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Report on the 24th Annual Conference BERN. SW ITZERLAND



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Located in the heart of the Americas, Costa Rica is small in size , but huge in natural beauty. Its mountains and volcanoes, of artistic magnificence , surround San Jose, Costa Rica 's capital and most beautiful city . Night life in San Jose vibrates with excitement. People gather in discothequ es , nig htclub s, cinemas , clubs , theaters and restaurants . But if you are looking for peace and tranquility, Costa Rica's beaches are among the most beautiful in the world and there is one for every taste , sec luded or with modern hotels, white or blacksanded , warm or cold , you may choose among hundreds of them in the Pacific or the Atlant ic coasts . Spring like climate , peaceful and quiet beaches , mountains , volcanoes , nightlife - you name it- we have it 1



The Airline ofCosta Rica


THE CONTROLLER Bern, Switzerland, June, 1985

Volume 24 · No. 2

Publisher: Int ernational Federatio n of Air Traff ic Controller s· Assoc iation s. P.O. Box 196 . CH-1 21 5 Geneva 1 5 Airport. Switze rland·

In this issue

Officers of IFATCA: HH . Henschler . President. Lex Hendr iks. Vice-President (Technica l). E. Sermijn . VicePresident (Professiona l). U. Windt . Vice-Preside nt (Admini stration). B. Grezet. Treasurer. P. O' Doherty. Exec utive Secretary


Editorial page2

Editor: A . Av9oustis 5 Athens Street 1 72 Nico sia. Cyprus Telep hone (72) 44 87 86 Management and Advertising Sales Office: The Cont roller. P.O. Box 196 . CH-1 2 1 5 Geneva 1 5 Ai rport. Sw itzerland H.U. Heim. Subscriptions and Publicity. Tel. (022) 82 26 79 M . Henc hoz. Acco unting. Tel. (022) 92 56 82 B. Laydevant . Sales Promotion . Tel. (022) 82 79 83 Production ' Der Bund '. Verlag und Druck erei AG Effinge rstrasse 1. CH-3001 Bern. Telephone (031) 25 66 55 Subscriptions ahd Advertising Payments to: IFATCA/The Con troller . Union de Banques Suisses P.O . Box 237 CH- 1 2 15 Geneva Airport. Swi tzerla nd Acc. No . 602 254 .MD L Subscrip tion Rate: SFrs. 20 .- per annum (4 issues). plus postage and package : Surfacemail: Europe and Medite rranean countri es SFrs. 4 .20. other co untries SFrs. 5 .40 . Airmail : Europe and Mediterranean countri es SFrs. 6 .20. other countries SFrs. 10 .60. Specia l subscription rate for Ai r Traff ic Controllers. Contri butor s are expressing thei r personal points of view and opinio ns. w hic h may not necessarily coincide w ith th ose of th e International Federation of Air Traffic Controlle rs· Associatio ns (IFATCA). IFATCA does not assume responsibilit y for statemen't s made and opinions expressed. it does only accept respon sibility for publ ishing these co ntribut ions. C_ontributions are we lcome as are comments and crit icism. No payment can be made for manuscripts submitted for publ ication in 'The Controller'. The Editor reserves _the righ t to make any editoria l changes in manu script s. which he believes wi ll imp rove the material w ithout altering t he intended meaning .

Gove rnment' s Neg ligence ... page 2 3

Newsb riefs


Satellite System for Distress Positioning page 2 7

Writ _ten permission by the Editor is necessary for reprinting any part of thi s Journal.

Advertisers in this issue: Lacsa. Ferranti . M arco ni. Philips, Thomson CSF. Swissair, Selenia. Photos: A.A. Archives. Hiro Tade Cartoons: M artin Germans THE CONTROL LER/ JU NE 1985

Book Review


Letter to the Editor

page3 7

When the Feder at ions ·s fo un dation principles were laid down by a small group of air t raff ic controllers. some 25 yea rs ago. a bond was established by wh ic h futu re generations we re to endeavor to make the Federation the true rep rese ntati ve of the air traffic control profe ssion to the internationa l aviat ion community and interna tional organizat io ns. A quarter of a century has gone by; it may now be said with some certainty that this goal has largely been achieved. IFATCA has tru ly become the interna tiona l voice of the air traffic controller and its relationship with all internationa l bodie s of concern is exce llent even when differences of op inion on certain matters may exist. Admittedly . such acceptance did not come about without any effort. It requi red time. dedication. integrity and a certain amount of trust. but above all it required the effort of Member Assoc iat ions which attained recognition. A great number of nat ional Associations have achieved in thei r nationa l context high professiona l standing and their input is sought by t he decision makers before a decision is made. In short they built . through the ir ind ividual efforts. _ the foundations of IFATCA' s internat ional acceptance. It is however naive to suggest that this success ful outcome has produced universal recognition of the status of the air traffic controller. There are st ill places with adm ini strations that will not afford the means or the tools with which the contro ller can discharge his functions satisfactorily. To these administrations the efforts of the Feder ation and those of the individual national Associations should be directed and so perhaps achieve the other goal that the founders bound IFATCA with The Edit or

Op e ning Ce remo ny

I A CA '85 24th Annual Conference: 18-22 March 1985, Athens, Greece by Andreas Avgoustis, the Editor

With an unprecedented air of ce r tainty as to the fruitful and successful outcome of the 24th A nnual Conference, the 500 or more foreign delegates and accompanying persons gathered at the 'meet-the-delegates· hall of the Royal Olympic Hotel on the eve of th e opening sessions The President of the Greek A TCA, Mr Sp. Armatas and his team welcomed the guests as they entered the big hall where a cocktail party was given in their hono r. Athens was for the second time in the 24 years of the Federation ·s history the host of its annual conference (the first time in 79 7 7) with the same hotel, the Royal Olympic as the venue. The success of the Conf erence was further guar anteed by the fact that various authori ties cont ributed towards the functions of the Conference, as for example, the Greek M inistry of Communications, Olymp ic Airways, the Greek Tourism Organ ization and the Greek Civil A viation Dep artment. The actual 3 -day Conference, instead of the planned 5 -day, gave the I FA TCA in ternational representatives time to join the thousands of foreign visitors to disco ver the many wonders of the city's classical tradition and that of the present day. A then 's ex tremely cosmopolitan atmosphere, its vital blend of old and new, of relics of the past have not hindered in any way the work program of the working sessions and groups. The perfectly established and equipped secretariat unit and the long working hours during the day of the committees· chair s made the four-d ay Conference, that was agreed to be established in the future, a luxury.

The massive gat hering of co nt ro llers in t he mo rnin g of th e 1 8t h M arc h , 1985. to mark th e ope nin g ce remo ny of t he 24t h IFATCA Annu al Confer ence was made eve n mo re im press ive by t he presence of th e M inist er of Com m un ica t io ns, Mr . Y . Papad o nikolakis who sat next to th e Fede rat io n 's President. Mr . H.H. Hensch ler at t he head ta ble. The large att endance of Gove rnm ent and Aviati on offic ials added also t o th e Conference spirit Mr . B. Hakiami s, as th e Chairma n of t he Orga nizing Comm it tee we lco m ed g uests and made th e intr od ucti o ns to th e spea kers in th e follow ing o rde r The Greek Mini st er of Communicat ions. Mr . Y. Papado nikol akis we lco m ing t he delegat es confirm ed his Governm ent's plans fo r the reorgan izat ion of his co untry's c ivil aviat ion services and added : 'As it is know n, in our myt hology we have t he lege nd of Ica rus an d his fath er Dedal us w ho made th e fir st fl ight. which ended in t he death of lkaros. afte r disobey ing his fat her's flying inst ruct ions. 'The progress of t ec hnol ogy made t he realization of thi s anc ient dr eam not only possible. but so large today. as t o cover th e w hole planet w ith a dense net of air t raffi c co nt rol fac ili-

!FA TCA '85 Open ing Ceremony. (From the left) L Hendriks (VP Technical), I. Finlay (VP Admini stration), P O Doherty (E Secretary) . H. H. He nsch ler(President). HE The Greek Minister of Communi cation s, Y. Papadonikolaki s. Sp Armatas (Presid ent , Greek A TCA ), B. Grezet (Trea surer). The V.P Profe ssional S Sermjin is not shown. 2


The world of ATC is changing and growing. With the help of computer technology you can see more and do more now than you could even five years ago, both in simulation and in radar data processing and display. Not surprisingly it is Ferranti that is changing the picture. We are foremost in applying computers and display systems to the ATC function. The work we are putting into the processing and display of ATC pictures is bringing simulators and operational systems closer togethei: And we are doing some forward thinking and planning for the new ATC techniques that will soon be coming into view. If you want to broaden your ATC horizons, contact:Ferranti Computer Systems Limited, Cwmbran System Sales, Ty Coch Way, Cwmbran, Gwent NP44 7XX Telephone: Cwmbran (06333)71111 Telex: 497636


Computer Systems


ties, based on highly sophisticated equipment and scientific learning . 'Having been a pilot myself for many years, I have personal experience of you r difficult work, which involves a high level of knowledge and capacity, combined with a high sense of responsibility. 'An air traffic controller's work is a fine example of international cooperation and communication, which strengthens the friendship between the various peoples, thus promoting good relations and peace. 'I wish a fruitful and successful outcome of the wo rk of IFATCA 24th Annual Conference to the benefit of air safety and conso lidation of air spirit.' On behalf of the Hellenic Civil Aviation Authority, its Governor, Mr. G. Tzouvalis said: 'I am very pleased that I greet all of you wh o guide the safe flight of aircraft throughout the world. ' Civil Aviation Author ity ' , Mr Tzouvalis continued, 'be ing concious of the specialized and difficult duties of air traff ic controllers, endeavors to provide the best te c hnical means available in order that air navigation wi ll achieve the optimum standards. 'We elaborated an ATC modernization project, wh ich is in the stage of

its implementation, including the installation of new radars, simulator, AFTN, etc. ' I thank you for past and future contributions to aviation safety and I wish you every success in your Conference and an enjoyable stay in the beautiful city of Athens.' In his welcome message, Olympic Airways Director General, Captain L.N . Kanellopoulos said: ' Olympic Airways extends the I FATCA Delegation warmest greetings. ' Since its inception approximately 50 years ago, the air traffic control system has been doing a superb job despit awesome problems to be overcome with the ever-increasing number of aircraft and air travellers . 'The air traffic control system has been charged with helping create conditions for the safest possible environment and efficiency for safety in air transportation. 'Never before has the air traffic controller played such an important role as today. He performs his duties under conditions of increased stress, pressure and responsibility. 'An d, this is a salient point, which I would like to bring to your special attention , with the hope that it will be

one of the main subjects of the deliberations and recommendations during this conference of IFACTA. 'Be certain that our airline greatly appreciates and respects the endeavors of the air traffic controller who performs his very essential function under complex conditions with great devotion and responsibility. ' It gives me great pleasure to welcome you to our country and I wish you all a successful conference and memorable stay in Greece.' The President of IFATCA, Mr . H . Henschler expressed his satisfaction of the fact that he was in Greece for the Federation's 24th Annual Conference, a fact which gives him the opportunity to explain that the functions of the Federation are based on democratic principles, the ones that Greek Democracy is based upon. The President further said: ' It was more than a dozen years ago that the Air Traffic Controllers Association of Greece hosted our 1 0th Annual Conference in Athens in

1981. 'Since that Conference, when IFATCA had some thirty, mostly European, Member Associations , the Federation has grown significantly in numbers, in stature, and in accep-


Among the VIPs: Mr . Tzouvalis (Greek Civil Aviation Governor) front row, 2nd from the left , Mr. Kanellopoulos (Olympic Airways Director -General) front row, 2nd from the right. 4


Mr. Kanellopoulos tance as the voice of the international community of air traffic controllers. 'Our Greek Member Association has, since its election to full membership in 1963 , been a very active and support ive participant in Federation affairs despite hardship and struggles on the national scene. 'I am hopeful that by hosting IFATCA '85 a contribution to overcoming these problems wi ll be made by furthering the understanding of our unique profession. 'There is every reason to expect that IFATCA '85 will continue the dedicated work on behalf of aviation and of the Federation for which its predecessors have been renowned, and it is my sincere pleasure, on behalf of the Executive Council of the Federation to we lcom e all participants and observers to Athens, to Greece, and to IFATCA' s 24th Annual Conference.' The President of the GreekATCA in his welcom ing speech said: 'As a representative of the Greek Air Traffic Controllers Association I have the honor of extending our warme st welcome to all participants of the 24th Annual Conference of IFAT-

CA. 'This is the seco nd time in fifteen years that our Association has been granted the honor of hosting the Annual Conference and I would like to express our gratitude to I FATCA for granting us the opportun ity to merit thi s confidence 路I_also wish to emphasize our apprecIatIon for the invaluable support from the Mini stry of Communications. the National Tourism Org anization , Olyrnp1c Airways and the Hellenic Civil Aviation Athority as well as all the other organizations and associations that have helped us. ' Furthe rmore. I would like to th ank the members of the Organizing Committee for their dedi cated work. THE CONTRO LLER/ JUNE 1985

