Issue 3 March 2010
The Morning SCOPHian
was founded in May 1951 and is run by medical students, for medical students, on a non-profit basis. IFMSA is officially recognised as a nongovernmental organisation within the United Nations’ system and has official relations with the World Health Organisation. It is the international forum for medical students, and one of the largest student organisations in the world.
Imprint Editors in Chief Alexander Papadopoulos, Greece Gülsah Can, The Netherlands Editors Knakita Clayton-Johnson, Jamaica Altynay Satylganova, Kyrgyzstan Vladimir Prelevic, Montenegro Bojan Sekeres, Serbia Chris Pleyer, Austria Design/Layout Alexander Papadopoulos, Greece Alexander Werni, Austria
The mission of IFMSA
Proofreading Alexander Papadopoulos, Greece
is to offer future physicians a comprehensive introduction to global health issues. Through our programs and opportunities, we develop culturally sensitive students of medicine, intent on influencing the transnational inequalities that shape the health of our planet.
International Federation of Medical Students’ Associations General Secretariat: IFMSA c/o WMA B.P. 63 01212 Ferney-Voltaire, France Phone: +33 450 404 759 Fax: +33 450 405 937 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Homepage: www.ifmsa.org
email@example.com Printed in Germany
Issue 3 | March 2010
SCOPH Development Assistants for Publications, Media and Marketing 2009/10 Alexander Papadopoulos and Gülsah Can
Big orange SCOPH Family!
It is the time of the year when many SCOPHians around the world gather together to discuss various things, exchange opinions and feverishly struggle to bring health to the world… it’s the March Meeting.
It is our pleasure to present you with the first issue of the morning SCOPHian for 2010. Almost 9 million children below age five die each year. However, nearly 90% of all child deaths are attributable to just six conditions – neonatal illness, pneumonia, diarrhoea, malaria, measles, and HIV/AIDS. How can we as SCOPHians make a difference? Simple – prevention and treatment! Health education is one of the most effective methods of achieving safe environments and practices to ensure prevention of these conditions in children. By targeting the right audience and informing them of ways they can protect their health, we can make a difference. Simple things like good personal and food hygiene, the importance of prenatal care, environmental health, and vaccination can make a world of a difference in the health of an individual, especially a child. We can assist in the treatment of disease as well. SCOPHians can organise projects where we visit atrisk communities, along with recruited doctors and other health professionals, to administer health services to children and their families. Screening for disease is also of paramount importance. We as medical students with knowledge, can assist with this.
It is our pleasure to give you the 1st Edition of SCOPH’s magazine, “The Morning SCOPHian” at such a huge meeting. As you all might know, we chose the specific topic of “Child Health” to be the main topic of this issue, inspired by the children for which we develop a large number of projects in terms of prevention. Children are our future and therefore we shall invest in their health; in their mental, their physical and their social health. In this magazine you will read several articles on the importance of child’s health, on ways to fight for it and on the beautiful outcome of such struggles. Since the very start of our terms as the Development Assistants for Publications, Media and Marketing for SCOPH, we were trying to think of potential structures of the newly updated magazine of SCOPH. The outcome of working successively night after sleepless night is what you hold right now in your hands! We may have struggled to come to this point and being able to present you this, but do you know what kept our spirit up? It was your motivation, your enthusiasm and your ORANGE attitude!!! This is your magazine and we are serving you by putting all of your thoughts together and creating a link between all of you inspiring and motivated SCOPHians! Feel free to… no! Feel obliged to suggest things, so as to improve the “The Morning SCOPHian” This is the reflection of your ORANGE motivation… it’s… The Morning SCOPHian! Orange Hugs and Kisses, Alex and Gülsah
Knakita Clayton-Johnson, Interim SCOPH Director
As SCOPHians there is much that we can do in the area of child health. How we go about assisting in the prevention and treatment of disease will of course depend on our local circumstances. I trust that this issue of the Morning SCOPHian will be an inspiration to you all, to see that the work we do is great and that we can, and we are, all making a difference in our own way. I would like to thank our Development Assistants for Media, Marketing and Publications – Alexander Papadopoulos and Gulsah Can, and the writers who contributed to this edition. Thanks also to the awesome SCOPH dream team and everyone that helped out in some way to produce this issue of the Morning SCOPHian. And for our SCOPHians, thank you for your great work in child health. Enjoy this newsletter – and keep SCOPH Rocking! Knakita Clayton-Johnson Interim SCOPH-Director
The Morning SCOPHian
Liaison Officer Liaising for Public Health Florian Stigler – MD, PhD, Liaising Officer for Public Health “Cancer is one of the biggest public health threats worldwide. That’s why it should be our target as IFMSA and as SCOPH. The World Cancer Day on the 4th of February 2010 is our chance. We can take local actions by raising awareness concerning the early detection of cancer and in the same way try to prevent it by reducing the risk factors. We can also support the global action of our partner UICC – by promoting the World Cancer Declaration towards our members and medical students.” “Cancer – The facts” •Cancer kills more people than AIDS, Malaria, and TB combined and the death toll is set to rise dramatically in the coming decades. •Two-thirds of cancer-related deaths occur in countries where resources available for cancer control are limited or nonexistent. •Without significant improvement, over 17 million people are projected to succumb from this disease by 2030. •Many cancers can be prevented – by reducing tobacco and alcohol consumption, decreasing exposure to carcinogens, implementing vaccination programs and promoting healthy lifestyles. •Many cancers can be cured if detected early and treated appropriately. “UICC – The facts”
The International Union Against Cancer (UICC) is the leading international non-governmental organization dedicated to the global prevention and control of cancer. Founded in 1933, UICC unites over 300 member organizations, specialized and engaged in cancer control, in more than 100 countries across the world. UICC is non-profit, non-political and non-sectarian. Its headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland. UICC works closely with its member organizations
and partners to implement a comprehensive strategy that includes •promoting the World Cancer Declaration •organizing the World Cancer Congress •coordinating World Cancer Day annually, on 4 February •reviewing and disseminating the TNM (tumor-nodemetastasis) classification of malignant tumors Website: http://www.uicc.org “4th of February: World Cancer Day 2010 - Cancer can be prevented too” World Cancer Day 2010, led by UICC, its members and with the support of the World Health Organization (WHO), will raise awareness of cancer prevention. Each year, over 12 million people receive a cancer diagnosis and 7.6 million die of the disease. The good news is that approximately 40% of cancers are potentially preventable. Also IFMSA can play an important role during the World Cancer Day on 4 February by spreading the message that “cancer can be prevented too”. The campaign of UICC, called “Cancer can be prevented too”, is focusing on how the risk of developing cancer can significantly be reduced through simple measures: •Stop tobacco use and avoid exposure to secondhand smoke •Limit alcohol consumption •Avoid excessive sun exposure •Maintain a healthy weight, through eating healthily and exercising regularly •Protect against cancer-causing infections “World Cancer Declaration”
•Launched in 2006 and revised in 2008, the World Cancer Declaration is a call to action to substantially reduce the global cancer burden by 2020. •It was developed by international cancer control advocates to bring the cancer crisis to the attention of policymakers worldwide. •It lays out an ambitious set of 11 targets and action plan to stop and reverse current trends. •We as IFMSA can promote this declaration towards our medical students. Sign the declaration here: http://www.uicc.org/signdeclaration
Issue 3 | March 2010
SCOPH Alumni SCOPH... A constantly changing organ of IFMSA
Kyriakos Martakis – MD, SCOPH Director 2007/8, Liaison Officer for Public Health 2008/9
mittee on Students’ Health (SCOSH) was primarily dealing with the conditions and problems of students’ lives and the risks that students and young people faced, such as substance abuse. When SCOSHians realized that the activities that they developed were targeting not only in students and young people, but were focusing in the promotion of effective health policies and life style in generally, the name of our SC changed in 1963 to Standing Committee on Health (SCOH).
