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IFATCA JOURNAL OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
THE CONTROLLER Bern, Switzerland, March, 1985
Publisher: International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers· Associations. P.O. Box 196. CH-1215 Geneva 15 Airport. Switzerland
Volume 24 · No. 1
In this issue
IFATCA'S QUARTER CENTURY
Officers of IFATCA: HH. Henschler. President. Lex Hendriks. Vice-President (Technical). E. Sermijn. VicePresident (Professional). I. Finlay. Vice-President (Administration). B. Grezet. Treasurer. P. O'Doherty. Executive Secretary Editor: A. Avgoustis 5 Athens Str. Ayios Dhometios Nicosia. Cyprus Telephone (021) 4 87 86 Management and Advertising Sales Office: The Controller. P.O. Box 196. CH-1215 Geneva 15 Airport. Switzerland H.U. Heim. Subscriptions and Publicity. Tel. (022) 82 26 79 M. Henchoz. Accounting. Tel. (022) 92 56 82 B. Laydevant. Sales Promotion. Tel. (022) 82 79 83
New Canadian Air Policy
Surface Wind Measurement
Production 'Der Bund'. Verlag und Druckerei AG Elfingerstrasse 1. CH-3001 Bern. Telephone (031) 25 66 55
European Regional Meeting at Maastricht page 13
Subscriptions and Advertising Payments to: IFATCA/The Controller. Union de Banques Suisses P.O. Box 237 CH-1 215 Geneva Airport. Switzerland Acc. No. 602 254.MD L
AOPA's Nashville Convention page 14
Subscription Rate: SFrs. 20.- per annum (4 issues). plus postage and package : Surfacemail: Europe and Mediterranean countries SFrs. 4.20. other countries SFrs. 5.40. Airmail: Europe and Mediterranean countries SFrs. 6.20. other countries SFrs. 10.60. Special subscription rate for Air Traffic Controllers. Contributors are expressing their personal points of view and opinions. which may not necessarilycoincide with those of the International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers· Association (IFATCA). IFATCAdoes _notassume responsibility for statements made _andopinions expressed. it does only accept respons1b11ity for publishing these contributions. Contributions are welcome as are comments and criticism. No payment can be made for manuscripts submitted for publication in 'The Controller'. The Editor reserves_the right to make any editorial changes in manuscripts. which he believes will improve the material without altering the intended meaning. Wrinen permission by the Editor is necessary for repnntmg any part of this Journal.
Advertisers in this issue: Ferranti. Thomson CSF, Selenia, Electronique Serge Dassault
A Look at Hong Kong' s New M DS page 15 Establishment of AIS on Sound Organizational Base page 16 Establishment of Canadian ASB page 19 Slow Flight for Safe Flight
Airport Makes Major Contribution to NZ Economy page 23 Eurocontrol Permanent Commission's 65th Session page 26
A.A. Archives, Hiro Tade Cartoons: Martin Germans
Satellite Use for Aeronautical Communications page 2 7
Mid-1985 the International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers· Associations (IFATCA) will be entering its 25th year of existence. To mark the occasion, the Executive Board is already busying itself with plans that are expected to bring the Federation's objectives closer to achievement. The foundation of the Federation is based on a working group appointed to prepare a draft Constitution and which completed its task by mid1960. The Convention. Constitution and By-laws were duly ratified by 1 2 Founder Member Associations. On the 20th October, 1961 the first Constitutional Conference was held in Amsterdam. Since then. the number of Member Associations has increased to 62 representing all continents. The program of activities which the Executive Board is expecting to pass through the Federation's forthcoming Annual Conference in Athens this month ( 18-22) includes the following: - issue 3/85 of 'The Controller' will be an Anniversary issue containing a history of the Federation. About 2500 extra copies will be produced; a video tape explaining the profession of the Air Traffic Controller and introducing the Federation will be produced. This tape is proposed to be used at the Federation· s Regional meetings and at press conferences; a presentation to be made at the 1986 IFATCA Annual Conference to all Founder Members and to the Corporate Members who have been with the Federation through its history; additional copies of the IFATCA Brochure to be distributed at Regional meetings. Celebrating its 25th Anniversary. will undoubtedly benefit the Federation and through it the profession. Editor
GEOGRAPHIC SCOPE OFLIBERALIZATION
New Canadian Air Policy (Part 11) As published by the Canadian Minister of Transport, Hon. Lloyd Axworthy
Simplified, Faster Regulatory Process There is a broad consensus that the present process of airline regulation is too cumbersome and time-consuming. Licence applications can take a year or more to be decided. If public hearings are held, or if there is an appeal to the CTC Review Committee, to the Minister of Transport or to the Governor in Council. the process can take even longer. Tariff filings can be suspended for considerable periods while the CTC assesses their justification. and may be disallowed after sales to the public have already been made. invariably causing much confusion and protest.
Carrier Regulations that it proposes to make to speed up and simplify the regulatory process to the maximum permissible extent. As part of this directive, the CTC will also be asked to consider possible changes in the e~identiary requirements associated with public convenience and necessity, shifting the burden of proof from the applicant to opposing intervenors.
Approach to Appeals Traditionally, the CTC has been highly responsive to statements of government policy. The Government and the Minister of Transport, for their There is no doubt that these de- part, have acted with considerable refects of the regulatory process can be straint in exercising the override remedied without undermining unduly powers available to them under Secthe rights of applicants and inter- tions 64 and 25, res~ectively, of the National Transportation Act. While venors to be heard and without there is no reason to expect any affecting the CTC's statutory responsibilities. Such improvements can be change in this p~ttern, it may of achieved by procedural changes and a course be ant1c1pated that the Government and _Minister of Transport more liberal regulatory approach. The CTC has already laid the basis will hence~orth, in responding to apfor the necessary reforms by holding peals against CTC decisions, give public hearings on the need for chan- much weater weight to the benefits of ges to its General Rules. It has been compet1t1on. _Consistent with this commitment decided, therefore, to direct the CTC, to increased compet1t1on.the Minister under Section 12 of the Aeronautics Act, to report. within 90 days on the of Transport has decided to grant changes in the General Rules and Air pending appeals by PWA and Air On-
The world of ATC is changing and growing . With the help of computer technology you can see more and do more now than you could even five years ago, both in simulation and in radar data processing and display. Not surprisingly it is Ferranti that is changing the picture. We are foremost in applying computers and display systems to the ATC function. The work we are putting into the processing and display of ATC pictures is bringing simulators and operational systems closer together. And we are doing some forward thinking and planning for the new ATC techniques that will soon be coming into view. If you want to broaden your ATC horizons, contact :Âˇ Ferranti Computer Systems Limited, Cwrnbran System Sales, Ty Coch Way, Cwmbran, Gwent NP44 7XX Telephone: Cwmbran (06333)71111 Telex: 497636
--f ---- \
tario._ This decision will immediately permitÂˇ PWA to operate unrestricted non-stop services between Edmonton/ Calgary and Vancouver. It will allow Air Ontario to start scheduled services. in competition with Air Canada. between Toronto and North Bay/ Sudbury. as well as between North Bay/ Sudbury and other points on Air Ontario's Class 2 licence. Directions to Air Canada Air Canada's competitors are deeply concerned that the airline will respond to the new challenges of a more liberal regulatory environment with uneconomic competitive practices. relying on the public purse to pay for any deficits it may incur. There 1s concern. for instance. that Air Canada could try to protect its market share with higher service frequencies and lower prices and load factors than privately owned airlines could justify. or for longer periods. As long as Air Canada remains publicly owned. the Government of Canada is committed to allay these fears which might otherwise counter the desired increase in competition. Therefore. as part of this policy. Air Canada is instructed: To operate on sound business principles. Âˇ in contemplation of profit'; On that basis. to refrain from competitive pricing and scheduling practices not also engaged in by privatelyowned carriers; To be aware that the Government will only provide Air Canada with additional equity capital if the Company can meet the accepted financial tests and criteria used in the private sector. and has provided adequate evidence that the sale of assets is the inferior alternative from the shareholder's perspective; To reduce its dominance of the industry by selling off Nordair to private interests as quickly as possible; and To set up a task force with representation from the airline and travel industry. Transport Canada. the CTC and consumers to ensure that there are adequate safeguards against bias in its computer reservations system. to the satisfaction of the Minister of Transport. The more radical alternative of privatizing Air Canada. in whole or in part. has not been adopted as part of the new policy because the many ramifications of this step have not been studied adequately. The option does merit further consideration. however. to help clarify the advantages and disadvantages of continued public ownership. Accordingly. the matter has been referred to the 4
Standing Committee on Transport. for public discussion. As far as the privatization of Nordair is concerned. this has been a Government objective since the airline's purchase by Air Canada in 1978. A decision on the sale of Nordair will be announced in early June. Local and Regional Air Services While the new policy will encourage improvements in local and regional air services. further efforts in this direction are desirable. Therefore. Transport Canada will develop a program to support a number of local air service improvement projects across Canad~. At presen!, _it is envisaged that this p~ogram will invite groups of communities to work with interested air carriers to create proposals for new or improved services that need initial support but have good prospects of long-term financial viability. Of partic~lar interest would be proposals involving the use of new deHavilland Dash-8 aircraft. . A parallel initiative is being considered_by the De~art~ent of Regional Industrial Expansion. 1n consultation with Transport Canada. Transborder and International Air Services Although transborder and international air se"".ices are not expressly a part of the policy. parallel action has already been taken to liberalize our air transport relations with the United States in a manner consistent with this thrust. Recent consultations have produced agreement on a number of principles to govern future route negotiations. These principles specify that: Non-stop services should be facilitated whenever possible. but especially between city-pairs now without direct (same-plane) service; New services should be facilitated on routes between secondary and under-used airports. including regional and local routes; The normal regulatory controls on a!r~ine pri~ing should be reduced significantly in the case of services between under-used airports; and Increased competition should be encouraged. The result is that negotiations that had failed to produce agreement since 1979 are now likely to open up a significant number of new transborder routes to points all across Canada in the next few months. Indeed. significant progress in that respect was made during consultations in Washington on May 3-4. 1984. Discussions are proceeding on a strategy intended to stimulate traffic at under-
utilized airports like Mirabal and Hamilton through a reduction of pricing regulation and entry control. Both cou~tries are also reviewing the Regional and Local Program with the plan of expediting approval to qualifying commuter and local carriers who hope to offer transborder service. More Productive Use of Infrastructure At present. air services are too con?entrated at some points and lacking at others. This distribution of services does not make optimum use of the heavy public investment in air transport infrastructure and does not ~aximize public convenience. There 1sa case. therefore. for an initiative to promote increased service at underused. airports. for example. the substantial unused capacity at Hamilton (Mount Hope) and Montreal (Mirabel) ~!3~e_them prime candidates for this 1~1t1at1ve. By making it easier for airlines to get a licence to serve Hamilton and Mirabal. peak-period congestion at Toronto (Pearson) and Montreal (Dorval) could be reduced. Accordingly. the new policy in~ludes an invitation to the airline md~stry file appropriate application~ with the CTC. and to the CTC to su~Je~t such applications to a more perm1ss1vetest of public convenience and necessity (PCN). in an experiment to determine how greater freedom of e_ntry_would affect the supply and viability of new services. Steps are alre~dy being taken to encourage new services between Hamilton and Mirabal _and points in the USA. under a special ~eg~latory arrangement that ":' 0 uld g~v~ interested airlines exceptional pn?1_ngflexibility. . In addition. it is proposed that a review be d~ne of airport user charges. to _determine whether the costs on ":'h1ch they are based are fully justified. The Minister of Transport has already ~enied an increase in landing fees at airports. pending the outcome of the review. The airlines. in their c~mplaints that user charges are too high. have claimed that the infrastructure is inefficient. These claims have to be investigated. to provide the airlines with the assurance that the need for increased efficiency and productivity applies not only tb them.
Equity of Airport Access The new liberalization policy will place increased demands on the airports system. both because the frequency and nature of service may change. There is also the probability that a nu~ber of new carriers will eme~ge. which co~ld at some airports require a reallocation of runway land-
ing and takeoff slots and space in terminal buildings. As part of the new policy. Transport Canada has committed itself to resolving any resulting problems in an equitable way. from the perspective of existing carriers and new entrants alike. In the process. equity will not be interpreted as including Âˇgrandfather rights' for existing carriers. lest new entrants find themselves systematically disadvantaged. Stepped-up Regulation of Safety Considerable concern has been expressed. by airline unions and the general public. that the downward pressure on costs associated with increased competition might lower the level of airline safety. Although this concern is unfounded. the new policy includes a commitment by Transport Canada to maintain a vigorous surveillance program. focused especially on airlines in financial difficulty. The Department's airline safety program has already been strengthened considerably by implementation of the Dubin Commission's recommendations.
Reference to Standing Committee The Government has asked the House of Commons Standing Committee for its assistance in determining at what pace and in what way the process of airline liberalization should be pursued toward the gradual elimination of economic regulation. In its work it should focus on the following questions: 1 . At what pace should the process toward the elimination of regulation be pursued? 2. How should the Aeronautics Act be amended to make it consistent with a more permissive regulatory approach. and in particular a) How should the entry test of public convenience and necessity be revised? b) What provisions. if any. should govern the remaining controls on pricing? c) What special regulation is needed of airline mergers and acquisitions and of foreign ownership? 3. Should further installments of liberalization occur at predetermined intervals to stimulate adjustment and facilitate planning. or should any further changes be preceded by reviews. perhaps at preset dates? 4. Should Air Canada be broken up and/ or privatized to improve the company's efficiency and to give
smaller. privately owned airlines a more equal opportunity to compete? 5 Âˇ As further regulatory liberalization proceeds. is there a need for direct operating subsidies to protect communities against loss of service as a result of regulatory change and for special labor protection provisions to protect airline employees against a related loss of employment? The Standing Committee is also invited to hear representations from those who may feel the working definition of Northern Canada does not reflect their needs.