Mr. Armat as

'It is well known that the intensive exhibition of their country路s attracti ve next to the IFATCA efforts air traffic controllers provide countryside when coping with the traffic load. of- Journal . 'The Controller' stand. The Technical Exhibition was often exceed the limits of human capaficially opened , immed iately after the bilities. 路 Our task is further strained by the Opening Ceremony, by the Minister of Communication s, Mr. Yiannis Panecessity of providing high quality padoni kolak is, accompanied by his services relating directly to aircrah entourage and officials from Olympi c safe operations and fuel economy. Therefore, the employment of sophis- Airways and the Greek Air Force. The Greek Minister of Communiticated systems backed up by high technology, together with the im- cations made a brief stop at 'The Conprovement of working conditions, re- troller' stand and talked briefly with the Editor. who offered to the Mini ster main our primary objectives. 'We consider that the opportunitie s copies of the Journal. given in our annua l conferences contribute positively toward this aim. Opening Plenary ' Hoping that the results of the The Opening Plenary usually marks forthcoming sessions wi ll provide some answers to the problems faced the opening of the actual working by international and domestic avi- sessions of the Conferenc e. It takes ation. I wish to all participants a use- place after the opening ceremony and ful, enjoyable and constructive stay in after the VIP gue sts depart for the Technica l Exh ibition The Openi ng Athens. Plenary concerns itself mai nly with th e 'May thi s Conference truly promote minu te s of t he previous annual professional bonds among controllers conference , in this case th e Estoril all over the wor ld .路 1984 Conference , the Report of th e Exec ut ive Board for the elapsed year Technical Exhibition (see page 1 5 of thi s issue) and with A total of 1 5 stands next to the the election of th e officers of the thr ee main conference hall in the Royal working committees . viz. Committe e Olympic Hotel were very profession - A , Admini strat ion, Committe e B, ally designed and constructed for the Technical and Committee C. ProCorporate Member s and other ATC fessional. Nomination s for committee cha irequipment manufacturers to exhibit men and secretar ies are made at the their hardware. The following company manufac - end of the session s of the previous turer s participated at the exhibiti on: conference and if there are no conAEG - Telefunken , Ericson Radio testants the nominee s are unani Systems Ltd , Selenia - Raggr up- mously elected to serve during the pamento Selenia - ELSAG, Thomson period of the Confe rence. The follow - CSF, West inghouse Defense , CAE ing have been elected and served in Electro nics Ltd , Mar co ni Radar Sys- their respect ive offices for the duration tems Ltd , Scicon Ltd , Plessey Displays of t he Conference : Commi ttee A : Chairman . E.G H . Ltd , Cossor Elect roni cs Ltd , and Ferranti Computer Systems Ltd. SITEC- Green (UK Guild) ; Mi ss L. Au sten and M iss M . Ou inn as Secretarie s (both of NA . the Costa Rica ATC Assoc iation hosting IFATCA ' 86 had organized an the UK Guild) 5

Committee B: Chairman. A. Cauty (CATCA) and L.P. Jensen (Denmark) as Secretary. Committee C: D. Dalzell (New Zealand) as chairman with J. Schaap (Netherlands) as Secretary. Following the election of the Working Committees· Officers and the handing over of the gavel by the President to the elected chairmen. the conference participants moved into their respective speciality committees to meet once again at the final plenary. which confers upon the recommendations their final status as 'Resolutions· or rejects them as unacceptable.



First business on the agenda. the election of the Committee Vice-Chairman passed on without any difficulty or lengthy discussion. Two of IFATCA's Regional Councillors. i.e. R. Soar (RVP Pacific) and A. Enright (RVP Europe West) accepted the task of the Vice-President (alternating) without much hesitation. A total of 53 Recommendations. based on 63 Working Papers reached Final Plenary for approval.

Newly Elected MAs There were altogether 3 applications from Associations to join IFATCA as full affiliates. These were: Swaziland Air Traffic Control Association. the Association Salvadorena de Controladores de Transito Aero (ASATCA) and the Guild of Antigua and Barbuda Air Traffic Controllers (GABATCO). All three applications were unanimously recommended by Committee A to be accepted as affiliates. IFATCA's 25th Anniversary As reported in issue 1 / 85 of 'The Controller'. the Executive Board presented Committee A a Working Paper for the 25th Anniversary of the Federation. The planned program. for which approval was sought by the Executive Board of IFATCA involved some considerable activity toward the achievement of wider publicity for the Federation and greater involvement of the Board in such activity. The Conference adopted. without alteration. the plan of the Board and also accepted the proposed Anniversary issue of 'The Controller' with the cost of 3500 additional copies.

After lengthy deliberations about the feasibility of 2or 3 crew cockpit configuration for the A310-Airbus we now offer the following solution: The Single Crew Configuration

The Treasurer's Report On the recommendation of the Eurocontrol Guild. the Treasurer's report was unanimously accepted. The Netherlands Guild congratulated the Treasurer for his excellent report. The Treasurer. in addition to his report presented two additional Working Papers which were accepted by the Committee. with minor amendments. The Working Papers were the following: a) Disposition of funds in cases of excess of income. and b) Conference indemnities. The first paper provided that excess of income over expenditure resulting from the annual accounts. should be distributed in accordance with the wishes of the Executive Board. presented as Working Paper and approved by the Directors at an Annual or Special Conference. In the second instance. i.e. Conference indemnities. it · was approved that subject to sufficient funds being made available. expenses for hotel accommodation and per diems. excluding travel expenses. shall be paid in accordance with priorities set out. (Continues next page)

Safe North Sea Shipping Ensured by Precision Direction Finder The Federal Minister of Transport Dr. Werner Dollinger put into operation the 'Vessel Traffic Management System of the Helgoland Bay· in Wilhelmshaven. This most modern system provides for monitoring of the shipping traffic in the most frequented area of the North Sea. The monitoring network includes a DF system from Rohde & Schwarz with OF stations at Schillig. Minsener Oog. Hochsiel Plate. Tossens and Wangerooge. A VHF Precision Direction Finder PA 001 is installed at each of these stations. The direction finders are connected to the center in Wilhelmshaven via data links. In this center the DF information of the OF chain Jade is used for determining the position of ships and - in conjunction with radar systems- mainly for identifying the ships. as well as for support in setting identification labels in the radar-monitored area of the Helgoland Bay. In addition. the R&S precision direction finders support the controller in determining the position and kilometric distance of ships calling outside the radar-covered area (pre-entrance area covered by DF) for manual entry into the ship data processing system. The FAA is moving ahead on a tower contract program in which non-FAA personnel are hired by the agency to operate ATC towers at smaller airports. FAA officials addressing the recent annual meeting of the American Association of Airport Executives said that the agency plans to have a contract program finalized by October 1 . That plan reportedly would involve 227 locations. including most of the facilities that have remained closed since the 1981 controllers· strike. Of those 2 2 7 airports tentatively identified for the program. 90 currently do not have towers at all.



Committee A Chair: left to rig ht : A. Enright , E. Green and L. Au stin

Regional Organization The Regional Organizati on of IFATCA is always t he subject matter of disc ussion at ann ual co nferences w ith th e reports of the Regional Vice-Presidents (RVPs) cons titut ing th e foca l point. Follow ing th e discussion on the report s. Commi ttee A entered into the elect ion of Regiona l Vice- Presidents w hose terms of offi ce te rminated . The foll ow ing were elected or re-elected: - D.E.Y Klaye, nomin ated by Ghana, was elected as RVP fo r Afri ca W est; - B. Hakiam is, nominated by Cyprus. was elec ted as RVP Europe Centr al; -- E.Y.S . Chu, nominated by Hong Kong, was elected as RVP-Asia; - C. Olm os, nom inated by Canada was elected as RVP Nort h and Central America; - R. Jones , nominated by Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, was elected as RVP Caribbean. 'The Controller' The Journa l, its Editor and its Manageme nt Group were the subject of the next agenda items. The Editor expressed his optimism fo r a viab le and worthwhi le j ournal following the placing . by the UK Guild TH E CONTROL LER/ JUNE 1985

of a firm order on one ' Cont roller' for one membe r of t he Guild. 'This', the Edito r said, ' is a posit ive indication of t he accepta nce by the members of I FATCA that " The Controller" is the representat ive voice of the air traffic cont rolle r.' The Vice- President Adm inistration expressed, on behalf of the Execut ive Board, the ir appreciation and congrat ulated the Management Group for a job we ll do ne. The Committee we nt on to confirm the new terms of reference for the Editor and the Editor 's Committee leaving th e ' Contro ller' M anagement Group wi t h the te rms of reference as agreed at t he Estoril Conference 1n 1984.

Executive Board Elections Lex Hendriks , was re-elected for a third period of two years as the VicePresident Technical. U. Windt (Germany) was elected as Vice- President , Administration for the next two years. During the past two years Mr . Windt was the chairman of , Standing Committee IV (Human and Environmental Factors in ATC). 'The Controller' wishes them both successful terms of office.

Stand ing Order Committee For the fi rst time in the history of the Federat ion a Standing Order Committee is established.

Kenya, the 1987 Venue The Committee confirmed the wish of the Member Assoc iat ions to go to Afri ca for the ir 1 987 Annual Conference. Nairobi, Kenya was accepted as the venue after a secret vote was taken to decide. The other two contestant Associations, Brazil and Bahamas failed. Three proposals came for the 1988 Conference , namely , Brazil , Germany and Argentina . A decision as to the venue will be taken at the 1 986 Conferenc e.

Four-Day Annual Conference The repeated discussion as to whether IFATCA's Conferences would continue on an annual or biennial basis had resulted in an agreed fourday Annua l Conference starting from 1987 , Costa Rica being already committed for 1986 arrangements.

Closed Sessions Committee A went into a number of closed sessions throughout the period of its deliberations to discuss items of concern to individual member associ ations.




Mr. S. Marinos of the Greek Association w as elec t ed by the Committee to act as its Vice-Chairman . Following a brief by the VP Technical. Mr . L. Hendriks. on the report of the Execut ive Board. the Committee entered into the details of its actual program . A total of 32 Working Papers were tabled for discussion. Some of the most controversial papers presented may require somewhat greater attention in th is report, hence more details are provided. Review of Lateral and Longitudinal Separation The areas of concern of IFATCA in this partic ular item are the following: a) Non promulgation of lateral distance to be achieved - and considerat ion of the buffer-zone tolerances and how they should be appli ed. i.e . the minimum lateral distance to be achieved must not be diminished by tolerances of the buffer-zone; b) the reduction of lateral separation dista nces below that of radar control m inima: c) ICA0 does not spec ify that the controller req uire s the aircraft to be establish ed on track as part of the method of achieving the separation. The Committee wen t into considerab le discuss ion on the recommenda tions presented to be adopted . However. thou gh these were referred to Sta nding Committee I for reconsideration. it is worth reproducing t hem here fo r info rm at ion . The recommen dations read as follows:

1 . Where procedural separation is provided by the above methods in respect of aircraft crossing , converging or diverging , a minimum lateral distance to be achieved should be determined . This distance should not be degraded by tolerances in the buffer-zone. 2 . Where procedural separation is provided by the above methods . in respect of aircraft crossing . diverging and converging . they should not result in aircraft being separated laterally by less than the ICA0 radar separation minima . 3 . Where procedural separation is provided by the above methods in respect of aircraft crossing, converging or diverging on V0R or NDB . an altitude lim itation or qualification should be published to the procedures to be applied if the Beacon performance is subject to degradation with altitude . _ . 4 . Where procedural separation _is provided by the above meth _ods in respect of aircraft converging or diverging on a V0R and NDB . ICA0 should require controllers to verify that aircraft are established on track as part of the method of application . 5. Where aircraft are separated procedurally by the above methods and are on crossing tracks . ICA0 should require pilot s to report any devi ation from track for weather or other reason s . Alternatively if a deviation from track without notification is to be permitted. separation standards should be increas ed t o allow for such track deviations and the amount of track deviation allowed must be promulgated .

The President . the Vice-President Admi nistration and the Treasurer attending Committee A delib erati ons.

Development Of New Type 'f' Callsign At the 1984 IFATCA Conference . in Estoril . SC I was tasked with making recommendations concerning the format of a new RTF callsign which has become known as the 'Type (f)' callsign . ICA0 Annex 10. Vol. II, para . 5 .2 . 1 .6.2 specifies how aircraft RTF callsigns are to be constructed. For example . 'Type(a)' mustconsistofthe five character callsign corresponding to the registration marking of the aircraft : 'Type (d)' must consist of the radiotelephony designator of the aircraft operating agency, followed by the flight identification. The 'Type (a)' callsign may be abbreviated in certain circumstances to the following format - the first letter or figure and the last 2 letters of the callsign. There is no permitted abbreviation of the 'Type (d)' format . SC I. having reviewed the progress of alphanumeric callsign systems . was asked to recommend a format for an additional type. 'Type (f)'. which would be alphanumeric and could be abbreviated. In the discussion that ensued . IFALPA stated that the possible implementation of the proposal as guidance material in Annex 10 allows for a kind of ¡worldwide trial' on a voluntary basis to show the feasibility of the system or otherwise and therefore should be supported. The Committee accepted the recommendation that 'IFATCA supports an alphanumeric callsign system which is suitable as an option for inclusion in ICA0 Annex 10 , Vol. 11¡.

Left to right: E. Chu (RVP Asia). A. Avgoustis (Editor) and J. Monoom (RVP Afri ca North) attending Committee A sessions.






