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Competency Training and Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

Certificate in

Power System Modeling and Analysis Training Course in

System Loss Analysis

U. P. NATIONAL ENGINEERING CENTER NATIONAL ELECTRIFICATION ADMINISTRATION


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

2

Course Outline 1. Distribution System Loss Models and Methodologies 2. Segregation of Distribution System Losses 3. System Loss Reduction and Control

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

3

Distribution System Loss Models and Methodologies 

Components of Distribution System Losses



Load-Loss Index Method



Sun “Load-Window� Models



Cespedes Segregated Joule and Black Loss Model



Chen Simplified Feeder Loss Model

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Components of Distribution System Losses The Philippine Distribution Code (PDC) mandates system losses to be segregated into the following components: a. Technical Loss; b. Non-Technical Loss; and c. Administrative Loss.

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Components of Distribution System Losses Technical Losses Load and no-load losses in: a. Sub-transmission lines and substation transformers; b. Primary distribution lines and distribution transformers; c. Secondary distribution lines and service drops; d. Voltage regulators, Capacitors and reactors; and e. All other electrical equipment necessary for the operation of the distribution system. U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Components of Distribution System Losses Non-Technical Losses The component that is not related to the physical characteristics and functions of the electrical system, and is caused primarily by human error, whether intentional or not. Includes the electric energy lost due to pilferage, tampering of meters and erroneous meter reading. Errors that are attributable to inaccuracies in metering and billing. U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Components of Distribution System Losses Administrative Losses The electric energy used by the Distribution Utility in the proper operation of the Distribution System. a. Distribution Substations; b. Offices, warehouses and workshops of the DU; and c. Other essential electrical loads of the Distribution Utility. U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

8

Load-Loss Index Method 

Establishes the relationship between the Load Factor and the Loss Factor



Load-Loss Index 2 FLS = aFLD + (1 − a)FLD

FLD

Pave = Pmax

FLS =

PLoss ,ave PLoss ,max

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

where: FLS= Loss Factor FLD= Load Factor Pave= Average Demand Pmax = Peak Demand PLoss,ave = Losses at average demand PLoss,max = Losses at peak demand Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

9

Load-Loss Index Method 

Assume a load curve with only two levels: peak load and off-peak load

FLD

Pave Pave = = Pmax P2

Pave = FLD = =

( P2 ⋅ t ) + ( P1 ⋅ (T

− t ))

P2

Peak Load

Pave

Average Load

P1

Off-Peak Load

T

( P2 ⋅ t ) + ( P1 ⋅ (T P2T

− t ))

PLS2

Peak Loss Average Loss Off-Peak Loss

PLS,ave PLS1

P T −t t + 1 ⋅ T P2 T U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

t

T

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Load-Loss Index Method PLS,ave

FLS

P ( =

LS,2

P ( =

LS,2

⋅ t ) + ( PLS,1 ⋅ (T − t ) ) T

P2

⋅ t ) + ( PLS,1 ⋅ (T − t ) ) PLS,2T

Pave

Average Load

P1

Off-Peak Load

PLS ,1 = kP ; PLS ,2 = kP 2 1

FLS

kP ( =

2 2

2 2

) (

⋅ t + kP ⋅ (T − t ) 2 1

kP22 ⋅ T

)

Peak Load

PLS2

Peak Loss Average Loss Off-Peak Loss

PLS,ave PLS1

2

t ⎛ P1 ⎞ T − t = +⎜ ⎟ T ⎝ P2 ⎠ T U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

t

T

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Load-Loss Index Method 

Case 1:  Off-peak load is zero



FLS = FLD

t = T

Case 2:  Load is steady



FLS = FLD

t = T

Case 3:  Very short-lasting peak

CONCLUSION In extreme cases, the Loss Factor is either proportional to the Load Factor or proportional to the square of the Load Factor U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

t →0 T −t →1 T FLS → ( FLD )

2

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Load-Loss Index Method Range of Values  FLD2 < FLS < FLD

FLS = a FLD + (1-a) FLD2

Variation of Loss Factor with Load Factor 1.2 1 Loss Factor



0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

Load Factor

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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


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Load-Loss Index Method 

Example

A distribution feeder was found to have loss Factor with a = 0.16 and b = 0.84  Annual peak demand = 2000 kW  Total I2R losses at peak load = 100 kW  Total Energy delivered = 5,610,000 kWh What is the total annual Load Loss in kWh?