Summary In response to the recommendations of the House of Commons Standing Committee on Transport. in its 1982 report entitled Domestic Air Carrier Policy. the Government has decided to adopt a new airline liberalization policy. The first phase of the new policy will bring in a program to liberalize the economic regulation of commercial air services in Southern Canada. tentatively defined (subject to further consideration) as Canada south of the 50th parallel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ontario-Manitoba border. south of a diagonal line from the point of intersection to the intersection of the 55th parallel and the Manitoba-Saskatchewan border. and south of the 55th parallel from that point to the Pacific Ocean. The program will: a) Repeal the policies that set aside certain markets for particular carriers. thereby allowing any new or existing carrier to apply for a licence to serve any domestic route; b) Remove restrictions on the unit toll (scheduled service) licences of the national and regional carriers. and on the unit toll licences of local carriers for services in Southern Canada; c) Encourage the airlines to apply to the CTC to consolidate their unit toll licences. so that such changes can take place in a controlled manner; d) Reduce the barriers to new entry to scheduled passenger and all-cargo services by calling on the CTC to give much greater weight to the benefits of increased competition in judging the licensing requirements of public convenience and necessity (PCN). in relation to particular licence applications; e) Provide much freer entry to charter services by calling on the CTC to
exempt applications for such services from the requirements of PCN; f) Encourage new entry by calling on the CTCto grant freedom of exit to incumbent carriers faced with new entry. and to conduct an inquiry on whether carriers. having withdrawn their services. should retain t~e freedom to re-enter at any time; g) Promote lower fares and increased competition by announcing the Government's intent. even in advance of the CTC's report on the air fare hearings. to give the scheduled airlines complete downward pricing flexibility and to limit price increases to an objective measure of the rise in the price of their factors of production. not including labor. starting no later than 1986; h) Call on the CTCto report in 90 days on the measures it proposes to take to speed up and simplify the regulatory process to the maximum permissible extent and to consider possible evidentiary changes associated with public convenience and necessity. to shift the burden of proof from the applicant to opposing intervenors; i) To allay concerns that Air Canada may compete unfairly. issue directions to the Company re-asserting its obligation to operate in a business-like manner and requiring it to refrain from unfair competitive practices. provide strong justification for any request for new equity capital from the federal government. dispose of Nordair to private interests as quickly as possible. and to set up a broadly based Task Force to establish adequate safeguards against bias in Air Canada's computer reservations system; j) Promote better use of the air transport infrastructure by encouraging applications for new services to under-used airports such as Hamilton and Mirabel. and by inviting the CTC to give them favorable consideration; k) Grant two important pending appeals (by PWA and Air Ontario) that ask for new opportunities to compete; I) Develop demonstration projects to improve local air services with special considerations for Dash-8 aircraft; m) Commit Transport Canada to giving new entrants and competitors fair access to congested airports during peak periods; and n) Step up Transport Canada's efforts to police and enhance the level of safety. (Continues on page 2 9) 5
What Is Wind?
/ A so und app reciation of surface wind speed and direction is one of the car dinal requirements for safe aircr aft operation. All p ilot s. from their first days of flying training , must learn how to interp ret and use information on air movement arou nd aerodro me s as a basis for decisions on gro und hand/mg, take-offs, landings, type of ap proach to be carr ied out, circuit plannmg, emergency actions, wake tur6
b ulence, wind shear avoidance, and so on. But how many pilo ts really know how surface wind is measured or how they, themse lves, can determine wind strength and direction if no adviso ry service is available? This brief review of atmospheric motion and methods of wind measurement on aerodromes may help pilots improve or refresh their knowledge on the sub ;e c t generally
The motion of the atmosphere embraces the whole range of phenomena from the major currents of the atmosphere down to the random molecular m otion s. The va rious type s of motion , vertical as well as horizont al, are all intimately connected with weather in one way or another, and most of them are of direct importan c e to aircraft flight. . _The term 'wind' is of restricted significance, referring to sustained horizontal movement. On the larger sca le, the wind is c lo sely related to the hori zontal variation of pressure and thus to the ever changing pattern of cyclonic and anticyclonic pressure system s over the earth. Wind is caused primarily by variation s in density due to temperature difference s resulting from the effects of solar and terrestrial radiation . The so le _external force acting on the air is gr avity , but thi s acts in a vertical direction and can produce horizontal motion only indirectly through pressure differen ces . Thu s, if air has come to rest locally , it cannot begin to move again until a pres sure difference is set up . It is _then acted upon by a force perpendicular to the isobar s tow ards the low pres sure side. The magnitude of th_1 s force is given by the pressure gradient G, which may be taken as the difference of pressure between consec uti ve isobars divided by the distanc e betw ee n them . _It is also important to remember the existence of the geo strophi c or Coriolis force due to the earth's rot ation , from which the geostrophic wind is denve _d; th e effect of centripetal force associated w ith the mo ve ment of air on a g reat c ircl e path in rel ation to the ea_rth . fr om. which the cyclostrophic wmd 1s deri ved; the need to balance both geostrophic and cyclostrophic effects to determine th e gradient wmd; and of co ur se the effect of surface fr1ct1o n on rate of flo w of th e atmo sphere in the lowest layer s . Since we are prim arily concerned her e w ith determining the movement of _air c lose to th e eart h's _surfa ce. it might be app ropriate to rev iew th e eff ect of surfa ce fr1ct1on and turbulenc o n w ind flo w . e
Surf ac e friction Th e prim ary eff ect of fri ct ion vvt the eart h's surf ace is to reduce t~ h 8 rate of fl ow in t he lowest laye rs Th t hi ckness of th e friction layer depÂˇ de . II . en s essen t1a y on w ind speed Âˇ laps e rate of temperature and the roughnes 0 f the surface . s Th roughout th is layer the w in d speed inc reases from the surface up-
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wards, therefore the geostrophic wind - as determined from the isobars at mean sea level - is considered to apply to the unretarded air just above the friction layer at a height of about 2000 -3000 ft AGL provided the surface itself is not more than 500 ft or so above mean sea level. Within the friction layer the wind is slowed down and the Coriolis force, being reduced in proportion, is no longer sufficient to balance the pressure gradient. For this reason the wind near the surface blows somewhat across the isobars toward the side of low pressure. Both the reduction in surface wind speed and its inclination to the isobars vary considerably with circumstances. As a general rule, over the sea where friction is low, the surface wind blows at about 15 째 to the isobars while its speed is about two thirds the. geostrophic speed. Over land, where surfa.ce friction is greater, the surface wind is inclined about 25 째 to the isobars and speed is about a third to a half of the geostrophic value.
Turbulence Within the layer affected by surface friction - normally from the surface to between 1500 and 3000 ft - there are two distinct types of turbulence or gustiness; frictional and thermal. Each comprises both vertical and horizontal fluctuations of wind. Frictional turbulence is a characteristic property of fluid flow in the vicinity of a boundary under certain conditions. Thermal turbulence results from convection currents set up by surface heating. Frictional turbulence is almost always present, largely because the earth's surface is rough- in a dynamic sense: moreover, gustiness is accentuated by flow over rugged or hilly country, forestation, man-made edifices, etc. The steeper the lapse rate the greater the development of both frictional and thermal turbulence. Factors unfavourable to development of frictional turbulence are flow over open sea or relatively smooth ground, light wind or calm, and a stable lapse rate. Factors unfavourable to thermal turbulence are surface cooling and stable lapse rates. In consequence, over land there is a diurnal variation in turbulence, being most pronounced by day when the lapse rate is steep, and least on a clear night with an inversion of temperature. The effect of turbulent or gusty conditions on aircraft landing or taking off is well known and pilots must be particularly cautious when flying at critical airspeeds. 8
Wind Measurement As we have learned, wind is the motion of air over the surface of the earth and is measured in terms of direction and speed. The direction is that from which the wind is blowing, usually expressed in degrees from true north. For example, a 'southerly' wind is the movement of air from south ( 180째 )to north (360째 ). Sometimes for runway identification or navigation purposes, a pilot may need to convert wind direction to degrees magnetic by applying local magnetic variation to the true wind direction. Wind speed is always expressed in knots for aviation purposes. In meteorological forecasts and reports, wind direction ( 0 T) and speed (kts) at all levels is thus given as one group or element, e.g. 270/ 20.
Instrumental Measurement of Surface Wind The surface wind may vary and its measured stren_gth and direction depends on the location of the measuring instrument. And because of the marked variation of wind speed with height near the ground due to surface friction, the 'surface wind' is defined as the wind at a height of 33 feet ( 10 metres) above the ground in an unobstructed situation. Over the years several methods of wind measurement have been derived: Cup Generator Anemometer and Wind Vane (Fig. 1) The anemometer consists of a small electrical generator maintained in a weatherproof housing and driven by a three cup, wind activated rotor carried on a vertical spindle. As the wind speed increases, so does the voltage generated, and this is used to operate remotely situated indicators graduated in knots. The wind vane uses electrical transmission to indicate wind direction on dials graduated in degrees and cardinal points. The cup generator anemometer is used in conjunction with the remote transmitting vane for the observation of surface wind at most aerodromes. The indicators for wind speed and direction are installed in parallel, in the meteorological office and in the control tower (Fig. 2). In addition to these indicators, the cup generator anemometer and remote transmitting wind vane are combined as the wind transmitting he~d of !he electrical anemograph. This provides a continuous record of wind direction and speed by means of two pens recording side by side on a moving Duplex chart (Fig. 3).
The P_ressure-tube Anemograph _ ~h1~type of wind measuring device 1sst1ll 1~u~e at some weather stations, e.g. Ka1ta_1a a~d Wigram. Its principle of operation 1s the same as the airspeed indicator on an aircraft. The pre~sure produced by the wind blowing into the open end of a tube is interpreted in _terms of windspeed. Th~ tube 1skept facing into wind by the wind v~ne, and the wind pressure produced 1s transmitted along the ~u~e to the recording apparatus where 1t 1s recorded as a tracing of wind speed_on a rotating chart. Rotation of th_ewind v~ne is transmitted by cou~lings to give a record of wind direction on the same chart. This instrument has its recording ap~aratus at the foot of the mast on which the vane is mounted, and it does not read remotely. The chart has to be ~hanged daily and needs expert attention to keep it functioning satisfactorily. For these reasons, the pressure-tube anemograph has largely been replaced by the electrical anemograph.
Air Meters and Hand Anemometers . These are portable hand-held instr~ments which give a local reading of windspeed at_the place where they are held. The a,r meter consists of a s~all fan which rotates on a horizontal spindle connected by gearing to a number of counter dials. It indicates the a~ount of wind flow past the observer in a measured time, from which th e mean windspeed can be calculated. The hand anemometer is a small cup anemometer. Rotation of the cups, whose spindle carries a rotating permane~t magnet, gives rise to eddy c~rrents in a copper or aluminium disc, or dru~. mounted on a spindle and_causes 1tto rotate in the same direction as the cups. The angular movement of the disc o~ drum provides an instant reading of w1n~speed by means of a pointer moving over a scale. Windspeed Estimation Using Beaufort Scale ~he Beaufort Scale was originally de_n_vedfor ~autical use in 1805 by British Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort. The S?ale ranges from force Oto 12. It has s1n_cebeen adapted for land use according to the effect of the wind on smo~~- trees, buildings, etc. Further prec1~1~mhas been given by assigning a definite range of speed to each force number (Table 1 ). Wind Direction lndicator(Figs. 4/5) . All licensed aerodromes, except pnva_te Category 9 aerodromes, are required to have wind direction indi-
TABLE 1 : BEAUFORT SCALE OF WIND FORCE
SPECIFICATIONS FOR USE ON LAND
EQUIVALENT SPEED AT 33 FT ABOVE GROUND KNOTS Mean Limits
Calm : smoke rises vertically.
Direction of wind shown by smoke drift, but not by wind vanes.
Wind felt on face : leaves rustle : ordinary vane moved by wind.
Leaves and small twigs in constant motion : wind extends light flag.
Raises dust and loose paper : small branches are moved.
Small trees in leaf begin to sway : crested wavelets form on inland waters.
Large branches in motion : whistling heard in telegraph wires : umbrellas used with difficulty.
Whole trees in motion :
inconvenience felt when
walking against wind.
Breaks twigs off trees : generally impedes progress.
Slight structural damage occurs.
Seldom experienced inland : trees uprooted : structural damage.
Very rarely experienced : accompanied by widespread damage.
caters (windsocks) installed on the manoeuvring area. clearly visible to pilots. Private Category 9 aerodromes must have an alternative means of assessing wind direction and speed if no windsock is installed. (A Category 9 aerodrome is the lowest standard of land aerodrome for aeroplanes acceptable for licensing.) The standard windsock is 2.85 metres long with an opening of 0.66 metres dia. at the windward (large) end. The windsock is made from nylon reinforced 10 oz. vinyl fabric. coloured either white or orange. The choice of colour is normally dependent upon the nature of the aerodrome environment and the sock's contrast with the surrounding terrain. It should provide maximum conspicuity from both the ground and the air in normal weather conditions. The standard mast on which the rotatable windsock is mounted. is usually a stayed tubular metal pole 6.6 metres in height. A windsock should be located at the left hand side of each landing direction where runways or vectors are clearly defined. The mast should be on a line through the landing threshold at 90 degrees to the runway direction
and at a specified distance from the nominal runway centreline. Normally, this distance will locate the mast under the protected runway side surfaces. which commence at the edge of the strip. As strip width varie$ with the size of aircraft normally operating from the aerodrome. the distance will 5KII
change accordingly. For instance at Pal~erston_ North aerodrome. theÂˇ location of windsocks from runway 07; 25 would be 1 20 metres from the runway centreline. but at smaller aerodromes the distance may be as little as 25 metres. On an aer<?dromewhere operations are not restricted to defined vectors the windsock(s) should be located at the downwind end of the most commo~ly used take-off and landing direction. and at a distance from the centerline appropriate to the aerodrome category. . Apart from showing wind direction. windsocks also provide an indication of approximate wind speed. The standard windsock. which is in use at most New Zealand aerodromes. indicates a wind strength of approximately 2025 kts "Yhen the sock is held steadily in the horizontal plane. If the tail end is flicking intermittently above the horizontal. this indicates a wind strength above 25-30 kts. If the sock is held at about 45 Â° to the horizontal. the wind is between 10-12 kts. and when the sock is barely filled. approximately 5 kts (Fig. 6). Smaller windsocks are sometimes used at private airstrips and wind strength indications may vary considerably from the values described here for standard windsocks. Caution should therefore be exercised when assessing wind strength for landing and taking off at these locations. Future Developments The Munro anemometer and windvane. now in common use at most New Zealand aerodromes. continues to be the principle method of measuring wind velocity. However. 1~12 KIi
Vaisala of Finland have developed a wind measurement system based on the original anemometer and windvane which employs modern electronics and materials. such as plastics and carbon fibre. Plastics and carbon fibre are used to make up the components of the wind measuring equipment. This has the advantage of light weight and durability. Carbon fibre also allows the equipment to be electrically heated in colder climates where the system is likely to be affected by icing. Modern electronics permit digital readouts for air traffic controllers and meteorological observers. Both wind speed and direction can be read from the one display unit. Additionally. by turning a switch. the controller can obtain an instant readout of the average wind velocity over the previous two or ten minute period (Fig. 7). Many airports. because of their geographic location. experience varying wind conditions at different parts of the airfield. It is therefore desirable to be able to measure the wind direction and speed at more than one position. preferably near the end of the runways. The Vaisala system enables up to four wind sensors to be used
with the one display unit. These sensors can be placed at greater distances from the display unit than is currently possible with the Munro system. (Munro anemometers are limited to a distance of about 1 .6 km from the display units.) With this capability. the controller can select a reading from a sensor that is most appropriate to the runway in use and pass the information to pilots as required (Fig. 8). The development and improvement of wind measuring equipment is likely to continue. the end result being more accurate surface wind information for pilots. Conclusion Most of us take wind for granted; an aberration of nature that is great for sailing. driving windmills and drying the washing. For aviation. however. wind can either help or hinder an aircraft's ability to become airborne or land safely. and pilots must be prepared to counter lift and control problems that can occur as a result of sudden wind fluctuations near the surface. To do this competently. they must not only have a sound appreci-
ation of the motion of the atmosphere and what causes variations in wind speed and direction. but a knowledge of the means by which wind velocity information is obtained in relation to the take-off and landing path. In short. pilots have to become as instinctively wind-wise as the birds.
