JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS' ASSOCIATIONS
4 / 84 BERN . SW ITZERLA ND
4 TH QUA RTER 1984
VO LUME 23
SFrs 5 -
Sele nia 's latest ve rsion of the ATCR-33 S-band Terminal Area Radar has been se lected by the Nor wegia n Telecommunicat ions Administration for installat ion at Oslo , Forn e bu Interna tional Airpor t.
This ne w award obtained against strong inte rnational competition proves once more the exc ellency of the Selenia ATC radar de sign which integrates advance d technology, proven performance and high quality.
INDUSTRIE ELETTRONICHE ASSOCIATE S.pA CIVIL RADAR AND SYSTEMS DIVISION
Via Tiburtina, km 12.400 - 00131 ROME ITALY Phone 43601
IFATCA JOURNAL OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
THE CONTROLLER Bern, Switzerland, December 1984
Publisher: International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers· Associations. P.O. Box 196. CH-1 21 5 Geneva 1 5 Airport. Switzerland Officers of IFATCA: HH. Henschler. President. Lex Hendriks. Vice-President (Technical). E. Sermijn. VicePresident (Professional). I. Finlay. Vice-President (Administration). B. Grezet. Treasurer. P. o·ooherty. Executive Secretary Editor: A. Av9oustis 5 Athens Str. Ayios Dhometios Nicosia. Cyprus Telephone (021) 4 87 86 Management and Advertising Sales Office: The Controller. P.O. Box 196. CH-1 215 Geneva 15 Airport. Switzerland H.U. Heim. Subscriptions and Publicity. Tel. (022) 82 26 79 M. Henchoz. Accounting. Tel. (022) 92 56 82 B. Laydevant. Sales Promotion. Tel. (022) 82 79 83
Volume 23 · No. 4
In this issue
Editorial H.H. Henschler President /FATCA
Problems of Civil and Military ATC Coordination - by Harley Y.M. Liu page 2
Farnborough 84 - by Leo Marriot
New Canadian Air Policy
page 7 7
ICAO Aid Projects
Visit to USSR - by Pat O 'Doherty
Airplane's Defense Against Nature - by Avemco
page 2 1
Contributions are welcome as are comments and criticism. No payment _can_be_ made for manuscripts submitted for pubhcat1on in The Controller·. The Editor reserves the right to make any editorial changes in manuscripts. which he believes will improve the material without altering the intended meaning.
Written permission by the Editor is necessary for reprinting any part of this Journal.
Instant ILS Inspection Device page 24
Production · Der Bund·. Verlag und Druckerei AG Effingerstrasse 1. CH-3001 Bern. Telephone (031) 25 66 55 Subscriptions and Advertising Payments to: IFATCA/The Controller. Union de Banques Suisses P.O. Box 237 CH-1 215 Geneva Airport. Switzerland Acc. No. 602 254.MD L Subscription Rate: SFrs. 8.- per annum for members of IFATCA: SFrs 20.- per annum for non-members (P & P will be charged extra). Contributors are expressing their personal points of view and opinions. which _maynot necessarily coincide with those ?f the lntemat1onal Federation of Air T ff Controllers Assoc1at1on(IFATCA). ra ic IFATCA does _notassume responsibility for statements made and opinions expressed. it does only accept responsibility for publishing these contributions.
Advertisers in this issue: Ferranti. Marconi, Philips, Selenia, Olympic Airways Photos: AA. Archives. Hiro Tade Cartoons: Martin Germans
Pacific and Asia Regional Meeting - by Ian M. S. Finlay
ICAO FANS - by H. Harri Henschler
page 3 7
It is time to address, publicly, a problem which has been of sincere concern to the IFATCA Executive Board for a considerable period and which, after a short lull. has come, with all its implications, to the forefront again. During the middle to late 1970s I repeatedly drew the attention of the international civil aviation community to the fact that the rapid growth of aviation activity in many parts of the world vastly outstripped the capability of the existing system to safely absorb this growth, both in the manpower and equipment fields. Governments in many developing countries. mostly for reasons of not quite understanding the immense contribution of a safe and expeditious air traffic control system to the economical welfare of the nation. did not attribute to controller recruitment, training. or even the maintenance of numbers of qualified controllers. who were ohen lured away by better paying employment elsewhere. a high position on their list of priorities. Then. around the turn of the decade these shortages were finally recognized in many quarters and a 'catch-up' effort in both controller numbers and fairly sophisticated equipment was instituted. often with the help of international bodies and assistance from national aviation colleges who would accept students from outside their own countries. Acceptance of Recommendations of the International Labour Office Commission of Experts on Air Traffic Controllers contributed to establishing required working conditions and helped stabilize controller numbers. Now. of course. the economical reality for many developing countries is a crushing debt and interest load and the continued development of a proper air traffic control infrastructure is again being Jeopardized by cost-cutting measures and the lingering memory of a past downturn in aviation activity. However. if numbers are any indication. aviation is. if not in a boom situation. in relatively good health. not least due to fuel saving measures in which air traffic control
Continues on page 32
Problems of Civ路1 an ATC Coordinatio by Harley Y M Liu':'
It is indeed a pleasu re to be able to participate at this seminar. th e Eighth Flig ht Safety Seminar organ ized by the Or ient Airlines Association. and I am privileged to be w ith you and talk on th e very most up-to-date top ic of ' Prob lems of Civil / M ilitary ATC Coordi nation 路. The International Civil Aviation Organ isati on (ICAO ). to whic h the gr eat est number of Un it ed ~~ations Me m ber-States subscribe. sets ou t as the most fund ament al req uir eme nt to flight safety that one air traffic service unit should be responsible for one particula r po r tion of airspace. This principle meets in fact with the est ablished procedures of the majo rit y of the individual states whethe r t hey are ICAO M ember-States or otherwise. ICAO makes no different iation as to w hich one single authorit y should be respons ible for eac h part icular por t ion of airspace wi t hin w hic h fl ight safety to c ivil aircra ft w ill be sust ai ned From world-wide know ledg e. w e come ac ross civil air tr affi c control unit s being responsib le fo r both c ivil and mili tary aircraft or mi lita ry air t raffic c on trol autho rit ies being respo nsible for both c ivil and mi litary airc raft in w hat can be desc ribed as a c ivil user airspac e . . Befo re ente ring int o any con sider ation of the probl ems associ at ed w it h coo rdinat ion of c ivil / m ilit ary air tr affi c co ntrol. 1tis essent ial that we loo k int o the historical evo lution of t he pre sent integrated syste m . th e d iffer ent syste ms of airspace ava ilabl e. as we ll as the ditfe rent info rm ation th at sho uld be made available t o the various air users . This ap proac h w ill enable us t o see the problem sp heres in a so m ewhat realist ic m anner. In the old days. most m ilita ry f lyin g was cond ucte d in acco rdance wit h the VFR (Visua l Flight Rul es). Today. however . the operat ing capa bi lities of mo dern m ilita ry ai rcraft passe d w ell into th e era of the IFR ( Inst rument
路 Mr H;irl ey Y M Lru ,s the Drrector ATS O,v,s,on < rvrl Ace1ti11 a ut1cs Adm,n, strat,on Taiwan The artic le ,s i lk aclclrcss lie gave to the Orrem Arrlrnes Assoc ,auon di the,118 th Flight Salet y Sem,nar
Fligh t Rules). and. as a result. ATC bec omes mandatory or neces sary to susta in safet y. Civil Aviation has also evolved into somew hat similar standa rds except for th e fact that it s evolution followed t hat of the military. Civil Aviation is meant to serve the needs of the travellin g pub lic and is more of a commercial enterprise than is the case with th e militar y aircraft. w hose sole existen ce is the defen se of the country. in th e case of ind ividua l defen se system s. Milit ary air traffic operates and exists so lely for effecting the defense of the co untry co nce rned . which. in ot her wo rds. is to maintain the secur ity and integrity w ithin a state 's national airspace. This . of course. can on ly be ac hie ved by a 24-hour surveillance. identific ation . interrogation and interception. It is an incon ven ience. th at w e c ivilian s have to acco mm odate . Addition ally, th e air detense system of a particu lar co untry is respo nsible. w here air defen se identif ica ti on zone s and buffer zones are est ab lished for th eir co nt inu ous mon it or ing to stop border violati ons by airc raft w hich lose their position or other wise In ou r effort s to discove r t he relations hip bet wee n c ivil and milit ary syst em s and th e amount of c oordinatio n nece ssary. wh ic h wo uld natural ly revea l th e existing problems . we must here briefly t ouc h upon the nat ion al and co mmon air def ense syst ems The Ori ent. as we know ,t to day. str ict ly spea king . be long s t o th e forme r categ ory . that is the nat iona l defe nse system . being kept outside the Nat o or W arsaw pac t mult1-nat 1on syst em . Co un t ries in co mm o n defense system s allege that t hey had realized that pre sent day airc raft spee ds co uld no long er permit ind1v1dual1ty ,n th eir air defe nse syst em s and as a result som e form of ce ntr alized defense syste m sho uld be estab lished By th is. we know . that t he Nato Air Defense Gro und Environment (NADGE) cam e into existe nce w ith the obJect of integ rat ing variou s Euro pean nati onal
air defense systems into a common one. It is important now that we enter int o the classification of military traffic as we ll as into the c lassif ica t ion of the airspace in which military traffic either operate s sepa rately or jointl y with civil traffic . Military traffic is classif ied in the following categor ies and these, or simil ar terms , app ly to most countries: general traffic , operational traffic , and security flights. All defense units require certain data to enab le then to func t ion effecti vely. In effect. they w ill require flight data w ithin their own system and also w ithin the civi l system . Such essential inform at ion includes . for exa mple , weathe r information. notices to airmen (NOTAMS), system status data and AFTN messages relating to flights affecting the air defense system or it s operation. . _ Such data when or iginating in the c1v1I system are being sent to the air defense system either by AFTN or by telephone. It is however, anticipated that defense systems of the future wi ll receive such inform ation by system computer (host-to-host computers , that is). Air Defense is in effect interested in information on flights whether these const itut e air defense flights operating as: security, pract ice sec urity, or training flights, or w hether th ey are general air traff ic, or operational air traffic (non air defense). Ad vance and acc urat e inform at ion w ill help elimin ate false warn ings and alert air defense facilitie s for their necessa ry action s. In most cases. the national airspace is divided into geographical sec tion s to serve both c ivil and military users. In other wo rds, to cater for the co untr y's needs for its national de tense w ithout penalizing the civil user In the latter case. c ivil air routes ar~ int ended t o follow the most direct route from point to point in the c ountry's effort s t o meet w ith the require ment s of ICAO' s recommenda ti ons in mak ing a flight safe but also eco norni ca I t o th e user . For th e purposes of thi s exerc ise we shall d1v1de airspace int o c ivil and m ilit ary For practi cal purposes civ 1 airspace shou ld be co nsidered as one' w hil e t he milit ary should further b 路 divided int o. Restr icte d Areas. Warn~ ing or Dange r Areas and Jo int Us Ar eas. In fact . civil area shoul d
The world of ATC is changing and growing. With the help of computer technology you can see more and do more now than you could even five years ago, both in simulation and in radar data processing and display. Not surprisingly it is Ferranti that is changing the picture. We are foremost in applying computers and display systems to the ATC function. The work we are putting into the processing and display of ATC pictures is bringing simulators and operational systems closer togethei: And we are doing some forward thinking and planning for the new ATC techniques that will soon be coming into view. If you want to broaden your ATC horizons, contactFerranti Computer Systems Limited, Cwmbran System Sales, Ty Coch Way, Cwmbran, Gwent NP44 7XX Telephone : Cwmbran (06333)71111 Telex: 497636
deemed at all instances as joint user airspace . By categoriz ing airspace, we implicitly categor ize the aircraft activity that may take place in such areas which is hazardous to non-participating aircraft. Restricted Areas are established over t he sovereign territory or, more simply, the land areas of the state concerne d. Restrictions to flights are imposed with in that airspace. Warning or Danger Area s differ from Restric ted Ar eas in that the y are normally established in intern at ion al airspace where no regulatory restriction can be imposed to flights w ith in that airspace. Howev er , such areas are to be fo und on navigation charts in the same manner as for rest ricted areas to w arn non-participating air craft of the existe nce of possible hazards. Where such areas can be al located to both civil and militar y f lig hts these are known as joint use r airspace and may be used by civil air c raft when no hazardous activity is in progress. Historically. offshore airspace offers the ideal cond ition s for the establishment of warn ing areas w her e hazardous act ivity may take place because of the fact that it offers the natural separation from peop le and property, and general ly speak ing from other air activity. A s a result, the airspace offshore of mo st countries is predominantly occupied by wa rning areas. Corridors or airways to accommodate access to nationa l ai rport s, terminals or routes to overf ly are pro vided on a full or part time basis. In consider ing the va rious kinds of military airspace , it is wise t o take int o account such other airspace used by military air traff ic which is not neFrom the left . Jo e Wang , Harley Liu (the author) and A. Argoustis (the Editor) at Taipei Contro l Tow er ...-
cessarily hazardous to other traffic . It is meant to faci litate the operation of flights that may not be considered as coming within the categories of defense flights. Such airspace may be known as the Military Operations Areas where military training activities take place ; such as air combat maneuvers , air intercepts, aerobatics, etc.; Control Firing Area s where activities are conducted under con ditions so controlled so as to eliminate hazard to non-participating air traffic and to ensure the safety of persons and property on the ground and Alert Area s wh ich may contain a high volume of pilot training or an unusual type of training which may not be hazardous to other aircrah. Through c lose coope ration , however , of both civil and military authorities it must be admitted that about 85% of the national airspace of each individual country may be considered as joint user airspace , the operations w ithin which will require detailed coordination to achieve the necessary standards of safety . Th ough it may sound practical to restrict civil traffic within the bounds of certain corridors, disregarding the economy factor , it cannot be the case with military traffic . Since military traffic is destined to enter civil airspace , coordination will naturally evo lve unle ss the controlling authority is one and the same person. The general situation is not, or very rarely is, so favorable . Admittedly , we have one unit being responsible for the safety of all traffi c w ithin one particular portion of airspace , as instigated by ICAO . This however, does not preclude us from hav ing two ATC unit s being respo nsible fo r two sep arate but adjoining airspaces Such circumstances do in fac t predominate in most co untrie s desp ite the fact that the servic es ren-
dered are ensured by one single unit for one single airspace . It is wise to illustrate my arguments with a successful integrated system to enable us to understand the philosophy that lies behind the whole set up. I would therefore like to use as a proper illustration that of the United States of America. Both the FAA (Federal Aviation Admini stration) and the USAF (United States Air Force) believe that the greatest degree of safety and eff iciency in the utilization of airspace is obtained when military and civil air traffic are integrated . Integration, that is, to the extent compatib le with the differing requirements of each class of the airspace user and segregation where these requirements are incompatible. Pursuant to this philosophy, all aircraft within the United States national airspace are subject to the rules of the air traffic control procedures promulgated by the FAA. This cooperation between civil and military authorities in the field of air traffic control did not come to the US overnight. The most important step in such cooperation came in 1941 when the then CAA began for the first time to operate airport traffic control towers. Previously, such towers were operated by local authorit ies. The assumption of these responsibilities was at the encouragement of the military as being essential to national defense. Three years later , in 1 944 the first manua l for ATC procedures was officially adopted by both the civil and military agencies . A further and perhaps decisive step in civi l / military cooperation in developing the air traffic contro l system was the establishment of the Air Coord inating Committee by Presidential Order in 1945 . It is perhaps best if I quote part of the Committee's report: 'The national interest dictates that a single integrated system of air navigation and traffic control system be developed and maintained so as to permit the effic iency in the use of modern aircraft capabi lities required for defense, economy and th e safety of persons and property .Âˇ 'T he sing le air navigation and traffic control system mu st : a) sati sfy the basic requirements of al l civil and military air operations (exc luding specia l needs peculiar to air warfare). b) assure safe and reliabl e op eration s under all prevalent conditions , and c) be capab le of immediate integra tion with the air defense system of the United States .Âˇ One might suggest that from this brief histori ca l background , civ il air traffic co ntrol in the Un ite d States of
military traffic works because it has evolved this way. Naturally and positively this is not the reason. The system works, perhaps better than other countries, because of the fact that it is one unit of air traffic control for one portion of airspace and also because of the attention given to coordination between the units concerned. _ This latter item brings us into the field of coordination and the letters of agreement between the civil and military authorities to ensure that the whole system works. Once we see how such agreements are structured we will be in a position to see the fears of possible inadherences and also the problems that crop up from day to day operations. Some such agreements are known a~ AFIA (Agreements For Interceptor Aircraft). mutually agreed for the implementation of policies and procedures. where, of course, the civil air tr~ffic control is the controlling authority for military traffic. To be more specific. I would like to illustrate an agreement of this kind with some provisions that are considered essential. For example: _ During air defense exercises. planning meetings between the military and civil air traffic control personnel are held to decide the capabilities of the civil units to provide ATC service to the military missions or to what extent su_~hservices may be provided. The m1l1tary air defense personnel are to ensure that the civilians understood th~ r:iilitary requirements and plan the m1ss1onsaccordingly. Air traffic control services to interceptors shall be predicated as follows: a) Issuance of an appropriate ATC clearance. This includes Air Defense Controllers filing of flight plans. b) Adherence to procedures, routes and altitudes as published. c) ~TC issuance of holding instructions and a time as prescribed in the relevant handbooks. d) Air Defense personnel shall relay ATC clearance information to the ATC controllers, e) To provide interceptors and strike aircraft which are operating outside con~rolled airspace with advisory routings. vectors or altitude changes. as necessary. based on radar observation or other known traffic. Meetings between civil and military personnel are normally convened periodically on both regional as well as field level to ensure: provision of ATC service in each area. recognition of changing military requirements. adequacy of ATC service. and
