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MARCH 26/ 30 -



THE CONTROLLER Bern, Switzerland,

September 1983

Volume 22 · No . 3

Publisher: Int ernat ional Federation of Air Traffi c Contro llers· Associations. P.O. Box 196 . CH-1215 Geneva 1 5 Ai rport. Swi tzerland Officers of IFATCA: HH . Henschler. President . Lex Hend riks. Vice- President (Technical). E. Serm ijn . VicePresident (Professional). I. Finlay. Vice-President (Administ ration). B. (,rezet. Treasurer. P. o·ooherty. Executive Secretary Editor : A. Avgoustis 5 Athens Str . Ayios Dhometios Nicosia . Cyprus Telephone (02 1) 4 87 86 Management and Advert ising Sales Office : The Contro ller. P.O. Box 196 . CH-1 2 1 5 Geneva 15 Airport. Switze rland H .U . Heim. Sub script io ns and Publicity. Tel. (022) 82 26 79 M . Henchoz. Accounting . Tel. (022) 92 56 82 B. Laydevant. Sales Promot ion. Tel. (022) 82 79 83 Production · Der Bund·. Verlag und Druck erei AG Effinger stra sse 1. CH-3 001 Bern . Telephone (031) 25 66 55

Melbou rne International Airport

Subscriptions and Advertising Payments to: IFATCA/ The Controll er. Union de Banques Suisses P 0 . Box 237 CH- 1 2 1 5 Geneva Airport. Swi tzerland Acc . No . 602 254 .MD L

Subsc ription Rate : SFrs. 8 .- per ann um for members of IFATCA: SFrs 20 .- per annum for non-member s (P & P wi ll be charged extra). Contributors are expressing their persona l points of view and opinions. wh ich may not nec essarily coincide wit h tho se of the International Federatio n of Air Traff ic Contro llers· Assoc iation (IFATCA). IFATCA does not assume responsibility for statements made and op ini ons expressed. it does_only accept responsibility for pub lishing these contrib ution s. Contributions are we lcome as are comments and cri tic ism . No payment can be made for manusc ripts submitted for publication in "The Controller. The Editor reserve s the right to make any ed itori al changes In manuscripts. which he believes wi ll improve the mate rial without altering the intended meaning . Written permissio n by the Editor is necessary for reprinting any part of this Journal.

Advertisers in this issue: IFA TCA '84 . Ferranti. Philips, Selenia Photos: AA, Ar chives. Hiro Tade Cartoons: Martin Germans

Contents IFATCA Policy The Commission of Inquiry into ATS in New Zealand Newsbri efs Internat iona l Aspects of ATC Liability Aspects of ATC-A Layman· s Point of View The Cho ice ofTechnology in ATC Radar 25th Session of ICAO- Legal Committee Capacity- The Big Word 38t h I FALPA Annua l Confer ence I KOSS- New I FATCA Corporate M ember NCA and SAM Regiona l Meet ing Gene ral Aviation Safety Panel CATCA Convention Book Review


3 7 12 15 19

22 24 25

26 28 29

30 31

IFATCA Policy Regarding National Disputes

b) Include in the notification: 1) Reason(s} 2) Duration expected 3) Consequences expected 4) A request to inform interested international organizations 5) Any other pertinent information

The 22nd IFATCA Conference. which was held at Split, Yugoslavia. in March this year adopted the following as a policy where there is a national dispute. 1 Policy 1 . 1 The Federation recognizes the unfortunate economic circumstances effecting third parties which arise from time to time as a result of disputes between controllers and their employers. However. it is also recognized that. as a last resort. controllers have the right. and may find it necessary. to withdraw their services from their employer in order to bring about a resolution of a dispute. In those cases where an MA determines that a withdrawal of services is an appropriate course of action for the resolution of a dispute. they should provide as much advance notice as is practicable to industry and users. 1 .2 IFATCA strongly condemns a situation where normal ATC services are replaced by a substitute organization due to the fact that safety is seriously reduced. Such substitute organizations may not be able to: a) Complete coordination of clearances as guaranteed within the standards of Annex 11 and/ between States. b) Provide controllers whose professional qualifications comply with International Standards or Recommended practices on Personnel Licensing for Air Traffic Controllers as laid down by ICAO in Annex 1 of the Chicago Convention (as accepted and ratified by the States concerned. including their notification of differences). 1.3 IFATCA also condemns Member Associations who act as substitute organizations outside their normal area of jurisdiction. 1 .4 Due to the fact that withdrawals of service in the area may impose excessive traffic loadings on other ATC systems. IFATCA will support Member Associations who as a result of such loadings impose traffic restrictions in the interest of safety. 1 .5 Notwithstanding the support IFATCA gives to Member Associations excercising their right to withdraw services. I FATCA' s policy is to urge an early return to a normal situation. To this end IFATCA will remain available to act as an intermediary at international level and on invitation from a Member Association. at national level. 2 Procedure to be Followed in the Event of a National Dispute 2. 1 In the event of a disruption occurring. the Member Association within the area of representation concerned will: a) Notify as soon as possible and/ or practicable: 1) The IFATCA Secretariat 2) The IFATCA Regional Vice-President 3) The National Civil Aviation Department 4) The National Pilot Association(s) 5) The National Trade Union(s) 6) Member Associations in adjacent areas of representation 2