First Published in 'Flight SafetyÂˇ. New Zealand
US Navy Presents Pirie Award to Its Top Air Traffic Controller
Philips to Deliver 300th
Heineken has granted a contract to the PTI for the delivery and installation of a DSX-40 text communication system . The equipment will be supplied by Philips Telecommunicatie lndustrie through the PTI. The Heineken system is the 300th DSX-40 communication system supplied by Philips worldwide. Most of these systems have been installed for public and semi-public bodies. larger industrial enterprises, banks and highly decentralized companies. The common denominator of these companies and institutions is the heavy traffic of internal and external written communication. Heineken with its head office in Zoeterwoude. the Netherlands. is a clear example of a company to which the above denominator applies. The enterprise participates in 70 breweries and exports to 145 countries . Much of the message traffic is by telex - a fast and reliable form of text communication. Heineken sends about 60.000 telexes per year. . Besides this stream of incoming and outgoing messages. internal text traffic Is also growing rapidly. The use of word processors and computers with word processing software _packages has logically led to the demand for a commun1cat1_onsnetwork in which these machines can be connec_ted with each other for the exchange of message s . The Philips DSX-40 can connect mainframe computers . telex. teletext terminals. personal computers . electronic typewrite_rs and word processors with each other for te xt commun1catIon. either over lines connected directly to th e DSX-40 system or over lines of the private or public tele phone network. The transmis sion speed can vary from 50 baud for the slowest tele x machine to 2400 baud for communication between word processors . By using the BSC 3780 proto col . transmission speed s of 1200 to 9600 bits / s can be achie ved .
Robert Lee Donald. US Navy air traffic controller second class. has been selected as the Navy ' s 1984 air traffic controller of the year and recipient of the Pirie Award for controller excellence. Petty Officer Donald received the award as the Navy's premier air traffic controller for· professional ism. leadership and loyal dedication ... proven under combat conditions ashore as he provided air traffic control services dur ing operation "Urgent Fury" in Grenada and to Mediterranean Amphibious Ready Group 1-84's operations in Beirut . Lebanon·. according to a congratulatory letter from Admiral James D. Watkins. chief of naval operations. Watkins added that air traffic controller Donald's · sustained superior performance in a demanding environment (established him as a) truly professional individual fully deserving special recognition'. The Pirie Award was established in 1975 by Eaton Corporation -the world's leading producer of air traffic contro l processing and display systems- and is awarded annuall y to the Navy's outstanding air traffic controller. It is the highest honor an air traffic controller can receive . In addition. Donald ' s name will be inscribed on a master troph y on display at the Naval Air Technical Center. Memphis. Tennessee. Eaton is a worldwide manufacturer of advanced t echnology products serving electronic . electrical and vehicl e components markets . The company employs 42 .000 people worldwide.
Cossor to Supply Canadian Radar Modern ization Project Raytheon Canada Limited has w on a C$ 390 mi llion contract from the Canadia n Govern m en t to sup ply radar equipment under Canada ' s Radar Moderni zat ion Proj ect. Cossor Electronics Limited . as a team member . wil l supp ly the advanced monopulse Secondary Surveillanc e Radar. In all. Cossor will supply 4 1 du al-c han nel m on opu lse SSR systems . 24 of which w ill be inte rfa ce d wi th p rimary surveillance radars being supplied by Rayt heo n Canada. the prime radar contractor for the RAMP pro gr am. Cossor state that this is a major expor t suc cess. A t a reported value in exce ss of £25 m illion. it is the most valuable export order ever to have been w o n by th e Co m pa ny and con solidates its world lead in SSR tec hn o logy . Cossor' s advanced monopuls e SSR syst em has already been selected by the United Kingdom ·s Civ il Aviat ion Authority - with which it is now ent erin g service - and by Saudi Arabia and Switzerl and . Rec entl y. the eq ui pment has been ordered . in its military c on figur at ion . by the Royal Air Force. for use in the UK and in W est Germany Under the RAMP con tra ct . Coss or is d ue to begin de liveries to Raytheon Canada in ju st under tw o years t ime . the complete delivery prog ram bei ng sp read over a five-year period . The system w hic h Cossor wi ll be supp lying comprises the SSR 955 monopul se inte rrogator. th e CV P 255 mono pulse plot extra ct or and the CRS 51 2 large vertical aper ture antenn a. Cossor M anagi ng Director . Peter Br ighton commented : ·our succes s in w in ning this order marks a major export achi evem ent for Cossor and for British techno logy as a w hol e. Canada is t he operator of one of the world's largest c ivil aircraf t fl eet and we are confident that other countries w ith a simil ar need for advanced air traffic control systems w ill now fo llow Canada ' s example! ' 11
DC-1 0 Records The w orldw ide fleet of McDonnell Douglas DC-1 0 wide cabin t ri-jets has carried mo re than 500 million passengers sinc e beginning revenue service in 1971 . In achieving that service milestone earlier this month . the 3 6 9 comme rcial DC-1Os have flown more than 4 .000 milli on mls (6.400 million km) . to all parts of the world . DC-1 0 service began on August 5. 1971 . when American Ai rlines flew its first DC-1 0 on a Los Ang eles- Chicago round trip . Nine days lat er United Airlines began transcontin ental US service with the DC-1 0. flying between San Francisc o and Washington . DC. First inter continental service with the long range Series 30 mod el w as inaugu rated by Swissair on December 1 5 . 197 2 wit h a fligh t from Zurich . Switzerland . to Montreal. Canada. Fifty-two airlines based in North America . South Ameri ca. Europe. Asi a and Africa . c urrently fly DC-10 to more than 20 0 cit ies. Eac h w eek the DC- 1 0 fleet makes nearly 6. 5 00 flig hts. carrying 1 million passengers . Total revenue flying ti me has exceeded 9 million hours . and passenger miles have surpassed 660 .000 million (1,062. 000 millio n passenger km) on more than 3 million flights. Statistics compi led as of October 1. 1 984 . place the average daily fl ight ut ilizat ion for the DC- 1 0 fleet at nearly 8 hours. tho ugh some airl ines ope rate the big tri-jets more than 1 5 hours a day . Dispa tch reliab ility averages nearly 98 percent. with fewer th an three DC- 1 0 flights in 100 scheduled departures delayed over 1 5 minute s for mechanical causes. During the past year. t he average distance flown by a DC-1 0 on each comm ercial fl ig ht was 1 689 mls (2 . 71 8 km). Shortes t flight of 8 4 m ls ( 135 km) wa s flown by American Airlines between Kingston and Mont ego Bay. Jamaica . while the longest no nst op revenue flight stage w as 6.4 79 mls ( 10.42 7 km) by Unite d A irlines betwee n Seattle and Hong Kong. The US A ir Force is op erat ing 26 KC-1 OA extenders. _an advanced tanke r ca rgo aircra ft based on the DC- 10 Series 30CF (Convertible Freighte r). Thro ugh A ugu ~t. the KC-10 fleet had comp iled a 100 percent lau nc h rel1abli1ty record for six out of the past seven month s. To date. firm orders have bee n placed for 406 DC- 1Os and KC-1Os. plus cond itio nal orde rs and options for 28 more. inc reasingtheto t al to 43 4 . Of t hese. 3 95 have been del ivered.
Trans-polar Anniversary Thirty years ago. direct tra ns-po lar air link between Europe and t he US W est Coast was fo rged by Scandinavi an Airl ines System (SAS ) using prope ller driven Dougla s DC6B aircraft . Anniversary ceremonies at the Tom Bradley Internatio nal Term inal at Los Ange les Internati onal Ai rport mar ked the histor ic first commerc ial fl ights betw een Los Angeles and Copen hagen. Denma rk. . The Greenland Stone. a 30-year -old co mm emorati ve marke r noting t he trans-polar service. was mov ed from th e base of the airport· s theme bui lding to t he Nort h Garden of the new Brad ley Terminal. Government officia ls from Norway. Swe den. Denm ark and Los Angeles participated. with Execut ives fro m SAS and McDonnell Douglas Corporation. Knut Ham mar skjold, Director General of the International Air Transpor t Assoc iat ion. represented the wor ld ' s airlines. Dougl as Air craft Company President J.E . Worsham said estab lishing t he
polar link was . ·a feat of tremendous technical significance for SAS. for Douglas and for our industry'. Worsham praised the daring and foresight of the SAS polar pioneers in opening the route between Southern California and Northern Europe . He presented two scale models to SAS President and Chief Executive Officer Jan Carlzon . One was a replica of the DC-6B nicknamed . 'The Royal Viking ·. which carried a number of Hollywood luminaries to Copenhagen on the 25-hour. two-stop first flight . The other model was a DC-10 wide cabin tri-jet. symbolic of today's SAS jets that cross the polar route in just 10 hour s. nonstop .
Seaplane Directory to Be Published The Seaplane Pilots Association is compiling the first complete guide to places where seaplanes may operate. The new 1 985 SPA Seaplane Landing Directory . to be published in March. will contain current state-by-state regulations affecting seaplane operations . State , local and federal rules will be listed . · Many different agencies. such as the US Army Corps of Engineers and the National Park Service . have rules regarding seaplane landings.' said SPA President David Quam. who founded the organization 1 2 years ago to counter unnecessary restrictions . ·we are publishing this guide to let our members know where they can fly and what the rules are.· The Directory will contain a complete list of seaplane bases. and additional landing and refuelling spots that are not on the list of licensed bases. A series of maps will show cross-country refuelling routes . which will be especially helpful to seaplane pilots whose airplanes do not have amphibious capability . The Directory will be available to member s of the Seaplane Pilots Association for $ 6 . plus $ 1 for postage and handling . Nonmembers may purchase the Directory for $1 0. plus the postage and handling charge . Membership in the Association . which is admini stered by Aircraft Own ers and Pilots Association . is $ 25 a year. Write Seaplane Pilots Association . 421 Aviation Way . Frederick . Maryland 21701; telephone 301 /695 -2083 .
Friendly Visit * A delegation of IFATCA (International Federation of Air Traffi c Controllers ' Associations) headed by the President of th e Federation . Harri Henschler. paid a friendly visit to thi s country on the invitation of the Central Committee of Civil Aviation Workers Union . Our guests visited the Aca demy of Civil Aviation where they became acquainted with th e system of education of air t raffic controll ers. labor and rest co nditions of Soviet air traff ic controllers . Members of the delegat ion visited place s of intere st in Leningrad . • As reported in 'Vozdushniy Transport· Our correspondent
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European Regional Meeting at Maastricht 27-28
by Philippe Domagala (Eurocontrol Guild)
The first IFATCA combined European Regional Meeting was organized by EGATS and took place in the Euromotel during the last weekend of October. The meeting was attended by 45 delegates representing 21 countries and two members of the IFATCA Executive Board , viz. Mr. P. Doherty, Executive Secretary and Mr. E. Sermijn, Vice-President Professional. Chairman was Mr . A. Enright, Regional Vice-President IFATCA Europe West . Various subjects, such as ICAO strategies/ plans and flow control , were under discussion . Each Associ-
ation was given the opportunity to address the other representatives with its specific problems. EGATS has expressed strong concern with respect to early retirement and has called in the assistance of those Associations which already enjoy such a scheme , in order to form (another) serious dossier on the matter. In the near future Yugoslavia, Iceland and the United Kingdom (GATCO) will , among others , be of some help . The Netherlands Guild has developed an interesting point of view. i.e. they are in favor of transfer of all ATC
en route tasks to Eurocontrol, but transfer should take place at Schipho l not at Maastricht. It was also declared that the Amsterdam ACC is presently understaffed ; 62 controllers while there should be 7 4 . . Interesting statistics were provided with respect to flow control : in the summer of 1983 11 % of the aircraft were delayed 22 minutes on an avera~e, whereas _in summer 1 984 only 6 Yoof the traffic was delayed 1 8 minutes on average . Now the bad news . In the summer of 1986 the main traffic flow will be ~hitting from Spain to Greece . which 1mpl1es more traffic in the Brussels sectors departing from the United Kingdom . In addition the authorities of the tJnited Kingdom reorgan ize the London TMA. What is bad about that you might ask? Well . this reorganization doesn ' t aim at the prevention of traffic bunches on UG 1 . but should increase the capacity of London airports by at least 40 % ! The meeting went by very smoothly, thanks to Kees Scholts and the financial expertise of Fred le Noble - all delegates expressed the ir satisfaction. The free time was nicely filled with a welcome drink . sponsored by the Eurocontrol Agency , the Amro Bank and EGATS (Mr. Von Villiez addressed the delegates in the name of the director general), and by a farewell party at Limbr icht Castle . where everyone could show his skill on the bowling lanes. Since all participants were shown the Operations Room of the Maastrich t UAC. it can be said that the meeting was a good public relations exercise. I personally must thank all who contributed to this successful event: the complete EGATS Executive Board . M essrs . Von Vil liez, Du biel. Cox. Tuts, Mr s. Nymeijer, the Euromotel staff and last but not least. the EGATS members who were always present when you needed them : Me ssrs. Bog ers, van Hoogdalem , Behier and Pieneman .