the development of new procedures as required. Transfer of control from civil to military is normally made at a time, or fix, or altitude, and only after elimination of any potential conflict with other aircraft under the jurisdiction of the transferring authority. Both the civil and the military authorities shall prepare the proposed material and transmit copies to interested personnel such as Base commanders. Civil ATC facilities. Air Defense. FAB Regional Offices. etc. Data, for example. appropriate to the scramble/ recovery phase. usually cover: Radio facilities. applicable fixes. abort tracks, abort/recovery holding patterns, scramble/ recovery tracks. profile, including altitudes, missed approach procedures, etc. These and lots more have to be taken into account when we talk of matters to be coordinated between civil and military ATC services. The most difficult area of coordination is reaching agreement related to changing requirements and balance of need. The airspace is subject to the demands of changing military requirements brought about by the increased performance of military aircraft. the type of activity. and also changes to route structures brought about by the changing volume. flow demands and terminal access. There are problems associated in all fields of coordination. the majority of which are met within joint use airspace. Such problems may be the result of communication links. scheduling. or interfacing the two systems. Although. as stated earlier. coordination occurs at many levels. it must be admitted that the presence of the military influence is quite prevalent. Military liaison staff serve in all Air Traffic Control Centers to coordinate planning and day-to-day military activity; active duty military officers are assigned to civil units on a permanent basis and they occupy full-time working level positions. We have been doing this in the Republic of China since 1973. In that year. we established an ATC Joint Coordination Center (JCC) at the Taipei Area Control Center. The JCC, as it is commonly called. was the result of an Agreement for Fighter-Interceptor Operations (AFIO) between the Commanding General of the Chinese Air Force (CAF) and the Director General of the Chinese Civil Aeronautics Administration (CCAA). The JCC is staffed by members of the ROC Armed Services as well as CCAA civilian personnel. One of its purposes was to reduce or eliminate incidents or acci-
dents as a result of near-misses or gun-firing operational exercises conducted by the military. The JCC was also designed to conduct on-the-spot investigations of conflicts between civil and military aircraft without delays. But its primary mission was. and still is. to assist Ground Control Intercept (GCI) and ATC controllers to carry out the provisions of the joint CAFCAA Agreement for Fighter-Interceptor Operations to prevent incidents or accidents of any kind. This agreement assigned very specific responsibilities to the ATC JCC and I think it is important for me to outline these responsibilities with you today. First. the JCC is responsible for assisting GCI and CAA ATC controllers in insuring compliance with the CAFCAA Agreement. Secondly. the JCC is charged with the investigation and prevention of near misses and nonATC-controlled aircraft incidents. The third responsibility is the coordination of aircraft operations and the investigation of aircraft operations. and also the investigation of aircraft violations and incidents. The fourth and final responsibility consists of the coordination of applications of the airspace to allow military aircraft to cross active airways and exchanging air traffic information between GCI controllers and ATC controllers. At the CCAA. we are very proud of this joint agreement with the CAF and its overall effectiveness. We are satisfied that since the Agreement was put into effect in 1973 the number of violations or near-miss incidents between civil and military aircraft has been significantly reduced, and we are continuously striving to do a better job in this area of our responsibility to you. as the civilian users of our airspace Further, let me assure you that it is our intent to continue to improve the safety and efficiency of the Air Traffic Control system in the Taipei Flight Information Region with the cooperation of the CAF. To that effect. we are currently undertaking a program to improve our ATC system that is intended to provide you with still safer and improved services in the not too distant future; and, I hope I can discuss these with you at some future opportunity. To close. I would like to add that we recognize that the sharing of airports 1s another form of military-civilian cooperation. However, what we must bear in mind is the fact that there is much more to a common system than the sharing of airspace and airports. Any air traffic control system. in any one country. can only be successful 1f 111s truly a common system. a system by all and for all.
Farnborough 8 by Leo Marriot
Bigg er, better an d busier. That just about sums up the 7984 Farnborough International Air Show he ld from 2nd to 9t h Septemb er at the Hampshire airfield, which is th e home of the Royal Aircraf t Establishment .
Al tho ugh the fl ying display catc hes th e imagination of the wo rld's press and t he publ ic at large, t he real business of the show is centered around th e tra de stands and displays whe re th e interna tional avia tion community displays its products and services. This year , facil itie s fo r trade stands we re improved by th e addition of a new exhib iti on hall to the no rth of the previo usly exist ing ha lls and taking up part of the space used for the outdoor exhib it ion of radar and mi ssile systems . The result is a fasc in ati ng display of aircraft, systems, rada rs, w eapon systems, suppor t se rvice s, propul sio n systems and all the compo nents which go toget her to make up the modern wo rld of aviation . It would hav e been virtu ally impo ssible for one person to vis it all the st and s during the cou rse of a one-day visit and so thi s report wi ll dea l on ly w ith some of those item s of part ic ular interest t o air t raffi c c ontro l, alth o ug h eve n here. the sheer profusion of products and systems on view perm it on ly a brief de script ion of some of the more sign ifi can t it em s A s w ou ld be expected, Briti sh radar and electro nic compan ies fe atured prom inently Among these was M arconi Radar Systems show in g their success ful S 5 1 1 Approach Control Radar w hic h is already operational in the UK an d has been so ld to J orda n and India. Dur ing t he show. the com pany were able to announce a sig nifi cant ord er for the uprated S 5 1 1 c to Spain. Th is order, wh ic h is wo rth £20 mi ll ion and w ill be produ ce d ind igeno usiy by EESA (Equipo s Electro nicos SA), w ill form part of a £60 mi lli on modern izat ion sc hem e of the Span ish ATC system and Mar co ni hope that it w ill lead to further sales to other c o un tries Th e S 51 1 c uses a 6
long life coaxia l magnetron which achieves nearly twice the average power output of the standard S 511 tran smitter. With the extra performance avai lable the S 511 c comfortably exceeded the range specified by the Spanish authorities, As we ll as the S 511 radars , the contract also included two additional equipments with each radar. One of these was the Independent Weather Channel (IWC) which enables an electronic map of rain and weather return s to be overlaid on the display w ithout obscuring aircraft returns. The other was a new design primary radar plot extractor which enables radar signals and data to be passed over normal telephone circuits, Marconi also offer the Messenger monopulse SSR syste m , the interrogator of wh ich was on display mount ed above the S 511 aerial in the radar park at the show. Inside their display cha let was a selection of equipment including the Astrid radar data pro-
cessing and display systems which, although designed for use with Marconi radars , can also be integrated with existing radar systems. Only a few wavelengths away from the Marconi exhibition, the Plessey Company were also showing their products which included the Watchman Approach Control Radar. This has been a direct competitor with the S 511 and although it has gained some civil orders, it has so far been more successful with military ATC orders including a substantial one from the Royal Air Force . In the display chalet were examples of the Watchman display systems designed to complement the radar system and offering a high degree of versatility and automation. Watchman displays are available in 400 mm ( 1 6 in) or 550 mm (22 in) and can be configured either as self-contained consoles or as a number of trolley-mounted modules designed for rear access to a mother console. The system is maintained using built-in hardware and software test facilities. Plessey were also featuring their P-Scan (Phase-Scanned Commutated Array Network) Microwave Landing System (MLS). Two of these systems, which conform fully with ICAO specifications , are to be delivered to the UK Civil Aviation Authority during 1 984 for an evaluation program . The full installation consists of an approach azimuth facility with a 2 ° scanned beamwidth, an elevation facility with a 1 ° scanned beamwidth and a remote control and data facility for installation
The interior of SEL 's mobile tower showing the controller's position on the left and room for an assistant on the right. In front of the controller are instruments displaying meteorological data including wind speed and direct ion , temperature and pressure. The sensors for these ins trument s are carried on an antenna above the cab (Photo L. M arriot)
in the ATC tower. The Azim uth antenna comprises an array of 60 radiating column elements forming a flat planar array and divided into 10 sub arrays. Vertical cove rage is provided from 0. 9 ° to at least 1 5 ° above the horizontal and at least 20° in the close-in region. In the Azimuth direction it scans ±42 ° allowing full proportion al guidance over the coverage sector specified by ICAO . The Elevation An tenna. comprisi ng a vertical array of 80 rad iating element s divided into 1 6 sub arrays. provides proportional guidance up to 1 5 ° above the horizontal over the ±40° azimuth sector. The Plessey P-SCAN syst em is claimed to overcome many of the drawbacks which are inherent in t he ICAOadopted Time Referen ce Scanning Bea m technique used in MLS systems and is designed from the outset to be suitable fo r Category 111 all weather opera t ions . Cossor Electronics was another UK based company with a wi de range of products on show. New at thi s year's disp lay was a new radar display system using high resolution tel evision tec hniqu es to provide a c learer display and increased brightne ss. making it idea l for use in high amb ient light condit ion s. The use of new techno logy wi ll reduce th e cost of display systems and Cossor int end to int roduce the new system into its standa rd SSR eq ui pment and r,:>articu larly in conjun ction with the Compas s 9000 radar display system wh ich provides co nt rollers with full SSR and prim ary radar dat a . Also featur ed was the Cossor Electronics monopulse SSR system wh ich has been developed to provide improved perfo rm ance over that of st andard SSR to cope with increa sed traffic den sit ies and to meet the greater reliance now being placed on the supply of posit ive height and identity information. The UK Civil Aviation A uthority has already ordered 22 Cossor interrogator system s and 1 7 of the assoc iat ed plot extra ctor systems . All the interrogator system s have been de livered and eleven are already installed . Four plot extractor system s are installed including one at London 's Heathrow airport The mono pul se SS R system has also been supplied to the Royal Air Force and in an ord er worth £25 million Cossor wi ll supply 4 1 dual c hannel system s to Canada for incorpor ation in th at country ' s mas sive radar modernization program (RAMP). This order is the large st sing le export order ever wo n by th e compan y w ho are ju stl y pro ud of their ac hievem ent in m eeti ng an exac ting requirem ent Oth er Cossor mo nopul se SS R syst ems w ill be
instal led at the new King Khaled International Air port at Riyadh. Saud i Arabia . and Geneva airport. Switzerland . Al so disp layed by Cossor was the Falcone r Precision Approach Radar (PAR) which has now been supplied to 46 Royal Air Force airfields in the UK. Cyprus. Gibralter and Germany and has also been sold to the Zimbabwe Air Force . Another major UK elect ron ics compa ny, Ferranti . had a large stand in t he main exhibition hall. Although mainly occupied with military systems. there were several items of
general ATC intere st including a rast er graph ics d isplay whic h has alread y been order ed by the Government of Barbado s. The displa y incorporates a high reso lut io n c olor TV type presentation and is driven by its own graphics contro ller w hich incorpo rates its own Z 8001 micropro cessor hav ing 1 2 8 Kbyte s of disp lay list RAM (memory size). The whole syste m is known as VA RS (Variable Attribute Raster Scan system ) and is suita ble fo r a wide variety of comm an d and control appli ca tion s inc lud ing ai r traffic con trol as we ll as a whol e list of industrial and sc ient if ic uses. The applicatio n of
The mobile A TC tower disp layed by Standar d Elektr ik Loren z AG The cab can he raised hydraulically to a height of six meters and ,s fully eqwpped w ith all . e, vices nece ssary to run a small tower and appr oach operatt0n. (Photo L M nmnr I
Marcon i 's sta nd in the radar park showing the double curvature aerial of th eir S 5 7 7 airfield radar surmounted by the array of the Messe ng er m on opulse SS R system. (Photo.Âˇ L. Marriot)
t his typ e of display system to operationa l ATC envi ronment s cannot be far off as all t he majo r manufac t urers of radars and assoc iat ed syst em s are develop ing dat a displays using raster technology The bene f it s to ATC are not diffic ult t o im agine and include low er cost, great er reliabilit y, normal dayl ight am bient ligh t c ondition s and co mplete flexibil ity in the presentation of radar and ot her infor mat io n. Display scre ens need no longe r be round but co uld, fo r instance , be squ are or rectang ular . A sing le sc reen co uld be split to provide radar and m ap inf o rm ation in one segment w hi le f lig ht plan det ails or w eather infor m at ion co uld be displayed simul t aneo usly o n another part of the screen. SSR return s ca n be color coded so t hat a profu sio n of symbol s cou ld be elimi nated, w hile areas of land, sea or wea t he r ca n be presented in app ropriat e backg ro und co lors. The po ssibilit ies appea r to be endle ss and t his is und ou bt ably on e of the most int eresting areas of deve lopment as far as AT C is co nce rned Anoth er exam ple of futur e tech no logy w hic h wa s being dem o nstrate d by Ferra nt i an d w hic h mi g ht be tho ugh t t o have sini ste r appli ca t ions as fa r as a hu m an air tr aff ic con troll er is co ncerned, was t he applicat ion of Vo ice Act ivate d M anage m ent Systems to an ATC tra ining sim ulator In a co nve nt io nal simul at or . a tr ai nee contro ller views a synthet ic radar pictu re (probab ly compute r ge nerat ed) and ta lks to sim ulat ed airc raft rep resented by a hum an op erato r (o r blip dr iver), w ho con tro ls th e simu lat ed airc raft in respo nse to t he in st ruct io ns of the co ntro ller . In t he Ferrant i system. the tra inee c ont roller st ill sits in front of his simulated co mp uter driven radar pic8
Plessey radar featured their Watchman radar, the aerial of which is seen here. In a caravan alongside, the transmitter and receiver equipment for this radar including the Travelling Wave Tube (TWT), which replaces the conventiona l magnetron, were displayed. (Photo: L. M arriot)
ture but his instructions on the R/ T are c hanne lled to a speech recognizer system ot the comp uter wh ich has been 'trained' to understand a vocabulary of standard wo rds and phr ases (inc luding aircraft ca llsign s). The compu ter w ill thus understand instruct ions passed to it and w ill ca use the a ircraft blip to react according ly w h ile at the same time generating a spoken reply by means of a speech synthesizer The who le R / T pattern of the training exercise is thus carried out bet w een the tra inee contro ller and the c omputer, the human blip driver having been eliminated. It must surely o nly be a matter of time before the system is refined enough to elim inate the control ler as we ll! Int ernat iona l Aeradio Ltd . (IAL) is an autonomou s company within the STC group and, together with the ir pa rent comp any, had a large stand at Farnbo rough. IAL is, of c ourse , we ll kno w n for it s activitie s in the cont ract pr ov ision of ATC service s and also for it s exten sive training expertise . More rec ently the c ompany combined w ith t he Briti sh A irports Authority to form Briti sh Airport s International in order to provide a consu ltancy a_nd m anagement service w ith wor ldw ide app licat ion A lready thi s c omb 1nat1on has gained contract s in the UK for the ma nagem ent and op eration of two ai rp o rt s and is active ly engaged 1n negotia t ion s to expand th is area of ac ti vity . A subsidiary ot IAL Park Air Elec tr o nics, we re using the show to an no un ce the laun c h of two new produ ct s w hic h wer e a state-of -th e-art V HF tr ansce ive r (PAE 4004) int ended fo r ap pl ica ti o ns suc h as sm all airfield . he lid ec ks and o il platfo rm s. and th e PA E 25 0 0 / 26 00 V HF/ UHF Rece iv-
er/ Driver vo ice commun ic ations equipment. Farnbo rough was, of course, an international show and many countries were also represented in the presentation of ATC equipme nt. From France, Thomson-CS F occupied a large stand in the main hall and mounted an impr essive display which included models of severa l items of ATC equ ipment. In the year sinc e November, 1983 , the company were able to announce that they had sold four LP23 en route radars, four TR2 3 TMA radars, three TA 10 approach radars, 1 2 secondary radars (RS870
Mo nop ulse SSR using 'double esti mat ion p hase , tec hni que (Pho to Thomso n-CSF)
Messenger is a high technology secondary radar system evolved from Marconi' s 35 years of experience in the field. Using a new design technique, the wide-aperture planar antenna combines excellent radiation patterns and a high gain without compromising other parameters . Gap-free cove r and absence of reflections have been coupled in Messenger with the high accuracy and minimum 'fruit' inherent in monopulse to provide an important new sensor for ATC . As the first stage of a 2-step approach to Mode S, Messenger involves no change to the ICAO SSR system yet can be updated to provide selective addressing and data link when required. The allsolid-state interrogator has the high duty cycle capability which Mode S demands . Messenger's decoder /p lot extractor uses advanced bit-slice processing to simplify the architecture and reduce the component count while extending the system's ability to disentangle garbled replies.
