg., Rm 120,Hampton University,Hampton, VA 23688

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.5 NO.5 MAY 2015 Dr. Renato J. Orsato Professor at FGV-EAESP,Getulio Vargas Foundation,S찾o Paulo Business School,RuaItapeva, 474 (8째 andar)01332-000, S찾o Paulo (SP), Brazil Dr. Wael M. G. Ibrahim Department Head-Electronics Engineering Technology Dept.School of Engineering Technology ECPI College of Technology 5501 Greenwich Road Suite 100,Virginia Beach, VA 23462 Dr. Messaoud Jake Bahoura Associate Professor-Engineering Department and Center for Materials Research Norfolk State University,700 Park avenue,Norfolk, VA 23504 Dr. V. P. Eswaramurthy M.C.A., M.Phil., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Computer Science, Government Arts College(Autonomous), Salem-636 007, India. Dr. P. Kamakkannan,M.C.A., Ph.D ., Assistant Professor of Computer Science, Government Arts College(Autonomous), Salem-636 007, India. Dr. V. Karthikeyani Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Computer Science, Government Arts College(Autonomous), Salem-636 008, India. Dr. K. Thangadurai Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, Government Arts College ( Autonomous ), Karur - 639 005,India. Dr. N. Maheswari Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of MCA, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM University, Kattangulathur, Kanchipiram Dt - 603 203, India. Mr. Md. Musfique Anwar B.Sc(Engg.) Lecturer, Computer Science & Engineering Department, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Mrs. Smitha Ramachandran M.Sc(CS)., SAP Analyst, Akzonobel, Slough, United Kingdom. Dr. V. Vallimayil Ph.D., Director, Department of MCA, Vivekanandha Business School For Women, Elayampalayam, Tiruchengode - 637 205, India. Mr. M. Moorthi M.C.A., M.Phil., Assistant Professor, Department of computer Applications, Kongu Arts and Science College, India PremaSelvarajBsc,M.C.A,M.Phil Assistant Professor,Department of Computer Science,KSR College of Arts and Science, Tiruchengode Mr. G. Rajendran M.C.A., M.Phil., N.E.T., PGDBM., PGDBF., Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, Government Arts College, Salem, India. Dr. Pradeep H Pendse B.E.,M.M.S.,Ph.d Dean - IT,Welingkar Institute of Management Development and Research, Mumbai, India Muhammad Javed Centre for Next Generation Localisation, School of Computing, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland Dr. G. GOBI Assistant Professor-Department of Physics,Government Arts College,Salem - 636 007 Dr.S.Senthilkumar Post Doctoral Research Fellow, (Mathematics and Computer Science & Applications),UniversitiSainsMalaysia,School of Mathematical Sciences, Pulau Pinang-11800,[PENANG],MALAYSIA. Manoj Sharma Associate Professor Deptt. of ECE, PrannathParnami Institute of Management & Technology, Hissar, Haryana, India RAMKUMAR JAGANATHAN Asst-Professor,Dept of Computer Science, V.L.B Janakiammal college of Arts & Science, Coimbatore,Tamilnadu, India

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.5 NO.5 MAY 2015 Dr. S. B. Warkad Assoc. Professor, Priyadarshini College of Engineering, Nagpur, Maharashtra State, India Dr. Saurabh Pal Associate Professor, UNS Institute of Engg. & Tech., VBS Purvanchal University, Jaunpur, India Manimala Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Electronics and Instrumentation, St Joseph’s College of Engineering & Technology, Choondacherry Post, Kottayam Dt. Kerala -686579 Dr. Qazi S. M. Zia-ul-Haque Control Engineer Synchrotron-light for Experimental Sciences and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME),P. O. Box 7, Allan 19252, Jordan Dr. A. Subramani, M.C.A.,M.Phil.,Ph.D. Professor,Department of Computer Applications, K.S.R. College of Engineering, Tiruchengode - 637215 Dr. SeraphinChallyAbou Professor, Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Depart. MEHS Program, 235 Voss-Kovach Hall, 1305 Ordean Court Duluth, Minnesota 55812-3042 Dr. K. Kousalya Professor, Department of CSE,Kongu Engineering College,Perundurai-638 052 Dr. (Mrs.) R. Uma Rani Asso.Prof., Department of Computer Science, Sri Sarada College For Women, Salem-16, Tamil Nadu, India. MOHAMMAD YAZDANI-ASRAMI Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Babol"Noshirvani" University of Technology, Iran. Dr. Kulasekharan, N, Ph.D Technical Lead - CFD,GE Appliances and Lighting, GE India,John F Welch Technology Center,Plot # 122, EPIP, Phase 2,Whitefield Road,Bangalore – 560066, India. Dr. Manjeet Bansal Dean (Post Graduate),Department of Civil Engineering,Punjab Technical University,GianiZail Singh Campus,Bathinda -151001 (Punjab),INDIA Dr. Oliver Jukić Vice Dean for education,Virovitica College,MatijeGupca 78,33000 Virovitica, Croatia Dr. Lori A. Wolff, Ph.D., J.D. Professor of Leadership and Counselor Education,The University of Mississippi,Department of Leadership and Counselor Education, 139 Guyton University, MS 38677