It Pays You to Advertise â€˘
The Controller' 13
AOPA's Nashville Convention
. An · overwhelming success· is how Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association President John L. Baker described AOPA's 29th Annual Convention and Industry Exhibit in Nashville. Tennessee. which saw more than 3.000 pilots take part in a variety of programs. seminars. exhibits and activities. The e~ent was highlighte~ by a presentation from FAA Administrator Donald D. Engen who told an audience of more than one thousand AOPA members that 'General aviation is as important a part of our nation's transportation system as any other segment' and that · ... although AOPA and FAA have at times disagreed on a few issues - my view is that AOPA has been one of the most supportive groups of FAA and what the FAA is trying to do for aviation in our country'. The 29th edition of the associ~tion· s ~onvention. formerly called the Plantation Party'. was filled with nearly fifty different seminars and O!her programs designed to appeal to aircr~ft o"'."ners. renters. high- and low-time pilots. business and pleasure flyers. young and old. Sessions ranged from how to save money on maintenance to politics for pilots to a myriad ?f operational and safety programs. The attendance at the various programs was the best I can remember.· ~ommented Baker. who added. AOPA'_smembership is comprised of people in every conceivable social and ~rofessional category and. for the first time ever. our program schedule reflect~d nearly everyone· s flying interests. More than 160 people took part in seven flight training programs conducted by the AOPA Air Safety Foundation. Additionally. close to 2.000 AOPA members attended another seven ASF safety seminars. During the four-day event. AOPA rl"!embers from as far away as California and South America converged on Nashville Metropolitan Airport in more than 300 general aviation aircraft. 14
According to airport authorities. it was the most airplanes Nashville Metro has ever had before- at one time. Additionally. more than 34 different general aviation aircraft were on display at Nashville Metro. and AOPA members were treated to the latest in new avionics and other aviation wares from 1 76 different manufacturers in the convention center' s massive exhibit hall. There also were 20 different product demonstrations during the four-day event. During his presentation. Administrator Engen referred to the recent rash of delays and airport congestion problems and said. ·1 am against any proposal to discriminate against any segment of aviation at any airport'. He also said he was opposed to suggestions that general aviation should either be banned or priced out of airports. However. the FAA chief did call the current airport capacity problem a · crisis' and said. · ... that crisis will continue to spread - unless the aviation community begins to address it today·. He predicted that left untreated. there could be as many as 60 capacity-constrained air carrier airports and another 40 to 45 congested general aviation airports by the year 2000. Said Engen: ·we need to begin now to improve our major air carrier airports. We need to begin now to improve our system of reliever airports. If we wait - if we procrastinate - if we allow the future to catch us unawareaviation will suffer- we pilots will suffer.· Of major concern to AOPA members is FAA's policy regarding implementation of Microwave Landing Systems (MLSs) and the premature closure of Flight Services Stations (FSSs). Although the FAA Administrator clearly is supportive of conversion from ILS to MLS and. in fact told his audience his agency is studying ways to ·accelerate' the MLS program. he did say that given the long lead time required for full implementation of MLS. he has reconsidered the agency's previous position and has ·directed the agency to look for funding to pay for some new (ILS) installations·. Engen also said he wanted to make absolutely certain that the FAA was
going about FSS consolidation in the way 'best suited to serving our users· and that. therefore. he has decided to increase the time it will take before FAA accomplishes its FSS consolidation goals. ·1 have done this to accommodate the public. allow better planning for our employees. and because we need to better develop some of our new equipment and software.· In all. AOPA's Baker said he was 'pleased and encouraged' by the administrator's remarks. 'Even though there are still some areas where we disagree with the Administrator. it seems clear that our voice is being heard and our concerns are being acknowledged.' Baker also said he agreed with the Administrator's call for the aviation community to present a united front in the battle to protect airports. Said Engen: 'The entire aviation community mu~t develop a basic working strategy designed to help educate the public at \arge a~ to why an airport system is Just ~s important to a community as our highway and our rail systems. We need to. organize a community-bycorl"!munity. _state-by-state strategy dedicated to implementing our state and national airport system plans.· ~ng~n called AOPA ·uniquely qualified to play a lead role in such an effort and said his agency is prepared to support the association's efforts 'within th~ parameters of our agency's congressional mandate'. Since 1979. AOPA has been closely involved in local and state aviation effort~ through its Regional Representative program which now boasts ~ine highly qualified people. At a meeting between the association's field representatives and AOPA staff members at the Nashville convention the protection of public-use airport~ was isolated as one of the most critical issues of the 80s. E_arlierin the week. AOPA's Baker. at his annual State of the Association Address to members. noted that. on average. nearly 114 public-use airports ~lose their runways every year. Following ~heAdministrator's speech. Ba~er sa1~. ·AOPA. through its regional field representatives. will continue to work closely with local pilots .. a~iation organizations. airport commissions. state aeronautics departments and the FAA in the battle against the problem of disappearing airports'. He also invited all other national and local aviation organizations to join AOPA in its efforts. Next year. AOPA will hold its 30th Ann_u?I. Convention and Industry Exh1b1tin Washington. DC. in early October.
A Look at Hong Kong's New Message Distribution System Data provided by Civil Aviation Department of Hong Kong From '/CAO Bulletin '
Phase I is now complete , computerized operation is under way; Phase II will be completed by year's end ... Our Civil Aviation Department operates an Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunications Network (AFTN) Center in accordance with ICAO standards and practices at the Hong Kong International Airport. This 'Aerofixed' Center handles telegraph messages primarily concerning flight safety, meteorology and those essential for regular and economical air operations. Being part of the AFTN, the Center has direct links with other major international airports in the region . To facilitate the handling of messages , a distribution system was provided over 20 years ago ( 1963), operating initially in a semi-automatic mode ; subsequently, it was converted into fully automatic operation in early 1969. It employs mainly electromechanical switching devices and storage elements in the form of ferrite cores . And it uses the store-and-forward method and the principle of 'first come first served ' for message handling, with due regard to the priority designation of the message. Although this system has continued to give good service, wear and tear on the electromagnetic components and the lack of vital spare parts was becoming a major problem in maintaining continuous operation of the system. A replacement program was therefore initiated in 197 7 . As the preliminary stage of planning for the replacement, various overseas visits were made to study other similar centers employing up-todate computerized equipment. Valuable operational / technical information a nd advice had been collected so as to enable the Department to firm up ~fc~~quirement s. Furthermore , techassistance was obtained from ICAO under the United Nations Development Programme in the initial investI gation pha se That study supported replacement of the old system at an early stage. Following finan c ial approval of this replacement project, a tendering exercise was initiated in 1 981 and an exten sive evaluation effort for a short list was then conducted on the pro-
posals received . Visits to the manufacturers and operational stations were made to assess the short listed proposals in depth . Finally, after a second equally thorough evaluation exercise based upon technical , operational and cost considerations, the Thomson-TITN DS6 / 200 system was selected in 1982 , at a contract sum of about US $1 .6 million . The new system is designed to handle a maximum throughput of more than 3,600 messages per hour , or 54,000 messages per day, which should meet the planned operational life of 1 5 years . The current daily traf fic is about 15 ,000 messages . The system consists of two processing chains in active and hot-standby mode . Each chain consists of a 1 6-bit minicomputer with 256 kilobytes of semiconductor central memory and a 2-megabyte fixed-head disk . The common equipment to be connected to either one of the chains are 64 low-speed and 1 6 mediumspeed lines, 11 video display units (VDU) , 4 magnetic tape drives and a line printer. The switchover between the two processing chains and their recovery on the detection of faults are fully automatic , with no message loss and no apparent operational interruption . Reliability of the system is further enhanced with dual uninterrupted power supplies and duplicated d-c regulators . There is also a third process ing chain of similar configuration for hardware and software maintenan ce. The software is based on a developed and proven AFTN package called AIRCOM . Custom developments include certain special local AFTN procedures. the handling of Aeromobile operation . automatic Region al OPM ET (Operational Meteorologic al) Bullet in Exc hange (ROBEX) compilation and dissem ination , and assistance to message preparation facilities . Implement at ion of soft ware is divided into two phases, Phase I deals mainly with the replacement of t he existing Philips ES3 system, w it h useful additional feat ures like automatic detection of message errors and generation of service messages , auto -
Hong Kong Interna tional Airport's automatic message dis tribution system was offically inaugurated by D irector of Civil Aviation Trevor Thorp e (foreground, touching VDU) early last March. matic message ret rieval from disk or magnetic tape, archive on magnetic tape and journal on printer , system overflow and route overflow onto tape , etc . Phase II of t he im plementation program incorporate s the automatic ROBEX hand ling and assis tance to message preparation facil itie s in the new system. The additional features enable a possible reduction of manning without sacrificing the very high degree of vig ilance demanded by the handl ing of flight safety traffic. To accommodate the new procedur e necess ary for the opera t ion of the computerized system require s a change of operational mode from t he old telephone switchb oard type into a computerized environment employing VDUs . The layouts of all the operational consoles are designed in suc h a way as to optimize the space avail able and to simplify the operation al procedures. The noise level of the new cen te r is kept to a minimum by the use of quieter teleprinters and the facili ty is fitted with noise-absorben t m at erial . The equipment wa s inst alled in Au g ust 1983. On-site testing of Phase-I software started in Nove mber 1983 with all incom ing c ircui ts in parallel to both the old and new system and certain outgoin g c irc uit s o n teleprinters for monitorin g pur poses. To further redu ce the risk of system outage due to swit c h over fr om th e o ld to the new system . out goi ng c irc uits were connec t ed to the new system one by one for th e testing of proper handsh ake rou t ine w it h ot her overseas cent ers. The act ual c ut over was t hen made smooth ly w ith litt le inte rruption to ope rat ion and no traffic or me ssage loss . Al l t raff ic has been ha ndled by the new system since 13 February 1984 . It is expected that the Phase-I I pro gram wi ll be completed by the end of th e year.
the nature of the responsibilities involved nevertheless remains basically the same. Efficient working arrangements within individual States have underlined a number of common factors which contribute to a sound organizational base. The main considerations are coordination of AIS HQ with: a) related technical services; b) the international NOTAM office (NOF); c) aerodrome AIS units; d) the cartographic services; e) the printing and distribution services; and efficient communication facilities, particularly teletypewriter links, for this coordination to function effectively (Appendix B, Information Flow Chart). In order to fulfill efficiently the dual role of collecting and promulgating information from and to all concerned, an AIS should establish and maintain a direct and continuous liaison with other related services as follows: i) the aeronautical information services of all other States from which it is necessary to receive information to meet operational requirements within the State for route planning and pre-flight information;
Establishment of AIS on Sound Organizational Base
The object of the aeronautical information service (AIS) as stated in Annex 15 (Aeronautical Information Services), is to ensure the flow of information necessary for the safety, regularity and efficiency of international air navigation. The most obvious user of aeronautical information is the pilot. A second category of user represents those engaged in airline operational control, chart and document producing agencies and the air traffic services. AIS is thus technically orientated in the nature of the service it provides. Consequently the aim must be to promote the correct level of technical proficiency within AIS and to accord it the appropriate status in the civil aviation administration, so as to ensure the necessary priorities and
liaison. Alternative suggestions for location of AIS in the administrative structure are shown in Appendix A. As with any other aeronautical service, such as air traffic control and telecommunications, adequate resources are essential to AIS. Qualified staff in sufficient number, suitable accommodation and the necessary equipment are a prerequisite to safe and expeditious provision of aeronautical information.
Organization of Structure and Resources The volume of aircraft operations and the extent to which civil aviation facilities are provided will determine the size and scope of a State's AIS. While the amount of information to be processed will vary from State to State APPENDIX A
LOCATION OF AIS WITHIN THE AVIATION ADMINISTRATION
A Is HEADQUARTERS
CIVIL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION
COPY PREPARATION ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS
INTERNATIONAL NOTAM OFFICE (NOF)
Oporotlng Function• Othor dcpo,tmcnt1
AIS AERODROME UNITS
FLOWCHART A I S HEADQUARTERS
AGA,ATS COM,MET -----·
INTERNATIONAL NOTAM OFFICE (NOF)
AIR NAVIGATION SERVICES
____ . ,,,,,,,----------~---------------------\~------/
, I I ,.. AIS AERODROME UNITS , .._.__ ___.
k, -, ----.
___ ...,_Liaison with
AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES
j STATES, OPERATORS,Eto, I
ii) all technical services within the State which are directly concerned with the provision and maintenance of the various air navigational facilities. services and procedures; this. in turn. is necessary to ensure timely promulgation of all significant information both within the State and to other States as required; iii) the military services within the State. as necessary. to receive and promulgate information concerning navigation warnings (exercises. etc.) or any special military facilities or procedures available to or affecting civil aviation; iv) the air traffic services of the State. to ensure immediate transmission of all required information to those services for air traffic control and in-flight information purposes; v) all aircraft operating agencies conducting operations in or through the State to ensure that route planning and pre-flight information requirements are adequately met; vi) any other services which may either be a source of information of interest to civil aviation or which have a legitimate reason for requiring information about civil aviation.
establish the levels and sources from which information can be gathered reliably; ensure that new or changed information is promptly made available to the AIS headquarters unit for processing and dissemination. with special regard to the requirements of the regulated (AIRAC) system of advance notification; ensure accuracy in the raw information notified to the AIS as well as immediate notification of errors or omissions in published aeronautical information. For organizational purposes the general principles of line structure and information flow are shown in Appendix B. These should be adapted to meet local needs. For example. the smaller aviation State may find it more convenient and economical to locate the whole AIS organization at the main international airport. Having the AIS headquarters and international NOTAM office in one place facilitates the receipt. checking and dispatch of information. It also reduces the number of units to be administered separately as well as reducing the number of records and reference documents which have to be maintained. Collocation of this organization with the main aerodrome AIS unit introduces a further saving in these factors. Also. To ensure promptness and accu- printing and distribution services are racy in the dissemination of aeronaut- normally quicker and more economiical information. each of the services cal if they are placed under the direct responsible for providing AIS with raw control of AIS. either within the AIS information should designate individ- organization or by means of local conuals who are responsible for main- tract. taining direct and continuous liaison A general guide as to the probable with AIS. Additionally. direct liaison at minimum requirements for staff and a lower level should be arranged and accommodation is given in the local agreements established where following table: necessary between aerodrome AIS The following minimum facilities units and local authorities in the AGA. and equipment should be provided for COM. MET. RAC. SAR and FAL fields each international NOTAM office responsible f~r the origination of current information on aerodrome conditions and services. including the Technical serviceability and operational status of Officers visual and non-visual aids and the state of the maneuvering area. This is Headquarters to ensure the fast promulgation by AIS 2 Large of temporary information of concern in the approach. landing and departure Small phases of flight. Arrangements wit_h other States NOTAM Office (24 hours) should provide for a single channel to be used for the flow of all information Large 5-6 required. This should include. for 4 example. topographic data necessary Small to the preparation of aeronautical charts. AIP. NOTAM. etc .. delivered Aerodrome AIS Unit to foreign subscribers should. howMajor Airport (24 hours)5-6 ever. be sent direct to the subscriber's address. Airport (limited hours) 1+ In general. the objectives should be to:
(NOF) and aerodrome AIS unit in addition to basic furnishings: a) adequate table counter space for processing information; b) adequate filing/card index systems; c) full teletypewriter service (receive and transmit) linked to the AFTN; d) typewriter; e) telephone; f) a reliable clock and. for the NOF. a recording time-stamp clock. both showing GMT. Where appropriate. a second clock should be provided showing local time; g) reference charts and documents. modified as necessary for the NOF if direct access to AIS HQ reference material is not available. Annex 15 requires that Âˇan aeronautical information service shall arrange. as necessary. to satisfy operational requirements. for the issuance and receipt of NOTAM distributed by telecommunication.' For organizational purposes this usually means that the international NOTAM office (NOF) needs to be manned on a 24hour basis. the NOF being the focal point within a State for the issue and receipt of NOTAM Class I to and from other States. The provisions of Annex 15 are applicable to all types of international civil aviation. and this includes the special requirements of international general aviation. It is impossible for an aeronautical information service to meet the need for in-flight information (cf. Annex 15. 3.1.2) unless the service is available during the period when an aircraft is in flight in the area of responsibility of that service. Further. the requirement in Annex 15. paragraph 3.3.3. for an aeronautical information service to Âˇ arrange. as necessary. to satisfy operational requirements for the issuance and reClerical Officers
Space Square meters (Square feet) 28-93+
14 ( 150) 28-37
( 1 50) 5-6
14 ( 150) 17
ceipt of NOTAM distributed by telecommunicationÂˇ implies extension of service to meet the operational requirements when this is necessary. Where 24-hour service is not provided. service must. therefore. be available during the whole period an aircraft is in flight in the area of responsibility of an aeronautical information service. plus a period of at least two hours before and after an aircraft enters or leaves the area of responsibility. In addition. the service must also be available at such other time as may be requested by any ground organization legitimately requiring aeronautical information necessary for the safety. regularity or efficiency of international flight operations. provided that the information sought falls within the responsibility of the service. and is relative to a route stage originating at an aerodrome within its area of responsibility. Units of the service affec-
ted by such extensions of service would normally be the International NOTAM Office and any aerodrome AIS unit concerned with the flight operation.
