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Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Na]ionale a României Karel Zdenêk Líman: arhitectul ceh al Casei Regale a României / Ruxanda Beldiman, Sorin Vasilescu, Mircea Hortopan, Narcis Dorin Ion. - Bucure[ti: Igloo, 2013 ISBN 978-606-8026-28-2 I. Beldiman, Ruxanda II. Vasilescu, Sorin III. Hortopan, Mircea Alexandru IV. Ion, Narcis Dorin 72(437) Líman,K.Z.:94(498) 929 Líman,K.Z.

Proiectul a luat na[tere la ini]iativa Ambasadei Republicii Cehe la Bucure[ti cu sprijinul amabil al CEZ Romånia. / This project came into being at the initiative of the Embassy of the Czech Republic in Bucharest and with the kind support of CEZ Romania.

Toate drepturile sunt rezervate. Ele sunt protejate de legile în vigoare privitoare la dreptul de autor. Orice reproducere total` sau în detaliu, prin orice fel de mijloace de copiere sau transmisie, este interzis` f`r` acordul editurii Igloo Media. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without written permission of Igloo Media. Bucure[ti, © igloomedia, 2013


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Ruxanda Beldiman, Mircea Hortopan, Narcis Dorin Ion, Sorin Vasilescu

Arhitectul ceh al Casei Regale a Romåniei

Karel Zdenêk Líman The Czech architect to the Romanian Royal Court

iglooprofil


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SUMAR / CONTENTS CUVÅNT |NAINTE / FOREWORD ASR Principesa mo[tenitoare Margareta a României H.R.H. The Crown Princess Margareta of Romania Ji+í titler, Ambasadorul Republicii Cehe la Bucure[ti Ambassador of the Czech Republic in Bucharest Jan Veskrna, Manager de ]ar` pentru Grupul CEZ România Jan Veskrna, Country Manager CEZ Romania Group I. UN DESTIN DE ARCHITECT CEH ÎN ROMÂNIA: KAREL ZDENÊK LÍMAN I. A CZECH ARCHITECT’S DESTINY IN ROMANIA: KAREL ZDENÊK LÍMAN Ruxanda Beldiman

7 8 9

10

II. PROIECTE {I LUCR~RI / II. DESIGNS AND WORKS CEHIA / CZECH REPUBLIC CASA LÍMAN / LÍMAN HOUSE Ruxanda Beldiman CAVOUL FAMILIEI LÍMAN / THE LÍMAN FAMILY VAULT Ruxanda Beldiman ROMÅNIA / ROMANIA CASA DE VÂN~TOARE A REGELUI FERDINAND, BAHNA RUSULUI THE ROYAL HUNTING LODGE OF KING FERDINAND, BAHNA RUSULUI Mircea Hortopan

32

36

40

DOMENIUL REGAL BRAN: VISUL UNEI REGINE {I AL UNUI ARHITECT THE ROYAL ESTATE AT BRAN: THE DREAM OF A QUEEN AND HER ARCHITECT Narcis Dorin Ion

44

CAMERA NORVEGIAN~, PALATUL COTROCENI, BUCURE{TI THE NORWEGIAN ROOM, COTROCENI PALACE, BUCHAREST Ruxanda Beldiman

96

CABANA DE VÂN~TOARE A REGELUI FERDINAND, L~PU{NA THE HUNTING LODGE OF KING FERDINAND, L~PU{NA Ruxanda Beldiman

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CASTELUL PELE{ / CASTLE PELE{ Ruxanda Beldiman

110

CASTELUL PELI{OR / CASTLE PELI{OR Mircea Hortopan

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CASA ARHITECTULUI / THE ARCHITECT’S HOUSE Ruxanda Beldiman

178

CORPUL DE GARD~ / THE GUARDHOUSE Ruxanda Beldiman

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CUIBUL PRINCIPESEI / THE PRINCESS’S NEST Ruxanda Beldiman

192

ECONOMATUL / THE ECONOMAT Ruxanda Beldiman

196

GARAJELE NOI / THE NEW GARAGES Ruxanda Beldiman

202

GRAJDURILE NOI DE LA FURNICA / THE NEW STABLES AT FURNICA Ruxanda Beldiman

206

SLOVACIA / SLOVAKIA CABANA DE VÂN~TOARE, JAVORINA / HUNTING LODGE, JAVORINA Ruxanda Beldiman

210

III. MARIA REGINA ROMÂNIEI: GÂNDURI {I IMPRESII LA MOARTEA ARHITECTULUI KAREL LÍMAN III. QUEEN MARIE OF ROMANIA’S THOUGHTS ABOUT ARCHITECT KAREL LÍMAN ON HIS DEATH Ruxanda Beldiman

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IV. KAREL LÍMAN ÎN CONTEXTUL ARHITECTURII ROMÂNE{TI IV. KAREL LÍMAN IN THE CONTEXT OF ROMANIAN ARCHITECTURE Sorin Vasilescu

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BIBLIOGRAFIE SELECTIV~ / SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

238


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Semn`tura arhitectului Karel Líman / Architect Karel Líman’s signature


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KAREL ZDENÊK LÍMAN

7 FOREWORD


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1

1. Václav, tat`l arhitectului [i fra]ii s`i Antonín [i Karel Líman / Václav, the architect’s father, and his brothers Antonín and Karel Líman. 2. Casa str`mo[easc` a familiei Líman de la Nemyslovice / The ancestral home of the Líman family at Nemyslovice 3. Karel în timpul stagiului militar, c. 1880 / Karel during his military service, c. 1880 4. Împreun` cu familia pe terasele de r`s`rit ale Castelului Pele[, c. 1920 / With his family on the east terraces of Castle Pele[, c. 1920 5. În parcului Castelului Pele[, c. 1920 / In the park of Castle Pele[, c. 1920 6. Arhitectul conducånd un grup de „persoane de distinc]iune” / The architect conducting a group of “important persons” 7. Líman pe Riviera italian`, 1906 / Líman on the Italian riviera, 1906.

3

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6

5

7

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2

3

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1. Arhitec]ii Jean Ernst [i Alfred Popper în biroul de arhitectur`. / Architects Jean Ernst and Alfred Popper in the architectural bureau. 2. Membrii biroului de arhitectur`, arhitec]ii Karel Líman, Jean Ernst Alfred Popper, Constantin {tefanovici, necunoscut. / Members of the architectural bureau: Karel Líman, Jean Ernst Alfred Popper, Constantin {tefanovici, unknown. 3. Casa portarului, domeniul regal Pele[, arh. Jean Ernest. / The porter’s house, Pele[ Royal Estate, architect: Jean Ernest. 4. Casa Gogu Dumitrescu, str. prof. Ion Ursu nr. 6, Bucure[ti, arh. Alfred Popper / The Gogu Dumitrescu House, Prof. Ion Ursu Street, no. 6, Bucharest, architect: Alfred Popper. 5-6. Instantanee de la funerariile arhitectului, Mladá Boleslav, 1929. / Snapshots from the architect’s funeral, Mladá Boleslav, 1929. 7. Ferpar de deces al arhitectului semnat de familie. / Announcement of the architect’s death, signed by the family.

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Casa Líman, str. Praïská nr. 224, Mladá Boleslav1 (1885) Líman House, Praïská Street, no. 224, Mladá Boleslav1 (1885) Pe un teren achizi]ionat c`tre 1880, Václav Líman, tat`l arhitectului ini]iaz` construc]ia unei re[edin]e de tip hôtel particulier care trebuia s` exprime statutul nou al familiei intrate în rândul marii burghezii din Mladá Boleslav. Vechea locuin]` familial`, cu o arhitectur` de tip rural, situat` la periferia ora[ului, nu mai corespundea cerin]elor impuse de noua pozi]ie social`. „Construc]ia casei a fost efectuat` de fiul nostru cel mare, Karel, care tocmai în aceast` perioad` nu a z`bovit s` ne viziteze”, men]ioneaz` actul de funda]ie a casei redactat de Václav Líman, maestru dulgher. Piatra de temelie a fost pus` la începutul lunii august a anului 18852, lucr`rile încheindu-se în acela[i an. De fapt, lui Karel Líman i se datoreaz` proiectul cl`dirii, nu [i construc]ia de care se va ocupa tat`l s`u, dup` cum se specific` în document.3 Cl`direa de plan dreptunghiular u[or neregulat este compus` din trei nivele utilizabile – pivni]`, un hochparter, etajul par]ial mansardat [i podul. La parter lectura planului pune în eviden]` prezen]a unor ziduri de rezisten]` care traverseaz` casa de la un cap`t la altul, împ`r]ind-o în trei zone distincte, paralele, ce corespund deschiderilor din fa]ad`. O zon` median` cuprinde hall-ul [i scara de acces la etaj; în dreapta se afl` intrarea, un vestibul [i un salon; în stânga, alte trei înc`peri. Etajul se compune dintr-un salon situat deasupra hall-ului [i dou` înc`peri mansardate simetrice fa]` de spa]iul central. Líman a conceput o cas` solid articulat`, simetric` [i armonioas`, având fa]ada principal` aliniat` la strad`. Intrarea în cl`dire se face din curte prin fa]ada din spate, opus` celei principale. Imobilul prezint` dou` nivele vizibile (hochparter [i etaj) [i un acoperi[ înalt ce încununeaz` în axul median silueta cl`dirii. Parterul înalt cu trei deschideri la fa]ada principal` este surmontat central de volumul etajului ornat cu doi atlan]i, elemente de plastic` arhitectural` pregnante în jocul de plinuri [i goluri al fa]adei. În rest, decora]ia de un eclectism echilibrat se compune din motive de vocabular neoclasic (pila[tri aplatisa]i cu capitele ionice la parter, corintice la etaj; ghirlande etc.) [i de neorena[tere (lucarne4) ce scandeaz` în ritm elegant întreaga imagine. Fa]ada lung` dinspre curte – cea care cuprinde intrarea în locuin]` – este dublat` de o gra]ioas` galerie deschis` pe stâlpi de

On a plot of land purchased around the year 1880, Václav Líman, the architect’s father, began construction of a hôtel particulier-type residence that was to express the new status of the family, as part of the Mladá Boleslav haute bourgeoisie. The old family dwelling, with its rural architecture, situated at the edge of the town, no longer met the demands imposed by their new social position. “Construction of the house was carried out by our eldest son, Karel, who was visiting us at the time,” state the deeds of the house, drawn up by Václav Líman, master carpenter. The foundation stone was laid at the beginning of August 18852, and work was completed the same year. In fact, Karel Líman designed the building, but his father carried out the building work, contrary to what it says in the deeds.3 The house has a slightly irregular rectangular plan and three usable storeys: a cellar, a hochparterre , a partly mansarded upper floor and an attic. The plans show that the ground floor has load-bearing walls that run from one end of the house to the other, dividing it into three separate, parallel areas, which correspond with the openings on the façade. A middle area

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contains the hall and the staircase to the upper storey; to the right there is an entrance, a vestibule and a salon; to the left are another three rooms. The upper floor is made up of a salon above the hall and two mansarded rooms symmetrical to the central area. Líman designed a solidly articulated, symmetrical and harmonious house, whose main façade faces the street. The Entrance was via the courtyard, by the rear façade, opposite the main façade. The building has two visible storeys (the hochparterre and upper floor) and a tall roof that crowns the outline of the building along the median axis. The tall ground floor with its three openings on the main façade is surmounted in the centre by the volume of the upper storey decorated with two statuettes of Atlas, sculptural features prominent in the rhythm of the façade. Otherwise, the decoration is of a balanced eclecticism, made up of motifs from the neo-classical (flattened pilasters with Ionic capitals on the ground floor, Corinthian capitals on the upper storey; garlands etc.) and neoRenaissance (skylights4) vocabulary, which blend rhythmically with the whole. The long façade facing the courtyard, where the entrance is located, combines with a graceful open gallery with wooden posts, reached by a stone staircase with two flights. It was a family custom to gather there for photographs. The style chosen by the architect was undoubtedly inspired by the residential villas of the Vienna Ringstraße built in the period.