Committee B chair: left to right : Sp. Marinos, A. Cauty, L. Jensen and L. Hendriks (VP Technical). RTF Jammed Transmissions So far . no agreed technical solution has been developed although various ideas and proposals are under consideration . It is also clear that an acceptable agreed technical solution is still some way ahead and meanwhile other means need to be found to resolve the operational difficulties when they occur. The general feeling of th e Committee was that IFATCA go along the lines of IFALPA in order to have a united approach to the relevant authorities. Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM) A Working Paper which was presented on this item was accepted as information material. It was agreed that the strateg ic planning process and implementation of flow management measures will. of course. vary from area to area. and as suc h is beyond the scope of a wor ldwide policy. but several general principles can be outlined . Of paramount importance is the provision of adequate data co llection . available well in advance of the time of system saturation. All conce rned organizations . such as national THE CONTROLLER / JUNE 1985

ATC administrations and airspace ally accepted as information. The parusers should be required to provide ticul ar aspect of possible consethe central data collection unit with all quences to ATC that are under conrelevant information . Early planning siderat ion by the SICAS Panel are : conferences involving such organiza- a) Dom ino effects . that is. the possitions will be necessary. where probility that an ACAS-equipped airposals for the elimination or reduction craft. in maneuvering to avo id a of flow problems can be discussed. threat. become s in conflict with Close cooperation between adjacent another aircraft; ATFM units in this early planning stage b) ACAS alert rates ; is also essential. Such early strategic c) RT workload induc ed by ACAS; planning will provide for the im- d) Likelihood of resolution advisories during final approach and t he replementation of preferred alternative sultant effect of such advisories . and overload routes and their respective flow rates to meet forecast e.g. missed approaches. sector capacity. The ATFM unit will e) Need fo r pilot manual control of sensitivity level; continue to monitor and if necessary. revise the agreed plan. On a day-to- f) The disturbance of ATC operations and restoration of ATC after resol day basis. the operational staff manut ion of conflicts ; ning the unit will be responsible for the due to tactical and/ or temporary changes g) Loss of separat ion required . maneuvers in response to ACAS resolution advisor ies; Airborne Collisions Avoidance h) The effect of ATC separation stan Systems (ACAS) dards app lication on ACAS ; A very co ntroversial issue since the i) Need fo r a traff ic advisory display as a part of ACAS : inception of the idea particularly within the circles of IFATCA. The pos- j) Violation of regulations. such as minimum altitudes and entry into sible conseque nces of its application restricted or contro lled airspa ce were the subject matter of the Workw ithout c learance . ing Paper that wa s presented and fin9

Review Of the New RTF Phraseologies At the 1 984 Conference SC I was directed to review the operational experience of the new RTF phraseologies which came into effect on 7th June 1984 . Although the phraseologies were a new ICAO standard. information received indicated that some Member States of ICAO had not made their use compulsory . One of the prime objectives of the new phraseology was to eliminate ambiguity and achieve greater standardization. To have a piecemeal implementation of the new phraseology is clearly unsatisfactory . To obtain accurate information about the implementation of the phraseology. and to gain the views of MAs on its efficiency SC I distributed a short questionnaire. The Working Paper which was presented summarized the content of replies received and identified items of IFATCA policy which have now been incorpora ted into the new ICAO standards. The general impression of the new phraseology seems to be very favorable since Member Associations consider it as satisfactory or even better. Though some MA' s expressed some concern during the discussion regard ing some of the phraseologies. it was found logic al that since ICAO has more than 1 50 Member States some compromise had to be made. The IFALPA representative pointed out that since so much work had been put into the new phraseology both by IFATCA and IFALPA. focus should now be on the implementation of the new phraseolog ies .

Committee B delegates 10

Committee B delegates



First business item . as with the other working committees was the election of the Committee's ViceChairman . As in the case of Committee A R. Soar and A. Enright acted as alternating Vice-Chairman . Mr . E. Sermijn. VP Professional presented the Executive Board report on which no discussion ensued . The reports of the IFATCA liaison officers to the international organizations of ICAO and the ILO were then read. Standing Committee IV (SC IV) The work done by this SC during the year consisted of studies on the ·social aspects on the provision of

ATS by independent authorities·. ·compensation for loss of license· . · Early retirement'. · Medical checks'. 'Proficiency Check' and ·conditions of Employment' . On the first item. that is. · provision of ATS by independent authorities· the Committee adopted the recommendation that a small ad hoe committee be appointed to study the item in greater length. On the other items the following were the feelings of the members of the Committee: (a) Early Retirement In view of the peculiarity and uniqueness of the profession of air traffic control. and in the interests of air safety. air traffic controllers should be awarded retirement at an earlier age than that of other employees. Such age of retirement should be determined by negotiations at the national level. However. at the age of 50 a controller shall cease from active control. Early retirement legislation must be accompanied by an adequate pension scheme which enables the controller to at least receive pension benefits as if service had continued to normal retirement age. A controller in active control may retire after 20 years of service. (b) Medical Requirement The medical requirement for ATC employment must be stated by the appropriate ATC authorities and should he based on the criteria laid down in Anne x I to the ICAO Convention . The medical system should be geared to selection. and be capable of detecting any medical deficiencies in THE CONTROLLER/ JUNE 1985

Committee C chair : left to right: E. Sermljn (VP Professional), J. Schaap and D. Dalzell.

controllers before their ab initio training. In the interest of safety a system of initial and regular follow-up medical examinations specifically for controllers is essential . The medical system should detect any deterioration in the controller ' s health as early as possible and prevent such deterioration wherever possible . The medical system should provide for thorough and regular monitoring of the controller' s health throughout his career . The air traffic controller , at his request, should be entitled to have his medical file forwarded to his own physician . Other papers that we re presented by SC IV wer e: 'Availability of training facilities in countri es not having their own ATC schools' . 'Provision of scholar ships', etc. SC IV will be made up of the follow ing MA s during the next year : Germany, The Netherland s, Belgium , Norway and Italy. UK and Canada w ill be corresponding members only . The w ork program for the corning year of SC IV is as follow s: i. Study on the availability of ATC cou rse and t raining fac ilities to countri es not having th eir ow n ATC schools. THE CONTROLLER/ JUNE 1985

11 . Study on the feasibility of providing scholarships . 111.Working condition s from the medical viewpoint. 1v. Study on the use of Visual Display Units in ATC. v. Continuance of updating the Information Handbook and the SC IV questionnaire . vi. Study on night-shift paralyses. The Recommendation was accepted .

Standing Committee VII (SC VII) This SC deals generally with legal matters that are of interest to air traffi c controllers . The Working Papers that thi s SC presented to the Committ ee are briefly the follow ing: a) Legal development s in aviation. The title itself is self evident. Any legal development s that came to the attention of the special subcommittee (Cyprus) of concern to the controll er are reported. b) Legal liability of the air t raffic controller . A very serious item of consideration since it involves the liability of th e cont roller in cases of incidents and / or accidents. Several studies have been made by thi s SC and the wor k of the ICAO Legal Committee is followed in particular on the developments of ¡ Legal Ii-

abilities of the ATS agenc ies' promoted by t his body. c) St udy on t he !egal systems applicable to air t raff ic controllers . A very w ide sphere of information prepared by th e Eurocontrol subco mm ittee . d) Incident-Accident investigat ion . This item wi ll contin ue as always to be the backbone of the invest igations of t his SC. M eans are also sought by this Committee t o promote t he idea to t he differen t authori ti es to accept the prin c iple of training cont rollers as investi gators into acc idents. e) Revocat ion of the cont roll er ' s license. Also a very controversia l issue among contro llers. f) Stu dy of the Voluntary Report ing Systems, the int imidatio n of t he air traffic contro ller, c;Jndothe rs w ere also discussed. Canada presented a draft propose d convention on contr oller liab ility , wh ich was referred to t he SC for furthe r st udy . The fol low ing rec omme ndat ions w ere adopted and now constitute IFATCA policy on legal matters : 1. IFATCA can never support any control ler who is guilty of a deliberat e act which impair s air 11

safety nor can IFATCA support any controller who is guilty of criminal negligence but the Federat ion must reserve the right to use any legal means available to it to protect any member who is accused of such crimes . 2. IFATCA defines that it should be necessary to prove mens rea (guilt y mind) beyond all reasonable doubt before a crime can exist. 3. A ll other cases where mens rea cannot be proven must fall under c ivil law as opposed to criminal law , must be heard by a competent civil court and must be subject to the following condit ions: 3. 1 No contro ller to be imprisoned pending a civil court hearing nor after a civil court hearing if it is proven that a controller has committed a tort only . 3 . 2 Controllers in States having a Roman law system to be covered by the requirement that the State m ust prove to rt beyond all reasonable doubt before a contr oller can be liable in c ivil law .

3 .3 Controllers in all States especially those having Anglo-Saxon legal systems to have a fixed maximum civil liability . 3 .4 No controller subjected to disciplinary action under administrative law to have the administrative case heard prior to the civil court action . If there is likelihood of a civil action , it would be fairer to transfer the controller to non-active duties without loss of any financial benefits in all cases thereby avoiding prejudging the Civil Court's ruling . 3 .5 Employing agencies to be responsible for the torts of their employees . 3. 6 Employing agencies to be responsible under Statutory Law, as the airlines, to pay a maximum fixed sum to the victim(s) or their next of kin as an ex gratia payment pending the resolution of insurance claims and the balancing of such payments between the insurers , the airlines and the employers to be carried out under government superv1s1on thus avoiding unnecessary hardship

and prolonged court proceedings for the general public involved in accidents . 3. 7 Military authorities and controllers to be subject to the same legislation when they are either controlling general air traffic or an accident occurs involving general air traffic and operational air traffic, the latter being under military contro l or flying without control . 3.8 Where good legal limitation of liability exists in a State , this should remain unless the eventual law is an improvement. 3 .9 IFATCA is not renouncing legal liability for air traffic controllers but seeking only to keep it within reasonable bounds so that the . controller may suffer less stress in carrying out his day-to-day duties. The Recommendation was accepted. SC VI I Constitution

The following MAs make up SC VII for the coming year : Canada , Italy , Yugoslavia, South Africa, Eurocontrol , New Zealand and Cyprus.

The head table at Closing Ceremony: U Windt (3 rd from left) has taken his pla ce as VP Adm inistration after his election was con firmed. On the rostrum, Mr . B. Hakiami s, Chairman of the Organizing Committee . 12


The unique combination of Marcon i Messenger monopulse secondary surveillance radar with the Marcon i S511/ S512 series of 10cm approa ch/terminal radars prov ides a total ATC sensor capability.



A monopulse SSRwhich combines the

Thanks to the sophisticated adaptive signal processing (ASP)a single channel S51l can track a small 2m 2 aircraft from 65 nautical miles right down to touchdown through all types of fixed and moving clutter. Its increasing deployment in the field is constantly reinforcing its reputation for reliability and cost effectiveness.

high directional accuracy and effective reflection suppression of monopulse with a large vertical aperture (LVA) antenna of exceptional gain and efficiency.

S511c Having twice the output power from a long-life coaxial magnetron, the 551l c

The LVA antenna has been supplied in quantity to the UK Civil Aviation Authority.

The two-beam primary radar antenna with lightweight carbon fibre reflector, used with all three 10cm approach / terminal ATC radars, features high gain, low sidelobes and a rugged, long-life turning gear .




approach / termi nal radar sees a 2m 2 aircraft to 75 na ut ica l mil es (singl e channel) and 90 na ut ica l m il es (dua l divers ity).

S512 Latest in th e Marco ni range of advan ced l 0cm rada rs, t he S512 termin al ar ea radar uses a dr ive n trans mitt e r with pulse compressio n and a 12-bi t ASP processor. Divers ity range is over 100 nautical mi les w hile th e ½ -mil e minimum range ensures th at full approach contr o l fac iliti es are retained.


For more informati on about Marconi A TC radars plea se writ e, phone or tel ex to: Marconi Radar Systems Limited, Writtle Road, Chelmsford, Essex CMl 3BN, England . Telephone: 02452671 l l Telex : 99108


No rest for the President of the Greek A TCA, Sp. Armatas (2nd from right), and his committee members.

Final Plenary Final Plenary was brought forward from the afternoon ( 1 6 :00) to 10 :00 in the morning. This was due to the fact that sessions finished earlier than programmed with ample time for the secretariat to finish pending business. As usual all business handled by the three Working Committees was presented to Final Plenary for consideration and final approval. Working Committees present their proposals, which, when approved by plenary, become policy and resolutions. Following the presentation of the work of the three Working Committees by their respective chairmen , Plenary was concluded with several speeches either from guestspeakers or the organizers. The President of IFATCA in his closing speech thanked the Greek Association for all their efforts which concluded a very successful conference and also for their hospitality . The president of the Costa Rica Association invited individual members and Corporate members to the 1 986 Conference , which also marks the Silver Anniversary of the Federation and t he first Conference in Latin America. Finally, B. Hakiamis. the chairman of the Organizing Committee of the con clu ded Conference bid farewell to all partic ipants and wished them a pleasant tr ip to their homelands.

The Organizing Committee Last. but not least. those who had made the 24th IFATCA Conference memorab le deserve special mention. Memories of the Conference will be with all participants for many years to come. The Organizing Committee was made up of the following (with their 14

The Registration desk getting ready.

individual functions): B. Hakiamis, Chairman, Public Relations; Sp. Stefanou, Vice-Chairman , Technical exhibition; J . Kontoyiannis. Social events and Conference hotel arrangements; M . Sitara, Accompanying persons' program; G. Stamboulides, Transportation ; S. Petropoulos , Conference Secretariat; C. Mandrakos , Treasurer, Registration and N. Varveris, Conference Publicity . Others who assisted were: Chr. Politi , E. Christodoulidou . E. Founta, M. Dimitopoulou , P. Lazarakos, G. Georgakas , G. lakovakis , F. Koutras. D. Apsour is. E. Binopoulos, M. Panayiotopoulos and V. Piperidou .