* 29dB gain planar * * *
antenna optionally stand-alone or onmounted with primary radar. All-solid-state interrogator/ responser . Very fast bit-slice processing for efficient degarbling. Add-on update for full Mode S capabilit y. Programmable output plot format.
For more information about Messenger , please write, telephone or telex to: Marconi Radar Systems Limited, W rittle Road , Chelmsford, England CMl 3BN. Telephone: 0245 267111 . Telex: 99108 .
and RSM870 ). 240 displays whic h have helped to equip or modernize 1 9 ATC units. twe nty seven VOR / DVOR installations. twenty six DME 's and finally nineteen ILS Type 38 1. An impressive scale of acti vity by any standards . The Type 38 1 has. of cou rse. been ordered by the UK Civil Aviation Authority and Tho mson-CSF have also gained recent ord ers in Egypt fo r the complete modernizatio n of the ATC network and Denmark for an exte nsive renovation and updating of t he Copenhagen ATCC. A ll this is in addition to a vast co ntract for a multi stage development of Brazil's ATC network which when complete wi ll encompass an area the size of Europe using more than forty radar insta llations of various types. The compa ny was also able to report sales of the ir RSM870 monopulse SSR system to Austria and Cyprus as well as a com prehensive program to progressively replace conven tional SSR insta llations at home in France. In the north exhibition hall the Italian aerospace companies were co ncentrated in two large areas str iki ngly decorated in the red. green and w hit e national colors. Am ong the exhibit o rs here was the Selenia company w hich offers a broad spectrum of products with both military and civil app lications In common with other major electronics companies. Selen ia offe rs a full range of ATC radar and equipment including the new SIR series of monopulse SSR systems. a field in which no company feels it ca n be left behind . Outside the main exhibition hal ls was the Radar Park where. as already described . stood a forest of rotating antennae belong ing to the rival companies In one corner of this area was
a more dow n-to-earth piece of ATC equipment in the form of a mobile ATC Tow er manufact ured by the German company SEL (Standard Elektri k Lorenz AG) . Trailer mounted . the tower consisted of a steel framed aluminium cabin which co uld be raised or lowered hydraulically to a maximum height of six meters. The cabin is fully equipped with VHF / UHF radios . D / F. meteorological sensors and readouts . air condi tioning . and even a refrigerator for controller s' sandw iches (and beer!) . SEL can also pro vide portable airfie ld equipment suc h as navigation aids . airfi eld lighting and maintenance cabins- everyt hing in fact to set up an instant airfi eld , although the company strenuou sly deny that they are working on the development of a mobile runway . A British company , Cable and Wire less. were also exhibiting a portab le control tower , although their design was free stand ing and could not be elevated . Howeve r, its externa l desig n and dimensions meant that it could be tr ans ported as a standard fr eight container . The example shown had been bui lt to a military specifica tion and was to be shipped to the Falkland Islands (Mal vinas) for use at the RAF airfield at Port St anley The co mp anies and exhib its ment ioned in thi s art icle were o nly a frac t ion of the mat erial o n disp lay and it has not been possible to visi t or desc ribe every co mpanies · involvement . However. I wo uld like to public ly thank all those exhibitor s and their staff who we re . wit hout excep tion . most hospitable and helpful in the provision of materia l and information . To those who m I was un able to visit or include in thi s brief desc ription my apolog ies . Perhaps we w ill meet at Farnbo rough Internat iona l 86 .
A Wa tchman display console. Note that the alph an umeri c keybo ard can be lifted out to allow share d operation of the disp lay. p erhap s by an assistant sitting alongside the con troller. (Photo. L. M arriot) 10
Low Level Obstruction Hazards Pilots and operators of aircraft that fly in close proximity to the ground shou ld take every precaution to minimize the potential risks. To do so requires good planning and constant vigi lance. Some questions to ask yourse lf before carrying out such potentially hazardous operation s are: Are the low altitu de operatio ns really necessary? Can the duration of low altitude flight be minimized? Unmarked and unpublished (uncharted and frequently not NOTAMed) ob stacles such as towers and wires common ly exist. Before conducting low altitude operations the following questions are worth your attention: Have standard operating procedures been formu lated to reduce degree of risk and are they being followed? Are you familiar with the various obstruction markings that may alert you to particular hazards? (AIP AGA 1-8) Do you know the position of the unm arked obstacles in the area of planned operations . and keep alert for new ly constructed obstacle s? Wh en ope rating in a new area do you have a method of surveying it for potential hazards? Do you tell other pilot s about obst ac les you think are hazardou s? Perhaps the risk cannot be eliminated but you can take measures to have it minimized .
Ferranti's VARS raster display equipment show ing the co mpa c t size of the installation and the clarity of da ta dis played. It cannot be long before equipment such as this rep laces conventional radar displays (Photo · L. M arrio t)
New Canadian Air Policy (Part I) As published by the Canadian Minister of Transport, Hon. Lloyd Axworthy
• • •
Price regulations gradually eased. CTC to introduce more flexible price regulation and, within two years, pricing regulation changed to permit airlines to charge as little as they wish for air travel. Price increases will continue to be limited. Competition increased among national regional and local carriers. Any new or existing carriers may apply to serve any domestic route. Restrictions removed telling airlines what kind of equipment to use and how often to fly a route. The CTC asked to give much greater weight to th~. benefits of increased competttwn when judging airline licence applications. Any financially fit charter service can apply to fly anywhere in Canada. In an attempt to stimulate new development at Canada's underutilized airports, the government asked CTC to give favorable consideration to applications for service to Mirabel and Hamilton. The government to develop new local air services demonstratwn projects in consul~ation with communities and earners. The CTC to report in 90 days on proposed measures to speed up and simplify the regulatory process. Directions issued to Air Canada reasserting its obligation to operate in a business-like manner. refraining from unfair competitive practices. . All airlines - whether new or existing - will be given equal access to airports. Currently, the policy applies to Southern Canada where air services are considered more mature. CTC asked to monitor more carefully Northern services to ensure carriers are serving the public as effectively as possible at lowest possible prices. CTC to hold hearings in the North this summer.
Standing Committee on Transport to consider at what pace and in what way further liberalization should be pursued.
Introduction This new Canadian air policy envisages a substantial liberalization of airline regulation in Canada. By reforming regulation, the policy will promote a healthy. active and competitive airline industry and greater consumer choice. The policy represents the first phase of a long-term plan to liberalize economic regulation of the airline industry. The extent and speed of further liberalization will be determined in light of a report from the Canadian Transport Commission (CTC) on its recent air fare hearings and in light of recommendations by the House of Commons Standing Committee on Transport in response to a reference by the Minister of Transport. Background Since the mid-1 970s. there have been a number of proposals to modernize the Government's policy on economic regulation of the airline industry. The more recent of these proposals. beginning in 1 982 with the recommendations of the Standing Committee on Transport and the Economic Council of Canada. have advocated an increasingly significant degree of regulatory liberalization. There has also been growing evidence of widespread support for such reforms. as demonstrated most recently by the broad range of testimony during the CTC air fare hearings. These reports and representations reflect a growing recognition that the present regulatory system is no longer required. In fact. there is evidence that regulation has: Hindered innovation in services and pricing; Reduced the flexibility of airline managements to pursue new market opportunities and to adjust their operations to minimize costs;
Hampered the ability of airlines to respond quickly to change. because of undue delays in regulatory decisions; Required airline managements to devote excessive time and energy to essentially unproductive regulatory considerations; Complicated airline planning. to the extent that regulatory decisions have often been difficult to predict; Allowed airline employees and suppliers to charge too much for their inputs. because airline managements were freer under regulation to pass along cost increases to their customers; and. not least. Contributed to the unsatisfactory earnings record of the industry as a whole. In contrast to these drawbacks of the present regulatory regime. it has become increasingly evident that airline deregulation in the US has delivered many important benefits. including the emergence of new. lowcost airlines offering spectacular price cuts for no-frills services on certain routes; a rationalizing of the airline route structure leading to significant efficiencies; considerable improvements in labour productivity; and substantial stimulation of new demand. However. these benefits of airline deregulation in the US do not mean that Canada should necessarily take the same road. The political. socioeconomic. demographic and geographic differences between Canada and the US. coupled with the evidence that US deregulation has also had some disadvantages. dictate a unique. ·made in Canada' approach to regulatory change. The situation does demand. however. that steps be taken now to liberalize the regulatory regime in Canada - not only in the interests of consumers but also to strengthen the competitive position of our airlines internationally. These considerations prompted the Minister ofTransport to ask the CTC to conduct major public hearings on the regulation of air fares. The terms of reference for the hearings called on the CTC to articulate and clarify its discount air fare policy and to assess possible policy modifications that would provide the public with the lowest possible domestic air fares which a viable air carrier industry could offer. The hearings. however. became a forum for broader discussions on the nature of regulation. A consensus among participants finally emerged that: The status quo is not acceptable to anyone; Immediate and complete deregulation is not acceptable. A form of staged movement toward 11
GEOGRAPHIC SCOPE OFLIBERALIZATION
more competition and less regulation was a desirable approach. particularly if implemented in terms of a predetermined and predictable framework. These concerns also form part of the basis for the new policy.
A Liberalization Policy Need for Adjustment Period While the weaknesses of the present regulatory regime make the nochange option untenable. in light of the evidence presented at the CTC hearings it is clear that reductions in economic regulation must come in stages. to give the industry and its employees time to adjust. Immediate. full deregulation could be disruptive as airlines might scramble for protection and advantage with route abandonments. uneconomic price cuts and service additions. etc. New entrants. unencumbered by labour agreements developed under different circumstances. would have a major advantage over incumbents in the short term. It is clear also there are still issues that must be addressed before the Government can initiate full deregulation through legislative change. Ex1st1ng leg1slat1on provides con12
siderable scope for liberalizing the present regulatory regime. For instance. important changes can be accomplished by issuing statements of Government policy which. although not binding. derive considerable practical authority from the over-ride powers available to the Minister of Transport and Governor-in-Council under Sections 25 and 64 of the National Transportation Act. respectively. The latter power is particularly far-reaching. permitting the Cabinet to Âˇvary or rescind' anything done by the CTC. on appeal or of its own motion. In addition. the CTC itself can and does exercise considerable. though not unlimited discretion in interpreting the requirements of Âˇ public convenience and necessity'. And it has in the past shown considerable responsiveness to all statements of Government policy.
Policy Objectives This policy emerges from a long series of consultations with the airlines. the provinces and the public. going back as far as 1977. The most comprehensive of these consultations were the hearings on domestic air carrier policy held by the Standing
Committee on Transport in early 1982. and the air fare hearings conducted by the CTC in early 1984. The CTC held hearings across the country. generating a healthy and varied debate. The expression of interest raised at these inquiries has led to this new Canadian air policy. The new policy touches most aspects of domestic airline regulation and represents the first phase of reform. It will lead to a substantial increase in competition among existing carriers; the emergence of a number of new airlines. possibly with very low costs; an increase in service and lower fares on routes with increased competition; and a significant reduction in red tape and other regulatory constraints on airline flexibility and freedom to innovate. The purpose of the new policy, in its first phase. is to make an early start on the improvements that are now so widely perceived as necessary. Its specific objectives are to: Provide consum_ers with a wider range of price-service options better adapted to their differing needs and preferences: Invigorate the industry and provide a stimulus to growth:
Continues on page 25
"d ro"ects e by ICAO
Five large-scale projects (US$ 500,000ormoreintotal)tobe executed by ICAO have been announced: three are country projects funded solely by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Indonesia, Republic of Korea and Nepal; another country project in Guinea is funded by Caisse Centrale de la Cooperation Economique (France) ; and the fifth is a regional project in Africa, funded by the OPEC Fund for International Development on behalf of ASECNA (Agence pour la Securite de la Navigation Aeri enne) Member States . Implementation of each proj ect already is under way . (Budgetary provisions following are expressed in US dollars.) • Indonesia. Thi s three- year project seeks to strengthen the Director ate General of Air Communi cation s (DGAC) through improvement of the DGAC' s organizational structure and enhancement of its ability to supervise the oper ation s of air carrier s, development of system s and procedures to permit national airworthiness certification of aircraft , training of personnel in essenti al op erational and technical disc iplin es. and upd ating of th e Country's Civil Aviation Ma ster Developm ent Plan . Th e Proje ct provid es for expert s con sisting of a flight oper ation s adviser / te am leader, an airworthiness adviser and a civil aviation advi ser . A fellow ship program totalling $ 21 6 . 700 provide s for tr aining abro ad of national personnel in flight operation s, airw orthine ss and aircraft maintenance. Tot al UNDP funding is nearly $ 608,000 ; the Governm ent' s contributi o n in kind will be equi valent t o $ 46,400 . • Republi c of Korea Anoth er t hree-yea r effort . thi s proj ect has several obj ecti ves. ( 1 ) develo pme nt of th e Civil Aviation Training Centr e and expansion of its ca pabilitie s to pro vide tr ainin g cour ses in radar, VOR and ILS equipm ent m aint enance ; and ( 2 ) pro visio n of a fellows hip prog ram for tr ainin g abr oad of nati onal co unt erpart instru ct ors and sc ho ol offi c ials.