FLS = 0.16FLD + 0.84FLD2 U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Load-Loss Index Method FLD FLS

5.61 Ă&#x2014; 106 kWh = = 0.32 2000kW Ă&#x2014; 8760 = 0.16(0.32) + 0.84(0.32)2 = 0.1372

Average Power Loss =

Annual Load Loss =

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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Sun Load Window Model* 

Use Load Flow Simulations



Load Modeling  uses â&#x20AC;&#x153;Load Windowsâ&#x20AC;?  Weekday-Weekend, Seasonal (Winter, Summer, shoulder)



Line and Cable Modeling  R + jX for each line/phase



Transformers  Leakage impedance + Core Losses  Core Losses as a function of voltage  Single-phase or three-phase

*IEEE, 1980 U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Chen Simplified Feeder Loss* 

Load Patterns  Determined using load survey (metering) and customer survey



Secondary Circuit  Equivalent resistance (Rb*Leq)



Use Regression Analysis after Load Flow simulations

*IEEE, 1994-1997 U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Chen Simplified Feeder Loss PLoss = 32.6433 + 0.752PLH + 2.0041S LH

⎛ LD ⎞ − 0.0908TR + 3.0206⎜ ⎟ ⎝ PF ⎠

2

2

Where, PLoss: total feeder loss (KW) P LH: primary conductor length (km) S LH: secondary conductor length (km) TR: total transformer capacity (MVA) LD: feeder loading (MW) PF: power factor of feeder loading

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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Segregation of Distribution System Losses 

Total Distribution System Losses



Administrative Losses



Unbundling the Technical & Non- Technical Losses



BENECO DSL Segregation

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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Total Distribution System Losses Energy Delivered to the Distribution System

-

Energy Delivered to Users

=

Total Distribution System Losses

Administrative + Loss

Technical Loss + Non-Technical Loss Bundled Losses to be Segregated

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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Total Distribution System Losses Total DSL = Energy Input - Energy Output Total DSL = Σ[Energy delivered by the Transmission System] + Σ[Energy delivered by Embedded Generating Plants] + Σ[Energy delivered by Other Distribution Systems] + Σ[Energy delivered by User Systems with Generating Units] - Σ[Energy delivered to the Users of the Distribution System] U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Administrative Losses The actual (i.e. metered) electric energy consumed by essential loads in the facilities of the Distribution Utility

Administrative Loss = = Σ[Energy Consumed by Distribution Substations] + Σ[Energy Consumed by Offices of the DU] + Σ[Energy Consumed by Warehouses and Workshops]

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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Unbundling the Technical and Non-Technical Loss Technical Losses

Non-Technical + Losses

-

Quantified through 3-Phase Unbalanced Load Flow Simulations

Technical Losses Residual after subtracting Administrative & Technical Losses from the Total Distribution System Losses U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Non-Technical Losses

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Unbundling the Technical and Non-Technical Loss Distribution System Loss Segregation Program Distribution System Data

Customer Energy Bill

(3-phase Load Flow)

Distribution Reliability Assessment Metering Equipment Inventory

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Segregated Technical Loss (Billing Period)

Metering Equipment Loss

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Unbundling the Technical and Non-Technical Loss Technical Loss = ÎŁ[Hourly Load and No-Load (or Fixed) Losses in all

electrical equipment, devices and conductors] a)Sub-transmission Lines b)Substation Power Transformers c)Primary Distribution Lines d)Distribution Transformers e)Secondary Distribution Lines f) Service Drops

g) h) i) j)

Voltage Regulators Capacitors Reactors Other electrical equipment

Hourly Load Flow Simulations

Plus Calculated Metering Equipment Loss U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Unbundling the Technical and Non-Technical Loss Primary Distribution Lines (Main Feeder)