Fatal General Aviation Accidents Down Significantly Barring a major upturn in fatal accidents for the rest of this year. 1 984 will be one of the safest 1 2-month periods for general aviation operations in more than two decades . according to preliminary FAA figures for the first half of 1984. The agency said that the number of fatal general aviation aircraft accidents dropped 1 7 percent. from 2 64 for the first six months of 1983 to 21 9 in the same period this year. And the decrease in the number of fatalities declined 21 .6 percent, from 499 to 391.

New Legal Bureau Director Appointed

Dr. Michael Milde (Canada) became Dire ctor of the ICAO Legal Bureau as of 1 January 1985 . succeedi ng Mr. B.S. Gidwani (India) upon his retirement . Dr. Milde has been appointed for a four -year term. Dr. Mi Ide brings to his new position nearly 30 years of experience in the field of international law and air law. Following his graduat ion from the

Faculty of Law, Charles University (Prague) in 1955 , he joined the teaching staff of that Faculty and proceeded to postgraduate and doctoral studies in the fields of private and public international law, international commercial law and international air law . Apart from his academic work, he acted as practising attorney and arbitrator in international commercial litigations and qualified as general average adjuster in maritime commerce. His post-doctoral work included studies at The Hague Academy of International Law and at the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research of McGill University in Montreal. The new Director joined the Legal Bureau in 1966 as a Legal Officer. Thereafter . he rose to Senior Legal Officer ( 197 4) and Principal Legal Officer (1979). During the period August 1979 to May 1981. he served as Acting Director of the Bureau with full responsibility for its act iviti es. THE CONTROLLER / JUNE 1985

IFATCA Executive Board Report An annual report by the President and the Executive Board of IFATCA is submitted at the Federation's Annual Conference. The following is the report as given at the Athens Conference.

When one looks at one of the major greatest amounts of funds are generfactors which measures health. or its ated by air travel. Air traffic controllers absence. of the aviation industry, contribute greatly to their national and namely traffic figures. the past twelve to the international economy. their months have been very healthy in- extra effort in the aviation fuel conserdeed. Statistics show that numbers of vation efforts, championed by /FATmovements almost everywhere in the CA, contributes to a healthy airline world have increased. in some cases industry and reduces expenditures of very significantly. other airspace users. We must be alarmed by cases However. when one looks at another factor which indicates the where controllers. of necessity. seek soundness of the international avi- additional employment and. while one ation system. namely the proper rec- must sympathize with national finanognition of the air traffic control pro- cial problems. we reiterate that avifession both by governments and the ation safety must be paramount and airline industry. things are less encou- that the efforts of the Federation and the aviation community must be raging. Following the slump in the national directed to overcoming. in the imeconomies of many of the developing mediate future. such potentially hazcountries and subsequently imposed ardous situations. As stated above. IFATCA was infinancial restrictions. air traffic controllers in a number of these countries strumental in supporting aviation fuel are faced. again. with holding down savings procedures in order to conone or more jobs in addition to tribute to the financial well-being of performing air traffic control duties airspace users. It is all the more dissimply in order to survive. while the appointing, then. that some airlines number of aircraft for whose safety when approached to provide free they are responsible may have signifi- travel for members of IFATCA Standing Committees to represent the Fedcantly increased. This situation, in addition to being eration at ICAO panels at Montreal diametrically opposed to the con- Headquarters. for instance. refuse clusions contained in the Report of the because of IATA policies and resolExperts on Air Traffic Control conven- utions. We feel that this is a very shorted by the International Labour Organ- sighted action by these airlines as any isation as early as 1979. cannot be improvements brought about at ICAO termed as anything but potentially with air traffic controller contribution disastrous. I am certain that any airline will benefit these same airlines. It is recalled that IFATCA 84 passenger. any pilot questioned. would definitely prefer to trust their created an Ad-Hoe Committee on Eslives to the hands of a properly rested tablishment of a System of Flight Data air traffic controller rather than one . Exchange in Sensitive Areas of the who has already, at the beginning of World. A full Report on the committee his or her tour of duty. worked eight is submitted to the directors. but suffice it to say that the Executive Board hours at another job. International travel, after the oil watched with satisfaction the estabindustry, is the second largest inter- lishment of a very similar committee at national industry and generator of in- ICAO and. based on that committee's come. This statistic, of course, con- Terms of Reference and after submittains all modes of travel, but it is defi- ting our suggestions to ICAO. we are nitely safe to say that by far the satisfied that there is not. at this time. THE CONTROLLER/JUNE1985

any need for an IFATCA committee to work in parallel and we have thus put the Ad-Hoe Committee in abeyance. The Executive Board. as detailed later. has made every possible effort to increase the contact with Member Associations either by individual visits or attendance at Regional Meetings. The Regions are taking on ever increasing importance in the life and functioning of IFATCA and it is imperative that only motivated individuals accept the responsibility of regional offices. We are pleased to report that the majority of Regions are on a sound footing. We must reiterate, however. that the responsibility of alerting and advising the Federation at all levels of national difficulties and problems rests with the Member Associations. It is only at their request. with their consent and advice. that the Federation can become active in national matters. It is with great pleasure that we report increased contact with nonMember Associations and with air traffic controllers in countries where no controllers¡ organizations exist. While the Executive Board realizes that the rate of increase in numbers of Member Associations we experienced in the last six or so years cannot be maintained. there are. after all, not many controllers' organizations left who are not yet affiliated. and while we accept with some sadness that IFATCAmay lose members because of national financial problems and restraints. unless special provisions for these are made by Conference. we are fully committed to working toward the greatest possible IFATCA membership and our efforts in the past twelve months are part of this commitment.

Administration Once again the Executive Board has continued to maintain a high profile of participation in Federation and Member Associations¡ affairs. This fact is verified by the list of visits and proposed visits of Executive Board members. Obviously the amount of travel required to fulfil this sort of program is considerable and our thanks go to all the airlines who have provided assistance to us. The Executive Board also wishes to thank the Administrations of Belgium. Canada. Ireland. The Netherlands and the United Kingdom for their assistance to Executive Board Members. &ecvtive Beard The Executive Board have held three Board Meetings. one at the end of May in Copenhagen and the second at the beginning of October in Kerkrade (near Maastricht). The second 15

Changi International, Singapore, is equipped with some of the worlds most advanced installations. Many supplied by Philips: outdoor and security lighting covering 53 parking aprons and approach routes; public address, with 7,500 speakers; high-definition ASD E for safety and security on the ground; and a computerised ATC, including long-range radar and display systems which can process 300 flight plans simultaneously. Our advanced ATC systems are in operation in many countries,

including Saudi Arabia, Great Britain, Paraguay, Portugal and the Netherlands. But there is more to flying than Air Traffic Control. From checkin to arrival, Philips aviation systems play their vital roles around the world's air routes. Speeding up boarding procedures: our Dynavision 500 X-ray baggage inspection uses digital imaging technology to reveal more and reveal it faster (1). In the air, flight-crews steer by Philips VOR/DME systems,

while air-to-ground conversations are recorded on Philips voice logging systems (2). Meanwhile ,vital information is rushing through AEROPP data switching and handling networks(3). During aircraft descent , Philip s ILS Instru1nent Landing Systems produce precise paths for pilot s (4). Finally;th e safety of all tr affic on the airfield is enhan ced by our ASDE Airport Surf ace Detection Equipm ent . A nd by our lighting. N ot only with permanent instal-

lations, but also with portable and transportable lighting systems; th ese can be employed for civil and defence applications on tempora ry or emergency airfields and helipor t s (5). For more information about Ph ilips expertise in aviation , write t o the Philips organization in your country or to Philips , VOA- 0217 /TC3 , Eindhoven , the Netherlands. Philips. The sure sign of expertise world-wide.


costs have fortunately remained static now for almost 2 years . The Executive Board wishes to express thanks and appreciation on ?ehalf of the Federation to the Executive Secretary and the Secretariat staff for cooperation and efficiency . Finances

Be it to send delegates to International Conferences, to run the Secretariat with all its publications and day-to-day correspondence , to have working and productive Standing Committees , active Regional VicePresidents, to have an efficient Executive Board, all the Federation ' s activities are dependent on finances ; the basic nerve of IFATCA is your subscriptions . This year has shown a The Executive Board of IFATCA as constituted at commencement of rather clear geographical location of IFATCA '85 Conference . E. Sermjin (VP Professional), L. Hendr!ks (VP Tec_hniMember Associations having probcal), P. ODoherty (Executi ve Secretary) , H.H. Henschler (President), /. Fmlay lems to fulfil their obligations towards (VP Administration) and B. Grezet (Treasurer). the Federation . Many members are facing the same problems , namely meeting was originally scheduled for Pacific/ Asia local inflation and/ or administrative Helsinki , however , due to transpor- President and Vice-Presidents Adbureaucracy needed for the transfer of tation difficulties the venue had unministration and Technical. funds . In spite of a reduced income fortunately to be changed at short no- Atria East from Member Associations, and tice. The third Board meeting was held - Vice-President Professional and thanks to the encouraging increase of in Costa Rica, in February 1985 . Executive Secretary . the Corporate Membership, the FedDuring the course of the year Africa North eration has been able to operate satliaison has been maintained , where Vice-President Professional and isfactorily ; however , to fulfil all its obTreasurer. approp riate, with the standing comligations, IFATCA still needs your help mittees and the managemen t group of and efforts to increase the income side Visits by members of the Executive the IFATCAJourn al; in all, members of of our balance . Board took place in the Africa North the Execu tive Boa rd attended a total This year again , some contacts ¡of eight meet ings of standing comand Africa East Regions and are have been made with non-member mittees. planned for the North and Cen~ral America and the South America associations or individua I controllers in countries like India, Cameroun , Regions . Further , a number of Annual Regions and Regional Meetings Saudi Arabia, etc. Their interest in the As in previous years the Exec ut ive Genera l Meetings of Member Associ- Federation is very encouraging and we Board has endeavored to attend as ations were attended, and the oc- do hope to have them, one day , afcasions of Executive Board Meetings many regional meetings as possible. filiated to swell our members' ranks . were used to further contacts with This year the Board was represe nted at the following Regional Meetings : national Member Associations whose Corporate Members Africa East. Africa North, A sia-Pacif ic invit atio n and hospitality were much appreciated. Members _C?fthe Board It is with pleasure that we report injoint meeting and the Europe W est/ and the Council also v1s1ted, on invicreased numbers, again, of Corporate Europe Central joint meeting. Reptation. non-Member Associations Members of the Federation and conresentation is also planned for the South America Regional M eet ing. The suc h as CAWU of the Soviet Union tinued close cooperation. Through their elected representative , the Board also endeavo red to attend t he and the CAOOAA of Australia . Corporate Members Coordinator, Caribbean Regional M eeting, but due Mr. W .P. Canty, the Executive Board to the late notification of this Decem- Secretariat has available a two-way flow of infor ber meeting, as we ll as other commit Th e Secretariat has operated much mation as required, and we express ments by Exec utive Board office rs, 1t as in previous years . The Conference our appreciation to Bill and our thanks was impossible to be represented. The inability to attend is regretted, but as Report was again printed and circu- to all Corporate Members for their MA s and RVPs must be aware, rep- lated from the Secretariat. and for the continued support. first time in many years was with the resentation w ith this level of attendEditor - 'The Controller' ance requires a high degree of ad- M em ber Assoc iation s in June . Th e workload co ntinues to increa se Member s of the Exec utive Board vance planning and so, t herefore , as and is now nearing t he point where met with the Editor to exchange views much warn ing as poss ible would be co nsiderat ion may have to be given to and to discu ss matter s concerning t he appreciated. alternat ives to the present part-time Journal. The Exec utive Board wishes syste m . Equipment is adequate for the to express its appreciation to the EdiRegioi;1al Meetings time being qnd no maJor expenditure s tor for maintaining t he high technical are ant ic ipated in the co ming year. standard of 'The Controller¡ . Europe West/ Europe Central Paper costs have risen in Europe over - Vice-Pres ident Professional and The Board further wishes to t hank the past year by about 15 %. Postage the Man agement Group of 'The ConExecutive Secretary . 18


troller' for their hard and successful work on behalf of the Federation and for succeeding in ending the fiscal year with a positive balance.

