INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.6 JUNE 2013
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.6 JUNE 2013
UK: Managing Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering 1a park lane, Cranford London TW59WA UK E-Mail: email@example.com Phone: +44-773-043-0249 USA: Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering Dr. Arumugam Department of Chemistry University of Georgia GA-30602, USA. Phone: 001-706-206-0812 Fax:001-706-542-2626 India: Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology & Creative Engineering Dr. Arthanariee. A. M Finance Tracking Center India 17/14 Ganapathy Nagar 2nd Street Ekkattuthangal Chennai -600032 Mobile: 91-7598208700
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.6 JUNE 2013
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY & CREATIVE ENGINEERING Vol.3 No.6 June 2013
From Editor's Desk Dear Researcher, Greetings! Research article in this issue discusses about Categorization of Peristaltic transport of a micropolar fluid in an inclined channel with permeable walls, comprehensive study of potential zone and low head hydro system. Let us review research around the world this month; Wood is key ingredient in cheap rechargeable battery. A battery made from wood doesn't exactly scream high-tech innovation – more like something cooked up round the campfire. But a device that exploits wood fibre could be the key to cheap, renewable power. Hongli Zhu and colleagues at the University of Maryland in College Park turned to a natural material they knew could more easily carry large ions: soft, porous wood fibre. These fibres include hollow elongated cells called tracheids, which have walls made of a tough material called lignin and which transport water and mineral salts around the organism. Bloodhound robot navigates by its sense of smell. A ROBOT that quickly homes in on odour sources could be used to sniff out the source of a fire, a chemical leak or even where a bomb has been planted. Tien-Fu Lu at the University of Adelaide in Australia has an answer: mimic the way insects do it. He has written a software routine that allows a robot to seek a hydrogen sulphide source – which stinks like rotten eggs – in a set of offices. Lu is now honing the technique, adding ultrasound sensors so the robot can sense walls and travel to the source even faster, without wasting time zig-zagging along corridors. Slime mould could make memristors for biocomputers. A garish yellow slime that grows on rotten leaves and logs could one day form the brains behind living computers. The feeding fronds of the slime mould Physarum polycephalum turn out to have memory resistance – or memristance. A memristor's electrical resistance is not constant but can be set by applying different voltages so that when the current stops, it "remembers" its resistance until current flows again. Ella Gale and colleagues at the University of the West of England in Bristol have found memristor behaviour in P. polycephalum's food-seeking tendrils. The team says that mould might one day be used to build exotic computers. Slime mould can be used to perform all the logic functions that conventional computer hardware components can do. It has been an absolute pleasure to present you articles that you wish to read. We look forward to many more new technologies related research articles from you and your friends. We are anxiously awaiting the rich and thorough research papers that have been prepared by our authors for the next issue.
Thanks, Editorial Team IJITCE
Editorial Members Dr. Chee Kyun Ng Ph.D Department of Computer and Communication Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia,UPM Serdang, 43400 Selangor,Malaysia. Dr. Simon SEE Ph.D Chief Technologist and Technical Director at Oracle Corporation, Associate Professor (Adjunct) at Nanyang Technological University Professor (Adjunct) at Shangai Jiaotong University, 27 West Coast Rise #08-12,Singapore 127470 Dr. sc.agr. Horst Juergen SCHWARTZ Ph.D, Humboldt-University of Berlin, Faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture, Asternplatz 2a, D-12203 Berlin, Germany Dr. Marco L. Bianchini Ph.D Italian National Research Council; IBAF-CNR, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo Scalo (RM), Italy Dr. Nijad Kabbara Ph.D Marine Research Centre / Remote Sensing Centre/ National Council for Scientific Research, P. O. Box: 189 Jounieh, Lebanon Dr. Aaron Solomon Ph.D Department of Computer Science, National Chi Nan University, No. 303, University Road, Puli Town, Nantou County 54561, Taiwan Dr. Arthanariee. A. M M.Sc.,M.Phil.,M.S.,Ph.D Director - Bharathidasan School of Computer Applications, Ellispettai, Erode, Tamil Nadu,India Dr. Takaharu KAMEOKA, Ph.D Professor, Laboratory of Food, Environmental & Cultural Informatics Division of Sustainable Resource Sciences, Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie, 514-8507, Japan Mr. M. Sivakumar M.C.A.,ITIL.,PRINCE2.,ISTQB.,OCP.,ICP Project Manager - Software, Applied Materials, 1a park lane, cranford, UK Dr. Bulent Acma Ph.D Anadolu University, Department of Economics, Unit of Southeastern Anatolia Project(GAP), 26470 Eskisehir, TURKEY Dr. Selvanathan Arumugam Ph.D Research Scientist, Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, GA-30602, USA.