Subtransmission Lines

Substation Transformer

Three-Phase Unbalanced Load Flow Simulations a)Sub-transmission Lines b)Substation Power Transformers c)Primary Distribution Lines Distribution d)Distribution Transformers Transformer e)Secondary Distribution Lines f) Service Drops g)Voltage Regulators h)Capacitors i) Reactors j) Other electrical equipment U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Primary Distribution Lines (Laterals) Misc Loads

Secondary Distribution Lines Service Drop

Residential

Commercial

Industrial

Load Losses and No-Load (Fixed) Losses Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Unbundling the Technical and Non-Technical Loss

Calculation of Metering Equipment

Potential Transformer Loss = Power Loss in PT (kW) x Number of PT x Number of Operating Hours in the Billing Period Current Transformer Loss = Power Loss in CT (kW) x Number of CT x Number of Operating Hours in the Billing Period Electric Meter Potential Coil Loss = Power Loss in Electric Meter Potential Coil (kW) x Number of Electric Meters x Number of Operating Hours in the Billing Period Electric Meter Current Coil Loss = Power Loss in Electric Meter Potential Coil (kW) x Number of Electric Meters x Number of Operating Hours in the Billing Period Operating Hours = No. of days x 24 hours â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SAIDI U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Unbundling the Technical and Non-Technical Loss Non-Technical Loss = Total Distribution System Losses - Administrative Loss - Technical Loss - Recovered Losses Note: Losses recovered from anti-pilferage activities are subtracted from the total distribution system losses. Recovered Energy shall be so reported to reflect its character as a delayed metered energy consumption of End-Users. U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Summary of Segregated DSL 

Monthly DSL Segregation for one year



Summary of DSL per Feeder



Summary of DSL per Substation



Summary of DSL Segregation Per Receiving/Metering Point



Summary of DSL Segregation For Total Distribution System

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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

BENECO DSL Segregation EVALUATION OF AVAILABLE TECHNICAL DATABASE, SINGLE LINE DIAGRAMS, MAPS AND OTHER INFORMATION THAT ARE SIGNIFICANT IN THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE BENECO AMFM/GIS

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ELECTRONIC DRAWING OF GEOGRAPHICAL FRANCHISE COVERAGE Road Network River Network Municipal Boundaries Barangays Sitios Subdivisions Landmarks DISTRIBUTION EQUIPMENT & FACILITIES PHYSICAL IDENTIFICATION NUMBERING Power Transformers Circuit Breakers Power Circuit Breakers Reclosers Capacitors Fuse Cut-outs Poles Distribution Transformers

POLE PLATES & EQUIPMENTS STICKERS

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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BENECO DSL Segregation ELECTRONIC DRAWING OF GEOGRAPHICAL FRANCHISE COVERAGE DISTRIBUTION EQUIPMENT & FACILITIES PHYSICAL IDENTIFICATION NUMBERING

DISTRIBUTION LINE AND EQUIPMENT/FACILITIES SURVEY Poles Distribution Transformer Distribution System Lines And other Equipments, pole attachments

CONSUMER MAPPING Building Consumers

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BILLING SYSTEM

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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BENECO DSL Segregation DISTRIBUTION LINE AND EQUIPMENTS/FACILITIES SURVEY CONSUMER MAPPING

ENCODING

BENECO AMFM

SURVEY & MAPPING DATABASE

BILLING SYSTEM

ERC DSL TEMPLATES

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BENECO DSL Segregation PROCESS OF TECHNICAL LOSS SEGREGATION INSTRUCTIONS ON THE ENTRY OF DATA IN THE ERC DSL TEMPLATES

ERC DSL TEMPLATES

BENECO AMFM

PASSED CHECKERS

ENGINEERING ATTRIBUTES CHECKER

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DATA SANITY CHECKER

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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BENECO DSL Segregation PROCESS OF TECHNICAL LOSS SEGREGATION PASSED CHECKERS

ERC DSL TEMPLATES

POWER SYSTEM MODELING

LOAD MODELS NETWORK MODELS

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THREE-PHASE UNBALANCED LOAD FLOW

SEGREGATED TECHNICAL LOSSES IN KWHR

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Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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TECHNICAL LOSS COMPUTATION