Technical The period since IFATCA 1984 has been a period marked by some new developments. Standing Committee I, under the new chairmanship of Mr. W. Pye, has seen the active participation of many new members, both from the MA responsible for this SC, and from members from Denmark, The Netherlands and Norway. Written input was received from a number of other MAs. This is a development that calls for complete support from the Executive Board. SC I has, partly because of this active participation, been able to present to this Conference reports on all items from its work program. Our relationship with international organizations has seen some main events in the last year. As far as !CAO is concerned, our liaison with their Headquarters is now maintained through two Liaison Officers. Mr. T.A. Cauty, Liaison Officer Technical and Operational visited Montreal on a regular basis where he kept !CAO representatives well informed on IFATCA's views on technical matters. Likewise he reported to the Executive Board ICAO's feelings on technical developments in the Federation. Furthermore, the position of IFATCA as the voice of controllers worldwide has gained new momentum by ICAO Council's request to nominate an IFATCA representative as a full member of the Council's Special Committee on the Future Air Navigation Systems (FANS). The Board considers this an important step towards full recognition. Although IFALPA's Annual Conference could not be attended by the Board, contacts at presidential level have been established and maintained since. The Board feels that such cordial relations between the two professional organizations will be of considerable benefit to the aviation community. The Executive Board wishes to express its appreciation to all who made the work in this technical area possible. Professional As far as Professional matters are concerned, the Federation has maintained a high level of activity during the past year. Standing Committee IV was concentrating its efforts toward the survey THE CONTROLLER/JUNE1985

on training requirements and capacity with the ultimate goal of having the Federation acting as a coordinator for obtaining scholarships. The past year should normally have resulted in the publication of the new Information Handbook, but response from Member Associations has been so poor that the printing of the new IHB had to be postponed. Technical assistance projects totaling Standing Committee VII continued the study of the legal aspects of our over US $ 5 million will be adminisprofession, paying special attention to tered by !CAO in Pakistan and the Rethe !CAO Secretariat study on Legal public of Cameroon. Half of this fundLiability of Air Traffic Control Agen- ing is to be provided by the United Nations Development Programme cies. In September, another visit was (UNDP). Implementation of both projorganized to the ILO where such sub- ects is already under way. The 27-month project in Pakistan is jects as the !CAO Contingency Measures, use of VDUs, etc. were for Phase-II development of the Civil discussed in a very pleasant and con- Aviation Training Institute in Hyderabad. It will improve the capabilities of structive atmosphere. On the international scene, the the Institute and establish a self-suseconomic crisis is still having its taining training capability in the field of negative influence on the profession. air traffic services, communications One alarming element is that in a lot of ¡ engineering, airport management, countries ATC services are under- electro-mechanical engineering, as staffed and recruitment and training well as fire and rescue services. The UNDP will provide a total funding of has been suspended. The publication of the final US $ 1.7 million; the Government's guidelines by !CAO of Air Traffic Ser- contribution in kind will be equivalent vices Contingency Measures is of to US $ 370,000. The five-year effort in Cameroon great concern to the Federation and the Executive Board has taken all involves UNDP funding and Governnecessary steps to convey this con- ment cost sharing (64 percent), cern to the international bodies, such largely for the development of Airport as ILO, IATA, IFALPAand !CAO itself. Yaounde II. It is intended to This item will most probably receive strengthen the country's air transport sector by reinforcement and improvefull attention from this Conference. ment of the airport infrastructure. It Conclusion also will assist the Government in the The Executive Board is satisfied development of its human resources that the Federation can face the future in various aviation-related specialities, which will provide a cadre of personwith some considerable confidence. We are involved at all levels in the in- nel with the necessary qualifications ternational effort of improving the for the development of civil aviation. worldwide aviation system and the Total funding from UNDP will be standing of the air traffic controller. US $ 1.2 million; the Government will As always, we request input and provide US $ 2.1 million. plus a conactivity from Member Associations tribution in kind equivalent to throughout the year, and we submit to us$ 80,300. this Conference that understanding for, and assistance to, some of the less well-off Member Associations is required. We note with great satisfaction the support already provided to some of these by other Member Associations and their components. Changes Proposed to Clarify Such actions, too, may well be unique Pilot Procedures in IFR to the international family of air traffic The FAA has proposed changes to controllers, your Federation, IFATCA. FAR Part 91 . 1 2 7 to clarify when a pilot must leave a clearance limit and begin a descent and approach in the event of two-way radio failure. Currently. after a radio fails. a pilot is supposed to predicate certain actions on an expect approach clearance (EAC) 6 time or an expect further clearance (EFC) time.

Two Large-Scale Aid Projects Approved by UNDP

It Pays You to Advertise in The Controller'


Canada's Aeronautics Act Totally Revised

Records Certain persons engaged in aeronautical activities (pilots. aircraft engineers and others) will have to keep logs and other records relating to operation and maintenance of aircraft and facilities. Insurance A new power will require owners and operators of private aircraft to carry a minimum amount of liability insurance.

The federal government introduced sweeping changes to the Aeronautics Act designed to give Canadian aviation its most progressive safety legislation in more than 60 years. Transport Minister Don Mazankowski, in tabling the proposed legislation in the House of Commons, said the complex and outdated act of 1921 will take on a new life ¡ consistent with the aviation realities of the 21 st century.' The minister said he was particularly pleased that the revised Aeronautics Act reflects the major recommendations of the inquiry into aviation safety headed by Justice Charles Dubin which was commissioned by Mr. Mazankowski in October 1979. 'The new act represents five years of cooperative effort between Transport Canada's Aeronautics Act Task Force, the industry, unions. organizations and individuals. all of which has given a new meaning to safety in the air and on the ground,' said Mr. Maza n kowski. The new bill. entitled 'An Act to Amend the Aeronautics Act.¡ affects all aviation from weekend pilots to rocket launchers. balloonists and the national airlines. It involves the general public. municipalities and provincial authorities through airport siting and zoning, security and other areas. 'The environment. industry. housing developments. planning. local economies and. of course. our future are but a few of the considerations that we bore in mind preparing this legislation,' said Mr. Mazankowski.

independent Civil Aviation Tribunal An independent civil av1at1on tribunal system will be created. It will be a vehicle for hearing and determining appeals from penalties assessed by Transport Canada personnel. quickly. fairly and informally. Unlike other tribunals. it will not consist of a single appointed board or authority. It will draw on the expertise of many aviation specialists from across Canada. depending upon the nature of the 20

penalty. Challenges could be to suspension or cancellation of licence. assessment of fines. or refusal to renew a licence because of failure to meet medical requirements. The tribunal could be construed as a balance to a more vigorous approach to aviation safety enforcement.

Accounts The department will have authority to charge interest on overdue accounts for fees charged under the act. Other measures are provided for seriously delinquent accounts. Security Regulations will require air carriers to take measures to protect their aircraft and facilities and airport operators to institute security measures to enhance and complement air carrier security. Airworthiness Not only must aircraft be airworthy. aeronautical products must be as well. As a result. the design. manufacture. certification. inspection. installation. distribution. identification and maintenance of aircraft and aeronautical products will be regulated. Airport Zoning While there is a provision for zoning already in the act. it will be amended to provide for zoning of federal airport sites to protect land use compatibility. This could involve ensuring that access to the airport is unrestricted and that airport noise will not affect surrounding residential properties. No zoning action whatever would normally be taken in these areas without having consulted the provincial or municipal authority. Another amendment has been made where compensation will not be paid for speculative interests in land. which would be consistent with provincial legislation. Aviation fuel The handling. marking. storage and delivery of aviation fuel and other aviation chemicals will be regulated.

Air Traffic Services and Navigational Aids Regulations will now cover persons and equipment involved in air traffic services and navigational aids in addition to federal government personnel and their equipment. There are more than 300 privately operated air navigation aids at present in Canada. Regulations will ensure consistency in the content. accuracy and quality of these services.

Aviation Weather Services Aviation weather services by individuals and organizations other than the federal government will come under new regulations. Public Consultation To allow the public time to comment or make representations on proposed regulations at least 60 days notice will be given before they become law. The procedure of having the regulations published in Part 1 of the Canada Gazette will be followed. Medical Reports Unless a provincial law exists to the contrary. and provided a patient has not reported his condition. doctors and optometrists will be required to report conditions of patients holding licences who may have medical problems that could affect flight safety.

Penalties The new act provides new ways of dealing with offences against the aeronautics legislation. The most serious offences are set out in the act and may be prosecuted by indictment. a special procedure that allows for more severe penalties. The maximum fine for other offences set out in the regulations has been increased to $5,000 for individuals and $25.000 for corporations. In addition. courts will be able to order convicted pilots to stop flying and order the forfeiture of aircraft used in unlicensed commercial air services. Some offences under the air regulations will not be prosecuted in the courts at all. but fines of THE CONTROLLER/JUNE


AIRCAT At Thomson-CSF, we are a step ahead when it comes to designing air traffic control systems : we have been doing it for the last quarter of a century on every continent under the sun. At Thomson-CSF, we are a step ahead when it comes to building the air traffic control system : we design, develop an build the complete range of equipment ourselves, in our own factories-detection, communications , processing and ana lysis of data, the same applies to our advanced software , we can call on unprecedented industrial capacity and know-how in the field, our constan t involvement in research and development has been rewarded with continuing excellence. At Thomson-CSF, we know how to adapt breakthrough technology to existing materials and procedures and can thus improve, complete or update air traffic control systems. When it comes to air traffic control, our perfect mastery of applied systems has been demonstrated every day for the last 25 years. DIVISION SDC SYSTEMES,DEFENSE ET CONTROLE 40, rue Grange-Dame-Rose BP34 92360 MEUDON-LA-FORET Tel.: (1) 630.23.80 FRANCE Telex: 270375 F.

co ..... (') l/)

up to $1,000 will be assessed against the offender by the Department of Transport. Enforcement Powers Transport Canada employees will be allowed to enter aerodromes, aircraft or buildings for inspection purposes. They will be able to obtain warrants to seize evidence of violations of aeronautical legislation discovered in these inspections and detain aircraft considered unfit for flight. Rockets, Kites, Moored Balloons A paragraph of the act has been clarified applying to the use and operation of any object in the air which, in the opinion of the minister, could be hazardous to air navigation. Rockets, kites, balloons or other objects will be regulated as well as the right to drop any object from an aircraft. The intention is to protect air navigation and protect persons and property on the ground. Airspace A section of the act has been created to allow regulatory officials to prohibit flights in certain airspace where to allow such flights would be considered dangerous. Areas such as those involving forest fires is an example. Hours of Work An amendment has been made to the act providing authority for regulations governing maximum hours of work for flight crews in commercial operations and for those flying corporate aircraft. Flight Simulators Flight simulators are becoming widely used in aviation training as replacements for, or supplements to, actual training in aircraft. They have become technologically complex and their growing influence on the quality of flight training requires regulation. As a result, a new regulatory power has been created for approval of flight training equipment. Communications blocked by stuck mikes can be avoided, according to John C. Rutty, who has petitioned the FAA to require the use of an 'anti-blocking device' to automatically prevent microphone transmission circuitry from inadvertently interfering with communications. Rutty says that, based upon his own experience and statistics from NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System, such a device is needed. Rutty also believes that the mechanism is technically feasible and would only cost $ 20 per installation. 22

Cossor Features Latest SSR Successes at Paris Air Show

At the 1985 ParisAirShow, Cessor Electronics concentrated its display on the latest development in monopulse SSR (secondary surveillance radar) systems. with particular emphasis on the company's successes in the world air traffic control markets. The Cessor monopulse system is in full scale production and has now .been specified and ordered by several air traffic control authorities throughout the world. The UK Civil Aviation Authority, the Royal Air Force and the Royal Navy are all committed to major installations, while the Canadian authorities have specified the Cassar system for the RAMP project covering the whole of Canada. The monopulse SSR system developed by Cessor is aimed at improving SSR performance as aircraft traffic densities increase. In congested conditions, earlier SSR systems tend to suffer from interference effects which limit their ability to supply positive height and identity information. and Cossor's monopulse system successfully overcomes the signal interference effects that can arise through the increasing use of the system. An integral part of the monopulse SSR systems now being supplied by Cassar is a new type of antenna known

Seaplane Pilots Association Honors Seaplane Pioneer The Seaplane Pilots Association (SPA), which is managed by the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA), recently presented P.H. Spencer of Pacoima, California. with the 1984 SPA Henri Fabre Award. Named after the man who made the world's first seaplane flight in a self-designed aircraft the Henri Fabre Award is presented annually to important seaplane pioneers.

as the large vertical aperture (LVA) antenna. The new antenna, which can be used to upgrade existing SSR installations as well as being used with monopulse systems, provides improved coverage and elimination of reflections, and is also light rugged and wind-resistant. Cossor's monopulse SSR system has proved itself successful in comprehensive trials by leading authorities at overcoming such effects as 'track wander'. Instead of relying on the average of a number of replies to ascertain the bearing of an aircraft. the monopulse technique usually requires only one pulse of a single transponder reply, and thus the risk of distortion from an interruption to the reply pattern is largely eliminated. In addition, Cossor's monopulse plot extractor largely overcomes the effects of false reflections and garbling and, with monopulse-derived data. the extractor is able to differentiate the replies from different aircraft through their differing signal strengths and angles of arrival. The system can also detect and eliminate false signals by assessing a number of factors such as signal strength, the multiple assignment of codes, length of track, and the position of known reflectors.