Provision is made for short-term experts consisting of a training/planning adviser, a radar maintenance instructor, an ILS maintenance instructor and a VOR maintenanc e instructor. A fellowship program consisting of advanced courses in instruction techniques will provide training abroad for three national instructors and an allocation for group training will permit familiarization visit s by two officials to regional training centers in Manila, Jakarta, Bangkok and Singapore. For training equipm ent, $ 298,460 will be provided, which includes a VOR transmitter, an instrument landing system (ILS) and a supply of training book s and publication s. UNDP funding is $ 603 ,000 ; the Government' s contribution in kind w ill be equi valent to almo st $ 1 .05 million . • Nepal. Over th e next five years, this project will provide logi stic support for United Nation s and other development effo rt s in remot e areas of Nepal through the oper ation of a UNDP aircraft. It also w ill pro vide training for nation al pilot s, enginee rs and t ec hnic ians leading to th e eventu al establishm ent of a Flight Ope ration s Unit w ithin th e Departm ent of Civil Aviation . Provision is made of expert services by an operati ons manager / team leader , a pilot and a c hief airc raft mainten ance engin eer The proj ect is also fin anc ing four nati onal experts con sistin g of a pilot , two co-pilot s and an assist ant aircraft maint enance eng ineer. A program of group tr aini ng for pilot s and suppo rt person nel w ill be est ablished at a lat er dat e. Equipment tot alling $ 3 96 .8 00i s t o be provided The UNDP w ill provide $ 4 55,4 00 ; th e Governme nt' s con tribut ion in kind has not yet been det ermin ed • Guinea . The Guinean M inist ry of Transpo rt and Caisse Cent rale de la Coope rati on Econom ique (CCCE) have reached an agreeme nt w hereby t he latter w ill provide fund ing of a project in Guinea for th e reco nstr uc-
tion of the ta xiw ay ligh t ing an d airpor t elect rical di stribu t ion systems at Conakry-Gbe ssia Internat ion al Airp o rt. To this end , the Governmen t of Guine a, at the spec ific req uest of t he CCCE, has invited ICAO to assum e th e role of execu t ing ag en cy in co llabor ation w ith Aeroport de Paris. the latter in the cap acit y of con sult ing eng ineer to ICAO . Specifi ca t ions prep ared by Aer oport de Paris for equipm ent and sub contracts w ill be subje ct to appro val by ICAO prior to subm iss io n to th e Government w ho w ill issue the invi tations for sealed t end ers. Likew ise . evaluation of short -listed t ender s wi ll be carried out by t he Aer o por t de Par is and submitted to ICA O fo r rev iew and techn ica l appr oval. The CCCE budget ary provision is fo r a total of $ 666 , 670. e ASECNA. Th e OPE C Grant is intended to modern ize t he aeron auti c al tele c ommuni ca t ion s fa cil ities and the navigat io nal aids systems in seven of th e 1 5 Mem ber St ates of ASECNA , wi t h a view to assisti ng this Agen cy in it s end eavors to me et the requ iremen ts of the Regio nal Air Navigati on Plan w ith in the framework of the rec om me nd at ions cont ained in the ICAO Afr ican Tele co m munication s Stu dy . AS ECNA Me m ber States w hich w ill benef it from th e p rovisions of thi s proje ct are Cent ral African Repu blic , Chad , Cong o, M a li. Mauri t ania, Niger and Uppe r Vol t a. The maj or part of the equ ipment to be pur chased under th e pro j ect con sist s of rad io co m mu nicat ions equip ment for th e Aerona ut ica l Fixed Tele co m m unicat ions Network within AS ECNA M emb er Sta t es In addition , one DM E w ill be provided for co loc at ion w ith th e existing VOR in No uadh ibo u, one m ulti -channel com m uni cat io ns voice loggi ng system will be provided for inst al lat ion in Bam ako and on e fu lly equ ipped tower console to get her w ith a video information dis tr ibut ion system wi ll be supp lied to Niamey A irport The to t al OPEC Grant amounts to $ 1 mi llion .
Omega Na v igation C a n Now Be Used in the S 01U1 t h At Oantic , ac cording to the result s of an accurarcy validat ion study conducted by the US Coast Guard The pre c ise area that ha s been declared operational is bound ed approximatel y by 20 degree s nor th and 35 degrees south latitud e. and 70 degrees west and 20 degree s eas1 longitud e . l '.-l
How Low Flyers Avoid Wires
This series of recommendations has been co llected and condensed from a survey taken in New Zealand among st some of the ir most experienced ag pilo ts. The tip s apply equ ally well to their Canad ian co unterpa rt s. Coll ision w ith w ires is one of the greatest hazards facing the aerial work pilot Other than legislating that no cables or wi res be erected above gro und level - a most unli kely enactment - t here seems no possibility of eliminat ing this man-made threat. Therefore. th is w ire infest ed c o untry must be regarded by pilots as hostile territory fo r low flight The principal safety factors for avo iding wires may be summarized as follows: Discipline
Witho ut a strong sen se of discipline you are bo und to succ umb to temptations t hat inevita bly lead to dangerous. unp lanned m aneu vers . Get to know the safety rules and adhere to them rig id ly on every opera t ion . Memory and Awareness
Be co nstant ly awa re of the existence and let hality of w ires on every spraying / sowing run . on every flight to and from th e t reatment are a. on every ferry flight to an d fr o m base . Do n ' t let comp lace ncy. boredom or sleepiness interfere wi th your ment al atti tude to wi res If so m e form of m emor y jogger is required. use any m et hod that is gua rantee d t o ga in and m aintain you r atte nt ion . Et ch WIRES int o your mind. Bri efing
A prefl ight briefing from th e farmer is essential to co nfirm t he natur e and location of his property. espec ially in the treatmen t area and alo ng th e route to and from t he airst rip He m ay also be ab le to wa rn yo u of suc h hazards o n properties adjace nt to his bo unda ries Al l these w ires and obst ruct ions mu st be visua lly locate d duri ng t he sub sequent inspect io n Treat with caution any assu rances t hat t here are no da ngero us w ires o n t he property . Farmers are apt to fo rget about old and seldom used lines. electri c fences . and even new ly erecte d aerials and cab les . Carry out a furthe r inspection if in doubt 14
Use a check list to ensure that no item is overlooked. If necessary . use a map of the area to positively identify and mark in each hazard . Reconnaissance
Continual observation of the terrain in your general area of operations enables early recognition of current or likely erection of power and telephone lines in relation to farm building projects. Before commencing work. make a reconnais sance of the total area at a safe height. Positively locate all power pylons and power and telephone poles . Look for those partly obscured by trees. those with cross-arms denoting secondary lines and those forming part of a fence line . Determine the direction of wire runs and spur lines (especially electric fence lines or feeder lines slung between saddles on ridges). Locate radio and television aerials and . supporting guy wires on structures. Beware of smaller wires slung in clo se pro ximity to major lines. Flying Technique Allow an extra margin for error by flying sowing runs higher than the optimum for ma ximum spread - the sw ath width w ill remain about the same. particularly when granulated material is being used . Where possible . make all turns abo ve ridge top height to avoid wire s slung acro ss gullie s and saddle s .
Wires in the treatment area should be sighted on every procedure turn before the run in . Where possible . use poles for sighting wire runs. and if the wires are not visible fly as high as the poles. Whenever poles cannot be seen clearly . use some other prominent feature as a marker for the pull-up point. Don 't guess the amount of sag in a line that is difficult to see . If in doubt. fly higher. It also pays to get an early altimeter check on the height of a wire. When establishing a pull-up point to clear wires don't forget the effect of high gross weight and air temperature on aircraft performance. Endeavor to make runs parallel to wires . Where you have to spray toward wires pull up well clear and finish untreated areas later with parallel runs . With high power lines it is sometimes safer to fly under them: providing there are no other obstructions , that you look well ahead when approaching , that you never look up at the wires as you pass under and that you concentrate on maintaining height above ground . This technique is mainly applicable to spraying - it is not generally recommended for topdressing. Where a farm is covered by a profusion of wire s, don't duck and dive maintain a safe height abo ve them at all times . no matter what the effect on spread. Maintain extra vigilance when returning for another load , and also during final 'tidy-up ' runs . The tendency to relax and be inattentive to detail at these time s is a common cause of wire strikes . Develop a ' rubber neck'. From take-off to touch down keep looking Continues on page 26
First titl e in the new publishing program was Bill Gun ston·s Aircraft of the Soviet Union . Thi s 416-page book . the resu lt of 30 years· resea rc h. describes and illu st rates over 800 military and c ivil aircraft using some 350.000 words and 766 photo graphs and drawings. The period covered is fr om 1 9 1 7 to the present day. and the airc raft described range from litt le-known prototypes of the 1920 s to the latest Tupo lev Backf ire and Blackjack bombers. Air Combat A new series of mil itary aircraft monographs has the tit le Osprey Air Combat . Already available are Douglas A4 Skyhawk by Peter Kilduff and Repub lic F 1 05 Th underch ief by David Anderton. Both book s have 1 9 2 pages measuring 270X 198 mm. In add ition to eight pages of color photograp hs. each book has 1 60 black and white photographs in the te xt Design . development . operation
and combat history are described for each aircraft _The _next titles to be published in this series are Britis h Aerospace Harrier and Sea Harrie r by Roy Braybrook and M c Donne l Dougla s F-4K and F-4M Phantom II by Mich ael Burns. The Harrier book describes the design and technical deve lopment of this unique aircraft. with in the context of Briti sh politics and incl udes new material. The role of the Harrier in the South Atlantic is descr ibed in detail . The Phantom pub lication is the first book to be devoted solely to the Phantom s. fitted wit h Rolls-Royce Spey engines and other Briti sh equ ipment . supp lied to the Royal Navy and the Royal Air Force. Osprey Colour Series
Osprey· s Colour Series book s have 128 ful l co lor 288X228 mm pages . The first aviation title s cover racing aircraft and veteran airliners . Reno. Air Rac ing Unlimi ted by Nig el Moll cont ains 1 22 phot ographs
of the colorful aircraft which took part in the 1982 air races held at Reno . Nevad a. USA. SubJects rang e from World War II fighter aircraft to home built pylon racers In Skytru ck . Stephen Piercey . Chief Phot og rapher of Flight International . records the veteran piston-engined airliners stiil in service carrying air ca rgo in third -wo rld co untr ies Aircraft fe at ured include Lockheed Con stel lation s. Curtiss Commando s and eve n Boeing Flying Fortresses Airborne Early Warning Completing t he list of new title s Is Airbo rne Ear ly W arning . Design . Development and Oper at ion s by Mik e Hir st. Thi s authoritative work tra ces the subject from the earliest day s of aerial com bat . It describes both th e aircraft and radar system s in servi ce and under development and also covers the politi c al background to th e various projects . The te c hnol ogy of airborne early warning rad ar 1s desc ribed in simple te rm s an d the op erational requirem ent s o utli ned I f)
Changi International, Singapore, including Saudi Arabia, Great Britain, Paraguay; Portugal and the is equipped with some of the Netherlands. worlds most advanced installations. But there is more to flying Many supplied by Philips: than Air Traffic Control. From checkoutdoor and security lighting in to arrival, Philips aviation covering 53 parking aprons and approach routes; public address, with systems play their vital roles around the world's air routes. 7,500 speakers; high-definition ASD E for safety and security on the Speeding up boarding proceground; and a computerised ATC, dures: our Dynavision 500 X-ray including long-range radar and disbaggage inspection uses digital play systems which can process 300 imaging technology to reveal more and reveal it faster (1). flight plans simultaneously. Our advanced ATC systems In the air, flight-crews steer by are in operation in many countries, Philips VOR/DME systems,
while air-to-ground conversations are recorded on Philips voice logging systems (2). Meanwhile ,vital information is rushing through AEROPP data switching and handling networks(3). During aircraft descent, Philips ILS Instrument Landing Systems produce precise paths for pilots (4). Finally, the safety of all traffic on the airfield is enhanced by our ASDE Airport Surf ace Detection Equipment. And by our lighting. Not only with permanent instal-
lations , but also with portable and transportable lighting systems ; these can be employed for civil and defence applications on temporary or emergency airfields and heliports (5). For more information about Philips expertise in aviation , write to the Philips organization in your country or to Philips , VOA-0217 /TC3 ,Eindhoven , th e Nether land s. Philipso The sure sign of expertise world-wideo
Ultimate EA 230
Underpinning the drive for · perfect aerobat ics · are ever more sophis ti cated aircrah, and w hen expe rt ise and pilots unite, on ly unique mater ial is good enough . With the Ultimate EA 230. a new design in aerobat ic ai rplanes. pilots Chris Schweizer, Erik Hagander and Nils Hagander expect to strengthen thei r position at the top of the field of high performance aerobatics. 'To fly means to land' is an ohen heard apho rism among the ave rage pilot. For the aerobat ic pilot flying means much, much more. It requires an absolute harmony of pilot and machine. and the pilot's presence of mind to have the best m aterial .
Outstanding Flying Characteristics ... The new Ult imate EA 230 is probably the most sophisticated aeroba ti c airplane in the wor ld . It was built by Walter Extra, in Din slake n, German y, under the patronage of Thommen , Swiss manufact urer of precision and aircrah inst ruments. The very low stall speed allows most of the commo n aerobatic f igures to be flown wit h low entry speed, whic h me ans small radiuses and thus lowe r g-forces. On the other hand the Ult im ate EA 230 performs very we ll at high speed and easi ly carves a sta llturn w it h four ver-
ti ca l rolls in th e cl imbing leg . Autorotations like spins and snaprolls are easy to control w hic h proves that the plane is we ll balance d and designed accord ing to the lat est aerodynamic expert ise .
Striking Outlines Th e most perfect pilot and best performing airplane are only as good as their ability to make their skills visibl e. Here too th e Ultimate EA 230 is nearly fla w less . With it's clear, elegant line s and striking paint scheme it stand s out, no matter how complex the figure . Aces at the Controls Chris Schweizer , know n wo rldwide as an aerobatic ace , Erika and Nils Hagander , up and coming talents of the Sw iss aerobatic team, pilot the Ultimate EA 230 and will attend future aero batic competitions and airshows. During his 14-year aerobatic career, Chris Schweizer wo n two Euro pea n gold medals and one silver medal at wo rld c hampion ship s and is four-time Swiss c hampion . Erik and Nils have been m embers of the Swiss aerobat ic t eam since 1982 and 1984 respectively and ca me in third and fo urth at the last Swis s nati ona ls.
