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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013

UK: Managing Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering 1a park lane, Cranford London TW59WA UK E-Mail: editor@ijitce.co.uk Phone: +44-773-043-0249 USA: Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering Dr. Arumugam Department of Chemistry University of Georgia GA-30602, USA. Phone: 001-706-206-0812 Fax:001-706-542-2626 India: Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology & Creative Engineering Dr. Arthanariee. A. M Finance Tracking Center India 17/14 Ganapathy Nagar 2nd Street Ekkattuthangal Chennai -600032 Mobile: 91-7598208700

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013

IJITCE PUBLICATION

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY & CREATIVE ENGINEERING Vol.3 No.1 January 2012

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013

From Editor's Desk Dear Researcher, Greetings! Research article in this issue discusses about rural development in the context of developing countries, static deformation of two half spaces in smooth contact. Let us review research around the world this month; Intel is about to bringing 'Yolo' smart phone to untapped world markets. Intel, in partnership with integrated communications provider Safaricom, announced a new entry-level smart phone designed for developing markets, dubbing the device the "Yolo." Pressure keeps cancer in check. Putting the squeeze on lab-grown tumor cells makes them behave like healthy ones, a new study shows. The discovery won’t lead to treatments that poke and prod tumors in patients, but it might help researchers develop new drugs that keep mutated cells from growing out of control. Breast cancer cells suspended in gel and then briefly compressed form orderly balls, just like normal breast cells do when squeezed, Gautham Venugopalan, an engineer and cell biologist at the University of California, Berkeley, reported December 17 at the annual meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology. “We’re not adding any drugs. We’re not changing any genetics,” Venugopalan said. “All we’ve done is basically kicked them and said, ‘you need to be normal now.’”

There is Half a Million DVDs in Your DNA. The new work isn't the first example of large-scale storage of digital information in DNA. Last year, researchers led by bioengineers Sriram Kosuri and George Church of Harvard Medical School reported that they stored a copy of one of Church's books in DNA, among other things, at a density of about 700 terabits per gram, more than six orders of magnitude more dense than conventional data storage on a computer hard disk. Now, researchers led by molecular biologists Nick Goldman and Ewan Birney of the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) in Hinxton, U.K., report online today in Nature that they've improved the DNA encoding scheme to raise that storage density to a staggering 2.2 petabytes per gram, three times the previous effort. It has been an absolute pleasure to present you articles that you wish to read. We look forward to many more new technology-related research articles from you and your friends. We are anxiously awaiting the rich and thorough research papers that have been prepared by our authors for the next issue.

Thanks, Editorial Team IJITCE


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013

Editorial Members Dr. Chee Kyun Ng Ph.D Department of Computer and Communication Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia,UPM Serdang, 43400 Selangor,Malaysia. Dr. Simon SEE Ph.D Chief Technologist and Technical Director at Oracle Corporation, Associate Professor (Adjunct) at Nanyang Technological University Professor (Adjunct) at Shangai Jiaotong University, 27 West Coast Rise #08-12,Singapore 127470 Dr. sc.agr. Horst Juergen SCHWARTZ Ph.D, Humboldt-University of Berlin, Faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture, Asternplatz 2a, D-12203 Berlin, Germany Dr. Marco L. Bianchini Ph.D Italian National Research Council; IBAF-CNR, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo Scalo (RM), Italy Dr. Nijad Kabbara Ph.D Marine Research Centre / Remote Sensing Centre/ National Council for Scientific Research, P. O. Box: 189 Jounieh, Lebanon Dr. Aaron Solomon Ph.D Department of Computer Science, National Chi Nan University, No. 303, University Road, Puli Town, Nantou County 54561, Taiwan Dr. Arthanariee. A. M M.Sc.,M.Phil.,M.S.,Ph.D Director - Bharathidasan School of Computer Applications, Ellispettai, Erode, Tamil Nadu,India Dr. Takaharu KAMEOKA, Ph.D Professor, Laboratory of Food, Environmental & Cultural Informatics Division of Sustainable Resource Sciences, Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie, 514-8507, Japan Mr. M. Sivakumar M.C.A.,ITIL.,PRINCE2.,ISTQB.,OCP.,ICP Project Manager - Software, Applied Materials, 1a park lane, cranford, UK Dr. Bulent Acma Ph.D Anadolu University, Department of Economics, Unit of Southeastern Anatolia Project(GAP), 26470 Eskisehir, TURKEY Dr. Selvanathan Arumugam Ph.D Research Scientist, Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, GA-30602, USA.

Review Board Members Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic & Ceramic Materials,CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Private Bag 33, Clayton South MDC 3169,Gate 5 Normanby Rd., Clayton Vic. 3168, Australia Dr. Zhiming Yang MD., Ph. D. Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Science,1550 Orleans Street Rm 441, Baltimore MD, 21231,USA Dr. Jifeng Wang Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois, 61801, USA Dr. Giuseppe Baldacchini ENEA - Frascati Research Center, Via Enrico Fermi 45 - P.O. Box 65,00044 Frascati, Roma, ITALY. Dr. Mutamed Turki Nayef Khatib Assistant Professor of Telecommunication Engineering,Head of Telecommunication Engineering Department,Palestine Technical University (Kadoorie), Tul Karm, PALESTINE.


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013 Dr.P.Uma Maheswari Prof & Head,Depaartment of CSE/IT, INFO Institute of Engineering,Coimbatore. Dr. T. Christopher, Ph.D., Assistant Professor & Head,Department of Computer Science,Government Arts College(Autonomous),Udumalpet, India. Dr. T. DEVI Ph.D. Engg. (Warwick, UK), Head,Department of Computer Applications,Bharathiar University,Coimbatore-641 046, India. Dr. Renato J. orsato Professor at FGV-EAESP,Getulio Vargas Foundation,São Paulo Business School,Rua Itapeva, 474 (8° andar) ,01332-000, São Paulo (SP), Brazil Visiting Scholar at INSEAD,INSEAD Social Innovation Centre,Boulevard de Constance,77305 Fontainebleau - France Y. Benal Yurtlu Assist. Prof. Ondokuz Mayis University Dr.Sumeer Gul Assistant Professor,Department of Library and Information Science,University of Kashmir,India Dr. Chutima Boonthum-Denecke, Ph.D Department of Computer Science,Science & Technology Bldg., Rm 120,Hampton University,Hampton, VA 23688 Dr. Renato J. Orsato Professor at FGV-EAESP,Getulio Vargas Foundation,São Paulo Business SchoolRua Itapeva, 474 (8° andar), 01332-000, São Paulo (SP), Brazil Dr. Lucy M. Brown, Ph.D. Texas State University,601 University Drive,School of Journalism and Mass Communication,OM330B,San Marcos, TX 78666 Javad Robati Crop Production Departement,University of Maragheh,Golshahr,Maragheh,Iran Vinesh Sukumar (PhD, MBA) Product Engineering Segment Manager, Imaging Products, Aptina Imaging Inc. Dr. Binod Kumar PhD(CS), M.Phil.(CS), MIAENG,MIEEE HOD & Associate Professor, IT Dept, Medi-Caps Inst. of Science & Tech.(MIST),Indore, India Dr. S. B. Warkad Associate Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Priyadarshini College of Engineering, Nagpur, India Dr. doc. Ing. Rostislav Choteborský, Ph.D. Katedra materiálu a strojírenské technologie Technická fakulta,Ceská zemedelská univerzita v Praze,Kamýcká 129, Praha 6, 165 21 Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic & Ceramic Materials,CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Private Bag 33, Clayton South MDC 3169,Gate 5 Normanby Rd., Clayton Vic. 3168 DR.Chutima Boonthum-Denecke, Ph.D Department of Computer Science,Science & Technology Bldg.,Hampton University,Hampton, VA 23688 Mr. Abhishek Taneja B.sc(Electronics),M.B.E,M.C.A.,M.Phil., Assistant Professor in the Department of Computer Science & Applications, at Dronacharya Institute of Management and Technology, Kurukshetra. (India). Dr. Ing. Rostislav Chot•borský,ph.d, Katedra materiálu a strojírenské technologie, Technická fakulta,•eská zem•d•lská univerzita v Praze,Kamýcká 129, Praha 6, 165 21


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013 Dr. Amala VijayaSelvi Rajan, B.sc,Ph.d, Faculty – Information Technology Dubai Women’s College – Higher Colleges of Technology,P.O. Box – 16062, Dubai, UAE

Naik Nitin Ashokrao B.sc,M.Sc Lecturer in Yeshwant Mahavidyalaya Nanded University Dr.A.Kathirvell, B.E, M.E, Ph.D,MISTE, MIACSIT, MENGG Professor - Department of Computer Science and Engineering,Tagore Engineering College, Chennai Dr. H. S. Fadewar B.sc,M.sc,M.Phil.,ph.d,PGDBM,B.Ed. Associate Professor - Sinhgad Institute of Management & Computer Application, Mumbai-Banglore Westernly Express Way Narhe, Pune - 41 Dr. David Batten Leader, Algal Pre-Feasibility Study,Transport Technologies and Sustainable Fuels,CSIRO Energy Transformed Flagship Private Bag 1,Aspendale, Vic. 3195,AUSTRALIA Dr R C Panda (MTech & PhD(IITM);Ex-Faculty (Curtin Univ Tech, Perth, Australia))Scientist CLRI (CSIR), Adyar, Chennai - 600 020,India Miss Jing He PH.D. Candidate of Georgia State University,1450 Willow Lake Dr. NE,Atlanta, GA, 30329 Jeremiah Neubert Assistant Professor,Mechanical Engineering,University of North Dakota Hui Shen Mechanical Engineering Dept,Ohio Northern Univ. Dr. Xiangfa Wu, Ph.D. Assistant Professor / Mechanical Engineering,NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY Seraphin Chally Abou Professor,Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Depart,MEHS Program, 235 Voss-Kovach Hall,1305 Ordean Court,Duluth, Minnesota 55812-3042 Dr. Qiang Cheng, Ph.D. Assistant Professor,Computer Science Department Southern Illinois University CarbondaleFaner Hall, Room 2140-Mail Code 45111000 Faner Drive, Carbondale, IL 62901 Dr. Carlos Barrios, PhD Assistant Professor of Architecture,School of Architecture and Planning,The Catholic University of America Y. Benal Yurtlu Assist. Prof. Ondokuz Mayis University Dr. Lucy M. Brown, Ph.D. Texas State University,601 University Drive,School of Journalism and Mass Communication,OM330B,San Marcos, TX 78666 Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic & Ceramic Materials CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Dr.Sumeer Gul Assistant Professor,Department of Library and Information Science,University of Kashmir,India Dr. Chutima Boonthum-Denecke, Ph.D Department of Computer Science,Science & Technology Bldg., Rm 120,Hampton University,Hampton, VA 23688 Dr. Renato J. Orsato Professor at FGV-EAESP,Getulio Vargas Foundation,São Paulo Business School,Rua Itapeva, 474 (8° andar) 01332-000, São Paulo (SP), Brazil


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013 Dr. Wael M. G. Ibrahim Department Head-Electronics Engineering Technology Dept.School of Engineering Technology ECPI College of Technology 5501 Greenwich Road - Suite 100,Virginia Beach, VA 23462

Dr. Messaoud Jake Bahoura Associate Professor-Engineering Department and Center for Materials Research Norfolk State University,700 Park avenue,Norfolk, VA 23504 Dr. V. P. Eswaramurthy M.C.A., M.Phil., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Computer Science, Government Arts College(Autonomous), Salem-636 007, India. Dr. P. Kamakkannan,M.C.A., Ph.D ., Assistant Professor of Computer Science, Government Arts College(Autonomous), Salem-636 007, India. Dr. V. Karthikeyani Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Computer Science, Government Arts College(Autonomous), Salem-636 008, India. Dr. K. Thangadurai Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, Government Arts College ( Autonomous ), Karur - 639 005,India. Dr. N. Maheswari Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of MCA, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM University, Kattangulathur, Kanchipiram Dt - 603 203, India. Mr. Md. Musfique Anwar B.Sc(Engg.) Lecturer, Computer Science & Engineering Department, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Mrs. Smitha Ramachandran M.Sc(CS)., SAP Analyst, Akzonobel, Slough, United Kingdom. Dr. V. Vallimayil Ph.D., Director, Department of MCA, Vivekanandha Business School For Women, Elayampalayam, Tiruchengode - 637 205, India. Mr. M. Moorthi M.C.A., M.Phil., Assistant Professor, Department of computer Applications, Kongu Arts and Science College, India Prema Selvaraj Bsc,M.C.A,M.Phil Assistant Professor,Department of Computer Science,KSR College of Arts and Science, Tiruchengode Mr. G. Rajendran M.C.A., M.Phil., N.E.T., PGDBM., PGDBF., Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, Government Arts College, Salem, India. Dr. Pradeep H Pendse B.E.,M.M.S.,Ph.d Dean - IT,Welingkar Institute of Management Development and Research, Mumbai, India Muhammad Javed Centre for Next Generation Localisation, School of Computing, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland Dr. G. GOBI Assistant Professor-Department of Physics,Government Arts College,Salem - 636 007 Dr.S.Senthilkumar Post Doctoral Research Fellow, (Mathematics and Computer Science & Applications),Universiti Sains Malaysia,School of Mathematical Sciences, Pulau Pinang-11800,[PENANG],MALAYSIA. Manoj Sharma Associate Professor Deptt. of ECE, Prannath Parnami Institute of Management & Technology, Hissar, Haryana, India RAMKUMAR JAGANATHAN Asst-Professor,Dept of Computer Science, V.L.B Janakiammal college of Arts & Science, Coimbatore,Tamilnadu, India


