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ISSN (ONLINE) : 2045 -8711 ISSN (PRINT) : 2045 -869X

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY & CREATIVE ENGINEERING

APRIL 2017 VOL-7 NO-04

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.7 NO.04 APRIL 2017, IMPACT FACTOR: 1.04

UK: Managing Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering 1a park lane, Cranford London TW59WA UK E-Mail: editor@ijitce.co.uk Phone: +44-773-043-0249 USA: Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering Dr. Arumugam Department of Chemistry University of Georgia GA-30602, USA. Phone: 001-706-206-0812 Fax:001-706-542-2626 India: Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology & Creative Engineering Dr. Arthanariee. A. M Finance Tracking Center India 66/2 East mada st, Thiruvanmiyur, Chennai -600041 Mobile: 91-7598208700

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International Journal of Innovative Technology & Creative Engineering Vol.7 No.04 April 2017

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.7 NO.04 APRIL 2017, IMPACT FACTOR: 1.04

From Editor's Desk Dear Researcher, Greetings! Research article in this issue discusses about motivational factor analysis. Let us review research around the world this month. Scientists have long sought a strategy for curing genetic diseases. Using the gene-editing tool known as CRISPR/Cas9, the researchers have successfully edited disease-causing mutations out of viable human embryos. Other Chinese groups had previously reported editing human embryos that could not develop into a baby because they carried extra chromosomes, but this is the first report involving viable embryos. The embryos were created using eggs and sperm left over from in vitro fertilization treatments. The point where its possible to imagine a day when it would be safe enough to be feasible. It has been an absolute pleasure to present you articles that you wish to read. We look forward to many more new technologies related research articles from you and your friends. We are anxiously awaiting the rich and thorough research papers that have been prepared by our authors for the next issue.

Thanks, Editorial Team IJITCE

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.7 NO.04 APRIL 2017, IMPACT FACTOR: 1.04

Editorial Members Dr. Chee Kyun Ng Ph.D Department of Computer and Communication Systems, Faculty of Engineering,Universiti Putra Malaysia,UPMSerdang, 43400 Selangor,Malaysia. Dr. Simon SEE Ph.D Chief Technologist and Technical Director at Oracle Corporation, Associate Professor (Adjunct) at Nanyang Technological University Professor (Adjunct) at ShangaiJiaotong University, 27 West Coast Rise #08-12,Singapore 127470 Dr. sc.agr. Horst Juergen SCHWARTZ Ph.D, Humboldt-University of Berlin,Faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture,Asternplatz 2a, D-12203 Berlin,Germany Dr. Marco L. BianchiniPh.D Italian National Research Council; IBAF-CNR,Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015 MonterotondoScalo (RM),Italy Dr. NijadKabbaraPh.D Marine Research Centre / Remote Sensing Centre/ National Council for Scientific Research, P. O. Box: 189 Jounieh,Lebanon Dr. Aaron Solomon Ph.D Department of Computer Science, National Chi Nan University,No. 303, University Road,Puli Town, Nantou County 54561,Taiwan Dr. Arthanariee. A. M M.Sc.,M.Phil.,M.S.,Ph.D Director - Bharathidasan School of Computer Applications, Ellispettai, Erode, Tamil Nadu,India Dr. Takaharu KAMEOKA, Ph.D Professor, Laboratory of Food, Environmental & Cultural Informatics Division of Sustainable Resource Sciences, Graduate School of Bioresources,Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie, 514-8507, Japan Dr. M. Sivakumar M.C.A.,ITIL.,PRINCE2.,ISTQB.,OCP.,ICP. Ph.D. Project Manager - Software,Applied Materials,1a park lane,cranford,UK Dr. Bulent AcmaPh.D Anadolu University, Department of Economics,Unit of Southeastern Anatolia Project(GAP),26470 Eskisehir,TURKEY Dr. SelvanathanArumugamPh.D Research Scientist, Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, GA-30602,USA.