An aircraft designer, builder and test pilot Spencer's aviation career began in 1909 when he designed and flew a hang glider at the age of 12. In 191 3 he designed and built a threecontrol waterborne biplane glider, marking the beginning of his seaplane activities. During his tenure with Republic Aircraft Corporation, Spencer was a test pilot on P-43 and P-4 7 fighters. followed by the Sea bee. Later he continued designing his own aircraft, culminating his career with the wellknown homebuilt Spencer Air Car. THE CONTROLLER/JUNE 1985

Government's Negligence Exceeded That of Negligent Pilot

The United States District Court for the District of Oregon has apportioned liability between the United States Government and a deceased pilot and awarded his surviving spouse and children $480.000 . The case arose following the crash of a twin-engine airplane while making an instrument landing approach to Medford Airport. The aircraft was flying V287E into Medford and the crash occurred ten miles north of Sam ' s Valley Nondirectional Radio Beacon . The pilot had been cleared by Medford control tower for an I LS approach and had been instructed to report when passing Sam ' s Valley Beacon . Sam's Valley Beacon had been installed by the FAA despite public opposition and despite protests that the local geography would prevent the beacon from functioning properly . At time of installation . an FAA employee performed a flight check after being told that the only function of the beacon was as a navigational aid for aircraft arriving at Medford from the south . V287E is an air route between Medford and cities to the north . The FAA never made a flight check down V287E from north to south. Nor did


the FAA test the beacon at a distance greater than five miles . Such an inspection violated § 207 .3 of the FAA handbook which requires that flight inspection aircraft be flown through normal usage patterns. Sam ' s Valley Beacon began operating December 29 . 1977 . Between that date and the date of the crash. the FAA had received numerous complaints from commercial airline pilots and other users that the beacon was not reliable . Contrary t o FAA procedure s these complaints were never logged . During that interval . a second flight chec k was made of the beacon but again the FAA employee did not fly down V287E or check the beacon at a distance greater than five mile s. A week before the crash . a loc al pilot and forme r FAA air traffic con troller . reported to Medford tower tha t he had experienced a 'fal se station passage· ten to twelve mile s north of Sam ' s Valley . The FAA did not log th is report nor remove the beacon from service. On the night of the crash. two aircraft landing befo re Plaintiff Barber reported that when passing over

Sam ' s Valley they had not received a signal from the beacon. M edford tower di d not pass th is information on to Barber . Barber reported to M edfo rd tower that he was over t he beacon when he was actuall y sevente en mi les away . His next tra nsmis sion was unintelligible to the tower . On the night in qu est ion t he acting tower chief and two contro llers w ere on duty at the same time . Yet t he acting chie f was absent fo r one and one-half hou rs and one of th e co nt ro llers left the tow er befo re Barb er was due to land. Later that same contro ller made a fal se log ent ry th at Barber's plane had in fact landed at Med ford. After Barber report ed passing over Sam 's Valley he turned right. circled back and descended from 7 ,00 0 to 5 .800 feet . Had he not been seventeen mile s short of Sam· s Vall ey he would normall y have int ercepted the glide slope at about 5.900 feet. Barber contin ued t o descend below 5 .800 feet and cr ashed at 4,300 feet while on a head ing towa rd Medford airport alm ost di rect ly under the inbound localizer course. The plane crashed ten mi les short of Sam ' s Valley Beac on. Dur ing a post-accident flight check several days lat er. a false station passage was recorded twenty -one mile s from Sam's Valley. In the area of th e c rash. t he beacon ma lfunctioned in all twelve post-accident checks and the beacon was eventually removed from service . Barber was not w ithout his own negligence. He violated 14 CFR § 135 . 73 and 135. 7 5 when he operated the aircraft under instrument fl ight rules without either a co-pilot or an auto -pilot. He also violated 14 CRF § 91 . 7 5 w hen he deviated from the cleara nce given him by Medford tower and when he fa iled either to obtain an amended c learance or to declare an emergency. In addition, he failed to use reasonable care when he descended befo re receiving a glide slope signal. Had Barber employed a straight-in approach at 6 ,800 feet he would eventua lly have intercepted the glide slope. Barber knew or should have known that he was in mountainous terrain and had he be lieved his glide slope receiver was not working properly or if his instruments caused him to become unsure of his location . he should have maintained the mini mum safe altitude while requesting assistance from Medford tower. The court ruled tha t under Oregon ' s comparative negligence law it was required to assign percent age fault t o eac h party . It held t hat t he government was 60 % neglige nt an d the plain t iff 40 % . 23

As Fast as a Jet Engine?

Nevvsbriefs Engen, ALPA, AOPA Differ on Solutions to ATC Problems FAA Administrator Donald Engen has promised a full controller work force by February and has cited improved accident stat1st1cs to buttress his claims of enhanced air safety; however, at least two aviation trade groups believe that more can be done to improve the quality of the airspace system. The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association has u_nveileda nine-point plan to improve the efficiency of the air traffic system, and AOPA President John L. Baker has underscored the need for a cooperative approach to capa_c1ty,congestion and delay problems. 'If aviation is to continue to be the princ ipal medium- and long-range mode of tra_nsportat1on, it is time for the different segments of the av1at1oncommunity to put aside their selfish narrow interests .. .. , Air Line Pilots Association President Henry Duffy termed recent airline sc heduling changes' cosmetic', adding that they do nothing to improve the safety of the ATC system. ALPA outlined 13 steps toward improving the ATC system.

Aircraft Thefts Decrease For Fifth Straight Year-Aircraft Burglaries Increase Dramatically General aviat ion aircraft thefts dropped last year in both the number of reported incidents and dollar va lue. This is the fifth straight year that aircraft thefts have declined over the previous year However, thef t s of avionics and equipment increased 39% over 1983. This data is contained in the year-end report of the International Aviation Theft Bureau, a joint activity of the AOPA Air Safety Foundation and major aviation insurance compan ies. 1 984 produced repo rts of 11 2 stolen aircraft worth $14. 7 million on the retail market. This represent s 69 fewer thefts than occurred in 1983 and 82 fewer than in 1982. According to Robe rt J . Collins, the Bure au's Exec utive Director, 'the decrease is due to many factors, the most important being increased awareness of the aircraft theft problem by the flying public; a new aggressive attitude toward sto len planes by law enforcement and a serious commitment to reducing aviation crime by the Federal Bureau of Investi gat ion (FBI). W e are also seeing an increased involvement by the US military in reducing air smugg lin g .' . Aircraft break-ins, however, have increased alarmingly 1n the past year Said Collin s, 'We have been working close ly w ith the FBI and other law enforcement age ncies. Available evidence indicates that theft ring activity is on the increase . The th ieves are becoming more sop histicated, prod ucing co unterfeit serial number p lates to use on sto len equipment. We have indications that there are many dif ferent rings operating and no one geographic area is exempt. IATB is working closely with the aviation insurance companies and law enforcement agenc ies to execute aggress ive steps aimed at stopping this activity.' Complete statist ics are available from IATB upon writte n request . 24

Technicians at the Hamilton Standard Division of United Technologies Corp. in Windsor Locks, Conn., are developing a prop fan that company officials say will rival comparable Jet engines 1n speed. In one design, 10 overlapping f1ber-glass blades, each 15 feet in length, radiate from an aluminum spar and ring the rear of the engine. The engine itself would be mounted on the tail of an aircraft in order to reduce passengers' perception of the noise and vibration inherent in a_nypropeller. United Technologies is developing the engine with funds from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration . The firm , along with Lockheed Georgia Co. of Marietta, Ga., plans to test-fly a Gulf Stream 11airplane equipped with a prop-fan of a different design mounted at the front of the aircraft in 1987 . United Technologies is working on another prop-fan design that may prove to be even more efficient. The engine is designed to deal with the problem of 'swirl', the twisted column of _airthat spills off the tips of spinning propeller blades. Swirl reduces an engine's efficiency. The engine has a second propeller mounted directly behind the first . This second set of blades whirls in the opposite direction , straightening out the swirl caused by the first propeller and increasing the engine's efficiency by as much as 8 percent. The engine has its drawbacks at present, however. The dual-propeller assembly is complicated to design and expensive to build. Both of the United Technologies prop fans have a gearbox between the engine and the propeller. This massive clus_ter of cogs transforms the high spinning rate of the jet e~g1ne mto a much slower spin that can safely and efficiently dnv_e the propeller . The gearboxes add weight and require maintenance but they seem essential. Engineers at General Electric Co.'s Aircraft Engine Group in Cincinnati, Ohio , _disagree They have developed a substantially lighter and simpler engine that contains no gearbox.


SAS Buys MD-81 Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) has ordered five new McDonnell Douglas MD-81 twin-jets for delivery in 1986 to meet fleet expansion requirements, taken options for 1 2 and reserved six more MD-80 production positions. Board authorization for the action had been announced previously by the airline. Combined with a prior SAS firm order for six aircraft, the latest transaction could bring the airline's total M D-80 fleet to 29 by 1988. SAS is the largest operator of McDonnell Douglas DC-9 twin-jets outside the United States, and has been conducting studies aimed at eventual replacement of its 62 aircraft DC-9 fleet. Planners have concluded that two aircraft types will be needed for the replacement - one containing about 100 seats and another seating approximately 150 passengers. The 100 to 130 seat MD-87 is under study to meet the smaller requirement while airline officials say the proposed MD-89, a larger, re-engined version of the MD-80, is a candidate in the 150 seat category. SAS also said it would phase out its four engine jumbo jets and standardize on the McDonnell Douglas DC-1 0 trijet for its intercontinental service into the 1990s. It will expand its DC-10 fleet from four to 10 aircraft. with the additional tri-jets to be acquired from various sources.

Thai Airways Company Orders Two A310-200 Advanced Series Aircraft Thailand's domestic airline, Thai Airways Co. Ltd, has placed a firm order for two A310-200 advanced shortmedium range wide body twin jets. The contract for the purchase of the two aircraft and associated spare parts valued at over US $125 million, was signed on Friday, 29th March, at a ceremony held in Singapore by Air Marshal Kiat Fuangvudhiran. Managing Director, Thai Airways Co. Ltd and Mr. RanjitJayaratnam, General Sales Manager of Airbus lndustrie for the Middle and Far East. Thai Airways will introduce the A310-200 advanced series of aircraft into service on its high density domestic network in April 1986. Configured to seat 1 7 passengers in business class and 238 passengers in economy class, the A31 O will initially be operated on the routes linking Thailand's capital city of Bangkok to Chiang Mai, Phuket and Hat Yai. Commonality with the four A300-600s previously ordered by Thailand's international airline, Thai Airways International, was also a factor in favor of the A31 0. The first A300-600 will be delivered to Thailand in September 1985. Both aircraft types, the A310-200 advanced and the A300-600s for Thailand's two airlines will be equipped with General Electric's CF6-80C2 turbo-fan engines.

NTSB has recommended several changes in ATC procedures as a result of separation conflicts involving four airliners and one corporate jet over Philipsburg, Pennsylvania on May 9, 1984. During periods of increased traffic the Safety Board wants at least two controllers at each sector and the ancillary activities of ATC supervisors scheduled to avoid interruption of their supervisory duties. In addition, the Board asked the FAA to accelerate implementation of the enroute sector loading prediction (ELOD) program so that flow-control management can be based on real-time traffic data. The Board also has recommended implementation of THE CONTROLLER/JUNE 1985

new radar hand-off procedures, and wants some sector boundaries and preferential IFR routing revised to reduce potential traffic conflict. Once again, the NTSB called for establishment of a formal program to review controller staffing requirements and allocation of personnel.

Dassault's Falcon 900 is in flight test following its maiden flight on September 21 from Bordeaux, France. The Garrett-powered three-engine business jet designed to fly more than 4,100 nm with eight passengers and VFR reserves. is scheduled to receive FAA approval in the spring of 1986.

Supreme Court Declines To Review PATCO Strike Absences The United States Supreme Court has officially declined. without explanatory opinion. to take review of eight May 1984 rulings by the US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. sustaining various determinations by the Federal Merit Systems Protection Board that the FAA properly fired one hundred air traffic controllers who were absent without leave during the PATCO strike in 1981. The one hundred fired controllers who filed the petitions for review before the US Court of Appeals argued that the FAA failed to adhere to proper procedures in terminating their employment. and that the Merit Systems Protection Board was influenced to prejudge their administrative appeals by certain private communications from DOT officials. The controllers路 allegations of improper procedures by FAA included charges that the FAA illegally reduced the time period within which they were required to respond to the FAA's notice of proposed removal. and failed to inform each controller of his or her individual reporting deadline; that the FAA should have. but failed to, schedule each controller路 s case for oral response; that the first controllers were not on strike aher August 5, 1982 because of confusion over operation oflhe deadline shih rule; that fired controllers were treated differently from controllers who returned to work before their deadline shih; that fired controllers were not afforded the benefit of a lesser penalty than removal; that fired controllers had been involuntarily suspended from work. and were entitled to back pay; and that the President and other administration officials improperly interfered with the controllers' opportunity for meaningful hearing before the FAA. and influenced the FAA's decision whether or not to fire striking controllers. Some of the controllers also alleged that there were defects in the Merit Systems Protection Board's procedures for review of the FAA's terminations. including that the MSPB incorrectly required the controllers to prove their unauthorized absence not to be a strike, as opposed to requiring the FAA to demonstrate that the absence was a strike; that the MSPB was improperly influenced to prejudge their cases by an in-house advisory opinion of the MSPB General Counsel. and by certain private communications between DOT officials and Board members. The US Court of Appeals rejected each and every one of these arguments. affirming the MSPB's determination that the FAA had acted in accordance with proper procedures in firing the striking controllers. The Court of Appeals also considered and rejected the argument that controllers had been 路coerced' to be absent from work because of threats of harassment by other controllers. and ruled that a controller路 s intentional participation in the strike could properly be inferred from his or her absence from work without an explanation. Roy L. Schapensky v. DOT/ FAA. 735 F. 2d 4 77 (Fed. Cir. 1984); Richard T. Adams. et al. v. DOT /FAA. 735 F. 2d 488 (Fed. Cir. 1984); Robert L. Campbell. et al. v. DOT/ FAA. 735 F. 2d 497 (Fed. Cir. 1984); Lawrence C. Martell v. DOT/ FAA. 735 F. 2d 504 (Fed. Cir. 1984); Bernard Dorrance v. DOT/ FAA, 735 F. 2d 516 (Fed. Cir. 1984): Anthony L. DiMasso v. DOT/FAA. 735 F. 2d 524 (Fed. Cir. 1984): Kipp Anderson v. DOT/FAA. 735 F. 2d 534 (Fed. Cir. 1984). Refusal of the US Supreme Court to review these Court of Appeals decisions exhausts the last possibility for judicial reversal of the FAA's decision to fire the controllers involved in those appeals.


Use of computers and calculators does not interfere with aircrah radio or navigation equipment. according to the results of tests that have been conducted by the FAA and the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics. Consequently, the agency intends to revise FAR Part 91 . 1 9 (' Portable Electronic Devices ' ) to add portable computers and calculators as well as electronic games to the current list of electronic devices that are permitted under Part 91. 1 9 to be used on board aircraft .

