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International Federation of Landscape Architects Fédération Internationale des Architectes Paysagistes

NEWSLETTER No. 96 February 2 0 1 2

mail web site cultural landscape committee






From The President

Desiree Martínez


Garden to Table

Susannah Kitching


Ariya Aruninta



Social Landscape Architects Girona’s Stone Itinerary

Paz González Marinas



Nz Community Sculpts Their Future

Sam Bourne


Barrier-free conservation

Dr. Uehara Misato


Cultural Heritage Protection

Zeynep Gül ÜNAL 18 C. İrem GENÇER Paul Woodruffe


A Heritage Walkway ReSTART the Heart

Hannah Ayres Tony Milne 24

Vice-President Asia/Pacific Region

Landscape Architecture Exhibition Serbia

Andrijana Vukadinović Andreja Tunundžić


The Right to Landscape ` A Tribute to Elise Sørsdal

Reviewed by Karsten Jørgensen


Daniel Klykken Tore Edvard Bergaust Arkitektur i Nord-Norge Carl W Schnitler Magne Bruun


Desiree Martinez IFLA_President

Secretary General Ilya MOCHALOV Vice-President European Region

Alan TITCHENER Vice-President Americas Region


Editor IFLA News Shirah CAHILL


Potential contributors please contact Deadline for articles (500-1000 words plus illustrations) last day of the preceding mon

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 FROM THE PRESIDENT It is bitter cold in Europe, cold in North America, cold and rainy in Mexico City and all the while I am receiving mails from the organizers of the 2012 World Congress in Cape Town from the beach! It will never cease to fascinate me that I have friends all around the World and feel that they are somehow close by, sharing concerns, ideas and projects. On January 21st through the 22nd IFLA´s EXCO, including Nigel Thorne (Vice-President, Europe), Alan Titchener (Vice-President, Asia-Pacific), Carlos Jankilevich (Vice-President, Americas), Ilya Mochalov (Secretary General) John Easthope (recently elected Treasurer) and myself, met with Christine Bavassa (Executive Secretary) in a cold and rainy Brussels (very similar to the weather in Mexico City this week!). We sadly could not count on Philip Ngungiri (Vice-President, Africa). We had a productive discussion and were able to reach a consensus on some issue while we remain divided on others. After the meeting I had the feeling that we would need much more time in order to find permanent solutions and achieve the results that we are seeking. Nevertheless everyone does the best that he/she can. After the meeting I took a train to Paris to meet our partners from UNESCO, UIA and ISOCARP and had a moment to reflect on how much time and energy it takes for each member of the EXCO, the Committee Chairs, the Congress Organizing Committee, the IFLA-News Editor and article writers and all of the people who actively participate in IFLA! I want to take this opportunity to profoundly thank you all for doing all that you do to support and promote our dear profession! We are a small

organization, compared with other NGOs around the world. Even still, we have wonderful energy, very committed members and we depend on the work of everyone! With a big hug to all, Desiree Martinez IFLA President

Garden to Table: A grass roots approach in Landscape Architecture Susannah Kitching Senior Landscape Architect Opus International Consultants Ltd

Catherine Bell


Opus International Consultants and the Garden to Table Trust are providing New Zealand schools with the tools to teach basic life skills to kiwi kids. The Garden to Table program can be adopted by primary schools as part of their curriculum and teaches 7 to 10 year olds how to grow, harvest, prepare and share food. The Garden to Table Trust is a not-for-profit organization that was established in New Zealand in 2009 by cook and food writer Catherine Bell, and is based on the very successful Kitchen Garden Foundation program established in Australia in 2001 by chef and food writer Stephanie Alexander. All

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 ed professional services to the value of $10,000 to assist in the on-going development of the kitchen gardens that are to be designed and established at a growing list of schools which are adopting the Garden to Table program. These schools have acquired funding from Garden to Table which is up to $60,000 per school, which funds the development of the gardens and supplies two teacher’s salaries for 2 years. Opus has worked on designing and creating environments where children can learn about growing food, harvesting their crops, preparing food and sharing with their peers. Design elements that have been introduced to the schools include; worm farms and compost bins for recycling of garden waste, rainwater harvesting tanks for irrigation of the gardens, green roofed garden sheds for reducing impermeable surface areas and increasing available plantable area, chickens for egg production and eating garden scraps and beehives for garden pollination and the collection of honey. Edendale School Garden

of the people involved with Garden to Table work on a voluntary basis and the program is funded by contributions to the trust. Susannah Kitching and Rebekah Pokura-Ward of Opus saw the opportunity for a large corporate consultancy to become involved with a positive program that benefits not just the young children participating but also their families and the wider community. The Garden to Table program not only establishes edible gardens, it also provides kitchens and eating areas for the children, an ‘outdoor’ gardening teacher and ‘indoor’ cooking teacher. Susannah and Rebekah saw that by gifting landscape architectural services, they could assist with the design of the gardens thereby freeing up available funds to be used for the construction of the gardens. Since 2010 Opus landscape architects have been working with Dawson Road Primary School and Edendale Primary School in Auckland. Opus donatEast Tamaki School garden

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 East Tamaki School garden



Room 21 2.

Room 20 1.

Water tanks


Existing Playground



Room 19



9. 7.



6. 5.







8. 2.

Garden shed


Existing vegetable beds

Compost and worm bin area


SUGGESTED PLANTINGS FRUIT TREES Lemon Mandarin Lime Apple Plum Tamarillo Quince Persimmon Banana Pears Figs

CLIMBERS / HEDGES Blackberry Loganberry Kiwifruit Passionfruit Raspberry Feijoa Rosemary Lavender Blueberries Chilean Guava




Wisteria Nasturtium Roses Herbs Sunflowers Marigolds Violets Snapdragons Echinacea

Concrete path

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Bark / mulch path Bamboo teepee frame for climbers Informal vegetable garden with bark path Floral / scented garden Group of fruit trees Existing tree

dawson road school


21 January 2011 1:150 @ A1 PW SK

Arch entry feature planted with climbers Climbers and hedges along the existing fence Existing tree with seating logs for outdoor classroom space Garden feature, possibly a water feature 12 raised vegetable gardens New pergola structure to give shade to classrooms Manuka fence and gate Butterfly garden and ‘friendship corner’ New grass area with picnic tables to link to the playground space Espaliered fig trees on existing classroom walls Focal feature Fruit trees in hen enclosure surrounded by a fence with a gate


IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 Pippa White was involved in the design of the gardens for Dawson Road School. “In some ways, this project is landscape architecture in its most fundamental form; it contains layers of social, cultural, general well-being and sustainable outcomes that are often overlooked in some of the bigger scale projects,” says Pippa. Dawson Road Primary School principal, Angela Funaki, saw the benefits of the program in teaching children social skills and manners by sharing food, eating together and respecting nature. “I love all the little features throughout the garden including the friendship corner, water feature and butterfly garden. The vines and gardens throughout will certainly make the area spectacular while being a great resource for teaching,” she says. Edendale Primary School had already established some edible gardens prior to adopting the Garden to Table program. Children’s parents had, on a voluntary basis, established a small orchard adjacent to the sports field and built raised vegetable planters near the classroom blocks. Part of the inspiration behind the development of kitchen gardens for new primary schools came about after visiting East Tamaki Primary School, located in Otara, one of the poorest suburbs in the Auckland region. It has a beautiful kitchen garden that is maintained by a dedicated group of volunteers. The garden development started in 2009 and has increased in size year by year. The school swimming pool has been emptied and now holds a new part of their extensive garden. One of the interesting changes that has occurred with the development of the school garden, has been the adjacent residential properties. What were once described as run down suburban plots, are now well maintained vegetable gardens. In just over 10 years there have been 259 primary schools that have become part of the Kitchen Garden Foundation program in Australia. The program has been financially supported by the Australian and State governments which has been a critical part of its growth. Currently in New Zealand,

Garden to Table is supported by a charitable trust. Catherine Bell, the founder of the program would like to see it adopted by all primary schools in New Zealand, but it is possible that until the New Zealand Government begins funding the program it will not grow at the rate is has in Australia. This program has been established in three pilot schools in Auckland, New Zealand, that range from low socio-economic to high socio-economic neighborhoods. Additionally, four further schools are now part of the program. Real benefits can already be seen in the schools in a very short period of time. The children have voted it as one of their favorite subjects. They now have a much better understanding of where food comes from and how to harvest and cook what they have grown. The local communities have also become involved with the schools and provide much needed voluntary assistance in maintaining the gardens. Garden to Table website: Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Foundation website:

Social Landscape Architects: New Teaching Paradigm in Thailand Ariya Aruninta, PhD Associate Professor. Dept of Landscape Architecture. Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand 1. LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE TEACHING AND TRAINING: RECENT APPROACHES. Most Landscape Architecture educators in Thailand are from top American schools, such as Harvard, The University of California at Berkeley, The University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, The University of Pennsylvania, The University of Washington at Seattle, The University of Texas A&M, etc. Therefore, the teaching and training approaches are based

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 on so-called American Modernism. The major courses are divided into Design Studio, Construction and Technology, Professional Practice, Supporting Courses and Main Electives. From these courses, around 40% of the design Studio courses are already credited. The Thai graduate, especially in practice, shows outstanding design skill and has been employed in many international design firms. Thai landscape architects are proficient in hand rendering, CAD, 3D rendering, and conceptual design. The teaching approaches in Thai LAE can be categorized under five different approaches: 1.1. BEAUX-ARTS. This style influenced Architecture and Landscape Architecture in the 1900s; it was founded by the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts [1], the art-school in France in 1795. Beaux-Arts style is a combination of grand, lush, and picturesque design. Beaux-Arts has been taught as part of foundation courses such as Design Studio in the first year, Principles of Design in Architecture, Architectural Drawing and Presentation. Briefly, this approach focuses on aesthetic/ beauty and composition. 1.2. MODERNISM. Modern landscape architecture started with Frederick Law Olmsted when it distinguished itself from gardenesque design. Works in modernism by designers like Roberto Burle Marx, Garrett Eckbo, and Dan Kiley represent landscape architecture design from the aesthetic to the functional. Modernist landscape architects have strong design methodology and contribute to LAE in several schools. Between modernists and the landscape alchemists, modernism seemed to be too plain and from the 1980s to the beginning of the 1990s a newer generation of landscape architects looked for a more jazzy design which spawned Post-modernism and De-constructionism. Modernism’s approach has been in all design studios and used as a core theory of LA Design Theory, Site Planning, and as an Intro to LA courses. 1.3. MULTIPLISM / LANDSCAPE ALCHEMY was introduced by George Hargreaves [2] during his 25

years in practice and education at Harvard GSD. The instructors in LAE as well as the practitioners in Thailand are very influenced by this approach as a result of their education. In addition, Hargreaves was the keynote speaker for the 32nd IFLA World Congress in 1995 in Bangkok [3]. His lecture was entitled “Landscapes in Motion”. Multiplism’s approach considers the different layers of a potential design such as history, ecology, and environmental phenomena. More advanced design studio courses have been instructed using this approach for more than two decades. 1.4. ECOLOGICAL APPROACH / SUSTAINABLE DESIGN AND PLANNING. This was first introduced in “Design with Nature” by Ian McHarg [4]. In transition between manual analysis and computerized tools, Harry L. Garnham [5] also emphasized a process for determining and identifying the diverse context of a place by using an overlay technique. Later, another LA educator in the 1990s, Dr. Carl Steinitz, a Harvard professor of urban planning and landscape architecture, outlined a conceptual framework for how GIS could be integrated with geographic design and planning. Steinitz has now become a present day idol for LAE using GIS as a tool. This is a rational methodology in large scale landscape planning, and has been used in undergraduated B.L.A. curriculums and at the graduate level. 1.5. ECLECTICISM This serves for diverse demands, it does not rely on a single paradigm or theory but instead upon various. The educators in this approach were trained with different theories and methodologies and have perhaps experienced the chaos of landscape movement in a culture different from the one in which they were trained. The most significant examples can be seen in Asian Countries’ LAE, where western (education) meets eastern (culture). For example, the design of a (western) urban plaza may not function in the hot and humid environment of Thailand where the pedestrian needs shaded shelters rather than dry sunny spaces. “Social landscape architecture” is a subset of eclecticism; it focuses on the holistic approach and in-

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 tegration of LA theories with the multidisciplinary. Social landscape architects are not the design idol but modest enough to work with people from all walks of life. 2. WHY: SOCIAL LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE / PARTICIPATORY LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE? Social study and research is based in Humanity and Social Science, but LAE is usually a part of the school of Design and Planning / Art or Environmental Science. While, the new trend for LAE tries to integrate several theories and approaches, social research is lacking in the curriculum. In practice, landscape architects make assumptions regarding demand and user requirement based on their experiences and spend little time doing field work. Due to the time constraints and background education of most landscape architects, social research is not yet well recognized in the design process. In the mega-projects or public landscape projects involving multiple stake-holders, there have been many “controversies” [6] [7] on both sides while attempting to reach an acceptable solution and simultaneously amplify the voice of the minority. The development of a project requires extensive public involvement from various domains [8]. The concept of planning is intensive and extensive in that it also includes the values and actions of citizen groups. In this sense the concept contributes to what others have called ‘culturalist planning’ [9] or participatory planning (this is for example requested by almost all research studies carried out in the above mentioned EU Interregio Program). Gender issues and universal design have played an important role in public space design, and social research should follow this trend. 2.1. GREAT CITIES INSTITUTE – GCI MODEL The author of this paper was granted a visiting scholar Fulbright scholarship to a university wide research institute at The University of Illinois at Chicago: Great Cities Institute – GCI [10]. At this research institute, research staff worked with social researchers, PA scientists, urban planners,

engineers, architects, and designers for the city of Chicago towards their commitment and engagement with their community. The GCI model is an example of how education can contribute to the well-being of urban life in several ways including teaching, research and service programs. The GCI model was introduced to Chulalongkorn University Social Research Institute – CUSRI [11] when the author was appointed to the administrative board as deputy director of CUSRI in 2008 and applied the model to the 3rd year under-graduate students in the department of landscape architecture, Chulalongkorn University through an “Advisor-Advisee Relationship Project” fostered the ability of LA students to be able to understand people from all walks of life and learn from other scholars who are not landscape architects or have a completely different educational background. We invited a community leader from the Mahakarn Fortress Community [12] to be our lecturer.

Figure 1: The 3rd Year LA students listened to Mahakarn Fortress Community leader.

2.2. THE 2011 IFLA APR STUDENT CHARETTE The 2011 IFLA APR Student Charette [13] is an international student workshop. It was originally planned to offer opportunities for landscape architecture students from Asia Pacific countries to think about the value of local communities and natural environments and the effect of the rapid growth of tourism. In addition to landscape architects (lecturers, and practitioners) students were instructed by social researchers and local artist to explore the vernacular landscape of Central Thai-

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 land and visited fruit orchards, mangrove forest, and local villages. The workshop did not require students to produce a marvelous design like other design workshops do, but in two days the students learned and experienced another side of LAE, that emphasized social, artistic, and environment values which are rarely found in formal LAE in design school.

Figure 2: 2011 IFLA APR International Students Charette listened to the Klong Kone fishing village’s community leader.

3. CONCLUSION: CHALLENGES FACING LAE Countries in the Asia-Pacific region have their own uniqueness in culture and social values. The study of Social Landscape Architecture in LAE does not want to eliminate other theories and approaches, but rather encourage the younger generation of landscape architects in the region to service their country. The value of Landscape architecture services with public minded and participatory consideration can be priceless. These strategies can also be integrated with other design theories to make projects that are notable worldwide. References [1] Website : École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts [2] G. Hargreaves, Landscape Alchemy: The Work of Hargreaves Associates, ORO editions, USA, 2009. [3] Proceeding. The 32nd IFLA World Congress in Bangkok, Thailand. TALA, Thailand, 1995.

[4] I. McHarg, Design with Nature (1969) (Wiley Series in Sustainable Design), Wiley, USA., 1995. [5] H.L. Garnham, Maintaining the Spirit of Place: A Process for the Preservation of Town Character, PDA Publishers Corporation, USA., 1985. [6] A. Aruninta, Public Land Management Policy for Urban Vacant Land. : The Development of a Public Land Management Policy for Under-utilized Space in Bangkok, Thailand., VDM Verlag Dr. Muller, Germany, 2010 [7] A. Aruninta, “Controversies in Public Land Management Decision Makings.” Proceeding : City Futures International Conference, GCI, Chicago, USA, 2004. [8] C.A. De Sousa,. “Turning Brownfields into Green Space in the City of Toronto.” Landscape and Urban Planning 62, Elsevier, The Netherlands, 2003, pp. 181-198. [9] M. Simard, , & C. Simard,.”Toward a culturalist city: A planning agenda for peripheral mid-size cities.” Canadian Journal of Urban Research, Institute of Urban Studies. Canada, 2005. [10] Website : Great Cities Institute, UIC., cuppa/gci/ [11] Website : Chulalongkorn University Social Research Institute – CUSRI [12] A. Aruninta, Rehabilitative Landscape in the Old Communities in Bangkok, Thailand. Proceeding : The 2009 Incheon IFLA APR Congress, KILA, Korea., 2009 [13] Website : 2011 IFLA APR Congress


The true story of a town who lost & found a MOUNTAIN and a CASTLE Paz González Marinas BACKGROUND Once upon a time, not so long ago, there was a town that had lost a mountain. The ancients referred to it and some explorers were said to have seen it on the way to ‘las Gavarres’ mountain range, but there wasn’t clear evidence of it anymore. Yes, it had fallen into the forest of oblivion. The mountain wasn’t like any other; it held part of Girona’s ruined S.XVII defense system with 3 fortifications united by an underground passage at its ridge. It was the cradle of ‘Girona stone’ quarries, the renowned nummulite’s fossils stone, with

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 which the old town was build, as well as Tibidabo’s Angel in Barcelona. The quarries are no longer working, but their scars stand readable as powerful reminders of the mountain’s recent working past. Pedreres, the quarries, is today’s place name, previously though, it was referred to as ‘Girona’s mountain’ for its immediate proximity to the town.