Review Board Members Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic& Ceramic Materials,CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Private Bag 33, Clayton South MDC 3169,Gate 5 Normanby Rd., Clayton Vic. 3168, Australia Dr. Zhiming Yang MD., Ph. D. Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Science,1550 Orleans Street Rm 441, Baltimore MD, 21231,USA Dr. Jifeng Wang Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois, 61801, USA Dr. Giuseppe Baldacchini ENEA - Frascati Research Center, Via Enrico Fermi 45 - P.O. Box 65,00044 Frascati, Roma, ITALY. Dr. MutamedTurkiNayefKhatib Assistant Professor of Telecommunication Engineering,Head of Telecommunication Engineering Department,Palestine Technical University (Kadoorie), TulKarm, PALESTINE.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.7 NO.04 APRIL 2017, IMPACT FACTOR: 1.04 Dr.P.UmaMaheswari Prof &Head,Depaartment of CSE/IT, INFO Institute of Engineering,Coimbatore. Dr. T. Christopher, Ph.D., Assistant Professor &Head,Department of Computer Science,Government Arts College(Autonomous),Udumalpet, India. Dr. T. DEVI Ph.D. Engg. (Warwick, UK), Head,Department of Computer Applications,Bharathiar University,Coimbatore-641 046, India. Dr. Renato J. orsato Professor at FGV-EAESP,Getulio Vargas Foundation,São Paulo Business School,RuaItapeva, 474 (8° andar),01332-000, São Paulo (SP), Brazil Visiting Scholar at INSEAD,INSEAD Social Innovation Centre,Boulevard de Constance,77305 Fontainebleau - France Y. BenalYurtlu Assist. Prof. OndokuzMayis University Dr.Sumeer Gul Assistant Professor,Department of Library and Information Science,University of Kashmir,India Dr. ChutimaBoonthum-Denecke, Ph.D Department of Computer Science,Science& Technology Bldg., Rm 120,Hampton University,Hampton, VA 23688 Dr. Renato J. Orsato Professor at FGV-EAESP,Getulio Vargas Foundation,São Paulo Business SchoolRuaItapeva, 474 (8° andar),01332-000, São Paulo (SP), Brazil Dr. Lucy M. Brown, Ph.D. Texas State University,601 University Drive,School of Journalism and Mass Communication,OM330B,San Marcos, TX 78666 JavadRobati Crop Production Departement,University of Maragheh,Golshahr,Maragheh,Iran VineshSukumar (PhD, MBA) Product Engineering Segment Manager, Imaging Products, Aptina Imaging Inc. Dr. Binod Kumar PhD(CS), M.Phil.(CS), MIAENG,MIEEE HOD & Associate Professor, IT Dept, Medi-Caps Inst. of Science & Tech.(MIST),Indore, India Dr. S. B. Warkad Associate Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Priyadarshini College of Engineering, Nagpur, India Dr. doc. Ing. RostislavChoteborský, Ph.D. Katedramateriálu a strojírenskétechnologieTechnickáfakulta,Ceskázemedelskáuniverzita v Praze,Kamýcká 129, Praha 6, 165 21 Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic& Ceramic Materials,CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Private Bag 33, Clayton South MDC 3169,Gate 5 Normanby Rd., Clayton Vic. 3168 DR.ChutimaBoonthum-Denecke, Ph.D Department of Computer Science,Science& Technology Bldg.,HamptonUniversity,Hampton, VA 23688 Mr. Abhishek Taneja B.sc(Electronics),M.B.E,M.C.A.,M.Phil., Assistant Professor in the Department of Computer Science & Applications, at Dronacharya Institute of Management and Technology, Kurukshetra. (India). Dr. Ing. RostislavChotěborský,ph.d, Katedramateriálu a strojírenskétechnologie, Technickáfakulta,Českázemědělskáuniverzita v Praze,Kamýcká 129, Praha 6, 165 21