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Dr. S. B. Warkad Assoc. Professor, Priyadarshini College of Engineering, Nagpur, Maharashtra State, India Dr. Saurabh Pal Associate Professor, UNS Institute of Engg. & Tech., VBS Purvanchal University, Jaunpur, India Manimala Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Electronics and Instrumentation, St Joseph’s College of Engineering & Technology, Choondacherry Post, Kottayam Dt. Kerala -686579 Dr. Qazi S. M. Zia-ul-Haque Control Engineer Synchrotron-light for Experimental Sciences and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME),P. O. Box 7, Allan 19252, Jordan Dr. A. Subramani, M.C.A.,M.Phil.,Ph.D. Professor,Department of Computer Applications, K.S.R. College of Engineering, Tiruchengode - 637215 Dr. Seraphin Chally Abou Professor, Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Depart. MEHS Program, 235 Voss-Kovach Hall, 1305 Ordean Court Duluth, Minnesota 558123042 Dr. K. Kousalya Professor, Department of CSE,Kongu Engineering College,Perundurai-638 052 Dr. (Mrs.) R. Uma Rani Asso.Prof., Department of Computer Science, Sri Sarada College For Women, Salem-16, Tamil Nadu, India. MOHAMMAD YAZDANI-ASRAMI Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Babol "Noshirvani" University of Technology, Iran. Dr. Kulasekharan, N, Ph.D Technical Lead - CFD,GE Appliances and Lighting, GE India,John F Welch Technology Center, Plot # 122, EPIP, Phase 2,Whitefield Road,Bangalore – 560066, India. Dr. Manjeet Bansal Dean (Post Graduate),Department of Civil Engineering ,Punjab Technical University,Giani Zail Singh Campus, Bathinda -151001 (Punjab),INDIA Dr. Oliver Juki• Vice Dean for education, Virovitica College, Matije Gupca 78,33000 Virovitica, Croatia Dr. Lori A. Wolff, Ph.D., J.D. Professor of Leadership and Counselor Education, The University of Mississippi, Department of Leadership and Counselor Education, 139 Guyton University, MS 38677


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013

Contents RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: VOLUNTOURISM AS AN ANTIDOTE by Hairul Nizam Bin Ismail, Ojo Kayode Ayobami, Kasimu Mohammed A, Gafar Olanrewaju Y, Okoloba Victor, Mohammed S.Alfa………………………………………………………………………………………[1] STATIC DEFORMATION OF TWO HALF SPACES IN SMOOTH CONTACT DUE TO VERTICAL TENSILE FAULT by Mahabir Singh, Meenal Malik and Jagdish Singh …………….....................................................…[17]


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013

RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: VOLUNTOURISM AS AN ANTIDOTE Hairul Nizam Bin Ismail (PhD)1 , Ojo Kayode Ayobami2; Kasimu Mohammed A3 Gafar Olanrewaju Y4; Okoloba Victor5; Mohammed S.Alfa6 Faculty of Built Environment; Human Resources Management Department &FPPSM4 & Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematicalscience5,6 UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA, 1 E-mail: blessfriend112@yahoo.com +6016 9498 412 Abstract — The integration of various stakeholders, tour operators, travel agencies and non government organization in tourist receiving countries contribute a key significant impact to the host communities (Developing Countries) development. To take the advantages of voluntourism benefit and eradicate the debacle that was characterized from the initial tourism activities (economic, environmental and cultural commodification) thus call for need to institutionalize voluntourism at rural levels. The developing countries therefore must develop agenda that is developmental driven focusing on the efficacy of planning, an action packed program that is implementable with a carefully logical evaluation policies designed to meet the community’s needs and aspirations. To achieve this objective, the methodology adopted is systemic review of relevant literature in exploring the nitty-gritty of tourist role in rural development in Nigeria (African). This paper therefore, reviews the potential benefit of voluntourism as an antidote to rural development particularly in the developing Nations of Africa vis -a- vis their identified attributes of financial assistance, knowledge transfer and skill acquisition, international connection, integrated national endowment via restoration of environment through skill acquisitions, education, cultural immersion, coupled with increase competitiveness and service quality of local economy, integrated development, Proficiency and Efficacy, Image promotion and International Connection, increased capital improvement and investment, focused ideology and ideal platform for local entrepreneurs, wealth creation and equitable distribution and economic development. It is on this premise, that rural revitalization programme and African development can be attained successfully and evaluated in consonance with voluntourism involvement.

I.

INTRODUCTION

International tourism has been on centre stage of discussion for decades as a mechanism for positive economic development [1 - 7]; because of its ability to generate employment opportunities, income generation, foreign exchange, network / linkages through multiplier effect, infrastructure and regional development while less consideration was accorded to environmental and socio- cultural adverse effect of tourists activities on the host communities and their ethics [8 - 15]. To strike a balance in the dichotomy that interpolates positivity, negativity of tourism activities and its implications on developing countries. It is on this dichotomy that this paper focuses on a new niche in tourism called voluntourism as an antidote to rural declination, degeneration and development in developing countries of Africa. Volunteer tourism or voluntourism has become a global phenomenon ignited by “Gap Year” and the seal of its younger participants to travel the universe with the main motive of “Making a Difference” basically at grassroots level [16 - 18 ]. This is due to the affections about our natural and serene environment and the aim to render selfless services [19 - 21]. Volunteer tourism is an alternative form of tourism in which tourists volunteer in an organized manner to undertake holidays that might involve aiding or alleviating the material needs of some groups in society, the

Keywords: Rural development, Developing Country, Commodification, Potential, attribute, Voluntourism.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013

restoration of certain environment or research into aspects of society or environment and cultural exchange with the host community [16,22, 23]; conceives Volunteer tourism as utilizing discretionary time and income to travel out of the sphere of the regular activity to assist others in need.

the development of Africa Nation. It also enunciated intrigue of initial tourism activity on environmental implication, cultural abuse and neglect, commodification exercise, social effect, psychological trauma of host displacement and disposition on arable farming, animal extinction, oppression, exploitation, deprivation [39- 41] thus required holistic approach to ameliorate these menace hence voluntourism involvements based on the exploration of their potential and benefits as an antidote for rural development in Africa. Although the newness of this approach firstly call for sensitization of host communities and various governmental apparatus, stakeholders that are saddled with the onus of developing Africa Nations economically, socially, infrastructural and wellness of the inhabitant at large.

The increasing demand for an alternative, friendlier, authenticity, discriminating experience has occasioned a new array of niche product amongst which Volunteer tourism is one of the fastest growing and most prominent[2, 24-26]. The definition above portends travelling with a purpose of alleviating poverty through rendering of assistance to the needy regardless of religion and cultural background, trait, sex, colour and restoration of environment, conservation through educational research, finance and freewill donations which benefits the community and tourists in the aspect of destination changing, interaction, cross-cultural experience, improving race relationship, exchange of care, improved partnership capacity and motivational standard [2733].The shift from the traditional or conventional tourism activities that exploit the host community to activities where the tourists gives back to host community is the bedrock upon which voluntourism rests [17]. Although, many authors have different opinions to Volunteer tourism as in [34 – 36] that their study on habitat for humanity while [2, 37-38] generalized volunteer tourists as being driven by not just pleasant diversions and alternative experiences, they are devoted to “poverty alleviation and to ameliorate social and environmental conditions within local communities”. This assertion is of significant relevance to our subject of investigation “rural development in developing countries context: voluntourism as an antidote”. The aim of this research is to understand voluntourism as a vital weapon to sustainable poverty alleviation in Africa.

II.

RURAL POLICIES ISSUES AND CONVENTIONAL EFFORTS (NIGERIA)

Many approaches / strategies have been adopted to develop rural communities which ranges from rural economic development (Econometric model of as in [42]), community vitality via the exploration and utilization of community natural resources [43], promotion of new business development and entrepreneurship ; where rural residents compliment manufacturing recruitment exercise [44], economic paradigm via improvement on the primary economic base of the community [45], economic dimension based on cultural artefact/ model toward poverty alleviation [46], rural community education strategy was also instituted to reduce the illiteracy level by [47]; rural self employment and re-employment exercise via empowerment of local residents through credit facilities [48] are all laudable strategies but sad enough the strategies were deficiencies as they were unable to meet the needs of rural residents due to non involvement of rural communities hence the institutionalization of voluntourism as an alternative model to revitalize rural communities in developing countries. This is crucial so as to attain

The paper further stressed the efficacy of volunteer tourism as a crucial policies to be used in

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economic regeneration, alleviate improve livelihood of rural dwellers.

poverty and

as the alternative model / approach for rural revitalization in developing countries-Nigeria.

Nigeria has adopted and practicalized various agricultural developmental programmes which were then the most important sector of the economy due to its ability to supply rural employment, food, fibre and exporting earnings before the discovery of oil. Based on this, emphasis which was rooted in agricultural development at all levels that yielded high optimum returns for domestic consumption and international exportation of food crop such as yam, cassava, millet, soya beans, maize accounted for over 60% of the nation’s Gross Domestic Product ( GDP). This however, has been neglected due to oil extraction and exploration [49]. This led to massive rural – urban migration and reduction in labour force required for prompt agricultural production of raw materials to feed the urban populace. To corroborate this, a survey revealed that urban population is greater than rural population. Various agricultural developmental programmes as strategies adopted in Nigeria includes operation Feed the Nation (OFN); the Green Revolution, Directorate of Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI, 1986), Agricultural Development Program (ADP); National Directorate of Employment (NDE), National Agricultural Land Development Authority (NALDA, 1992). It is very disdainful that these laudable efforts went to drain as they were neither properly co-ordinated nor properly implemented as a result of improper planning and less attention given to the plight and needs of local people, poor orientation, high illiteracy level in all our rural community, poor finance and so on. It is therefore necessary and imperative for Nigeria’s policy makers, planners, stakeholders and tourism board to look inwards and toward the direction of new niche in tourism called voluntourism based on their antecedent, financial assistance, experience, physical presence, willingness, self efficacy, motive, altruism, professionalism and networking

The persistence of poverty [50 -51] led to the inauguration of the presidential committee on poverty alleviation in Nigeria [51 -53] to evaluate the existing poverty alleviation efforts of government with a view to upgrading the programs where lacking. The pioneering initiative in this regard was the Lagos Plan of Action 1980 (LPA) which emphasized strategies of self-reliance, food security, industrialization and regional integration and the establishment of Africa’s Priority Programme for Economic Recovery (APPER) 1986-1990. In the year 1986, United Nations Programme of Action for Africa Economic Recovery and Discovery (UNPAARED) was established to overcome constraints to development in Africa through mobilization of development in African resources. The United Nations New Agenda for the Development in Africa (UN-NADAF) in 1990s was adopted to strengthen the continent’s economy and reduce vulnerability to external shock and increase its dynamism, internalize the process of development and increase progress towards achieving oriental goal by the year 2000 in the area of life expectancy, woman empowerment, child and maternal mortality, nutrition, water and sanitation, basic education and shelter. The policy reform became handicap as it was unable to fulfil the objectives set thus becoming imperatively pragmatic to unveil voluntourism as alternative strategy. Another effort made is the establishment of Nigerian Agricultural and Cooperative Bank (NACB) of 1973; Directorate of Foods, Roads and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI) of 1986; National Directorate of Employment (NDE) of 1986; River Basin Development Authorities (RBDAs) of 1987; Peoples Bank of Nigeria (PBN) of 1990, National Commission for Mass Literacy, Adult &Non- Formal Education (NCMLAE) of 1990; National Agricultural Land Development Authority (NALDA) of 1992; Family Economic Advancement Programme

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013

voluntourism as a veritable alternative approach for rural revitalization due to their immense contribution to social responsibility, tour planning and tour packaging.