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Contents Peristaltic transport of a micropolar fluid in an inclined channel with permeable walls by G. Sudhakar Rao, B.Shankar, VHN Krishna Kumari.P4.................................................................................................................. A comprehensive study of potential zone and low head hydro system in Bangladesh by Md. Ruhul Amin, Rajib Baran Roy, Md. Mahmudul Hasan4....................................................................................................
PERISTALTIC TRANSPORT OF A MICROPOLAR FLUID IN AN INCLINED CHANNEL WITH PERMEABLE WALLS G. Sudhakar Rao1
SVHN Krishna Kumari.P2
Department of Mathematics, Osmania University, Hyderabad, India Department of Mathematics, Auroras Scientific Technological Research Academy, Bandlaguda, Hyderabad, INDIA firstname.lastname@example.org, (Corresponding author)
Abstract - The peristaltic transport of a micro polar fluid in an inclined channel of half width ‘a’ with permeable walls is discussed . The effect of various parameters on the pumping characteristics is discussed through graphs Keywords: Peristalsis, Micropolar Fluid , Permeable Walls I. INTRODUCTION Many researchers studied the peristaltic transport of fluids by considering Newtonian and non-Newtonian models. Classical continuum theory cannot explain the mechanical behavior of rheologically complex fluids, such as liquid crystals, colloidal fluids and blood. Due to this fact a new approach was necessitated. There are several approaches to the formulation of micro continuum theories of fluids such as simple deformable directed fluids, dipolar fluids, polar fluids, simple micro-fluids, micropolar fluids etc. All these consider the existence of couple stress and body couples. Eringen [1,2] reported the theory of micropolar fluids in which the fluid micro elements undergo rotations without stretching. Micropolar fluids are superior to the Navier-stokes fluids and they can sustain stresses and body couples. Here the micro particles in the volume rotate with an angular velocity about the centre of gravity of the volume in an average sense and are described by
micropolar fluid in an inclined channel with permeable walls. The effect of various parameter on the pumping characteristics is discussed through graphs. Kh. S. Mekheimer  discussed the micropolar fluid model for blood flow through a tapered artery with a stenosis. Anuar Ishak at al  studied on MHD boundary-layer flow of a micropolar fluid past a wedge with constant wall heat flux. Krishna Kumari et al.  worked on Peristaltic Pumping of a Jeffrey Fluid under the Effect of Magnetic Field in an Inclined Channel. Y.V.K.Ravi Kumar et al  made a study on Peristaltic transport of a power-law fluid in an asymmetric channel bounded by permeable walls. P. Muthu  discussed on the influence of wall properties in the peristaltic motion of micropolar fluid II. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION Consider the peristaltic pumping of a micropolar fluid in an inclined channel of half-width ' a ' . A longitudinal train of progressive sinusoidal waves takes place on the upper and lower walls of the channel. For simplicity we restrict our discussion to the half-width of the channel as shown in figure (1). The wall deformation is given by
2π (1) ( X − ct ) λ where b is the amplitude, λ is the wavelength and c is H ( X , t ) = a + b sin
the micro rotation vector Ω .The micropolar fluids can support stress and body couples and find their applications in a special case of fluid in which micro rotational motions are important. Arimon and Cakmak  discussed three basic viscous flows of micropolar fluids. They are couette and poiseuille flows between two parallel plates and the problem of a rotating fluid with a free surface. Srinivasacharya et al.  made a study on the peristaltic pumping of a micropolar fluid in a tube. In this paper, we considered the peristaltic transport of a
the wave speed.
Figure. 1 Physical Model
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.6 JUNE 2013 III. EQUATIONS OF MOTION The corresponding non-dimensional boundary conditions are Under the assumption that the channel length is ∂u (5) y=0 = 0 at an integral multiple of the wavelength λ and the pressure ∂y difference across the ends of the channel is a constant, ∂Ω (6) y=0 = 0 at the flow becomes steady in the wave frame (x, y ) moving
with velocity c away from the fixed (laboratory) frame
( X , Y ) .The transformation between these two frames is
Da ∂u α ∂y
given by x = X − ct : y = Y : u(x, y) = U( X − ct,Y ) − c : v(x, y) = V ( X − ct,Y )
Da ∂Ω α ∂y
Ω = −1 −
where U and V are velocity components in the laboratory frame and u, v are velocity components in the wave
The non-dimensional form of equations governing the motion (dropping the bars) is
∂Ω ∂p − (1 − N ) + η sin θ = 0 ∂y ∂x
y = h( x )
sin L 3 y y + h − + − L 4 L 3 L 6 cos L 3 h − L 3 cos L 3 h L 4 sin L 3 h − L 3 − 1 + L 5 L 7 L 8 + 2h L 4 L 5 u =
− p u − x − y − H Ωa u = ; x = ; y = ; p = a ;Ω = ;h = c λ a λ cµ c a
The general solution of (3) and (4) is given by
y = h( x )
IV. SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM
frame. In many physiological situations it is proved experimentally that the Reynolds number of the flow is very small. So, we assume that the flow is inertia-free. Further, we assume that the wavelength is infinite. Using the non-dimensional quantities.