INPUT ERC DSL Templates Per Feeder Per Month

DSL Segregator

DSL Simulation Output Per Feeder Per hour per day in a month

Output result to use: (kwhr per day) Primary Line Loss Primary Service Drop Loss DT Load Loss DT No-load Loss Secondary Line Loss Service Drop Loss VR, Shunt Capacitor Losses

Output result to use: ( per hour per day in month) INPUT (KW) per hour INPUT (KVAR) per hour

Compute DSL simulation output into Per Metering point Per month

Compute Power Transformer Losses

RESULT: kwhr per month per metering point Primary Line Loss Primary Service Drop Loss DT Load Loss DT No-load Loss Secondary Line Loss Service Drop Loss VR, Shunt Capacitor Losses RESULT: kwhr per month per metering point Power Transformer Load Loss Power Transformer No-Load Loss

INPUT Rating of the Power Transformer Compute Input data to use:

Metering, CT’s & PT’s losses

No. of metered consumers per feeder

RESULT: kwhr per month per metering point Meter, CT and PT losses

INPUT Internal Loss of Kwhr Meters, CT’s and PT’s

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DSL RESULT PER FEEDER PER HOUR PER DAY IN A MONTH

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Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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BENECO DSL Segregation SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES ANALYSIS

NON-TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION PROGRAM TECHNICAL, ECONOMIC & FINANCIAL ANALYSIS

TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION PROGRAM TECHNICAL, ECONOMIC & FINANCIAL ANALYSIS U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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BENECO DSL Segregation Technical Loss, 52.76%

TEST YEAR SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES

NonTechnical Loss, 46.74%

Administrative Loss, 0.50%

Loss

Kwhr

%

167, 791

0.0594%

Technical

18,181,059

6.3153%

Non-Technical

15,487,726

5.5951%

TOTAL

33,836,577

11.9698%

Administrative

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BENECO DSL Segregation SEGREGATED TECHNICAL LOSS

% LOSS

% SHARE

Power Transformer Load Loss

0.0590%

0.9338%

Power Transformer No-Load Loss

0.2372%

3.7559%

Primary Line

1.3805%

21.8597%

Primary Service Drop

0.0000%

0.0000%

Dist. XF Load Loss

0.3438%

5.4445%

Dist. XF No-Load Loss

1.7397%

27.5469%

Secondary

2.1652%

34.2848%

Secondary Service Drop

0.0691%

1.0937%

Shunt Capacitor Loss

0.0029%

0.0456%

kWhR Meter Loss

0.3180%

5.0350%

Total Technical Loss

6.3153%

100.0000%

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Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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BENECO DSL Segregation TECHNICAL LOSS DISTRIBUTION TECHNICAL LOSS ALLOCATION kWhR Meter Loss 5% Pow er Xformer Load Loss 1% Shunt Capacitor Loss 0%

Secondary Service Drop 1%

Pow er Xformer No-Load Loss 4% Primary Line 22%

Secondary 34% Dist. XF Load Loss 5%

Dist. XF No-Load Loss 28%

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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

BENECO DSL Segregation

41

SEGREGATED SYSTEM LOSSES

13.2 KV System

Administrative Loss

0.3998%

Technical Loss

9.8906%

Non-Technical Loss

7.4183%

TOTAL LOSSES

17.7088%

13.2KV SYSTEM 23KV SYSTEM SEGREGATED SYSTEM LOSSES

23 KV System

Administrative Loss

0.0393%

Technical Loss

6.1051%

Non-Technical Loss

5.4879%

TOTAL LOSSES

11.6324%

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Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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BENECO DSL Segregation TEST YEAR SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES PER SYSTEM VOLTAGE PERCENT (%) TECHNICAL LOSSES