Master Plan

Today it is a neighborhood inhabited by ‘payos’ and gypsies who get on reasonably well and share the same public school. A neighborhood of contrast with illegal slums and self constructed houses at the north end and Girona’s first single family homes from the ’60’s and ‘70’s crowned with a luxury hotel on the south west slope. It is Girona’s best viewpoint, hardly 2 minutes away from the acclaimed city’s walled promenade, and 15 minutes from downtown’s ‘las Rambla’, although hardly anyone remembers it. OBJECTIVE The mission was to expand the renowned ‘city’s walled’ tourist itinerary, incorporating the adjacent quarries and the views of Girona from Pedreres mountain, and to display the nummolite’s fossil stone at its cradle. A 2nd agenda for the locals was to unveil and revalorize the mountain’s cultural landscape, to reclaim a missing step in the town’s civil history and to improve the quality of life and the self-esteem of an often neglected neighborhood. At the town scale to convert its rundown streetscape into a town’s façade, recovering its historical ‘skyline’ crowned by Alfons XII’s defensive tower. The project envisioned a cultural greenway executed with a very limited budget, 28€/m2. CONCEPT The backbone of the project is the layout of the ‘journey’, conceived as a ’cultural’ greenway that reclaims a ‘disappeared’ mountain. By going beyond the city’s walls, the greenway endows continuity to the system of urban public space and renders accessible the town’s biggest park, its

mountain, while unveiling and highlighting its values. The path points out the areas to be managed, determines their accessibility, suggests where to stop and rest, reveals hidden corners and turns this ‘working class’ landscape into a readable narrative. Therefore the path system, beyond connecting and reclaiming ‘public space’ and discovering heritage, becomes the surveillance that monitors landscape quality and maintenance through the eye of its users. As a result of methodology, and due to the project’s extremely low budget, 58.870,54 € ( 0.84 €/m2), it was approached as an action plan rather than a conventional project. A strategic decision

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 Reclaimed Nummolite rock outcrop

was made early on to make extensive & dispersive use of resources rather than to take an ‘intensive’, concentrative, architecture-like approach. Instead of investing most of the money in the making of the path, the approach was quite to opposite, adopting a low cost standard solution for the path and sparing money for 34 activities grouped in 7 thematic lines of intervention: • Clearing of rubble, garbage and abandoned huts, to eliminate the impression of the ‘mountain’ behind a dump. • Eliminating invasive exotic flora, including forest patches of Broussonetia papyrifera, clumps of cane Arundo donax as well as ‘escaped’ garden shrub species that were taking over the native bushland landscape. Anglada’s quarry viewpoint

• Opening up the formal agricultural terraced landscape of the valleys by selective cuttings. • Creating a new light access path system that allows for round trips, rather than lineal movement. The journey, as choreography, combines transitional passages with short movements, where close-up views or panoramas are proposed to determine the rhythm of the discovery. • A site-specific catalogue of minimal artifacts were designed to point-out the ‘on track’ phenomena; lookouts, singular rock outcrops, quarry bare walls, hidden shaded corners and lichen carpets in order to turn them into a landscape narrative. To reduce cost we adopted a single material to minimize the number of manufacturers involved in the work. Therefore the rough and tough Cor-ten steel is the unique material that relates all of these constructs. • Nummolite’s rock outcrop cleaning, exposing the site’s unique fossil register along the journey. • Management and reduction of motorized access to the natural area. Maintenance is crucial in newly open natural areas; therefore financing was set aside from the budget for two years of maintenance to ensure its establishment.  


IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 Rest point inside the quarry

Are there low cost and feasible alternatives to providing citizens with quality open space? The ‘smart’ colonization of our cities’ immediate rural or natural surroundings, often in the form of neglected and perturbed remnant spaces, offers a complementary alternative to inner city interventions. Soil property and the connectivity with the ‘inner’ city remains a challenge but the benefits make it worth trying. Barcelona’s Collserola 16 gate’s ongoing competition is a clear example of this trend.

The citizens who dreamed with a ‘Camí de les Aigues’ EVALUATION XXI century European citizens have new demands regarding their public space. Among others, there exists a growing desire to get in contact with “nature” at a certain scale and an undeniable interest for an active and healthy use of open space. Urbanites vie four connected ’systems’ of spaces in the form of greenways or routes that allow for walking, running, cycling, skating etc. This demand increases as they discover them. Enric Batlle wrote recently: “Making improvements to the city by encouraging the creation of slow routes and regaining the lost continuity between the inner city and the natural spaces nearby. A strong argument for the 21st century” Regardless of the investment, the ‘expensive’ to build and maintain squares and urban parks are fatally too small to fit and satisfy most needs unless they belong to a network, which is very complex and expensive in our mostly consolidated inner cities. Furthermore, due to the economic crisis and the drastic reduction of government investment in public space, it is unviable, at least for a while, to continue to conceive the ‘design’ of public space at traditional quality rates.

Low cost environments are also a challenging starting point to finding innovative solutions; mixing ‘extensive’ and ‘intensive’ production in explorative ways. Questioning the limits of what is “urban” open space with a hybrid approach where cultural constructs prospect ‘natural’, rural and perturbed areas seems to be fertile ground to work on. Nummolite observation lens

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 Girona’s stone itinerary it is just the first step of an ‘unfinished ode’ and yet has already successfully: • Reversed the appreciation of the mountain as a dump and reintroduced the community to an area where it was seriously endangered. • Rescued from oblivion the collective imaginary on ‘Girona’s nummolitic stone’ and the quarry landscape. • Methodologically it has turned what could have been a conventional ‘construction’ or ‘restoration’ project into a meaningful ‘action plan’ displaying up to 34 interventions in 7 thematic areas. It has tested hybrid solutions between nature restoration and cultural constructs, often obviated in natural areas. • Experimented with the economy of means, by proposing a wise combination of intensive and extensive solutions that produce outstanding value including two years of maintenance. As a counterpoint, there is yet limited political belief in this project; the expansion of this prototype area to the rest of the mountain as well as its future maintenance is not yet assured. Still some citizens envision: • Turning ‘Camí de Ferradura’ (Ferradura’s path), Pedreres’s central path, into a local ‘Camí de les aigues’, a comfortable, accessible lookout and flat path. • Restoring the ruined XVII century defense system fortifications. • Revitalizing the northern slums. • The effective reconnaissance of the ‘Pedreres Mountain’ as a naturban park included in the municipal maintenance circuit.