Have you ever wondered why have you joined IFMSA? Well, I think that for most of us joining the Federation was initially a way to escape of the dull routine of the medical faculty. Then we realized that through this interaction we could easily make new friendships not only within our Local Committees or countries, but even with from different lands and regions. Socializing, learning from the decades of different cultures and broadening our horizons is something that we all earn and will be useful on a personal level in the future.
The most famous Project of SCOSHians and SCOH were drug appeals to support developing countries. Today some decades later the issue of access to essential medicine is still a highlight, and a hot potato, in the international public health agenda. Some years later and under the influence and impact of the Alma Ata Declaration, the name of our dynamic SC changed to SCOPH. Additionally, during the ‘60s and ‘70s two similar IFMSA SCs were established, namely SCOP, (SC on Population) and SCOPA (SC on Population Activities) were also incorporated in our SC.
Of course the valuable communication and organizing skills that are being bequeathed to the IFMSA members and the knowledge that can be acquired take advantage of the opportunity to participate in important international meetings or organize our own events are of high importance for our future activities in the fields of public health and clinical medicine. On the other hand for most of us the IFMSA network is or has been an important factor that not only contributed in our scientific education, but has significantly influenced our way of acting as future or young doctors especially regarding major health topics and global social issues. Within IFMSA our professional attitude has changed drastically, viewing patients and the illnesses a bit more holistic than our fellow students who have only received the stereotypic education of the medical school. As a clinical doctor now in a university hospital, I have to admit that there is an obvious difference between the IFMSA – sensitized students and the non-sensitized ones.
Regardless of the name of the SC, SCOPHians have always been dreaming on a socially, physically and mentally healthy world, and this will only come true through the raise of awareness and education of all medical students and the population and through our collaboration with other PH organizations and the society. Regardless if we talk about Tobacco, Mental Health, or even Child’s Fears, we all are the ones who have to infect our non-sensitized colleagues, fellows, our society. We only need to make a start, and initially sensitize ourselves, since… Once a SCOPHian, Always a SCOPHian!
I have been asked to write for a new Alumni Column in The Morning SCOPHian and initially I thought that writing about the past can be boring. When we are talking about the past of SCOPH though, nothing is boring. SCOPH has always been the most dynamic and pluralistic IFMSA SC. SCOPH has always been the SC that listens to the beat problems of our societies in every historical period of the last 60 years and reacts immediately adapting its characteristics and activities. Initially founded in 1952 as Standing Com-
The Morning SCOPHian
New NMOs in SCOPH IFMSA-Grenada... Efforts in Public Health
ing in all of these events and the people in the community appreciate our efforts tremendously.
Alex Drossos - NMO President of IFMSA-Grenada As a new NMO we are delighted to share with you some information about our members, the country of Grenada and our efforts in the area of SCOPH. Grenada is a small island nation with a population of about 110,000. It is located in the south-east Caribbean or West Indies, west of Barbados and north of Trinidad and Tobago. It gained independence from the UK in 1974. Despite being a new NMO, we have been doing charitable work related to public health for many years, effectively since the founding of our only medical school, St. Georgeâ€™s University (SGU), in 1976. In three short decades, SGU has graduated nearly 8,000 doctors who practice all over the world. Indeed, our students come to SGU to study medicine from many different countries, most notably Grenada and other Caribbean countries, the USA, Canada, the UK, Botswana and Kenya.
Grenada is a small, developing nation and has a government run and funded healthcare system. However there is still great need for public health activities in a voluntary capacity. We have many student groups on our campus that are dedicated to such work. Some examples include monthly health fairs all over the country (pictured), weekly activities with children from local orphanages (also pictured), a poverty eradication forum, community clean up days, public health education sessions in schools, visits to the elderly in their homes, and free dental health check ups for children. Our medicine, public health (MPH) and pre-med students always really enjoy participat-
As a new NMO we are still linking our SCOPH with all of the existing work of the student groups that existed at SGU and in Grenada well before our NMO was formed. As we do this, we expect to have an even larger list of activities and events. Eventually we also hope to participate in international and transnational IFMSA projects in SCOPH so we can learn from other NMOs about great ideas that we can use right here in Grenada. Unfortunately we are unable to attend this yearâ€™s March Meeting in Bangkok, Thailand, but we will be in Montreal, Canada for the August Meeting and hope to see many of you there!
Issue 3 | March 2010
Projects Smile X Project Marco Zavatta – IFMSA Smile X Project Coordinator In this brand new Morning Scophian we are talking about Child Health, a very important and sensitive issue. In our Medical studies we are trying our best to learn all about illnesses and treatments... But is that enough? Or can we do something more to improve our work? We tried to go deeper, so we are proud to introduce to you Project Smile X, the craziest project of our Association! Project Smile X is a Clown Therapy Project ran by Medical students from all over the world, recognized as Transnational Project by IFMSA, International Federation of Medical Student’s Associations, since August 2006. Originally born from collaboration between Italy SISM and Brazil IFLMS, our Project is now spreading all over the world: at the moment you can find us in Peru, Ecuador, Spain-Catalonia, and of course Italy and Brazil.
talization and his/her relationship with the illness and the medical staff. Approaching the needs of these patients in a different and wider way can be determinant in the curing process.