KWHR TECHNICAL LOSSES

SEGREGATED SYSTEM LOSSES

13.2 KV System

23 KV System

Total

13.2 KV System

23 KV System

Total

Administrative Loss

62,768.60

105,022.54

167,791.14

0.3998%

0.0393%

0.0594%

Technical Loss

1,552,634.80

16,299,669.83

17,852,304.63

9.8906%

6.1051%

6.3153%

Non-Technical Loss

1,164,538.99

14,651,941.84

15,816,480.83

7.4183%

5.4879%

5.5951%

TOTAL LOSSES

2,779,942.39

31,056,634.21

33,836,576.60

17.7088 %

11.6324 %

11.9698 %

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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

43

BENECO DSL Segregation TEST YEAR SEGREGATED TECHNICAL LOSSES PER SYSTEM VOLTAGE KWHR TECHNICAL LOSSES

TECHNICAL LOSSES Power Xformer Load Loss

13.2 KV System

23 KV System

PERCENT (%) TECHNICAL LOSSES 13.2 KV System

Total

23 KV System

Total

5,232

161,467

166,700

0.0333%

0.0605%

0.0590%

Power Xformer No-Load Loss

105,295

565,221

670,517

0.6708%

0.2117%

0.2372%

Primary Line

451,032

3,451,427

3,902,460

2.8732%

1.2927%

1.3805%

0.0000%

0.0000%

0.0000%

Primary Service Drop Dist. XF Load Loss

-

6

6

32,239

939,729

971,968

0.2054%

0.3520%

0.3438%

Dist. XF No-Load Loss

591,212

4,326,553

4,917,765

3.7661%

1.6205%

1.7397%

Secondary

209,447

5,911,176

6,120,623

1.3342%

2.2141%

2.1652%

4,275

190,979

195,254

0.0272%

0.0715%

0.0691%

0.0025%

0.0029%

0.0029%

898,866

0.9779%

0.2792%

0.3180%

17,852,305

9.8906%

6.1051%

6.3153%

Secondary Service Drop Shunt Capacitor Loss kWhR Meter Loss Total Technical Loss

394 153,507 1,552,635

7,753 745,359 16,299,670

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

8,147

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Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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BENECO DSL Segregation FORECASTED SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES

YEAR

1st Year

2nd Year

3rd Year

4th Year

5th Year

Energy Input (KWH)

Total System Losses (%)

Administrative Loss (%)

Technical Loss (%)

Non Technical Loss (%)

313,577,324

12.1222%

0.0621%

6.4611%

5.5951%

341,755,055

12.2757%

0.0583%

6.6187%

5.5951%

372,339,284

12.3994%

0.0535%

6.7477%

5.5951%

405,588,445

12.5074%

0.0491%

6.8604%

5.5951%

442,271,657

12.7071%

0.0493%

7.0604%

5.5951%

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Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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PROPOSED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSS CAPS YEAR

Technical Loss Cap

Declining NonTechnical Loss Caps

Administrative Loss Cap (Annual KWH)

2006

5.9833% to 6.9388%

5.5951%

194,741

2007

6.1281% to 7.1094%

4.7486%

199,147

2008

6.2431% to 7.2523%

3.8585%

199,147

2009

6.3431% to 7.3778%

3.1278%

199,147

2010

6.5249% to 7.5959%

2.7644%

218,218

FORECASTED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSS YEAR

FORECASTED SYSTEM LOSS RANGE

2006

11.6480%

TO

12.6047%

2007

10.9425%

TO

11.9251%

2008

10.1628%

TO

11.1733%

2009

9.5279%

TO

10.5639%

2010

9.3467%

TO

10.4191%

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System Loss Reduction and Control 

Reduction and Control of Technical Losses



Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses

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Reduction and Control of Technical Losses 

Distribution Rehabilitation Plan  Safety  Power Quality Problem Correction  Reduce Technical Losses



Distribution Expansion Plan  Capacity that complies with Power Quality Standards and Controlled Technical Losses

PDC: Distribution Development Plan • Technical Analysis • Economic Analysis U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

• Financial Analysis

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Reduction and Control of Technical Losses 

Use the results of the Distribution System Segregation Program for Technical Loss Reduction Program.  Ranks the technical losses from the highest to lowest ( Per Substation, Per feeder, per section, etc.)  Make a Specific Technical Loss Reduction Program based on your technical analysis!!!  Simulate your proposed technical loss reduction solutions to quantify the technical loss reduction  Optimize your proposed technical loss reduction solutions

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Reduction and Control of Technical Losses 3.2.5.2 The maximum Voltage Unbalance at the Connection Point of any User, excluding the Voltage Unbalance passed on from the Grid, shall not exceed 2.5% during normal operating conditions.