1

The building is still owned by Mrs Anna Salacová-Límanová (2013). Deeds to the house, archive of Mrs Anna Salacová-Límanová, Mladá Boleslav. 3 “After a very humble start and great striving, the Almighty blessed our efforts, he helped us to have a tranquil and carefree old age, and so we decided to build this house as a quiet refuge for our years of retirement” Ibid, pp. 1-2. 4 Two of these skylights have since been altered. 2

Familia Líman pe veranda din spatele casei, c. 1906 / The Líman family on the veranda behind the house, c. 1906

lemn la care se accede pe o scar` de piatr` în dou` rampe. Familia avea obiceiul s` se reuneasc` aici pentru fotografii. Formula stilistic` aleas` de arhitect a fost f`r` îndoial` inspirat` de vilele ce se construiau în epoc` în cartierele reziden]iale ale Vienei [i în special în zona Ringului.

1 Imobilul se afl` în continuare în posesia doamnei Anna Salacová-Límanová (2013). 2 Actul de fondare a casei, arhiva doamnei Anna Salacová-Límanová, Mladá Boleslav. 3 „Dup` un început foarte modest [i multe str`duin]e, Atotputernicul a binecuvântat eforturile noastre, ne-a ajutat s` avem o b`trâne]e lini[tit` [i lipsit` de griji, a[a c` am hot`rât s` ne construim aceast` cas` ca un refugiu lini[tit pentru anii no[tri de odihn`.” Ibidem, p. 1-2. 4 Dou` dintre aceste lucarne [i-au pierdut aspectul original.

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Domeniul Regal Bran: Visul unei regine [i al unui arhitect The Royal Estate at Bran: The Dream of a Queen and Her Architect Dintre toate re[edin]ele regale din România, castelul Bran a fost castelul preferat al reginei Maria, care m`rturisea – la 20 iulie 1924, într-un elogiu adresat vechii cet`]i – „bucuria de a m` trezi la Bran, în Branul cel mult iubit, în unicul meu capriciu, în mica mea locuin]` aparte, atât de diferit` de orice altceva, atât de bizar` [i în acela[i timp atât de frumoas`, cea mai frumoas` care poate exista. (…) De fiecare dat` simt aceea[i bucurie când m` trezesc. Bucuria de a fi acolo, bucuria de a fi eu singura [i necontestata posesoare a acestui castel neînchipuit de minunat”1. Istoria castelului Bran ca re[edin]` regal` începe la 1 decembrie 1920, când bra[ovenii – prin glasul primarului dr. Karl Schnell – au f`cut un gest de curtoazie fa]` de noii suverani ai României Mari, d`ruind castelul reginei Maria. Aceasta a fost [i [ansa castelului Bran de a reveni la via]`, c`ci f`r` restaurarea f`cut` – din ordinul reginei – de arhitectul Karel Líman, edificiul ar fi împ`rt`[it probabil soarta altor monumente medievale pe care indiferen]a oamenilor [i trecerea timpului le-au dus la ruin`. La 1 decembrie 1920 – consemna regina Maria în Însemn`rile sale zilnice – „municipalitatea din Bra[ov mi-a telegrafiat ca s`-mi ofere frumosul castel de la Bran. Am acceptat cu pl`cere. Acum Líman [i cu mine avem cu ce s` ne distr`m”2. Preluarea castelului de c`tre regina Maria s-a f`cut în prezen]a întregii comunit`]i din Bran, evenimentul fiind o adev`rat` s`rb`toare. „A fost un moment glorios când am mers s` iau în posesie micu]a mea fort`rea]` – î[i amintea suverana – [i to]i locuitorii de la o mul]ime de mile dep`rtare s-au bucurat împreun` cu mine, pentru c` venirea mea era un eveniment binecuvântat în vie]ile lor pline de griji [i lipsite de culoare. Acum singuraticul castel f`r` de suflet va fi trezit la via]`, va privi în jos din în`l]imea lui, va deveni dintr-o dat` un punct de gravita]ie, un protector str`juind asupra avu]iilor [i neajunsurilor lor. Au venit în grupuri s`-mi ureze bun venit, to]i în cele mai bune costume de duminic`, s`-mi ureze noroc, s`n`tate bun`, via]` lung`”3.

Of all the royal residences in Romania, Castle Bran was Queen Marie’s favourite, as she confessed on 20 July 1924 in an encomium to the old fortress: “The joy of waking up at Bran, at my much beloved Bran, in my sole caprice, in my small private home, so different from anything else, so odd and at the same time so beautiful, nothing could be more beautiful. (…) I always feel the same joy when I wake up. The joy of being there, the joy of being the sole, uncontested owner of this unimaginably beautiful castle.”1 The history of Castle Bran as a royal residence begins on December 1920, when the people of Bra[ov, through their spokesman Mayor Dr Karl Schnell, made a gesture of courtesy to the new sovereigns of Greater Romania, donating the castle to Queen Marie. This was also an opportunity for Castle Bran to return to life, since without the restoration work carried out by architect Karel Líman at the Queen’s behest, the building would most likely have shared the fate of other mediaeval monuments, which neglect and the passage of time had reduced to ruins. On 1 December 1920, Queen Marie recorded in her daily diary: “The Municipality of Bra[ov telegraphed me to offer me the beautiful castle at Bran. I accepted with pleasure. Líman and I are now going to have some fun.”2 The castle was formally handed over to Queen Marie in the presence of the entire community of Bran, and the event was a true celebration. “That was a glorious moment when I went to take possession of my own little fortress,” the Queen recalled, “and all the peasants from miles around rejoiced with me, for my coming was a blessed event in their careworn, colourless lives. Now the lonesome, soulless, masterless little stronghold would awake to life, would look down from its height, would suddenly become a point of gravitation, a protector watching over their weal and woe. They came in crowds to welcome me, all in their best Sunday costumes, to wish me good luck, good health, a long life.”3

The castle comes back to life Castelul revine la via]` Dup` ce a intrat în posesia reginei Maria, între 1920 [i 1938 castelul Bran a suferit o serie de transform`ri arhitecturale, în

Between 1920 and 1938, after it entered the possession of Queen Marie, Castle Bran underwent a series of architectural alterations, aimed at making it a modern summer residence. In

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dorin]a de a se face din el o modern` re[edin]` de var`. Lucr`rile au fost conduse de arhitectul [ef al Casei Regale, cehul Karel Líman, care a lucrat [i la castelele Pele[ [i Peli[or. În aceste condi]ii, castelul Bran a devenit locul perfect în care colaborarea dintre arhitectul Karel Líman [i regina Maria a României a dus la transpunerea în realitate a imagina]iei creatoare a celor doi arti[ti. Peste ani, regina Maria î[i amintea cu nostalgie acele momente de început ale colabor`rii cu arhitectul Líman: „Aveam un scump b`trân arhitect al casei noastre, mo[tenit de pe timpul regelui Carol. {i el mereu visase c`-i va fi dat într-o zi s` repare un vechiu castel; acum aceast` mic` [i fantastic` cl`dire a devenit munca sa preferat`. El s-a instalat acolo, ca o bufni]` într-un zid vechiu, [i î[i pune toat` dragostea, toat` îndemânarea s` fac` un adev`rat giuvaer din mica mea comoar`. Dar noi nu ne gr`bim s` ispr`vim lucrul, suntem ca ni[te copii cu o juc`rie ce ne e drag` [i de care nu ne s`tur`m niciodat`; în fiecare an, noi refacem câte ceva, f`r` a ne permite s` schimb`m aspectul original al cl`dirii. Mica cetate a r`mas deci puternic` [i semea]`”4. Unul dintre cei mai apropia]i colaboratori ai familiei regale, Eugeniu Arthur Buchman – care a „vizitat loca[ul de mai multe ori, în toate fazele sale de refacere, [i-l cuno[tea cu deam`nuntul” – consemna în Memoriile sale colaborarea perfect` dintre regina Maria [i arhitectul Líman: „Cu gustul original al Reginei [i cu sim]`mântul artistic al arhitectului Líman, s-a ajuns la o amenajare care s` poat` împ`ca vechiul stil al cl`dirii cu nevoile vie]ii moderne, dar cu toate silin]ele [i cu toat` râvna depus` a r`mas tot un cuib de cucuvele [i nu invidiez pe nimeni care ar fi silit s` locuiasc` acolo mai mult de trei zile”5. La scurt timp de la primirea castelului Bran, în ziua de 6 ianuarie 1921, regina Maria a avut la Palatul Cotroceni „o lung` întrevedere cu Líman despre gr`dini [i despre Bran, pentru care a f`cut deja mai multe planuri de îmbun`t`]iri. Dar, vai, în prezent pre]ul pentru orice este extrem de mare”6. Primele planuri pentru restaurarea [i reamenajarea castelului Bran i-au fost prezentate reginei Maria de c`tre arhitectul Líman în ziua de 26 februarie 19217. Arhitectul Karel Líman s-a dovedit a fi nu numai inspirat în planurile de reamenajare a castelului Bran, dar a împ`rt`[it cu regina Maria acela[i entuziasm creator care a transformat vechea cetate într-o re[edin]` regal` unic`. La 9 iunie 1921, regina Maria împreun` cu doamnele de onoare [i arhitectul Líman ajung la Bran, unde pun câteva covoare în camere, a[az` câteva piese de mobilier [i merg s` vad` „toate îmbun`t`]irile ce vor începe în acest an. Am notat cu aten]ie totul. Bunul prieten (Líman – n.n.) se bucur` de asta la fel de mult ca [i mine [i este gata s` fie de acord cu orice originalitate, f`r` proteste sau imposibilit`]i”. Con[tient` de rolul lui Líman în realizarea visului de la Bran, regina Maria recunoa[te c` „n-a[ fi reu[it niciodat` s` aranjez Branul, cum am f`cut-o, dac` n-ar fi fost el. El [tie s` profite de fiecare col]i[or [i continu` s` amelioreze micul loc f`r` a-i strica