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.7 NO.04 APRIL 2017, IMPACT FACTOR: 1.04 Dr. AmalaVijayaSelvi Rajan, B.sc,Ph.d, Faculty – Information Technology Dubai Women’s College – Higher Colleges of Technology,P.O. Box – 16062, Dubai, UAE Naik Nitin AshokraoB.sc,M.Sc Lecturer in YeshwantMahavidyalayaNanded University Dr.A.Kathirvell, B.E, M.E, Ph.D,MISTE, MIACSIT, MENGG Professor - Department of Computer Science and Engineering,Tagore Engineering College, Chennai Dr. H. S. Fadewar B.sc,M.sc,M.Phil.,ph.d,PGDBM,B.Ed. Associate Professor - Sinhgad Institute of Management & Computer Application, Mumbai-BangloreWesternly Express Way Narhe, Pune - 41 Dr. David Batten Leader, Algal Pre-Feasibility Study,Transport Technologies and Sustainable Fuels,CSIRO Energy Transformed Flagship Private Bag 1,Aspendale, Vic. 3195,AUSTRALIA Dr R C Panda (MTech& PhD(IITM);Ex-Faculty (Curtin Univ Tech, Perth, Australia))Scientist CLRI (CSIR), Adyar, Chennai - 600 020,India Miss Jing He PH.D. Candidate of Georgia State University,1450 Willow Lake Dr. NE,Atlanta, GA, 30329 Jeremiah Neubert Assistant Professor,MechanicalEngineering,University of North Dakota Hui Shen Mechanical Engineering Dept,Ohio Northern Univ. Dr. Xiangfa Wu, Ph.D. Assistant Professor / Mechanical Engineering,NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY SeraphinChallyAbou Professor,Mechanical& Industrial Engineering Depart,MEHS Program, 235 Voss-Kovach Hall,1305 OrdeanCourt,Duluth, Minnesota 55812-3042 Dr. Qiang Cheng, Ph.D. Assistant Professor,Computer Science Department Southern Illinois University CarbondaleFaner Hall, Room 2140-Mail Code 45111000 Faner Drive, Carbondale, IL 62901 Dr. Carlos Barrios, PhD Assistant Professor of Architecture,School of Architecture and Planning,The Catholic University of America Y. BenalYurtlu Assist. Prof. OndokuzMayis University Dr. Lucy M. Brown, Ph.D. Texas State University,601 University Drive,School of Journalism and Mass Communication,OM330B,San Marcos, TX 78666 Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic& Ceramic Materials CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Dr.Sumeer Gul Assistant Professor,Department of Library and Information Science,University of Kashmir,India Dr. ChutimaBoonthum-Denecke, Ph.D Department of Computer Science,Science& Technology Bldg., Rm 120,Hampton University,Hampton, VA 23688