Voltage Unbalance =

Max{ Vphase â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Vaverage

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Vaverage

}

x 100

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Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Reduction and Control of Technical Losses DSC-PDC-011 Reduction of Technical Loss through Reactive Power compensation Reactive Power Compensation Distributors shall correct feeder and substation feeder bus Reactive Power demand to a level, which will economically reduce feeder loss. (PDC 3.4.3.3) U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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Training Course in System Loss Analysis

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Reduction and Control of Technical Losses Power Factor at Connection Point (PDC 3.4.3.1) Distribution Users shall maintain a Power Factor of not less than 85% lagging at the connection point with the Distributorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s System. Power Factor Penalty and Incentive Scheme ((PDC 3.4.3.2) Distributors may establish penalties for User Power Factors that are less than a specified target level, and incentives for User Power Factors that are greater than the target level. U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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Reduction and Control of Technical Losses

48.43 KVAR

100 KW

100 KVA PF = 1.00

100 KW

111.11 KVA PF = 0.90

75 KVAR

100 KW

102 KVAR

100 KW

125 KVA PF = 0.80

142.86 KVA PF = 0.70

133.33 KVAR

100 KW

166.67KVA PF = 0.60

Required increase in the apparent and reactive powers as a function of the load power, holding the real power of the load constant. U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

53

Reduction and Control of Technical Losses 43.59 KVAR 100 KW

100 KVA PF =1.00

90 KW

100 KVA PF = 0.90

60 KVAR

71.41 KVAR

80 KW

70 KW

100 KVA PF = 0.80

100 KVA PF= 0.70

80 KVAR

60 KW

100 KVA PF = 0.60

Change in the real and reactive power as a function of the load power, holding the apparent power of the load constant U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

54

Reduction and Control of Technical Losses 252 V 240 V 228 V

At Peak Load

252 V 240 V 228 V

At Off-Peak Load

The effects of a fixed capacitor on the voltage profile of feeder U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

55

Reduction and Control of Technical Losses

SWITCHED CAPACITORS U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

FIXED CAPACITORS Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

56

Reduction and Control of Technical Losses

Sizing of the fixed and switched capacitors to meet the daily reactive power demands U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

57

Reduction and Control of Technical Losses

Meeting the reactive power with fixed, voltage-control, and time-control capacitors U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

58

Reduction and Control of Technical Losses 

Financial Benefits Due to Capacitor Installations 1. Demand reduction 2. Energy reduction 3. Revenue increase due to voltage improvement 4. Reduction of technical losses

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Vav , after Vav ,before 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30

â&#x2C6;&#x2020;kWh increase, % 0 8 16 25 34 43 52

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

59

Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses NEA SLRP 

Causes of Pilferages  Long run of open secondary networks “conducive” for illegal tapping  Services run from one building to the next and attached to various structures (e.g., trees) making it difficult for meter readers to follow the wires or spot illegal connections  Secondary wiring with “rat’s nest” appearance due to poor workmanship  Inaccessible meters (located indoor or inside a compound)  Control of meter seals  Poor meter records (where and when the meters are installed, maintained, removed, condemned, etc.) U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

60

Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses NEA SLRP 

Detection of Pilferages  

Surveillance Teams (working full time) Consumer connections inventory to assure that: • •

All service connections are metered All energized services are in an “active” status in the billing system • There are no illegal taps, by-passed meters, or tampered meters • Each household is metered separately (no flying taps) • Each consumer is properly classified 1. Match all service connections found in the field to a distribution transformer 2. Match the meter number to the account number 3. Check meter reading against previous readings to assure that meter readings are being properly reported U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

61

Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses NEA SLRP 

Tampered Meters 

In-Place Quick-test for Accuracy



Hard-to-Detect Tampering • • • •



Gear teeth removed Small hole bored at the top of the meter housing “Floating Neutral” Swapping the line-side and load side