(FEAP) of 1997; Poverty Alleviation Programme (PAP) of Year 2000 till Date. The programmes encountered problems of over centralization, unsustainable design, uncoordinated management, over-politicization, irregular payment, lack of monitoring, logistics, high-level and low level corruption and non involvement of rural residents.

The prompt education, awareness and encouragement/ incentive fashioned out to tourists to partake in meaningful activities mostly in rural communities thereby typified the ways in which numerous organizations characterized volunteer’s impact as wholly positive and clearly achievable. Hence, the discovery of volunteer tourism became a vessel for economic, social, political and global development with the involvement of Government, NGOs, Tour Operators, creation of visitor centre staffing, local tourist and most importantly host participation and involvement.

Also, the Federal Government of Nigeria integrated their implementation into the National Development Plan and even the MDG [53] as encapsulated in the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) at the federal level, State Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (SEEDS) at the state level and Local Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (LEEDS) at the local government level. From 2003 to 2007, Nigeria was implementing the NEEDS, which is currently the overarching framework for poverty reduction in the country with primary objectives of raising the country's standard of living through a variety of reforms, including macro-economic stability, deregulation, liberalization, privatization, transparency, and accountability. In assessing the performance of NEEDS, SEEDS and LEEDS in general, it has been criticized and characterized with siphoning of public fund, lack of inclusiveness, bad political motive, greed, personal motive, weak targeting and low level of transparency which is hoped that volunteer tourists could help to tackle this scourge of poverty and promote the well-being of an ` average Nigerian and the socio-economic development of the entire country. III.

The antecedent of voluntourists Selfefficacy;[56]; Motives [17]; Altruism,[57-58]; Autonomy, [59]; Self Fulfilment, [15]; Escapism, [60]; Mutual Relationship, [30]; Host Involvement / Collaboration, [61]; Civic Education, [62]; Skill Development / Acquisition, [63]; Environmental Sustainability,[64 - 65]; Curiosity, [41, 66]; Deccommodification, [67]; Social Force, [54]; Cultural Immersion, [35]; Gap Year, Ward, [68]; Non Governmental Organization [2]; Attitude/ Self Congruity; [69 - 70]. It is hoped that this laudable niche can be re-positioned towards rural revitalization so as to curb the imminent catastrophe of mass movement of the youth leading to urbanization and its attendant, rural neglect, exploitation and deprivation, shortage of raw materials, poor human life as a result of insufficient facilities, unemployment, under employment and food insecurity.

THE EPISTEMENOLOGY OF VOLUNTOURISM

The advent of voluntourism organization such as save the world in a week” by [6] “You are different” by Global Vision International; ”Make a Difference” by Travellers Worldwide; and ”Leave Your Mark On the World” by Global Volunteers [29, 54 -55] with a general acronym of “One Team, One Mission, Salvaging poverty in our Land. These various acronym buttressed the essence of

Voluntourism concept of Branding and rebranding crept in as a contemporary strategy for rural development which gives room for self congruity and community participation. This strategy was anchored on product branding, place branding, Cultural branding and acceptability and re- branding of local traditional and ritualized

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products. These include traditional foods, regional languages, folklore, historical and prehistoric sites [71 - 73].

importantly to the tourist destination thus establishes the dire needs of voluntourism gesture as a financial aid and capital transfer medium. This is achieved through their zealousness in conjunction with stakeholders, voluntary organizations tour operators NGO’s and past experience. The voluntourism activities will spur increase in supply of finance and capital thus leads to increased investment, quality improvement, better marketing opportunities and at long run improve African economy.

Moreso, the literature has shown how voluntourism can positively increase destination image marketing development [74- 76]. The increased performance is attributed to the emergency of alternative tourism called voluntourism and their activities have enhanced rebranding of various communities products, place branding and cultural branding [71-72, 77]. The branding not only continue to promote but create a wider opportunities to position the communities image to the international market as well as increase accessibility and intention to re visit by the voluntourist. This singular attribute is not well pronounced in the study area and if this is rechannelled towards rural revitalization, the vacuums will be hitherto bridged. Refer the figure 1:VOLUNTOURISM ORGANIZATION IN NIGERIA. IV.

b) Knowledge transfer and skill acquisition The potency of voluntourism, professionalism, range of technical skill and their managerial expertise can aide African development as they are always eager to share knowledge with the policy makers, governmental agencies and host communities without any form of levies. What is expected of the developing countries is to network their plans and design in line with the voluntourism agenda and program with primary assurance on tourist security. The above connectivity will aid in breeding of such community to international repute and thereby resulting into increased economic livelihood. Government on their own part should formulate favourable policies that will support the institutionalization of voluntourism and dabble into the land tenure system and customary law that empower individual ownership of land so as to ease land acquisition marked for development, policy implementation ad knowledge transfer centre.

THE POTENTIAL BENEFIT OF VOLUNTOURIST INVOLVEMENT IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT (AFRICA)

Having peruse some of the conventional approaches and the advent of tourism industry as a catalyst and research still showing that vacuum exists, the question now is “why Voluntourism”?. The efficacy, potential, zeal and financial assistance of this calibre of tourists are the simplest answer to the above riddle. However, the mutual cooperation and involvement [30, 78- 79] of host communities plays a vital role in attainment of voluntourism gesture [7,18, 61, 80]). Followings are some of the basic benefits gainable from voluntourism involvement

Moreso, Volunteer tourism can provide a range of technical and managerial expertise on poverty alleviation both at the preconception, during the course of tour and post tour as the whole world is now seen as a global village with the advent of different communication gadgets, electronic media and internet facilities. The developing countries can utilize this medium from voluntourism website in line with their current

a) Increased capital improvement and investment Capital formation and resource management has been identified as a bane of most developing countries of the world [81], therefore with this poor management of Africa resources, it has been an hindrance to resource development and most

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objectives to seek and solicit for assistance and guide on the way in which they are able to apply the same strategy in alleviating poverty in some developed countries as rightly observed [ 2, 37,]. Emerging nations may relate with the voluntourism sector on area of interest like the design of workable programmes, mode of implementation, affected people, organizational procedures, operational procedures, and engineering aspect, planning and training. With this cross exchange of ideas, the Government can institute a policy supporting programme seeking for volunteer tourist or voluntourist via tour operators to come over to educate [4] and participate in any programme exhibited in the role played by volunteer tourism in conservation of natural park, preservation, conservation protection of natural environment and festivity [30, 59, 82]

d) Focus Considering the magnitude, profile and dimension of poverty in Africa, Nigeria as an example, it will be ideal to properly focus on sizeable proportion of people and specific programmes to be embarked upon, thus requiring the wealth of knowledge, ideas and goodwill of volunteer tourism to key in with the Government of Nigeria’s policy and programs towards the low income bracket [87]. It should be noted that the primary goal of any economic planning is the attainment of rapid increase in the nation’s productive capacity with a view to improving the living standard of people and improving the standard of living of an average person. Empirical findings have shown that all strategies and efforts highlighted in this study have failed to tackle endemic poverty situations and poverty has defiled solutions in Nigeria despite the enormous wealth of the nation. This calls for more concerted efforts and advocacy in rejuvenating the system through the use of new strategic efforts such as free donors of time, finance and presence [88].

c) Image promotion and International Connection Volunteer tourism or voluntourism provide international connection thereby helpingq1 to polish the host country’s image through selfless service rendered to the country which will eventually open more doors to other multinational organizations to help in alleviating poverty either through provision of machineries, materials and or finance. It should be noted that the sustenance of this assistance is dependent on mutual understanding and peaceful co-existence of the people and the nation at large, cultural immersion [83 - 84], understanding and positive motive [85], cultural and spiritual experience, amiability [Raymond,2008;, increase social contact [86], sustainable development and most importantly the security of life and property of the tourists must be guaranteed [87]. Thus, the involvement of volunteer tourism and their motivational antecedents [29] results in rebranding the national image thereby open more vistas of opportunities for bi-lateral relationships between the participating nationalities.

e) Proficiency and Efficacy The organizational competence of volunteer tourists is another profitable avenue that accompanies their goodwill in poverty alleviation. And in enhancing proficiency, activities rendered to improve the well-being of those areas visited by gap year volunteers as investigated by [89]; Global awareness [90]; Skill development and acquisition [63]is unquantifiable ranging from rendering personal assistance of time, finance, superior research, good reputation, managerial skills, education, enlightenment, direct construction cum supervision, sense of oneness and togetherness, people centred approach and the welfare of the host community [91] appreciative enquiry [53] that are the paramount motive of volunteer tourism as

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well as resident support are vital tools that can be employed to alleviate poverty in Nigeria [58, 90, 87]. Although, the efficacy and authenticity of voluntourist may be illogical to measure but their past assistance and performance in developed countries gives the impetus to be able to perform creditably in developing countries. The acronym of voluntourism organization [6] which typified their modus operandi authenticates their potency and efficacy to take Africa to the next level of economic revitalization/development.

geographical setting of an area can also aid tourist attraction in a competitive manner.

h) Ideal platform for local entrepreneurs Voluntourism may also induce the exhibition and demonstration of local artworks among the indigenous and foreign tourists. That is to say, the adoption of voluntourism as a veritable strategy to Africa development will orchestrate managerial techniques; improve local skill and local entrepreneurship, especially the locally owned business by showcasing the nation based on comparatively advantageous works/ goods produced.

f) Integrated Development Although, many developing countries have different challenges bedevilling implementation of programmes and policies but in case of Nigeria the pervasiveness of poverty could be attributed to failed strategies and non-inclusion of volunteer tourism [90, 92]. Hence, the need for alternative approach to sensitize, harmonize and develop all natural endowment to world acceptable standard for tourists and recreationists. g) Increase competitiveness and service quality of local economy The main concern here is that although the developing countries have natural attractions but what then requires is the knowledge, experience and motivation of voluntourism and that the developing countries needs to facilitate acceptable level of services in order to attract voluntourism because international tourism is a highly competitive industry. Hence, the developing countries should provide an enabling environment that is not hostile. Therefore, the nation preparedness, reception and networking is a vital tool to convince and solicit for voluntourism support. In this respect, the nation with the above knowledge of their support, will enjoy improved quality service and compete favourably among nations of the world economically, socially and infrastructurally [93- 94] and also the influence of

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013 NAMES

Concordia International Volunteer Projects

International Cultural Youth Exchange (ICYE) Federation

Voluntary Service Overseas

The United Nations Volunteers (UNV)

YEAR

SPECIALIZATION/ MISSION

OVERVIEW/ AIM

MEMBERSHIP

1943.

Nature conservation, restoration, archaeology, construction, art and culture as well as projects that are more socially based including children’s play-schemes and teaching.

Build a strong and virile cultural relationship through seasonal program

16 yrs & above From 2wks to 6month seasonal programmes (www.concordia-iye.org.uk)

Train volunteers to experience a life-changing program AND offer a wide range of programs for volunteers from around the world 1949

1958

1970

MISSION: To promote intercultural understanding, equality of opportunity, tolerance and peace among people in the world

Help children from a variety of disadvantaged backgrounds including rescued child labourers, abandoned street children, disabled children, children from troubled families, those who have suffered abuse, and orphans. Volunteers assist local organizations with fundraising, supervise the children’s playtime, develop activities and workshops and support families from some of the poorest areas. .

UN-Economic and Social Council – ECOSOC (Consultative Status) United Nations Department of Public Information, DPI-NGO Committee UNESCO NGO official partner of UNESCO (Consultative Status) UNESCO-NGOs Liaison Committee World Council of Churches (working relations as international ecumenical organisation) European Commission, Directorate General Education and Culture Co-ordinating Committee of International Voluntary Service (CCIVS)

VSO is the world’s leading independent international development organisation that works through volunteers to fight poverty in developing countries.

To secure livelihoohs, HIV & AIDS education, Participation and Governance, Education Health and Disability

No age limit

UN organization that contributes to peace and development through volunteerism worldwide.

. UNV embraces volunteerism as universal and inclusive, and recognizes volunteerism in its diversity as well as the values that sustain it: free will,

epresented worldwide through the offices of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and reports to the UNDP Executive Board.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013 commitment, engagement and solidarity. FHI community-based outreach. World Computer Exchange, www.worldcomputerexchange.o rg

Volunteers for Peace Contact: www.vfp.org

1982

Additional Grassroots Resources and Family Health International (FHI) care

Offers a variety of summer volunteer workcamps in Nigeria.