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.5 NO.5 MAY 2015

Contents A Study on Spatial Domain and Transform Domain Steganography Techniques used in Image Hiding Dr. S.Sathappan & L.Baby Victoria ……………….……………………………….…………………………. [273]

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.5 NO.5 MAY 2015

A Study on Spatial Domain and Transform Domain Steganography Techniques used in Image Hiding L.Baby Victoria* Ph.D Research Scholar, Department of Computer Science, Erode Arts & Science College (Autonomous), Erode Email: victoriaerode@yahoo.co.in Dr.S.Sathappan Research Supervisor & Associate Professor Department of Computer Science, Erode Arts & Science College (Autonomous), Erode, Tamil Nadu, India. Email: devisathappan@yahoo.co.in Abstract— Steganography is the art of hiding a secret message within a larger one in such a way that an observer cannot detect the presence of contents of the hidden message. The Steganography used to transport information from one place to other place through public channel in covert way. Steganography hides the very existence of a message so that if successful it generally attracts no suspicion at all. Many different carrier file formats can be used, but digital images are the most popular because of their frequency on the Internet. The art of information hiding has received much attention in the recent years as security of information has become a big concern in this internet era. Steganography is a technology where modern data compression, information theory, spread spectrum, and cryptography technologies are brought together to satisfy the need for privacy on the Internet. This paper analyses the Spatial Domain and Transform Domain techniques of Steganography which are used for Image Hiding. Keywords— Steganography, Spatial Domain, Transform Domain, Image Hiding, DCT, DWT

1. INTRODUCTION Steganography is the art and science of invisible communication. It is accomplished by hiding information in other information, thus hiding the existence of the information. Steganography is derived from the Greek words “stegos” meaning “cover” and “grafia” meaning “writing” defining it as “covered writing”. The idea and practice of information hiding has a long past. In Histories the Greek historian Herodotus writes of a Nobleman, Histaeus, who needs to communicate with his son-in-law in Greece, has shaved the head of one of most trusted slave and tattooed the message onto the slave’s scalp. When the slave’s hair grew back he sends slave with the hidden message and when slave reaches to the destination again he shaved his scalp and retrieve the message [1]. In the Second World War the Germans introduces new data hiding technique which is known as Microdot technique. In this the information, like photographs, was reduced in size until it was the size of a typed period. It was Extremely difficult to detect a hidden information, a normal cover message was sent over an insecure channel with one of the periods on the paper containing hidden information[2].