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.7 NO.04 APRIL 2017, IMPACT FACTOR: 1.04 Dr. Renato J. Orsato Professor at FGV-EAESP,Getulio Vargas Foundation,São Paulo Business School,RuaItapeva, 474 (8° andar)01332-000, São Paulo (SP), Brazil Dr. Wael M. G. Ibrahim Department Head-Electronics Engineering Technology Dept.School of Engineering Technology ECPI College of Technology 5501 Greenwich Road Suite 100,Virginia Beach, VA 23462 Dr. Messaoud Jake Bahoura Associate Professor-Engineering Department and Center for Materials Research Norfolk State University,700 Park avenue,Norfolk, VA 23504 Dr. V. P. Eswaramurthy M.C.A., M.Phil., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Computer Science, Government Arts College(Autonomous), Salem-636 007, India. Dr. P. Kamakkannan,M.C.A., Ph.D ., Assistant Professor of Computer Science, Government Arts College(Autonomous), Salem-636 007, India. Dr. V. Karthikeyani Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Computer Science, Government Arts College(Autonomous), Salem-636 008, India. Dr. K. Thangadurai Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, Government Arts College ( Autonomous ), Karur - 639 005,India. Dr. N. Maheswari Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of MCA, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM University, Kattangulathur, Kanchipiram Dt - 603 203, India. Mr. Md. Musfique Anwar B.Sc(Engg.) Lecturer, Computer Science & Engineering Department, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Mrs. Smitha Ramachandran M.Sc(CS)., SAP Analyst, Akzonobel, Slough, United Kingdom. Dr. V. Vallimayil Ph.D., Director, Department of MCA, Vivekanandha Business School For Women, Elayampalayam, Tiruchengode - 637 205, India. Mr. M. Moorthi M.C.A., M.Phil., Assistant Professor, Department of computer Applications, Kongu Arts and Science College, India PremaSelvarajBsc,M.C.A,M.Phil Assistant Professor,Department of Computer Science,KSR College of Arts and Science, Tiruchengode Mr. G. Rajendran M.C.A., M.Phil., N.E.T., PGDBM., PGDBF., Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, Government Arts College, Salem, India. Dr. Pradeep H Pendse B.E.,M.M.S.,Ph.d Dean - IT,Welingkar Institute of Management Development and Research, Mumbai, India Muhammad Javed Centre for Next Generation Localisation, School of Computing, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland Dr. G. GOBI Assistant Professor-Department of Physics,Government Arts College,Salem - 636 007 Dr.S.Senthilkumar Post Doctoral Research Fellow, (Mathematics and Computer Science & Applications),UniversitiSainsMalaysia,School of Mathematical Sciences, Pulau Pinang-11800,[PENANG],MALAYSIA. Manoj Sharma Associate Professor Deptt. of ECE, PrannathParnami Institute of Management & Technology, Hissar, Haryana, India RAMKUMAR JAGANATHAN Asst-Professor,Dept of Computer Science, V.L.B Janakiammal college of Arts & Science, Coimbatore,Tamilnadu, India

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.7 NO.04 APRIL 2017, IMPACT FACTOR: 1.04 Dr. S. B. Warkad Assoc. Professor, Priyadarshini College of Engineering, Nagpur, Maharashtra State, India Dr. Saurabh Pal Associate Professor, UNS Institute of Engg. & Tech., VBS Purvanchal University, Jaunpur, India Manimala Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Electronics and Instrumentation, St Joseph’s College of Engineering & Technology, Choondacherry Post, Kottayam Dt. Kerala -686579 Dr. Qazi S. M. Zia-ul-Haque Control Engineer Synchrotron-light for Experimental Sciences and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME),P. O. Box 7, Allan 19252, Jordan Dr. A. Subramani, M.C.A.,M.Phil.,Ph.D. Professor,Department of Computer Applications, K.S.R. College of Engineering, Tiruchengode - 637215 Dr. SeraphinChallyAbou Professor, Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Depart. MEHS Program, 235 Voss-Kovach Hall, 1305 Ordean Court Duluth, Minnesota 55812-3042 Dr. K. Kousalya Professor, Department of CSE,Kongu Engineering College,Perundurai-638 052 Dr. (Mrs.) R. Uma Rani Asso.Prof., Department of Computer Science, Sri Sarada College For Women, Salem-16, Tamil Nadu, India. MOHAMMAD YAZDANI-ASRAMI Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Babol"Noshirvani" University of Technology, Iran. Dr. Kulasekharan, N, Ph.D Technical Lead - CFD,GE Appliances and Lighting, GE India,John F Welch Technology Center,Plot # 122, EPIP, Phase 2,Whitefield Road,Bangalore – 560066, India. Dr. Manjeet Bansal Dean (Post Graduate),Department of Civil Engineering,Punjab Technical University,GianiZail Singh Campus,Bathinda -151001 (Punjab),INDIA Dr. Oliver Jukić Vice Dean for education,Virovitica College,MatijeGupca 78,33000 Virovitica, Croatia Dr. Lori A. Wolff, Ph.D., J.D. Professor of Leadership and Counselor Education,The University of Mississippi,Department of Leadership and Counselor Education, 139 Guyton University, MS 38677