We don’t expect everybody to become Clown Doctors and we don’t think that all of us, one day, graduated, will wear a red nose beside the coat. But we would like to learn how to become better doctors, how to be nearer to the patient’s problems! To join us or to get more information about us please write at project. firstname.lastname@example.org! Our team will be glad to answer your questions and believe me... I’m not joking this time :D
Our aims are: to minimize stress as much as possible inside our hospitals, between patients and medical staff, in order to improve all the treatment process as demonstrated by several scientific studies, and to face the well-known “white-coat fear”. Moreover, we try to offer more tools and techniques to medical students in order for them to Approach our patients in a cosier way, finally again at the centre of the Medical process.
“Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” WHO World Health Organization We try to reach our goals through organizing Clown Therapy Courses for Medical Students, trying to network all our experiences and to promote our idea of doctor-patient relationship. At the end of the courses, both practice and theory, we train ourselves to be ready to walk our Hospital with our Red Nose. Sure, Clown therapy techniques fit every patient, but of course we follow our natural field especially with paediatric patients. All of us are aware how difficult for a child is to feel and process the stress of hospi-
The Morning SCOPHian
“Calcutta Village Project”... not only injections! Vincenzo Bertino – IFMSA Calcutta Village Project Coordinator India, a land of opposites: an enormous country, so rich in natural resources, is still in a startling state of poverty.
project, which gives back to children the universal right of education. This educational project, managed by Dr. Sujit’s wife, has made possible the setting up of twenty-three schools in mainly dispatched rural areas. These schools have been set up even in most remote villages. Several families from these villages, even ones who may be reluctant to change at start, are convinced to send children to school.
But why is poverty still widespread in India? Well, an important reason is that there is not enough public education, which makes a huge difference. In fact, the majority of the population does not have access to public schools. In rural areas people often live in primitive conditions among rice fields, without electricity or running water. Here, children are frequently prematurely forced into work and are often victims of violence and abuse in their own homes, where they are forced into hard domestic jobs each day. The inhabitants of these areas have a mistaken view of education as they think it is solely a prerogative of the middle and upper class; of it being just for a little selection, instead of a universal right for each and every one - a life changing opportunity.
The initiative is funded by child sponsorship from thousands of supporters from different parts of the world. This continually contributes to support the cost of such an ambitious project. Today about 2350 children from poor families and difficult family situations are being sponsored. They receive education from the start of childhood until high school and additionally also didactic material, sanitary service, clothes, nourishment and above all, dignity. In conclusion, the IIMC is not only about providing injections, dressings or pressure measurements, but a help for people who want to react to poverty and resignation - its child sponsorship - its daily life – it’s surely better.
The I.I.M.C., Institute for Indian Mother and Child, is a non governmental organization, founded in 1988 by Dr. Sujit Brahmochari Kumar Mandal, who works mainly in rural areas around Kolkata in West Bengal. He has a practical approach to improve the living conditions of the whole community by taking care of poor people and not only offering a basic sanitary service, but also much more. The project promotes both a microcredit program, which gives women the chance to stand on their own feet again, and an educational
Issue 3 | March 2010 Child Malnutrition in Uganda Leah Bevis and Alison Hayward, MD for Uganda Village Project Naigaga Florence lives in Bulumwaki Village, a small, extremely rural community in eastern Uganda. A thin, toothless, but smiling old woman, we first spotted her at the village outreach – in her arms she had the most malnourished child that any of us had ever seen. The child’s eyes were dull, his hair a few blondish wisps on a dry skull. His tiny limbs were mere bones draped in shriveled skin, and his head lolled on his neck as if it was about to fall off completely. His name was Alfred, and he suffered from severe malnutrition since his mother had died and was unable to breastfeed him. Without breast milk’s protection, babies in the rural villages of Uganda face a grim prognosis. They are fed a thin gruel of flour and water which provides hardly any calories or the protein they need to grow. For 9 thousand Ugandan shillings – about five dollars – we provided Alfred with one large cup of milk every day for a month. Naigaga scrapes together enough money to buy millet, soy, and maize porridge, and a bit of oil, to mix in with the milk after it is boiled. Alfred grew stronger, became the brown color he ought to have been, gained tiny layer of flesh over his bones. His eyes began to focus. His grandmother Naigaga showed up at every single Uganda Village Project event, greeted our staff with hugs and dancing, and thanked us profusely, over and over again, for saving her grandson’s life. Though he is infinitely more healthy than he was, Alfred’s life is still fragile – propped up, as ridiculous as it seems, by five dollars worth of milk every month. The majority of Ugandan village children are malnourished. Almost all suffer from mild kwashiorkor, caused by protein deficiency and presenting with a distended stomach, thinning and blonding hair, edema and inadequate growth. Some suffer from iodine or iron deficiencies, many suffer from Vitamin A deficiencies (which causes a prevalence of eye problems), and the children of very poor families suffer from marasmus (protein and carbohydrate deficiency, basically starvation). Twenty percent of Ugandan children are underweight for their age, and this rate is certainly much higher in rural villages where Uganda Village Project works.
Child’s malnutrition can be deadly on its own, but more often it weakens the immune system causing a higher incidence of malaria, typhoid, skin infections, respiratory infections, and tuberculosis. Malnourished children who escape death often suffer from reduced physical and mental capacity, and may do poorly in school or be less able to provide for their families in the future. We are working to prevent and treat child malnutrition in a number of ways, including education, subsidized vegetable seeds for villagers and training for planting small, water-efficient vegetable gardens. We are also providing emergency aid to severely malnourished babies like Alfred by paying for a cup of milk a day. While Ugandan children face a variety of challenges, both in health and everyday living, malnutrition is one of the most cross-cutting and deeply rooted of these challenges. By working to prevent malnutrition in rural Uganda, we are working for a better future for the children, and a better future for their society as a whole. www.ugandavillageproject.org
The Morning SCOPHian
Projects Build up Your Bones… Malgorzata Lurzynska, Zuzanna Pawlikowska and Aleksandra Herbowska – SCOPHians of IFMSA-Poland It occurs in any age group, affecting both men and women, rich and poor… It can be a result of a serious accident or just a slip. A Bone fracture. Painful, sometimes complicated, a disability. It cannot always be prevented but what we can do is try to lower the risk for it, minimize the complications and make the treatment easier. This year, IFMSA-Poland implemented a unique project called “Build up Your Bones”, for the first time in Polish SCOPH focusing on the issue of osteoporosis prevention. Through many different activities we are aiming both children and adults. So the target group is quite wide, but so is the methodology.