Today Steganography is mostly used on computers with digital data being the carriers and networks being the high speed delivery channels. Although related to cryptography, they are not similar. Steganography's intent is to hide the existence of the message, while cryptography scrambles a message in such a way that it cannot be understood[3]. Steganography and cryptography are techniques used to protect information from unwanted parties but neither technology alone is perfect . Once the presence of hidden information is revealed or suspected, the reason of Steganography is partly defeated. The strength of Steganography increases by combining it with cryptography. The Steganography has been categorized into (i) Spatial domain Steganography: It mainly includes LSB Steganography and Bit Plane Complexity Slicing (BPS) algorithm. Spatial domain is frequently used because of high capability of hidden information and easy realization. (ii) Transform domain Steganography: The secret information is embedded in the transform coefficients of the cover image. Steganography used for wide range of applications such as defiance organizations for safe circulation of secret data, intelligence agencies, in smart identity cards where personal details are embedded in the photograph itself for copyright control of materials, medical imaging where patient’s details are embedded within image providing protection of information and reducing transmission time. 2. REVIEW This paper analyses the various papers on Spatial Domain and Transform Domain of Steganography techniques which are helped to understand the topic and its importance. i. Spatial Domain: These techniques use the pixel gray levels and their color values directly for encoding the message bits. These techniques are some of the simplest schemes in terms of embedding and extraction complexity. The major drawback of these methods is amount of additive noise that creeps in the image which directly affects the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio and the statistical properties of the image. Moreover these embedding algorithms are applicable mainly to lossless image-compression schemes like TIFF images. For lossy compression schemes like JPEG, some of the message bits get lost during the compression step.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.5 NO.5 MAY 2015

Namita Tiwari et.al [4] article the authors proposed a commonly used method LSB and randomization. LSB based Steganography methods Stego One Bit, Stego Two Bit, Stego Three Bit, Stego Four Bit are used. The Stego One Bit changes only single LSB of the pixel, it should have very less effect. The advantage of Stego Two Bit is that twice as much information can be stored. By Using Stego Three Bit, three LSBs of the Colours in the RGB value of the pixels will be used to store message bits. By using Stego Four Bit the data hiding capacity is 4 times the storage capacity of Stego 1. For encryption and hiding used Triple-A Randomization. This paper has achieved highest capacity among all existing method without any distortion in image. G.S.Sravanthi, B.Sunitha Devi, S.M.Riyazoddin and M.Janga Reddy[5] have proposed a new method of information hiding in digital image in spatial domain. They used Plane Bit Substitution Method technique in which message bits are embedded into the pixel value of an image. They proposed steganography transform machine (STM) for solving binary operation for manipulation of original image with help to least significant bit (LSB) operator based matching. Madhu et al., in [14] proposed an image steganography method, based on LSB substitution and selection of random pixel of required image area. This method is target to improve the security where password is added by LSB of pixels. It generates the random numbers and selects the region of interest where secret message has to be hidden. The strength of method is its security of hidden message in stego-image, but has not considers any type of perceptual transparency. Fahim Irfan Alam et. al [15] the authors suggest noise filtering in the beginning before embedding. After extraction at receiving end, ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) is used for error detection & correction. For secure transmission of data, encryption & data hiding are combined in a single step. Host image and secret data are converted into bit stream. Before encryption of secret data median filtering is used. The input values are converted to ASCII and then to binary, the host image RGB values are converted to binary. Substitution is performed character by character using encryption key. The LSB of every pixel octet is replaced by secret bit stream. Error detection and correction ensures correct transmission of data. ii. Transform Domain Technique: This is a more complex way of hiding information in an image. Various algorithms and transformations are used on the image to hide information in it. Transform domain embedding can be termed as a domain of embedding techniques for which a number of algorithms have been suggested. The process of embedding data in the frequency domain of a signal is much stronger than embedding principles that operate in the time domain. Most of the strong steganographic systems today operate within the transform domain Transform domain techniques have an advantage over spatial domain techniques as they hide information in areas of the image that are less exposed to compression, cropping, and image processing. Some transform domain techniques do not seem dependent on the