Volunteer Abroad Nigeria, www.volunteerabroad.com/Nige ria.cfm Volunteers for Peace, Nigeria, www.vfp.org International Cultural Youth Exchange, www.icye.org Winrock International, www.winrock.org Voluntary Service Overseas, www.vso.org.uk

Affordable International Projects Volunteers for Peace in Nigeria www.vfp.org

Winrock International

1982

1985

Sow the seeds of a better future for all life on the planet thru intercultural education, service learning and community development

To empower the disadvantaged, increase economic opportunity, and sustain natural resources.

To participate in meaningful community service while living and interacting in an intercultural environment.

18+ May through September and are of 2 to 3 weeks in duration. www.vfp.org

Matches innovative approaches in agriculture, natural resources management, clean energy, and leadership development with the unique needs of its partners.

No age limit

CERCOPAN Primate Conservation West Africa

1995

Improve the livelihood of rural communities through wildlife conservation and protection.

Research (both flora and fauna), primate care, community development, and environmental education

Mictec International

1998

To prepare every child for all round excellence through

Contributing towards nation-

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18+

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013 qualitative academics, sound moral instructions and complementary co-curricular activities, using our highly skilled and motivated manpower,

Consult Volunteer in Nigeria

Student and Youth Travel OrganizationSYTO Nigeria

EIL Intercultural Learning Volunteer in Nigeria

Volunteer Abroad in Nigeria - Unit

Eco-Health & Wellness Campaign Intern

1999

1999

2000

2001

Mission is to expose students and youth to the world, and to promote understanding, knowledge acquisition and the development of skills for living in a globally interdependent and culturally diverse world.

For cultural immersion in line with educational development

building and achieving the best possible returns to all stakeholders.

Working relations with a number of non-governmental organisations and public and private organisations both in the urban & rural areas. The aim of SYTO is to promote educational and cultural exchange programmes, including social travel among students, volunteers, youths and the young at heart the world over. Volunteer projects in teaching, education, welfare, and human rights.

To provide faith-driven approaches in line with hope for HIV/AIDs incollaboration with Nigerian Corporate Affairs Commission as a nongovernmental organization

Units of motorcycles for community Homevisit and palliative follow-up to attract volunteer as a general resource for individuals planning to travel and volunteer in the local areas

Community based project of kwara state focused on health and wellness Through initiatives in education, research and advocacy we act to end wide-scale poverty worldwide, secure a culture of peace and reverse

ERI presents a grassroots, handson approach to engage the region's youth and equip them for the future

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member of Federation EIL, The Worldwide Network of the Experiment in International Living. Education/Teaching - Social and Welfare Services - Health Care

Contact: info@volunteerabroad.ie, www.volunteerabroad.ie/nigeria .htm

United Planet - 6 or 12 Months www.unitedplanet.org/volunteer -in-nigeria-long-term

Young adults age 18-26

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013 environmental degradation in Nigeria CONCERN UNIVERSA

2003

United Planet's volunteers

The Nigerian National Volunteer Service (NNVS).

Global Builders Trip to Nigeria www.fullercent er.org/globalbuilders Abj

2005

2005

European Voluntary Service – EVS

2006

Volunteers for International

2007

Concern Universal works in partnership to challenge poverty and inequality.

Focus specifically on sectors such as health, agriculture, human rights and capacity building

No age limit

Social project with local organization on woman empowerment, health care, child labour, abuse and orphanages.

Offer volunteers a unique blend of work, cultural immersion, and fun.

6-12months Website: www.unitedplanet.org Email: quest@unitedplanet.org

Designed as a guide for peer education at the individual and community levels and aimed at providing a comprehensive guide on youth volunteerism,

So volunteers will be working side by side in a different culture with local families and with the Fuller Center to help provide simple, decent homes for those in need. Volunteers will mainly take part in concrete block-laying, mixing of concrete and digging, and occasionally some painting.

Volunteering opportunity for a diverse range of young people to be useful to other community

Offers each international volunteer an opportunity to

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Its objectives are to uphold national volunteers as main agents for constructive change to local communities and the benefit of volunteering.

The Fuller Center for Housing's Mission Statement The Fuller Center for Housing, faithdriven and Christ-centered, promotes collaborative and innovative partnerships with individuals and organizations in an unrelenting quest to provide adequate shelter for all people in need worldwide. Opportunity to support the work of a host organization or communities and develop their skills in an area of work that interests them. Placement opportunities

to

Collaborative project of the Fresh & Young Brains Development Initiative (FBI), the United Nations Volunteers (UNV) programme and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), in Nigeria

14+ www.fullercent org/global builders

Via Concordia International Volunteer Projects 18-25yrs‌6-12 months

No age limit

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013 Partnership =Volunteer in Nigeria! www.partners hipvolunteers. org/volunteerin-nigeria/

African Rural Volunteers Volunteer Club of Nigeria

Humanitarian Volunteer Placements

Medical: Volunteer Health Practitioners The Clinic Project

Education: Volunteer Teachers (The Book Project)

The International Association for Volunteer Effort (IAVE)

learn a culture from the inside while doing valuable community service, peer to peer, in a stimulating new environment

participate in community projects, smallscale industries, public institutions and nongovernmental organizations (NGO) designed to allow volunteer's make a meaningful and lasting contribution to the condition of deprived communities. Creation and provision of Green energy/solar panel projects , Water project, Clothing & Food aid

2008

To contribute positively to the development of local communities socially, healthwise educationally and economically

2008

Better life for local dwellers

2008

Offers placement for doctors who are willing to offer free medical care to people in this rural communities in Nigeria and other very deprived communities,

Provision ofqualified staffs, doctors, nurses and other health practitioners and construction of standard health centers.

18+

2008

Teaching in low-income communities can increase employment opportunities and ultimately help people to become economically independent.

Enhancement of local education improvement via book donation and teaching in conjunction with local volunteers

No age limit

2009

Volunteering for the attainment of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

Earth Hour is a global WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature)

2011

Support for action on climate change and encourage sustainable living.

Agribusiness

2011

A U.S. government’s Farmer-

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Promoting youth volunteering and Sustainable Human Development Rights.

Primary aim is tagged “"I Will If You Will". talk about it Our Environment and Climate Change ” Farmers

No age limit

No age limit

partnership with First Lady’s Save Our Youth Campaign, Citizenship and Leadership Training Centre and the Nigerian National Volunteer Service

No age limit

United States Agency for

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013 Volunteers in Nigeria

to-Farmer Program, a program financed by the

Earth Hour is a global WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature)

2012

Support for action on climate change and encourage sustainable living.

Volunteer Partnership For West Africa (VPWA)

2012

Empowering women in Nigeria

V.

educators Animal husbandry in Gombe State, Invites Individuals, businesses, governments and communities to turn out their lights for one hour on Saturday March 31, 2012 at 8:30pm Enable woman and girls to take action and create a better world for women and girls through entrepreneurship.

International Development (USAID).

No age limit

Nigerian youth (18-35 years old)

environment devoid of conflict, maiming and kidnapping thus portend little or no assistance from voluntourists to come to their aid. This finding suggests that volunteer tourism providers, the Nongovernmental organizations and developing countries, needs to pay greater attention to building a strong relationship with their volunteer tourists and to develop programs that demonstrate an obvious positive impact on the host community. Volunteer tourism providers and organizers should work toward a better understanding of the different motivation factors of various types of volunteer tourists in order to achieve; learning more about volunteer tourists‘ unique motivations as a way to encourage volunteer tourists participation in poverty alleviation, developing marketing programs that appeal to those distinctive motivation factors and provision of accurate information of volunteer tourism activities will motivate potential volunteer tourists to participate. It is on this premise that, this study strongly recommends that developing countries should institutionalize, recognize and adopt this sector as an antidote, weapon and tool for sustainable rural development in Africa.

CONCLUSION

This paper concludes that African as a continent has not made judicious use of this sector and have also failed to recognize that investing in this sector will aid economic growth of the nation. This however may be considered as a lack of political will on the part of public policy makers and policy implementers. A finding also indicates that all efforts by the government to eradicate the scourge of poverty in the continent have failed. This study aims to encourage individuals, governments and nations that have embraced and those who have not to embrace the gesture of alternative tourism via attracting voluntourist and their activity and shared experience as a way of testing the possibility of alleviating poverty because voluntourism is a more preferred alternative for poverty reduction because of its broad and diverse nature ranging from their willingness to assist personally, financially, dedication of time and services arising from their tour. However, it was emphasized in this research that the main antidote to economic development, unemployment and poverty reduction is the adoption of voluntourism. The study found that the developing countries has failed to provide enabling

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013 Residents Perceptions. Asian Social Sciences, 8(8), 28-29. (2012) [14]. McGehee, N.., Exploring a sociology of volunteer tourism: The use of critical theory and social movement theory to establish research propositions in volunteer tourism. Third International Critical Tourism Studies (CTS) Conference connecting academies of hope: creative vistas and critical visions, 21 June– 24 June 2009, Zadar, Croatia. (2009) [15]. Marry, C,. They really love me! Intimacy in Volunteer Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, doi:10.1016/j.annals.2011.03.14(2011) [16]. Brown, S., Travelling with a Purpose: Understanding the Motives and Benefits of Volunteer Vacationers. Current Issues in Tourism, 8, 6, pp. 479-496 (2005) [17]. Pearce, P. L., & Coghlan, A., The dynamics behind volunteer tourism. In S. Wearing & K. Lyons (Eds.), Journeys of discovery in volunteer tourism: International case study perspectives. Oxfordshire, UK: CABI. (2008) [18]. Soderman, N., & Snead, S. ,Opening the gap: The motivation of gap year travellers to volunteer in Latin America. In K. D. Lyons & S. Wearing (Eds.), Journeys of discovery in volunteer tourism: International case study perspectives (pp. 118–129). Wallingford, UK: CABI. (2008). [19]. McKercher, B., B. Denizci-Guillet, and E. Ng.., “Rethinking Loyalty.” Annals of Tourism Research, 39(2): 708-734. (2012) [20]. Weaver, D., and L. Lawton. (2010). “Visitor Loyalty at a Private South Carolina Protected Area.” Journal of Travel Research, 50 (3): 335-46. [21]. Pearce, P., and M. Kang., “The Effects of Prior and Recent Experiences on Continuing Interest in Tourist Settings.” Annals of Tourism Research, 36 (2): 172-90. (2009) [22]. McKercher, B., and B. Denizci.., “Are Tourists or Markets Destination Loyal?” Journal of Travel Research. doi:10.1177/ 0047287510362779. (2010) [23]. Wearing, S. L., Wearing, M., & McDonald, M. (2010). Understanding local power and interactional processes in sustainable tourism: Exploring village–tour operator relations on the Kokoda Track, Papua New Guinea. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(1), 61–76. [24]. Sirakaya-Turk, E., Y. Ekinci, and A. Kaya.. “An Examination of the Validity of SUS-TAS in Cross-Cultures.” Journal of Travel Research, 46 (4): 414-21. (2008) [25]. Tazim Jamal & Steve Hill.,: Developing a framework for indicators of authenticity: the place and space of cultural and heritage tourism, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 9:4, 353-372 (2004) [26]. Bob McKercher and Tony SM Tse, Is Intention to Return a Valid Proxy for Actual Repeat Visitation? Journal of Travel Research 51(6) 671– 686(2012) [27]. Wang, Y., and R. E. Pfister. “Residents’ Attitudes towardTourism and Perceived Personal Benefits in a Rural Community.” Journal of Travel Research, 47 (1): 84-93. (2008). [28]. Chan, A., McKercher, B., and C. Lam., “The Impact of Distance on International Tourist Movements.” Journal of Travel Research, 47 (2): 208-24 (2008). [29]. Raymond, E., Make a difference! The role of sending organizations in volunteer tourism. In S. Wearing & K. Lyons (Eds.), Journeys of discovery in volunteer tourism: International case study perspectives. Oxfordshire, UK: CABI. (2008).

ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to acknowledge and thank the UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA Centre for Innovative planning and Development (CiPD), International Doctorial Fellowship (IDF) and Prof Alan .A Lew, Editor in chief, Tourism Geographies., Department of Geography, Planning & Recreation, Northern Arizona University for their supports. REFERENCES [1]. Haller, A. Growth and Development through Tourism in Conditions of Liberalisation: Theme and Concepts. Paper presented at the 14th International Conference 'Romanian Rural Tourism in Context of Sustainable Development; Present and Prospect' 25-26 May, 2012, Vatra Dornei, Romania. [2]. Lyons, K., & Wearing, S., Volunteer tourism as alternative tourism: Journeys beyond otherness. In S. Wearing & K. Lyons (Eds.), Journeys of discovery in volunteer tourism: International case study perspectives. Oxfordshire, UK: CABI. (2008) [3]. Caton, K., and C. A. Santos., “Images of the Other: Selling Study Abroad in a Postcolonial World.” Journal of Travel Research, 48 (2): 191-204. (2009) [4]. Palacios, C.. Volunteer tourism, development, and education in a postcolonial world: Conceiving global connections beyond aid. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(7), 861–878. (2010) [5]. Chung-Hung Tsai & Cheng-Wu Chen: Development of a Mechanism for Typhoon- and Flood-risk Assessment and Disaster Management in the Hotel Industry – A Case Study of the Hualien Area, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 11:3, 324-341 (2011) [6]. Vodopivec. B & Jaffe R.. Save the World in a Week: Volunteer Tourism, Development and difference. European Journal of Development Research 23(1): 111–128. (2011) [7]. Robin Nunkoo & Dogan Gursoy., Residents’ Support for Tourism: An Identity Perspective, Elsevier Journal of Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp.243–268. (2012) [8]. Mansfeld, Y., Cycles of war, terror, and peace: Determinants and management of crisis and recovery of the Israeli tourism industry. Journal of Travel Research, 38, 30–36. (1999). [9]. Tsai, C.H., Chen, C.W., Tseng, C.P., & Lou, P.J., Applications of GIS for tourism: Tour guide system and natural disaster risk management. The 12th Asia Pacific Tourism Association & 4th Asia Pacific CHRIE Joint Conference (pp. 1676–1686). (2006) [10]. Santos, C. A., and G. Yan.. “Representational Politics in Chinatown: The Ethnic Other.” Annals of Tourism Research, 35 (4): 879-99. (2008) [11]. Butcher, J.. Ecotourism, NGOs and development: A critical analysis. London: Routledge. (2007) [12]. Goeldner, C. R., and Ritchie, B. J. R., Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies (10th Ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc. (2006) [13]. Manwa. L., Communities Understanding of Tourists and the Tourism Industry: the Lisotho Highlands Water Project. African Journal of Business Management, 6(2), 6667-6674.34. Long, P. H. (2012). Tourism Impacts and Support for Tourism Development in Ha Long Bay, Vietnam; An Examination of

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013

STATIC DEFORMATION OF TWO HALF SPACES IN SMOOTH CONTACT DUE TO VERTICAL TENSILE FAULT #1

#2

#3

Mahabir Singh , Meenal Malik and Jagdish Singh #1 Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Murthal, Sonepat-139031 #3 Department of Mathematics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124001 #2Department of Applied Sciences, Matu Ram Institute of Engineering and Management, Rohtak-124001 3

1 msdhankhar@gamil.com js_nandal_2K5@yahoo.com

2

meenaljalaj@gmail.com the static deformation field produced by point forces and I. ABSTRACT point force couples embedded in two Poissonian halfspaces in welded contact. Kumari et al. (1992) Closed-form analytic expressions for the generalized the results of Heaton and Heaton (1989) Airy stress function, stresses and displacements for and they obtained the expressions for the displacements half-spaces in smooth contact by applying suitable for arbitrary Poisson’s ratio. Furthermore, they obtained boundary conditions at the interface are first closed-form analytical expression for the stresses as obtained. These expressions are then integrated well. Sharma et al. (1991) obtained closed-form analytically to derive the Airy stress function for a analytical expressions for the displacement and stresses vertical tensile fault of arbitrary dip and finite width. at any point of either of the two homogeneous, isotropic, Closed-form analytical expressions for the perfectly elastic half-spaces in welded contact due to displacements and stresses follow immediately from very long strike-slip dislocations. the Airy stress function. The variation of the stresses with the horizontal distance from the fault Singh and Garg (1986) obtained the integral and with the depth studied numerically. The results expression for the Airy stress function in an unbounded obtained in smooth contact are compared with that medium due to various two-dimensional seismic of welded contact. sources. Beginning with these expressions, Rani et al. (1991) obtained the integral expressions and hence closed form analytical expressions for the Airy stress KEYWORDS Deformation, Dyke injection, Vertical function, displacements and stresses in a tensile fault, Smooth contact, Welded contact homogeneous, isotropic, perfectly elastic half-space due to various two-dimensional sources by applying the II. INTRODUCTION traction-free boundary conditions at the surface of the half-space. Singh and Rani (1991) obtained closed-form Rongved (1955) obtained closed-form algebraic analytical expressions for the displacements and expressions for the Neuber-Papkovich displacement stresses at any point of a two-phase medium consisting potentials for an arbitrary point force acting in an infinite of a homogeneous, isotropic, perfectly elastic half-space medium consisting of two elastic half-spaces in welded in welded contact with a homogeneous, orthotropic, contact. Dundurs and Hetenyi (1965) obtained these perfectly elastic half-space caused by two-dimensional functions when the half-spaces are in smooth contact seismic sources located in the isotropic half-space.Singh and also obtained the corresponding displacement field. et al. (1992) followed a similar procedure to obtain the Moreover, they compared the traction for a smooth closed-form analytical expression for the displacements interface with that for a perfect bond between the two and stresses at any point of either of two homogeneous, semi-infinite solids. Heaton and Heaton (1989) used the isotropic, perfectly elastic half-spaces in welded contact expressions for the Neuber-Papkovich functions derived due to two-dimensional sources. by Rongved (1955) to obtain analytical expressions for

17

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013 Singh and Singh (2000) derived closed–form analytical expressions for the displacements and stresses at an arbitrary point of the half-space caused by a long vertical tensile fault of finite width. Singh et al. (2002) extended the results of Singh (2000) and obtained the closed-form analytical expression for the subsurface stresses and displacements caused by a long inclined tensile fault buried in a homogeneous isotropic half-space. The effect of depth of the upper edge of the fault and the dip angle on the deformation field has been examined. Kumar et al. (2005) derived analytical expressions for the displacements and stress fields at any point of the two homogeneous, isotropic elastic half-spaces in welded contact caused by a long tensile fault of arbitrary dip and finite width.

2

∂ U 2 ∂x 2

2

∇ ≡

2 2

∂x 2

the

∂x 2∂x 3

(1)

,

components

of

stress

∂U 2

∂x 3

and

.

We have (Sokolnikoff,1956,Sec.71)  ∂U 1 2µ u 2= − + ∫ ∇ 2U dx 2,  ∂x 2 2α    ∂U 1 2 2µ u 3= − + ∫ ∇ U dx 3,   ∂x 3 2α  where α =

(λ +µ ) (λ +2µ )

=

1 2(1 − σ )

(3)

.

We consider two homogeneous, isotropic, perfectly elastic half-spaces which are in smooth contact along the plane x 3 = 0 . The upper half-space ( x 3 〈 0) is called medium I and the lower half-space (x 3〉 0) , medium II, with elastic constants λ1, µ1 and λ2 , µ 2 respectively (Figure 1). The superscript (1) denotes the quantities related to medium I and the superscript (2) denotes those related to medium II. Let there be line source parallel to x 1 -axis. As shown by Singh and Garg (1986), the Airy stress function U 0 for a line source parallel to the x 1 axis passing through the point (0, 0, h ) in an infinite medium can be expressed in the form ∞ U 0 = ∫ [ L 0 + M 0k x 3 − h sink x 2 0

(

)

(

) cosk x ]k 2

−1e

−k x 3 − h

(4)

dk ,

where the source coefficients L 0, M 0, P0 and Q0 are

Let the Cartesian coordinates be denoted by

independent of the variable k .For a line source parallel

( x 1, x 2 , x 3 ) with x 3-axis vertically downwards. Consider which

2

∂U

2

+

+ P 0 + Q 0k x 3 − h

in

τ 23 = −

,

(2)

τ i j are

where

III. THEORY

approximation

τ 33 =

,

2 2

We begin with the integral expressions for the Airy stress function in an unbounded medium given by Singh and Garg (1986) to obtain the integral expressions for the Airy stress functions stresses and displacements for the two half-spaces in smooth contact by applying suitable boundary conditions at the interface. The integrals are then evaluated analytically, obtaining closed-form expressions for the stresses at any point of either of the two half-spaces caused by vertical tensile fault. For numerical calculations, half spaces are assumed Poissionian.

two-dimensional

2 ∂x 3

∇∇U = 0

In this paper, we obtain closed-form analytical expressions for the displacements and the stresses at any point of either of the two homogeneous, isotropic, perfectly elastic half-spaces in smooth contact caused by various two-dimensional sources embedded in one of the half-spaces. The results are valid for arbitrary Poisson’s ratio. Only plane strain case is considered. The stresses for the smooth interface case are compared with the corresponding stresses for the welded interface.

a

2

∂ U

τ 22 =

to the

the

x 1 axis passing through the point (0, 0, h ) of

displacement components u 1, u 2 , u 3 are independent of

medium II, the expression for the Airy stress functions in the two half-spaces are of the form

x 1 so that ∂ ∂x 1 ≡ 0 .Under this assumption, the plain

U

strain problem (u 1 = 0) can be solved in terms of the Airy

(1)

= ∫ ( L 1 + M 1k x 3 )sin k x 2

(5)

0

+( P1 + Q 1k x 3 )cosk x 2  k −1e

stress function U such that

18

k x3

dk ,

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013

U

(2)

= U 0 + ∫ ( L 2 + M 2k x 3 )sink x 2

(6)

0

+( P 2 + Q 2k x 3 )cosk x 2 k −1e where

U0

is

given

unknowns L1, M 1, P1, Q 1

in

(1) τ 33 = − ∫ ( L 1 + M 1k x 3 ) sin k x 2

0

dk ,

equation

(10)

+ ( P1 + Q 1k x 3 ) cos k x 2 ] e k dk ,

−k x 3

k x3

(4)

and L 2, M 2, P 2, Q 2 are

and

the

to

be

τ 22 = ∫ ( L 0 − 2M (2)

0

determined from the boundary conditions.

0

+ M 0k x 3−h ) e

+ ( L 2 − 2M 2 + M

2k x 3

− k x 3 −h

) e −k x

3

∞ −k + ∫ ( P 0 − 2Q 0 + Q 0k x 3−h ) e 0

(11)

x 3 −h

+ ( P 2 − 2Q 2 + Q 2k x 3 ) e − k x 3  cos k x 2k dk ,

τ 23 = ∫  ± ( L 0 − M 0 + M 0k x 3−h ) e 0 (2)

 sin k x 2k dk

− k x 3 −h

+ ( L 2 − M 2 + M 2k x 3 ) e − k x 3  cos k x 2k dk ∞ −k − ∫  ± ( P0 − Q 0 + Q 0k x 3−h ) e 0

x 3−h

+ ( P2 − Q 2 + Q 2k x 3 ) e −k x 3  sin k x 2k dk ,

∞ −k (2) τ 33 = − ∫ ( L 0 + M 0k x 3−h ) e

(12)

x 3 −h

0

+ ( L 2 + M 2k x 3 ) e − k x 3  sin k x 2k dk

Fig. 1. Two half-spaces in smooth contact with a line source in the lower half-space at (0, 0, h)

∞ −k − ∫ ( P0 + Q 0k x 3−h ) e 0

Since the interface is x 3 = 0, then smooth contact implies

+ ( P 2 + Q 2k x 3 ) e − k x 3  cos k x 2k dk ,

that u 3 and τ 33 are continuous but τ 23 vanishes at the (1)

interface. Since the half-spaces are assumed to be in smooth contact along the plane x 3 = 0, the boundary

∞

2µ1u 2 = ∫

0 

(

− L1 +

conditions at the interface x 3 = 0 are (1) (2) τ 33 = τ 33 (1)

(2)

,

u3 = u 3 ,

(1) τ 23 (2)

(

M

1

α1

+ P1 +

= 0 , 

(7)

τ 23 = 0 .  

(1)

∞

2µ1u 3 = − ∫

Due to discontinuity in horizontal displacement u 2

0 

(

)

+ M 1k x 3 cos k x 2 Q1

L1 + M 1 −

From equations (1) – (6), we get the following integral expressions for the stresses and the displacements for the two media: ∞ (1) τ 22 = ∫ ( L 1+ 2M 1+ M 1k x 3 ) sin k x 2 0 (8) k x3 +( P1 + 2Q 1 + Q 1k x 3 ) cos k x 2 ] e k dk,

(

(2)

2µ 2u 2

(

)

]

+ Q 1k x 3 sin k x 2 e

α1

M1

α1

+ P1 + Q 1 −

at x 3 = 0, there may be a slip between the two media.