L cos ( h )sin ( h ) + L L L L L L −L L h 2L 2 5
Ω = −
∂u − 2Ω = 0 ∂y
h cos (L 3 h )
∂p − η sin θ , ∂x 2− N N −2 = ,L3 = = −m 3, 2
Where L = (1 − N ) 1
k where N = coupling number, Ω is the micro µ+k rotation velocity, u is the velocity, µ is the viscosity of the fluid, k is the micropolar viscosity m is the micropolar parameter, p is the fluid pressure.
= ܮ2 + ܮ ܮ, ܮ ݊݅ܵ ܮ ܮ = ܮℎ − ܮݏܥℎ
θ is the inclination angle to the horizontal. α is dimensionless Beavers - Joseph constant which
(-h ܮ− ܮ ܮ+ ܮ ݏܥ ܮ ܮℎ + ܵ݅݊ ܮℎ)
= ܮ1 −
depends on the nature of the porous medium but not the fluid viscosity. where ‘Da’ is the Darcy number given by Da =
The volume flux
భ ఱ ల
(2h ܮ-h )
q through each cross section in the wave
frame is given by
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.6 JUNE 2013 The effect of the inclination angle Î¸ on pumping (11) characteristics is shown in figure (3). It is observed that for
q = âˆŤ udy 0
a given Q, âˆ† p increases as the angle of inclination Î¸
The pressure gradient is obtained from equation (11)
3 3 ďŁźďŁ´ âˆ‚p 1 ďŁąďŁ´ s1 h m = +Îˇ sinÎ¸ďŁ˝ âˆ’ s5 (s6 âˆ’ s7) + ďŁ˛ âˆ‚x 1âˆ’ N ďŁ´ďŁłs2 (s3 âˆ’ s4) 3 ďŁ´ďŁž
(12) The variation of pressure rise with time averaged flow rate for different values of micropolar parameter m is shown in
â€Ť= Ý?â€Źáˆşâ€Ť Ý?â€Ź+ â„ŽáˆťÝ‰ á‰„1 âˆ’ áˆž2cosh (Ý‰â„Ž) âˆ’ 2Ý‰â€Ť ÜŽâ€Źsinh (Ý‰â„Ž)áˆżá‰…
figure (4). It is observed that for a given
â€Ť = Ý?â€Źáˆşâˆ’â€ŤÝŠÝ…Ý?â€Źâ„ŽÝ‰â„Ž + Ý‰â€ŤÝ?Ý‹Üż ÜŽâ€Źâ„ŽÝ‰â„Ž âˆ’ Ý‰â€Ť ÜŽâ€Ź+ Ý‰â„Žáˆť
for a decreasing m in pumping and free pumping regions.
â€Ť = Ý?â€Ź2Üżâ€ŤÝ?Ý‹â€Źâ„ŽÝ‰â„Ž âˆ’ Ý‰ â„Ž âˆ’ 2â„ŽÝ‰â€ŤÝŠÝ…Ý?â€Źâ„ŽÝ‰â„Ž +
For a given âˆ† p the flux
âˆ’ 2â„Ž Ý‰ âˆ’ 2â€Ť ÜŽâ€Źâ„ŽÝ‰ âˆ’ 2
â€Ť = Ý?â€Ź1 âˆ’ áˆş2Üżâ€ŤÝ?Ý‹â€Źâ„ŽÝ‰â„Ž âˆ’ 2Ý‰â€ŤÝŠÝ…Ý? ÜŽâ€Źâ„ŽÝ‰â„Žáˆť
â€ŤÝŠÝ…Ý?Ü° = Ý?â€Źâ„ŽÝ‰â„Ž + Ý‰ â€ŤÝŠÝ…Ý? ÜŽ ÜŽâ€Źâ„ŽÝ‰â„Ž âˆ’ 2â€ŤÝŠÝ…Ý? Ý‰ ÜŽâ€Źâ„ŽÝ‰â„Ž â€ŤÝ?Ý‹ÜżÝ‰Ü° = Ý?â€Źâ„ŽÝ‰â„Ž + 2Ý‰ â„Ž + 4Ý‰ â„Žâ€ŤÜŽâ€Ź The time averaged flow rate is
For a given
âˆŤ âˆ‚x dx
works. For a given âˆ† p , the flux
Figures (7) to (11) are drawn to study the effect of various parameters on the microrotation velocity. From figure (7) it is observed that an increase in the angle of inclination decreases the microrotation velocity. From figure (8) it is noticed that decrease in the darcy number decreases the microrotation velocity. It is also observed that the velocity profiles are parabolic and the velocity attains the maximum at the central line of the channel. From figure
The dimensionless frictional force F at the wall across one wavelength in the inclined channel is given by 1
(9) it is observed that decrease in M decreases the microrotation velocity. The effect of micropolar parameter on the microrotation velocity is shown in figure (10). It can be seen that the decrease in m decreases the microrotation velocity.