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.7 NO.04 APRIL 2017, IMPACT FACTOR: 1.04

Contents Coalesced Technique in Steganographic Images Using Encoded Conversion for Augmented Security Jagan Raj J & Dr.C.Kavitha .…………………………………….[408]

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.7 NO.04 APRIL 2017, IMPACT FACTOR: 1.04

Coalesced Technique in Steganographic Images Using Encoded Conversion for Augmented Security Jagan Raj J Ph.D Research Scholar, Dept. of Computer Science, Thiruvalluvar Govt. Arts College, Rasipuram, Tamil Nadu, India Email: jae.jaganraj@gmail.com Dr. C. Kavitha Asst. Professor, Dept. of Computer Science, Thiruvalluvar Govt. Arts College, Rasipuram, Tamil Nadu, India Email: kavithachellappan@yahoo.com Abstract- Information security is major concern now a days as number of users using internet are increasing and information getting shared every second. This has also increased the cyber-crime and threat for the information being shared. Two important techniques being used for information security are steganography and cryptography. Encoding the secret test into another form is called Cryptography and it is basically secret writing; on the other side Steganography is hiding a data. In this article, a hybrid technique is introduced by combining the cryptography, compression and Steganography properties. This proposed algorithm works on spatial domain, which also use the space efficiently. Keywords- Steganography, Cover image, Encryption, compression.

1. INTRODUCTION In the last few years information security has become one of the critical issues in communication system. With the passage of time, requirements for security have been changing tremendously. Before the emergence of computer and network communication facilities, information security was primarily provided by physical and administrative means. But with the introduction of computer, distributed systems and the use of internet, automated tools are needed to protect information stored on the computer and measures are also needed to protect the data during their transmission also. There are various forms of security attacks which demands high level of security. Steganography is the scientific discipline of covert communication by concealing information in another media. It refers to the process of hiding the presence of the secret message. It is an art of covert writing. It does not keep the message secret but it provides the secrecy of the message. Steganography hides a secret message from the third party. It does not arouse an eavesdropper’s attention. According to Dictionary.com- “Steganography is hiding a secret message within a larger one in such a way that others cannot discern the presence or contents of the hidden message”. The Steganography term is deducted from the Greek words “stegos” implying “cover” and “grafia” implying “writing” and literally means “Cover writing” [1]. Any steganography

technique must satisfy a no. of requirements- the integrity of the secret message which is embedded in stego-object must be accurate; the alteration in the stego-object should not be detected by the naked eye; choice of stego-object must be dependent on the size of secret message to be hidden and last but not the least we must always presume that malicious person knows that steganography is being used (that the stegoobject is carrying some secret message). A typical Steganography system consists of following elements: A. Cover Object (C) B. Secret Message (M) C. Stego Object (S) A. Cover Object In Steganography, cover objects are those in which we hide secret message. The cover object can be any files like images, audio, videos, text. The most used cover object for hide information is image. B.Secret Message In Steganography, the secret message is the message to be hidden in cover object. The secret message can be images, text messages etc. C. Stego Object The stego object is generated after hiding the secret message in cover image. After that stego object is transmitted and then at receiver side processing is done on stego object to retrieve message from it. The first step in steganography is to pass both the secret message and the cover message ie., the image file, into the encoder. In the encoder, protocols will be implemented to embed the given secret message into the media file. The type of protocol to use will depend on what kind of information you are trying to embed and where you are embedding it in. For example, you can use an image protocol to embed information inside any image file. A key is often needed in sender's end for embedding process. This can be a public or private key, so that you can encode the secret message with your own private key and then the recipient can decode it using his/her public key. When embedding the information in this way, you can reduce the chance of a third party attacker getting hold of the stego object and decoding the same to find out the secret message. In general, the embedding process inserts a mark in an object.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.7 NO.04 APRIL 2017, IMPACT FACTOR: 1.04