How to reach the target group? Childhood - the peak bone producing years - is the best time to educate children on building strong bones. Several lifestyle factors - particularly nutrition, physical activity and sun exposure - can substantially influence the gain of bone mass during childhood and adolescence. Developing good dietary and exercise habits will help children to have strong, healthy bones throughout their lives. Conversely, poor diet and lack of exercise, especially between ages 10-18, can result in weaker bones in adulthood.
To reach out to the children and make our efforts as effective as they can be, we decided to base our project on peer education methods. These include interactive lessons, discussions with children and games. We wish to educate them on the importance of calcium and vitamin D level, suitable diet, sport activities… - everything that makes their bones stronger. A very important part of the project was creating a project primary mascot whom the children can learn from. This is Kostek – a small bone who is learning in a primary school. While reading a book prepared by IFMSA-Poland that contains stories and adventures of Kostek and his friends, children can learn together with him how to strengthen their bones. In the book children can also find challenges, quizzes, and exercises. Moreover, there is also a chapter for their parents with information how important the early prophylactic of bone fracture is. Apart from running peer education lessons in primary schools, we want to organize special events in shopping centers, during which children will have the opportunity to meet Kostek, listen to his stories and learn more about how to build up their bones. At the same time we will have the opportunity to talk to the parents about osteoporosis prevention and measuring the bone fracture risk. In order to do it we will use a special method called FRAX, which is possible thanks to our collaboration with Polish Osteoarthrology Society.
Issue 3 | March 2010
Moreover, in the near future we wish to organize special celebrations of the International Osteoporosis Day (20th October), where the educational event and Nordic-walking will take place.
Child and a future doctor- first meeting! Ema Dzihic – SCOPHian of BoHeMSA In June this year the BoHeMSA team celebrated the international children’s day by introducing a new project to our NMO! The Teddy Bear Hospital was one of the great surprises and refreshments which everyone enjoyed: from our teddy doctors and children themselves to the children’s parents and the general public. It all started by collecting toys through donations. By June, enough of the ‘patients’ (toys) were collected and BoHeMSA subscribed to participate in the 6th Kid’s festival - the biggest annual children festival in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The aim and goals of the project: to help children lose their fear of doctors and hospitals in a playful way. The event lasted for 5 days, during which more than 600 children visited our Teddy Bear Hospital.
What can you do? By joining the project “Build up Your Bones” you can help children to become more aware of bone fracture risk and to introduce good habits in their lives. Together, we can organize one of the biggest events in SCOPH - International Osteoporosis Day celebrations! This action can integrate IFMSA members. So let’s act for the idea!!! Let`s give it a try!!! Contact us: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
We found that children are the best target group for this project, especially because at this pre-school age they are most willing to learn, curious and amazingly
The Morning SCOPHian
Projects attentive. Children, in role of teddy doctors, were supervised by senior teddy doctors (medical students) and worked on taking the history of the teddy bear, examining their ‘patient’ and taking necessary procedures, such as surgical operations, x-ray scanning, bandaging or just prescribing medication (colorful sweets :). We can not miss to point out the ingenuity of children, as they would come up with a whole spectrum of pathological cases for the toy-patients… ‘Fishy’ who swallowed a big jelly fish and now has a severe stomach ache - but the jelly fish is still alive, so we have to save the jelly fish and make Fishy feel better, or ‘Šaban the duck’ who broke his legs multiple times while skiing and being naughty… and many many more! Of course all our ‘patients’ were healed and the children lef the teddy bear hospital with a smile on their face.
EQUIP: A plan to remedy health inequality Chuck R. Vrasich – National Equip Coordinator Many people believe that access to healthcare should be a universal right, but the fact that this has not yet been achieved is not the actual injustice; moreover the way in which healthcare resources are used and put to waste is the real issue at stake. It is estimated that the United States spends just over $6000 per person each year on healthcare; meanwhile countries like Haiti have access to the equivalent of only $83 per person for healthcare. What makes the situation worse, is the over 200 million dollars worth of healthcare resources and supplies that are sent to the landfills each year from United States operating rooms. In an effort to help reduce expensive medical waste, organizers have began developing systems that keep those same resources from entering landfills and instead allowing them to reach less fortunate countries and people in need. What makes these organizations work, is the fact that while the U.S. laws prohibit the reuse of the surgical supplies, many developing countries accept these readily reusable supplies, especially since many of them are still sterile, capable of being sterilized or properly cleaned.
We are happy to say that all children, even the ones who were fearful and sceptic at the beginning, when being faced with a hospital environment and seeing us in white coats, all left the teddy bear hospital satisfied about being able to help a beloved one. As the aim of every medical work should not only be the treatment, but also to build a solid foundation of confidence between the doctor and his/her patient, BoHeMSA teddy doctors showed children that illness and the fight against it is a part of everyday life and does not have to be experienced as threatening or frightening. And there we were: feeling bonded to our future patients, and maybe even future colleagues :)!