charge of the alterations was the chief architect of the Royal House, Czech Karel Líman, who also worked on castles Pele[ and Peli[or. In these circumstances, Castle Bran became the perfect place for the collaboration between architect Karel Líman and Queen Marie of Romania, and it was the site where creative imagination of the two artists was transposed into reality. Years later, Queen Marie would look back nostalgically to those early days of her collaboration with architect Líman: “We have a dear old architect belonging to our house-hold, inherited from King Carol’s times. He, too, had always dreamed that one day it would be granted him to repair an old castle; now this quaint building has become his pet work. He has settled down there like an owl in an old wall and devotes all his love, all his skill, to make a real treasure out of my precious little place. But we are in no hurry to complete our work, we are like children with a beloved toy of which we never weary; each year we improve something, without allowing its original aspect to change. It is still the impregnable, pugnacious little fortress.”4 One of the closest associates of the Royal Family, Eugenius Arthur Buchman, who “visited the place many times, during every phase of its rebuilding, and knew it in detail,” records in his Memoirs the perfect collaboration between Queen Marie and Líman: “With the Queen’s original taste and architect Líman’s artistic sense, a refurbishment was achieved that was able to reconcile the old style of the building with the requirements of modern life, but for all their efforts and all their striving it still remained an owls’ nest and I do not envy anybody obliged to live there for more than three days.”5 A short time after receiving Castle Bran, on 6 January 1921 at the Cotroceni Palace Queen Marie had “a long discussion with Líman about the gardens and about Bran, for which he has already drawn up a number of plans for improvements. But, alas, at present the price for everything is exorbitantly high.”6 Architect Líman presented the first plans for the restoration and refurbishment of Castle Bran to Queen Marie on 26 February 1921.7 Architect Karel Líman not only proved to be inspired in his plans for the refurbishment of Castle Bran, but also he shared with Queen Marie the same creative enthusiasm that transformed the old fortress into a unique royal residence. On 9 June 1921 Queen Marie, together with her ladies in waiting and architect Líman, arrived at Bran, where they laid a few carpets in the rooms, installed a few items of furniture, and went to see “all the improvements that are to begin this year. I made a careful note of everything. My good friend (Líman) delights in it just as much as I do and is ready to agree to any original idea, without protesting or saying it cannot be done.” Aware of Líman’s rôle in achieving her dream for Bran, Queen Marie acknowledges: “I would never have managed without him to refurbish Bran as I have done. He is able to set off each nook to

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© Muzeul Na]ional Bran

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Dormitorul Reginei Maria / Queen Marie’s bedroom

© Muzeul Na]ional Bran

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Dormitorul Regelui Ferdinand I / King Ferdinand’s I bedroom.

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© Muzeul Na]ional Bran

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Salonul de muzic` al Castelului Bran / The Music Room at Castle Bran

© Muzeul Na]ional Bran

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Salonul Prin]esei Ileana / Princess Ileana’s drawing room

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© Muzeul Na]ional Bran

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Regina Maria \n salonul galben al Castelului Bran / Queen Marie in the Yellow Room at Castle Bran

© Muzeul Na]ional Bran

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Salonul mare al Reginei Maria / Queen Marie’s Large Salon

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Vedere dinspre sud / View towards the south

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© Muzeul Na]ional Bran

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Dormitorul reginei / The Queen’s bedroom

© Muzeul Na]ional Bran

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© Muzeul Na]ional Bran

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Arcad` detaliu decorativ din proiectul de amenajare al arh. Líman / Arch: decorative detail from Líman’s restoration plans

© Muzeul Na]ional Bran

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Interior cu sob` din cahle [i u[` pictat` concepute de Líman / Interior with tiled stove and painted door designed by Líman

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Camera norvegian`, Palatul Cotroceni, Bucure[ti

(1910)

The Norwegian Room, Cotroceni Palace, Bucharest (1910) Principesa Maria nu s-a acomodat cu stilurile „Altdeutsch [i rococo r`u imitate”1 ale apartamentului pus la dispozi]ie de Regele Carol I în Palatul regal din Calea Victoriei. Gustul eclectic al Mariei, neconfigurat deocamdat` într-o viziune coerent`, descindea dintr-o expresie artistic` anglo-saxon` de sfâr[it de secol XIX, în care se pot identifica repere Arts and Crafts, elemente celtice, scandinave, neobizantine etc. La pu]in timp de la sosirea ei în ]ar` (1893), arhitectul Paul Gottereau va fi îns`rcinat s` reamenajeze înc`perile Palatului Cotroceni destinat drept re[edin]` oficial` principilor mo[tenitori. Diferitele variante de eclectism francez (neo-Henri II, neoLouis XIV, Napoléon III etc.) pe care i le propune Gottereau, se vor dovedit a nu fi pe placul Mariei. Dup` realizarea camerei în stil neo Louis XIV, ea va cere modificarea planurilor pentru apartamentele sale [i remodelarea spa]iilor în „înc`peri mobilate în mare parte în stil englez”.2 Decel`m înc` de la început dorin]a prin]esei de a regândi concep]ia arhitectural` pentru propriile camere de la Palatul Cotroceni, în spiritul unei case britanice de la 1900. În epoc`, se afirma c` originea etnic` a englezilor se g`sea în lumile celtic`, saxon` [i scandinav`, idee preluat` [i de Romilly Allan, un autor citit de Principesa Maria [i de Karel Líman. Elemente decorative ale acestui vocabular se reg`seau în spa]iile gândite de Principesa Maria la Cotroceni, probabil [i în ideea de a-[i configura un stil între ale c`rui surse sa fie [i propriile „r`d`cini”. În ce m`sur` arhitectul Karel Líman a fost implicat în aceste prime variante ale interioarelor prin]esei mo[tenitoare este o întrebare la care g`sim doar par]ial r`spuns. Din ansamblul cuprinzând Camera verde (c.1900), Salonul aur (1901), Dormitorul de argint (1905)3 [i Camera norvegian` (1910), se mai p`streaz` ast`zi doar ultimul spa]iu, oper` cert` a lui Karel Líman, dup` cum afl`m din coresponden]a Principesei Maria4. În perioada celor zece ani când s-au realizat cele patru înc`peri de la Cotroceni, Líman era implicat în primul rând în proiectarea [i construc]ia Castelelor Pele[ [i Peli[or. Atmosfera spa]iilor amintite de la Cotroceni indic` o viziune artistic` înc` necoagulat` a comanditarei, cu excep]ia Camerei norvegiene, de fapt

Princess Marie could not adjust to the “Altdeutsch and poorly imitated rococo”1 styles of the suite placed at her disposal by King Carol I in the Royal Palace on Calea Victoriei. Marie’s eclectic tastes, which had not yet taken coherent shape, originated in the nineteenth-century British Arts and Crafts movement, in Celtic, Scandinavian and neo-Byzantine elements. Shortly after her arrival in Romania, in 1893, architect Paul Gottereau was assigned the task of refurbishing the rooms of the Cotroceni Palace that were to become the official residence of the heirs to the throne. The various versions of French eclecticism (neo-Henri II, neo-Louis XIV, Napoleon III, etc.) that Gottereau

Salonul norvegian, amenajare din anii 1920/ Norwegian room interwar aspect

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boudoir-ul prin]esei. Concep]ia acesteia privind arhitectura de interior î[i va g`si mai târziu formula decantat` în „stilul Regina Maria”, pe care îl va gândi în principal, în direct` [i sus]inut` colaborare cu arhitectul ceh. „La Cotroceni, Líman mi-a creat o adorabil` camer` norvegian`, care este marea mea desf`tare pentru care am adunat în acest an toate lucrurile de la München. Deasemenea cele 1000 de m`rci de la tine au fost cheltuite pe obiecte pentru aceast` crea]ie pre]ioas`, care-mi umple inima de infinit` satisfac]ie”, îi m`rturise[te Principesa Maria mamei sale într-o scrisoare datat` octombrie 1910.5 Spre deosebire de celelalte înc`peri unde dominau stucul aurit (Salonul de aur) [i simili-piatra vopsit` în argintiu (Dormitorul argintiu), aici, în boudoir-ul prin]esei se opteaz` pentru lemnul sculptat de pin (în nuan]e naturale), în panouri, arcade, frize [i grinzi ornamentate cu motive vegetale în entrelacs [i animale fantastice. Ambian]a era inspirat` dup` cum afirm` comanditara de „fermele norvegiene”6, dar mai degrab` se pot evoca drept modele, interioarele decorate în lemn ale bisericilor din ]`rile nordice. Shona Kallestrup identific` în decora]ia înc`perii, reperele directe pentru u[i (lemn [i fier forjat) [i ornamente parietale (lemn), de la bisericile din Faaberg, Thorpe din Hallingdal (ambele în Norvegia) sau Björksta din Västmanland (Suedia),

proposed did not prove to be to Marie’s taste. After a room was refurbished in the neo-Louis XIV style, she requested that the plans for her suite be altered and that the rooms be furnished “mostly in the English style.”2 We can detect from the outset the princess’s desire to rethink the architecture of her own rooms at the Cotroceni Palace in the style of a turn-of-the-century British home. In that period, it was argued that the ethnic origins of the English were to be found in the Celtic, Saxon and Scandinavian worlds, an idea also taken up by Romilly Allan, an author read by Princess Marie and Karel Líman. Decorative elements of this vocabulary could be found in the rooms designed by Princess Marie for Cotroceni, probably with the intention of developing a style among whose sources would be her own “roots”. We are unable fully to answer the question of to what extent architect Karel Líman was involved in these first forays into interior design on the princess’s part. Of the Green Room (c.1900), Gold Room (1901), Silver Room (1905)3 and Norwegian Room (1910), only the last is still preserved today, and is definitely the work of Karel Líman, as we discover from Princess Marie’s correspondence.4 During the ten years in which the four rooms at Cotroceni were created, Líman was chiefly involved in the design and construction of Pele[ and Peli[or. The atmosphere of the four rooms at Cotroceni points to the princess’s as yet undeveloped artistic vision, with the exception of the Norwegian Room, which was in fact her boudoir. Her conception of interior design would later crystallise in the form of the “Queen Marie style,” which she developed in direct and continuous collaboration with the Czech architect. “At Cotroceni Líman has created for me an adorable Norwegian room, which is my great delight, and for which I collected all the things from Munich this year. Likewise the 1,000 Marks from you were spent on objects for this precious creation, which fills my heart with infinite satisfaction,” Princess Marie confessed to her mother in a letter dated October 1910.5 In contrast to the other rooms, dominated by gilded stucco (the Gold Room) and silver-painted imitation stonework (the Silver Room), in her boudoir the princess opted for carved pine in natural shades, on the arches, friezes and beams ornamented with entrelacs vegetal motifs and fantastic animals. The ambience was inspired, as the princess put it, by “Norwegian farms,”6 but the decorated wooden interiors of Nordic churches may also be cited. Shona Kallestrup identifies the direct influence of the churches at Faaberg, Thorpe in Hallingdal (both in Norway) and Björksta in Västmanland (Sweden) in the decoration of the (wooden and wrought iron) doors and (wooden) wall ornaments, albeit on a smaller scale.7 The doors, and probably the rest of the carved wooden decorations, were made in Vienna at the studios of Bernhard Ludwig,8 who collaborated with Karel

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reluate îns` la alt` scar`7. U[ile, probabil [i restul decora]iei sculptate în lemn au fost executate la Viena, în atelierele lui Bernhard Ludwig8, colaboratorul fidel al lui Karel Líman timp de decenii. Documenta]ia pe care prin]esa [i arhitectul au consultato era alc`tuit` în principal din articole dedicate arhitecturii religioase a ]`rilor nordice publicate în The Studio (1897, 1898), revist` la care Curtea regal` era abonat` [i volumele The Viking age (Paul B. Du Challu, 1889) [i Early Scandinavian woodcarvings (J. Romilly Allan, 1897).9 Solu]iile arhitectului pornesc de la aceste multiple surse, îns` noutatea const` în redimensionarea, respectiv mic[orarea acestora [i amplasarea într-un interior de dimensiuni reduse, un spa]iu dreptunghiular având un mic alcov. O arcad` de mari dimensiuni confer` monumentalitate ni[ei. De semnalat este c` în Camera norvegian`, pe lâng` elemente ce se circumscriau universului celto-saxon introduse la cererea Mariei, Líman insereaz` [i unul de sorginte local`, o vatr` ]`r`neasc`. Este un element de design interior în care arhitectul va excela, el va mobila casele Mariei, dar [i cabanele de vân`toare ale Regelui Ferdinand cu variate formule de sobe române[ti. Decora]ia sculptat` în lemn era pus` în valoare printr-o alt` solu]ie a arhitectului, o scaf` ce ad`postea un sistem de iluminat conferind ansamblului atmosfera voit` de penumbr`.10 Camera norvegian` reprezint` cu siguran]` un exemplu coerent între interioarele imaginate de Principesa Maria în aceast` perioad`11, contribu]ia arhitectului Líman având un rol decisiv.