The Self-briefing Concept The obligations upon Member States concerning the provision of pre-flight information are contained in Annex 1 5. Advice on implementation of these Standards and Recommended Practices is set out in the AIS Manual. At any aerodrome normally used for international air operations. aeronautical information essential to the safety. regularity and efficiency of air navigation and relative to the route stages originating at the aerodrome shall be made available to flight operations personnel. including flight crews and services responsible for pre-flight information. This specification includes all aerodromes designated for regular use by international commercial air transport as listed in the relevant ICAO Regional Plan. any aerodromes serving as alternates to those regular aerodromes and any additional international airports. i.e. airports of entry or departure for international flights. For this purpose the services provided by an AIS aerodrome unit should be organized in such a way as to facilitate self-briefing. especially on the part of crews familiar with the routes being flown. Efficient application of resources in terms of personnel. accommodation 18
and equipment is especially important in the operation of an AIS aerodrome unit and the self-briefing service which it provides. Since the user of the service actively participates in the acquisition of information a logical order of information display. which meets the usersÂˇ requirements. is fundamental to the self-briefing concept. A general guide as to the probable minimum requirements for staff and accommodation is given in the working paper dealing with Agenda Item 2a. Staff assigned to AIS aerodrome units should have received specialist training in accordance with the relevant tasks and duties described in the working paper dealing with Item 2e. A survey of user requirements should be carried out in order to identify the information coverage zone. For each established AIS aerodrome unit the geographic area and/ or the air routes for which aeronautical information is to be available must be determined and periodically reviewed as changes take place. or are anticipated in. the air traffic patterns. The general types of information to be held for each coverage zone are contained in Annex 15. A more detailed list is provided in the AIS Manual. together with the basic reference charts and documents required.
For an efficient self-briefing service. the physical layout of an AIS aerodrome unit should ensure that: a) briefing material relating to major facilities. ATC schemes and navigation warnings. are displayed on maps and charts to the greatest extent possible: b) basic reference material (NOTAM. Aeronautical Information Publications. Information Circulars. etc.) are readily available for examination with a minimum amount of contact with briefing personnel: c) suitable space and work tables are available for the study of documentary material. plotting and the planning of flight operations; d) the displays and other facilities in the briefing room are. in so far as possible. arranged in a logical seque~ce so that personnel using the service may proceed easily; this would be facilitated by a separate entrance and exit. The provision of daily pre-flight information bulletins is of primary significance in a self-briefing service. Printed plain language bulletins. for collection by pilots. containing current information concerning the status of facilities and services should be provided on an area or route basis. accompanied by an update display of cha~ge~ occurring between daily publication cycles. Navigation warnings contained in bulletins should be supplemented. for ease of reference. with a visual display. normally carried on a wall chart with a transparent covering for depiction and annotation of warnings. Amongst the more essential equipment requirements for bulletin production are adequate filing. typewriting and duplicating facilities. Current information. in the form of NOTAM and aeronautical information publications. should be held available in respect of all countries in the coverage zone. In the best-organized self-briefing units questions concerning pre-flight in~ormation will arise. Flight operations personnel should therefore have access to an AIS technical officer. to answer relevant enquiries. at all times during the hours of aerodrome operation. The pre-flight information service should be conveniently accessible to flight operations personnel and close to other aerodrome flight services so as to provide maximum facility for selfbriefing. (Working Paper presented by /CAO at the A/S Seminar in Cyprus. November 1984)
Establishment of the Canadian Aviation Safety Board
Background to Civil Aviation in Canada Civil aviation has played an essential role in the development of Canada in past years. The scale of air activity in Canada can be appreciated by this brief overview of selected statistics:
Commission of Inquiry into Aviation Safety in Canada In August 1979. an Order-inCouncil appointed Mr. Justice Charles Dubin as Commissioner to conduct an inquiry into aviation safety in Canada. This decision was taken because of concern which had been expressed in there are over 50 million enplaned relation to the adequacy of federal and deplaned passengers annually law. regulations. rules. practices and at Canadian airports: procedures governing aviation safety there are over 1.200 licensed air- in Canada. together with other asports in Canada. Transport Canada pects of airworthiness. aircraft mainis involved. either through direct tenance and the adequacy of accident operation orfinancial assistance. in investigation and the reporting of aviexcess of 250 airports. ation incidents. there are over 1â€˘ 100 certified One of the primary recommenCanadian air carriers. and almost dations of this Commission of Inquiry 1.000 carriers of foreign jurisdic- was the establishment of an aviation tion operate in and out of our air- safety tribunal. to be independent of ports. The Canadian carriers range all other Government departments in size from the major ones. Air and agencies. This extract. taken from Canada and CP Air. to the regional the Commission's final report is pertiand smaller carriers. the latter nent: serving many of the remote areas of 'No aviation system can achieve the country: safety in absolute terms. yet the obthere are approximately 81 .OOO jective of the Air Administration (of pilots and other licensed personnel Transport Canada) must be to seek in Canada. This includes about such a goal. It is realistic to anticipate 18.000 qualified as professional that there will be failures in any avipilots and in the order of 14.000 ation safety system. but it is the analystudent pilots with permits: sis of such failures which can deterthere are approximately 25.000 mine the weakness of the system. and registered civil aircraft in Canada: from which analysis steps can be put for most of the past decade. there into place to strengthen it. The analyhave been about 700 accidents sis of the aviation safety system must per year involving Canadian regis- be that of an independent tribunal. tered aircraft. Recently. the num- The function of the tribunal should be ber has declined to about 500. This much more than the investigation and is partly due to the economic re- reporting of accidents and incidents. cession. which led to less flying. as important as that function is. Such and partly due to improved safety: activities are merely steps to be taken the Canadian aerospace industry towards the ultimate objective of the employs over 40.000 people on an tribunal which should be that of acciaverage and the annual sales from dent prevention. The tribunal's sole the industry were in the order of concern must be that of aviation one and a half billion dollars in safety.' 1981; the revenue generated by the air carriers exceeded four and a half Establishment of the Canadian billion dollars in 1981 with over Aviation Safety Board In July 1981. Cabinet approval 40.000 people employed by the was given to the strong recommenairlines.
dation made in the Dubin Commission Report. Volume I. to create a Canadian Aviation Safety Board. The drafting of legislation was commenced. which closely followed the detailed recommendations of the Dubin Report. In retrospect. it may be of interest to note that the concept of an independent aviation safety organization for Canada was developed long before the Dubin Commission of Inquiry in 1980/ 81. These highlights are pertinent: in 1972/73 a Report on Transportation Accident Investigation was prepared by Brigadier General Mclearn and it recommended that the creation of an independent transportation and safety board would be the only effective means of eliminating or substantially reducing the existing risks of conflict of interest: in 1975. Cabinet approval in principle was given to the establishment of an independent investigation organization: in 1976. pending the development of legislation to establish a truly independent accident investigation board. an Aircraft Accident Review Board was established. which reported directly to the Minister of Transport: the Board was intended to undertake independent and objective reviews of the proceedings of accident investigations and the final reports of all major accidents and others considered to be of high public interest or sensitivity: in February 1979 - a Bill was introduced in Parliament entitled The Transportation Accident Investigation Act. which would have established an independent board to deal with multimodal forms of transportation. and not just civil aviation by itself: unfortunately. the proposed legislation Âˇ died on the Order Paper' in Parliament in March 1979: in June 1983. legislation which had been developed in accordance with the Dubin Commission Report was tabled in Parliament. leading to the establishment of the Canadian Aviation Safety Board: on 18 April 1984. the Canadian Aviation Safety Board was proclaimed into law and the new Board became operational on 1 October 1984; furthermore. a chairman and six members have been appointed; the nucleus of the new board comes from the existing Aviation Safety Bureau in Transport Canada which. for many years. investigated aircraft accidents and incidents under powers delegated by the Minister of Transport. 19
Object of the Board The object of the Canadian Aviation Safety Board is clearly defined in the Act as follows: i) to advance aviation safety by identifying safety deficiencies as evidenced by aviation occurrences; ii) to conduct independent investigations and, if necessary, inquiries into those aviation occurrences in order to make findings as to their contributing factors and causes; and iii) to report publicly on those investigations and inquiries and on the findings [n relation thereto, and to make recommendations designed to eliminate or reduce safety deficiencies. Comprehensive Occurrence Reporting System Another major recommendation of the Dubin Commission of Inquiry was to include a voluntary incident reporting system within the mandate of the Canadian Aviation Safety Board. A special advisory committee to the Minister of Transport recommended acceptance of the proposal. A detailed study was carried out to determine the feasibility of introducing a comprehensive occurrence reporting system in Canada, which would include both voluntary and mandatory reporting. A special project team was set up in May 1983, within the Aviation Safety Bureau of Transport Canada, to develop the comprehensive occurrence reporting system. An aviation occurrence is defined as any accident or incident or any situation or condition which could, if left unattended, induce an accident or incident. . When the system is developed and implemented, the following objectives will apply:
i) Mandatory occurrence reporting this system will provide the necessary information for the timely investigation by the Board of accidents and certain categories of incidents in order that safety deficiencies be identified. ii) Voluntary occurrence reporting this system will enable the Board to collect Âˇ safety information which, without the guarantee of protection/ confidentiality that is intended, would otherwise never be reported. Confidentiality is an important, integral part of the new system which may encourage members of the aviation industry to contribute to the compilation of aviation safety deficiency data, in the interest of aviation safety.
Overview of the Board The introduction of the Canadian Aviation Safety Board marks a significant step in the advancement of aviation safety in Canada. These selected highlights may be of interest in understanding the role and powers of the new board: a) the Board is unimodal air, although the inclusion of other modes of transportation could be the subject of amended legislation some time in the future; b) the Board is neither a judicial nor a regulatory authority; c) the Board has the exclusive jurisdiction to determine contributing factors and causes in any civil aviation occurrence that it investigates; d) the Board is empowered to hold public inquiries into aviation occurrences; e) the Board must make its reports public, and whenever possible, include recommendations; f) regulatory agencies are required by law to respond to the Board's recommendations within 90 days.
AOPA Unveils Capacity Recommendations Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA), the largest civil aviation organization in the world with a membership exceeding 270,000 general aviation pilots, has made public its recommendations to help reduce overall air traffic delays and begin to solve current and future aviation capacity constraints. According to AOPA President John L. Baker, the program identifies the real problems at hand and offers realistic, constructive solutions. The nine-point program is designed to ensure that the users of aviation no longer are inconvenienced by lengthy delays and puts in place a realistic foundation upon which an air transportation system, capable of serving the ever increasing needs of an aggressive, on-the-move society, can be built. 'People want to fly - they need to fly,' Baker said in a speech to the National Aviation Club in Washington, DC, 'but because of social decisions made more than a decade ago (not to increase airport capacity in major metropolitan areas), their ability to fly efficiently has slowly been eroded. If aviation is to continue to be the principal medium- and long-range mode of transportation. it is time for the different segments of the aviation community to put aside their selfish narrow
interests, collectively begin concentrating on the real issues at hand, and set the pace for aviation's future.' The recommendations, which address near-, mid- and long-term aviation capacity problems, seek to put into place steps to ensure maximum utilization of existing air traffic system and airport capacity; improve the efficiency of flight operations by keeping pilots informed regarding airport and airway capacity changes; and, the establishment of an open line of continuous communications among major aviation representatives. 'It is essential that those of us who influence aviation's current and future direction talk to each other on a regular basis,' said the AOPA president. 'This is the only way potential problems can be correctly diagnosed and avoided.' To accomplish this, AOPA recommends the formation of the (FAA) Administrator's Executive Committee comprised of presidents and CEOs of major aviation trade associations, air carriers and military interest~ which would meet on a quarterly basis. Additionally, specific recommendations are offered to improve and make more efficient the nation's air traffic control system. Included is the expansion of the 'tower enroute' program, amending, consistent with safety, aircraft separation criteria, a reduction in special-use as well as FAA-controlled airspace and the installation of Instrument Landing Systems (ILSs) at reliever airports. 'By and large. delays and capacity constraints are caused by the lack of suitable landing facilities, not a lack of airspace,' said Baker. 'Nonetheless adjustments can be made in air t~affic procedures which will ease the burden on the flow of traffic yet still provide a more than adequate margin of safety for everyone,' he added. Significant are the recommendati~ns regarding airports which, accord1_ngto Baker. address long-term ~olut1ons to the capacity problem. We h~ve. come a long way since 1903, said Baker. 'yet. in all of our wisd_om._wehave failed to provide the public _w,th adequate airport facilities in maJor metropolitan areas. There just are not enough of them in the locations where they' re most needed and the ones we have are not adequate,' he added. Included are recommendations to dedicate more money from the Aviation Trust Fund to metropolitan airport improvements which should include the construction of new 4.000- Âˇ to 5.000-foot runways. high speed turnoffs and additional taxiways. The AOPA president recommends that a
minimum of 50 percent of Airport Improvement Program (AIP) funds for primary. major air carrier airports should be earmarked for capacity enhancements . The AOPA president said that the association· s recommendations have been delivered to FAA Administrator Donald D . Engen. Transportation Secretary Elizabeth Dole and all 535 members of Congress . · It is our hope. · said Baker. 'that the (FAA) administrator will. as soon as practical. convene a meeting of interested parties so that these recommendations can be openly and honestly discussed and their initial implementation begun as soon as possible .'
Edge GATCO President Mr . E.G.H . 'Edge · Green has been appointed President of the Guild of Air Traffic Control Officers . Edge Green's career as an air traffic control officer dates from 1 960, following a period of ten years as a navigator in civil aviation . In addition to service at Heathrow Airport and London Air Traffic Control Centre. he has spent periods on secondment to the United States Air Force and as a Technical Adviser in Ghana . For the past four years he has fulfilled a number of management posts at the Field Headquarters of the National Air Traffic Services at Uxbridge . Edge Green has been active in the affairs of the Guild since 1970. He served on the Court and the Executive Council of the Guild for 8 years. including a year as President of the Guild's London Region . For the past six years he has represented the Guild 's interests in the International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers · Associations (IFATCA). and has led the Guild 's delegation to a number of international conferences. He has also represe nted IFATCA on the Air Traffic Services Study Group of the pilots· international federation . IFALPA . Married . with two daughters . Edge Green lives in Maidenhead .