2. 5


2. 7

2. 8

Note: Should any disruption of the air traffic services occur. the Member Association of the area of representation concerned. even when not directly involved. should notify the Executive Secretary and the Regional Vice-President as soon as possible. stating the situation. During withdrawals of service the Member Association(s) concerned will maintain close liaison whenever practicable and/ or possible with the parties mentioned in 2.1(a). Whenever IFATCA Member Associations have been notified in accordance with the above. or by the IFATCA Secretariat, they should. within the limits of their constitutions. ensure that IFATCA policy is adhered to and support action requested by the Executive Board. On receipt of advice from a Member Association of industrial action. the Executive Secretary shall ensure that the Executive Board and the Regional Vice-President(s) are. or have been. informed of the situation. As soon as practical the Executive Secretary shall issue a Special Newsletter to the Regions directly interested in the area of dispute. A further Special Newsletter should be issued at the end of the disruption and at any time during any prolonged dispute. when the Executive Secretary deems it to be beneficial. Regions not directly interested in the action will be informed of details in subsequent normal IFATCA Circulars. The Executive Board will use all means possible within the policy laid down. to support the Member Association. They shall ensure that detailed information is released to the media. so that the controllers¡ point of view is made clear. It is probable that in some regions the Regional VicePresident may be better informed of local factors and information during disputes in his area of jurisdiction. It is therefore essential that close liaison is maintained between the Executive Board and the Regional VicePresident(s) concerned. If circumstances dictate the Executive Board may delegate to the Regional VicePresident(s). the power to make statements on behalf of the Federation. When the withdrawal of service ceases or is expected to cease. the Member Association concerned shall: a) Notify as soon as possible and/ or practicable. the parties mentioned in 2.1 (a) b) Include in the notification: 1) Results. 2) A request to notify parties informed under 2. 1 (b) 4. 3) Any other pertinent information.

The Commission of Inquiry into Air Traffic Services in New Zealand by Robin Soar (Regional Vice-President PAC)

'Without a doubt some of the findings of the Commission are applicable to other systems and as such can assist in remedying their deficiencies. ¡ Background During 1980 several overseas organizations simultaneously recruited air traffic controllers in New Zealand. The number of controllers that left the New Zealand service caused staff shortages to such a degree that the unit most affected, Wellington, had to reduce services and hours. Although efforts by the Ministry of Transport to recruit and train replacements have made up numbers, due to the fact that those who left were senior, experienced controllers. the effects of the losses are still being felt to some degree. That controllers should wish to leave a service whose working conditions and remuneration in many ways could have been modelled on the Conclusions of the ILO Meeting of Experts on Problems Concerning Air Traffic Controllers. something was clearly amiss. Media interest was aroused and interviews with the departing controllers revealed that in their view. poor equipment, lack of planning and apparent disinterested management attitudes were among the prime reasons for leaving the service. It is worth pau sing , perhaps, before des cr ibing further the events which led to the Commission of Inquiry , to examine why aviation matters so readily attract media attention in New Zealand. New Zealand is an island, relati ve ly remote, whose internal geography makes it dependent on internal air services. The near est country of great economic significance is Australia and that is approac hing thre e hours flying time away: clearly intern at iona l service s rank high in the economy too . The se physical fact s coup led wi th the soc iologi ca l situation that the population enjoys quite a un iforml y high standard of living