FAA Reports of Near Midair Collisions Decrease A recently released FAA summary of near midair collision reports indicates that the number of such reports has 'decr eased significantly' - from 568 in 1980 to 286 in 1 983. The agency has found that reported near midair coll isions most ohen involve at least one general aviation aircrah, occur between 1 ,OOO and 5,000 feet. happen most freq uently when weather is not a causal factor, do not involve pilot regulatory violations or controller errors, and frequently occ ur when one pilot is in contact with ATC and one is not. This latter aspect prompted FAA Administrator Donald Engen to comment.' In the final analysis , the pilot is in command of t he aircraft and must continually scan the airspace for other airplanes . ¡ Engen added , ' even pilots flying under positive control of the ATC system are not absolved of this responsibility.¡

Congress has formed an advisory committee on aeronautics that should give members of the House Aviation Subcommittee 'b alanced , ind epe nden t and objective assessment of Govern men t-spons ored aeronautical programs ', according to Repres entat ive Dan Glickman (D-Kansas). The 22 -me mber adv isory committeewhich is chaired by H. Harvey A lbum of SRI Int ernational of Menlo Park, California - incl udes Cessna's David R. Ellis and Gates Learjet's Ronald D . Neal as well as Edward S . Carter of Sikorsky and Jan M . Drees of Bell Heli c opter Text ron . The committee was to have held its first quarterly meeting in November at California's NASA A mes Resea rc h Center .

Helicopter obstacle clearance will be revised


milestone is achieved , on schedule the$ 2. 7 million ( 1983 dollars) aircraft would receive certific ation in the spring of 1987 . Gates Learjet engineers reported that all 'major vendors' have been picked (including Sikorsky, which will manufacture the composites that will compose about 10 percent of the aircrah ' s weight) and that Boeing-conducted flutter tests resulted in no design changes .

International Helicopter Federation May Be Formed The Helicopter Association International may become the Helicopter Association of America again . In midOctober, association officials were scheduled to meet to decide whether to reorganize the Washington , DC trade group along national lines . The HAA became the HAI in 1 981 . If the plan is adopted, the association will return to being known as the HAA and an international federation will be created. The international group - similar to the International Business Aviation Council, which was set up in part by the NBAA - will consist of member helicopter associations of various countries, such as the HAA represents US and Canadian helicopter operators.

Special ATC rules at Dallas airpark will be suspended if the FAA adopts a proposed rulemaking. Although Airpark Airport is an uncontrolled facility, current rules require that pilots using the airport be under control of Addison Airport's tower and follow certain procedures. Comments on the proposed rule suspension are due by November 2 7. Contact Brent Fernald at the FAA in Washington , DC (202)426-8626 .


Mock-up Arrives in Toulouse

An engineering mock-up of the A320 front fuselage, including the cockpit. arrived in Toulouse aboard a Super Guppy last month. The metal structure was built by Aerospatiale's St-Nazaire factory . It will be used to check the fit of components and systems such as pipes and electric cables - and to verify access for maintenance. Other A320 engineering mock-ups are already taking shape at the factories of the other Airbus lndustrie partners. British Aerospace (Weybridge) has a representative undercarriage bay, for example , while the company's Filton site is working on a pair of wings . At MBB in Hamburg , the center-section and rear fuselage is now virtually complete .

if the FAA ado pts recen t proposals to alter helicopter IFR procedures . Th e age ncy has proposed that the basic obstacle ident if ication surface rat io be 20 to 1 and th at the required obstac le c learance be 48 feet per nautical mile to provide a m inimum c limb gradient of 352 fpm per nautical mile. Visibility minimums of between one-half and one stat ute m ile were proposed alo og with a 775 -foot ' acceleration segment' and a ' point in space' departure . The HAI said the proposa l is an impo rt ant step , ' but c onstraints st ill exist that do not f ully cons ider the heli co pter' s maneuverab ility dur ing visua l segments of the depar t ure .' For more informat ion, contact Bo b Haw ley , FAA at

(202)426-8277 .

Prototype construction of the G P-180 is underway and fir st flight of the Gates Learjet- Piagg io twin t urbo prop is scheduled for the end of the yea r in Ita ly. If that 26

22 nd January 7985 - The engineering mock-up of the A320 front fuselage arrived in Toulouse aboard a Super Guppy. THE CONTROLLER/ JUNE 1985

SARSAT-C SPAS, Global Satel mteSys e or Dist ess osit¡o ¡ g by Andreas Avgoustis, the Editor.

The 'SA RSAT-COSPAS ' program is based on a unique international agreement between the US Nation al Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Canada's Dep artment of Communications, France 's National Space Center (CNES) and USSR' s Ministry of Merchant Navy 'Morflot' whose COSPAS system is fully compatible with the SA RSA T system and aims to achieve worldwide coverage to aid those in need of search and rescue. The present article aims to intro duce the French participation in the program sim ply becau se I was given the oppor tunit y to visit the Centre Spatial de Toulouse in March thi s year, and saw the system in operat ion . The ce nt er itself is situated just outside Toulou se very close to variou s aviat ion cente rs, suc h as t he ENAC (Ecole National de !'Aviation Civile) and FIAS (Federation lnt ernat ion ale Aeronautique & Spatiale). General Requirements The growing traffic on seas, the oceans and by air has entailed an increa sing number of di stress situ -


ations. An average of about 3000 distress cases are reported annuall y wit hin the French territorial waters only. The cos t of search and rescue operations has been on the increa se, a factor w hich does not nece ssarily cal l for limit ed activity to save fund s. On the contrar y , fund s shou ld be used to limit the cases whe re life is lost therefore the utilization of new technique s for better security eve n at greater original cost becomes a mu st . Air tr affi c is growing too. Air tr affi c is vu lner ab le to man y external and internal so urces of danger wh ich make immedi ate assistance more urgent. In Franc e, the USA and Canada more than 200,000 aircraft are now equipped with the required regulation distre ss radio-beacon s nece ssary for the effective applicati o n of the program . The beacons em it on 1 2 1 . 5 and 243 MHz. In th e ear lier st ages of search and resc ue, the di stre ss det ect ion system was based on the 1 2 1 . 5 MHz frequ ency used by aircraft and air traffic contro l centers. Recep ti on was then restri cte d to air tr affi c zones on ly. With radio monitoring technique s, t he precis ion of locat ion has now reached

200 km. The efficacity of this distress dete ction system can further be improved by the use of space technique s. Th e program as originally foreseen by the four partners, with recent assoc iates such as Norwa y, Sweden, Uni ted Kingdom , Fin land and Bul garia, has concentrated around two main objectives: aid to search and rescue on the one hand by supp lying a satellite based location system of the already existing 121.5 M Hz beacons, and demonstration of the advantages of a new 406 MHz system and preparation of the transition toward the operational utilization of this system. Working Principles The system ' SARSAT-COSPAS : Is based on two distinct transmIs sIon frequen cies ( 1 21 .5 and 406 MHz ). The 1 21 . 5 MHz frequency is widely used in aeronautics. The continuous signals generated by the beacon are relayed by a satellite to a ground Local User Terminal ( LUT) in charge of calculations based on the Doppler effect observed on the link beacon/satellite. The use of the 1 2 1 .5 MHz frequency requ ires several minute s of mutual visibility between the satellite, the beacon and the ground terminal in order to assess the exact location. The coverage is restr icted to a 2,500 km zone around the Local User Termi nals (local coverage). With a 406 MH z frequency, the signal transmitted by the beacon comprises a code al lowin g to identify the vehicle in distress and providing information on the type and nature of the distress. After its reception and processing by the satel lite , the 406 MHz message fo llows two distin c t paths: 27

the message is transmitted back to the ground for an immediate utilization if the satellite is visible from the Local User Terminal . the message is immed iately stored in the satellite onboard memory so as to be transmitted back again when the satellite passes in the visibility zone of a ground terminal. The system offers thus a total coverage of the globe (worldwide coverage). The ground processing of data allows the identif ication and the location of the distress. The French Space Center CNES participates in the various elements of the SARSAT-COSPAS program. They are more particularly responsible for design. development and eva luation of the 406 MHz SARSAT-COSPAS System wh ich has been adapted following the experience gained in developing the ARGOS system








I &

EXISTING 1 21 .5 ¡ 243 MHZ EMERGENCY _ _...R ..... EA ...c .... a ..... N...._ __


EXPERIMENT AL 406 MHZ EMERGENCY _,R....._E AC.0.N...- _ __________

0 RESEARCH COORD INATIO N ...c;;.:;E;;..;N;.;..T.;..;R;;;.;ES"--------

The Satellites The SARSAT-COSPAS system will comprise four satel lites simultaneously in orbit during the operational phase. Three satellites have so far been launched: COSPAS 1. Soviet satellite launched June 30 1 982 COSPAS 2. Soviet satellite launched March 24 1 983 NOAA 8. US satellite laun ched March 28 1983. These satellites are in quasi-polar orbit with a 1 00 mn repeat cycle. NOAA 8 satellite is equ ipped with a 406 MHz processor suppl ied by CNES and made by the French company ESD (Electronique Serge Dassau lt) .

and with Canadian 121.5 MHz repeaters . The COSPAS satellites ped with Soviet equipment the 1 21 . 5 and 406 MHz tems .

and 243 are equipsimilar to based sys-

Local User Terminals (LUTs) Ten SARSAT-COSPAS terminals are now installed in France . Canada. the United States. the Soviet Union, Norway and United Kingdom. They process all data supplied by the system satellites. The locations are made on-line for distress signa ls in the terminals visibility area ( 1 21. 5 and 406

MHz) and processed with a delay when outside terminals visibility area (406 MHz only).

Mission Control Centers (MCCs) The Local User Terminals are connected to a Mission Control Center (MCC) in each country. in charge of the exchange of technical and operational information between the various member countries. MCCs also ensure the diffusion of the signals and of the locations toward Rescue Coordination Centers (RCCs) which are themselves in charge of research operations worldwide.

SA RSA T-COSPAS coverage today 28


Location of 121.5 MHz transmissions performed by SARSAT-COSPAS Countries in which location have been Canada USA France Norway Total


Number of events 18 13 16 2

Number of persons 41 34 51 10

Number of persons 32 32 47 10



1 21

results obtained with the help of the SARSA T-COSPASsystem.

406 MHz Radio Beacons The 406 MHz SARSAT radio-beacons in France have been developed on behalf of CNES by two French companies: Electronique Aerospatiale at Le Bourget, and CEIS at Toulouse. These beacons have c1 fifty-hour autonomy and transmit simultaneously a digital 406 MHz message and a 121 .5 MHz message in order to ease the final homing . Manual or automatic actuation systems are being scheduled (during impact for aeronautic beacons or during immersion for maritime beacons) . A third type of beacon is now being developed for use in severe conditions of environment (polar expeditions, desert zones). The importance of the potential market and the success criteria of the SARSAT-COSPAS program (reliability and low cost of the beacons) account

for the development of 406 MHz beacons. Operations Performed in 1983 As from the launching into orbit of the first satellites, the SARSAT-COSPAS system appeared extremely efficient in a large number of effective distress situations. The system has contributed directly to the rescue of a large number of persons . The Performances of the 406 MHz System Coverage The 406 MHz system allows a worldwide coverage. The mean delay for the location with four satellites and LUTs is inferior to 2 hours (for a distress situated in the equatorial zone), and will reach one hour on average for medium latitudes (Western Europe and Northern America) .

Capacity Each satellite is able to detect 90 beacons simultaneously, which correspond s to a minimum of 2,000 distresses on one orbit. Identification

The analysis of the 406 MHz message by the MCCs inform the Search And Rescue Centers (SAR ) on the type and nature of the distress. Evolution of the Program The demonstration phase has widely shown the efficiency of the sate llite based SARSAT-COSPAS system for search and rescue . The International Maritime Organization is now considering its integrat ion to the Future World System for Maritime Distress and Security, and SARSATCOSPAS members are preparing the setting up of the institutional struc tures which will ensure the continuity of the operational service. With 6 sat ellites scheduled in the SARSAT program and about the same number in the Soviet program , continuity should be achieved until 1990 at least . The future aim of SARSAT-COSPAS membRrs is to demonstrate the possibility of a 406 MHz beacon tran smission relay by geostationary satellites. This new type of system would allow a virtua lly immediate alert.

New Nominations at the Head of Airbus I ndustrie

Jean Pierson As of 1st April Mr . Jean Pierson is being appointed as the new President (Administrateur Gerant) of Airbus lndustrie . Simultaneously Mr. Joh ann Schaeffler is being appointed as his Deput y and the new Executive VicePresident and General Manager of the company . THE CONTROL LER/ JUNE 1985

Jean Pierson (44) succeeds Bernard Lathiere who has led Airbus lndustrie during the past ten years and contributed deci sively during this period to the success of the Airbu s aircraft programs on the world market. For the last two years Mr . Pierson has been Director of Aerospat iale' s Air craft Division and from 197 6 until 1983 he was General Man ager of the Aero spat iale Toulou se plants. Durin g that period he succe ssfully led the final assembly of the Airbus aircraft, transforming the factory into one of the most modern civ il aircraft production facilities. Earlier, from 1968 until 1972 , Mr . Pierson had been responsible for the Concorde production at the same plant. Joh ann Schaeffler (49) w ill succeed Mr. Roger Beteille , who has put his mark both technically and indu strially on the Airbus program since its inception, and developed it into a successfu l European aircraft fami ly. Mr. Schaeffler is a Member of the Management Board of MBB and Managing Director of the Transport

Johann Schaeffler Aircraft Division of the company For the past 1 5 years he has held a num ber of managerial position s in the German aviation industry . In this ca pacity , he has actively contributed to the developmen t of the Airbu s pro gram in We st Germany . 29

Book Review Skytalk:

English for Air Communication

by L. F. Leveson with Martin Cass Publi shers : Stanley Thorns (Publishers) Ltd : price ÂŁ6 . 95 net

Englishfor AirCommunication



The book, an illustrated and up-todate pub licati on on radio-telephony procedures under actual circumstances and covering all phas es of air / ground and ground/ air communications, aims to assist pilots as we ll as


of Controllers'

Mr . Z. Sarospataki,

The author has given emphasis on correct use of terminology in appropriate situations worldwide and for added realism, the order of presentation follows approximately t he sequence of a typical flight. L.F. Leveson, an experienced teacher of English to non-native speakers , spent several years in research and in association with Martin Cass, an experienced pilot, former chief flying instructor and aviation writer, compiled the material contained in the book. The book is recommended as a must for every aviation library. The Editor

Day in Hungary

the Director of Air Traffic and Airport Admini stration , addressing the meeting.