) ) ) )

(

(

M

Q1

α1

2

α2

(

+ P2 −

0

k x3

α2

(14)

dk ,

 

+ Q 1k x 3 cos k x 2 e

+ M 2k x 3 e

) )

∞ Q −k + ∫ P0 − 0 + Q 0k x 3−h e α  2 0 Q2

kx3

+ M 1k x 3 sin k x 2

∞ M −k = − ∫ L 0 − 0 + M 0k x 3−h e α  2  0

+ L2 −

∞ (1) τ 23 = ∫ −  ( L 1 + M 1 + M 1k x 3 ) cos k x 2

+ ( P1 + Q 1 + Q 1k x 3 ) sin k x 2 ] e k dk ,

(13)

x 3 −h

+ Q 2k x 3 e

(15) k x3

dk ,

x 3−h

−k x3

 cos k x 2dk

x 3 −h

−k x 3

 sin k x dk , 2 

(16)

(9)

19

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013

( +(

∞ = ∫ ± L0 − M 0 

(2)

2µ 2u 3

L2 − M

0

2

+

+

(

M

0

α2

M

+ M 0k x 3−h

)

2

+ M 2k x 3 e

α2

)

τ 23 = C 1x 3 − (1)

−k x 3

)

 sin k x 2dk

∞ Q −k +∫ ± P0 − Q 0 + 0 + Q 0k x 3−h e α  2 0

(

+ P2 − Q 2 + It

is

noticed

)

+ Q 2k x 3 e

from

coefficients L 0, M 0 , P0

> for x 3 < h ; let

Q2

α2

−k x 3

− − − L , M , P and

Q

+

(17)

 cos k x 2dk , that

different

the

+Q

2h x 3 ( x 3 − h )

 h − 2 +  R

4

R

(1)

+P

−

(1)

+

6

R

+

+M (18)

R

6

+

−  2x 2h 8h x 2 ( h − x 3 )(h + 2x 3 )  4 − 6 R  R

48h x 2 x 3 (h − x 3 )

3

8

R

  

8h ( h + 5x 3 )( h − x 3 )

 

+

48h x 3 (h − x 3) R

8

8h x 3 (h − x 3 )

3

R

2

  , 

− 1 x 2 +

2x 2 x 3 (h − x 3 )  − P 2 R 

 1  2h ( h − x )   1   3 + −1h +   −1( h − x 3)−3x 3  2 α α R  1    1 

3 48h x 2 x 3 ( h − x 3 )  

+

4

8

R

   ,  

  1  x 2x ( x − h )2  − 3 3 = 2 −  − 1 h − 3 + L 2 α1 R R   α1      α1

−  6h (h − 2x 3) 8h (h − 7x 3)(h − x 3) + Q − + 4 6 R R 

48h x 3 ( h − x 3 )

C1

 1

8

+

6

+

R

(21)

4

R (1) 2µ1u 2

  

 −  6h 2  + Q  4 R  2

 −  2x 2h  + M − 4  R 

8h x 2 (h − x 3 )(h − 4x 3 )

   3

4 3

2

 −  1 2( h − x 3 )( h + 2x 3 ) 8x 3 ( h − x 3 ) +P  2 − + 4 6 R R R

R

8x 3 (h − x 3 )

 2x 2h −  8x 2 x 3 (h − x 3 ) − 6 4 R R 



    

2 ( h − x 3 )(h − 4x 3 )

1

− 2 +  R



τ 33 = −C 1  L 

+

  2x ( h − 2x ) 8x x (h − x ) − 2 3 2 3 3 = C 1 L  + 4 6 R R  

(20)

2

be the values of

2

τ 22

2

 24h x 2 ( h − x 3 ) −   2( h − x 3 ) + Q  − 1  , 6 2 R  R 

values

−  x h 2h x 2 x 3 ( h − x 3 )  + log R } + M − 22 +  4 R  R  2

 8(h − x 3 ) 8(h − x 3 )  − + 1   4 2 R  R 

 − x x −1  x 2   −  x 3( h − x 3 ) = C 1  L  2 23 − tan   + P  R 2 R h − x  3   

2

4

4

from equations (9) to (17) and the boundary conditions (7), we obtain (1)

2x 2 R

L 0, M 0 , P0 and Q0 respectively, valid for x 3 < h . Then

U

  6h − −  4( h − x 3 ) P  − 1 − 4 M 2  R  R 2

x 3 −h

appendix

and Q0 have

 2(h − x )  4(h − x )2  − 3 3 L  − 3 4 2 R   R 

−k x 3−h

e

x 3} +

(19)

20

4

 −  2x h  1   M +  22  α −1 (h − x 3 )  R  1  

8h x 2x 3 ( x 3 − h )

2

R

4

 −  Q  ,  

(22)

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2x 2x 3 ( x 3 − h )  −   1  h  L + x 31−α +α 2 R 1 1   

C 1  x 2

(1)

2µ1u 3 =

+ 2  R α1

2

2 8h x 2x 3 ( x 3 − h )  

 −  2h ( x 3−h )  ( x 3−h )  M − R 2  α −3x 3   1  

4

8h x 3 ( h − x 3)

3

(2)

U

h

α1

−1

= L 0 tan

+

4

R

 x2   x3 − h

Q 0 (x3 − h )

2

+

2

R −P

4( x 3 + h )  24h x 3( x 3+h )2 − 2 S4 S  − P  8C x ( x +h )3 +( x 3 + h ) − h C 2 ( h + 4x 3 )  + 2  2 3 43 S S 

(23)

}

 −  Q  ,  

+

C 2x 3 ( x 3 + h )  x 2M −  + 2 {x 3 + h 2 S  S − Q

2C 2h x 3 ( x 3 + h )

+

2

S (2)

τ 22 =

2L 0 x 2 x 3 − h 4

R +

+

+

2

−1+ 

(2)

4

R

{

+

2P0 x 2 ( x 3 − h ) 4

2

+

2x 2 L S

4

(25)

L 0  2

R

2( x 3−h )   R 2  2

−1+ 

  

0 2

2x 2P

S

2Q 0  5( x 3−h )2 4( x 3−h )4  1− +  2  R2 R 4  R  −

±

 , 

4Q 0 x 2 ( x 3 − h )  2( x 3−h )2  1−  4 R 2  R 

2  4C 2x 3( x 3+ h )  ( x 3+ h )−C 2x 3+  2 S  

4

+

+

}

( h +7x 3)

2

 8( x 3 − h )2 8( x 3 − h )4 ± + 1− 2 4 R  R R 

2

4( x 3− h ) −3+ R2 

6

R

2( x 3−h )   R 2 

2M 0 x 2 x 3 − h 

2

3

S4

S

M

P 0 

{( x +h ) −h C

24C 2h x 3 ( x 3 + h )

(24)

 ,  R

− 2  −5( x 3+h ) +3h C 2( h +2x 3) 1+ 2  S2 S 

4

τ 23 = −

 

2Q

2

2C 2h x 3 ( x 3 + h )  2 2 + h C 2+  + 2 ( x 3+h ) +h C 2 2 S S  2

}

2

S

4( x 3+h ) +

 x 2  − C x x −1 + L  2 22 3 + (1+ C 2 ) tan    S  ( x 3 + h ) 

(1+ C 2 ) log S −

{

2( x 3 + h ) x 3 + h − C 2 ( h + 4x 3 )

+C 2 − 1+

 M 0x 2 x 3 − h  − P0 log R + 2 R 

−

 2x M − 2 −3( x 3+h ) +  4 S 

+ hC 2 −



R

2

S

2 2x 3 ( x 3 − h )   −   ( h −x 3)  x 2 −  P +2h  x 3+ α  R 2 2 R 1    

4C 2x 3 ( x 3 + h )

+

2( x 3 + h ){x 3 + h − 3C 2 x 3}   −1 + 2 S  S L

2

8C 2 x 3 ( x 3 + h )

3

+

{x 3+ h −C 2(h + 2x 3)

S +

6C 2h x 3 S

2

4

2  M − −8( x 3+ h )  + 2 {1+ S2  S 2

+

{

}

8( x 3 + h ) ( x 3+ h ) − 6C 2h x 3 2

S

4

48C 2h x 3 ( x 3 + h ) 4x 2 ( x 3 + h ) Q + − 6 4 S S 4

{

}

(

2  2 ( x 3+ h ) −3C 2h x 3 12C 2h x 3 x 3 + h  + −1+ 4 2 S S  

21

)

2

  , (26) 

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2L 0 x 2 x 3 − h

(2)

τ 33 = −

4

R

P0  R

2Q 0 ( x 3 − h ) 

+

3− 

4

R 2x 2L

4

2x 2M

  

4( x 3 + h )  − ( x 3 + h + h C 2 ) + 2 S 

4

S − P 

 −C 2 − 1+ S  

{

S

(2)

2µ 2u 3

}

2

+

S

2

{( x

}

4

+

S (2)

2µ 2u 2

=−

4

L0 x3 − h 2

R

+

P0x 2 2

R

+

(27)

 ,  +

M

0

2

S +

x 2P S

2

2

R

R

2x 3C 2 ( x 3 + h ) 

  C2 −  + P ( x 3 + h ) 1+    α2  

2

)

 4( x 3 + h )2  Q −   1  − 1  + 2 ( x 3 + h )  − 1  2   S  S α   2  

  

2   h C 2   2( x 3 + h ) +x3 + h + − 1    2  α2   S   

 2( x + h )2    C  3 −1  ( x 3+ h ) D 1− 2 − x 3C 2   α S2  2   

M 0x 2

(

− L  2

±

 1   2h x C hC  x3 + h + 32 2  −1+ 2 x 3+ h + 2  2 α α 2  S S  2  

 1  2 ( x − h )2  3  1 +  −  2 R α 2   

2

 2( x 3 + h )2   x M − + x 3C 2  − 1  + 2 2 2   S    S

R

2

P0 ( x 3 − h )

S

x3 − h

Q x   1 2( x 3 − h ) + 0 22 − + 2 R  α2 R

+

2  1 2( x 3 − h )   x 2 L −  C 2 −2 + +  + 2 1+ α 2 R α2   S  2

+ h ) + h C 2 (h − 5x 3 )

24C 2h x 3 ( x 3 + h )

2

2  1 2( x 3 − h )   Q 0 (x 3 − h )   −1 + + + 2 2 α2 R R  

}

2

3

L 0x 2 R

2

{{

(28)

2    C 2   2h x 3C 2  4( x 3 + h ) − 1 , x + h D − +   3  1  2 2  S  α2   S    

− 3 8C 2x 3( x 3+ h )  2Q 2 − −3 ( x 3+ h ) + h 2C 2  4 S4 S  4( x 3 + h )

 (x 3 + h ) C  + ( x 3 + h (D 1 − 2  − α2    α2

 4( x 3 + h )2  x Q −  1 2( x +h ) − 3 + 2 2 − + 32   S2  S  α2 S  

2( x 3 + h ) x 3 + h + C 2 ( h − 2x 3 )

2

2

 2( x 3 + h )2  2h x 3C 2 ( x 3 + h ) − 1 +  2  S2  S  

2

4( x 3−h ) R2

M S

2  4C 2 x 3 ( x 3 + h )   x + h 1 + C + ( ) 3  2 2 S  

S

+

  

2M 0 x 2 x 3 − h  4( x 3−h )  1−  4 R 2  R  2

2

2( x 3−h ) R2 2

+

−1+ 

2

2h x 3C 2 ( x 3 + h )  4( x 3 + h )

2

 C 2  2x 3C 2 ( x 3 + h )    D 1 −  +  2 α2  S  

+

S

2

  

S

2

  

− 3  ,

(29)

where

( z ≠ h ) , R 2 = x 22 + ( x 3 − h )2 , S 2 = x 22 + ( x 3 + h )2 , The expressions given in equations (18)-(29) are in terms of the source coefficients L0, M0, P0 and Q0. The results for the Airy stress functions and the stresses in the two half-spaces for a vertical tensile source on putting the values of the source coefficients from given appendix are as follows:

22

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C 1µ b d s  x 3 (h − x 3 )

=

U

2π (1− σ ) 

2

2

+ log R +

R

h

(2)

τ 23 =

2

R

(30)

2h x 3 ( x 3 − h )  2

, 

4

R (1) τ 22

=

C 1µ 2b d s 

−

2

(1)