image format and they may outrun lossless and lossy format conversions. Transform domain techniques are broadly classified into: 1.Discrete Fourier transformation technique (DFT). 2.Discrete cosine transformation technique (DCT). 3.Discrete Wavelet transformation technique (DWT). 4.Lossless or reversible method (DCT) 5.Embedding in coefficient bits S. Hemalatha, U. Dinesh Acharya, A. Renuka and Priya R.Kamath[17] have provided a novel image steganography technique to hide both image and key in color cover image using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT). There is no visual difference between the stego image and the cover image. The results are compared with the results of similar techniques and it is found that the proposed technique is simple and gives better PSNR values than others. M. Chaumont et al., in [18] have proposed a DCT based data hiding method. It hides the color information in a compress gray-level image. It follows the color quantization, color ordering and the data hiding steps to achieve image steganography. The purpose of method is to give free access to gray-level image to everyone but restricted access of same color images to those who have its stego-key. It has high PSNR plus with noticeable artifact of embedding data. K. S. Babu et al., in [19] proposed hiding secret information in image steganography for authentication which is used to verify the integrity of the secret message from the stego-image. The original hidden message is first transformed from spatial domain to discrete wavelet transform (DWT); the coefficients of DWT are then permuted with the verification code and then embedded in the special domain of the cover image. The verification code is also computed by special coefficient of the DWT. So this method can verify each row of the image of modified or tampered by any attacker. Po-Chyi et.al. article [20] the authors compare the advantage of embedding in JPEG 2000 images with the previous approach of embedding in JPEG images. Most of the steganographic methods are based on JPEG because as a block DCT codec JPEG lends itself a good candidate for information hiding due to its fixed block structure. JPEG 2000 which is an upcoming still image coding standard can be used to hide high volume data. If information is embedded in the output of tier-2 coding, i.e. the JPEG 200 packets, it can be guaranteed that all the embedded information will be received without error and in correct order. But, difficulty lies in the modification of packets for embedding, since the bit-streams are compactly compressed by the arithmetic coder. Careless modification would result in failure of expanding compressed image. In the embedding process the image is decomposed using wavelet transform. Lazy Mode Coding is used for embedding. Prosanta Gope et. al. article [21], the authors introduce an enhanced JPEG steganography along with a suitable encryption methodology using a symmetric key cryptographic algorithm. The JPEG cover image is broken into 8 x 8 blocks of pixel. DCT is applied to each block and quantization is done and data is encrypted using a new encryption method which uses CRC checking.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.5 NO.5 MAY 2015 Table 1: Spatial Domain Based Steganography Method S.No.

1

2

3

4

Author Namita Tiwari, Madhu Sandilya and Meenu Chawla G.S.Sravanthi, B.Sunitha, S.M.Riyazoddin & M.Janga Reddy

Year

Method Used

Advantage

2014

LSB Based Steganogrphy Methods

High Capacity and good MSE and PSNR

2012

Plane Bit Substitution Method

Sufficient to discriminate analysis of stego and cover image

V. Madhu Viswanatham and J. Manikonda

2010

Fahim Irfan Alam et al.

2011

LSB Insertion Mechanism, Random Number Generation Algorithm Noise Filtering before embedding combined with encryption

Secure transformation of data

[4]

[5]

[6]

Error detection & Noise free transmission

[7] Table 2 : Transform Domain Based Steganography Method S.No.

1

2

Author Hemalatha S, U Dinesh Acharya, Renuka A and Priya R.Kamath M. Chaumont and W. Puech

Year 2013

2007

Method Used

Advantage

Discrete Wavelet Transform & Integer Wavelet Transform

Simple and better PSNR Value

DCT based Data Hiding Discrete Wavelet Transform

3

4 5

K.S. Babu et.al.

Po-Chyi et.al. Prosanta Gope , Anil Kumar and Gaurav Luthra

2008

2003 2010

Lazy Mode Coding Enhanced JPEG Steganography

[8]

Compress images with a WWW standard format verify each row of the image of modified or tampered by any attacker. Hide High Volume Data

[2]

[3]

[10]

High Security

[11]

3. CONCLUSION In this paper the various articles which are used spatial domain and transform domain for image hiding were studied and categorized. Now- a – days many new areas are identified like Cloud Computing, Mobile Computing and Online Services ( Online Banking , E-Commerce, E-Ticket etc.). The steganographic principles will guide us to improve its applications in the new areas.

[1]

[9]

4. REFERENCES Jarno Mielikainen, "LSB Matching Revisited", Signal Processing Letters, IEEE, Publication Date: May 2006Volume : 13, Issue : 5, pp. 285- 287. K..M. Singh, L.S. Singh, A.B. Singh and K.S. Devi,“Hiding Secret Message in Edges of the Images”, Information and Communication Technology, 2007. ICICT ‘07, pp. 238-241. Ahn, L.V. and N.J. Hopper, 2004. Public-key steganography. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science.Vol. 3027 / 2004 of Advances in Cryptology

[12]

[13]

[14]

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