Nz Community Sculpts Their Future Sam Bourne Boffa Miskell As Landscape Architects we engage with communities to understand place. Public consultation can take many forms from informing, to engaging in discussions or empowering communities to be part of the design process, which is most rewarding. Clevedon is a rural village in the south east of Auckland, New Zealand’s largest and most populated city. With a resident population of around 600 people, there is a strong sense of community within the village. This comes with a pride of being a rural settlement distinct and geographically separated from the ‘big city’ over the hill. The colonial heritage and progressive rural enterprise (including one of the region’s largest farmers markets) coupled with equestrian activities convey upon Clevedon an increasingly attractive rural lifestyle choice within the commuter belt of Auckland. These characteristics have already led to more intensive patterns of settlement, though not of a scale or volume to undermine the locality’s rural character. The village is situated on an area of elevated topography within a low-lying valley flat, and bordered by the Wairoa River. Clevedon’s landscape is

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012

characterized by the farming patterns of the valley and back-dropped by the surrounding ClevedonMaraetai Hills and the native bush clad Hunua Ranges. The valley is also in relatively close proximity to the coast and is prone to flood. In addition, a high water table combined with poorly maintained private septic tanks are polluting the local waterways and are a major concern for the village. The desire by a group of local landowners wanting to develop their land near the village, coupled with the then Manukau City Council (Auckland Council) considering the need to manage any growth in a more strategic way, formed the catalyst to prepare a Sustainable Development Plan (Structure Plan) for Clevedon. The plan’s aim was to manage future change given current constraints. Boffa Miskell was engaged to lead the Sustainable Development Plan preparation, and in particular the consultation phase of the project with the local people. Working closely with Auckland Council to understand what methods to engage, and what process of engagement would best serve the local

community. A variety of innovative methods were employed in order to capture a broad spectrum of local peoples opinion and knowledge and reach an outcome for the village that could best meet the needs of the local community given the environmental constraints of the area. Early consultation involved an open day/ information day with a display of opportunities and constraints and technical information about infrastructure and environmental issues facing the village. This is by no means unique to a project such as this, but the information included an idea of the possible impact of the constraints on the landscape and village which would impact the future of Clevedon. This also allowed local people to review and input into technical reports. As an example, people who have lived in the area their entire life or for many years were able to recount areas of flood prone land not picked up on in early modeling work. These added to the existing base and enriched the accuracy of flood plan modeling by the project engineers. This open day was followed, two months later, by a Community Design Workshop. Here the commu-

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012

nity participants worked in separate small groups, each facilitated by a design team member. The workshop was orchestrated, so that each group was a mix of community members of different ages and backgrounds. The workshop was organized into two sessions aimed at visualizing the future of their village. The participants were introduced to the design process that the consultant team would generally go through and the benefits of drawing on their own knowledge and the technical information they had reviewed during the first open day and again during the workshop. The first session involved discussing three potential growth scenarios and arriving at a preferred option for the direction of growth for the village. Each group was asked to consider at the broad scale: accessibility, the local character and connection to the broader landscape, the local ecology, and where development could be located to protect and enhance the latter. By mapping out the information, each group gained an appreciation of the multitude of issues. All groups concluded that


future development should consolidate around the existing village core, but that this would have to be in keeping with the village. For the second half of the day, the focus shifted to future development of the village core. In session two each group of participants were given a scaled aerial base map of the village. This acted as a kind of game board for each group to work through their ideas on. Boffa Miskell have found in past consultation workshops that not every individual feels confident to put pen to paper, and often the individual holding the pen can dominate discussion. To eliminate this issue, different colors of playdough were supplied for each group to model their 3D vision for the future of the village core, with an emphasis on the mainstreet. This was the first time Boffa Miskell had used something as tactile as playdough for this type of exercise. It proved highly engaging, participants enjoyed the freedom and creativity the medium enabled. Initially more restrained participants

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 would sit back and sculpt their ideas to bring forward, while others actively molded and re-molded the group’s vision. All participants young and old had fun and were able to articulate their ideas and literally sculpt the options. To ensure some sense of scale and accuracy the design team prepared templates showing colors and sizes so that the playdough could be representative of the anticipated village activity or land uses. One of the positive outcomes of the workshop was that those involved felt a greater sense of ownership of the subsequent Sustainable Development Plan and became “champions” or advocates amongst the rest of the community. The process was very effective. A number of interesting and unexpected design concepts emerged which were translated to the final planning documents, for example a ‘riding school bus’ emerged as new transportation mode for local children and a bridle trail network separate from the “roading” network to facilitate this activity was planned. As an example this demonstrates how one of the many community ideas came through into the structure plan. The riding school bus links the people with their place and its character and maintains a tradition of equestrian activities unique to this rural village in Auckland.

Barrier-free conservation of the cultural Satochi-Satoyama landscape which allows universal participation

1. The rebirth of traditional rural landscapes. 2. Sustainable use of agricultural and forestry resources. 3. The conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems. Some concrete environmental conservation methods have been developed through landscape research in Japan as early as the 1980’s 1, 2, 3, 4). Moreover, these practices have been proposed as civil participation 5, 6, 7). In Japan it is essential to involve more people who are able to participate due to the fact that many members of environmental conservation groups are of an advanced age and as a result their numbers have reduced in the last decades. PURPOSE OF THIS ACTION RESEARCH There is a prediction that the maintenance of secondary natural environments by specialists (Environmental NPO) would only cover 5% of an area where appropriate management is needed. Therefore, it is imperative to address this issue to achieve successful landscape conservation (Fig1). 1. Management by specialists can encompass a limited area though it can be expected to achieve desirable results for landscape conservation. Fig. 1 Conflicts in the achievement of successful landscape conservation

including people with mental disabilities Dr. Uehara Misato, Shinshu University

THE BEGINNING The key words of the modern landscape are Art, Environment and Civil participation. The conservation of the natural environment through civil participation is one of the most important objectives for landscape architects in some developed countries. In particular, the conservation of a nationally unique environment, the Satochi &Satoyama in Japan, has three challenges:

2. Management by amateurs cannot be expected to achieve the same level of results for landscape conservation although it has the potential to encourage a great amount of participation. To cope with these challenges, we planned a conservation activity in which everyone could participate and from which we achieved a positive outcome.

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 RESULT Through this activity, we were able to develop the following two concepts regarding the enhancement of desirable affects through conservation activities aimed at historical agriculture and forestry lands. 1. The objectives of conservation activities should be simplified. For example, the clarification of management goals for mounting plants or marking certain objects with tape is presented in photo.1. This simplification enables anyone to participate easily in nature conservation activities such as the selective removal of nonnative species (photo.1). In this way, people with mental disabilities who may not have a lot of knowledge of plants can contribute to improving the forest floor. In practice, an area of 500 square meters was covered with successful


results by a group of 5 people with mental disabilities using this strategy of simplified objectives for conservation. 2. Traditional land management practices for agriculture and forestry involves certain simple techniques that could be applied by amateurs. For example, the collection of fallen leaves and bush improvement from the abandoned forest floor. This was proven as an effective way of improving an abandoned forest floor through the participation of people with mental disabilities (photo.2). Fallen leaf collection improved the productivity of a mushroom crop which was able to help an elderly proprietor of the unmanaged land (photo.2). Moreover, environmental reform can be achieved through these ideas and the help of people with

Photo 1. Simplification of the objective and purpose of environmental conservation.

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 Photo 2. Simple agriculture and forestry management techniques are well suited for amateur conservationists. Fallen leaf collection (left) and bush improvement (right).

mental disabilities. For example, bush improvement requires the ability to control for illegal waste. An area of 400 square meters was adaptively managed by the group of 5 people with mental disabilities. We were able to collect garbage from an area of 11 m3. Bush improvement involves the clearing of litter (photo.2) and as a result the forest floor is improved (photo.2). An improved production of many wild herbs was confirmed in the managed woodlands. Fig.2 shows a comparison of the flowering of wild plants on the managed forest floor and on a non-managed forest floor (fig.2). In addition, flowers of threatened species in this region were found in the managed forest (fig.2) 1.Coeloglossum viride var. bracteatum: Yamanashi prefecture en-

Fig 2. Comparison of wild flower population on abandoned vs. managed forest floor.

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 Table 1. Conservation Activities effect on relaxation in participants. Ratio of participants who decreased the number of amylases in saliva.

dangered species Near Threatened (NT), 2. Cephalanthera erecta: Yamanashi prefecture endangered species Vulnerable (VU). Positive mental affects were also observed in the people who were involved in the fallen leaf collection. It was observed that these conservation activities reduced stress and tension in the participants (table.1). Through this study, we aim to present new applications of conservation activities through the participation of amateurs who had little interest in nature. Furthermore, people with mental disabilities make up 10% and senior citizens 40% of the population in Japan. This experimental study was executed from 2009-2012 by the environmental promotion fund of Mitsui & Co., Ltd.