R

{8h x 3 − h

−11h

}

4 48h x 3( h − x 3 )  }− , 8 R 

(31) (2) = τ 33

24h ( h − x 3)  , R8 

4 48h x 3( h − x 3)  − } , R8 

C 2x 3 ( x 3 + h )

2

2π (1− σ )  R +

2

+

4

C2 −3 2

+

S

2 4

2 3 −2β C1 = 1+ β

(34)

S

C2=

R

{

(

(6 − 4C 2 ) x 3 + h 2

2

)

2

2 2 3 +h

8

C 1* =

}

(37)

C 2* =

D 1*

−3β 2+ β

β −1 1+ 2β

= 1+ C 2* ,

D 2*

=

(

− C 1* + D 1*

)

2 dimensionless

We

define the following x3 x2 , Z= quantities Y = , where h is the distance of the h h line source from the interface. Let the dimensionless stresses for the welded interface(Kumar et.al 2005) be

(35)

)+2h x 3(4C 2−1)}

4 48C 2h x 3 ( x 3 + h ) 

S

−2 1+ β

β −1 D1 = β +1

2

8( x + h ) + h x 3 (12 − 11C 2 ) + 3 6 S

{(C −1)( x

)

)}

that α1 = α 2 =

6

R

(

2 4( x 3 + h )2 + C 2 4h 2 − 2x 32 − h x 3 S4

assume that the half-spaces are Poissonian ( λi = µi ) so

 −3 12( x 3 − h )2 8( x 3 − h )4

µ 2b d s

{

R6

We want to compare the stresses for the smooth interface case with the corresponding stresses for the welded interface. For the numerical computations, we

1 {( x + h )2 S2 3

2C 2h x 3 ( x 3 + h )   2 +h C 2 +  , 2 S  (2)

R4

IV. NUMERICAL RESULTS

2

τ 22 =

8( x 3 − h )2 8( x 3 − h )4

(33)

− x 32

2  (x 3 − h ) =  − log R − R 2 − {(1 + C 2 ) log S 2π (1 − σ ) 

S

S2

, 

8

S

{ (

µ 2b d s

(C 2 +1) +

+

3 24C 2h x 3(x 3 + h ) 

8( x + h )2 + 36 C 2 x 32 − h 2 − 6h x 3 − ( x 3 + h )2 S 48C 2h x 3 ( x 3 + h )4  − , S8 

(32)

2 C 1µ2b d s  1 2 8( h − x 3) − 4 {4h 2+h x 3−2x 32} +  R6 2π (1− σ )  R 2 R

(36)

6

S

− µ2b d s  1 − 2π (1− σ )  R 2 −

3

2

{3(x 3+h )−C 2x 3} +

{C 2x 3(x 3+4h )−(x 3+h )2} −

x 3 + 4x 32

− x 32

2

4

S

 1 4( h − x 3 )( 4h − x 3 ) − 4 + R6 π (1− σ )  R

{6h x 3+h U

{4h

2

4(x 3 + h )

1

+

C 1x 2 x 3µ 2b d s

τ 33 = −

(2)

4

R

− (1)

2

+

2

2π (1 − σ )  8( h − x 3 ) + R6

τ 23 =

1

3 − x 2µ2b d s  3(x 3 − h ) 4(x 3 − h )  − 4 6 π (1− σ )  R R

, 

denoted by P i *(1) and the dimensionless stresses , P i *(2) j j for the smooth interface be denoted by P i j(1) , P ij(2) . Then, (1)

Pij

=

πL

2

µ 2b d s

(1)

τ ij ,

*(1)

Pi j

=

πL µ 2b

*(1)

τ ij

(38)

From equations (31)-(33) and (35)-(37),we get the following expressions for the dimensionless stresses for the two cases for a vertical tensile line source:

23

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013 (1)

P 22 =

C1  1 2 − 2 + 4 4 − 11Z + 4Z 2(1− σ )  A A

(

8(1 − Z

)

2

(Z

6

A (1)

P23 = (1)

P33 =

C 1Y Z 

1

−

4

(1− σ )  A

− 8Z + 1 −

8

6

)

2

(6Z + 1− Z ) − 48Z (1− Z ) 2

8

A

(40)

*(1)

P 23

B

*(1)

P33

2

)Z }

*(2)

P 22

(42)

{(C −1)(Z +1)+2Z (4C −1)}

2

8(Z + 1) + 6

=−

=

2

2

B

4

8

B

(2)

{C 2Z (Z + 4)

(C 2 + 1)

+

2

B

4

B 2

8(Z + 1) + 6 B −

2

{

{ (

6

*(2)

)

P 23

8(Z − 1)

=

4

B

4C 2 (Z + 1) (3Z + 4) 4

+

2C 2 (Z

3

B

− 1 + 6Z ) 4

2

6 4

 , 

2

− 1)

 4(Z − 1) 2(Z − 1) + 2 4 A 2(1− σ )  A 3

}

4(Z − 1)

)}

4

2(Z + 1)(D 2 + C 2 )

4

A −

(44)

B

4C 2 (2Z + 1)

+

4

8C 2 (Z + 1)(6Z + Z B

3

+

16C 2 (Z + 1)

6

3 96C 2Z (Z + 1) 

*(2)

Following are the expressions for welded contact (Kumar et.al 2005) for the dimensionless stresses for the two cases for a vertical tensile line source:

=

B

 1 2(Z − 1)2 2Y 2 − 2 − A 2 + A 4 2(1− σ )  A 1

2

2

4Y (Z − 1) 4

+

A

(D 2 − C 2 ) 2

2

2Y (D 2 − C 2 )

B

4Y C 2 (Z + 1) B

24

, 

8

B P33

(49)

6

B

2

 

(48)

Y

6

A

(

2

( D 2 + 7C 2 )

2

16C 2(Z +1)2 (4Z +1) 96C 2Z (Z + 1) − 8 B6 B

4

C 2 Z −1−6Z −( Z +1)

8

+

4( Z +1) +C 2 4− 2Z 2 − Z 2

2(Z + 1)

4

B

4 48C 2Z (Z + 1) 

B

8(Z − 1)

(43)

8

2

, 

6

2

2

 1 8(Z − 1) − 2 + A 4 2(1− σ )  A

+

(47)

8C 2 (Z + 1) (10Z + 1+ 3Z )

B

1

=−

2

1

+

} + 24C ZB (Z +1)  ,

2

8Y (1− Z )(C 1Z + D 1)  A

B

3

P33

4

Y  3(Z − 1) 4(Z − 1)3 1 = −  4 − A6 + B4 (1− σ )  A

− ( Z +1)

2(1− Z )(C 1Z + D 1)

6

(46)

 (C 1 + 3D 1) Y 2 (C 1 + 3D 1) −  2 4 2(1− σ )  2A A

A

4(Z + 1)

, 

6

 −3 12(Z − 1)2 ( D 2 + 5C 2 ) +  2+ 4 2 2(1− σ )  A A B

 , 

{3( Z + 1) − C 2} −

3

1

2

48C 2Z (Z + 1)

2

(45)

8(Z − 1) (C 1Z + D 1) 

A

2

4

B

{Z ( D 1 − 3C 1)

4

A

 {3Z ( D 1 − C 1) + (C 1 − 5D 1)}  4 2(1− σ )  A 2 8(Z − 1) (C 1Z + D 1)  + , 6 A 

{(6−4C )(Z +1)+(12−11C

2

+

3(Z − 1)

Y

=

 −3 12(Z − 1)2 8(Z − 1)4 −  2+ 4 6 2(1− σ )  A A A 2

+

A

1

(C 2 − 3)

2

+(C 1 − 3D 1 )} +

(41)

 , 

4

2A

(39)

 1 2 2 − 4 ( 4 + Z − 2Z ) + 2 2(1 − σ )  A A

+

(2)

 

8

A

A

P23

 , 

3 24(1− Z ) 

A

6

(2)

4

 3(C 1 − D 1)

1

2(1− σ ) 

−C 1

8(1 − Z

P 22 =

)

A

4(1− Z )(4 − Z )

+

*(1)

P 22 =

48Z (1 − Z

)

2

)

2

4

2C 2 (Z

4

B 2

B

− 1 + 2Z ) 4

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013 16C 2Z (Z + 1)(Y

+

B

+ 1+ Z )

6

2

+

8C 2Y (Z

2

B

is observed that initially the values of stresses

− 1 + 2Z )

B

8

2

, 

VI. CONCLUSION

(50)

In both cases i.e in welded contact and smooth contact, stresses tend to zero as x2 and x3 approaches to infinity respectively. We notice that the magnitude of stresses for smooth contact model are greater than the magnitude of stresses for welded contact model up to some epicentral distances and then decreases rapidly. Also, in case of smooth contact, the behavior of stresses at the interface for the two halfspaces is opposite to each other i.e., when it is increasing in medium I, it is decreasing for medium II and vice versa. We observe that a change in value of

V. DISCUSSION

Figures 2(a)-2(d), 3(a)-3(d) and 4(a)-4(d) show the variation of the dimensionless stresses P22, P23 and P33 at the interface with the horizontal distance from the fault and the figures 5(a)-5(d), 6(a)-6(d) and 7(a)-7(d) show the variation of the dimensionless stresses P22, P23 and P33 at the interface with the depth from the fault for the µ 1 3 rigidity contrast 1 = , 1, , 5, respectively for the two µ2 5 2 cases. In all the figures (from 2(a)-7(d)),

and

µ1 alters the magnitude of the stresses. µ2

are

40

dimensionless stresses in the case when contact of halfspace is smooth, whereas

and

20

0

-20

-40

in case of welded contact with distance from the fault for µ1 1 = . In the succeeding figures i.e. 2(b) to 2(d), we µ2 5

P(1) 22

lies between

and

P*(1) 22 -80

-100

0

0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DIMENSIONLESS DISTANCE FROM THE FAULT

distance from the fault for

1.8

2

µ1 µ 2 = 1 5

for

with

smooth contact and

welded contact. 150

P22(µ1/µ2=1) P(1) 22

µ 1 3 for the rigidity contrast 1 = , 1, and 5respectively. 2 µ2 5

P(2) 22

100

P*(1) 22

As the value of rigidity contrast increases the value of and

P*(2) 22

Fig. 2(a) Variation of the dimensionless normal stress P22

.

As we move away from the fault, this difference becomes less and approaches to zero for infinitely large distances from the fault. Figures 3(a) to 3(d) show variation of stress and with distance from the fault

stress components

P(2) 22

-60

3 increase the rigidity ratio to 1, , 5 respectively. It is 2 noticed that near the origin, the values of stress

and

P 22(µ1/µ2=1/5)

denote

stresses when contact of half-space is welded. The superscript denotes the medium. Figure 2(a) shows variation of normal stress P22 for smooth contact and

components

and

are nearly zero.

6

96C 2Z Y (Z + 1)  2

2

P*(2) 22

50

decreases in welded 0

contact. It is also observed in figures from 2(a) to 4(d) that initially, the value of stress is larger in medium I as compared to medium II for smooth contact. components , and .

-50

-100

Variation of stresses with depth from the fault is shown in figures 5(a) to 7(d). Here, too, variation is examined for same rigidity ratios as explained above. It

0

0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DIMENSIONLESS DISTANCE FROM THE FAULT

1.8

2

Fig. 2(b) Variation of the dimensionless normal stress P22 with distance from

the

fault

for

µ1 µ2 = 1

for

smooth

contact

welded contact.

25

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013

200

25

P22(µ1/ µ2=3/2)

P 23(µ1/ µ2=1)

P(1) 22

150

P(1) 23

20

P(2) 23

P(2) 22 P*(1) 22

100

P*(1) 23

15

P*(2) 23

P*(2) 22 10

50

5

0 0

-50 -5

-100

0

0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DIMENSIONLESS DISTANCE FROM THE FAULT

Fig. 2(c) Variation of the dimensionless normal distance from the fault for

µ1 µ2 = 3/ 2

1.8

0

0.2

2

stress P22 with

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DIMENSIONLESS DISTANCE FROM THE FAULT

1.8

2

Fig. 3(b) Variation of the dimensionless shear stress P23 with

for smooth contact and

distance from the fault

welded contact.

for

µ1 µ 2 = 1

for smooth contact and

welded contact.