Maria Regina României, Povestea vie]ii mele, traducere de Margarita MillerVerghi, edi]ie îngrijit` de Ioana Crac`, Editura Eminescu, Bucure[ti, p. 24. 2 ANIC, fond Casa Regal`, dosar 37/1897 f. 387. f. 6, apud Marian Constantin, Palate [i colibe regale..., p. 143. 3 Nu se cunoa[te numele arhitectului care a realizat în jur de 1900 amenajarea celor trei camere numite mai sus, desigur dup` gustul Mariei marcat de Jugenstil [i de al`turarea elementelor celtice [i neobizantine. 4 Scrisoare a Principesei Maria c`tre mama sa Maria Alexandrovna, duces` de Coburg. ANIC, fond Regina Maria, doc. V 2268/1910, f. 6, apud Marian Constantin, Palate [i colibe regale…, p. 193. 5 Scrisoare a Principesei Maria c`tre mama sa Maria Alexandrovna, duces` de Coburg. ANIC, fond Regina Maria, doc. V 2268/1910, f. 6, apud Marian Constantin, Palate [i colibe regale…, p. 193. 6 „After that I sobered down and my next creation was a quaint carved room in dull brown wood of the colour of a good cigar. The ceiling was low with heavy beams, the doors heavily decorated with rough iron designs. This room was inspired by pictures I had seen of Norvegian farmhouses.” in ANIC, fond Regina Maria, III/79, p.18-19, apud Kallestrup, Art and Design..., p. 59. 7 Kallestrup, Art and Design..., p.60. 8 Marian Constantin, Palate [i colibe..., p. 194. 9 Kallestrup, Art and Design..., p. 59. 10 Restaur`rile anilor '70 nu au mai reluat acest sistem de iluminat, s-a adoptat atunci solu]ia clasic` a unei surse de lumin` amplasate pe tavan. 11 Kallestrup, Art and Design..., p. 59. 1

Líman for decades. The written sources consulted by the princess and her architect were mainly articles on the ecclesiastical architecture of Scandinavia published in The Studio (1897-98), a magazine to which the Royal Court subscribed, and the books The Viking Age by Paul B. du Challu (1889) and Early Scandinavian Wood-carvings by J. Romilly Allan (1897).9 The architect’s solutions drawn upon multiple sources, but the novelty resides in the re-sizing, i.e. the reduction in scale, and their placement in a small rectangular interior with an alcove. A large arch lends monumentality to the alcove. To be noted is that in the Norwegian Room, besides the features from the Celtic and Saxon world introduced at Marie’s request, Líman also included a local feature: a peasant hearth. This was an interior design element at which the architect was to excel: he went on to furnish Marie’s houses, as well as King Ferdinand’s hunting lodges, with Romanian stoves of various styles. The woodcarving is emphasised by another of the architect’s solutions: a groove that houses a lighting system, creating a deliberately muted illumination in the room.10 The Norwegian Room is certainly the most coherent interior designed by Princess Marie in this period,11 and Líman played a decisive rôle in this.

Maria Regina României, Povestea vie]ii mele, trans. Margarita Miller-Verghi, ed. Ioana Crac`, Editura Eminescu, Bucharest, p. 24. 2 A.N.IC, Royal House collection, file no. 37/1897 p. 387. p. 6, apud Marian Constantin, Palate [i colibe regale..., p. 143. 3 We do not know the name of the architect who, around the year 1900, refurbished the three rooms in question, to the taste of Queen Marie, marked by the Jugendstil and the juxtaposition of Celtic and Neo-Byzantine elements. 4 Letter from Princess Marie to her mother Maria Alexandrovna, Duchess of Coburg. National Archives, Queen Marie collection, document 2268/1910, f. 6, apud Marian Constantin, Palate [i colibe regale... , p. 193. 5 Scrisoare a Principesei Maria c`tre mama sa Maria Alexandrovna, duces` de Coburg. ANIC, fond Regina Maria, doc. V 2268/1910, f. 6, apud Marian Constantin, Palate [i colibe regale..., p. 193. 6 “After that I sobered down and my next creation was a quaint carved room in dull brown wood of the colour of a good cigar. The ceiling was low with heavy beams, the doors heavily decorated with rough iron designs. This room was inspired by pictures I had seen of Norwegian farmhouses,” in National Archives, Queen Marie collection, III/79, pp. 18-19, apud Kallestrup, Art and Design..., p. 59. 7 Kallestrup, Art and Design..., p.60. 8 Marian Constantin, Palate [i colibe..., p. 194. 9 Kallestrup, Art and Design..., p. 59. 10 The restoration work of the 1970s did not keep this lighting system, replacing it with a light fitting hung from the ceiling. 11 Kallestrup, Art and Design..., p. 59. 1

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Cabana de vân`toare a Regelui Ferdinand, L`pu[na, (jude]ul Mure[) 1925-1926 1

The Hunting Lodge of King Ferdinand, L`pu[na, (Mure[ County) 1925-1926 1

Profilat` pe mun]ii împ`duri]i ai Gurghiului, amplasat` pe un mic platou din Valea Regilor2, casa de la L`pu[na este o construc]ie din lemn [i zid`rie, pe soclu de piatr`, în spiritul cabanelor de munte. Reprezint` un alt exerci]iu al arhitectului Líman dup` pavilionul de vân`toare de la Javorina, într-un cadru montan similar, în linia arhitecturii vernaculare din Mitteleuropa. Acoperi[urile din [i]`, de diverse în`l]imi, cu pante variat înclinate (la apartamentul regelui de mai mari dimensiuni) ce corespund volumelor imbricate unele într-altele, configureaz` siluete jucate, amplasate judicios în compozi]ia ansamblului [i în peisaj. În acest joc de planuri [i volume atrage aten]ia un cheminée cu acoperi[ de mic turn [i fle[` ce marcheaz` spa]iul cheie al edificiului, cel regal. Alternan]a de texturi a materialelor folosite, lemnul (bârne, [i]a de pe acoperi[), piatra de râu, zid`ria (pere]i exteriori) [i a cromaticii corespunz`toare (brun, gri, alb), contribuie la efectul plastic, specific construc]iilor de la munte. Cabana de dimensiuni relativ mari, dup` cum o demonstreaz` setul de planuri [i schi]e p`strate în Arhiva de planuri a MNP, este conceput` pe dou` nivele, parter, etaj mansardat [i un pod. Aripa principal` a parterului, cu planul în L cu mai multe intr`ri, cuprinde spa]iile cele mai importante: apartamentul Regelui Ferdinand (salon, dormitor cu turn de col] de plan poligonal, baie, anexe), un hall cu scara de acces spre etaj [i o sufragerie. La acela[i nivel se mai afl` buc`t`riile [i alte servicii. La etaj sunt amplasate apartamentele pentru suit`. În interior Líman imagineaz` spa]ii ce amintesc de interven]iile sale la Castelul Bran: arcade [i ni[e semicirculare, zugr`vite cu var alb, coloane sau u[i din lemn de ispira]ie renascentist` [i vernacular` etc. Ceea ce regina numea „a Bran like style”, stilul Bran. Dup` o prim` vizit` pe [antierul cabanei, entuziasmat` de noua crea]ie a colaboratorului s`u în arhitectur` [i decora]ii interioare, Regina Maria m`rturisea: „Dup` prânz, am vizitat noua cas` care este deja acoperit` [i care se afl` într-o pozi]ie bun`, având în spate p`durea [i mun]ii. Va fi o cas` splendid` cu toate elementele de confort a[a cum le percepe Líman atât de bine [i în plus este [i artistic în ce prive[te exterioarele. Majestatea Sa poate fi, fire[te mândru de ea”3,

Set against a backdrop of the forested Gurghiului Mountains, situated on a small plateau in the Valley of Kings,2 the house at L`pu[na is built of wood and brick on a stone platform, in the style of an alpine cabin. On Líman’s part it is an exercise similar to the hunting lodge at Javorina, in a similar alpine setting, drawing upon the vernacular architecture of Mitteleuropa. The shingled roofs of varying heights and steepness match the interlocking volumes and create a carefully controlled overall rhythm within the landscape. In this play of surfaces and volumes what draws the attention is a chimney with a small tower roof and spire that marks the key room of the building, the royal suite. The alternation in the textures of the materials used, wood (beams, shingles) and boulders (exterior walls), and the corresponding colours (brown, grey, white), contributes to the pictorial effect, typical of alpine structures. The cabin was relatively large, as can be seen from the set of plans and drawings kept in the archives of the Pele[ National Museum, and had two storeys: a ground floor and an upper floor with a mansard and attic. The main wing of the ground floor, which was L-shaped and had a number of entrances, housed the most important rooms: King Ferdinand’s suite (salon, bedroom with a polygonal corner tower, bathroom, annexes), a hall with a staircase to the upper floor, and a dining room. On the same floor there were also kitchens and other utility rooms. On the upper floor were suites for the retinue. For the interior Líman designed spaces reminiscent of his work at Castle Bran: whitewashed arches and semi-circular alcoves, columns, Renaissance- and vernacular-inspired wooden doors. It was in what the Queen described as “a Branlike style.” After a first visit to the building site for the lodge, enthused by her architect’s latest creation, Queen Marie wrote: “After lunch I visited the new house, which is already roofed and which is in a good location, with the forest and mountains behind. It will be a splendid house with all the comforts that Líman is so good at and what is more it is artistic when it comes to the exteriors. His Majesty will naturally be proud of it.”3

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Mul]umirea reginei era cu atât mai mare, cu cât [tim c` în aceea[i perioad` activitatea intens` a arhitectului se desf`[ura atât la Castelul Bran, cât [i pe alte [antiere (Palatul Principelui Carol din {oseaua Kiseleff, interven]iile la Castelul Peli[or, planuri pentru alte cabane sau case etc., care vor fi puse în oper` sau nu).

The Queen’s satisfaction was even greater given that we know that in the same period her architect was very busy at Castle Bran and other building sites (the palace for Prince Carol on the Chaussée Kiseleff, the alterations at Castle Peli[or, designs for other cabins and houses, not all of which were constructed).

1 Terenul se afl` la 815 m peste nivelul m`rii, la 45 km de Reghin [i 75 km de Târgu Mure[, nu departe de limita jude]elor Mure[ [i Harghita. 2 Denumirea este dat` de localnici în perioada interbelic`, cea oficial` fiind Valea Gurghiului. 3 Maria Regina României, Însemn`ri zilnice, 1926...., p. 241-242.