Towards the Yildiz Technical University ICOMOS ICORP Symposium “Cultural Heritage Protection in Times of Risk: Challenges and Opportunities” Zeynep Gül ÜNAL, Assistant Prof. Dr. Yildiz Technical University, Restoration Deparment, Member of ICOMOS ICORP and ICOMOS- IFLA , C. İrem GENÇER Research Assistant, Yildiz Technical University, Restoration Deparment

“Disasters” are one of the most significant factors that threaten the presence of cultural heritage. This heritage consists of underground and aboveground sites, buildings, cultural landscapes, museums where artifacts related to cultural heri-


tage are displayed, archives where documents are preserved and living intangible heritage. Whether natural, consciously or unconsciously induced by humans, disasters threaten the presence and accelerate the destruction of heritage sites as well as mankind along with other creatures living on these sites due to their size and impact. In order to mitigate the catastrophic affects of disasters on cultural heritage, the following can be applied: -Risk mitigation prior to disasters -Intervention and crisis management focusing on heritage preservation during disasters -Planning recovery actions with awareness after disasters The above mentioned actions can be defined as “Disaster Management of Cultural Heritage”. Guiding these actions jointly on local, national and international platforms and sharing the results and experiences are important elements that increase the success of the operations. Istanbul, one of the biggest metropolises in the world with important cultural heritage assets, hosts an international symposium this year. The symposium will be organized by Yıldız Technical University, founded in 1911 in Istanbul, and the ICORP -International Committee on Risk Preparedness- established in 1999 as a Scientific Committee of ICOMOS with the mission to prepare cultural heritage against natural and human induced disas-

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 Photos 1,2

The context of the symposium is comprehensive and includes many kinds of risks that threaten cultural heritage. Different themes and focuses, such as disasters, wars and considerable conflicts, large scale public projects, tourism activities, legal applications and their results will be considered and discussed. Symposium subjects are, In the field of cultural heritage: - Mitigating risks from natural disasters - Mitigating risks from human induced disasters - Reducing risks from urbanization pressure - Policies and legislations for risk reduction - Reducing risks from tourism pressure - Responding and recovering from disasters - Role of media in disaster risk management - Awareness and training for disaster risk reduction The symposium further aims to discuss the role and contribution of the disaster risk management of cultural heritage at different stages. Some of these can be listed as: - Studying whether the valuable knowledge provided by historical buildings and sites, which have survived disasters for centuries, and their inhabitants who have learned to live with disasters to preserve their existence might contribute to disaster management plans.

ter risks. The symposium will be held in Istanbul between November 15th and 17th 2012. It aims to bring together the experts working on the relations between Cultural Heritage and Disaster Risks and its theme is “Cultural Heritage Protection in Times of Risk: Challenges and Opportunities”. The main aim of the symposium is to define primarily natural and human induced disasters, slow as well as catastrophic risks in short and long terms and to contribute to developing solutions by sharing various case studies carried out or planned for mitigating the impacts of such disasters.

- Risks and opportunities for preservation that occur especially when large sites such as cultural landscapes, large courtyards of monumental buildings and archaeological sites are open to use as they provide favorable conditions for humanitarian aid during disaster intervention phases. - Evaluating the sites, buildings and objects, which define the new situation after the disaster and create the memory of the disaster under the context of preservation concepts. This symposium, organized by Yıldız Technical University and ICOMOS-ICORP and supported by ICOMOS-Turkey and Ritsumeikan University, will be realized under the patronage of the Republic

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 Photos 3, 4

of Turkey Istanbul Governorship Special Provincial Administration Istanbul Project Coordination Unit (IPKB). Important dates related to the symposium are listed below. For detailed information, you can visit the symposium website at: and IMPORTANT DATES Deadline for abstract submission: March 20, 2012 Notification of abstract acceptance: April 20, 2012 Deadline for full paper submission: June 29, 2012 Notification of full paper acceptance: September 7, 2012 Deadline for full paper submission for printing October 6, 2012 Symposium dates: November 15-17, 2012


Photo 1-2: Kalas mahal in Chennai, built in 1760, one of the oldest indosarcenic buildings, was up in flames on the night of 16 th January 2012 (Photo: Steve Borgia). Photo 3-4: Conditions of 19th and 21st century buildings on the same street after the earthquake in Erciş, Van on November 23rd 2011 (Photos: Zeynep Gül ÜNAL 2011). Photo 5-6: On November 28th 2010 fire breaks out in Istanbul’s historical Haydarpasa Train Station during rehabilitation works. Haydarpasa Train Station, which is regarded as one of the symbolic buildings of Istanbul, was built between 1906 and 1908. It’s roof construction sustained major damage during the fire. The old Station will be out of use for 2 years starting in February 2012, due to the High Speed Train Project. Usage of the building for different purposes (!) is on the agenda. (Photos: İstanbul Vth Regional Council for Preservation of Cultural and Natural Heritage Archive)

Photos 5, 6

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 A Heritage Walkway; Rahopara Pa to Memorial Avenue. An everyday collective laboratory community project. Art translates the language of nature into the language of man. Paul Woodruffe Located on Auckland’s north shore are a series of heritage sites that contain a collection of landscape and architectural treasures not widely known outside the area. These sites are; Rahopara Pa, Kennedy Park, Campbells Bay Primary School’s community forest and Memorial Avenue in Centennial Park, all located between Castor Bay and Campbells Bay. The everyday collective laboratory is a group of collaborating researchers from the departments of Landscape Architecture, Design and Visual Arts at Unitec Institute of Technology, and for the last two years it has been working within this community assisting in heritage research and advocacy for places of special character within two of these sites; Memorial Avenue in Centennial Park and the heritage building and landscape complex in Kennedy Park. The project explores the impact and value the presence of artists and designers working within local communities can have, and “champions the role of the artist in the development of the public realm, and their intuitive response to spaces, places, people and wildlife.” (Wood 2009, p.26). The significance of this project is that it promotes a collaborative and multi-disciplinary methodology designed to work with community groups advocating to corporate entities for a wider social and environmental awareness of specific sites. Within this coastal suburban location are four active and successful community organizations that represent the interests of the residents; The

Castor Bay Ratepayers Association, The Kennedy Park WW2 Gun Emplacement Trust, The Centennial Park Bush Society and the Campbells Bay Residents Association. The Kennedy Park Trust and the Centennial Park Bush Society are organizations with a focus on landscape and heritage as it relates to specific sites; the historic sites in Kennedy Park and Centennial Park respectively. The first stage of the project undertaken was the research, site analysis and mapping that was necessary for Memorial Avenue to be listed as a heritage site and protected. In 2009, the everyday collective laboratory succeeded in identifying a neglected and overgrown Centenary and War Memorial called Memorial Avenue, an almost half a kilometer long 1939/1940 double row planting of native Pohutukawa trees. This memorial was not acknowledged in any of the city authorities planning schedules or maps, and its history had been lost to all but a few local residents. After undertaking research, site analysis and public consultation, a visual arts based presentation was made to the local communities and city authorities. This methodology demonstrated that “the turn toward artistic forms of representation brings social research to broader audiences, mitigating some of the educational and social biases that have traditionally dictated the beneficiaries of academic scholarship.” (Leavy 2009, p. 55). This document succeeded in having the avenue listed as a heritage site and given the necessary

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 Image from the “Memorial Avenue� publication.

protection. But there was no money available or an agreement able to be reached with the local community groups on restoring the War Memorial aspect of the avenue. These problems were due to an almost complete aversion by the local community to the addition of any built structures on the site. So a solution was arrived at to bring the WW2 War Memorial and Centenary history back to the site. This was the discreet use of ceramic QR Codes set into the existing landscape features and onto public seating endorsed by the Centennial Park Bush Society and the local Council Parks Officer. After meeting with local interest groups and neighborhood organizations and establishing working relationships with them, two sites within a 1.5 kilometer radius were identified as having some interesting connections with Memorial Avenue; Rahopara Pa and Kennedy Park. Rahopara Pa, Kennedy Park and Memorial Avenue all individually contained important heritage QR Code public seat design, prototype.

landscape and architectural features, and individually these sites had undergone a degree of neglect. The solution to enable the restoration of Memorial Avenue, and give protection to a collection of heritage architecture that was under threat, was to connect all the sites together physically so they would become one significant site of regional importance instead of remaining marginalized individual sites. This could create interest from outside the local area and attract funding from interested parties outside of the local community. But these sites straddled two Local Board boundaries, the Pa site and Kennedy Park in DevonportTakapuna, and Memorial Avenue in Eastern Bays. Something to connect the sites and over-ride the politically separate cadastral boundaries was needed. What was discovered through walking, mapping and research was that the local school that lay between the sites; Campbells Bay Primary, had an area called the Community Forest, this contained a wonderful series of raised wooden walkways through an ongoing native forest restoration project undertaken by the children and local volunteers, this walkway formed a natural connection between Kennedy Park and Memorial Avenue. The Kennedy Park WW2 Gun Emplacement Trust, is a community organization that run regular tours through the tunnels and have compiled a huge amount of research on the site, they are the effective guardians of the threatened heritage structures. The Trust supported the concept of a heritage walkway as a way to connect the park to a larger system and so ensure greater recognition of the significance of their site. A 30 edition litho-


IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 30th edition Lithograph for Rahopara heritage walkway.

graph was produced in the Auckland Print Studios of a proposed walkway that articulated the connectivity of the sites, this was distributed to stakeholders and interested parties in order to obtain feedback from the community and advocate for the walkway to the local government. This artwork placed all the sites within a single entity by showing the connecting narratives and shared histories of the sites in a way that would provoke dialog and exchange. The print demonstrated through this walkway design, protection and funding for restoration and landscape design improvements was for the isolated marginalized places, which was much more likely given that they now constituted a single collection of regional importance. After a series of meetings with the Kennedy Park WW2 Trust, our expertise was offered in assisting the Trust to save the old Barracks House on the site, as this building could form the centre of the walkway once the Trust had realized their goal of

using it as a cafĂŠ, museum and educational space. The house was the last remaining building from the old barracks complex. The Observation Post had been restored in 1995 and the gun emplacement concrete forms remained due to their robust construction. The loss of this building would destroy the trilogy of heritage architectural styles established on the site in 1942. The collective produced a document and a presentation that was used to support the trust in arguing a case for the Auckland Council to purchase the building from the owners; Housing NZ. All four community organizations in Castor Bay and Campbells Bay came together to support the saving of the building and in principle the establishment of the heritage walkway. At the time of writing, a decision by the Auckland Council on purchasing the old Barracks House had not been made. The heritage research, site analysis artwork, mapping and narratives for Memorial Avenue, Kennedy

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012

Wooden bullet memory stick. (from Memorial Avenue).