With the Ultimate EA 230 thes e three pilot s have the means to demonstrate harmony and virtuosity in unlimited flight . These are the criteria by which future champions will be measured. W .B.
Ultimate EA 2 30 in numbers Wingspan : 24 .3 ft Length : 19 . 1 ft Wingprofile: MA 15 S (Root) MA 12 S (Tip) Engine: Lyco ming / Firewall Forward AEIO-360 230 hp M ax . Speed : 249 mph Stallspeed: 56 mph Acceler ation: ±10 g Weight : 433 kg
Chris Schweizer, Erik and Nils Hagander and the new Ultimate EA 2 30 Photo. Fred Podolak 18
Visit to the Civil Aviation Workers Union USSR by IFATCA Board Officers by P. 0 Doherty, /FA TCA Executive Secretary
A delegation from the Exec utive Board visited the USSR at the invitation of the CAWU in May of this year. The IFATCA delegation was led by the Preside nt. H. H. Henschler , and he was accompanied by the V.P . Technical. Lex Hendriks and the Executive Secretary, Pat O'Doherty . On arrival at Moscow 's Sheremetyevo 2 Airport, we were greeted by Mr . Yuri Sarapkin, head of the International Affair s Department of the Central Committee of the CAWU, who welcomed us to the USSR and expressed his hopes for a fruitful visit. Mr . Vladimir Zuev, President of the CC CAWU , then arrived to meet us and fraternal greetings were once again exchanged . On Tuesday, 22nd May. we spent some time visiting the ATCC at Vnukovo Airport, where the Director of the ATCC, Mr. Georgi Lipaev met us and conducted the tour of the facilities. Most of the equ ipment would have been very familiar to many controllers who wou ld be using it elsewhere, or would have seen it on display at IFATCA Technica l Exhibitions. The majority of it is of course supp lied by our long standing Corporate Mem ber Data-Saab , or now Ericsson. The ATCC contro ls an area of 700000 km 2 , w ith four airports in close proximity to M oscow and twenty one airport s in the surrounding area. The faci lity provides both terminal and area cont rol . There are seven radar sites for the ACC having both primary and SSR. There is comp lete coverage of the area above 3000 meters for up to 700 km from Moscow . The terminal area is served by three radar system s. aga in both primary and SSR. The ACC has twe nty sector s oper ation al, while TCC has nine sectors for the approach phase and four sectors for take -off / landing phase, all of th e sector s having rada r traffi c for the four airports in the Moscow Reg ion are vectored to instrument approach stage by the TCC. and airc raft ca n be
observed on radar righ t to touchdown . As part of the ATCC there is also a complete system training facility, both theoretical and practical . from entry to full rating . There are 800 contro llers employed in the ACC / TCC. With so many sectors, specia lization is obviously a part of the system. In the ACC/TCC Sectoral Division is by geographical and vertica l area. The controllers specia lize in 2-3 sectors in the ACC . but in the TCC it is hoped that all control lers can be multirated . Each ACC sector is ope rated by one assistant. one radar and one procedura l controller . Separation standards are 5 km in radar environment. 20 km in procedural environment and for VFR traffic with spee ds up to 5 50 kph , 5 km up to 6100 m . Th e system is computerized, wit h capacity for up to 3000 f light plan s. The relevant inf ormation is presented to the contro ller both on flight progress strips and by VDU . The system can give a projected track based on current inform at ion for up to 5 minute s ahead, thu s enabling
a degree of co nflict prediction. Th e radar di splays provide on request . onscreen informati o n on Time. Active Runways. Scale , OF E/ Transition. Weather data is on a separate VD U . The ATCC has its own ATFMU (A ir Traffi c Flow M anagement Un it) and this plans all arrivals / departures for all Moscow Airports . Up to 4000 aircraft pass through the area controlled by the ACC every day Of the 800 fullrated controllers in the cente r. only 1 2 are female . The controllers operate a 5-shift syste m of 40 hours per week . Each controller works for 2 hours. then has a 20-minute break. This is spent at a rest room or may be spent taking active physical exercise in a fu lly equipped gym room . These fac ilities are provided as a matter of course. Me al break s of 40 minutes are provided after 3 to 4 hours. The complete work ing environment was most acceptable and our delegation was most impressed by the equipment . and by the silen ce in the operation s room. A ll operational staff use headsets.
Kiev On Wednesday, 23rd Ma y . we visited Borispol Airport in the Ukraine city of Kiev . The vis it was conducted by the Deput y Chief of the Airport , Mr. Ale xander Artushenko and the President of the Ukraine Committee of the CAWU . Mr. Ivan Zvinik. The airport at Bori spol has tw o par allel runways , one of w hich is equipped with Cat. II ILS . The ACC here services a big area. using modern te c hno logy; both Sov iet and fore ign equipm ent from Dat aSaab (Ericsson ) and Seleni a w as bei ng used . The center w as built in 197 9 and control s the surr oundi ng area o ut
to 1 50 km. All necessary training is provided on-site. Facilities provided both in the work and social area were very similar to Moscow, and once again we were impressed by the silence of the operation.
Salaries and Conditions During lengthy discussions in both Kiev and Moscow, we were given the following information on the working conditions and salaries of the controllers: Controllers are predominantly male, only 1 2 females in Moscow and only 2 (out of 130) in Kiev. Recruitment is from special aviation colleges and technical secondary schools. Initial theoretical training is the same for both controllers and pilots. Controllers are provided with up to 100 hours of flying time, usually as a navigator. On arrival at an ACC/TCC training in local procedures is given before assignment to sectors. Controllers work a 40-hour week, including meal breaks. A 20-minute break is given after 2 hours and meal breaks after 3 to 4 hours. Vouchers are provided covering the cost of meals. Recreational facilities are available at the airports. Each airport has a recreational zone (health farm) available. Accommodation in cottages in these zones is readily available and free of charge. Salaries range from 250 rubies per month to approximately 350 rubies per month, the higher figure for those with 1 5 years of service. For comparison purposes, a long-term pilot with Aeroflot TU 1 54 aircraft would receive about 700 rubies per month, and the average industrial earnings about 200 rubies per month. Housing, light and heat in an average sized apartment costs about 25 rubies per month. (1 ruble=US$1.25). Conclusion The IFATCA Delegation left with a very high opinion of the standards achieved in the two ACCs we visited. The officials named were all most cooperative and the general reception afforded to us by all we met left nothing to be desired. All the people we spoke with expressed a desire for more and better contact with other Air Traffic Control Associations at the national level. and would like to see more liaison visits materializing.
IDlaODas ll.ove fieUd has updated its noise-abatement policy, which includes procedures for jet airplanes and VFR helicopter operators. 20
Pilots' Organization -'Supportive' of DOT's Safety Audit
Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) announced it is 'supportive' of the Department of Transportation's plans to conduct a 'comprehensive safety audit of general aviation'. Speaking from the world assembly of the International Council of Aircraft Owner and Pilot Associations (IAOPA) in Cannes, France, AOPA President John L. Baker said, 'If conducted in a reasonable and professional manner and if properly focused. the Department's effort could have a positive influence on an activity which already has demonstrated its dedication to safe flight and which has, in fact, amassed an excellent safety record.' Baker added that as long as the effort 'does not degenerate into harassment of individual pilots, aircraft owners, mechanics, flight instructors and fixed-base operators, his association will continue to be supportive.' The AOPA president also said the DOT must take the necessary steps to ensure that the inspections focus on areas which could directly improve flight safety and 'not get unproductively wrapped up in nitpicking minor deficiencies which, effectively, have no bearing on the safe conduct of flight.' AOPA, whose affiliate organizations represent general aviation pilots in 28 other nations worldwide, has more than 265,000 members who own and/ or fly general aviation aircraft in the United States. DOT Secretary Elizabeth H. Dole, in announcing the 1 2- to 18-month effort, said the safety audit would cover all aspects of general aviation including flight schools, repair stations, mechanics and on-demand air taxis. The Secretary also said the study would look at the effectiveness of FAA standards on operations and maintenance. AOPA's president said he was encouraged to see that the Department is willing to scrutinize itself and urged that their efforts be expanded to include all Federal Aviation Regulations and FAA programs, many of which have adverse impacts on aviation safety. Baker cited as examples the FAA's current Âˇ ill-advised' plan to close more than 250 Flight Service Stations nationwide; the Department of De-
tense' s efforts to expand Special-Use Airspace, in particular that which is used by high speed military aircraft flying at dangerously low altitudes; and, FAA's 'totally unnecessary' implementation of 'unsafe' Terminal Control Areas (TCAs). AOPA, whose members fly everything from ultralights to corporate jets and beyond, did express 'surprise' at the timing of the study. Said Baker: 'There currently is no evidence to show that general aviation operations have become less safe. In fact, accident statistics of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) show the activity getting safer each year. Accidents and fatalities were down in all pertinent categories leading NTSB to call 1983 general aviation's "safest year ever".' According to DOT, the 'audit' will begin in September when initial efforts are reported to focus on contract operators of large aircraft who fly older jets such as Boeing 707s and McDonald Douglas DC-8s. However, AOPA strongly urges pilots to prepare now in the event DOT' s timetable is accelerated. Throughout the 'audit', AOPA will monitor closely the process and urges anyone who believes they have been harassed or otherwise have had their rights infringed upon to contact AOPA's Membership Services Department at (301) 695-2130 immediately with details.
The FAA May Amend Single Engine Stall Speed Requirements in view of the number of petitions it is getting from the manufacturers developing new, single engine turbine aircraft. FAR Part 23 requires that the stall speed of singles shall not exceed 61 knots. But many of the single engine turbine aircraft under development will have stall speeds greater than 61 knots. Consequently, Gulfstream. Beech and OMAC have petitioned the FAA to have their aircraft exempt from this rule. The agency says it intends to amend the regulation, but a notice of proposed rulemaking has yet to be issued.
Tiedowns - Your Airplane's Last Defense Against Mother Nature*
Pilots who have encountered a sudden gust of wind just before touchdown know full well how truly vulnerable an airplane can be to strong wind conditions . And an airplane sitting on the ground is susceptible to many of the same potentially destructive forces . Each year. numerous aircraft are damaged by windstorms because their owners are negligent. fail to heed adverse weather forecasts. or use improper tiedown procedure s. Sometimes. though. forecast conditions are so threatening that even the best tiedown procedures won 't be effective. In these situations . the best protection against windstorm damage is to fly the aircraft out of the impending storm area . provided . of course. that you have sufficient warning time . The next best protecti ve me asure is to secure the aircraft in a stormproof hangar . or other suitable shelter . Realizing th at thes e two optimum me asures of prote cting your aircraft against windstorm damage may not always be practical in your case. the remaining alternative is to assure that the aircraft is tied down securely . When securing your airplane. it is considered good practice to fasten all door s and windows properly . thereby preve nting or minimizing damage inside the airc raft. An aircraft that ride s through a storm with a window open may we ll have serious water dam age to electrical systems and avionics equipm ent . Engine openings (intake and cowling) should be covered to prevent entry of foreign matter . And pitot-static tube s should also be covered to prevent damage or entry of foreign matter . In general. pilots should be prepared for the worst co ncei vable windstorm condit ions. po uring rain . gusty w inds from 30 mph and up . intermittent sheet s of wa ter blowing across runways. ramps. and parking areas. and lack of hangar facilities With such co ndition s possible at near ly every airport in the co untry . owners should plan in advance by read ing their airc raft manuf act urer 's
charts and graphs denoting aircraft weights and relative wind velocitie s that would make varied tiedown procedures necessary for certain weather emergencies . Any aircraft parking area should be equipped with three-point tiedowns . Aircraft should be tied down at the end of each flight to preclude damage from sudden storms. such as summertime squall lines . Depending upon
whether for a concrete pa ved surface . a bituminous paved surface. or an unpaved turf area. Detailed descriptions and drawings of the va rious tied own anchors may be found in FAA Ad visory Circular No . 20-35C . whic h is available from your local general aviation district office . Whatever the t iedo w n method. howev er . the anchor eye should not protrude more than one inch above the ground. Don't depend on wooden stakes . Stake-driven tiedowns will almost invariably pull out w hen the ground becomes soaked from torren t ial rains that often accompan y thunde rstorms . Nylon or dacron tiedo w n ropes are preferred over manila ropes. since the latter are susceptible to mildew and rot . Another objection to manila rope is that it shr inks w hen it gets w et. possibly causing stress pressures to build along the tiedown rope. Lastl y.
While a freak windstorm can easily rip aircraft from their tiedowns. such as in the incident illustrated, damage generally can be avoided by using proper tiedown procedures. the location s of fixed parking area mooring points. aircraft should be headed into th e wind. or as nearly as possible. Tiedo wn anc hors for singl e-engine aircraft should provide a minimum holding power (strength) of approx imately 3.000 pounds eac h . Multi engine aircraft will require stronger ti edo w ns because of the additional we ight of the se aircraft. Anchors for light tw ins should be capab le of a holding powe r of 4 .000 pound s each. Do not depe nd on the mu lti -eng in e aircraft's we ight t o protect it fr om damage by w ind storm s. The type of anchors in use var ies with the type of park ing area -
â€˘ Th,s article is presented by AVEMCO in the inter est of flight safety - fir st pub lished in AOPA News letter
man ila rope has considerably less tensile strength than either nylon or dacron . Occasionally inspect all tiedown rope s. regardles s of their type . To ensure at least 3 .000 pounds of holding power . you would need a ny lon or dacron rope of at least 3/s-inch diamete r. and manila rope of at least 9/15-inch diameter A fourth type of rope - polypropylene - mus t be at least 3/16 inches in d iameter . Wh en sec urin g the aircraft . t ie only at the tiedown rings prov id ed for that purpose . Never t ie to a strut itse lf. since such practice frequent ly causes damage . Allow for about one inch of movement . and remember that manila rope shrinks when it get s wet . Too mu ch slack will allow the a ir
craft to jerk against the ropes. Tightening ropes too much, on the other hand, puts inverted flight stresses on the aircrah; many aircraft are not designed to take such loads. Remember. also. that a ·tiedown rope holds no better than the knot. Anti-slip knots. such as the bowline or a square knot. are quickly tied and easy to untie. All flight controls should be locked or tied to prevent their banging against th_es'.ops. Some aircraft are equipped with integral gust locks operable from the cockpit. On others. however. it may be necessary to use external padded battens (control surface locks) or secure the control wheel (with a control quadrand lock or the seatbelts) and rudder from inside the cockpit. _ When using external surface locks. 1t 1s advisable that red streamers weights. or a line to the tiedown b~ fastened to the locks. This will provide a means of alerting airport service employees and pilots to remember to remove the external locks prior to takeoff. Opinions vary concerning whether or not to set the brakes. The FAA recommends the practice. but some aircrah manufacturers note that the rocking of an aircrah with its brakes set may damage the brakes and wheel._ Check with your own pilot's operating handbook for a specific recommendation. Chocks should be placed and secured fore and aft of each wheel. _Securely tying down an aircraft requires only a few moments at the end of a flight. and it's time well invested. Don't let a sudden windstorm catch you and your airplane unaware ... and unprotected.