In 2008 students in AMSA-USA recognized the significant benefits of sharing these medical supplies and began the EQUIP campaign in collaboration with the non-for-profit organizations REMEDY (Recovered Medical Equipment for the Developing World) and IFMSA. The priority of EQUIP is to engage medical students to aid in shifting resources from local hospitals to developing countries, while invoking the three “E”’s: Environmental benefit, global health Equity, and cost-Effectiveness. EQUIP has helped over two-dozen medical schools in starting recovery programs at their local hospitals. Each school that shows interest in a program will receive an informational packet on how to establish EQUIP in their local committee, as well as the aid and support of hundreds of fellow students striving to help provide equity in healthcare. To learn more about EQUIP and the partnered programs please visit these sites www.amsa.prg/cph/equip.cfm, www.remedyinc.org, and www.med-eq.org - or you can contact me at email@example.com
Issue 3 | March 2010 Save the African Child Huzeifa Jabir – SCOPH Regional Assistant for Africa Stress & behavioral changes, disruption to school, 4 million children die every year due to malnutrition & 170 million are malnourished. Also we can see that 12 millions die from preventable diseases every year while oral rehydration therapy costs only $0.33 a treatment & bed nets, $4 if not for free. When we tried to summarize the African child problems; we reached this chart:
2. Management: -Educate the children about the health hazards they may face on the streets (hygiene, rape, drug abuse, Infectious diseases etc). -Psychological support by employing the mental health group -Organizing outreaches for them to show them some love (reintegration into society). -Medical days with free clinics, investigations & medication 3. Malnutrition: -Health education for the Mothers on feeding practices. -Encourage families to space the children. 4.Child abuse: -Raising awareness in the community about different forms of abuse (exhibitions, visits, symposiums etc.). -Encourage people to report abuse so that offenders can be punished. 5.Maternal Health: -Health education. -Advocate for free antenatal care for mothers.
From the aspect of the social health we can see how big the problem is. Taking an example Khartoum (Sudan capital) there are over 35,000 street children. The details of this problem are as shocking as most of them chose to be on the streets to escape from children abuse. Save the African Child is a regional frame work and initiative to coordinate all the children related projects in Africa. The project is an umbrella for many other projects. For any of the above problems we did our best to get the suggestions for the plans that could be done as you can see down, also many actions were done for each prospective (medical & health education days, fun & Gifts days, ARM 07 & 08 under the theme ‘’Save an African Child’’, SWGs in regional meetings…etc.). STREET CHILDREN 1. Prevention: -Counseling of families on how to build a good home using: -Symposiums -Home to home visits -Exhibitions -Health / Peer Education (especially those in the reproductive age group).
Please visit SCOPH Africa regional yahoo group: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Morning SCOPHian
Projects Children Cancer Center Christmas Party Ahmad Younes â€“ NPO of LeMSIC Stress & behavioral changes, disruption to school, anxiety, social withdrawal and devastating physiological changes - these are the effects of cancer and its treatment on the quality of life of children suffering from it. At the critical point of their lives, children need all the support they can get and it is crucial to their battle for survival. This is when we, as Public Health activists, can interfere and make the biggest difference, decrease their sufferings and alleviate some of the pain that this emotionally fragile population faces.
One subcommittee was in charge of the fund raising event: reserving a hall for the movie projection in order to accommodate the audience, designing posters and tickets, attracting a sponsor interested in taking care of the printing expenses, grabbing good deals for candy canes, setting up a stand where we can promote our goods in addition to approaching doctors and colleagues. Good media & advertisement was the golden reason behind the success of our event; posters were distributed over the hospital and the university campus, emails were sent on all servers, including the ones that could reach doctors, and finally the university bulletin at the university home webpage. The other subcommittee coordinated with the Childrenâ€™s Cancer Center administration in order to reserve the playroom for our party where the kids were to be gathered at a specific time, and to get the list of patients that will be present at the party a priori in order to buy gifts that are congruent with their age.
As a part of the Lebanese Medical Students International Committee (LeMSIC), the Standing Committee on Public Health (SCOPH) prepared a party for the kids at the Children Cancer Center of Lebanon (CCCL), where one of our own SCOPHian dressed up as Santa Claus, along with the other SCOPH members acting as elves, surprised the kids with the jingle bells, candies and most importantly - the gifts. The event was funded by organizing a fund raising movie projection series of three movies that were projected for over two days, in addition to a weeklong sale of candy canes at the university campus. SCOPH, with its wide gifted potentials, even designed the posters and tickets of the movie projection that attracted a copy center sponsor who was touched by our cause.
The amount of money raised was enough to get gifts and candies for all the kids and most importantly, draw a smile over their face, alleviate some of their painful struggles, and make them feel that the world around them CARES FOR THEIR WELL BEING!!
Issue 3 | March 2010
The “Official” Point of View Child’s Health and Education
Margot Weggemans – SCOME Director “Children are one-third of our population and all of our future.” - Select panel for the Promotion of Child Health 1981 -
Every year almost ten million children worldwide under the age of five die. Two thirds of all child deaths are due to preventable causes. According to UNICEF, the main causes of child mortality are acute respiratory infections, diarrhoea, measles, malaria and malnutrition.1,2 In addition to the vaccines and medications provided to treat children, education plays an important role in improving child’s health. This is true for both the education of mothers and children. Maternal education Maternal education can improve the prevention of child deaths as well as the early recognition of diseases. The main causes of child death as mentioned above are mainly the result of poverty, malnutrition, poor hygiene and the lack of universal access to basic social services. These, in turn, are in most cases the result of a lack of information. Education for mothers is the start for a safer environment for children and therefore is a key factor for improving the health of children worldwide. A lot of mothers don’t know, for example, how good hygiene can improve child health, how a child can benefit from breastfeeding, or how diarrhoea can relatively easily be treated with Oral Rehydration Salts. The health of mothers themselves also is an important factor. Expectant mothers should be taught that their health has a direct influence on the wellbeing of their babies.1 Lastly, parents should understand the importance of their children’s education. Children’s education Education is a fundamental human right. Besides, the education of children might be even more important for the improvement of child health than maternal education. Investing in children’s education helps children to build on their futures, but it is also important for the development of the society as a whole.1 Focusing on healthcare, children will learn about hygiene, healthy lifestyles, family planning and prevention of diseases. They will understand why these are important topics and how they can help to improve their own health and that of their families and societies. They will implement the knowledge and skills they gain at school in their own lives. When they grow older, they will
pass this information on to other members of the society. When they become parents themselves, they will be able to create a safe and healthy environment at home. They will know how to protect their children from the above mentioned diseases. They will recognize a disease’s early symptoms when their children do get ill and will be able to seek help in time. Eventually, children’s education can be an important factor in breaking through the circle of poverty leading to disease and death. The incredible number of nearly ten million children dying each year will decrease and child health will improve. Because children are the future. Our future. If only it were as easy as it sounds. References: 1. www.unicef.org 2. www.who.int
The Morning SCOPHian
Presentation of Websites Child Health and the internet
Bojan Sekeres – SCOPH Development Assistant for Communications
http://www.aap.org/ Official website of the American Academy of Pediatrics is the right place if you are looking for general information related to Child Health, or for more specific guidelines concerning a pediatric issue. Here, you will find information regarding the Academy’s many programs and activities, policies and guidelines, publications and other Child Health resources… and much, much more.
http://www.who.int/topics/child_health/en/ Get the most relevant information about Child Health! WHO website contains essential data on global situation in this area. Here, you can find the latest news, materials, researches, statistics, epidemiology data, as well as download publications.