Having passed through the encoder, a stego image will be produced. A stego image is the original cover object with the secret information embedded inside in it. This object should or always look identical to the cover object as otherwise a third party attacker can see embedded information. Having produced the stego image, it will then be sent through some communications channel, such as secure copy, ftp or email to the intended recipient for decoding. The recipient will decode the stego object in order to view the secret information. The decoding process is simply the reverse of encoding process followed. It is the extraction of secret data from a stego image. In the decoding process, the stego image is fed in to the system. The private or public key can decode the original key that is used during the encoding process is also needed so that the secret information can be decoded in receiver's end. It depends on the encoding technique, where sometimes the original cover object is also needed during the decoding process. Otherwise, there may be no way of understanding or extracting the secret message from the stego image. Once decoding process is completed, the secret message embedded in the stego-image can then be extracted and seen. The generic decoding process again requires object, S. The result will be either the retrieved secret message from the object or indication of the likelihood of M being present in image C. Different types of robust marking systems use different inputs and outputs. A formula for this process can be: Cover Object (C) + Secret message (M) = Stego-Object (C) The typical flow of a steganography process is as mentioned in figure-1 Cover object Stego Engine Secret Message (Encoding) Sender

Stego Object Medium

Cover object Stego Engine (Decoding) Secret Message Receiver

Fig.1: Encoding and decoding in steganography

CATEGORIES OF STEGANOGRAPHY Various categories of steganography are listed below [2] [3] [4] Text Steganography In text steganography, text is used as cover object. It hides secret message behind the other text file. It is done by modifying the text or by modifying some features of text components. Different methods used are line-shift coding, word-shift coding and feature coding. Text steganography was very much used in ancient times, but today these techniques have become obsolete. It is also known as linguistic steganography. Image Steganography In image steganography, images are used as cover object. It hides secret messages into digital images. It makes use of the weakness of HVS as it cannot detect any variation in luminance part of color pixels. There are different algorithms for different file formats of images. These are

Least Significant bit (LSB) insertion, Masking and Filtering etc. JPEG, PNG, GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) etc. are the file formats for images which are used. Audio Steganography In this, digitized audio signal is used for embedding secret message which produce modification of binary sequence order of the corresponding audio file. By inserting non-hearable tones in audio signal used as cover object data is embedded. Audio steganography exploits the weaknesses of the human auditory system (HAS). It exploits psycho acoustical masking phenomenon (makes a weak tone unperceivable in the existence of a strong tone) of HAS. HAS cannot identify some variations in the sound waves. The methods used are LSB coding, Spread Spectrum, Echo hiding etc. MPEG, MP3 etc. are the file formats for audio which are used. Video Steganography In video steganography, video is used as cover object. Since videos are aggregation of images and sounds, that is why many of these techniques can be implemented on video files also. The advantage of concealing secret information in video is the fact that it is a moving flow of images and sounds and a huge amount of information can be concealed inside a video. Any noticeable change might remain unobserved by humans because it is an uninterrupted flow of information. AVI (Audio Video Interleave), MPEG, DIVX, and MP4 etc. are the file formats for video which are used. Protocol Steganography It is the process of hiding information in network control protocols that are used in network transmission. It is also known as network steganography. Steganography can be used on the covert channels which exist in the OSI network model layers. Network protocols used in the mechanism are TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), UDP (User Datagram Protocol), and ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) etc. The techniques including image steganography, audio steganography, video steganography and protocol steganography are collectively known as technical steganography. 2. RELATED WORKS Many researchers have been done till now in the field of steganography. Many papers on the recent researches and developments in the field of steganography were studied. The literature survey basically provides a way to investigate for research and gives an idea of what has been done till date. A succinct review based on the study of these papers related to our work is as follows. Diwedi Samidha et al. [5] described several image steganography techniques in spatial domain. Along with existing techniques like LSB, layout management schemes and replacing only l's or only zero's, some more methods like replacing intermediate bit, raster scan principle, random scan principle, color based data hiding and shape based data hiding are also proposed. These new techniques are based on random selection of pixels for data hiding considering many parameters of an image like physical location and intensity value of pixel, etc.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.7 NO.04 APRIL 2017, IMPACT FACTOR: 1.04