VI. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The variation of pressure rise âˆ† p with time averaged flow rate for different values of Îą is shown in figure (2). It is observed that for a given
Q, depends o n Ď† and it
increases with increasing Ď† .
ďŁŤ âˆ‚p ďŁś F = âˆŤ hďŁŹ âˆ’ ďŁˇdx âˆ‚x ďŁ¸ 0 ďŁ
Q, the pressure difference increases with
increases N . The effect of amplitude ratio on pumping characteristics is shown in figure (6). It is observed that the large the amplitude ratio, the greater the pressure rise against which the pump
V.PUMPING CHARACTERISTICS Integrating the equation (12) with respect to over one wave length, we get the pressure rise (drop) over one cycle of the wave as
Q, depends on m and it
increases with increasingÝ‰.The effect of coupling parameter N on the pumping characteristics is shown in figure (5).We observed that the large the coupling number N the pressure rise against which the pumping works.
Q = q +1
Q, âˆ† p decreases
Q, âˆ† p increases as the slip
parameter Îą increases in the pumping and free pumping regions. The opposite behavior is observed in co-pumping region. And also for a given âˆ† p the flux
Q, increases with
increasing Îą .
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.6 JUNE 2013 0.0015 0.86
0.80 ܰ = 0.04
ܰ 0.78 = 0.06 0.0010 0.76
ܰ = 0.02
α =0.08 α= 0.04 Fig.2. Variation of
Fig. 5 Variation of ∆ p with
Q for different values of slip
Q for different values of N .
parameter α φ . 0.25 0.20 0.04
∅ = 0.5
∅ = 0.3
θ= 0 Fig 3. Variation of ∆ p with m=3
Fig. 6 Variation of ∆ p with
∅ = 0.2
Q for different values of φ .
Q for different values of θ
Fig.7 Variation of micro rotation velocity with y for different values of α Fig.4 Variation of ∆ p with
Q for different values of m .
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.6 JUNE 2013 REFERENSES: . Eringen, A.C. Theory of Micropolar fluid ONR Report. 1965. . Eringen, A.C. J.Math. Mech., 16 No.1,1966, 1-18. . Ariman. T and Cakmak,A.S., Some Basic viscous flows in Micropolar fluids, . Srinivasacharya , D.,Mishra, M. and Ramachandra Rao, A.,2003,Peristaltic pumping of a micro polar fluid in a tube, Acta Mechanica, 161, pp.165-178.  Kh. S. Mekheimer,M. A. El Kot , The micropolar fluid model for blood flow through a tapered artery with a stenosis. Acta Mech Sin (2008) 24:637–644  Anuar Ishak a, Roslinda Nazar a, Ioan Pop MHD boundary-layer flow of a micropolar fluid past a wedge Fig. 8 Variation of microrotation velocity with y for different with constant wall heat flux 14 (2009) 109–118 S. V. H. N. Krishna Kumari P. and M. V. Ramana values of Da . Murthy , Y. V. K. Ravi Kumar , S.Sreenadh, Peristaltic Pumping of a Jeffrey Fluid under the Effect of Magnetic Field in an Inclined Channel, Applied Mathematical Sciences, Vol. 5, 2011, no. 9, 447 - 458 Y. V. K. Ravi Kumar, S. V. H. N. Krishna Kumari. P, M. V. Ramana Murthy and S. Sreenadh ,Peristaltic transport of a power-law fluid in an asymmetric channel bounded by permeable walls, Advances in Applied Science Research, 2011, 2 (3): 396-406  P.Muthu, B.V.Rathish kumar and Peeyush Chandra,The influence of wall properties in the Peristaltic motion of micropolar fluid,anziam j. 45(2003), 245–260. Fig.9 Variation of microrotation velocity with y for different values of N
Fig.10 Variation of microrotation velocity with y for different values of m .