makes air travel accessible to most citizens and a necessity to a high proportion. It is believed that as many as 60 to 70% of people have flown either internally or internationally. It is a fact that 45% of adult New Zealanders have travelled internationally by air. Between 10 and 1 2% travel internationally by air every year. Bearing in mind that no international journey is short these are remarkable facts. Clearly aviation safety is not only of public interest but directly and personally affects a high proportion of New Zealanders . Hence the media interest in aviation is very rele va nt to the people. Following the loss of controllers overseas, the New Zealand Air Traffic Controllers' A ssoc iation (NZATCA) had a number of meetings with the Minister of Transport. The NZATCA had for a number of years raised some of the factors which the departin g controllers had made public and now took the opportunity to make the minister aware of their concern. The y were able to convince the minister that all was not we ll and there was a


need for advice by an expert but unbiased organization. Onl y by drawing on expertise from outside the country could the criteria be met. In the event. two experts from the UK CAA, Messrs. Pepall and Sprigg s, visited New Zealand during 1981 and made their report in December of that year. Initiall y the NZATCA were delighted that the report had confirmed their point of view that there was room for considerable impro vement in both management and equipment. Ho wever. although some moves were made to implement change the y appeared to founder on lack of motivation. The NZATCA was in the process of taking action to expediate action on the ¡ Pepal l / Spriggs Report' when events overtook such ordered negotiation. Setting up of the Committee of Inquiry Du ring ear ly 1982 a series of incidents, varying in seriousness and apparently unrelated in cause, took place at Auckland. One or more persons leaked deta ils of the se incidents ,



as they occured. to the media. The motive was probably disillusionment among the work-force. Public alarm was high. It reached a peak when the 'Pepall/Spriggs Report· was also leaked to the press. On television. the new Minister of Transport. Mr. George Gair. revealed that he had only been made aware of the report that day. following disclosure in the press. Clearly the stage was set for major action. Shortly after these revelations the Minister of Transport. with the laudable motive of seeking to find out what was wrong rather than seeking punitive action. announced that there was to be a Commission of Inquiry into the Air Traffic Services of New Zealand. The Chairman of the Commission of Inquiry was to be Air Marshall Sir Richard Bolt. K.B.E .. C.B .. D.F.C .. A.F.C. who although now retired from the RNZAF. had had a distinguished career in aviation and is the son of one of the pioneers of New Zealand aviation. Sir George Bolt. Clearly a person in whom the public could trust in terms of integrity and expertise. The other two members of the Commission were Mr. H.P.D. van Asch C.B.E. and Dr. E.I. Robertson C.B.E. Mr. van Asch is a well-known aviation personality who had founded and run the largest and most successful aerial photography business in New Zealand. Dr. Robertson is a scientist who had headed the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. thus combining scientific and public service expertise. The terms of reference were wide. The Commission was to investigate all matters relating to the service from technical to managerial and legal. They encompassed such matters as standards. incident investigation; equipment and training. More specifically they were to report on the handling of the · Pepall / Spriggs Report' and the safety aspects of the series of incidents at Auckland. A very tight schedule was set such that a report was required in a matter of a few months. Time to prepare for the Commission was very limited. The Central Executive of the NZATCA appointed Dean Dalzell (Vice-President of the NZATCA). Jack Frost and Robin Soar to prepare and present their case. Later. a fourth member. Clive Henderson. joined the team to assist with superannuation and meteorological matters. A firm of solicitors. Mac Alister. Mazengard. Parkin & Rose who had expertise in aviation matters was engaged. Mr. Hugh Rennie was the prime advocate and was assisted by Mr. Gerard McCoy. 4

The Commission and Its Findings Study of the terms of reference convinced the group that the scope and time scale for completion of the Inquiry made it inadvisible to become too specific on individual matters unless it was necessary to the point at question. This was particularly true when approaching the question of equipment as it would have been too easy to become 'bogged down· in relative merits of various equipments. Nor would the NZATCA seek to 'point the finger· at individuals. The NZATCA team felt that no person or single historic fact could. in isolation. be held responsible but rather it was a combination and interaction of factors and past policies which had brought about the current situation. Nonetheless. we were determined to demonstrate the failings in the system an_d_indicate possible remedies. policies and philosophies to overcome those deficiencies. The positive approach was appreciated by the Commission. In their report they say: 'The ATCA clearly welcomed the Inquiry and seized upon it as an opportunity to promote the view of controllers on all aspects of the system. and since the subject matter covered by their submissions was almost all relevant to our task. this approach was entirely acceptable.' And 'In short. the whole system was urgently in need of chan~e-:--a _compr_ehensive new look. If 1t d1dn t get 1t. then safety would be at serious risk. This. in essence. was the ATCA position. but their criticisms were no superficial attack on higher authority. They were supported by detailed accounts of past events. and in most areas. constructive remedial proposals were advanced.·