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ch-se-eng.php Public Health Agency of Canada presents various information about its programs, events and actions regarding Child Health. Here you can browse large database with publications and guides.
http://www.rcpch.ac.uk/ The Royal Colleges of Pediatrics and Child Health offers a wide range of resources for health professionals. You will find all about the main children’s health topics and you can download the latest newsletters, reports and publications.
Issue 3 | March 2010
SCOPH Sessions @ MM09, Hammamet, Tunesia
@ AM09, Ohrid, Macedonia
Florian Stigler – MD, PhD, Liaison Officer on Public Health
Florian Stigler – MD, PhD, Liaison Officer on Public Health
It is almost one year ago and I remember it as it has been yesterday; my first GA as Director of the most amazing Standing Committee ever (SCOPH if you read this by accident). This meant a lot of stress, a lot of preparations, things to do here, things to do there. And it meant a lot of pleasure. The objective was to have the best possible sessions ever, as every Director tries it. The idea on how to do it started small and got bigger and bigger by talking with more and more fantastic SCOPHians.
Time is running very fast, at least in IFMSA. Closing the MM and thinking about the AM seemed like a continuity. We have been motivated after the MM, after such intensive and extraordinary 10 days in Tunisia (there was also a cool preGA on SCOPH Training!). Next target: Rocking Ohrid! Same objective, other people, same people! SCOPH is just amazing, did I ever tell you that? :) As a Director I was getting old. It was not the first time anymore and things got more smoothly. The Session have been more organised, they have been more interactive and the presenters and facilitators better prepared. It was actually a blast and I just loved it. :)
The final Session was different from those I attended before and I just enjoyed it; SCOPHians from aaalll over the world, from everywhere. We all met together because we have something special in common. Some feeling that we are able to do a change out there. That just the curative and individual aspect of medicine might not be enough. That maybe also the preventive and population based approach of Public Health might be worth it. And for sure, in the SCOPH Sessions, it was worth it to think about this aspect! We had many inspirational and just amazing Sessions, by as inspirational and amazing people. We’ve been introduced into the concept of “empowering” by our former IFMSA President Emily from the UK. Do some reading and check it out – empowering is it! We had some introduction to what Public Health actually is (damn, what is it actually?!) by our elected Director Louise. It is not a simple concept but a way of thinking. Think about the whole, think about the different professions in the field of health care (and talk with them!) and a new world is opening for you. And we had amazing Sessions about Tobacco by Christos, about Mental Health by Anthony and also a training on how we can use IT for making our campaigns more effective by Filip. It was just a fantastic spirit, we talked, we explored other points of views or ways on how to organise a SCOPH. I’ll never forget these days and I’ll like to thank all those who did their contribution! :) We rocked SCOPH in Hammamet, Tunisia!
We had one of the coolest Sessions ever about Malaria, re-introducing one of the most important public health topics which is still neglected in IFMSA. If you read that – think about it! :) We tried something new, a workshop about “pharmaceutical awareness” by Christopher – public health is broad and the session was exciting. Again, we tried something new and important. A joint session with our brothers from SCOME. We are medical students. We talk about public health. We want to have an impact. It is much easier to change a medical curriculum than to change the habit of an old professional…! We should never forget about medical education when we talk about public health! Our objective should also be to educate medical students about the topics we talk about. A close relationship with SCOME is therefore essential! And we had an unique guest in Ohrid. The Director of the WHO Department on Ageing. I am sure you get a feeling on what this means, we can’t get somebody better for our Sessions! Professor Beard offered us an amazing Session and I just remember his smile when he entered the room during one of our strangest wake-up-games ever, hahaha. :) Guys, did I tell you that I just love SCOPH? :) We rocked the August Meeting and I am more than happy that SCOPH is in good hands again! At first the hands of Louise, now the hands of Knakita! You’ll rock…!!!
The Morning SCOPHian
@ ARM 2009 Huzeifa Jabir – SCOPH Regional Assistant for Africa A very successful SCOPH session during the African Regional Meeting 2009 (ARM 09 ‘’18th-23rd’’ of December) was done with Great outcomes & loaaaads of FUN. 20 SCOPHians from 5 NMOs (Sudan, Nigeria, Ghana, Mozambique and Austria) participated effectively in the session. Many topics were discussed. Introduction to Public Health, how to establish SCOPH in your NMO/LMO & SCOPH exchange presentations were done by me and Christopher Pleyer; our SCOPH supporting assistant. Externals from WHO presented a session about: Displacement related infectious Diseases. Public health sessions about the African child (community, physical, social and mental health reflections) and Mental health were facilitated by me & Reem Abbas from Sudan.
Other parts of the session: •NMOs presentations & Ideas café (SCOPH Africa development). •Group Discussion on development of the idea of the Health week / Medical Mission. •SWGs: 1)TB 2)Malaria 3)Save the African Child (Malnutrition, Mater nal Health & Street children). We also participated effectively in the theme event – Refugees & Health. Very outcome oriented plans are set and they will be followed later as you are going to see the actions. I thank anyone who helped me in reaching this high quality session. Special thanks to my co-facilitator Christopher Pleyer.