Beech Aircraft Has Not Dropped its lawsuit Against Aviadesign. despite the fact that the Ventura. California company withdrew its suit against Beech. The cases · are not related'. said Beech. Aviadesign. the firm that markets a wing-strap modification for King Airs. Model 99s and Fairchild Merlins. filed a restraint-oftrade suit against Beech in 1 983. Beech promptly countersued. accusing Aviadesign of trade libel. Aviadesign said it withdrew its suit because the dispute 1s creating ·confusion and hardship' tor King Air operators. However. Aviadesign also said that if Beech continues its suit. 'it will provide a forum in which (the two companies·) differences can be settled once and for all'. 22
Changes in the Aviation Safety Organization
What benefit can the public expect The face of av1at1on safety in Canada is changing. The time for for- out of the reorganization? The creation of an independent safety board guarmation of the Canadian Aviation Safety Board (CASS) is drawing very antees that accident and incident investigation will be conducted withclose. It will be a crown corporation separate from Transport Canada. This out the possiblity of conflict of intercomes about as a result of rec- est. The board will make safety reports ommendations by the Dubin com- and recommendations available to the mission of several years ago. After a public. thus ensuring that the best long period of review. planni~g ~nd interests of safety are observed. Pardevelopment. the enabling leg1slat1on allel _tothis is the recognition that prepassed Parliament then received royal vention programs are cost effective. It has been proven that large savings to assent on November the 1 7th. 1 983. Now all that remains (from a legal the Canadian economy can be point of view) is to proclaim the date achieved by relatively small expendithat CASS comes into being as a sep- ture on safety programs. Therefore in arate entity. During the interim period the future you will see more emphasis there is an unbelievable amount of placed on prevention on both the volplanning and preparation und_erway. ~n_t~rycompliance to regulations acand the non-regulatory aspects Step by step the various functions of t1v1t1es the CASS and the Transport Canada of safe_tywhich are not covered by safety organizations are being separ- regulations. These take the form of ated. Sometime later this year we can awareness and education assistance expect the new board to become fully to the aviation community. Aviation safety has come a long functional as an independent organway in Canada over the past decade. ization. What is happening because of all We are fortunate to be living in a this reorganization? Basically. the ac- country ':lhere the concern for public cident investigators. some analysis welfare 1s a fertile environment for functions and several new organiza- progressive approaches to such protional cells will constitute the new grams as aviation safety. So let's take Board. The Transport Canada Civil full advantage of it and go for bigger Aeronautics Safety Programs Branch. and better things in collaboration bewith Bill Slaughter as Director. will be tween government and the industry. composed of the Aviation Safety Promotion group and an extended safety analysis division. The Regional Safety Officers (RASOs) remain in the regional organizations of Transport.----------------Canada. As far as you the public client are concerned. there will be little sigFAA's Contract Tower Control nificant change in promotion activiProgram should be expanded. in the ties. Over the longer term there should view of the American Association of be better service to the public due to Airport Executives. a Washington. the fact that we anticipate more re- D.C. trade organization. The AAAE sources to do the analysis. promotion believes that the program, under and RASO jobs. which the private sector receives FAA Si nee the historical functions of the contracts to operate control towers at Aviation Safety Bureau (investigation. small airports, would permit reopenanalysis. reporting and promotion)will ing of towers that were temporarily be divided between the two organiza- closed because of the controllers· tions. it is absolutely essential that the strike as well as providing ATC services Board and the safety branch work at small airports served by airlines. The together closely to maintain the in- AAAE also contends that 'private entegrity of the safety cycle. To guaran- terprise· can operate the towers at one tee that this happens requires the es- third the cost that the FAA can. To tablishing of detailed procedures and date. the agency is reimbursing just numerous agreements. This phase of three communities for the operation of planning is well advanced. towers.
Night Fright (From Aviation Safety Letter, Canada)
We're all a little apprehensive of 'things that go bump in the night', especially when we are flying. Old expressions come to mind; 'black air has no lift'. and ·engines always run rougher at night' . Darkness has a way of compounding any uncertainties we may have about our height. speed or location . Night flying can be as demanding as instrument flying, although normally less training is devoted to it . It requires special skills and thoughtful preparation since pilots must be prepared to cope with the many elements that change after the sun goes down . Physiology - Our eyes sense and register light differently in darkness. We lose our sharp, color vision along with the ability to clearly determine depth. texture and size. To fully adapt from bright light conditions to night takes our eyes at least 30 minutes . Smokers would do well to avoid lighting up on night flights. Smoking impairs oxygen transport and adds carbon monoxide to the blood . Even non-smokers need supplementary oxygen to maximize night vision above 5000 feet and smokers may need it at lower altitudes. Did you know that even if you have perfect daytime vision. you could be nearsighted at night? This varies from person to person. but if you suspect that your distance vision is inferior in dim light. you may need glasses for night flying. Wear sun glasses on bright days for better vision . Exposure to bright sunshine during the day can increase your night adaptation time to as much as five hours . If you tend to become weary and sluggish while night flying. this is likely due to the upset of your 'circadian rhythm s·. Bodily functions are subject to a measureable rhythm that repeats itself every 24 hours . Circadian rhythms differ from person to person . which is why some people operate better in the morning , some in the afternoon and a few at night. However. most people do not think . reac t or perform well at night . To minimize the effects of night fatigue • Drink plenty of liquids to avoid dehydration. • Stretch. move . and sit upright in your seat. • Establish a schedule of tasks such as reading the engine instruments every 1 5 minutes.
Talk to fellow crew members or passengers for mental stimulation . Navigation - The terrain that may be so familiar in daylight looks entirely different at night. The pilot mu st depend more heavily on the information available from the instrument panel especially on moonless or hazy nights. Also . clouds can be difficult to see and avoid . Although it is possible to 'track crawl' since you can usually see towns and major highways , the pos sibility of error is so great that you should confirm your location with VOR or ADF . Choose higher minimum altitudes at night to give you greater field of vision. improved radio reception and a wider marg in above unsee n obstacles . Illu sions-All pilots. but especially those who seldom fly at night. can be fooled by the se illu sions : • Autokine sis: When trying to fix your position by referen ce to a single light so urce . for example. a hazard beacon on a mount ain . you may perceive that the light is moving. • Altitude : Lack of co lor and co ntr ast at night w ill make you feel furth er away and high er than you really are There is a tenden cy to fly final approach too low and t oo fast. • False Horizon : when th e sky and ground are both dark and a ste ady. prominent light sudd en ly comes into view. yo u may perceive that the light is above th e hori zon and that yo u are in a c limb Thi s co uld ca use yo u to attempt to ·correct' by lowe ring the nose . Here are some acc idents t hat wou ld probably never have happened during the day Using the information you have ju st read along w ith your
own night flying experience . take a moment to speculate on what peculiar element s of the night flying environment may have contributed to these crashes. The flying instructor and student were returning from a short cross country flight on a clear and moonless night. Since the lights on the wind sock had not been working when they departed . the y decided to overfl y the strip and illuminate the wind sock with their landing ligh t. They had ju st set up a fl ap less descent at about 85 kts. w hen suddenl y the w ind screen filled with tree s. The crash crushed the aircraft canop y and the seriously injured pilots rem ained trapped in the wreckage for the rest of the night. Bot h pi lot s were familiar with the area and yet the y hit a 1 50 -ft rid ge a miie from the airport. The 1 ° up slope in the runway may have given them the illusion that they were on the cor rect g lid e path when they we re actu ally und ershooting. It had been a long day for the 1100 -hr busin ess pilot. He had been working for t he last 1 2 hrs. four of which had been spent in unsuccessful busines s negoti ations . He he ld a clas s II /FR rating . had on ly 15 hrs night experience and was flying an MU-2 I FR over mountainous terrain . About 1 2 m inut es ahe r he reported by the bea con outbound the ELT began to bro adcast . The aircraft was found embedded in a mountain at the 4400 -ft level . Th e pilo t may have tr ied to fly by visua l ref erence since the airc raft wa s lo ca te d on the wrong side for a pro c edur e tu rn and its heading did not mat c h any of see column 3 nex t page
CAA Device Enables Instant ILS Inspection
Engineers in the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) have developed an advanced flight calibration and display system for the inspection of instrument landing systems (ILS) which is being heralded as a technical breakthroug h. Known as 'Skycal', it enables navaid inspectors to dispense with previously used unwieldy paper printouts and, instead, to read out calibration measurements on a video display. The new system, which checks th e quality of the I LS beam during the test flight, is now on operational trials with the CAA Flying Unit (CAAFU) . The development of Skycal is a direct result of the period when Britain, the United States and other co untries were working out proposals for the new Microwave Landing System for adoption by ICAO . CAAFU and the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE) carr ied out many of the flight trials whic h were conducted to collect a mass of data on the UK's candidate Doppler M LS system . It was then that it became apparent that a quicker way of obtaining the final result of these trials was essential. This need inspired the design of Skycal . With the primary aim of obtaining calibration results more quickly, the next step was to experiment with equipment that would do the job. Because there was a relatively modest researc h and development budget ava ilable for this research (a total of about US $ 70,000), off-the-shelf items were used , both on the grounds of economy to the Authority and to make simpler any production of the Skycal system on a commercial basis. Test showed that a standard Hewlett-Packard 9825 computer offered the most potential, even though it was of non-ruggedized construction. Any item of equipment intended for airborne use normally has to be able to funct ion in an environment of high vibrat ion and elect rica l noise and a wide temperature rang e. In Skycal's case, both space and weight were also at a prem ium , sin ce it was to be tested in one of CAAFU ' s BAe- 7 48-flight-inspect ion aircraft With the main components of the Skyc al system c hosen , the next task wa s t o mount it in a suitab le console in 24
the forward section of the 748. Fortunately the HP-9825 processor was found to be very resilient to its new environment, At the same time the aircraft's avionics were not found to have any detrimental effect on Skycal. The HP-9825 computer is positioned in a small , lightweight , desksize console designed by CAA FU to be ergonomically acceptable and to offer the least amount of vibration. Set amidships in the BAe 748, the console is anchored on standard seat rail fixings. The display, mounted at approximately the operator's eye level, is about the same size as a 1 7-inch (43cm) television screen. Early flight tests were encouraging, particularly when the two floppy-disk drives used for data storage showed no adverse reaction whatever when the aircraft was flown in turbulent conditions and demanding maneuvers. As an additional safety measure , thermal fuses were fitted in potential hot spots, although no overheating has been experienced in more than six months' test flying. CAAFU engineers and technicians have verified the speed and accuracy of the system. Also among the tasks CAAFU carried out was the construction of the interface printed circuit boards. The advantage of Skycal is that there is virtually no limit to the amount of information it can access and store; an average of three runs is needed to check an I LS glid path or localizer thoroughly, and each disk can retain the processed details of up to 70 runs . Considerable mathematical flexibility is at the operator's fingertips , irrespective of the speed or altitude of the aircraft All that is required of it is to start its timed run seven or more kilometers from the runway threshold, so that readings may be made from the localizer - which defines the runway center line - and from the glide path. The main requirement of a Skycal flight is to measure the quality of the ILS signal by taking readings from the ground tracker . This information, together with readings from the localizer or glide -path receiver deviation, enables the operator toÂˇ read' the error
High readability of display graphics has been clearly demonstrated on the special Skycal display, Note the line clarity also shown here. signal in relation to the aircraft's height and heading. If, after a study of this information, a further check is deemed to be necessary, another run may be made. The operator has available a keyboard on which he can change the graphic display. Information from the ground includes the signal from the telecroscope or infrared tracker, which locks onto the 1 000-W lamp mounted in the nose of the BAe 7 48 . Stabilized and steerable, the light enables a very accurate aircraft position to be computed by the tracker . Skycal also provides printed graphs showing any error during each timed run by colored pen trace, which plots the required ILS beam bend. At the present time, Skycal is on operational trial and has been successfully used at several UK airports . (From the /CAO Bulletin)
Night Fright the required headings for an instrument approach. The calm, moonlit night seemed an ideal time to do circuits. The private pilot had 1 600 hrs and the passenger, a family friend, was a student pilot. On the second circuit, the aircraft crashed into a field of tall sunflowers about a mile back on final approach. The sunflower field had shown up as a dark patch in contrast to the moonlit fields and grid roads surrounding it
Canada from page 12 Promote national integration through increased domestic air travel; Improve the airline industry's efficiency and productivity, and encourage innovation; Counter the seepage of passenger traffic via US gateways just across the border. These objectives are consistent with the Government's commitment to foster higher productivity, economic growth and national unity. They will be pursued with due concern for maintaining adequate air services to small communities and less densely populated regions. reasonably harmonious labour relations, long-term financial health for efficient airlines, and a high level of safety. The new policy will apply only to services that can be described as mature. For that reason. liberalization will not apply to air services within and to and from the North. In this immature part of the air transport system. the original justification for economic regulation still holds true. For present purposes. the North is defined as Canada north of the 50th parallel from the Atlantic to the Ontario/ Manitoba border. north of a diagonal line from that point to the intersection of the 55th parallel and the Manitoba/Saskatchewan border. and north of the 55th parallel to the Pacific (see Map. Annex 1 ). This definition of northern services will be subject to the immediate review of the Standing Committee. There is need also for regular CTC hearings on the adequacy of service and for more active CTC monitoring of the performance of carriers operating in this part of the system. to ensure that they serve their public as well as possible. A second component of the industry excluded from this policy comprises all operators of helicopter and specialty services. already partly deregulated. Regulation of these services involves special considerations that are best dealt with separately.
Changes to Existing Air Carrier_Roles Under existing policies. the nght to operate transcontinental scheduled services has been reserved for Air Canada and CP Air. and the primary responsibility for developing regional services and services to the North has been assigned to Eastern Provincial. Quebecair. Nordair and Pacific Western. These policies defining air carrier roles preclude. for instance. the licensing of Pacific Western or Wardair to operate transcontinental scheduled services. or the licensing of
local carriers like Air Ontario and Time Air to operate regional scheduled services with large jet aircraft. It has been recognized for some time that these policies have been made obsolete by the evolution of the industry. The CTC air fare hearings have shown that there is now a widespread consensus on the need for change. The new policy repeals all of these existing policies defining air carrier roles. As a result. any new or existing carrier may henceforth be considered. upon application to the CTC. for any
Route Saint John-Toronto Moncton-Montreal Quebec-Ottawa (Gatineau) Montreal-Toronto Montreal-London Ottawa-Toronto Toronto-Winnipeg Toronto-Calgary Winnipeg-Calgary Calgary-Vancouver
market could accommodate without untoward effects. The new policy will promote an almost immediate, significant increase in competition by removing all such restriction on the domestic unit toll (scheduled service) licences of the National. Regional and Local carriers serving markets in Southern Canada. as defined above. Eliminating these restrictions will allow the Regional and Local carriers to improve their services on a number of routes. such as:
Effect of Change EPA free to operate non-stop service. EPA free to operate non-stop service. Quebec Aviation free to operate any size of aircraft. Quebecair free to operate any frequency of service including turnaround. Air Ontario free to operate any size of aircraft. Air Ontario and Air Atonabee free to operate any size of aircraft and Nordair free to operate any frequency of non-stop service. Nordair free to operate non-stop. PWA free to operate non-stop PWA free to operate non-stop. PWA free to operate any frequency of service nonstop.
type of domestic service using any type of equipment. With approval from the CTC. carriers like PWA and Wardair could fly on routes now reserved for Air Canada and CP Air. This provision is more liberal than that proposed by Transport Canada in 1981 and than that proposed by the Standing Committee on Transport in 1982. There will be no change in the policy that Advance Booking Charter services should be allowed to compete as equally as possible with scheduled services in catering to the leisure travel market. and vice versa. This means that any loosening of the regulations governing Advance Booking Charters should be accompanied by a parallel relaxation in the regulations governing competing deep discount fares on scheduled services. and vice versa.