Slow Flight for Safe Flight
In which phases of flight are general aviation accidents most likely to occur? According to the NTSB . 65 percent of the reportable airplane accidents occur during takeoffs and landings. In these two phases of flight . airspeed is low and pilot attention is often diverted to other tasks. Pilots who are skillful and confident in operating an airplane at slow speeds can easily avert the dangers that can confront the hapless pilot unable to handle an airplane at minimum controllable airspeeds. With a little training and practice. pilots can recognize that their airplane is approaching, or has attained . a critically low airspeed. and learn how to control the airplane at speeds just above stall. But learning to fly safely at low airspeeds involves more than merely showing how slowly the airplane can be flown . We should also study such areas as airplane attitude at minimum controllable airspeed. power required versus airspeed produced ; trim needed . control effectiveness; turns and rate of turn compared to degree of bank ; stall as a result of level turn; effects of flap extension and retraction; descents and descending turns; climbs and climbing turn s. and go around procedures . So you can see. there are a lot of things to consider in the realm of flight at minimum controllable airspeed . The discussion presented in this article is excerpted from a General Aviation Accident Prevention Program safety bulletin. The bulletin outlines FAA-approved procedures formulated for the use of flight instructors in introducing students to flight at minimum controllable airspeed. While the procedures could also be utilized by an experienced pilot to increase and maintain his proficiency . it is strongly recommended that pilots first review the procedures with a flight instru ctor. As a general word of caution. all ~low -fl ight maneuvers shou ld be practiced at an altitude sufficient for safe recovery in the event of an inadvertent sta ll. The ' minimum contro llable airspeed' for the aircra ft you are flying is not a set figure. It wil l vary with loading
configuration . power setting. and pilot technique . It is best described . however , as a speed just above stall or a point at which a further reduction in airspeed . or an increase in angle of attack or load factor . will cause an immediate physical indication of a stall. Let's go through a slow-flight procedure . In cruise flight at cruising airspeed. use the rudder . aileron and elevator. noting the pressure applied and the response rate. Then. while maintaining heading arid altitude . reduce power . slowing the airplane t o minimum controllable airspeed. As speed is reduced . note changes in pitch . A change in pitch attitude is needed in order to maintain attitude. There will be a point at which pitch change alone does not increase lift to the point that altitude can be maintained . Power must be added. Next. recognize that the airplane is c lose to operating limit s: sight. sound. and feeling . The pitch att it ude of the nose. the angle of the wingtips in ref erence to t he horizon . the sound of the engine compared to a reduc t ion in wind noise. the lowered resistance to control pressures . and the lack of elevator and rudder t rim all indicate that the airplane is at a low speed. Everything still affects t he airplane the same way. with referen ce to control movements . except that greater control movement is neede d to produce the same rates of response that were obtained at cru ise speed. Roll into a medium-banked turn to show that the airplane is maneuverable even at low airspeed. The medium bank will resul t in a high rate of turn at th is low airspeed. It will seem as though the airp lane is alm ost pivoting arou nd a point on the ground. The turn made at med ium bank also demonstrates that a level turn does increase stall speed and. un less power is added. a stall w ill occur soon after the turn is established. When the first indication of a stall is felt. recover by simultaneously reducing the angle of attack. adding power and rolling out of the turn. Return to straight-and-level flight and again set up minimum control-
!able airspeed to demonstrate why proper coordination of rudder and aileron in turn entry and reco very is important. By using aileron only toestablish a banked attitude. the application of left aileron causes the nose to swing. or 'yaw' to the right. The wingtip can also be used as a reference to show yaw. As left aileron is used. the right w ingtip wo uld appear to move aft. Finally . use both aileron and rudder cont rol to show how entries and recoveries are properl y executed. Next on the list is demonstration of the effects of flaps on m inimum controllable airspeed and airplane attitude. Extending full flaps will cause the airplane to balloon above the desired altitude. Drag also resu lts from flap extensio n. As the airplane decelerates, lift is reduced. After flap extension. and when all forces are again stabilized. the airplane will have a new, lower, minimum controllable airspeed and a different pitch attitude for level flight. The power set ting may be the same as befo re the flaps were added; or. if a power change is needed to maintain level flight, it wi ll be a small one. When the airplane is established in straight-and-leve l flight w ith the fl aps down. turns can be demonstrated. again noting response rates to control pressures and high rate of t urn produced by medium banked turns. Descents can be performed by reducing power while maintaining airspeed . While descending. turns to the right and left should be practiced . Now. power can be applied to cl imb . At this time. if the airspeed has been allowed to get excess ively low. it may
Practicing flight at minimum controllable airspeed takes a few minutes to go through , so be alert for indications of engine overheating, as indicated by cylinder head or oil temperatures . If the airplane is equipped with cowl flaps, use them to keep temperatures within limits . If no cowl flaps are installed, it may be necessary to increase speed for cooling . By practicing flight at minimum controllable airspeed. pilots will become competent and confident in their ability to control the airplane . By applying the knowledge gained through practice, pilots can escape the hazards that are potential threats during takeoff and landing .
IFATCA Executive Board Visits Maastricht UAC On Friday 5 October, 1984 the IFATCA Exec utive Board visited the Maastricht UAC for the first time . The Board members met together in Kerkrade from 2-5 October and after their working sessions an extensive tour of the UAC was made . They were welcomed by the Director . Mr . Von Villiez and the Head of Operations, Mr. Beishuizen and subsequently
A reminder . The procedures outlined in this article are intended to be practiced only by pilots who are accompanied by certificated flight instructors. Pilots who are not thoroughly trained or experienced in flight at minimum controllable airspeed should not attempt these manoeuvers solo. These articles are presented by A VEMCO in the interest of flight safety. The article is reproduced with thanks to A VEMCO Insurance Company. You can help promote aviation safety by re viewing and implementing this pertinent information .
shown over the premises by Geoff Gillett and Philippe Domagala . Soon afterwards Harri Henschler. President of I FATCA, expressed his feelings in a letter : , Please let me assure you that our visit to your unit was most informative and interesting and in addition to being enjoyable. the exchange of view s will contribute to closer cooperation and better understanding . Please convey best regards to the Board and the Membership of the Eurocontrol Guild . . .
be impossible to climb even w ith fu ll power. By reducing the amount of flap extension. you also reduce drag a nd shou ld then be ab le to climb.
If theflapsaremanually actuated. rapid retraction canresult in a stall.If the flaps are electrical ly or hydraulica lly actuated. retract ion may be slow enough that the airp lane w ill accele rate so that flaps-up sta ll speed is attained before the flaps are fu lly retracted . In the case of manual flap operation. slower . smoother retract ion will also perm it acce leration, as drag is reduced. and a sta ll will be avo ided. To comp lete the demonstration. attempt(at a safe alt itude) a simulated go around with flaps fully extended. As in attempting a c limb . conditions of power . load and configuration may make acce lerat ion and climb impossible. If the pilot's operating handbook for your airpl ane recommends a specific procedure . we suggest you follow it . Otherwise. consult your certificated flight instructor.
Left to right: Lex Hendriks. Vice-President Technica l; Bernard Grezet. Treasurer, Ham Hensch ler, President; Geoff Gillett and Philipp e Domaga la, EGA TS and Ian Finlay, VicePresident Administration.
Airport Makes a Major Contribution to NZ Economy
Auckland International Airport plays a major role in the economy of New Zealand contributing about 5 .6 percent of the nation's gross domestic product according to a report just released . Its impact on the Auckland region and the country as a whole has been assessed in an independent study commissioned by the Auckland Regional Authority . The study, to assess the airport's role in the financial year ending March 31. 1 982. was conducted from January to July last year by the Jugo Consulting Group in association with McDermott Associates and PA Management Consultants. Auckland airport is run as a joint venture between the Auckland Regiona l Authority and the Ministry of Transport. representing the Crown. The Ministry of Transport is responsible for setting and supervising air safety standards, providing safety services and the safe and orderly control of air traffic movements within the operational area of the airport wh ile the ARA through its status as airport authority , is charged with the management. administration and control of all the parts of the airport and related matters. The airport is financially self-sufficient and there is no need for funding to be provided by ta xpayers. rates returns or loans . Looking at the role of the airport. the reports says it prov1d_es a focus for national participation in the international economy which is becoming increasingly important to economic development .
During the financial year under study the airport handled 1 .4 million international passengers and 1 . 1 million domestic passengers. In addition. 82,000 tonnes of freight and 4,000 tonnes of mail passed through the airport . The direct impact of Auckland Airport stems from the value added by business firms and travellers who use the airport . These comprise international commodity exports and imports , international tourism, international business service travel. domestic commodity movements and domestic interregional travel. As a major serv ice facility the airport directly contributed $ 545 million to the New Zealand gross domestic product in 1 981 / 82, representing 1 .9 percent of the total . Within Auc kland. the airport is estimated as having directly contributed $297 million to the gross regional product. or 4 .9 percent of the tota I. the report says . Nationally, an estimated 39 ,000 people were employed as a result of this direct economic activity . Within the Auckland area appro ximately 18.000 people were employed. representing 5 percent of the Auckland region labor force in the 1 981 census of popu lation . Indirect impacts derive from airport-re lated spending by direct airport users . They are calculated by assessing the value added component of respend ing on goods and services in subsequent sectors of industry. This amount was estimated to add $4 14 million to the New Zealand gro ss domestic product and $ 2336 mi llion to the Auckland gross regional prod uct. The report says the number of job s supported by this activity totalled 23.000 throughout New Zealand and 1 2.000 within the Auckland region . Induced impacts arise from the value added component of hou sehold spending by salary and wage earners included in the dire ct and indire ct component categor ies . The report estimates t hat th ese induced economic imp act s add a further $662 mi llion to the gross domestic product and$ 3 79 mill ion to t he gro ss regional produ ct . Thi s number of job s support ed by indu ced im-
pacts comes to 39.000 on a national scale and 19 .000 in Auckland. The report has also calculated the impact of Auckland Airport as a whole on the community by totalling t he direct. indire ct and induced impact figures. These show that in New Zealand the airport contributed $1 .621 million or 5.6 percent to the gross domestic product. and $ 91 2 million or 14 .9 percent to the Auc kland group regional product. Overall . the airport d irectly and indirectly created 101.000 job s throughout New Zealand and 49 .000 in the Auckland area. Th e report also draws attention to a 50 percent increase by value in international exports between 197 4 and 1982 and says this can be compared with a 700 percent increase by value in air-freighted exports from New Zealand. By 1982 air-freight accounted for 8 percent of commodit y exports. Thi s general increase in air -freigh t useage is most noticeable among st non-traditional exports and can be associated with growth sectors in t he economy . it says. ÂˇAlready there is a conside rable concentration of airport-depe nde nt manufacturing sectors within t he Auckland area. This trend . and t he importance of Auc kland Airpo rt . will continue to grow .Âˇ In addition to thi s fo cus of manu facturing sector s. the re is also a concentration of spec ialist bu sine ss service organi zat ion s within Au ckland. Forty-four perce nt of New Zealand's service s sector income is earned by Auckland f irm s. An d. t he report points out . the dominan ce of thi s sector in Auckland must be d irectl y related in part to the availab ility of t he a irport. In 1 981 / 82 . it wa s est imated that $ 26-million value add ed was generat ed by Auc kland com pan ies prov iding a rang e of bu siness se rvices to cl ients outs ide that regi o n . (Thi s f igure doe s not incl ude f inancia l serv ices . suc h as insuranc e for wh ich re liab le data fo r 1 98 1 was not avai lab le.) Of thes e services . dep endent upo n the airport , t he report says more than ha lf appe ar t o have been based on the sale of services overseas. Loo king at tour ism. t he report says int ernational trave l is becom ing in c reas ing ly important fo r the New Zea land eco nomy. A lmost all foreign tourism is dependent upon air transport and 72 pe rcent of all tourists arrive through Auckland Internat ional A irport . ' Clearly , the airport also has a growing and critical ro le to play in the development of the tourist sector wi t hin New Zealand .Âˇ it co nc lud es .
HTTB Designed for In-flight Research Initially, it will be used in STOL aircraft development ... Data provided by Lockheed-Georgia Co. (USA)
A Modified L-1 00-20 Hercules commercial cargo transport aeroplane will be used by our engineers in Georgia to evaluate advanced and maturing airlift technologies. First flight of what we call our High Technology Test Bed (HTIB ) aircraft was completed late last June. In particular. the specially instrumented stretched Hercules will be employed in short takeotf and landing (STOL) flight research and in the development of avionic subsystems. It will be used for in-house studies and also will be available for use in the research required by other aerospace firms. _universities and government agencies. The first HTIB test flights. which comprise a six-week program. will estab lish the aircraft's baseline performance and flying qualities. To the casual observer. only the instrumentation booms and unusual black paint scheme mark the HTIB . Made of compos ite material. the instrumentation booms extend forward from each wing tip. The Lockheed Airborne Data System. or LADS. which has been installed permanently in the HTIB airframe. is a major modification of the vehicle. LADS is a highly reliable data gathering. analys is and display system that will allow our engineers to run tests and check data in real-time on board the aircraft. A modular system. its present co nfiguration provides up to 1 .000 data channe ls. In add it io n. the HTIB will carry to remote test sites a mobile data center van equipped with sophisticated data processing equipment . It includes a 24
television and telemetry link so that Lockheed's HTTB has been designed for use in STOL research. Note the data can be analyzed at the testsite . structural modifications, which inFollowing the baseline flights. HTIB will go into a two-month modifi- clude a dorsal (between frame and cation lay-up. It will resume flying in vertical stabilizer) and dorsals (between frame and horizontal stabilizer. September or October. fitted out with part of its new STOL hardware. on each side). plus the electrically Wind-tunnel tests now under way isolated sensor booms extending from will give Lockheed engineers enough each wing tip . early information for detailed STOL component design. Full STOL modification will follow the partial-STOL .---------------baseline flight-test period . To help ensure safety. Lockheed History of Canadian has recruited a blue-ribbon safety-re- Airports view board from the aerospace community . headed by Carl Hughes . He's Published by Airports and Conbeen flying for 40 years. 25 of them as struction. Transport Canada. It is an a test pilot at Lockheed-Georgia . impressive history on Canadian AviTen US aerospace companies now ation and does touch. if ever so briefly. are supporting the HTIB program: on air traffic control. We have selected Hamilton-Standard. Menasco. Gar- the two main references in the belief rett. Allison Gas Turbine Operations. that they may be of interest. Appendix Bendix. Collins. Honeywell. Litton . 22. page 814 and page 115 of the Northrop and Texas Instruments. document are the two references to Others have expressed active interest. early air traffic control in Canada.