@ PAMSA RM 2010 Alhelí Calderón Villarreal – NPO of IFMSA- México and Stan Wang – SCOPH Regional Assistant for the Americas Right at the beginning of 2010, we had our Pan American Medical Students’ Association (PAMSA) Regional Meeting in Chile, January 5th thru 11th. It is a pleasure for me to inform you that the SCOPH Sessions were a great success! Participants from eight different countries were in attendance through sessions involving Dengue Fever, Diabetes, High Blood Pressure, Obesity, Street Children, and many other important public health topics. Our session leaders included Geneviève Bois from Québec, Jorge Alejandro Gil Romero and Lorena Escalante Romero from Perú (without forgetting the special support of Christian), Claudia Ximena Robayo Gonzalez from Colombia, and Marina Papa Penteado from Brazil. The small working groups were tasked with three primary topics: Obesity & High Blood Pressure, Street Children, and the PAMSA Regional Project. In this last part, we began with a strong series of brainstorming sessions and discussions, and by the end, we had created a new project. As a result, the group recommended that the Regional SCOPH project in PAMSA this year should be CHILD NUTRITION! The reason that child nutrition was chosen was because we recognized that paradoxically, both malnutrition and childhood obesity are prevalent and pressing problems that transcend the boundaries between our countries. The project could be easily piloted in three representative elementary schools, each one located in North, Center, and South America. The primary goal would be to enact a behavior change shift towards healthier, more balanced, and nutritious meals as part of the daily diet for children. Overall, one of the most interesting project presentations we had was from Colombia, in which local medical students have created a program that provides two houses per year to indigent and marginalized families to help combat the socioeconomic cause of disparities in health. Not only was much good work accomplished during the sessions, but we also had time to relax in the swimming pool, dance, and have fun through socializing with our peers from far and wide. Some friendships were re-kindled; others were born anew! In the end, we discovered that no matter where one comes from—in one way or another—we share many things in common.
Issue 3 | March 2010
@ EMR RM 2010 Ahmad Younes – SCOPH Regional Assistant for the EMR Right at the beginning of 2010, we had our Pan SCOPH sessions in regional meetings are a fabulous opportunity to unify our collaborative work and share our experiences. Projects performed in one country, no longer have limits, but rather can be expanded to include the different NMOs of the region. In our EMR5 SCOPH sessions, I was impressed by the motivation and passion expressed by SCOPHians, particularly the newly established committees. New SCOPHians were introduced to SCOPH, and were pleased to find out that their driving motive overlaps with that of SCOPH’s; The Promotion Of Public Health!! We had our SWOT analysis as for SCOPH in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) and discussed how to overcome our weaknesses and expand our collaboration as EMRians. The “Child Abuse” theme gained interest of all attendees and conclusive discussions were constantly driven by valuable input. There was a consensus that “Child Abuse” is endemic in our area, and as public health activists, we need to interfere promptly to end the vicious cycle that transforms an abused child into abusive parent. There were special presentations about projects done by LeMSIC and MedSin-Sudan that dealt with child health which gained the interest of all attendees. SCOPHians were divided into four Small Working Groups & chose to discuss Tuberculosis, Diabetes, Tobacco Control, and Child health!! The topics chosen were the ones needed to be tackled by professional activists due to their direct threat on our Health in the EMR. These SWG had culminated their efforts on the last day of the EMR and did thorough presentations of what was discussed and we were all happy to hear that a basis for creating a transnational
project to fight Diabetes was already set. Occurring in parallel, each SCOPHian had the chance to present the work done by his NMO. It was a wonderful and fruitful session, in which we had the chance to share our experiences and exchange ideas that were found to be relevant to everybody. It helped us draw conclusions on how to tackle different kinds of obstacles in a productive and constructive manner. A big discussion was initiated so that everyone was able to discuss his plans and future SCOPH activities with the subsequent steps that need to be taken in order to implement new SCOPH projects that were learned during our EMR SCOPH sessions. Our session ended by a critical evaluation of the meeting. Each SCOPHian was given the chance to express what he/she liked or disliked during the meeting. Most SCOPHians didn’t like the fact that some NMOs were absent and wished they were able to attend, and many also disliked the fact that the meeting duration was short and fast. However everybody was pleased with the outcome of the meeting particularly that it offered the opportunity to get together a multitude of different nationalities and the exchange of fresh ideas. They loved the teamwork and the face-to-face meetings with people they used to communicate with from long distances. Being the SCOPH Regional Assistant for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), and after meeting my fellow SCOPHians in the region, I can state with confidence that our EMR has tremendous potentials that SCOPH must benefit from and we must direct our efforts toward our goals as SCOPHians; namely, to empower our struggle against the Public Health problems we face as future physicians.
The Morning SCOPHian
Your Articles... Child Health Chris Pleyer – SCOPH Support Assistant Every 3.6 seconds a child under the age of 5 years dies prematurely. Adding up, each year nearly 10 million children worlwide, a number equivalent to the total population of a whole country similar to the Czech Republic or Tunisia, pass away before their 5th birthday. The majority of these deaths can be ascribed to easily preventable and treatable medical conditions. One of the measures used to indicate child health is the child mortality rate. Child mortality is defined as death of a child below the age of 5. As you can see in the cartogram, Sub-Saharan Africa and South-East Asia carry by far the greatest burden of child mortality. However, child health is a global issue and for this reason the United Nations and 192 of its member states devoted one of the eight Millenium Development Goals directly towards child health: “Reduce child Mortality” by 2015. Within the first month of life, infant health is most vulnerable. Improving perinatal care and assuring safe delivery by skilled birth attendants are keys to better childcare. The main causes of death between age of one month and 5 years are infectious diseases, including pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria, measles and HIV. Additionally, it is estimated that a third of all child
deaths is attributable to the simple condition of not having enough food. Pneumonia vaccinations, oral dehydration therapies, insecticide-treated nets, promotion of breastfeeding; all of these practical and cost effective measures, could significantly increase child survival. Thinking broadly, child health reflects the health status of all age groups within a community. Moreover, the lack of a young and healthy population exerts tremendous negative effects on social systems including economy. It is therefore an absolute necessity to build a protective environment for children in order to ensure the stability of our societies for years to come. Within SCOPH, many of our projects are either directly or indirectly devoted to child health. Smile-X, Teddy Bear Hospital, 1st Aid Course, Teddy Bear under Christmas Tree, but also projects like the National Health week and the International Campaign on Malaria strive towards improving children life quality. For us it is therefore clear that we have to think about the future generation. Through our activities we send a strong common message around the globe in improving Child Health. All we have to do is to keep up good work! :) Sources: http://www.who.int; http://www.unicef.org/ health/index_problem.html; http://www.undp.org/ mdg/
Child Mortality Rate Cartogram
Issue 3 | March 2010
Smiling white coats
Gemma Beorlegui Llort – NPO of AECS-Catalonia
Imebene Ik Minister – Treasurer of NiMSA
Once upon a time in a home not far from here, lived a happy girl named Nora. Nora was 4 years old and liked to play, but one day she felt off the swing and really hurt her arm. Nora’s parents were very worried and decided to take her to a place faraway called hospital to get cured. Nora was scared because it hurt a lot and red liquid, which her parents called blood, poured from her and because of how nervous they were it had to be very valuable. A very loud and big car with lights came to take them to the hospital. From the car, two men came out and put her on a strange bed, immobilized her arm and quickly got her into the car.