Bunker cement memory stick. (from Kennedy Park).

Park and Rahopara Pa was compiled, published and distributed in print, web and portable digital media for the community and stakeholders to access. This was done so full community involvement with our shared analysis of the sites could be achieved. When design and restoration commences, consultation and collaboration of design concepts with the local community will be deeper and richer. The maps, artwork and media designs that the collective undertook, are the vehicles that enabled the knowledge from our research into heritage and special character to be shared with the community, and will be the means by which conclusions can be shared with that community. This can be clarified; when map-makers are, like the collective, new arrivals to a place, “what difference, if any, does this make to ways in which we not only make sense of where we are, but in terms of claims we may make on that place.” We see this work as, “ vehicles for sensitivity and for action. They celebrate attachment. They can be used to steady the view, and the pulse in local disagreements; their “beauty” and pleasing prospect can override the embedded tensions amongst the people in a place. Their singularity can conceal a deeper diversity.” (Crouch,1996, p.53). The everyday collective laboratory has an ongoing role within this community assisting and advising them in site analysis, advocacy and design for their


Midden shell memory stick.(from Rahopara Pa).

places of special character no matter how small. References: Crouch, D. (1996) From place to place, maps and Parish maps. Common Ground. Leavy, P. (2009) Method meets art, The Guilford Press, New York, London. Wood, D. (1992) The Power of Maps, The Guilford press, New York, London.

P RO J ECT ReSTART the Heart [Rough and Milne Landscape Architects of Christchurch were involved in one of the first regeneration projects of Christchurch City following the devastating earthquakes] Hannah Ayres (Graduate Landscape Architect) and Tony Milne (Director) Rough and Milne Landscape Architects Described by Christchurch Mayor Bob Parker as ‘another little ray of sunshine into the heart of Christchurch’ it was apt that the brightly colored converted shipping containers of the Cashel Street pop-up mall opened their doors to the people of Christchurch on a sun drenched Saturday at the end of October, 2011. Those that came to the opening would have done so with mixed emotions

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012

and for a variety of reasons. The energy and bustle of opening day and of the days since, has breathed much needed life into the voids that are now common to this part of our city. Christchurch, New Zealand’s second largest city, is now confronting a daunting rebuild task in the wake of several major earthquakes and thousands of aftershocks over the last 18 months. Since the first major earthquake event on the 4th of September 2011, the city has experienced nearly 10,000 aftershocks, a number of which have been so significant that they have been recorded as their own earthquake event. The magnitude 6.1 aftershock that occurred on February 22nd, 2011, was the most devastating of them all. Responsible for killing 184 people and injuring almost 2000 more, the earthquakes caused extensive damage to buildings, infrastructure and lives across Christchurch and its suburbs. With the February earthquake producing one of the greatest peak ground accelerations ever recorded in the world, even earth-

quake strengthened buildings fell victim to the quake. One of the worst hit areas was the central business district of Christchurch where around half of the central city’s 2500 buildings have been damaged beyond repair. Although significantly reduced from its original size, a large portion of the central business district named the ‘Red Zone’ remains cordoned off to the public while extensive demolition work takes place. Cashel Mall, best known as being home to Christchurch’s longest established department store Ballantynes, was just one of the many central city streets to be damaged in the February earthquake. Prior to the earthquakes, the mall had recently been given a multi-million dollar make over as the city’s main pedestrian street in the heart of Christchurch’s central shopping district. While much of the new landscape still lay beneath the rubble, the face of Cashel Mall had changed forever as many buildings that lined the street were damaged beyond repair.

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 (architects) and Leighs Construction, Rough and Milne Landscape Architects donated our services in landscape design with the intention of injecting life, cheerfulness and color into the external space of the two precincts. It soon became apparent that in order to meet the tight timeframe, and the almost non-existent budget for landscape design, materials and construction, we would have to be involved in the implementation as well. Using our network of resources and relationships, we were able to collaborate with a significant number of people who helped us source a huge portion of donated and reduced price landscape materials to contribute to the project. The realization of our vision of a cheerful, colorful public space relied heavily upon the munificence of the ‘Colour me Christchurch’

Given its position near the edge of the Red Zone, and its significance as one of Christchurch’s most important shopping streets, it seemed appropriate that re-opening Cashel Mall was a good place to begin the incredible task of regenerating the inner city. ReSTART the HEART was a project set up to make the first steps in engaging the people of Christchurch with their city center again. In combination with a surviving portion of the original Ballantynes building and several temporary tilt slab buildings, approximately 60 shipping containers have been arranged to create two temporary shopping precincts on either side of Cashel Mall. While transforming shipping containers for the purpose of retail and hospitality is one thing, providing a spatial experience that is inviting, comfortable, engaging and memorable is a social imperative. Working alongside the Buchan Group


IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 of scaffolding, welding rigs, scissor lifts and other heavy machinery as well as an army of construction workers and shop owners to negotiate, this was a challenging and at times frustrating logistical exercise! Nevertheless, the results of our efforts have been incredibly rewarding as the sunflower seedlings have grown and bloomed, and it is clear from people’s faces that Cashel Mall has been brought back to life.

group (who donated flowering plants), Wai Ora Nursery (who donated native plants), Greening the Rubble group (who supplied hard surface materials) and in particular Lincoln University landscape architecture student volunteers and friends who helped shovel, plant and water during the last 48 hours prior to opening. Given the impediments

John Suckling, chair of the ReSTART Trust, was quoted as saying he hoped the project would be ‘funky and interesting’. We think it is, and further to this it provides an interesting and thoughtprovoking portal to the form of a future inner city Christchurch. The off-the-grid spatial arrangement provides for sheltered spaces within the built form allowing the sun to permeate. People are enjoying this, as do the petunias, sunflowers and wildflowers, and it is extremely rewarding to see this in a place we helped create. Temporary is a word that has taken on a new definition in Christchurch postearthquakes, in this case the longer the better, as our city needs it.

IV Landscape Architecture Exhibition, Belgrade, Serbia Andrijana Vukadinović, Andreja Tunundžić One of the aims of the Association of Landscape Architects in Serbia is to maintain the continuity of the Landscape Architecture Exhibitions started in 2005, as exhibitions for the general public. This commitment is justified by the need to create conditions for the affirmation of the profession and for professionals, to achieve communication between landscape architects and related disciplines as well as to build critical consciousness for the protection of landscape architecture objects as objects of cultural heritage. We are proud of the fact that this year’s landscape architecture exhibition takes place in the Gallery of Science and Technology of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (SANU). A large number of domestic and foreign work in

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 Openning ceremony

Old Court, Lecture by Ilya Mocalov


the area, i.e. plans, projects, studies, research as well as student work indicates the necessity for such exhibitions. Thanks to the active effort and our contacts at the International (IFLA) and the European Federation of Landscape Architects (EFLA), the invitation from the Serbian Association of Landscape Architects for participation in the 4th Landscape Architecture Exhibition in Belgrade was answered by colleagues from seven different countries: Greece, Spain, Italy, Morocco, the Netherlands, Austria and Croatia, making it possible once again for the Exhibition to boast its international participation. In this way professionals and the general public were in the position to attend and follow global trends in landscape architecture, to appreciate some of the possible landscape solutions and correspondingly their contribution to an improved quality of life. It can also be concluded that the primary goal of the Association was achieved, as we truly believe that the organization of such an event meant a lot for the affirmation of Landscape Architecture in Serbia. After a thorough review and evaluation of works the Jury decided to present 12 awards to the participants of the Exhibition. In accordance with the propositions, awards were given in several categories, as well as a special plaque and the Grand Prix for the best work in the opinion of the Jury, which was given to the project entitled “e_co_llectiva�, by Athanasios Polyzoidis Petsiou and Katerina Petsiou, from Greece. The Exhibition and awarded

Grand Prix, e_co_llectiva, Athanasios Polyzoidis Petsiou and Katerina Petsiou

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 works can be seen at php?view=article&catid=25:2011&id=90:4-salonpejzazne-arhitekture-2011&format=pdf Special guest of the IV Landscape Architecture Exhibition, Močalov Ilya Valerevič, IFLA Secretary General, held a lecture under the title “Landscape Architecture in Russia: Time of Change, 19902011”. On the same occasion, laureates of the Grand Prix presented their work “e_co_llectiva”. Representatives of the Student Association of Landscape Architects of Serbia (PUPA) gave a presentation “Green Roofs in Belgrade - Potential for the Formation of Green Roofs.”