Wings Strut -braced high-w ing monoplane Wing Section NACA 23012 (modified) Aspect ratio 9 . 1 Constant chord of 4 ft 4 in ( 1.32 m) Dihedral 1 ° 30' from roots Incidence 3 ° 30' No sweepback Conventional two spar all metal structure of Alclad lig ht alloy. including trailing edge flaps and ailerons. Braced on each side by single strut from fuselage floor line . No trim-tabs Optional wing-folding to facilitate stowage
New British Light Aircraft
Fuselage Conventional semi-monocoque structure of basically rectangular sect ion, with frames and stringers and Alclad light alloy sheet covering. Glass-fiber engine cowling. Power
One 180hp Lycoming 0.360A four cylinder horizontally opposed air cooled engine, driving a fixed pitch propeller of 6 ft 4 in diameter. 2 fuel tanks in each wing: total capacity 60 US gallons. Refuelling points above each wing. The clea n lines of the ·'Freelance " pictured during its first flight .
The Norman Aeroplane Co Ltd. a new company based at Sandown. Isle of Wight, will market and distribute the ' Freelance ,' a conventional, four-seat aircraft which made its first flight at the end of September piloted by Desmond Norman . The makers claim that it is a light aircraft with a difference having the ability to fold back the wings within 30 seconds of engine shutdown. The new · Freelance · design takes advantage of work done some years ago by the Britten-Norman . design team when an exercise to improve light aircraft productivity was undertaken. The objective then was to evolve a constructiona l design using convent ional materials which would significantly simplify and reduce the number of parts in an airframe and lead to quick and uncomplicated production. To prove the technique an aircraft. the BN3, was built and tested . Leader of the design team was Denis Berryman . FRAeS, who developed the machine under the direction of Desmond Norman and the late
John Britten . As a basis for the new ' Freelance · program. the original BN3 prototype was acquired, together with the original drawings and design calculations. The prototype · Freelance· has been built using this material and . under the direction of NDN's Chief Designer , Desmond Norman , the 'Freelance · development team is again being led by Denis Berryman , who joined NON during the late r stages of NDN's Turbo Firecracker program.
Accommodation Side-by-side individual seats. in pairs. for pilot and up to three passengers in fully-enclosed cabin , access to which is via forward-hinged door on port side . Similar door optional on starboard side . Baggage bay aft of rear seats with loading doo r on port side of fuselage. Tail Unit Cantileve r all-metal st ructure. with sweepback on vertica l surfaces and rectangular horizontal surfaces. Small dorsal in fairing No trim-tabs in rudder or elevators
Performance Ma x Level Speed (sea level) Cruise Speed 75 % Power(sea level) Stalling Speed-flaps up-power off Stalling Speed-flaps down- power off Ma x Rate of Climb (sea level) Service Ceiling TO Run (to 50 ft) Landing Run (from 50 ft) Ma x Range-no reserves-(75% power)
140mph(121 .6 knots) 135mph(117.3 knots) 59 mph (51 .6 knots) 56 mph (48 .6 knots) 800ft /m in 1 7. OOOft ( 5. 18 1 m) 1.380ft(421 m) 1, 120ft(341 m) 960 statute miles
Eurocontrol Permanent Commission's 65th Session
The Permanent Commission of Ministers of Eurocontrol, the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation, held its 65th Session in Brussels on 20th November 1984. The session was presided over by Mr. Noel McMahon, deputizing for the Minister for Communications of Ireland. The Permanent Commission took note of a report on the ratification of the Protocol amending the Eurocontrol International Convention of 1 3 Dezember 1960 and of the Multilateral Agreement relating to Route Charges which were signed in Brussels on 1 2 February 1 981 . Six States signatories of both instruments, namely the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium, France. the United Kingdom, Luxembourg and Portugal had actually deposited the instrument of ratification and Switzerland. not a signatory of the Protocol, had ratified the Multilateral Agreement. Of the existing Eurocontrol Member States. Ireland and the Netherlands had not yet completed the ratification procedure. The Permanent Commission approved the organization's budget for 1985 reflecting the objectives of the amended Eurocontrol Convention. However, the relevant budget appropriations have been based on the assumption that the Amending Protocol cannot enter into force until after 1 January 1 985. The credits for payment (investment and operations) entered in the budget represent a total of 112,556,340 ECU, including 34,055.870 ECU in respect of the part financed by the four States of the Benelux/ Federal Republic of Germany Region. The investment budget credits for payment amount to 21.311 .080 ECU. including 5.348.580 ECU in respect of the organization's direct investments and 15.962,500 ECU for reimbursements to be made to the Member States in respect of indirect investments relating to upper-airspace air traffic services. 26
Credits for payment earmarked for operating expenditure financed by the 7 Member States amount to 51,101,900 ECU, while the total corresponding credits financed by the 4 States of the Benelux/ Federal Republic of Germany Region account for 34,055,070 ECU. The credits required for the operation of the Central Route Charges Office represent a total of 6,087,490 ECU. The Permanent Commission heard a statement from the Ministers of the four States directly concerned with the future operation of the Eurocontrol Upper Area Control Center at Maastricht in the Netherlands (viz.: the Federal Republic of Germany. Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands) resulting from the studies which had been made into the integration of all enroute functions in the airspace of the four States at the Maastricht Center (known as Concept I). The Permanent Commission noted the conclusion of those studies, i.e. that because of the differences in the development of the air traffic systems in the four States and the need to take full advantage of modern technology becoming available for ATC systems, it was necessary to develop a joint comprehensive and consolidated plan for the elaboration of a common, integrated Air Traffic Control Concept for the four States. The Permanent Commission, in the light of these conclusions and of the provisions of the Protocol amending the 1960 Eurocontrol Convention decided that the transfer of air traffic services in the airspace over the Netherlands at Flight Level 300 (30,000 ft) and above to the Maastricht Center would be effected by March 1 986; agreed that the Director General of Eurocontrol would join in with the Directors of air traffic services of the four States in developing a joint comprehensive and consolidated plan for a common integrated air traffic control concept in the four
states, within a period of two years, aiming at the realization of Concept I; decided that the implications and implementation of these conclusions would be studied without delay by the Study Group of Alternates who are to report to the Permanent Commission by their July 1985 session. The Permanent Commission unanimously adopted an improved procedure for staff consultation on matters affecting the conditions of service of Agency staff and their application, for a trial period of one year from 1 January 1985. Mr. Alfred Bayer, Secretary of State in the Ministry of Transport of the Federal Republic of Germany will assume the Presidency of the Permanent Commission from 1 January 1985 until 31 December 1 985. The Vice-President. during the same period, will be Mr. Herman De Croo, Minister of Communications and Post of the Kingdom of Belgium. The date of the next session of the Permanent Commission. which will be held at the headquarters of the organization in Brussels, was fixed for Tuesday, 9th July 1985.
Vertical Separation Reduced? ICAO tests on three continents being conducted to see if cruise altitudes can be safely halved to ease congestion. Aircraft operating at 29,000 ft or higher currently are separated by 2.000 ft of altitude. according to ICAO regulations. The tests are aimed at determining whether the separation can safely be reduced to 1 ,OOO ft. thereby doubling the number of available cruise flight levels.
Progress Made for Studies of Satellite Use for Aeronautical Communications
The International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) will consider the institutional changes which would enable the Organization to provide satellite communications services to the aeronautical community later this decade. This issue was discussed at the 1 8th Session of the INM AR SAT Council. which concluded a week-long meeting in Moscow on 18 July. the first time that it has met in the USSR. The Council is INMARSAT's governing body, which meets at least three times a year. The nature and extent of any amendments to its founding Convention and Operating Agreement are matters for INMARSAT Member Governments (Parties) and Signatories, respectively, to decide. The INMARSAT Council has now invited Parties and Signatories to initiate the procedures for amending the Convention and Operating Agreement by submitting proposals no later than 1 5 October 1984. INMARSAT's Director General Olof Lundberg, referring to Article 8 of the INMARSAT Convention which addresses the possible impact of other competing space segments from the viewpoint of technical compatibility and the avoidance of economic harm , urged Parties and Signatories to give particular consideration to the applicability of Article 8 in respect of aeronautical communications services. He noted that it would be considerably easier to secure the cooperation and support of the aeronautical community 'if INMARSAT could avoid giving the impression that it was intending to establish exclusivity in_the provision of aeronautical satellite communications services; the best way for INMARSAT to attract and retain aeronautical satellite communications services would be to provide an excellent and cost-effective service.' INMARSAT continues to experience remarkable growth. A total of nearly 2. 700 vessels from 60 nations are now commissioned to use the INMARSAT system . Earlier this year. the Mitre Corporation and COMSAT World Systems Division announced that they had signed a Memorandum of Under standing regarding experiments with a satellite data link for civil aviation . Under this agreement. COMSAT would
provide access to one of the INMARSAT satellites and Mitre would develop and procure avionics equipment for installation on one or more aircraft . such as those used for commerical passenger service. The experiments are contingent upon approval by INMARSAT and the US Federal Communications Commission . Current plans call for the tests to be conducted during 1985. Test trans missions will consist of messages such as those normally used for oceanic air traffic control. The communications path will be from an aircraft to an INMARSAT satellite and then to a COMSAT Coast Earth Station . operated by Maritime Services of the World Systems Division . From there the signal will be relayed by leased landline to Mitre facilities in Virginia. Data rates for this service will range from 200 to 400 bits per second. The Mitre Corporation is a not-forprofit systems engineering organization. Its participation in the data-link project is supported by internal research and development funds .
INTELSAT V (F- 7) has provided INMARSA T circu its since 1983. It was the first such satel li te laun ched by an ESA Ariane launch vehicle.
Negligence of Air Traffic Controller Exceeds That of Pilot The District Court of Idaho has rul ed that the negligence of an air traffic controller exc eeded that of the pilots of two aircraft that collided while flying under visual flight rule s. Stewart . the pilot of a Pipe r Aircraft . elected to use Mountai n Home Air Radar Traffic Advisory Service and was in communicat ion with approach control after being handed off from Boise Airport control. Cothern. the pilot of a Cessna . was not in communication with app roa ch contro l at the air base for the reason that his flight was in the fringe area of the Mountain Home radar . The radar controller at Moun t ain Home knew the altitude of the Piper to be 7500 feet but d id no t know the altitude of the Cessn a. The controller advised the Piper that there was traff ic at 10:00 o'clock southwest but corrected that to read 4 miles southeast. type and altitude unknown. On e minute later the Piper was advised of t raf fic at 1 :00 to 2 :00 o· clock. 2 miles out . The Piper acknowledged 'still looking ·. The same advisory and same acknowledgment was repeated. One m inut e later M o untai n Home Control advised the Piper of traffic at 1 :00 o'clock and 1 m ile out. Thi s warning was acknowledged and was followed immediately by the col lision. The last t hree advisor ies whereby t he pi lot's attent ion was directed to 1 :00 to 2 :00 o · clock t raffic were incorrect. The actual position of the Cessna was at 10:00 o · clock. At the time of impact the Piper was flying a headi ng of 097 ° and the Cessna was flyi ng 1 71 ° . The aircraft were approx imat ely of even altitude and collided at approx im ately a 48 ° angle. Eac h aircraft appeared to be in st raight and level flight just prior and up to the po int of co llison. Expert te st imon y established that given the light and clos ing patterns of the aircraft. the Cessna had a poor to minimal opportunity to see and avoid the Piper. On t he other hand. absent the advisory to look to the 1 :00 to 2 :00 o'clock position . the Piper had a good probability to see and avoid the Cessn a The court found th at each pilot was twenty percent negligent and the air traffic controller sixty percent negligent . Stewart v. United State s of America . et al , 18 Avi 18 .04 7 (D .C. Ida . 1984) 27
Instrument on Civil-aircraft Interception Considered
the protection of and assistance to the passengers and crew, and protection of aircraft and property thereon; facilitation of the journey of passengers, crew, aircraft and property; detention , inspection , investigation of the circumstances, and reports pertaining to the incident.
Cossor's New Generation Display A new high-resolution air-trafficcontrol display has been developed by Cossor Electronics. The new display , which uses the latest high-resolution technology with image memory techniques to generate the picture , offers considerable advantages over existing cursive displays in terms of both brightness, clarity and data load for both raw-primary and plot-extracted radar data . The system produces a picture At the head table of the recent Subcommittee meeting were (/. to r.) !CAO Senior Legal Officer Dr. M. Pourcelet , Chairman A. Kean, Legal Bureau Director which is bright enough to be viewed in sunlight for visual control-room appliB. S. Gidwani and Legal Officer G. Kakkar . cations, and will also allow approach controllers to work in undarkened conditions, with great potential imAs a result of its deliberations, the provements in their working environThe Subcommittee of the !CAO Subcommittee concluded unani- ment . Legal Committee met in Montreal mously that the question of drafting an A further advantage of the display from 2 5 September to 3 Octobe r to instrument on the interception of civil system is that the picture is of conconsider preparation of a draft in strument on the interception of civil air- aircraft can best be considered only stant quality , the only adjustment recraft. This meeting was conven ed after the entry into force of Article 3 bis quired being the personal selection of based on a decision by the ICAO and in the light of completion of the brightness level. In addition, data dispresent work of the Air Navigation play capacity is virtually unlim ited, Council reached last De cembe r to Commission and the Council in re- unlike the cursive display, and entreat this item in the General Work Program of the Legal Committee on a spect of the review of ICAO Stan- hancement to provide fullrange largedards, Recommended Practices and area colour display is possible 'high priority' basis. The Subcommittee comp rises rep- guidance material on the subject of something which cannot be achieved the interception of civil aircraft. Sub- by phosphor penetration techniques . resentatives from 23 Member States. The new display can present basic In addition, the representatives of ject to the foregoing, the Subcommittee recommended that in the mean- analogue and/ or plot extracted prithree other Member States and two time the Council should consider the mary and secondary radar data , and internatio nal organizations attended following courses of action: will operate with Cossor's Compass as observers. Mr. Arnold Kean (United Kingdom) was unanimously elected 9000 radar processing and display a) taking appropriate steps to system. The controls are software Chairman by the Subcommittee. encourage the ratification of Article based, which allows a high degree of In considering preparation of such 3 bis by Contracting States: customer-specified functions includa draft instrument on the interception b) the study by appropriate bodies of ing a rolling -ball and function keyof civil airc raft, the Subcommittee ICAO of whether provisions should board with an optional alphanumeric took into account, as decided by the be developed, either in the form of keyboard. Council, t he results of the work of the amendments to the Annexes to the 25th Session (Ext raordinary) of the The system includes a primary Chicago Convention or in some radar scan convertor and a graphics Assembly in April-May 1 984 in reother form, co ncerning matters generator to provide plot data and lation to the amendment, Article 3 with regard to the aftermath of the video maps . bis * , of the Chicago Convention. The landing of an intercepted civil airSubcommittee had for consideration Since the system is 95% digital, craft such as: two draft instruments on the intercepthe new display is very easy to test and tion of c ivil aircraft presented by Arnotification to States concerned maintain and reliability is greatly enand to ICAO ; gentina and Canada , respective ly. hanced . 28
Executive Board Delegation Visits Leningrad by H. H. Henschler , President of IFATCA
As a follow-up to the Executive Board's meeting with top officals of the Civil Aviation Workers Union in May 1 984 , and on the invitation ofthe CAWU, the President and Vice-President Technical, had the opportunity to visit Leningrad immediately following the October 1 984 Executive Board Meeting. The IFATCA delegation travelled from Amsterdam to Moscow where they were met by a CAWU representative/ interpreter and arrived late at night at Leningrad's Pulkovo Airport . They were greeted , despite the advanced hour. by the International Relations Officer of the CAWU, Yuri Orn. Solotsinsky, and the Vice-President of the Northern Territorial Committee , Vladimir Nikolaev. The following day saw an in-depth exchange of views between the two organizations. the Northern Territorial Committee now being represented by Vasily Visitsky, its President. Both organizations concluded and affirmed that increased and closer cooperation and ties were desirable and a goal to be achieved. Day two had the IFATCA delegation at the Academy of Civil Aviation in Aviagorodok , Leningrad . They met with Anatoly Grigorjevich Kalchenko, Vice-President of Educational Administration and a gradu-
(from page 5)
In addition. the first phase of the policy includes the intent to improve commercial air services in the North by asking the CTC to institute a more vigorous surveillance program. including regular adequacy of service hearings . to ensure that licensed carriers are serving the public as effectively as possible . and at the lowest possible prices.
ate of the Academy , for a briefing on the objectives and structure of the Academy . This was followed by a detailed tour of the facilities . classrooms and various simulators . The Academy provides basic through very advanced instruction and training. to the Doctorate level , in all facets of civil avIatIon , from air traffic control through navigation and engineering to pilot training , as well as career-progression training for administrators . The IFATCA delegation left the Academy with an impression of having witnessed applied professionalism and dedication by all the personnel involved , and of classroom and simulator instruction conducive to maintaining high standards of civil aviation proficiency and safety .