A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF POTENTIAL ZONE AND LOW HEAD HYDRO SYSTEM IN BANGLADESH Md. Ruhul Amin#1, Rajib Baran Roy#*2, Md. Mahmudul Hasan#3 #
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Department of Electronic and Communication Engineering, # University of Information Technology and Sciences (UITS) Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh.
email@example.com 2 firstname.lastname@example.org 3 email@example.com Abstractâ€”Running down the fossil fuel and the vast contribution around 19% of worldâ€™s electricity from incapability to meet up the increasing demand of both large and small power plants -. The electricity is some problem for the economic development of Bangladesh. The country is getting trouble due to Department of Energy (DOE) refers large hydropower carbon emission of developed country. Bangladesh has power plants having the generation capacity of 30MW several rivers and canals providing off- grid network. This . Smaller hydropower plants are entitled as having paper focuses on the potential of micro-hydropower plant generation capacity of 100KW to 30MW and microin Bangladesh. This paper also replicates on energy scenario of Bangladesh. To progress the economy of hydropower plants defines as from 5KW to 100KW . Bangladesh it is need to explore green energy providing Due to the hilly northeast and southeast region of good investigation on establishment of extensive micro- Bangladesh, there are some possibilities to install the hydropower plant. The most likely sites for microhydropower have low head(less than 10m) that also has a hydropower plant in hilly region. Kaptai Hydropower regular disparity. Thus the selection of suitable turbine plant is only one plant having capacity of 230MW which has a vital role on the sustainability of the project. The is located in Chittagong. The Water Development Board present potential sites are mentioned and means to and Power Development Board  have taken a survey identify new sites are outlined by performing hydrology It studies, topographic studies, head calculations, turbine of small Hydropower potential in the country. acknowledged 12 potential rivers/charas with an selection and so onward.
estimated annual production of 1.1 GWh in ChittagongBandarban area, 6.3 GWh in Sylhet and Moulovibazar area, 8.6 MWh in Mymensingh - Sherpur area and 1.8 GWh in the Dinajpur-Rangpur area. However, only limited study has been made for the micro-hydro potential. Recently, LGED  has taken up a project at Bamerchara in Bashkhali of Chittagong District and BCSIR  in Sailpropat, Bandarban and in Madhobkundu, Moulovibazar. The BCSIR has estimated that these two sites have the potential for annual energy production of 43.8 MWh and 1.3 GWh respectively. To produce electricity with proper implementation of advance technology efficiently the water head of 2 meters can be appropriate. Due to the uneconomical planning of the grid network the energy problems in remote and hilly zone stay alive -. Microhydropower provides low-cost solution for these remote sites. It makes available a good solution for energy problems in remote and hilly areas where the extension of grid system is comparatively uneconomical .
Keywords: Hydro Power, Micro Hydro, Mini Hydro, Crossflow Turbine, Propeller Turbine I. INTRODUCTION Bangladesh with its rising commerce and industries is facing an overwhelming mission to handle up with the power calamity. The rapid increasing of power demand is not at same rate of power generation. The significant gap between power generation and estimated demand is to be approximately 2500MW . Consequently the uninterruptable power supply is not possible for organization and foreign investors are put off their concern from Bangladesh. Electrical energy consumption in Bangladesh is per capita is only 154KWhr which is much less than the developed country . In order to meet the challenge of energy crisis, Bangladesh needs to opt for the alternative solution in the formation of renewable energy as well as green energy giving concern on less carbon emission. The economic and environmental aspects should be taken into the consideration for achieving the goal of energy security and energy sustainability. Hydro power is the most widely used renewable energy due to the
This paper reports on the selection of an appropriate turbine suitable for the micro hydro sites and
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.6 JUNE 2013 demonstrates the parameters needed to be considered failure of digester . Micro-hydropower plants are to explore new potential sites for micro-hydropower clean and pollution free. It maintains the ecological balance and stream flow of the rivers. The impacts on generation of Bangladesh.. the environment of each energy sources have been II. POTENTIALITY OF HYDRO POWER studied thoroughly and the enhancement of these Micro-hydropower in comparison to other technologies has been considered . The estimated nonconventional energy sources includes the following. power output is governed by the following equation: P = Areas with natural water falls on the dam-toe or canal Q × H × 7.83, where P is the theoretical amount of drops are suitable sites for micro-hydropower plants. For power in KW, Q is the discharge flow rate in m3/s and H such site selection long range studies are not required. is the water head in meters. The equation is an Several studies - have reported the micro hydro approximation relied on theoretical studies. The actual potentials in different regions of the country. Table 1 power output varies depending upon