SCOPH is my shepherd I shall not want It makes me work hard in IFMSA It leads me besides the troubled community It restores my community It leads me in paths of service to the community For the sake of public health issues Even though I want to organise public health project I fear no setbacks For SCOPH Director is with me His contacts and his materials They encourage me They prepare me for the challenges ahead In the presence of any obstacles My cup overflows Surely its confidence and organisational skills shall follow me All the days of my life And I shall dwell in the house of service to humanity Forever and ever
When they reached the place called hospital Nora became even more frightened because she was separated from her mother, everything was white, cold and it smelled weird. She started to cry and a group of people wearing white coats with strange things in their hands approached her and started touching her arm, putting lights in her eyes, pinching her other arm…basically making her uncomfortable and no one was explaining why they were doing such things to her, plus her mom wasn’t there. Nora started to cry bitterly calling out her mom. Suddenly, all that people moved away and a man with a coat approached her, but his coat had colours on it and he was smiling. The man said: Hello Nora! I’m Biel and I want to heal your arm, may I? Nora looked at him surprised because he was the first person to talk to her and that was smiling to her since she got to the hospital, she told him: “I want my mom, where is she?” Biel took her in his arms and took her near the curtain; he opened it and showed her mom who was talking with one of the people in white coats. Then he sat her on the bed and asked her: “Your mom will come now; can heal your arm now?” Nora looked at him, smiled and told him: “Ok! But don’t hurt me!” The doctor with the coloured coat introduced her to another patient, Mr. Teddy bear, who also had fallen and had hurt his arm. First he cured the teddy bear and then Nora, while her mother watched closely. Nora had stopped crying and wasn’t as scared as before and had made two new friends.
Inspired by the SCOPH RA for Africa, Huzeifa
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Your Articles... Don’t be “toxic” to your child! Josephine Papangeorgiou – National Tobacco Coordinator of HelMSIC
makes it toxic. This way, even parents become “toxic” to their children, without knowing it! What really makes me consider the need to give a stronger message to parents, is the fact that it is commonly believed that ventilating a room is enough in order to protect the children from second-hand smoke. However, this statement, really common among smokers, is the evidence that yet the tobacco campaigns are not effective enough. Maybe the message is still not clear enough and smokers still find alibis to keep on smoking. So this time the target group of the campaign should be the parents and these relatively new data can surely empower the impact of the campaign on them. It could be a good opportunity to rename smoking as a contaminating factor for children’s environment and not just as a bad habit. No one would like to be in a room polluted by carbon monoxide, so why should their children live in places, where there are much more hazardous chemicals, even arsenic and polonium? This campaign could also point out the fact that children should grow and develop in a safe environment. So promoting the smoke-free laws and applying them is the only effective way to protect the innocents from the tobacco effects.
In case you were thinking that you could keep on smoking because you avoid doing it in front of your children and you always open the window after putting out the cigarette, you may change your mind after reading the study of Jonathan Winickoff, MD, MPH, assistant director of the MGHfC Center for Child and Adolescent Health Policy on a not so commonly known new term, third-hand smoke and on the beliefs about the health effects of it. With this study he introduces the readers to this term and he demonstrates that there is a serious lack of knowledge regarding its consequences on health. Third-hand smoke is tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette has been extinguished and that deposits on every surface, of course even on the smoker, and
As it is widely known, one really hard aspect of the campaigns is how to get close to the desired target group. For this reason, the parents could be approached in kindergartens, schools and children activity centres. Additionally, some advertisements regarding this campaign could be placed also on the packages of products for children. Approaching the smokers, by asking them to be even better parents for their children, should raise their common sense. Besides telling them to do even something more caring for their children and give up smoking or at least avoid smoking inside home, is the only delicate way to tell them ‘”Don’t be toxic to your child”.
Issue 3 | March 2010 ADHD – Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Heba El-Sawahly – NPO of IFMSA Egypt
tend to develop coping mechanisms to compensate for some or all of their impairments. However, many aspects of daily life that most people take for granted are rendered more difficult by the symptoms of ADHD. Its symptoms can be difficult to differentiate from other disorders, increasing the likelihood that the diagnosis of ADHD will be missed or vice versa. Additionally, most clinicians have not received formal training in the assessment and treatment of ADHD. Definitions and theories of its cause have changed over the years since it was first recognized as a syndrome in the 1860s by Dr. George Beard, who called it neurasthenia; He believed it to be neurosis with a fatigue component. The other risk factor is that the reaction towards the symptoms of the disorder is likely to be a negative attitude from the child family due to lack of information. Mothers seem to understand the case as their children are much smarter. The key symptoms for diagnosis include being easily distracted, miss details, forget things, having difficulty focusing attention on organizing and completing a task or learning something new, having trouble completing or turning assignments, often losing things (e.g., pencils, toys) needed to complete activities, having difficulty processing information as quickly and accurately as fellows, dashing around, touching or playing with anything and everything in sight and having trouble sitting still during dinner, school, and story time.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or AD/ HD) or Hyperkinetic Disorder is generally considered as Neurobehavioral developmental disease in nature. The disorder typically presents itself during childhood, and is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or, as well as hyperactivity and forgetfulness. It is a health condition involving biologically active substances in the brain. ADHD may affect certain areas of the brain that allow problem solving, planning ahead, understanding others’ actions, and impulse control. ADHD is the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children, affecting about 3 to 5% of children globally with symptoms starting before seven years of age. ADHD is a common chronic disorder in children with 30 to 50% of those individuals diagnosed in childhood continuing to have symptoms into adulthood. Adolescents and adults with ADHD
A specific cause of ADHD is unknown. There are, however, a number of factors that may contribute to ADHD which include genetics, diet and social, alcohol, drugs & smoking during pregnancy and physical environments. Different types of psychotherapy beside medications are used for ADHD. Behavioral therapy aims to help a child change behavior. It might involve practical assistance, working through emotionally difficult events. Behavioral therapy also teaches a child how to give oneself praise or rewards for acting in a desired way. Therapists may teach children social skills, such as how to wait their turn, share toys, ask for help, learning to read facial expressions and the tone of voice in others, and how to respond appropriately.
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www.ifmsa.org medical students worldwide