quo. · However as the hearings progressed this position in itself contributed to revealing the situation as is recognized in the Report: · ... the Ministry seemed content to describe. explain and defend the present state of affairs within the whole air traffic control system - and allow the ATCA to challenge that position in cross~xamination. This they certainly did; indeed. throughout the inquiry, the processes of cross-examination contribute~ significantly to our requirements. Of the forty-seven submissions and papers presented to the Commission twelve were prepared and presented b_ythe NZATCA del~gates. (A further single paper was given by an ATCA witness. Steve Gibbs.) The Commission described the pape~s a_s 't.houghtful. workmanlike contributions and the scope of the NZATCA. approach thus: 'Like the Mi~istry. AT~A_had related the topics of its _su~m!ss1onsgenerally to the ~omm!~s1on s terms of reference. but in ~dd1t1on.produced descriptive ma!enal cov~n~g t_heobjectives of ATCA itself. p~rt1c1pat1<:>n in the International Federation of Arr Traffic Controllers· Association~ (IFATCA). and also evidence relating to controllers· work P~!terns. care_er structure and cond1t1onsof service.· .

In the ~hap!er of the Report entitled Conclusion~ 1~ Broad Perspectives.· the Comm1ss_1ondiscusses safety. Aft~r. ~peculating upon the imprecise def_1rnt1on ~f the term. they say. In the final analysis. the true measure of_ac~eptability will be in results. ~ome in~1de~ts will still occur from time to time 1n any safe and efficient syst~m. They occur in every other system in the wor_ld;they always have and th~y always wrll ... · Clearly. although Status critical of the NZATCA in some asWhen the Inquiry began. several pects. the Commissioners bear out the organizations who had an interest in Association's viewpoint that action is the matter before the Commission required if the NZ system is to remain were represented. They all sought full ·safe' as they go on to say: party status. However. the Commis'While the New Zealand system sion quickly decided that only the may not be rated unsafe now. it has Ministry of Transport and the NZATCA been progressively falling behind other should have full party status. They re- systems with which it was once an cognized that in the matter of air traffic equal in the field. Some important control. although others may well be shortfalls and areas for necessary imwidely affected. only these two parties provement have been identified and could be said to be completely familiar early action on these will be essential if with and affected by the matter under acceptable safety standards are to be review. The Commissioners said in the maintained into the future. Report of their decision. ·we had little 'The wide range of different user difficulty in determining that the Min- aviation groups are generally satisfied istry itself and the ATCA. representing with the current performance of the a majority of air traffic controllers. system. There are conflicting interests qualified for full party status.· between airline operators and the The Ministry of Transport based its general aviation sector with regard to approach on ·defending the status some procedural matters and ques-