pressure losses shows some of these data. The head varies from 2m to through the inlet and penstock also upon the turbine and 10m whereas the flow rate varies from 40 to 1000 l/s. generator efficiency. Another factor is the reduction of Again there is a seasonal variation both in flow rates and stream flow leading to the penstock due to available head. The output power is calculated as P = 5 environmental and fisheries constraints. The factors Q Ho (kW), where Q is the flow rate in m3/s and Ho is mentioned reduce the amount of energy produced. the available head in meter and assuming a 50% Micro-hydropower projects have been successfully system efficiency. implemented to provide standardized technologies for oﬀ-grid decentralized power to these remote hilly areas TABLE 1 and small villages. Power to some mountainous villages HYDRO POWER POTENTIAL has brought about major socioeconomic development. Micro- hydro powers have replaced diesel generators Estimated Available Output Average and implemented in a hybrid system in line with solar Sites Head, Ho Power, Discharge power . These power plants have been used for (m) P(kW) (I/s) direct mechanical energy for small industries and Sailopropat agriculture. Small-scale projects include battery 100 6 3 Banderban charging, welding workshop, crop processing, grain Madhabkundu, milling, home, farm, ranch, and village. Another small150 10 7.5 Maulovibazar scale implementation may be to power homes in remote Faizlake 42.5 12 2.5 areas without a dam. The most major use of micro Chota Karina hydropower is the oﬀ-grid decentralization of its 311 6 9.3 Chara surrounding areas. Micro-hydropower meets smooth Ringuli chara 340 4.6 7.8 and stable power supply. Thus, the surrounding areas of Sealock  1132 9 51 individual generating stations can be easily powered and Longi chara 425 3 6.4 it is very economical. This will reduce consumer demand Budia chara  170 7.6 6.5 on the national grid network. Moreover, microNikhari chara 11] 480 6.8 16.3 hydropower stations can always be fed to the national Madhabchara 996 9.9 49 grid. Micro-hydropower projects are generally well thought-out to be more environmental friendly than both Micro-hydropower is easy to operate and there is no large hydro and fossil fuel-powered plants. With all these need for painstaking maintenance, whereas wind power advantages, micro-hydro-power can be implemented as plant causes severe noise pollution, teething troubles, principle renewable sources for sustainable and poor performance due to operation and development especially in developing countries like maintenance problems. Major challenge relies on Bangladesh. designing signal conditioner, computer interfacing, and software for system operation. The pulsating input III. PARAMETERS FOR CONSIDERATION NEW HYDRO POWER Choosing a site is one of the most important steps in power pattern for the wind power station is another development, as it will largely determine the amount of major problem. Moreover, there are various problems energy that can be developed and the complexity of site while handling biogas: pollutants such as effluent slurry, development. Some factors to be considered are accumulation of volatile fatty acids, gas forming methane organic bacteria, and leakage of gas from gas outlined as follows . holder. Other problems include drop in Ph level and
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.6 JUNE 2013 A. Topographic Maps to 33 KV lines. Voltage levels greater than that increase Mapping of an area is one of the prime tools for site the connection the cost. selection. Information such as the length of pipelines, transmission lines, and possible water head can be F. Turbine The selection of type of turbine is one of the obtained from such maps. Other relevant information is problems in design of hydro plant. The characteristics, the source of the stream and its direction of flow, roads to access the site, and also the size of the drainage parameters, and classification involved facilitate the area. Some of the sources for mapping include the choice of turbine. There are two methods of selection 1:50,000 scale national topographic system (NTS) . maps, 1:20,000 scale TRIM maps, local forestry maps, and custom maps based on recent photos.
1) Graphical Selection: It is the various types of turbine, graphs relating discharges, head work, model test result, and test report. Turbine is selected according to the head and discharge values .
B. Site Hydrology Hydrology study includes exploration of the origin of the stream flow and its destination. It also includes measurement of stream flow direction and flow rate. Although this study is time consuming, but it facilitates proper planning. The available tools to determine the hydrology of a potential site include maps, stream flow data, and water quality studies.
2) Analytical Selection: According to the head and discharge values, the turbine parameters are calculated using the formula
Where P is power in KW, and η is the system efficiency including turbine, generator, and gear box efficiency. Then specific speed can be calculated as
C. Water Quality Studies Studies should be performed to obtain relevant data regarding the level and variety of sediments like silt, fine sand, gravel, rocks, floating debris, and dissolved chemicals. Basically the data are used to determine the material for the equipment that comes in contact with water and also to take necessary precautions for the sediments that flow along the stream. There are other hydrological matters related to water quality studies that need to be considered.