Removal of Existing Licence Restrictions In the past. the CTC has often imposed restrictions on air carriers licences. prohibiting or limiting the frequency of non-stop and turnaround services and specifying the kind and maximum size of aircraft to be used. Such restrictions reflect the CTC's efforts to fine-tune the relationship between demand and the amount of competition that the CTC thought the
However. this initiative will not allow carriers to provide non-stop services between points not on the same licence. For example. EPA would not operate non-stop between St. John's and Toronto. or PWA between Vancouver and Toronto. as these points are on different licences. To provide such additional freedom is desirable but could also have implications too broad for an appropriate adjustment period. It would also be unfair to other carriers interested in serving the citypairs that would thus be opened up for (additional) non-stop services. But as part of this new policy. carriers will be encouraged to apply to the CTC to consolidate their licences. so that such changes can take place in a controlled manner.
Lower Barriers to New Entry New legislation is the most dramatic means by which to ease entry to unit-toll passenger services. In this first phase. however. it has been determined it is best to call on the CTC to take the objectives of the new air policy into account in its decision making. The CTC is asked to give much greater weight to the benefits of increased competition in judging the requirements of public convenience and necessity (PCN) in relation to particular licence applications. This approach has the advantage ot
The Government's posItIon on regulation on Advance Booking Charter fares. to maintain their com- what immediate steps should be taken to liberalize the regulation of air fares petitive equality. As long as entry remains restricted. will be determined in light of the acthere can be no objection to regu- tions taken by the CTC as a result of its latory controls on price increases. hearings. Without such controls. the users of non-competitive services would be at r----------------the mercy of the carrier. Low Flyers Whether there should also be con- from page 74 trols on fare decreases is more debatable. Such controls are defended on up and down. left to right everywhere the basis that. in their absence. the for wires. obstructions and possible special characteristics of the airline forced landing sites. industry cause competing carriers to Constantly change focal length of engage too often in uneconomic price eye scan ahead; long distance fixation wars. undermining their own financial can cause you to 'look through' closeviability and thereby the availability in wires. and stability of services to the public. Finally, if you are going to hit wires Apart from the obvious anomaly of any sort. try to hit them with the involved in ·saving the carriers from propeller. never with the wings in a themselves· at the expense of con- turn. sumers. there is no compelling evidence to suggest that the airline Weather Factors industry exhibits such special characNever plan or make runs into a risteristics. Rather the new policy is bas- ing or setting sun. If you can't avoid ed on the judgement that the industry sun glare by completing the job across can safely be trusted to produce better or down sun. delay the oparation until results. both for itself and for the pub- such time as glare conditions become lic. without regulatory controls on less hazardous. price reductions. Beware of operating in rain On that basis. the preferred ap- showers; misjudgment of height. and proach to price control i_na liber_al_ized distance from wires can result through regulatory regime is to give the a1rl1ne_sdisorientation or visual illusion. unlimited freedom to reduce their fares while limiting increases to an Ferry Flights objective measure such as~ na~ional. Maintain regulatory minimum weighted average of the rise in _the height above terrain during all ferry price of their factors of production, flights. If a bad weather route can be other than labour. This objective ap- followed. carry out a reconnaissance proach would be pr~ferable t? allow- in good weather to identify the loing the CTC to continue r:iak1_n_g s~b- cation of newly erected wires and jective judgements of the Just1f1cat1on other hazards. for an increase in regular fares. That so many highly experienced Neither increases nor decreases in agricultural pilots have succeeded in discount fares, or in premium fares for flying for so long. in such a demanding that matter. would be subject to CTC role without serious injury is clear control. proof that wires can be avoided. simThe necessary companion step of ply by placing self preservation above removing the mandatory booking and all else. Other aerial work pilots. travel restrictions on Advance Booking whether experienced or new to the Charters (ABCs) could be taken in the industry, would do well to study and same way. One major consequence of put into practice the precautionary the latter change would be to give measures adopted by the experts in ABC operators like Wardair full de fac- this field. to freedom to offer the full range of It really boils down to establishing a scheduled fares. adding significant Reduced Control of Airline Pricing personal set of safety rules and discompetition in transcontinental At present. the CTC monitors airline ciplining oneself to adhere to them at scheduled air services. pricing and disallows fares and rates all times. To take this step immediately that it does not find · just and reasonFrom Aviation Safety Letter, Canada would most quickly produce the able' or considers ·unduly discrimidesired effects of lower fares and in- 1------------------natory'. On this basis. fares and rates may be disallowed as being too high or creased competition but it would give Chinas First International Air the industry and its employees little too low or. in the case of discount time to adjust. Accordingly, it has Show is scheduled to take place Detares. as carrying inadequate purbeen decided the new approach to cember 8 through 1 5 in Beijing. Peochase and travel restrictions. i.e. 'fenple's Republic of China. A number of price control should be implemented ces·. As a matter of Government and within two years. In this way, the US general aviation manufacturers CTC policy. the minimum fences on industry will get an adequate chance already have planned to exhibit at deep discount scheduled fares must 'Aviation Expo/China ·34·. to plan for the new environment. be the same as those imposed by flexibility. allowing the CTC to decide on the merits of each case how much more competition to allow. It also encourages the CTC to reduce the justification it now requires of applications for new services. It has been decided that entry to unit toll all-cargo services should be relaxed in the same way as to unit toll passenger services. In neither case is it possible to go much further without legislative change. because Section 16 (4) ofthe Aeronautics Act does not allow the CTC to exempt applications for scheduled services from meeting the test of PCN. This legal constraint does not apply to applications for new non-scheduled (charter) services. As these services in Southern Canada do not appear to warrant continued regulatory protection. the new policy calls on the CTC to exempt applications for such services from meeting the test of PCN. under Section 1 6 (4) of the Aeronautics Act. The only licensing requirement for charter services would be proof of financial and technical fitness. like those demanded of certain categories of specialty air services. Under the new policy. the approach to exit control (control over withdrawal of service) should mirror the approach to entry control - i.e .. exit control should be relaxed as well. To encourage new entry. the policy calls on the CTC to grant freedom of exit to incumbent carriers faced with new entry. on 60 days notice. However. to monitor the impact of this new policy. the CTC is asked to advise the Minister of Transport. within 30 days of any such notification for withdrawal of service. and to provide a report on the reasons fur such a withdrawal. In addition. the CTC will be asked to conduct an inquiry on whether carriers. having withdrawn their services. should be allowed to retain ·dormant' route authority. with freedom to reenter at any time. Such freedom has complex ramifications. both positive and negative from the standpoint of service and competition. and needs tu rt her study.
1 st Joint Regional Meeting Pacific and Asia Regions by/. M. S. Finlay, Vice-President /FA TCA
Although the Asia and Pacific regions are geographically large the membership at the moment is numerically small. It is also at first difficu lt to grasp the vast distances that require to be covered along with the associated travel problems. It is for these very reasons that it has taken so long to arrange a meeting of this nature. R. Soar. the Regional VicePresident - Pacific, quoted in his opening address from a speech given by General De Gaulle some yea_rsago. 'that the Mediterranean Basin had been a center for trade and develop ment in times of antiquity. in more recent centuries it has been the Atlantic Basin and for the future it would be the Pacific Basin'. This certainly appears to be the case in relation to aviation and our colleagues in air traffic control in this area have a large and important role to play in thi s developm ent. It wa s therefore very fitting to see the hard work. by the two relevant Regional Vice-Presidents. come to fruition in thi s regional me eting . Nadi . in Fiji . wa s chosen as the venue and the meeting was held on 1st and 2nd November . 1984 . The Executi ve Board was represented by H.H. Henschler. President. 1.M.S. Finlay. Vice-Pre sident - Admini stration and A.W .F. Hendri c ks. V1ce- Pres1dent - Technical . Perhaps the size of the Exec uti ve Board presence indicates the importance and support that they atta ch to the growth and development of active regional organization s w ithin the Federation Along w ith R. Soar . Region al VicePresident Pacific and E. Chu . Regional Vice-President A sia. some 25 del egates we re in attendance from M emb er Assoc iation s in Hong Kong. New Zealand . Republic of China. Taiwa n and Fiji . and observers from the Int ernati o nal Labour Office . the Fiji Air Line Pilots Associa ti on. the Civil Ai r Operations Officer s Assoc iation of Australia. Air Traffi c Control in We stern Samoa and t he Civil Aviati on Authority of Fiji . It was unfortunate that due t o a c lash in dates of int ernational meetings there was no rep-
resentation from ICAO. IFALPA or IATA . In their comp lement ary opening addresses the President of the Fiji A ssociation. R.Y. Fong . and the Regional Vice-Pre sidents Pacific and Asia welcomed the delegates to the meeting . outlined the scenario and gave a brief history of the events leading up to thi s gathering .
The meeting was then officially declared open by the Chairman of the Board of the Civil Aviat io n Authorit y of Fiji , Mr. Viliame Go nele vu. In his intere sting and enlightening speech the Chairman ga ve deleg ates a brief history into the development and intro duction of the CAAF w hi ch is a unique operation w ithin the area. In conclu sion the Chairma n posed several que stions on trainin g and operational matters that were pertinent to the area. In reply the President of IFAT CA thanked the Chairman for his kind words and assured him that the specific questions t hat he had posed would be deb ated at length during the meeting . The Presiden t comp limented the regions and in particular the Fij i Associ at ion on th eir activities which helped increa se the international standing of the Federation and made very wo rth w hile contribut ions to the safet y and efficiency of the air trans-
Continues on page 32
SPA Executive Director Mary F. Silitch noted that 'This year's Annual contains more aircraft reports than even before. plus an expanded section on places to splash down .' An article on building a dock is the second in a series of how to establish a seaplane base; the publication also contains many articles on seaplane safety and technique. The 1 984 Water Flying Annual is free to members of the Seaplane Pilots Association as part of their membership benefits (yearly dues are $ 25 .00) . Single copies may be purchased for $8.00 from SPA. The Association. which is administered by Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association. is located at 421 Aviation Way. Frederick. Maryland. 21701.
Distribution Problems with Aeronautical Chart Products under Fire from AOPA
F- 74 Tomcat
Lands $1 Billion Upgrade
Th e US Navy recently announced that Grumm an Corpo rat ion has wo n two major cont racts. wor th an est im ated $ 1 .3 bi llion through the 1990s. Th e contracts ca ll for upgrading the Navy' s F- 14 fighter and A-6 all-wea ther attack plane. During th e next five yea rs. new avio nics. radar and engines w ill be developed for both airc raft Production of the revamped planes is expecte d t o beg in in the 19 88 fi scal year. w ith deliveries to the Navy schedu led for 1990 . More than 500 F- l 4s have bee n delivered to the Navy since the plane went into product ion in 1971 . The new co ntr act co uld doub le t hat f igure. Grumman is c urrentl y bui ld ing 24 F- l 4s a year . Produ ctio n of the upgraded F- 14 cou ld reach 3 0 a yea r
1984 Water Flying Annual Rolls off the Press . Th e Seap lane Pilots A ssoc iat ion (S PA) has just pub lished th e 1 984 W ate r Flying Annual - a handso me fourco lor . g lossy pub lication that is a must for seap lane pilot s. Th e new SPA Annua l co nta ins an exc lusive. expanded sec tion on seap lane autop ilots and modification s. The pub licat ion also conta ins d irectories of float s, amphibi ans. homebuilt s. and seaplane manufact urers .
The failure of a US government contractor to deliver updated aero nautical chart product s on time to a number of Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCCs) and the prospect of charts not getting into the hand s of pilots presents a serious hazard to aviation safety , according to the Aircraft Owner s and Pilots Association. Âˇwe know of at least five centers which were without some of the new information that would have corresponded to the upd ated charts that pilots were using at the time ,' said AOPA Senior Vice President Robert T. Warner . Âˇwe are co ncerned that aviation safety is being compromised in the name of federal budget cutting.' Warner added that it is questionable whether or not the contracting out of chart distribution is actually saving the government money . In addit ion , the contractor has repeatedly defaulted on the timetable for chart distribution. The problems with chart distribution came to light at the time AOPA was expected to te stify before a US Senate sub com mittee on the National Ocean Policy Study concerning the current and future contracting out of various acti vitie s of the National Ocean Service (NOS) , an arm of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The hearing was rece ssed before AOPA and several other witnesses were able to te stif y, but not before NOAA Assoc iate Admini strator J ame s W . Winche ster took th e w itn ess stand .
IAL Wins Contract at New Jordan Airport IAL the London -based international technical system s and services company has been awa rded a two yea r contr act by the Mini stry of Tran spo rt of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to provide electrical and me chan ical (E&M) running and mainten ance services for the new Qu een Alia Intern ational Airport. The co ntr act, in w hich specif ic provision is placed on the training of Jord anian Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) sta ff , is a conti nuation and expa nsion of a co ntra ct placed w ith IAL prior to the opening of the airport in May 198 3 IAL 's former E&M respons ibilitie s whi c h covered the tw o_terminal building s (north and south), the f ire pumping station and the remote site powe r supplie s are now inc reased to inc lude th e co ntrol t owe r. th e ce ntral utility plant, the fire, crash and rescue bu ildin gs, adm ini st rat ion bu ildin g and 26 spec ialist airport vehic les . A further co mmitment of th e co ntr act is for the planning and estab lishm ent of co mputerized store s and maint enance contro l system s. Jordanian CAA staff are bein g trained by me ans of formal c lass lectu res and pract ica l on -th e-j ob training on all airpo rt electri ca l and mechan ica l equ ipment
Philips Enters China with PACT Teleprinter
cessor unit is attached by clips to the support leg of the LML; an IFF antenna is secured to the top face of the elevating head and the control switch attached to the operating handle. On sighting the target. the LML operator simply pushes the control switch and the Friend or Foe status is indicated by distinct audio tones (other tones are used as a self-test facility). The IFF 880L functions in this manner regardless of the type of missile to be fired. The IFF 880L is lightweight (the antenna weights 2 kg. the interrogator 7.5 kg) and small in size (antenna 365X 187X 100 mm. the interrogator 365x 187x 165 mm).