300

30

P22(µ1/ µ2=5)

P 23(µ1/ µ2=3/2)

P(1) 22

250

P(2) 22

200

P(1) 23

25

P(2) 23

P*(1) 22

P*(1) 23

20

P*(2) 22

150

P*(2) 23 15

100

10

50 0

5

-50

0

-100

0

0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DIMENSIONLESS DISTANCE FROM THE FAULT

1.8

-5

2

8

0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DIMENSIONLESS DISTANCE FROM THE FAULT

1.8

2

Fig. 3(c) Variation of the dimensionless shear stress P23 with distance

Fig. 2(d) Variation of the dimensionless normal stress P22 with distance from the fault for

0

from the fault for

µ1 µ2 = 5 for smooth contact and welded contact.

µ1 µ2 = 3/ 2

for smooth contact and welded

contact.

P23(µ1/ µ2=1/5)

40

7

P 23(µ1/µ2=5)

P (1) 23

6

P (2) 23

5

P *(1) 23

4

P *(2) 23

35

P (1) 23

30

P (2) 23 P *(1) 23

25

P *(2) 23

20

3 15

2

10

1

5

0

0

-1 -2

-5

0

0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DIMENSIONLESS DISTANCE FROM THE FAULT

1.8

2

Fig. 3(a) Variation of the dimensionless shear stress P23 with distance from the fault

for

µ1 µ 2 = 1/ 5

for smooth contact and

0

0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DIMENSIONLESS DISTANCE FROM THE FAULT

1.8

2

Fig. 3(d) Variation of the dimensionless shear stress P23 with distance from the fault for µ1 µ2 = 5 for smooth contact and

welded

contact.

welded contact.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013 10

P33(µ1/ µ2=1/5)

40

5

20

0

0

-5

-20 P(1) 33

-10

-40

P(2) 33

P(1) 33

P*(1) 33

-15

-20

P*(2) 33

P(2) 33

-60

P*(1) 33 0

0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DIMENSIONLESS DISTANCE FROM THE FAULT

1.8

2

-80

-100

Fig. 4(a) Variation of the dimensionless normal stress P33 with distance from the fault for µ1 µ 2 = 1/5 for smooth contact and welded contact. 30

P33(µ1/ µ2=5)

P*(2) 33

0

0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DIMENSIONLESS DISTANCE FROM THE FAULT

1.8

2

Fig. 4(d) Variation of the dimensionless normal stress P33 with distance from the fault for µ1 µ2 = 5 for smooth contact and

P 33(µ1/µ2=1)

welded contact.

20

60

P22(µ1/µ2=1/5)

10

50

P(1) 22

40

P(2) 22

0

P*(1) 22

-10

30 P (1) 33

-20

20

P (2) 33

-30

10

P *(1) 33 P *(2) 33

-40 -50

P*(2) 22

0

0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DIMENSIONLESS DISTANCE FROM THE FAULT

1.8

0 -10

2

-20

Fig. 4(b Variation of the dimensionless normal stress P33 with distance from the fault for µ1 µ2 = 1 for smooth contact and welded contact.

30

-30

0

0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DIMENSIONLESS DEPTH FROM THE FAULT

2

Fig. 5(a) Variation of the dimensionless normal stress P22 with depth from the fault for µ1 µ 2 = 1/ 5 for smooth contact and

P 33(µ1/ µ2=3/2)

20

welded contact.

10

200

P22(µ1/µ2=1)

0

P(1) 22

150

P(2) 22

-10

P*(1) 22

100

-20

P*(2) 22

P (1) 33

-30

P (2) 33

-40

P *(1) 33

-50

P *(2) 33

-60

1.8

0

0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DIMENSIONLESS DISTANCE FROM THE FAULT

1.8

50

0

-50

2

-100

Fig. 4(c) Variation of the dimensionless normal stress P33 with distance from the fault for µ1 µ2 = 3/ 2 for smooth contact

0

0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DIMENSIONLESS DEPTH FROM THE FAULT

1.8

2

Fig. 5(b) Variation of the dimensionless normal stress P22 with depth from the fault for µ1 µ2 = 1 for smooth contact and

and welded contact.

welded contact.

27

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013

200

80

P22(µ1/µ2=3/2) P(1) 22

150

P23(µ1/ µ2=1) P(1) 23

60

P(2) 23

P(2) 22 P*(1) 22

100

P*(1) 23

40

P*(2) 23

P*(2) 22 20

50

0

0 -20

-50 -40

-100

0

0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DIMENSIONLESS DEPTH FROM THE FAULT

1.8

0

0.2

2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DIMENSIONLESS DEPTH FROM THE FAULT

1.8

2

Fig. 6(b) Variation of the dimensionless shear stress P23 with depth from the fault for µ1 µ2 = 1 for smooth contact and

Fig. 5(c) Variation of the dimensionless normal stress P22 with depth from the fault for µ1 µ2 = 3/ 2 for smooth contact

welded contact.

and welded contact. 80 300

P23(µ1/µ2=3/2)

P22(µ1/µ2=5)

250

P(1) 22

200

P(2) 22

P(2) 23 P*(1) 23

40

P*(1) 22

150

P(1) 23

60

P*(2) 23

P*(2) 22

20

100 50

0

0

-20 -50

-40

-100 -150

0

0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DIMENSIONLESS DEPTH FROM THE FAULT

1.8

-60

2

Fig. 5(d) Variation of the dimensionless normal stress P22 with depth from the fault for µ1 µ2 = 5 for smooth contact and

120 P(1) 23 P(2) 23

15

P*(1) 23 P*(2) 23

10

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DIMENSIONLESS DEPTH FROM THE FAULT

1.8

2

and welded contact.

P 23(µ1/µ2=1/5)

20

0.2

Fig. 6(c) Variation of the dimensionless shear stress P23 with depth from the fault for µ1 µ2 = 3/ 2 for smooth contact

welded contact. 25

0

P23(µ1/µ2=5)

100

P(1) 23

80

P(2) 23

60

P*(1) 23

40

P*(2) 23

5

20 0

0

-5

-20

-10

-40 -60

-15

0

0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DIMENSIONLESS DEPTH FROM THE FAULT

1.8

2

-80

Fig. 6(a) Variation of the dimensionless shear stress P23 with depth from the fault for µ1 µ 2 = 1/5 for smooth contact

0

0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DIMENSIONLESS DEPTH FROM THE FAULT

1.8

2

Fig. 6(d) Variation of the dimensionless shear stress P23 with depth from the fault for µ1 µ2 = 5 for smooth contact and

and welded contact

welded contact.

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15

80

P33(µ1/µ2=1/5)

P33(µ1/ µ2=5) 60

10

40

5 20

0

0

-5

-20

-10

P (1) 33

-40

P(1) 33

-60

-15

P (2) 33 P *(1) 33

P(2) 33

-80

P*(1) 33

-20

P *(2) 33

-100

P*(2) 33

-25

-120

0

0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DIMENSIONLESS DEPTH FROM THE FAULT

1.8

2

0

0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DIMENSIONLESS DEPTH FROM THE FAULT

1.8

2

Fig. 7(a) Variation of the dimensionless normal stress P33 with depth from the fault for µ1 µ 2 = 1/5 for smooth contact

Fig. 7(d) Variation of the dimensionless normal stress P33 with depth from the fault for µ1 µ2 = 5 for smooth contact and

and welded contact.

welded contact.

60

P33(µ1/ µ2=1)

APPENDIX

40

1.

20

0

Vertical dip-slip fault

L 0 = P 0 = Q 0 = 0,

M

0

= ±

-20 P(1) 33

2.

P*(1) 33 -60

L0 = M

P*(2) 33

0

0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DIMENSIONLESS DEPTH FROM THE FAULT

1.8

3.

2

0

= 0,

0

= 0,

The upper sing is for

welded contact.

P0 = − Q 0 =

x3 > h

P0 = Q 0 = ,the lower sign is for

magnitude of the displacement dislocation and line fault.

P 33(µ1/ µ2=3/2)

µ b ds 2π (1 − σ )

Horizontal tensile fault

L0 = M

Fig. 7(b) Variation of the dimensionless normal stress P33 with depth from the fault for µ1 µ2 = 1 for smooth contact and

60

Vertical tensile fault

P(2) 33

-40

-80

µ b ds 2π (1 − σ )

ds

µ b ds 2π (1 − σ )

x3 < h ,b

is the

is the width of the

40

20

0

-20 P (1) 33 P (2) 33

-40

P *(1) 33 -60

-80

P *(2) 33

0

0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DIMENSIONLESS DEPTH FROM THE FAULT

1.8

2

Fig. 7(c) Variation of the dimensionless normal stress P33 with depth from the fault for µ1 µ2 = 3/ 2 for smooth contact and welded contact.

29

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.1 JANUARY 2013 REFERENCES [1]. Bonafede Maurizio and Danesi Stefania, “Near-field Modifications of Stress Induced by Dyke Injection at Shallow Depth”, Geophys. J. Int., vol. 130, pp. 435-448, 1997. [2]. Bonafede Maurizio and Rivalta Eleonora, “The Tensile Dislocation Problem in a Layered Elastic Medium”, Geophys. J. Int., vol. 136, pp. 341-356, 1999. [3]. Davis P M, “Surface Deformation Associated with a Dipping Hydrofracture”, Journal of Geophysical Research”, vol. 88, pp. 5826-5836, 1983. [4]. Dundurs J and Hetenyi M, “Transmission of Force Between Two Semi-infinite Solids”, ASME, Journal of Applied Mechanics, vol. 32, pp. 671-674, 1965. [5]. Heaton T H and Heaton R E, “Static Deformation From Point Forces and Point Force Couples Located in Welded Elastic Poissonian Half-spaces:Implications for Seismic Moment Tensors”, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., vol. 79, pp. 813-841, 1989. [6]. Kumari Gulshan, Singh Sarva Jit and Singh Kuldeep, “Static Deformation of Two Welded Half-spaces Caused by a Point Dislocation Source”, Phys. Earth. Planet, Inter,vol. 73, pp. 5376,1992. [7]. Kumar Anil, Singh Sarva Jit and Singh Jagdish,” Deformation of Two Welded Half-spaces due to a Long Inclined Tensile Fault”, J. Earth Syst. Sci., vol. 114 ,pp.97-103,2005. [8]. Maruyama T, “Statical Elastic Dislocations in an Infinite and Semi-infinite Medium”, Bull. Earthquake Res. Inst., vol. 42, pp. 289-368, 1964. [9]. Rani Sunita and Singh Sarva Jit,” Static Deformation of Two Welded Half-spaces due to Dip-slipFaulting”, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci.(Earth Planet. Sci.), vol. 101, pp.269-282, 1992. [10]. Rongved L, “Force Interior to one of the two Joined Semiinfinite Solids”, in Proc. Of the 2nd Midwestern Conf on Solid Mech.,ed, Bogdanoff J L Purdue University, Indiana, Res., Ser., vol.129, pp. 1-13, 1955. [11]. Singh Mahabir and Singh Sarva Jit, “Static Deformation of a Uniform Half-space due to a very Long Tensile Fault”, ISET J. Earthquake Techn. , vol. 37, pp. 27-38, 2000. [12]. Singh Sarva Jit and Garg Net Ram, “On Two-dimensional Elastic Dislocations in a Multilayered Half-space”, Phy. Earth Planet. Int., vol. 40, pp. 135-145,1985. [13]. Singh Sarva Jit and Rani Sunita, “ Static Deformation due to Two-dimensional Seismic Sources Embedded in an Isotropic Half-space in Welded Contact with an Orthotropic Half space”, J. Phys. Earth, vol. 39, pp. 599-618, 1991. [14]. Singh Sarva Jit, Kumar Anil, Rani Sunita and Singh Mahabir, “ Deformation of a Uniform Half-space due to a Long Inclined Tensile Fault”, Geophys. J. Int. , vol. 148,pp. 687-691, 2002.(see also Erratum; Geophys. J. Int., vol. 151, pp. 957(2002)). [15]. Singh Sarva Jit, Rani Sunita and Garg Net Ram, “ Displacements and Stresses in Two Welded Half-spaces Caused by Two Dimensional Sources”, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., vol. 70, pp. 90-101,1992. [16]. Sipkin S A, “Interpretation of Non-double- Couple Earthquake Mechanisms Derived from Moment Tensor Inversions”, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 91, pp. 531-547, 1986. [17]. Sokolnikoff I S, “Mathematical Theory of Elasticity”, (Newyork: McGraw-Hill), 1956. [18]. Yang X M and Davis P M, “Deformation due to a Rectangular Tensile Crack in an Elastic Half-space”, Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, vol. 76, pp. 865-881, 1986.

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IJITCE January 2013  

International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering (ISSN:2045-8711) January 2013 Issue Vol.3 No.1

IJITCE January 2013  

International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering (ISSN:2045-8711) January 2013 Issue Vol.3 No.1

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