ሺܰ × ܲ ሻ5 5 ( ) ܪ 4
Where Pt is turbine output in KW, and N is the rated speed in rpm. Runner Diameter: After performing model test and selecting design of turbine, the actual runner diameter is determined by the manufacturer. The following formula can be used .
D. High Head The water should be allowed the maximum vertical displacement and the shortest path to travel. The maximum vertical displacement accounts for the high water head. Large water head accounts for higher power produced. For high head, the turbine speed will be large; thus a small turbine can be opted for a given power output. However, at high heads the pipe pressure ratings and the strength of the pipe materials should be considered for design. Water must be allowed in the shortest route to travel; otherwise it will require long penstock which is quite costly. Longer pathway for the water to travel will reduce its flow rate due to fluid and other forms of friction.
( = ܦ0.0242ܰ )(
Where Dr is runner diameter and Ns is specific speed in rpm
84.6 × ܪ × ܦ. ܰ
Where D2 is Discharge diameter and N is speed of turbine. Turbines can be classified according to their specific speed: •
E. Proximity of Lines or Loads For on-grid generation, the site should be closer to the distribution and transmission line. Also for off-grid generation, the loads should be at a close proximity. This ease in distributing the power will result in low transmission costs. It is to be noted that for on-grid micro-hydro plant it is cost effective to connect to the 11
High head turbine and low specific speed (Pelton), Medium head turbine and medium specific speed (Francis), Low head turbine and high specific speed (Kaplan and Propeller).
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.6 JUNE 2013 Low Environmental Impact: When choosing the site, Turbines are designed as Dam Base, Canal fall, Runoﬀ River, and Hilly region depending upon specific site care must be taken to avoid unacceptably high environmental impacts such as damage to fish conditions . populations, endangered species, or air quality . Kaplan Turbine: Large quantity of water at low head Power Reliability: The Power output is directly is suit-able for such turbines. These turbines range from head of30 meter and specific speed from 255KW to dependent upon head and discharge. Head and discharge depend upon rainfall and also stream flow in 860KW 10]. rivers and canals. The estimation of river flow and Francis Turbine: Moderate quantity of water at rainfall determines the reliability of Power output from medium head is suitable for such turbines. These the micro hydro-power plant . turbines range from head of 55 meter to 240 meter and IV. MICRO-HYDRO SITES IN BANGLADESH then specific speed from 51KW to 255KW . In February 1981, the Water Development Board and Pelton Turbine: These turbines range from 8.5KW to Power Development jointly carried out a study on the 30KW for single jet Pelton Wheel and from 30kW to assessment of Small/Mini-Hydropower Potential in the 51kW for Pelton Wheel with double jet. The head value country . The committee explored 19 prospective ranges above 240 meter . sites for possible installation of small hydropower plants. Later in the month of April 1984, Six Chinese experts Bulb Turbine: Large Rivers with high flow are suitable visited Bangladesh and they identified 12 potential sites for such turbines. These are more economic than for development of mini- hydropower plant. Out of these Kaplan turbine. These turbines range from head of 3 to sites, only Mahamaya Chara, near Mirersharai, close to 23 meters and specific speed from 200KW to 40KW Dhaka-Chittagong highway was identified as the best . site for development of small hydro. Following are the PIT Turbine: These are modified version of the sites that were identified (Table 2) , . In 2004 Rural Energy, Local government Kaplan turbine that works on head value below 15 meter sustainable Engineering Department has explored some potential . micro-hydro sites in Chittagong which is listed in Table S-Type Turbine: These turbines are smaller version 3. Most of the potential sites are situated in the of Kaplan turbine with horizontal inlet. These turbines Chittagong hill tracts (CHTs). It requires potential have water head as low as 1 meter to15 meter. Specific utilization of hydropower and indigenous technical speed ranges from 50KW to 500KW . knowledge to utilize the existing opportunities in the CHT areas. Decentralization of micro-hydropower units Cross-Flow Turbine: These turbines are subset of with local implementation and management through selfimpulse turbine. The hand ranges lower than Pelton reliance and the use of local natural resources will have turbine with values up to 180 meter and specific speed significant impact on the remote tribal rural up to 2MW. development. Penstock Diameter: The diameter is calculated using design discharge, head, and plant capacity using this formula :
Π × ܳ ܦ = 4 ܸ
TABLE 2 POTENTIAL SMALL HYDRO SITES IDENTIFIED BY BPDB AND BWDB.