Sourabh Chandra et al. [6] proposed a symmetric key cryptographic algorithm which is content based. This algorithm included binary addition operation for encrypting the plain text and circular shift operation and folding method for making the key secure. This algorithm posed a difficulty for opponent to decrypt the key and text. Amrit Pal Singh et al. [7] developed an improved method for image based steganography using LSB technique. It is based on by slicing the three planes of RGB image and then hiding the data into each plane based on color sensitivity by using LSB technique. It resulted in high embedding capacity and better image quality. Its PSNR value was better than previous steganographic methods. Embedding Recovery YogitaBirdi et al. [8] proposed a method in steganography for secure communication. First, data is encrypted and then embedded using raster scan technique. This method made use of the Raster Scan Principle of displaying an image on CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) display. In this pixels have been hidden in the cover image in left to right and right to left manner. This made data extraction difficult for the opponent. Motivation Due to advancement in technology the number of attacks increases on internet so data security required so in this paper proposed a hybrid technique for data security by using cryptography and steganography properties. We took the motivation from literature work papers they work on variable block size and data hiding in different ratios so it’s difficult to Steganalysis of data.

Decoding algorithm Read first 8 bits from Stego object’s LSB and store the result as Sr Generate random number list, A for encrypted text, using Sr, shared random seed of size Rb RE(Rb,Sr) = A, where A is {(a) : a∈A,n(a)=|Te |} Take the LSB of each element in A and generate the bit patterns for encrypter text Te from Os f(Os,ai) = Te Decrypt the encrypted text using asymmetric cryptograpic algorithm. Let Tc the compressed text, ASC asymmetric cryptography, Kpr be the private key ASM (Te,Kpr) = Tc Generate the secret message from compressed text using Lempel-Ziv-Welch losless algorithm. Let M be the secret message, LZW compresson algorithm and Tc compressed text LZW (Tc) = M Results and Comparison Below are the space utilization comparison of Secret text (M) using tradiional LSB algorithm and the proposed algorithm for various secret texts [9], [10] and [11] A. With existing LSB algorithm Table.1.No. of LSB required for sample files using traditional LSB technique No of LSB Original size positions required File Name of Message for Message in (M) (in bytes) Stego object (in bytes) lzw-intro.txt[9] 4060 4060

Proposed Algorithm Encoding algorithm Compress the secret message as compressed text using Lempel-Ziv-Welch losless algorithm. Let M be the secret message, LZW compresson algorithm and Tc compressed text LZW(M) = Tc Encrypt the compressed text as encrypted text using asymmetric cryptograpic algorithm. Let Tc be the compressed text, ASC asymmetric cryptography, Kpu be the public key ASM(Tc,Kpu) = Te Convert Te to binary format and find the cardinality for the output |Te |=Rb Generate random numbers for empbedding encrypted text, Let Rbbe number of random numbers required, RE Random engine, Srshared random seed, Pl is pixel list RE(Rb,Sr)= A, where A is {(a) : a∈A,n(a)=|Te |} Generate stego object using proposed random LSB technique by storing length of the bits to read in first 8 bits, Let Osbe stego object f(x,y) is the function that embeds the value in cover object, where x is Rbi and ai f(Rbi,ai)= Os, whereRbi∈Rb,A is {(a) : ai∈A,n(a)=|Te |} Send the stego object in network

lzw-decoding.txt[10]

1068

1068

Afaf-Meleis.txt[11] 9732 9732 B. With proposed algorithm Table.2 No of LSB required for sample files using proposed technique No of Total No of LSB LSB LSB required position Original positions for require size of required Message d for Message for File Name Length propose (M) Message storage d in in Stego in Stego algorith (bytes) object object m (in (in (in bytes) bytes) bytes) 4060 4060 8 4068 lzw-intro.txt