Further changes in policy to determine at what pace and in what way the process of airline liberaliza tion should be pursued toward th e gradual elimination of regulation . will be determined in the light of the impend ing CTC report on the air fare hearings, and of the further advice of the Sta nding Committee on Transport . The reference to the Standing Comm ittee has been stated above .
The last full day of the delegatio nÂˇ s stay in Leningrad brought another meeting with the CAWU and ano th er visit to one of Leningrad ' s many cultural heritage locat ions . Paul's Palace. having previously had the opportunity of seeing the Hermitage. Peter the Great's Fortress . and the Su mmer Palace . The delegation of t he Execu tive Board w ishes to put on record sincere thanks to the Civil Aviat ion Workers Union . the Northern Terr itorial Committee , the Civil Aviatio n Academy, and all the ind ivid uals whose efforts made our visit a most memorable one, and one which. it is hoped . will bring increased cooperat ion and benefits to both IFATCA and the CAWU .
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H. Harri Henschler 29
High Court Will
Preparations for the 7th European Regional Air Navigation Meeting (1985)
Action taken by a recent meeting of Directors General of Civil Aviation of member States of the European Civil Aviation Conference is reproduced as follows: On the occasion of DGCA/62, Directors General met on the afternoon of 2 7 November to hear a presentation by the ICAO Representative, European Office, on aspects of the preparation of the Seventh European (FUR/7) Regional Air Navigation Meeting requiring attention at policymaking level. Documentation associated with this presentation is reproduced in Appendix 2. As a result of the presentation and of the exchange of views that followed, the Directors General agreed to the need for their special attention to the following aspects of the EUR/ 7 RAN Meeting: a) the confirmation of the new structure and presentation of the EUR Air Navigation Plan as reviewed and developed by the ICAO European Air Navigation Planning Group (EANPG); b) th_es~pport for the continued application of the new regional air navigation planning processes proposed by EANPG for the European Region;
Never Assume The Bell 206 was on standby when it was called out to a fire tower in the area. The pilot was new to the type of equipment and job as most of his flying was done in the military. He assumed that the crew members and their gear were an acceptable load and failed to do a weight calculation. He allowed the crew of four heavy men to load their own gear ( 11 5 pounds) into the aircraft, which already had 90 pounds of gear on board and a full range extender. As long as he remained in ground effect in the hover, he was able to maintain
c) the implementation of measures to improve the airspace organization and the flow of air traffic in the European Region, with particular regard to the further development of the integrated Air Traffic Flow Management Service; d) the need for a timely solution to the question of cost-recovery and costsharing for the eventual operation of the air traffic flow management system, especially the use of the Central Data Bank (CDB); e) the need for all parties to the regional planning processes for the continuous management of the EUR Regional Plan to pay even greater regard to the financial implications for users and providers, taking into account possible alternative solutions and operational cost/ benefit considerations; and f) the submission, to the EUR/ 7 RAN Meeting, of their views and proposals on new air navigation systems which are likely to be introduced in the European Region in the long-term future, taking into consideration the related work being performed in the ICAO Future Air Navigation Systems (FANS) Committee and in Eurocontrol.
tail rotor control. When he increased his hover height to clear the ground with the bucket, he moved out of ground effect. The additional power to maintain an out of ground hover, resulted in the inability of the tail rotor to provide sufficient antitorque. The pilot had climbed to about 30 feet when the aircraft made two full uncontrolled rotations to the right before contacting large trees with the main rotor blades. The main rotor then cut into the tail boom and the aircraft landed heavily - breaking off both skids. There were no injuries although the aircraft was substantially damaged.
Hear TWA Appeal As reported in Airport Press, March 1984, the US Supreme Court will hear an appeal by TWA regarding the retirement age of pilots. FAA regulations prohibit persons over 60 from serving as pilots on commercial airlines. These regulations conflict with legislation passed by Congress in 1978 which prohibits companies from forcing retirement before age 70. The TWA policy permits pilots to request demotion to flight engineer before their 60th birthday and to serve in this lower-level, lower-pay, job until age 70. The airlines asserts that its policy is for the benefit of the pilots. Not surprisingly, a group of former pilots has disagreed and sued TWA charging that the policy discriminates on the basis of age. A Federal District Court ruled for the airline, but an Appellate Court ruled for the pilots. The Appellate Court further concluded that TWA's conduct was 'wilful' and doubled the amount of back pay and damages TWA would have to pay.
ICAO Marks International of Peace
ICAO, aware that civil aviation is an essential means of international communication among States and peoples, associated itself with all other organizations of the United Nations family in commemorating 1 8 September as the International Day of Peace, with a warm invitation to all who are working for civil aviation to be aware of the contribution that they can make to the achievement of international cooperation and world peace. Recalling that the 24th Session of the ICAO Assembly last October decided henceforth to commemorate an International Day of Peace, Council President Dr. Assad Kotaite noted in a statement that, since its inception 40 years ago, ICAO, as the international specialized institution for civil aviation, was making an invaluable contribution to the maintenance of peace and the deepening of international understanding through its day to day activities. Âˇ ICAO remains a living reminder that nations can work together successfully to meet the needs of the peoples of the world for safe. regular. efficient and economical air transport', he declared. 31
List of hotels granting discounts to IFATCA members upon production of their valid membership card
~p/~tltT~AFFIC CONTROLLER$.•-• ASSOCIATIONS
AUSTRIA Parkhotel, Graz Hotel Maria Theresia, Innsbruck Hotel Europa. Innsbruck Hotel Tyrol, Innsbruck Hotel Touringhaus. Innsbruck Holiday Inn. Innsbruck Tourotel. Linz Hotel Sportklause, Niederau-Wildschonau. Tirol CANADA Seaway Hotels: Montreal, Toronto. Ottawa. Halifax, Kingston Hyatt Regency: Montreal. Vancouver. Vancouver Airport Hilton Canada: The Queen Elizabeth Montreal. Montreal Aeroport Hilton at Dorval Airport. Toronto Airport. Harbour Castle Hilton Toronto. Quebec Hilton. Vancouver Hilton Hotel Loews La Cite, Montreal DENMARK Hotel Mercur. Copenhagen Hotel Richmond, Copenhagen Hotel Du Nord Greena, Greena ENGLAND The Churchill. London The London Ryan Hotel FIJI Fiji Mocambo Hotel, Nadi lnt'I Airport FRANCE Holiday Inns: Paris Orly Airport. Roissy Airport, Avignon. Lille Lesquin. Lille Macq en Baroeul. Strasbourg GERMANY Holiday Inn. Munich GREECE Chandris Hotels HOLLAND Hotel Krasnapolsky. Amsterdam Hotel Ibis. Amsterdam Airport HONG KONG The Empress Hotel. Kowloon HUNGARY Budapest Hilton Duna Intercontinental Atrium Hyatt Budapest Novotel Budapest Hotel Expo ICELAND Loftleidir Hotel. Reykjavik IRELAND International Airport Hotel. Dublin The Gresham Hotel. Dublin Blooms Hotel. Dublin The Killarney Ryan Hotel The Limerick Ryan Hotel The Galway Ryan Hotel The Yeats Country Ryan Hotel The Westport Ryan Hotel ISRAEL Country Club Hotel Israel Hiltons ITALY Etap Hotel Boston. Roma Etap Hotel Astoria. Firenze Etap Hotel Bologna. Bologna Etap Hotel Club Paestum. Salerno KENYA Hotels & Lodges of African Tours and Hotels Ltd. - South Coast Hotels Two Fishes & Trade Winds North Coast Hotels Mombasa Beach. Mnarani Hotel. Whispering Palms Safari Lodges Kilaguni. Ngulia. Voi. Meru Mulika. M~_untai_nlodge, Mars_abit. Hunters Lodge M1limani Hotel. Nairobi
Grosvenor Hotel, Nairobi Sunset Hotel, Lake Victoria Tea Hotel, Kericho Mt. Elgon Lodge LUXEMBOURG Holiday Inn. Luxembourg Hotel Empire. Luxembourg MEXICO Hotel Las Hamacas. Acapulco Acapulco Imperial NETHERLANDS ANTILLES Holiday Beach Hotel, Curacao NEW CALEDONIA Hotel le Nouvata. Noumea Noumea Hotel. Noumea NEW ZEALAND Hotel Chateaux Commodore. Christchurch Colonial Inn Motel. Christchurch Ambassador Travel Hotel, Wellington South Pacific Motor Inn. Lower Hutt The City Hotel, Dunedin Angus Inn Motor Hotel, Hastings Bungalow Tourist f:-!otel, Rotorua Travelodge Australia Ltd.: all Travelodges and Parkroyals throughout the South Pacific PERU Hotel Crillon. Lima PORTUGAL Lisboa Penta Hotel, Lisboa Balaia Penta Hotel, Albufeira. Algarve SEYCHELLES Reff Hotel. Mahe SPAIN Penta Club. Ibiza Sun Club Bungalows. Playa del Ingles & Maspalomas SRI LANKA Hotel Lanka. Oberoi. Colombo SWITZERLAND Hotel d'Auteuil, Geneva Holiday Inn. Zurich-Regensdorf Movenpick-Hotel, Zurich-Airport TUNISIA Hotel Les Orangers. Hammamet TOGO Hotel De la Paix. Lame USA International 6 Motel. Disneyland. Anaheim VENEZUELA Dorat Beach Villas & Hotel. Puerto La Cruz YUGOSLAVIA Hotel Lav. Split HERTZ car rental in several countries Detailed information as to rates and hotel addresses are available at the IFATCASecretariat and will be provided to interested members on request. IFATCASecretariat. 26. Carrickhill Close. Portmarnock. Co. Dublin. Ireland.
Corporate Members of IFATCA AEG-Telefunken, Ulm, FRG Amecon Division, Litton Systems Inc., College Park, USA ANSA Advisory Group Air Navigation, Westerngrund, FRG A/ S Elektrisk Bureau, Nesbru, Norway Cardion Electronics, Woodbury, USA CAE Electronics Ltd., Saint-Laurent, Canada Cecsa Systemas Electronicos SA Madrid, Spain Cossor Electronics Ltd., Harlow, UK Dictaphone Corporation, Rye, USA Eaton Corporation, AIL Division, Farmingdale, USA Ericsson Radio SystemsAB, Stockholm, Sweden Ferranti Computer Systems Ltd., Cwmbran, UK Hollandse Signaalapparaten B.V., Hengelo, Netherlands Jeppesen & Co. GmbH, Frankfurt FRG Litton Communications Switching Systems, Freiburg i. Br., FRG Lockheed Aircraft Service Company, Ontario, USA Marconi Radar Systems Ltd., Chelmsford, UK Mitre Corporation, McLean, USA Philips Telecommunicatie lndustrie B.V., Hilversum, Netherlands Plessey Displays Ltd., Weybridge, UK Racal Decca Systems Ltd., New Malden, UK Racal Recorders Ltd., Southampton, UK Raytheon Canada Ltd., Waterloo, Canada Rediffusion Simulation Inc., Arlington, USA Schmid Telecommunication, Zurich, Switzerland SCICON Ltd., London, UK Selenia lndustrie Elettroniche, Rome, Italy SEL-Standard Elektrik Lorenz, Stuttgart, FRG Societe d'Etude et d'Entreprises electriques, lssy-les-Moulineaux, France Sofreavia, Paris, France Software Sciences Ltd., Farnborough, UK Thomson-CSF, Meudon, France Ulmer Aeronautique, Clichy, France Westinghouse Electric Corp., Baltimore, USA
The International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers' Associations would like to invite all corporations. organizations. and institutions interested in and concerned with the maintenance and promotion of safety in air traffic to join their organization as Corporate Members. Corporate Members support the aims of the Federation by supplying the Federation with technical information and by means of an annual subscription. The FederationÂˇ s international journal 'The Controller' is offered as a platform for the discussion of technical and procedural developments in the field of air traffic control.
ATCR-22 L-band en route ra dar inst alla Uon in Mexico .
Adaptive radars. A must for modern systems.
Internal view of ATCR -22 eqwpment room.
The range of adaptive radars includes the ATCR-22 L-band long range radar and the ATCR-33 S-band and ATCR-44 L-band terminal area radars. These radars have the capability of probing the environment, and adapt themselves so as to achieve the maximum possible performance . The radars are equipped with the most advanced Adaptive MTI and integrated Primary Video Extractors, which perform sophisticated pattern analysis to obtain center of gravity of targets, and avoid unwanted target splitting. This class of radars is in full production and has been supplied to numerous countries including Sweden , the Soviet Union, Nigeria, Mexico , Peru , Bl}lgaria, Hungary , Spain and Italy.
Selenia is experience in air traffic control. INDUS TRIE ELETTR ONICHE ASSOCIATE S.pA
CIVIL RA DAR AND SYSTEMS DIVISION Via Tiburtina Km 12,400, 00131 ROME, ITALY Telex 613690 SELROM I, Phone 06-43601