River/chara/ stream Name
Foy’s Lake Hoto Jumira Hinguli Chara
Potential of electrical energy in KW 4 15 12
Chittagong Hill Tracts
Lungi Chara Budia Chara Nikhari Chara Ranga Pani Gung
10 10 26 626
This formula gives the diameter of penstock . Synchronous Generator: Generally for commercial purpose synchronous machine is widely used. Generators driven at low speeds by prime-movers like water turbines will have salient pole construction having large number of projected poles .
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.6 JUNE 2013 V. RESULTS AND SIMULATION 69KW for 10 months and 48 Salient Feature of Bamerchara Micro-Hydropower Bhgai-Kongsa KW for 2 Unit: Estimated capacity of the system was 10 kW. months Salient feature of the unit has been illustrated as follows: 35KW for 10 • turbine type: crossflow, months and Marisi 20KW for 2 • penstock: 52m, months • design flow: 150 liter/sec, Dahuk 24 • net head available: 6m–10m, Chawai 32 • preferred governor: flow control Talam 24 (manual), Pathraj 32 • electrical output: 4–6 KW, 50Hz, 3 phase Tangn 48 voltage, 220V/440V. Punarbhaba 11 Considering water head of 11 meters and flow rate of Bhuri Khora Chikli 32 150 L/s, it was estimated that maximum 10 kW Fulkumar 48 hydropower could be generated from “Bamerchara” site shows Fig. 4. But when irrigation starts, water head falls rapidly. Consequently full power generation was not possible. Furthermore, about 41 percent potential energy was lost by the penstock, turbine, and generator and transmission line. Fig. 5 illustrates relationship between water head and extractable hydropower from a stream.
Fig. 3. Nomogram for the selection of turbine speed .
Considering the generator speed of 1000 rpm, the turbine speed, n (rpm) can be selected from the nomogram shown in Fig. 3 such that the specific speed should remain within the range. Then the approximate runner diameter can be calculated from the following equation:= ܦ
Fig. 4. Bamerchara micro-hydropower unit.
Fig. 5. Relationship between water head and power.
Where D is in meter. The jet thickness tj usually between one fifth to one tenth of the diameter. The approximate runner length in meter is:
. ೕ √
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.6 JUNE 2013  M. Hasanuzzaman, J.K. Saha and M. Morshed, Micro- Mini VI. CONCLUSION Hydro Energy Prospects in Some Regions of Bangladesh, Necessity of exploring energy from alternative Renewable Energy for Rural Development, A.K.M. Sadrul Islam & D.G. Infield (Eds), 2002. sources and impact of micro-hydro as an alternative  S. P. Adhau, R. M. Moharil, and P. G. Adhau, “Reassessment of source has been presented. Since micro-hydropower irrigation potential for micro hydro power generation,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Sustainable plant requires terrain and availability of high stream flow Energy Technologies (ICSET ’10), Kandy, SriLanka, December rate, so, it has a good potential in the north-eastern hilly 2010. regions of Bangladesh which is also evident from the  BWDB, Feasibility Report on the Potential of Hydro Electricity Generation from the existing Teesta, Manu and Tangon Barages, presented data. Due to the abundance of rivers and Internal Report, 2002 canals, Bangladesh has a good run-off river micro-hydro  M. A.Wazed and S. Ahmed, “Micro hydro energy resources in Bangladesh: a review,” Australian Journal of Basic and Applied potential but it is yet to be explored. Parameters in order Sciences, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 1209–1222, 2008. to set up new micro-hydro plants have been discussed.  J. Croockewit, Developing Micro Hydro in British Columbia, BC Hydro Engineering, 2004. A primary guideline of economic feasibility and a way of  S. P. Adhau, “A comparative study of micro hydro power raising necessary fund have been proposed. Available schemes promoting self sustained rural areas,” in Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Sustainable Power data for various micro hydro sites have been analyzed and Supply (SUPERGEN ’09), pp. 1–6, April 2009 and it can be concluded that the crossflow turbine is  Generation Celso Penche and de Minas, Layman’s Handbook on How to most suitable for these sites. Consequently it is also a Develop a Small Hydro Site, ESHA, 1998 procedure for estimating the turbine dimensions is also  Adam Harvey, Micro Hydro Design Manual, ITDG publications, 2000 reported.  Adam Harvey, Micro Hydro Design Manual, ITDG publications, ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author would like to express his utmost appreciation to his supervisor, Assistant Professor Rajib Baran Roy for his valuable advice and guidance. The author would like to thank Electrical Machines and Drives Laboratory and the officers for providing great experimental facilities and technical assistance. The author would like to thank Md. Mahmudul Hasan for providing necessary materials and supporting to manipulate data intended to develop this article.
  
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