410

lzw-decoding.txt 1068 Afaf-Meleis.txt 9732

1068

8

1076

9732

8

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.7 NO.04 APRIL 2017, IMPACT FACTOR: 1.04

Result comparison Space utilzation comparison between traditional LSB and proposed technique for secret message in Stego Objecct No of LSB Total positions LSB Efficiencyof required position space for required utilization in File Name Message for stego object in stego proposed by proposed object algorithm algorithm (in (in bytes) bytes) lzw-intro.txt 4060 2507 38% lzwdecoding.txt

1068

782

27%

Afaf Meleis.txt

9732

5743

41%

Average efficiency acquired (in %)

35%

[7]

[8]

[9] [10] [11] [12]

[13]

6. CONCLUSION Based on the series of the test results and observations gathered, it shows that the researchers were able to hide a secret message in stego object with constraint on the available LSB requirement. The enhanced LSB technique described in this project helps to successfully hide the secret data into the cover object without any distortion. Steganographic secrecy results are best when selecting the proper mechanisms. However, the stego medium which seems innocent enough may, upon further investigation, actually broadcast the existence of embedded information development in the area of covert communications and steganography will continue. Proposed mechanism of steganography will ensure the reduced space utilization in the stego object, by which more payload of secret message can be embedded.

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

REFERENCES G. Eason, B. Noble, and I.N. Sneddon, “On certain integrals of Lipschitz-Hankel type involving products of Bessel functions,” Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, vol. A247, pp. 529-551, April 1955. H. Gupta, Prof. R. Kumar, and S. Changlani, “Enhanced Data Hiding Capacity Using LSB-Based Image Steganography Method”, International Journal of Emerging technology and Advanced Engineering(IJETAE), vol. 3,no. 6, pp. 212–214, June 2013. S. Suri, H. Joshi, and V. Minocha and A. Tyagi, “Comparative Analysis of Steganography for Coloured Images”, Intrnational Journal of ComputerSciences and Engineering(IJCSE), vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 180–184, 2014. B. Madhuravani, D. S. R. Murthy, P. B. Reddy and K. V. S.N. R. Rao, “Strong Authentication Using Dynamic Hashing and Steganography”, IEEE International Conference on Computing, Communication and Automation(ICCCA), pp. 735–738, 2015. D. Samidha and D. Agrawa, “Random Image Steganography in Spatial Domain”, IEEE International Conference on Emerging Trends in VLSI, Embedded System, Nano Electronics and Telecommunication System(ICEVENT), pp. 1–3, 2013. S .Chandra, B. Mandal, S. S. Alam, and S. Bhattacharyya, “Content Based Double Encryption Algorithm Using 411

Symmetric Key Cryptography”, Procedia computer Science International Conference on Recent Trends in Computing(ICRTC), vol. 57, pp. 1228–1234, 2015. A. Singh and H. Singh, “An Improved LSB Based Image Steganography Technique for RGB Color Images”, IEEE International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Communication technologies, pp. 1-4, 2015. Y. Birdi and Harjinder Singh, “Raster Scan Technique for Secure Communication in Steganography”, International Journal of AdvancedResearch in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, vol.4,no.6,pp.5174– 5179,2015. lzw-intro.txt,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lempel% E2%80%93Ziv%E2%80%93We lch#Algorithm lzw-decoding.txt, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lempel% E2%80%93Ziv%E2%80%93Welch#Decoding Afaf-Meleis.txt,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afaf_Meleis Jagan Raj.J and Prasath.S, “Enhancing the data security and data integrity in steganographed images by store bit randomization”,International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering, vol.5, no.12,2015. Jagan Raj J and Prasath S. Article: Validating Data Integrity in Steganographed Images using Embedded Checksum Technique. IJCA Proceedings on National Conference on Research Issues in Image Analysis and Mining Intelligence NCRIIAMI 2015(1):5-8, June 2015.


@IJITCE Publication

April 2017  

International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering (ISSN:2045-8711)

April 2017  

International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering (ISSN:2045-8711)

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