Correcting Problems • •

Service conductors are not properly supported Service wire insulation has deteriorated

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

62

Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses NEA SLRP 

Apprehension of Pilferers 

Confronting the consumer



Documenting the findings including police blotter



Calculating the amount of electricity stolen



Setting the penalty amount to be charged



Disconnecting service and removing the meter â&#x20AC;˘

Must include policemen or barangay officials

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

63

Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses NEA SLRP 

Punitive Measures Against Pilferers R.A. 7832 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Theft of electricity is a crime  Removal of fraudulent hook-ups  Collection for unregistered consumption  Penalty charge  Connection charge  Disconnection of service  Filing charges with judicial authorities  Charging for tampering with seals  Regularly scheduled inspections

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

64

Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses NEA SLRP 

Prevention of Pilferage by Service Entrance Modification 

Installation of Service Entrance Conduits from the service entrance cap up to the Kwhr meter must be surfaced mounted and visible to the street.



Installation of meters on the service pole for prone power theft area.



Meter clustering in apartment and condominium buildings



Use of intelligence electronic meter and better meter seals



Security plates or cabinets



Anti-fraud cables for service entrance U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

65

Surface Mounted Service Entrance RSC U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

66

Group Metering for Apartment Building U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

67

Pole Metering for Prone Power Theft Area U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

68

Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses NEA SLRP 

Political and legal measures 

Full and strict implementation of RA 7832 that impose severe penalties on employees who collaborate with consumers for the purpose of defrauding the DU



Modification of Procedures for recovery and prosecution



Elimination of political interference with bill collections



Consistent enforcement practices



Research and analyze decided legal power theft cases



Publicize successes

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

69

Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses NEA SLRP 

Complaints for low voltage from the customers



Look for the overload distribution transformers and compared the billings of all customers connected to that DT.



Distribution transformers that always trips may be suspected for illegal connections.

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

70

Optimal Level of System Loss

Total Cost

Cost

System Loss Reduction Program Cost

Unrecovered Energy Cost

High

Optimal

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Low

System Loss

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

71

BENECO NON-TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION ECONOMIC ANALYSIS Cost of Unrecovered VS NTL Reduction Program

M illion s

120 110

Cost of Unrecovered NTL

100

Cost NTL Reduction Program

90

Optimum level of loss reduction

70 60 50 40 30 20 10

0.5595%

0.7693%

0.9791%

1.1890%

1.3988%

1.6086%

1.8184%

2.0282%

2.2381%

2.4479%

2.6577%

2.8675%

3.0773%

3.2871%

3.4970%

3.7068%

3.9166%

4.1264%

4.3362%

4.5461%

4.7559%

4.9657%

5.1755%

5.3853%

0 5.5951%

C ost (Php )

80

Non-Technical Loss (%)

OPTIMUM LEVEL OF NON-TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION = 2.7644%

EQUIVALENT PROJECT COST = P53,447,802.55 U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

72

BENECO NON-TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION PROGRAM

YEAR

Activities

Metering Point

1st Year

Sourcing of Funds for the Non-Technical Loss Reduction Program

2nd Year

PRIMARY ACTIVITIES:Procurement of Software and Hardware requirements

Lamut & Old NSC S/s

3rd Year

Selective Communal Distribution Transformer Metering, Inspection & Apprehension,

New NSC S/s

4th Year

KWH replacement, Replacement of Phasedout Meters

Irisan & NPC Beckel S/s

5th Year

SECONDARY ACTIVITIES:Loose connection correction, streetlight metering, photoswitch installation

Cost

-

Atok, Mankayan, Asin, Bineng, Bokod, Dalicno & Luelco

Targeted % Reduction of NonTechnical Loss

5.5951%

P 16,188,079.98

4.7486%

P 17,019,823.88

3.8585%

P 13,972,361.53

3.1278%

P 6,950,110.80

2.7644%

TOTAL PROJECT COST = P53,447,802.55 U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering


Training Course in System Loss Analysis

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

73

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

System Loss Analysis  

CP1 B9 L5 System Loss Analysis

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