BOO K R EV I EW THE RIGHT TO LANDSCAPE CONTESTING LANDSCAPE AND HUMAN RIGHTS Edited by Shelley Egoz, Lincoln University, New Zealand, Jala Makhzoumi, American University of Beirut, Lebanon and Gloria Pungetti, University of Cambridge, UK And Reviewed by Karsten Jørgensen Rights usually refer to legal or moral entitlements: something you can claim. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) established in 1948 form, together with the subsequent International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Bill of Human Rights that today is international law. On this background we can all claim “the right to life, liberty and security of person” for example. The UDHR has established a foundation for fundamental rights that, although they are not uncontested, generally will be regarded as reasonable. But can one imagine the establishment of a corresponding universal statement of the right to landscape? Landscapes are inevitably place, nature and culture specific. In addition the concept of landscape is so elusive

and many-layered that such an undertaking seems unattainable. This was nevertheless the subject for a workshop organized by the editors of the book, Shelley Egoz, landscape architect and lecturer at Lincoln University, New Zealand, Jala Makhzoumi, Professor of landscape architecture at the American University in Beirut and Gloria Pungetti, Research Director at Cambridge Centre for Landscape and People. The workshop “The Right to Landscape” took place at Cambridge in December 2008, on the sixtieth anniversary of the adoption by the General Assembly of the United Nations of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The papers presented at this conference have now been revised and edited into a thought provoking

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 volume with valuable and suggestive ideas on definitions of landscape as well as discussions on how and to what extent landscapes may be subjected to rights and claims. The authors’ backgrounds range from landscape architecture and landscape ecology to architecture, anthropology, history, geography, law and political science. The book opens with a section on definitions and concepts. Professor of landscape planning Kenneth Olwig from the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences accentuates the need to define the right rights to the right landscapes. He makes a clear distinction between definitions of landscape as a detached visual entity and landscapes as places of living. The traditions related to the economic market value of land stands against customary use rights to landscape. The European Landscape Convention (ELC) is one example of a legal framework that is dealing with such questions and Maguelonne Déjeant-Pons from the European Commission explains in her paper in this section how the ELC is based on a humanistic approach, emphasizing people’s perception and the democratic processes for decision making regarding landscapes. Assistant Vice Chancellor at Lincoln University, Stefanie Rixecker, supports the need to depart from the prevailing economic paradigm and focus on human wellbeing related to equity and social justice in her paper in this section. Her focus is on rights to landscape in the current context of climate change, while Amy Strecker, PhD scholar from the Law Department of the European Institute in Florence, discusses the challenges related to the utilization of the ELC as a model for an international law on rights to landscape. The second part of the book presents various examples, historical and recent, of how tensions between individual, communal and state rights to landscape have been managed in different settings. The contexts range from the historical Orkney and Shetland, presented by professor of Geography Michael Jones from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, to the delicate situation on the Golan Heights, by Gearóid O Cuinn, PhD candidate at the University of Not-


tinghem. A research team of anthropologist Júlia Carolino, landscape planner Jørgen Primdahl, landscape ecologist Teresa Pinto-Correia and landscape manager Mikkel Bojesen present a study of the management of wildlife alongside with other landscape related customs in Denmark and Portugal. Landscape architect Susan Herrington from the University of British Colombia discusses the development of American play-landscapes and shows how many of today’s landscapes are deprived and offer less opportunities for play. The different cases presented here all highlight the importance of discussing rights to landscape to get closer to an understanding of the concept of landscape itself. 2008 was also the sixtieth anniversary of the International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA), and in the third part of the book Diane Menzies, former president of IFLA, and her colleague Jacinta Ruru, senior lecturer at the University of Otoago, New Zealand, present a case study on the rights of Indigenous people of New Zealand, the Maoris of Aotearoa. The Maoris identity is strongly linked to their landscapes, and this causes ongoing disputes about the interpretation of the historical Treaty of Waitangi, between the British Crown and the Maori chiefs from 1840. The section also brings three other case studies. Landscape architect Gini Lee from the University of Melbourne explains how she works closely with the aboriginal communities to understand the significance of their concepts of landscape. This position is emphasized in senior lecturer Jillian Wallis’s description of another Australian landscape, the Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park. Shelley Egoz deepens this perspective in her account of the different approaches taken by two different artists from the two sides of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. This leads up to the fourth part of the book that deals with competing landscape narratives. The competing landscape narratives of Israelis and Palestinians are further elaborated by landscape architect and lecturer Ziva Kolodny and associate professor Rachel Kallus, both from Technion in Israel, in their paper about two landscapes being developed side by side in downtown Haifa: a public square and a small vernacular garden. Jala Makhzoumi shows how neoliberal practices threat-

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 en both the rights of the Lebanese public as well as the Lebanese countryside. Landscape architect and urbanist Gareth Doherty from the Harvard Graduate School of Design in his article explains how suppressed groups like the Shiite majority in Bahrain express their identity through practices like Graffiti. Associate professor Jacky Bowring and lecturer Shannon Davis from Lincoln University bring in a new dimension with their article about genocide memorials in Cambodia and Rwanda; the rights to both remember and to forget landscapes. The fifth and last part of the book takes a closer look at recovery perspectives. Anthropologist Munira Khayyat from Colombia University and architect Rabih Shibli from the American University in Beirut present their study of the aftermath of the 2006 war in southern Lebanon. Landscape plays a crucial role in the resilience of the affected villagers. Landscape architect and associate professor Denise Hoffman-Brandt from the City College of New York shows how landscape ecological infrastructure can support ecological planning as a resistance and recovery effort in refugee camps in north-eastern Kenya. Architect and urbanist Anna Grichting explains the potential of developing peace landscapes supported by a study of grassroot activities related to the Greenline Buffer Zone of Cyprus. Thomas Oles from the Academy of Architecture in Amsterdam and Gloria Pungetti round off the book with a chapter on landscape crime as a specific and underexposed type of environmental crime. The authors argue that traditional landscape knowledge and practices can be important ways to counter such offence against the landscape. The Right to Landscape is a bold attempt to establish a new critical discourse on landscape and human rights. The book brings forth a wealth of ideas and opinions from a wide range of cases, diverse both geographically and in discipline. It will be an essential reference for all discussion on landscape rights, for example the idea to establish a global landscape convention. In addition the book is a valuable source in the continual and essential discourse on the concept of landscape itself.

IN MEMORY... A Tribute to Elise Sørsdal

Landscape Architect MNLA and Honorary member, Elise Sørsdal died 99 ½ years old on December 30th, 2012. One of the pioneers of the discipline of Landscape Architecture in Norway has passed away. She was in good health until she had a heart attack and passed after a short illness. Elise Sørsdal was firmly rooted in the subject’s practical portion after growing up on Brøholt farm in Røyken, outside of Oslo. As a young woman she went to the National Gardening School Vea. Later on she worked as a gardener at Ingrid Faales perennial nursery for 4 years and the Norwegian Gardens in Oslo for 5 years. During the war she studied Landscape Architecture, or rather ‘Garden art’ as the education was named at that time, at the Norwegian Agricultural University (now the Norwegian University of Life Sciences).