1 The plot is 815 m above sea level, 45 km from Reghin and 75 km from Tårgu Mure[, not far from the county line between Mure[ and Harghita. 2 This is the name given to it in the inter-war period by locals, the official name being Gurghiului Valley. 3 Maria Regina României, Însemn`ri zilnice, 1926..., pp. 241-2

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Castelul Pele[, Domeniul regal Pele[, Sinaia Castle Pele[, Pele[ Royal Estate, Sinaia Transform`rile operate de c`tre Líman timp de dou` decenii (1894-1914), vor schimba radical imaginea cl`dirii, de la cea a unui mic castel de munte (1873-1883) – opera arhitectului Johannes Schulz [i a ebenistului Martin Stöhr1 – într-o construc]ie monumental` ce reflecta gustul comanditarului, evoluat în timp spre o formul` de pluralism stilistic. Ele subliniaz` totodat` [i noua pozi]ie politic` a României în Europa, urmare o proclam`rii regatului (1881). Castelul Pele[, de[i pe de o parte re[edin]` privat`, fusese destinat de la inaugurare, reprezent`rii de stat, nu doar loisir-ului, îns` abia acum, prin noua imagine conferit` de proiectele [i ideile lui Karel Líman, cl`direa avea s` exemplifice cu adev`rat viziunea Regelui Carol I. Castelul Pele[ simboliza leag`nul dinastiei [i stabilitatea modelului politic [i cultural propus de comanditar. În plan financiar, aceste importante interven]ii ale lui Líman, încurajate constant de rege, au implicat investi]ii importante ce proveneau din mo[teniri personale ale lui Carol I, precum [i din uzufructul exploat`rii Domeniilor Coroanei constituite în 1884. Timp de [ase luni pe an – din mai pân` în octombrie – regele semna aici decrete [i documente, iar curtea se muta la Sinaia. Karel Líman [i echipa sa aveau a[adar în general [ase luni pe an, toamna [i iarna, pentru a pune în oper` de multe ori, în condi]ii dificile, planurile elaborate de el. Amintim aici faptul c` Líman a lucrat concomitent, în intervalul 1899-1903 [i 1905-1910, pentru castelele Pele[ [i Peli[or, având doi comanditari exigen]i, pe rege [i pe principesa mo[tenitoare, comanditari cu viziuni diferite despre ideea de locuire, despre caracterul oficial [i de loisir al unei re[edin]e, filosofii ce se reg`seau în concep]ia lor despre arhitectur`. În semn de apreciere a eforturilor depuse de Karel Líman, regele îi va acorda importante decora]ii de merit de-a lungul anilor. Urmând o tradi]ie medieval`, Regele Carol I va aproba [i inserarea portretelor autorilor – arhitectul Líman [i decoratorul Bernhard Ludwig – pe scara în spiral` din Hall-ul de onoare, spa]iul cel mai reprezentativ al re[edin]ei. Cu ocazia anivers`rii semicentenarului Castelului Pele[ (1933) [i la împlinirea a trei ani de la moartea arhitectului ceh, istoricul de art` Alexandru Tzigara-Samurca[ eviden]iaz` în mod special

(1894-1914)

(1894-1914)

The alterations carried out by Líman over the course of two decades (1894-1914) were to change the look of the building radically, changing it from a small alpine castle (1873-1883), the work of architect Johannes Schulz and cabinetmaker Martin Stöhr,1 to a monumental structure that reflected the client’s tastes, which had in the meantime evolved toward stylistic pluralism. The alterations also underlined Romania’s new political position within Europe, subsequent to the proclamation of the Kingdom in 1881. Castle Pele[, although a private residence, had also been intended since its inauguration as a state building, but it was only now, thanks to the new image conferred upon it by Karel Líman’s designs and ideas, that it could truly embody the vision of King Carol I: Castle Pele[ symbolised the cradle of the dynasty and the stability of his political and cultural model. At the financial level, Líman’s major alterations, constantly encouraged by the King, involved major investments, paid for from the personal wealth of Carol I and revenues from the Crown Domains, established in 1884. For six months of the year, from May to October, the King resided at Pele[, where he signed decrees and other documents of state, and his court moved to Sinaia. Karel Líman and his team spent six months of the year there, in autumn and winter, putting into effect the plans he had drawn up, often in difficult weather conditions. We should also note that in the periods 1899-1903 and 1905-1910 Líman also worked on Castle Peli[or in parallel to Castle Pele[, for two separate and equally demanding clients, the King and the Crown Princess, each of whom had a different vision of the official/loisir functions of a residence, springing from their separate architectural philosophies. In token of his appreciation for Karel Líman’s work, the King awarded him a number of decorations over the years. Following a mediaeval tradition, King Carol I ordered that portraits of architect Líman and decorator Bernhard Ludwig had to be carved on the spiral staircase in the ceremonial hall, the residence’s main reception area. On the fiftieth anniversary of Castle Pele[ in 1933, and on the third anniversary of the death of the Czech architect, art historian Alexandru Samurca[ spoke of Líman’s achievement and his rela-

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contribu]ia acestuia [i raporturile cu regalul comanditar: „Constantul colaborator îns` în m`rirea [i prefacerea castelului [i a cl`dirii numeroaselor anexe a fost arhitectul Cur]ii Karel Líman, care ajunsese s` în]eleag` [i s` execute întocmai inten]iile regale. Carol I vizita aproape zilnic biroul de arhitectur` [i urm`rea lucr`rile de lemn`rie din atelierele dependin]elor din Palat”.2 În continuare, Samurca[ apreciaz` Castelul Pele[ drept un monument reprezentativ la nivel european, al Neo-Rena[terii germane.3 Planurile [i detaliile de execu]ie au primit pân` spre 1904 [i avizul arhitectului André Lecomte du Noüy, consilierul pe probleme de arhitectur` al Regelui Carol I. Ini]ial, numele arhitectului francez este pus frecvent în leg`tur` cu o serie de edificii construite pe Domeniul regal, ulterior, post 1904, Líman îi va lua locul. În vederea amplific`rii suprafe]ei castelului, terenul în pant` situat în spatele cl`dirii a trebuit stabilizat cu ziduri [i terase solide din piatr`. Proiectul lui Líman aduce o modificare de ansamblu a propor]iilor, a în`l]imii, a suprafe]elor, dar [i o diversificare în arhitectura [i în decora]ia de interior în sensul pluralismului stilistic deja amintit. La exterior, Líman formuleaz` o variant` exuberant` a Neo-Rena[terii, ce presupune grefarea unor elemente de origine italian` pe elemente de arhitectur` german`. Solu]iile sale pornesc în principal de la monumente germane de Rena[tere (din Nürnberg, Augsburg, Rothenburg an der Tauber, Bremen, Lübeck), aceste surse fiind propuse de rege. Faptul c` scenografia noilor fa]ade las` s` transpar` vechiul desen din etapa Schulz, trebuie privit drept un element de continuitate. Silueta general` a castelului – solid ancorat` în sol, profilat` pe crestele de piatr` ale mun]ilor Bucegi [i înconjurat` de p`duri – este marcat` de volumetria jucat` a acoperi[urilor ce contribuie la întregirea compozi]iei. Plastica fa]adelor castelului propune o „tem` a turnului”. Líman amplific` cele trei turnuri existente în vechiul Pele[ atribuindu-le identitate, o logic` [i o estetic`. Situat în zona median` a fa]adei principale, de sec]iune p`trat`, turnul principal cu ceas – cel mai înalt dintre volume – reprezint` pivotul central al compozi]iei. Acesta ad`poste[te mai multe spa]ii, între care [i camera arhitectului Lecomte du Noüy, încheindu-se la ultimul nivel cu o galerie deschis`, ce permite o vedere la 180 de grade a peisajului pitoresc. Cel de-al doilea turn amplasat pe col]ul de sud-est, este de sec]iune circular` (la parter, parter înalt [i etajul I) [i hexagonal` (la ultimele dou` nivele), o solu]ie plastic` ingenioas`. Un al treilea turn circular, plasat ini]ial pe col]ul de nord-est, a devenit la Líman pies` central` a fa]adei de est, pe care o prelunge[te spre nord. La nivelul fa]adei principale (de sud), raportul final dintre volumul principal orizontal [i primele dou` turnuri încheiate cu fle[e, devine

tionship with his royal patron: “The constant collaborator, however, in the extension and transformation of the castle and its numerous annexes was Court Architect Karel Líman, who had come to understand and carry out the royal wishes to the letter. Carol I visited the architectural bureau almost daily and followed progress on the woodwork in the Palace workshops.”2 Samurca[ goes on to praise Castle Pele[ as a monument of the German neoRenaissance that is of European importance.3 Around 1904, the plans and details received the approval of architect André Lecomte du Noüy, the King’s architectural adviser. The French architect’s name was frequently linked to buildings constructed on the Royal Estate, but after 1904 Líman came to the fore. With a view to enlarging the surface area of the castle, the sloping ground behind the building had to be stabilised using walls and solid stone terraces. Líman’s design altered the overall proportions and height of the castle, as well as diversifying its architecture and interior decoration. For the exterior, Líman came up with an exuberant version of the neo-Renaissance style, which involved grafting Italian features onto elements of German architecture. His solutions are in the main derived from German Renaissance monuments from Nuremberg, Augsburg, Rothenburg an der Tauber, Bremen, Lübeck, sources suggested by the King. The fact that the façades allow the old design from the Schulz phase to show through should be viewed as an element of continuity. The general outline of the castle – solidly anchored in the ground, framed by the stony crests of the Bucegi Mountains and surrounded by forests – is marked by the volumetry of the roofs, which sets off the composition as a whole. The castle’s façades put forward the “tower theme”. Líman emphasises the three existing towers, lending them an identity, logic and aesthetic. Situated in the middle area of the main façade, the square clock tower – the highest of the volumes – is the central pivot of the composition. It houses a number of spaces, including the room of architect Lecompte du Noüy, and is topped with an open gallery that allows a 180-degree view of the surrounding landscape. The second tower, situated on the south-east corner, is circular on the ground floor, upper ground floor and first floor, and hexagonal on its top two storeys, an ingenious spatial solution. A third, circular tower, originally situated at the north-east corner, became Líman’s centre piece for the new east façade, an extension of the north façade. On the main, south-facing façade, the final balance between the main horizontal volume and the two spired towers becomes an expression of the compositional harmony sought by the architect. From the old Pele[, Líman preserved the solutions typical of the German neo-Renaissance, the Fachwerk of the upper floors housing the suites (the first and second floors and the mansard). On

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© Muzeul Na]ional Pele[, Sinaia

Plan etaj – etapa Liman (1894-1914) / First-floor plan –Líman phase (1894-1914)

© Muzeul Na]ional Pele[, Sinaia

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Curtea de onoare / Ceremonial courtyard

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Poarta regilor / The door of kings

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Scara \n spiral` dup` un original aflat la prim`ria din Bremen / Spiral staircase, copy of the staircase in the town hall at Bremen

Portretul lui Karel Líman amplasat pe scara \n spiral` / Portrait of Karel Líman placed on the spiral staircase

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Tapiserii din atelierele Gobelin, dup` desene de Francois Boucher, la etajul I / Tapestries from the Gobelin studios, after drawings by François Boucher, on the first floor