"As every year since 1981 we also celebrated the Control lers' Day in Budapest in 1 984. The series of events were organized by our Association in cooperation with the Air Traffic and Airport Administration and the Hungar ian Airlines , M alev . The celebration ceremony was held at the airport on 1 9th Octobe r where the 'Cha llenge Cup', estab lished four years ago , was again awarded to the best working group of ACC and APP/ TWR separately . 30

air traffic controllers in achieving standard phraseology procedures - a neces sary ingredient for aviation safety. Skillfully arranged in 1 2 units (sections), each unit introducing a particular area of air traffic communication (basic operating procedures , surface movement and takeoff , distress and urgency procedures, etc.) The material contained in the book would be useful not only for trainees but also for experienced personnel arou nd the world (whether or not Engli sh is their first language) who need to come to terms with recent changes.

It was followed by interesting lectures on: - A ct ual psychological problems of air traffic controllers - Radar simulator in air traffic co ntroller s' training - Air t raff ic contro l from the pilots' point of view - Automated ATC in Hungary in the future . Satu rday evening on 20t h October more than 200 gue sts. contro llers, pilots. several specia l guests and

friend s were invited to take part in the Controller s' Ball in Hotel Atrium Hyatt . We think all went very well and everybody was satisfied more or less with everything . W e were very happy th at we cou ld organize this event and it gave a good opportunity to the public to get a little more idea of our wonderful but respo nsibl e job . Our slogan is still the same: 'The ATC is your safety in the air. Now, we tell you again to 'follow us . THE CONTROL LER/ JUNE 1985


of Controllers in Uruguay

Letter to the Editor

Dear Sir. There are 100 air traffic controllers in Urugu ay. All of them are civilian and young - 80% are between the age of 21 and 35 years old but their salaries are extremely low. They earn about US $ 1 20 per month with inflation running over 300% per annum. In 1982 they were earning the equivalent of US $500 per month. Why the decrease? In Uruguay the salaries are not linked to infl at ion . They are raised occasionally and always less than the inflation rate. And w ith the present infl ation rate one arrives at the existing situ at ion in a couple of years. The con troll ers¡ employer, the Direci6n General de la lnfr astructura Aeronautica depends directly on the Uruguay Air Force. the directors and executives being co lonel s and brigadiers The cost of living in Uruguay is not low The rent of a sma ll appartment in Montevideo is between US $ 70-80 per month pi us $ 2 5 as service charge. Health insurance (not paid by the employer) is $10 per month. You can see THE CONTROLLER / JUNE 1985

immediately that in order to eat you need extra money and if you want to raise a family you need two or three other jobs. Hardly a good thing to preserve air safety. The air traffic contro llers of Uruguay have an Association. ACTAU. which exists since 1 958 but has no permanent office. Its president often works in the Sorocabana Cate. near Plaza de Libertad. in Montevideo . one of the oldest cafes in Uruguay . where one can sit all day for the price of one cup of coffee and even use a typewriter . There he is surrounded by various art ists and intell ectuals and served by one of Uruguay 's most famou s cinema actors. who in order to survive has to be a waiter in that cafe. too. The situation is in fact difficult for everybody . A secondary school teacher wi ll get less th an $1 00 per month and a co-pi lot of a B 73 7 w ith PLUNA . the nationa l airline w ill get the same salary as an Air Force Captain about $600

To give you another idea of the cost of living in Urugua y. a TV set costs $ 700 and the smallest car (a Brazilian-built Fiat ) costs $9000. The Urugua yan Association has been a member of IFATCA since 1964. When PATCO requested money during their strike the Association collected $ 200 and sent it. The y indeed needed the money but sent it over to show sol ida rity. Now that they have difficulties. they feel that nobody seems very concerned. My planned visit to the Air Traffic Control Center in Montevideo. Carrasco Airport was prevented by a colonel who suddenly decided that there was nothing there for a foreigner to see. The Association and their president were very sorry and apologised profoundly for this . In a personal conclusion. I would like to draw to the attention of the well off -co ntroller who will read this: IFATCA is for the fortunate contro llers an ideal , which when put to the test is often deceiving. I know they made up that 'ideal IFATCA' themse lves. Perhaps we should move towards more practical things. The ideals and the policies are already laid down in an impressive Manual . maybe it is time move to the next step . Philippe Doma gala Vice-President EGATS

Editor's note: The picture above shows Uruguay Area Control Center. It was taken in 1978 . when a delegation of the Executive Board of IFATCA (the President. H.H. Henschlerand myself . then as Vice-President Professional) visited the country for negotiations with aviation officials on the grievances of controllers. The outcome of the visit was fruitful and gained then higher salaries . which . unfortunately, due to inf lation are of no sign ificant value today.

-Ed. 31

The Chicago Convention Has Met the Need in 40 Years' Use by Yves Lambert, !CAO Secretary General (Montreal)

4. The right to take on passengers, mail and cargo destined for the aircraft's State of Registry; and 5. The right to take on passengers, mail and cargo going to another State and put down passengers, mail and cargo coming from any other State. Here, the Chicago Delegates came close to failure. Nations weakened by The Chicago Convention, an the world-wide conflict still under way original international instrument, laid were not ready to open their borders to those who would have liked to see the the foundation for supranational Five Freedoms included without restechnical legislation in civil aviation. All States now parties to the Conven- ervation in the Convention. But, a tion undertake to implement the air reasonable compromise was reached navigation systems adopted by the that has survived to the present time. legislative and executive body estab- The Chicago Convention guarantees lished in the Convention: the Inter- the 1st and 2nd Freedoms for nonscheduled flights. A second agreenational Civil Aviation Organization ment, not as broadly accepted as the (ICAO). Chicago Convention, also gives the In this context, the ICAO Council 1stand 2nd Freedoms to international has developed and adopted 18 technical Annexes to the Chicago Con- scheduled services. This is the International Air Services Transit Agreevention, dealing with such varied ment. Today, 152 States are parties fields as aeronautical telecommunito the Chicago Convention and 92 cations, aerodromes, meteorology, airworthiness and operations, etc. The have adhered to the Transit AgreeStandards and Recommended Prac- ment. A third transport agreement also tices contained in these Annexes are signed at Chicago binds the 11 States applied universally and have produced which have so agreed to assure recia unanimously accepted technical procity for all Freedoms of th~ Air in uniformity which has permitted interthe operation of their scheduled¡ air national civil aviation to develop services. quickly, safely and in an orderly manWe can see therefore that in the ner. real world, which has seen many geoThe negotiations in Chicago 40 political changes since 1944, free years ago also were the first attempts to establish a common market in exchange has not become as well established as some might have hoped. commercial aviation. However. the Chicago Convention The problems were defined and the and the Transit Agreement have made concept of the 'Five Freedoms of the it possible for States to create a world Air' were determined: 1 . The right to overfly the territory of a air transport network through bilateral negotiations, with mutual respect for State without landing; sovereignty and national interests. 2. The right to land for non-traffic Through the frequent meetings purposes (e.g. maintenance. responsored by !CAO throughout the fuelling); world. its 1 52 Member States and in3. The right to put down passengers. mail and cargo originating in the vited international organizations are able to exchange information, to work aircraft's State of Registry; On 7 December 7984, !CAO reached the 40th Anniversary of the signing in Chicago of the Convention on International Civil Aviation. I believe it has stood the test of time and, if the past does indeed mirror the future, it surely will continue to meet the expectations of its authors during the next four decades.


together to develop new concepts and to prepare coherent plans for the safe and orderly growth and development of civil aviation. ICAO has dealt with many technical, legal and economic fields in recent years. Examples of technical successes include the development of noise standards in 1971 (and subsequent updating to make them increasingly more stringent) and the adoption of a new all-weather microwave landing system. In the legal and economic spheres, progress is sometimes slower. A system of carrier liability was developed: the Warsaw Convention of 1929, amended by The Hague Protocol in 1955, the Guatemala Protocol in 1 9 71 and the M ontrea I Protocols in 19 7 5. If the development of air transport is to continue, all States must reach an agreement in this area of concern. The Chicago Convention has enabled international civil aviation to benefit from technological progress, reductions in costs and tariffs, and the general opening of the countries of the world to air transport; the work undertaken in laboratories and industry can be brought immediately before a worldwide forum which acts as a catalyst for technological progress. Through the wisdom of its economic provisions, the Convention has managed to avoid both excessive protectionism and ill-considered liberalism. After 40 years, we can say that the Chicago Convention has worked well. Its signatories, as well as those who have implemented it since, can be satisfied with a job well done. (Courtesy '/CAO Bulletin')

Low-Cost Airplane Gets a Name First announced at AOPA's 1983 Convention in Albuquerque, the twoplace, 55-hp entry level airplane being developed by DeVore Aviation Corporation will be called the 'Sundancer'. Designed to sell for 'under $20,000' the composite airplane is intended to fit into the 'primary aircraft' category proposed by AOPA and the Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA) to ease the entry into general aviation and to encourage more flight training. The winning designation in the name-the-plane contest was selected from more than 5,000 entries by a panel of judges that included AOPA President John L. Baker. THE CONTROLLER/JUNE


The familiar emblem of a good flight.

B-747 Bombay Boston Chicago Geneva Hong Kong Montreal New York Tokyo Toronto Zurich

DC-10-30 Abidjan Abu Dh abi Accra Athens Bagdad Bangkok Beijing Bombay Buenos Aires Caracas (as of June 8, 1985) Chicago Colombo Dakar D ar es Salaam Dhahran Douala Dubai Geneva Hong Kong Istanbul

Jakarta Jeddah Johannesburg Karachi Khartoum Kinshasa Kuwait Lagos Libreville Manila Monrovia Montreal Nairobi Riyadh Rio de Janeiro Santiago de Chile Sao Paulo Singapore Tehran Tel Aviv Tokyo Toronto Zurich

A310 Cairo Geneva Istanbul Lisbon London Madrid Milan Paris Tel Aviv Zurich

DC-9 Algiers Amman Amsterdam Athens Barcelona Basel Belgrade Brussels Bucar est Budapest Casablanca Cologne Copenhagen Damascus Dublin Dusseldorf Frankfurt Geneva Genoa Hamburg Helsinki Istanbul Larnaca Linz Lisbon London

Madrid Malaga Manchester Marseilles Milan Moscow Munich Nice Oporto Oran Oslo Palma de Majorca Paris Prague Rom e Salzburg Sofia Stockholm Stuttgart Thessaloniki Toulouse Tripoli Tunis Vienna Warsaw Zagreb Zurich (Subj ect to cha nge.)

This emblem should be all the more familiar because you see it the world over; and always on the roomiest, most luxurious and environmentally advanced types of aircraft. Types, by th e way, that bear not only the Swissair emb lem but often the impress of Swissair itself. For exam ple, the DC -9-81 turn ed out this big because we wanted to offer our passengers a wealth of room on European flights too. On the Boeing 747-357 we initiated the installation of much sophisticated technology as well as of more economical and environmentally friendlier engines. The Air-

bus A310 did not satisfy us until the cargo compartment would take up to seven tons, and until other special requirements from cockpit to tail assembly had been met. We converted part of our DC-10 fleet into DC-lOERs (Extended Range), which save our passengers intermedi ate stops. And recently Swissair was the first airline to order eight new Fokker F-IO0s for European flights ; they are even quieter than other jets in use toda y. At Swissair new aircraft are constantly being rep lace d by the newest aircraft. The current examp le is the new

Fokker F-100, which is taking the place of the older DC-9 models. When the last Fokker F-100 is deliv ere d, incidentall y, all Swissair aircraf t wiU be equipped for landings in extremel y poor visibility (it's already 34 out of 48 planes). Reaching your destination on time is, after all, another sign of a good flight.


Air Traffic Control SELENIA \\.. If

SATCAS system installation at Mazatlan control centre (Mexico).

You are buying for the future. Cost-effectiveness, growth capabilities and low life-cycle cost are key parameters when investing in a long-term project such as an Air Traffic Control system . The SATCAS system is an industrial product created by Selenia scientists and engineers as the result of 25 years of experience in the design and production of advanced Air Traffic Control Systems. To guarantee perfect system performance in all environments, and to maintain system integrity during the years, the SATCAS fully exploits the concept of distributed intelligence and adaptive radars . ATCR-33 adaptive radar mstalled in Brasil.

Selenia is experience in air traffic control sys tems . INDUSTRIE ELETTRON ICHE ASSOC IATE S.pA

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IFATCA The Controller - 2nd Quarter 1985  
IFATCA The Controller - 2nd Quarter 1985