Philips Elektronikindustrier AB. Sweden. signed preliminary contracts with China National Machinery Import and Export Corporation. Shanghai and Shanghai Telecommunication Equipment Factory (STEF) for cooperative production of Philips PACTTeleprinters. The contracts will be subject to approval by higher authorities on both sides. The total value of the transfer of know-how and supply contracts for the project is around 8.3 million dollars. The negotiations were started in 1980 during an exhibition in Shanghai arranged by the Swedish Export Council in which Philips participated with PACT Teleprinters. Since this initial meeting between Philips and the Chinese representatives the parties have extended their contacts by several study tours in Sweden and in China respectively. Major Seaplane Prohibition Lifted which led to final discussions in China during July 1984. The cooperation will be realized by the transfer of knowIn a major victory for seaplane pilots. a federal judge has how from Philips to STEF about the manufacture of PACT stated that power companies regulated by the Federal 220 Teleprinters and the supply of production equipment Energy Regulatory Commission have no authority to ban (comprising capital. equipment. test equipment and tools) seaplanes from waters formed for hydroelectric purposes. and more than 5000 kits of pre-assembled units and spare 'Seaplane pilots may feel free to use any waters banned by parts. federally licensed power companies.· said Seaplane Pilots The training of STEF personnel in China and in Sweden. Association Executive Director Mary F. Silitch. in anas well as the technical assistance by Philips in China. is in- nouncing the decision. 'If they run into any problems. they cluded in the transfer-of-know-how agreement. should contact the Association.· The Seaplane Pilots As500 kits of pre-assembled units and spare parts have al- sociation is managed by Aircraft Owners and Pilots Assoready been supplied for the first phase of cooperative pro- ciation (AOPA). duction which has been succesfully completed under a seThe decision was issued in a case involving Georgia parate contract. It is the aim of both parties that STEF will Power Co .. and an SPA member. Charles F. Baker. Georgia be capable of independently producing PACT 220 Tele- Power had banned seaplane operations on Lake Sinclair. printers in China within three years. near Milledgeville. Georgia. Baker. who owns land on the It has also been agreed that during the term of the con- lake. was flying from the waters. when Georgia Power tracts the parties will have detailed discussions on further sought to deny his access. cooperation on Philips PACT 250 Teleprinter. The PACT Baker turned to the Seaplane Pilots Association for help; 250 Teleprinter is the latest version in the Philips range of the Association found two lawyers for Baker and also proteleprinters. It has a large electronic memory with a stan- vided full support in the case. Georgia Power had formed dard capacity of 25 A4 pages or about 120 messages of Lake Sinclair by damming a tributary of a navigable wateraverage length. It offers several text editing facilities to the way. and according to law. was required to allow the public user. free access. to a reasonable extent. The power company· s Philips Elektronikindustrier AB is the center for profes- license allows it to reserve from public access portions of sional electronics within Philips Nordic. Philips Elektro- the projects · as may be necessary for the protection of life. nikindustrier develops. manufactures and markets the health and property'. advanced Philips PACT Teleprinters. Georgia Power sought an injunction in federal Court to The PTI authorities to which the machine has been sold prohibit Baker from using the lake. Attorneys for Baker filed include those in Sweden. Norway. Holland. Ireland. Ice- a countersuit. claiming that Georgia Power had violated land. Greenland (via Denmark). Portugal. Greece and Costa Baker's civil rights by denying him access to the lake. (A Rica. as well as direct to end-users in many other countries. decision in the countersuit has not been issued.) China has already adopted the Philips MATS car teleThe United States District Court for the Middle District of phone system. A contract to extend the system in Beijing Georgia. Macon Division. denied Georgia Power"s request (Peking)will be signed shortly. The car telephones would be for an injunction. stating that no power company operating under a federal license has the authority to prohibit seamade in a factory in Nanking. planes because the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission does not have the authoritiy to regulate seaplanes. Cossor Electronics to Introduce a New IFF 'The right to operate a seaplane is a property right and laws governing seaplane operations on Lake Sinclair are within Unit for Short Brothers LML the area that Congress reserved to the states.· the order Cossor Electronics will introduce a new Mark 1OA Iden- said. tification Friend or Foe (IFF) unit on their stand at Farnborough · 84. Known as the IFF 880L. it has been designed specifically for use with Short Brothers· Lightweight Mul- ICAO Adopts Amendment to tiple Launcher (LML). the new air defence system which Chicago Convention has a ready-to-use capacity of three Blowpipe or Javelin missiles. The 25th Session (Extraordinary) of the ICAO Assembly The IFF 880L will operate as a separate add-on unit to (which ended May 10) has approved unanimously an the weapon system rather than as an i~tegral part of the amendment to the Convention on International Civil Aviasystem itself. It is self-powered by an easily replaced battery tion embodying in international law a specific ban on the and no modification is required to the weapon system. use of weapons against civil aircraft. The methods of installation and operation are designed The text. the first such significant amendment to the for speed and simplicity. The transmitter/ receiver/ pro- Convention signed in Chicago in 1944. must be ratified by 29
10 2 or two -third s of ICAO ' s 152 Contracting States before it co me s int o force . The Assembl y also unanimously urged exped it ious ratification by all !CAO States . The ame ndment to the con vention on International Civil Aviat ion. as a new Article 3bi s. reads as follows: a) The co ntr act ing States recognize that every State must refrain fr om resorting to the use of weapons against civ il airc raft in flight and that. in case of interception. the !ives of person s on board and the safety of aircraft must not be enda ng ered. This pro vision shall not be interpreted as mod ifyi ng in any w ay the rights and obli gation s of Stat es set fo rt h in the Charter of the United Nations. b) The cont ract ing St ates rec ogn ize that every State. in the exercis e of it s sovereignt y. is entitled to require the landing at some desig nat ed airport of a civil aircraft flying abo ve its t errit ory w ithout authority or if there are reasona ble gro und s to c onclude that it is being used for any purpose incon sisten t w ith the aims of this Convention; it may also give suc h aircraf t any other instructions to put an end t o suc h violation s. For this purpo se. the contr act ing Sta tes m ay resort to any appropriate means consi ste nt w it h releva nt rules of international law. inc lud ing t he releva nt pro vision s of this Convention . speci f ical ly parag rap h (a ) of this Article. Each contracting State ag rees to publish its regulations in force regarding the inte rcep tio n of ci vil air c raft. c) Every civ il airc raft shall comply w ith an order given in confo rm ity w ith paragr aph (b) of this Article . To this end each co ntr acting State shall establish all necessary provisions in its nat ion al law s or regulations to make such com pl ianc e m andator y for any c ivil aircraft registered in tha t State o r o perated by an operator w ho has his princ ipa l place of bus iness or perm anent residen ce in that State. Each co nt ract ing St at e shall make any violation of such applica ble laws or regulations puni shable by seve re penalti es and sha ll submit th e c ase to its comp ete nt autho rit ies in acco rd anc e w ith it s laws or regula tion s.
d) Each contracting State shall take appropriate measures to prohibit the deliberate use of any civil aircraft registered in that State or operated by an operator who has his principal place of business or permanent residence in that State for any purpose inconsistent with the aims of thi s Convention. This provision shall not affect paragraph (a) or derogate from paragraphs (b) and (c) of this Article
Please ret urn t o : 'Th e Co nt ro ller'. P O Box 196 . CH-1215 Geneva-Airport. Sw itzerland I subsc rib e to 'The Co nt roll er' 19 8 5 Surn ame Forena me St reet Post al code Tow n Countr y
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Pilots Cautioned 0 n Use of Au togas AOPA has asked the FAA to include a caveat in a proposed Advisory Circular (AC) explaining the appro val of automobile gasoline in aircraft. Thomas L. Oneto. director of AOPA's Aircraft Department. wrote in comments on behalf of the associ ation . · Past experience with those inquiring about autogas usage disclosed a commonly held misconception that once a Supplementary Type Certificate (STC) has been issued for a particular make and model aircraft regardless of to whom it was issued it applied to all aircraft of that make and model . Not so. Each owner must get his own STC from the initial STC holder· Oneto also sugge sted that the Advisory Circular should caution aircraft ow ners of the consequences of operating an aircraft without an individual STC. 'Thi s would not only be in v1olat1on of the Federal Aviation Regulation s. but is pla c ing the airw orthine ss certifi cate and insuran c e coverage 1n jeopardy .· he said
ICAO Special Committee on Future Air Navigation Systems by H. Harri Henschler. !FA TCA President
The First Meeting of the Special Committee on Future Air Navigation Systems (FANS) of the International Civil Aviation Organization (!CAO) was opened at !CAO Headquarters in Montreal . Canada. on the morning of 9 July . 1984, by the President of the Council of !CAO. Or. A. Kotaite. Dr. Kotaite took the opportunity to reflect on the previous Committee of ICAO to address requirements and needs twenty-five years into the future. a 's impler matter' when that body was established in 1 94 7. The present Committee is cha_rged with developing avenues to achieve a system to meet civil aviation needs and requirements valid until the year
cent ly concluded . and he asked the very relevant questions of who pays for the service and how to measure technological advances against safety and economic impact. Dr. Kotaite ended his address by expressing his own and the Council 's best w ishes for success . FANS is a technical Committee of the ICAO Council . It forms part of a spec ial machinery devised by the Council to deal with important. complex and urgent problems invol ving technical. economic. and legal aspects. the resolution or advancement
of w hich requires exper t ise which is not available through normal Council mean s. The FANS Committee is only the third time the ICAO Counc il has made use of this special mach ine ry. IFATCA who had been invited to provide a full member to the Committee nominated the V ice-Pre sident Technical . with the President as an advisor. After the introduction of the other Committee Members . eig htee n in all plus advisers . and ranging from Australia through the USA and including the International Council of Aircrah Owners 路 and Pilots ' Asso c iations (IAOPA) . and the International Federation of Air Line Pilot s' Associat ions (IFALPA ). observers from organizations such as the Intern ationa l Air Tran sport Association (IATA ). the European Space Agency (ESA). and the Internat ional Coordinating Council of Aero space Industries Associat ions (ICCAIA) introduced themselves.
!CAO HO-M ontreal
2010 . The President of the Council reiterated the Terms of Reference of the FANS Committee as approved by the ICAO Council : 'To study technical. operational. institutional and economic questions. including cost/ benefit effects_. relating to the future _potential air navigation systems; to 1dent1fyand assess new concepts and new technology . including sate llite technology. w hich may have future benefits for the deve lopment of international civ il aviation inc luding the likely implications they wou ld have for users and providers of such systems ; and to make recommendations thereon for an overal l long-term projection for the coordinated evolutionary development .of air navigation for international civil aviation over a period of the order of twenty-five years.路 and co nfirmed the task of the First Meeting as directed in the Council 's Report to the Plenary of the 24th Session of the Assembly: 路 Becau se of the co mple x nature of the task . the Committee wo uld be given the initial ta sk of establishing its own wor k program . which wou ld be examined and approved by the Counci l before work on it is commenced.路 He referred to other ICAO Commit tees w hose wo rk is of relevance to the FANS Committee. in particular th e Aviation Review Committee w hich re31
The first point of business for the Committee was the election of the Chairman and the Members unanimously agreed on Mr. J.S. Smit. Director Air Traffic Services and Telecommunications of the Netherlands. who accepted the position with a word of caution regarding the difficulties the FANS Committee will face. and introduced the Secretariat personnel responsible for FANS. Mr. Smit. of course. will be well remembered by all who attended IFATCA'82 in Amsterdam. A number of Working Papers had been submitted by the Committee Secretariat and various Committee Members. The IFATCA delegation produced a Working Paper 'Contribution to the Work Program FANS' which particularly stressed 'the need for the continued acceptance of the human factor as the ultimate fail-safe system· and 'the need for a real-time link of navigation position of aircraft' as well as the requirement of being able to establish immediate and direct contact with aircraft concerned without the use of intermediate communication agencies. Both of IFATCA's major points were taken into consideration when the Committee established the Proposed work program which contains. among others. subjects such as 'reduced vertical separation above FL290'. ·automatic dependent surveillance·. 'improvements in aeronautical mobile communications'. 'functional combinations of air navigation systems·. 'harmonization of the development of ATC systems·. ·management and operational methods for the implementation, operation. maintenance. and updating of systems capable of transcending national and designated FIR boundaries'. 'acceptability of regional air navigation systems or global coverage systems·. ·need for uniformity or compatibility of navigation systems'. ·determination of. and an indication of steps required to provide. adequate allocations. including exclusive allocation for safety services. in the electromagnetic spectrum to accommodate the present and future needs of the air navigation system·, 'impact of new technologies used in systems not covered by ICAO SARPs (Standards and Recommended Practices) which may be considered advantageous to providers and users for use in areas where air navigation services are not fully implemented'. ·means to avoid duplication of communication services planned by various bodies for the dissemination and exchange of data for aeronautical services·. ·consideration of the human factor in the future air
navigation systems. and the man- Pacific and Asia machine interface developments'. from page 27 As is obvious from these excerpts the FANS Committee will address the port industry and benefited the full spectrum of questions relating to economy of the regions as a whole. Future Air Navigation Systems. The Following a brief recess after the proposals of the Committee arising opening ceremony the meeting startfrom the First Meeting have been ed in earnest. Reports and updates on submitted to the Council of ICAO in activities from the Regional Vicelate September 1 984. with the SecPresidents and the Executive Board ond Meeting expected to be called in were presented. A full and varied early 1 985 and the probability that. agenda ensured that the next two days subsequently, Working Groups or would be spent to the benefit and Sub-Committees will be formed to adinterest of all concerned. Items on this dress specific points in the Work Proagenda included - Finance - Report gram. of and matters arising from last year's The Executive Board is satisfied I FATCA Conference - Aspects and that IFATCA's membership in the problems regarding the approaching FANS Committee will contribute the IFATCA Conference - Relations with required input on behalf of the c<::>nother international organizations troller community in order to establish Regional technical problems and the basis for the safest and most policy - Activities and problems of efficient possible future system. and Member Associations with the region. we appreciate having been accepted Obviously an agenda of this magand recognized by the Council of ICAO nitude required careful planning to as the voice of that community. I feel ensure it was completed within the strongly that. given the impact on the timescale. Under the Chairmanship of controllers· future environment and RVP Pacific. with secretarial assisinvolvement in the system to be detance from RVP Asia. the meeting was veloped. the importance and promiwell organized and adjudged by all nence of the FANS Committee. the present to be a success. Even a total Federation should make available all power failure of some 20 minutes required financial and manpower rewhich required the use of emergency sources. including as needed. input lighting in the form of lanterns failed to from Member Associations worldstop the progress of the meeting. wide. to creditably contribute to the After some debate it was considersuccess of the FANS Committee ed by the Member Associations preswhich will. after all. have a major iment that joint meetings of this nature pact on all aspects of aviation in the are viable and useful. It was therefore future. decided that another joint regional meeting for the following year would be planned. Editorial In order to help delegates relax from page 1 outside the formal atmosphere of the through approval of direct routes. fuel- meeting the Fiji Association had orefficient holds. and profile descents. to ganized in true traditional style. a name but a few. is a major contributor. and small social program. This in conwhere IFATCA through encouraging junction with the beauty and atmosunderstanding and controller education ~f phere of the island and the friendliness aircraft requirements has played a promi- of its inhabitants ensured that the delnent role. egates to this regional meeting left Airlines. general aviation. pilots an~L with happy memories of their all too most certainly. passengerseverywherein the world expect maximum aviation safety brief stay in Fiji. In conclusion it can be and efficiency. These can only be offered said that the local slogan · Fiji - the by a proper air traffic control syst~m;_a way the world should be' has a definite controller who has to hold another Job 1n ring of truth about it. order to survive is less likely to be able to expend the concentration req~ired to authorize direct routes and 1s more susceptible to the factor of human error. So far we have been fortunate. but it is in the interest. and indeed it is the responsibility. of all me_mb~rs_of the international and national civil av1at1on communities to impress on political decision makersthat only a proper air traffic control system. staffed by controllers employed in accordance with the ILO Conclusions.can en6 sure what air passengerstrustingly expect when they board an airplane; maximum aviation safety and efficiency.
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