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Castelul Peli[or, Re[edin]a de var` a regelui Ferdinand I [i a reginei Maria, domeniul regal, Pele[, Sinaia (1899-1903) Castle Peli[or, the Summer Residence in Sinaia of King Ferdinand I and Queen Maria, on the Pele[ Royal Estate, Sinaia (1899-1903)

© Muzeul Na]ional Pele[, Sinaia

În memoriile pe care regina Maria le-a redactat [i publicat la vârsta maturit`]ii1, suverana î[i amintea cu nepl`cere de aspectul rece [i aparent auster al re[edin]elor regale din jurul anului 1890. Maria de Saxa-Coburg-Gotha (1875-1938), duces` de Saxa [i principes` a Marei Britanii [i Irlandei, era obi[nuit` din copil`rie cu confortul c`minelor engleze[ti. În ceea ce privea decora]ia de interior a Palatului Regal de pe Calea Victoriei din Bucure[ti, re[edin]a de iarn` a regelui Carol I sau a Castelului Pele[ de la Sinaia, re[edin]a regal` estival`, tân`ra principes` mo[tenitoare a României a f`cut un efort de adaptare la ceea ce ea numea „stilul Alt-Deutsch”, pe care îl respingea funciar. La Sinaia, tân`ra principes` Maria a sosit pentru prima oar` în

Principele Ferdinand în loggia camerei de aur / Prince Ferdinand on the loggia of the Gold Room

In the memoirs that Queen Marie wrote and published late in life, the sovereign recalls with displeasure the cold and seemingly austere appearance of the royal residences around the year 18901. Marie of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (1875-1938), Duchess of Saxe and Princess of Great Britain and Ireland, had from childhood been used to the comfort of English homes. In regard to the interior decoration of the Royal Palace on Calea Victoriei in Bucharest, which was the winter residence of King Carol I, and Castle Pele[ in Sinaia, the royal summer residence, the young crown princess of Romania had to make an effort to adapt to what she called the “Alt-Deutsch style,” one that she found repellent. The young Princess Marie arrived in Sinaia for the first time in the summer of 1893, accompanied by her husband, the Crown Prince Ferdinand of Hohenzollern (1865-1927), the future King Ferdinand I of Romania (1914-1927). They spent their first summer holiday together there, and the old King Carol, who was proud of Pele[, his dearest foundation, was at pains to provide the heirs to the throne with the best suite in the castle, the main guest suite on the first floor of the south wing. It was in that eclectic setting – created by the interior decoration firm of Isaac Daniel Heymann from Hamburg, who, at the sovereign’s behest and under the guidance of his chief artistic adviser, Martin Stöhr, the Sculptor to the Royal Court, had created a Neo-Renaissance German ambience – that they spent their first sojourn in the resort at the foot of the Bucegi Mountains. It was also here that the Crown Princess Marie was to give birth, on 16 October 1893, to Prince Carol (18931953), the future King Carol II of Romania (1930-1940). But the accommodation of the young princely family in the most spacious suite of Castle Pele[ was only a temporary solution: the guest requirements of the royal residence, on the one hand, and the young Ferdinand and Marie’s need for privacy and their own home, on the other, led King Carol to give up his old hunting lodge, named the Foi[or, which lay not far from Pele[. It is highly likely that with a view to adapting the small chalet, the services of the interior decoration firms with

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vara 1893, în compania so]ului ei, principele mo[tenitor Ferdinand de Hohenzollern (1865-1927), viitorul rege Ferdinand I al României (1914-1927). Ei [i-au petrecut prima vacan]` de var` împreun`, iar b`trânul rege Carol, atât de mândru de Pele[, ctitoria sa cea mai drag`, s-a str`duit s` ofere mo[tenitorilor tronului cel mai bun apartament din castel, apartamentul principal pentru oaspe]i, aflat la etajul I pe latura de sud. În acel cadru eclectic, realizat de firma de decora]iuni interioare Isaac Daniel Heymann din Hamburg (Germania), care crease la cererea suveranului [i a principalului s`u consilier artistic – sculptorul Cur]ii regale Martin Stöhr, un ambient de sorginte neo-renascentist` german`, s-a desf`[urat primul sejur în sta]iunea de la poalele Mun]ilor Bucegi. Tot aici, principesa mo[tenitoare Maria avea s` dea na[tere, la 16 octombrie 1893, principelui Carol (1893-1953), viitorul rege Carol al II-lea al Românei (1930-1940). Îns` amplasarea tinerei familii princiare în cel mai spa]ios apartament al Castelului Pele[ nu a fost decât o solu]ie tranzitorie: necesit`]ile de reprezentare [i g`zduire a re[edin]ei regale pe de o parte, precum [i nevoia de intimitate [i de un c`min propriu al tinerilor Ferdinand [i Maria, l-au determinat pe regele Carol s` renun]e la folosirea vechiului pavilion de vân`toare numit „Foi[or”, aflat nu foarte departe de Pele[, în favoarea principilor mo[tenitori. Este foarte probabil ca în vederea schimb`rii destina]iei micului chalet, s` se fi recurs la serviciile unor firme de decora]iuni interioare cu care Administra]ia Casei regale colaborase pân` atunci, precum firma citat` mai sus sau firma August Bembé din Mainz (Germania). În perioada de redactare a primei monografii a Castelului Pele[ [i a re[edin]ei regale de la Sinaia (1892-1893) de c`tre bibliotecarul regelui Carol I – elve]ianul Léo Bachelin, autorul monografiei, aminte[te de lucr`rile de m`rire ale vechiului Pavilion de vân`toare, realizate dup` proiectele arhitec]ilor Eisenlohr [i Weiglé din Stuttgart (Germania).2 Astfel, din vara anului 1894, Foi[orul a devenit re[edin]a estival` a principilor mo[tenitori, unde avea s` se nasc`, la 12 octombrie 1894, cel de al doilea copil al cuplului, principesa Elisabeta (1894-1956), devenit` prin c`s`torie regina Greciei. În anii urm`tori, principii mo[tenitori aveau s` foloseasc` Foi[orul, îns` [i aceast` solu]ie a fost una tranzitorie – îndat` ce condi]iile financiare au fost prielnice, regele Carol I a comandat pentru viitorii suverani o nou` re[edin]` de var`, foarte aproape de Pele[, ce avea s` fie amplasat` chiar pe cursul unui mic pârâu, afluent al râului Pele[ – Peli[orul, de unde [i numele viitoarei re[edin]e. Din analiza documentelor din Arhiva Biroului regal de Arhitectur` de la Sinaia, precum [i a unor gravuri din jurul anilor 1885-18933 observ`m o mare similitudine între planul la sol al primei cl`diri administrative a Domeniului regal, Casa

© Muzeul Na]ional Pele[, Sinaia

KAREL ZDENÊK LÍMAN

Oaspe]i ai Familiei Regale pe terasele Peli[orului / Guests of the Royal Family on the terraces of Peli[or

which the Administration of the Royal House had previously worked with were now called upon. These firms included August Bembé from Mainz. The librarian to King Carol I, Swiss Léo Bachelin, who drew up the first monograph of Castle Pele[ in 1892-3, writes that work on extending the old hunting lodge was being carried out by architects Eisenlohr and Weiglé from Stuttgart at the time of his writing.2 Thus it was that in the summer of 1894 the Foi[or became the summer residence of the heirs to the throne, where Princess Marie was to give birth to their second child on 12 October 1894, the Princess Elisabeth (1894-1956), who became Queen of Greece by marriage. In the years that followed the royal couple were to stay at the Foi[or, but this too was a temporary solution, and as soon as financial circumstances allowed, King Carol I ordered a new summer residence for the future king and his wife, very near Pele[, on the bank of the Peli[or Stream, which flowed into the Pele[ River, whence the name of the future residence. An analysis of the documents in the Archive of the Royal Architectural Bureau at Sinaia and of engravings from the period 1885-933 reveals the great similarity between the plans of the first administrative building of the Royal Estate, the House of the Economy (or Economat), designed in the same period as Castle Pele[ by architect Johannes Schulz. Although the landscape around the building has changed greatly, between the period when the first Economat was finished and Castle Peli[or was completed the changes were not fundamental, however. The changes came later, perhaps after 1910, when the surroundings of Peli[or were altered with the planting of the trees that today, a century later, create a major visual break in the landscape, between the access lane to the terraces of Castle

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Fa]ada de est / East façade

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Unghiul de sud-est cu turnul central [i loggia / South-east corner with the central tower and loggia

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Galeria de la etajul I / First-floor gallery

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Intrarea în sufragerie / Entrance to the dining room

Micul salon circular din sufragerie / Small circular salon in the dining room

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Plafon al salona[ului circular / Ceiling of the circular room

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Bolta încheiat` cu crucea celtic` din Camera de aur, atelier Bernhard Ludwig / Vault capped with a Celtic cross, in the Gold Room. Bernhard Ludwig studio

Aspect din Camera de aur / The Gold Room

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Camera de aur. Mobilier din lemn aurit executat dup` desenele Principesei Maria/ The Gold Room. Gilded wooden furniture made to the designs of Princess Maria

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Casa Arhitectului, Domeniul regal Pele[, Sinaia (c. 1900; 1908-1909) The Architect’s House, Pele[ Royal Estate, Sinaia (c. 1900; 1908-1909) Cl`direa aflat` în apropiere de pârâul Pele[, ce curge în stânga, face parte dintr-un ansamblu de cl`diri administrative ale Domeniului regal, fiind amplasat` în imediata vecin`tate a Corpului de gard`, a Economatului [i a Garajelor noi. Cl`diri cu arhitectur` de tip Fachwerk, ele sunt construite în jurul unei pia]ete dup` tipicul a[ez`rilor germane medievale. Proiectat` de c`tre Karel Líman, casa a fost destinat` înc` de la bun început a g`zdui biroul regal de arhitectur`, dar [i locuin]a de serviciu a arhitectului [ef. Din 1929, de la moartea lui Líman, apartamentul a fost preluat de c`tre succesorul s`u, arhitectul Jean Ernest. Casa proiectat` c`tre 1900 a suferit modific`ri ulterioare, probabil c`tre 1908-1909. Într-o prim` etap`, dup` cum se poate constata dintr-o fotografie conservat` în arhiva arhitectului, cl`direa se compunea dintr-un volum compact cu trei nivele parter, etaj [i mansard`, de plan dreptunghiular având dou` intr`ri, deservind fiecare câte unul din nivele principale. Ulterior cl`direa a fost amplificat` prin ad`ugarea unui nou volum de plan trapezoidal neregulat, având tot atâtea nivele ca [i cel originar. Corpul cel nou, alipit se distinge printr-o ampl` teras` construit` peste un garaj, peste care s-a ad`ugat un alt volum restras fa]` de restul cl`dirii. Este terasa pe care Líman, intrat de curând în serviciul noilor suverani, se las` fotografiat în 1915, albit [i cople[it de gânduri, c`ci dup` moartea lui Carol I [i declan[area Primului R`zboi Mondial, se profila un viitor incert. Silueta armonioas` a cl`dirii se compune dintr-un joc de trei volume compacte, imbricate, surmontate de acoperi[uri în pant` [i balcoane mansardate. Densitatea semnificativ` a decora]iei o întâlnim la parter pe u[ile garajului, ornate cu basoreliefuri inspirate din lumea basmelor germane sau alte motive provenind din universul Neo-Rena[terii germane (atlan]i, ni[e decorative etc.).