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 After graduation, she worked several years as an assistant at the Department of Garden art with Professor Olav L. Moen with the task of developing the park at the Agricultural University. She also had a year’s appointment as a teacher at the National Horticultural School at Staup and was for one term employed by Trondheim Municipality Park Administration and was responsible for planning and practical work. She then moved to Kristiansand, where she was the Garden architect in the City Park Administration. From 1956 to 1966 she was teaching at the State Teacher College in Domestics and Home Economics at Stabekk. Her teaching involvement continued at the National Gardening School Jensvoll for the rest of her professional life. She was heavily involved in the NLA’s (Norwegian Association of Landscape Architects) activities, and made a valuable contribution as secretary for many years. In 1983 she was appointed as the very first Honorary Member of the NLA. She participated as a Founding member during the formation of the International Federation of Landscape Architects, IFLA, in 1948 in Cambridge. She was later an international delegate to IFLA for NLA. In her 98th year she was pleased to find that one of the parks she had designed was appointed as “The Green Park of the Year 2010”. It was the Town Park in Mosjøen, far north under the Polar circle that was awarded this prize. Elise Sørsdal had a very good knowledge of plant material, using trees, shrubs and perennials that fit well with the park’s function, and which were adapted to the region’s harsh climate. We, who have been so fortunate to know Elise Sørsdal, remember her as a highly qualified professional, thorough and systematic. Moreover, she showed great concern for everyone and had a very warm heart, which all the students that she had contact with through her years of teaching have greatly appreciated.


It has been 32 years since she retired. In all of these years she followed the discipline’s development remarkably well, and she spoke enthusiastically about people from the discipline of Landscape Architecture just a few days before she died. Elise Sørsdal has left a lasting mark both as a Landscape Architect and as a teacher. In gratitude. On behalf of the Norwegian Association of Landscape Architects (NLA) Daniel Klykken, colleague from the National Gardening School at Jensvoll

The town park in Mosjøen INTRO The town park is situated in Mosjøen, in the municipality of Vefsn, in Nordland County by the Arctic Circle, on 66o latitude. The town park shows how European ideas and style from different periods in garden art history have been transformed into a vernacular style. A public park on this latitude from the 19th century is a rare and a remarkable phenomenon in Europe and in Norway. In 1875 Mosjøen had its privileges as a town of 774 inhabitants. At the west of the town, mountains are situated and towards the east the town is boarded by green hillsides. The landscape is open along the valley going from north to south towards the fjord. In 1876 Mosjøen, the first zoning plan was approved as a large regular chessboard grid. In one of the blocks, far off in the countryside, the park was located and named Town Park, in an optimistic hope that the town would grow big one day (vefsn. Even though the living conditions and the landscape here are characterized by a harsh climate, people wanted a town park as a result of the images they had seen in Europe. But the real work of transforming it into a park was first started around 1900.

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 The development of the park can be divided into 4 periods: 1. The 1900-park – the Trondhjemsgroup style. The lay-out was formal, a classical, ornamental park of beauty to be admired. It was a park for afternoon promenades. The main motive, the layout of a cross with an axis in the form of an avenue north – south with right-angled and symmetric patterns crossed by six smaller roads lined with birch trees. The layout was an old fashioned style at that time, in contrast to other public parks in Norway from the 2nd part of the 1800’s. 2. The 1925 park – the formal park. The next lay-out for the town plan was made by Professor Sverre Pedersen in 1925. It was a modification of the regulation plan from 1876, with some major alterations in the garden art fashion of the time which is reflected in the pattern of a park in the formal garden style of the 1920s. 3. The 1948-parken – The functionalistic park by Elise. After the war the municipality engaged the landscape architect Elise Sørsdal to make a new plan. She is one of Norway’s most acknowledged garden designers and landscape architects. The aim was to make a composition which fulfilled the new ideas of a post-war park according to the socio-democratic ideals of egalitarian beliefs and healthy outdoor activities, combined with embellishment and aesthetic ideas. The new master plan was functionalistic, concise and sober. It was a radical change from the earlier lay-outs in the formal style, a display with a lot of open space, such as sport fields and playgrounds in the northern area and big lawns to the south, which also reflected is use and neighborhood shared with the primarily school. A border of lilac on each side of the pavilion divided the park into southern and northern zones, where the northern was made for sport, play and physical activity. Paving with local slate flagstone was introduced to the park as well as a playground.

After the war the restoration work was initiated according to the park-plan of Elise Sørsdal and this continued until the beginning of 1990. 4. The 2000-park – the modern Park of today. To complete the history of and in the park, contemporary planning ideas are represented. FALLING AND A RISING CONSCIOUSNESS The level of maintenance of the park in the years from 1948 to the 1980’s was considered to be good. Then it fell into decay, until the enthusiastic Town Gardener Ragna Berg, started her champagne to save the park and explain its value. This led to enthusiasm in favor of preserving the park. After a lot of work and lobbying, restoration started according to the Charter of Firenze. To recreate the 1948 park has been connected with a few challenges since the original master plan was retrieved for the 1948 section of the park. Color photos existed that illustrate and verify the construction and content of this section and the landscape architect behind the design, Elise Sørsdal, was still alive to give interviews. This made the restoration a lot easier. The gravel walks and some vegetation were also partly intact, despite the lack of maintenance. The rehabilitation of the park was fulfilled and reopened in September 2008. The park endows joy to all senses and activity for its inhabitants and visitors in a vibrant, living town. The park has gained a new position in the minds of politicians and the public as something they treasure. HERITAGE PROTECTION STATUS The Directorate of Cultural Heritage prepared an evaluation of the project ”The town park of Mosjøen – a living history book” as a part of the enactment process to prove if the park deserved the status of a national cultural heritage site. The result was that the status and the importance of the site were acknowledged on June 12th 2009, when the park obtained its own Bill of Preservation according to the Norwegian Act of Cultural Heritage Preservation. The preservation clause and the manage-

IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 ment plan, which will be revised frequently, will secure the quality of the park continuously. CONCLUSION The purpose of the Norwegian Cultural Heritage act is to protect archaeological and architectural monuments and sites as well as cultural environments in all their variety and detail, both as part of cultural heritage and identity and as elements of the overall environment and resource management. The park is now preserved and secured for future generations. The risk of being converted into a development area or a parking lot are forever over. Compared to the rest of the world, the parks and gardens of Norway are quite simple and rather small in scale. This modest approach echoes the state of the country at the time of their creation. They are true witnesses to the long voyage of development of Norway towards the society that it is today. They lack the grandeur, diversity, refinement and the fabulous and imposing artifacts of the well known sites from the cultural and central cradles of the different periods in garden art, but they are rich in charm and beauty. The importance and value of cultural heritage is not in the size or refinement, but in its true language of time and place. In spite of this humbleness it is essential that they are preserved and protected because of their national, regional and local value. Visitors are able to enjoy a unique historical view of the magnificent site between the fjord and the mountains under the Polar circle.

Arkitektur i Nord-Norge Hage, Ingebjørg; Haugdal, Elin; Ruud, Bodil; Hegstad, Sveinulf (red.) Fagbokforlaget 2007 ISBN: 978-82-450-0629-2 Carl W Schnitler Norske Haver i gammel tid, avd I Norske Folkemuseum Centraltrykkeriet Kristiania 1925 Magne Bruun Hagekunstens historie Landbruksbokhandelen. Ås-NLH 1975 ISBN 82-557-0032-3

A Tribute To Elise Sørdal By Her Coffin at The Funeral on 05.01.2012 As NLAs international delegate, I stand here on behalf of IFLA - The International Federation of Landscape Architects, for the ExCo, our President Desireé Martinez and past president Diane Menzies, who had a memorable visit to Elise’s home in 2009. The presidency of IFLA received the news of the loss of Elise Sørsdal, their very last founding member, with deep grief. On the 14th of August 1948, Elise Sørsdal was present at the meeting in which IFLA was founded. The meeting was held at Jesus College, Cambridge, and Elise was the delegate from Norway.

Elise resigned as a delegate of the Norwegian landscape architects Association in 1952, but all foundThe town park of Mosjøen is a small park. ing members later were granted a special memA piece of art by Elise Sørsdal that will be forever. bership category in IFLA, a personal membership as a Founding Member for life. No one has been a Ås, 2012.01.17 member of IFLA longer than Elise, no person will Tore Edvard Bergaust probably ever achieve a longer duration of activity. MNLA, International delegate Prof., Head of Landscape Architecture Section IFLA aims to continue to spread its message of Norwegian University of Life Sciences responsibility for garden art, the natural environDept. of landscape architecture and spatial ment, welfare and safety to all nations as explanning


IFLA Newsletter Issue 96 February 2012 pressed in the first IFLA constitution. In this way Elise Sørsdal’s spirit will forever live through landscape architects’ practice all around the world. IFLA expresses great gratitude for Elise’s efforts. She will be missed and remembered. I greet you all and convey the presidency’s as well as my own sincere condolences and compassion to all of you here today and especially to the family. Furthermore, I would like to pass on condolences from the Department of Landscape Planning. May Elise’s memory rest in peace. Regards, Tore Edvard

Landscape Architecture from the grass roots  

IFLA Newsletter # 96 - February 2012

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