The building, by the Pele[ Stream, is one of the administrative buildings on the Royal Estate, and is situated in the immediate vicinity of the Guardhouse, Economat and New Garages. The Fachwerk buildings stand around a small square, in the manner of a German mediaeval burg. Designed by Karel Líman, the building was intended from the outset to house the Royal Architectural Bureau and to serve as a residence for the chief architect. In 1929, the year of Líman’s death, the apartment was taken over by his successor, Jean Ernest. Designed around 1900, the house was later altered, probably around 1908-09. As may be observed in the photograph preserved in the architect’s archive, in the first phase the building was a compact rectangular volume with three storeys – a ground floor, first floor and mansard – and had two entrances, one for each of the main levels. Later the building was extended, with the addition of an irregular trapezoidal volume, which had as many storeys as the original structure. The new wing had a large terrace over a garage, above which was added another volume set back from the rest of the building. This is the terrace on which Líman, was photographed in 1915, white-haired and pensive, after the death of King Carol I and the outbreak of the First World War. The building’s harmonious outline is made up of three interlocking, compact volumes, capped by sloping roofs and mansarded balconies. The main density of the decoration is to be found on the ground floor, on the doors of the garage, which have bas-reliefs inspired by German fairy tales, and in other motifs from the German Neo-Renaissance (Atlases, decorative niches, etc.).

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Casa Arhitectului a[a cum se prezenta c`tre 1900 / The Architect’s House around 1900

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Schi]` de fa]ad` / Drawing for the façade

© Muzeul Na]ional Pele[, Sinaia

© Muzeul Na]ional Pele[, Sinaia

KAREL ZDENÊK LÍMAN

Fa]ada dinspre Castelul Peli[or, desen / The façade facing Castle Peli[or, drawing

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Maria Regina României: Gânduri [i impresii la moartea arhitectului Karel Líman1 Queen Marie of Romania’s thoughts about architect Karel Líman on his death1 Duminic`, 28 iulie 1929, Sinaia

Sunday July 28th 1929, Sinaia

…Întreaga zi am fost întristat` de vestea proast` despre Liman. El chiar pare c` se duce. Pentru mine aceasta este o mare durere. Ceea ce apreciez la el, dincolo de slujitorul devotat, este prietenul [i extraordinarul aliat, cu talentul s`u de neînlocuit [i dragostea lui pentru Bran, acea dragoste ce ne-a unit atât de mult. (...). Prieten drag, onest, credincios [i adesea ]âfnos! Mi-a fost întotdeauna team` de aceast` desp`r]ire [i acum iat-o aici [i noi n-am terminat lucrarea noastr`. El era ata[at Branului din toate punctele de vedere, iar dragul meu cuib de vultur nu va mai fi niciodat` la fel f`r` el. Parte din spiritul locului a plecat odat` cu el, micul vr`jitor ocupat care a locuit între zidurile castelului, a inventat o mie de feluri pentru a-l îmbun`t`]i [i l-a f`cut \ntru totul locuibil. El e cel care a g`sit spa]iu acolo unde p`rea s` nu fie niciun pic de loc [i care, de fiecare dat`, avea un nou plan, vreo nou` descoperire pe care s` mi le arate. Da, îmi va lipsi profund; odat` cu el ceva a disp`rut [i din via]a mea. Ba mai mult, era leg`tura cu trecutul, una din ancorele mele [i un adev`rat b`trân lupt`tor care putea ]ine la distan]` invazivul „viitor”. Eram alia]i naturali, ]ineam cu din]ii de „ceea ce a fost”. Talentul lui era mare [i era un geniu al aranjamentelor de interior practice [i doream de asemenea s` facem împreun` sala de bal de la Cotroceni. Ce i-ar mai fi pl`cut s` fac` asta! Ei bine, s-a dus. Durerea [i regretele mele nu îl vor aduce înapoi. Avea 75 de ani [i l-am avut o lung` perioad` de timp. Am lucrat mân` în mân`, i-am îndulcit ultimii ani, de asta sunt sigur`. Branul a dat un nou sens vie]ii lui. Sinaia a trecut în mâinile altcuiva, el s-a separat moral de Sinaia, inima [i sufletul s`u erau la Bran [i în cele din urm` a locuit acolo, în mica sa camer`, trei sferturi din an. |l iubea, era st`pân [i putea da frâu liber geniului s`u pentru munc` [i crea]ie imaginativ`. Tocmai pentru c` probabil f`cea lucrurile încet, pu]in câte pu]in, a f`cut astfel încât lucrarea s` fie interesant` [i întotdeauna plin` de atrac]ii [i speran]`.

My whole day was saddened by very bad news of Liman, he really seems to be going. To me this is a real grief. I lose in him more than a devoted servant, a friend and a tremendous ally besides his irreplaceable talent, his great love of Bran, that shared love that united us so closely. Honest, faithful and often cross old friend. I have always trembled before this parting, now it is there and we had not finished our work. He was bound up with Bran in every way and my old eagle’s nest will never be the same again without him. Some of the spirit of the place has gone with him, the busy little wizard who lived within the walls and invented a thousand ways to improve it and make it livable in every way. Who found space where there seemed to be none, and who each time I came had some new plan, some new discovery to show me. Yes, I shall miss him deeply, something with him has been cut

© Muzeul Na]ional Bran

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Regina Maria în Camera de gard` a Castelului Bran / Queen Marie in the Guard Room of Castle Bran

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Regina Maria „up on the roof", pe terasele castelului Bran / Bran Queen Marie, “up on the roof”, Castle Bran

Ultima lui fapt` a fost apa. Ei bine, acum avem ap` în tot castelul. Asta a mai tr`it s-o vad` [i s` vad` încântarea mea fa]` de aceasta realizare. Sfâr[it! Trebuie s` pun cruce acestei colabor`ri stimulatoare [i fericite [i s` continui f`r` el. Inima mea nu va uita niciodat` munca lui, iar numele lui îl voi pomeni cu gratitudine, spiritul lui va fi întotdeauna cu mine în interiorul vechilor pere]i. Lisabetha mi-a în]eles durerea, dar a preferat s` o lase pe Cella s` mearg` cu mine. Dragul castel este plin de flori, atmosfera este agreabil` [i te sim]i ca acas`. Am citit mult împreun` dup` care am cinat în od`i]a mea. Lumina electric` reprezint` un mare confort, la fel [i apa despre care nu pot spune cât de mult înseamn`. Dar m` simt ca [i cum steagul meu este în bern`.

out of my life. Besides, he was a link with the past, one of my anchors, and a real old fighter who could keep the invading “future” at bay. We were natural allies, we hold fast onto “the had been”. His talent was great and he was a genius for practical inner arrangements and we also still meant to make my Cotroceni bed room together. How he would have enjoyed making that. Well he is gone! My grief and regret will never bring him back. He was 75 and I had him a long time, we worked hand in hand, I sweetened his last year, this I know. Bran gave him a new sense of life. Sinaia had gone over into other hands, he had morally been separated from Sinaia, his heart and soul were in Bran and he finally lived here in his little room three quarters of the years. He loved it and was master and could let his genius for work and an imaginative creation free play. Just because we had to do things slowly and little by little made the work interesting and always full off new interest new hope. His last feat was the water. Well now we have water in all the castle this he only just lived to see & to see my pleasure at this happy achievement. Finis! I must make a cross on that stimulating and happy collaboration and must go forward without him. My heart will never forget his work and his name will be remembered by me with gratitude, his spirit will always live with me, within the old walls. Lisabetha understood my grief, but she preffered to let Cella to go with me alone. The dear little castle is full of flowers, it is quaintly cosy and home-like, we read a lot together and supped in my little room. The electric light is a great comfort as to the water I cannot even say how much that means. But I felt like flying my flag half mast.

Monday July 29th 1929, Bran Off to Bran as early as I could get off taking Lisabetha and Cella with me, followed by faithful Zwiedy. Alas with heavy rain. It was clearer along the Bra[ov Bran side but rain followed us. It was horribly sad to reach the dear castle knowing that there was no more old Liman there to greet us that he was dying in the Bra[ov sanatorium. Passing his room of which the door was closed I had a cruel feeling of “vorbei”. I had several times telephone messages! I had said that if he became conscient I would go to him, but I preferred to remember him full of life and talk as I had seen him ten days ago that to stand beside his bed to see a long and struggling last battle where I could be of no possible help nor comfort. At 5 we received the news that he was dead….

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Luni, 29 iulie 1929 Plecare la Bran de îndat` ce am putut, luându-le pe Lisabetha [i Cella cu mine, urmate de credinciosul Zwiedy, în pofida ploii dese. S-a mai luminat pe parcurs spre Bra[ov [i Bran, dar ploaia ne-a înso]it. Era groaznic de trist s` ajungem la dragul nostru castel [tiind c` acolo nu mai era Líman s` ne întâmpine deoarece era pe patul de moarte la sanatoriul din Bra[ov. Trecând pe lâng` camera lui a c`rei u[` era închis`, am avut un dureros sentiment al „vorbei”. Am l`sat mai multe mesaje telefonice. Spusesem c`, dac` ar fi con[tient m-a[ duce la el, dar am preferat s` mi-l amintesc plin de via]` [i s`-i vorbesc a[a cum îl v`zusem cu zece zile în urm` decât s` stau lâng` patul lui ca s` v`d o lung` [i îndârjit` lupt` final`, în care eu nu a[ putea fi de niciun ajutor sau consolare. La 5 am primit vestea c` murise... Cella [i cu mine am plecat încolo cu flori de la Bran, castelul lui îndr`git... Z`cea acolo mic [i lini[tit, foarte galben, cu p`rul lui alb [i stufos, cu ochii în fundul capului. Un slujitor credincios care a lucrat pân` în ultima zi; a lucrat cu pasiune [i tânjea s` tr`iasc` pentru a-[i continua munca, mai ales ca s` termine ultima lui pasiune: Branul.

Mar]i, 30 Iulie 1929 Toat` ziua gândurile mi-au fost ocupate cu dragul Líman. Împreun` cu Zwiedy [i Schnell am trecut în revist` toate propriet`]ile mele [i am analizat în detaliu toate lucr`rile care erau în curs [i planurile de viitor pe care le avea neobositul meu lucr`tor. Voi abandona cu siguran]` unul. Nu am fost niciodat` în totalitate de acord cu el, dar Líman studia situa]ia. El vroia s` l`rgeasc` spa]iul din fa]a castelului la urcare prin dinamitarea unei p`r]i a stâncii [i pl`nuise construirea unui soi de portal pe care urma s` se afle un apartament pentru gardianul castelului. Ar fi fost o mare cheltuial` [i nu [tiu dac` mi-ar fi pl`cut, de[i, cu siguran]`, Líman ar fi f`cut o cl`dire atractiv`, practic` [i artistic`. Dar ar fi fost prea mult. „Dependin]ele”, bineîn]eles, trebuie terminate toate [i realizate a[a cum a fost planificat deoarece ne ofer` tot spa]iul necesar pentru servitori [i suit`. Dar m` doare sufletul; voi continua [i termina totul, dar nu voi mai sim]i niciodat` acel „gusto”. Cu toate acestea, inten]ionez s` fac o lucrare complet` din toate punctele de vedere cu voia lui Dumnezeu.

Cella and I drove there with flowers of Bran, his beloved Bran… He lay there small and peaceful still very yellow with his thick white hear and sunken eye . A faithful servant who worked to the very last day, worked passionately and longed to live so as to go on working and especially to finish his last love: Bran.

Thursday, July 30th 1929, Bran All day long I carried the thought of my old Liman about with me. With Zwiedy and Schnell I reviewed all my possessions and went into details of all the work that was in hand and the plans my relentless old worker had for the future. One especially I shall abandon. I had never quite agreed to it, but Liman was studying the question. He want to enlarge the place in front of the castle when one drives up by blasting part of the rock and planned building a sort of portal over which there would be an apartment for the guardian of the castle. It would have been a big expense and I do not know that I would have liked it, although no doubt Liman would have made an attractive, practical and artistic building out of it. But it would have let it too far. The “dependences” below must of course all be finished off and carried out as planned because they give us the entire place necessary for servants and followers. But all the time my heart ached, I shall carry on and finish everything, but I shall never feel the same gusto again. But for all that I need to make a complete work in every way if God wills.

1 Regina Maria, Însemn`ri zilnice, 1929, National Archives, Queen Marie collection, roll 478, pp. 123-128.

1 Regina Maria, Însemn`ri zilnice, 1929, ANIC, fond Regina Maria, rola 478, p. 123-128. Traducere din limba englez` de Cristina Hag`u.

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Regina Maria la Castelul Bran / Queen Marie at Castle Bran, “Bran atmosphere”

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1

2

3

1. Regele Carol I pe terasele Castelului Pele[, 27 aprilie 1914 / King Carol I on the terraces of Castle Pele[ 27 April 1914 2. Regina Elisabeta în Sala de marmur`, Castelul Pele[ / Queen Elisabeth in the Marble Room, Castle Pele[ 3. Regina Maria [i Regele Mihai, c. 1927 / Queen Marie and King Michael, c. 1927

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4

5

6

4. Regele Ferdinand, c. 1925 / King Ferdinand, c. 1925 5. Principele Carol, c. 1920 / Prince Carol, c. 1920 6. Familia Regal` a României, c. 1909 / The Royal Family of Romania, c. 1909

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Bibliografie selectiv` / Selected bibliography Léo Bachelin, Castel-Pelesh, Le Château Royal de Sinaia, Firmin Didot & Cie, Paris, 1893 Ruxanda Beldiman, Castelul Pele[ expresie a fenomenului istorist de influen]` german`, ed. Simetria, Bucure[ti, 2011 Eugeniu Artur Buhman, Patru decenii în serviciul Casei Regale a României. Memorii 1898-1940, edi]ie îngriijit` de Cristian Scarlat, ed. Sigma, Bucure[ti, 2006

Maria Regina României, Însemn`ri zilnice (1923), volumul V, Traducere de Sanda-Ileana Racoviceanu. Îngrijire de edi]ie, Cuvânt înainte [i note de Vasile Arimia, ed. Historia, Bucure[ti, 2006 Maria Regina României, Însemn`ri zilnice (1924), volumul VI, traducere de Sanda Ileana Racoviceanu. Îngrijire edi]ie, Cuvânt înainte [i note Vasile Arimia, Bucure[ti, ed. Historia, 2008

Marian Constantin, Palate [i colibe regale. Arhitectura [i decora]ia interioar` în slujba monarhiei (1875-1925), ed. Compania, Bucure[ti, 2008

Maria Regina României, Însemn`ri zilnice (1 ianuarie – 31 decembrie 1925), volumul VII, traducere de Sanda-Ileana Racoviceanu. Îngrijire de edi]ie, Cuvânt înainte [i note de Vasile Arimia, ed. Historia, Bucure[ti, 2008

Paul Constantin, Dic]ionar al arhitec]ilor, ed. [tiin]ific` [i Enciclopedic`, Bucure[ti, 1986

Maria Regina României, Însemn`ri zilnice (1 ianuarie – 31 decembrie 1926) volumul III, ed. Cognitia, Bucure[ti, 2010

Mihai Haret, Castelul Pele[. Monografie istoric`-geografic`-turistic`-descriptiv`-pitoreasc`, ed. Cartea Româneasc`, Bucure[ti, 1924

Cezara Mucenic, Bucure[ti. Un veac de arhitectur` civil` Secolul XIX, ed. Silex, Bucure[ti, 1997

Grigore Ionescu, Istoria arhitecturii pe teritoriul României, ed. Academiei, Bucure[ti, 1982 Shona Kallestrup, Art and design in Romania 1866-1927. Local and international aspects of the search for national expression, East European Monographs, Boulder Colorado, New York, 2006 Ian Macdonald-Smith, The Houses and Gardens of M.H. Baillie Scott, Rizzoli International publications, New York, 2010 Maria Regina României, Povestea vie]ii mele, volumul II, traducere de M`rg`rita Miller-Verghi, edi]ie îngrijit` de Ioana Crac`, ed. Eminescu, Bucure[ti, 1991 Maria Regina României, Însemn`ri zilnice (decembrie 1918decembrie 1919), volumul I. Traducere de Valentina Costache [i Sandra Racoviceanu. Îngrijire de edi]ie, Introducere [i Note de Vasile Arimia, ed. Albatros, Bucure[ti, 2004

Pevsner Nikolaus, Fleming John, Honour Hugh, Dizionario di architettura, Giulio Einaudi Editore, Torino 1981 Carl A. Regnet, Führer durch die Kunst- und Kustgewerbeausstellung in München, Verlag Lehman & Wenzel, Wien, 1876 Toma T. Socolescu, Fresca arhitec]ilor care au lucrat în România în epoca modern` 1800-1925, ed. Caligraf, Bucuresti, 2004 Alexandru Tzigara-Samurca[, Castel Pele[ 1883-1933, ed. Monitorul Oficial, Bucure[ti, 1933 Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, Entretiens sur l'architecture, II, Paris 1872

Abrevieri Arhivele Na]ionale Istorice Centrale – ANIC Muzeul Na]ional Pele[ - MNP

Maria Regina României, Însemn`ri zilnice (ianuarie 1921 – decembrie 1921), volumul III, traducere de Sanda Ileana Racoviceanu. Îngrijire edi]ie, introducere [i note de Vasile Arimia, ed. Albatros, Bucure[ti, 2005

238 BIBLIOGRAFIE


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Mul]umiri / Aknowledgements Autorii aduc respectuoase mul]umiri Alte]ei Sale Regale Principesei mo[tenitoare Margareta a României [i Familiei Regale a României pentru sus]inerea acestei publica]ii. Întreaga noastr` gratitudine se îndreapt` c`tre Excelen]a Sa domnul Ji+í titler ambasadorul Republicii Cehe la Bucure[ti, ini]iatorul monografiei Karel Líman [i cel care ne-a încurajat în mod constant pe parcursul întregului demers. În egal` m`sur` aducem mul]umiri domnului, Jan Veskrna, manager de ]ar` al CEZ, pentru modul generos în care a sus]inut acest proiect. Cartea dedicat` arhitectului Karel Líman nu ar fi putut s` apar` f`r` concursul doamnei Rodica Rot`rescu, director general al Muzeului Na]ional Pele[, al doamnei Roxana Theodorescu, director general al Muzeului Na]ional de Art` al României, al domnului Narcis Dorin Ion, director general al Muzeului Na]ional Bran, al doamnei Adina Ren]ea, director general al Muzeului Na]ional Cotroceni [i Ministerului Culturii, Bucure[ti, Romånia. Reprezentan]ilor familiei Líman, doamnei Anna SalacováLímanová si domnul Tomás Líman, le suntem îndatora]i pentru a fi îmbra]isat acest proiect punându-ne la dispozi]ie pre]ioase documente din arhiva de familie. Deasemenea doamnei Lenka Bavorová de la Infocentrum Mladá Boleslav. Alese mul]umiri se cuvin doamnei Gabriela Popa, fost director al Muzeului Na]ional Pele[ pentru sprijinul constant. De un esen]ial folos ne-a fost documentarea întreprins` în fondurile arhivistice aflate în prestigioase institu]ii publice: Arhiva Muzeului Na]ional Pele[, Cabinetul de Stampe al Bibliotecii Academiei Române, Biblioteca Institutului de Istoria Artei „G. Oprescu” al Academiei Române, Arhivele Na]ionale Istorice Centrale, Arhiva Muzeului Na]ional Bran. Doamnei Helliana Ianculescu \i mul]umim pentru traducerile din limba ceh`. Domnului Alistair Blyth [i doamnei Cristina Hag`u le mul]umim pentru traduceriile \n [i din limba englez`. Alese mul]umiri se cuvin editurii Igloomedia, doamnelor Viorica Buica [i Andreea Amzoiu, domnilor Adrian Cioc`zanu, Bruno Andre[oiu, Cristian David [i C`t`lin Artenie. De asemenea suntem recunosc`tori tuturor celor care ne-au sprijinit pe parcursul realiz`rii acestui proiect.

The authors would respectfully like to thank Her Royal Highness the Crown Princess Margareta of Romania and the Romanian Royal Family for supporting this publication. We extend our fullest gratitude to His Excellency Ji+í titler, the Ambassador of the Czech Republic in Bucharest, who was the initiator of this monograph and who has encouraged us throughout its making. Equally, we thank Mr Jan Veskrna, the CEZ country manager, for his generous support. This book dedicated to architect Karel Líman would not have been possible without the help of Mrs Rodica Rot`rescu, the Director General of the Pele[ National Museum, Mrs Roxana Theodorescu, the Director General of the Romanian National Museum of Art, Mr Narcis Dorin Ion, the Director General of the Bran National Museum, Mrs Adina Ren]ea, the Director General of the Cotroceni National Museum, and the Romanian Ministry of Culture. We are indebted to Mrs Anna Salacová-Límanová and Mr Tomás Líman, members of the Líman family, for embracing this project and placing at our disposal precious documents from the family archive. Likewise, we thank Mrs Lenka Bavorová of the Mladá Boleslav Infocentrum. We extend our especial thanks to Mrs Gabriela Popa, the former director of the Pele[ National Museum for her constant support. Of particular use to us was the opportunity to carry out research in the archives of a number of prestigious public institutions: the Archive of the Pele[ National Museum, the Engravings Cabinet of the Romanian Academy Library, the Library of the Romanian Academy’s G. Oprescu Institute of Art History, the Central National Historical Archives and the Archive of the Bran National Museum. To Mrs Helliana Ianculescu we are grateful for her translations from the Czech. We thank Mr Alistair Blyth and Mrs Cristina Hag`u for their translations to and from english. We would also especially like to thank Mrs Viorica Buica, Mrs Andreea Amzoiu, Mr Adrian Cioc`zanu, Mr Bruno Andre[oiu, Mr. Cristian David and Mr C`t`lin Artenie of Igloomedia. We are grateful to all those who have supported us in bringing this project to fruition.

239 AKNOWLEDGEMENTS


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Karel Zdenek Liman. Arhitectul ceh al Casei Regale a României  
Karel Zdenek Liman. Arhitectul ceh al Casei Regale a României  

Albumul monografic al lui Karel Zdeněk Líman prezintă în 240 de pagini principalele opere realizate în România sub directa conducere a arhit...

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