cations on how this situation should be overcome. 'Clearly it is essential that a start should be made immediately with the objective of producing a 10-year equipment plan to meet the needs of the 1990s. Apart from long lead times in acquiring new equipments there are limitations of qualified manpower, installation time, and probably a need to spread the total expenditure over a period. In our view it will be essential that this plan be completed within two years. We consider that the best way Discontent of achieving this objective would be to · Poor communications have led to expedite a build-up of the planning section as outlined elsewhere in this discontent. misunderstanding. loss of report. confidence. and in turn. a loss of the 'Although it would be inappropriate cohesion within the service which is for the Commission to prejudge the essential to its good health and efoutcome of this major forward planficiency. The controllers themselves ning review. nevertheless, from evihave not been blameless; however dence presented, we are convinced well-intentioned. their strident denot only that SSR will form part of the mands and the dominant role adopted future system but also that the first inby their association in the recent past stallation. possibly at Auckland. will have undoubtedly made the tasks of be in service well before 1 990.' management very difficult. But these a) Airspace changes-when airspace The Commission of Inquiry delved are matters which are certainly changes were made in November deeply into training, personnel stancapable of early resolution. given a 1981. the users were informed dards and instructions. Of personnel willingness by all from top managethat this was only a first step standards the report comments: ment through to field staffs to adopt a towards improving the airspace 'The system of standards relating to fresh approach. to adjust attitudes system. personnel competence involves both and perform accordingly. We have training and checking and contains seen evidence of that willingness in b) Organizational aspects of incident reporting and investigation. this inquiry. and we believe it can be some intangible elements. The premade to work for the good of the sys- c) A review of the navigation aids net- cise definition of performance stanwork. dards and their measurement pretem - but only if management will acd) A review of the use of various RT sents certain difficulties and there is a cept the need for some changes in the frequencies particularly in the ap- heavy dependence on the subjective manner of discharging its responproaches to airports. judgments of checking officers whose sibilities. and if the ATCA will be pree) Ways of reducing the amount of interpretations of standards may vary. pared to demonstrate some patience unproductive ground to air RT The standards of standards checking and new confidence so that managecommunication chatter. officers themselves are a factor. The ment can move ahead and function as f) Progress reports on equipment aims however are clear - to control it should. matters.· the quality of personnel competence. 'Of great importa_nce a_re bet_ter provision for future air traffic service In Recommendation 9. the Com- especially controllers. at a high level planning and the establishment of missioners make the unequivocal and to seek constant improvement. clear future goals to which all can statement. '(The Commission rec- Inevitably much depends on training.· subscribe. This is essential as the ommends that) a National Aviation The importance attached to this basis for equipment. technical and Advisory Committee be established.' area leads to several firm recommenoperational changes which will be Considerable effort was made by dations. Of particular interest are: necessary in the years ahead. ln_effect the NZATCA representatives to illus'Procedural training equipment be the requirement is for a full service re- trate technical deficiencies. The Mar- provided at all radar-equipped airview. from which will stem firm plans. coni S264. although being moderniz- ports. programs and budgets. It has not ed (albeit far behind schedule). cannot 'A radar simulator capability be debeen the Commission's task to under- provide all the facilities and coverage veloped for Auckland and Wellington take this review. but we are satisfied that controllers need at this time. The International Airports.' that the service does embody the ex- Ministry had planned to keep the The NZATCA was critical of the NZ pertise to carry it out with a minimum S264 in service as the only radar type Manual of Air Traffic Services. The of outside assistance- even if much of until the late 1990s and possibly Commission has recommended that that expertise is in the field. Consul- beyond. The Commission comments. the Manual be rewritten having noted tation and cooperative participation 'The Marconi S264 radars cannot in the body of the report: 'The ATCA held up as a model. the reasonably be expected to operate will provide the key.' Manual of Air Traffic Services Part 1 much beyond 1 990. · The NZATCA was concerned that Of the Ministry's planning for the produced by the United Kingdom Civil one of the reasons for the present future the Commission says. · But on Aviation Authority. This is a concise. state of affairs was that no coherent. balanced facility existed to discuss questions of future policy intentions clearly produced handbook solely for and understand the views of inter- and planned developments. the Min- the use of operational controllers. It istry's crystal ball seemed decidedly should be pointed out. however. that it ested parties. The Commission agreed misty.' They go on to give broad indi- is a recent production replacing old with the NZATCA and the Pepall/ tions of airspace division. but these are quite normally to be expected. Better consultative arrangements between the provider of the service and its user groups will ensure that acceptable compromises are achieved. Air traffic controllers. the most valuable resource within the system. are not satisfied. The extent of their dissatisfaction itself represents a threat to safety. and one way or another. it must be corrected.'

Spriggs Report that a National Aviation Advisory Committee (NAAC) should be set up. The say: ·we agree in general with the proposal put forward by ATCA and supported by airspace users present at this Inquiry that a similar committee should be established in New Zealand and noted that a similar body was recommended in 1 948 by the Tymms Commission. We were also interested to hear during our visit to Australia that a similar body seems likely to be set up there. 'In the past some specialist committees comprising representatives of the Ministry. the airlines and pilots have been set up ... it was intended that they should present agreed recommendations to the Ministry they were not very successful and the last of these committees was disbanded a year or two ago.· 'It is clear from evidence presented at this Inquiry that early consideration by the proposed NAAC could well be undertaken on such topics as:


manuals which had the same defects as those of the New Zealand version. We consider that the New Zealand Manual of Air Traffic Services is not satisfactory in its present form and is in need of revision. The production of a separate training manual should be the responsibility of the Aviation College. The whole question of the status of legislation affecting air traffic control and its adequacy was brought to the attention of the Commission. So. too. was the matter of controller liability. The Commission took note of much that the NZATCA had to say but the limited time available to the Commission. the limitations of its terms of reference and the fact that none of the members could be considered experts in law meant that they were only able to make general comment. Where recommendations were made they primarily concerned the law and were of a nonspecific nature. The lack of a retirement plan for NZ air traffic controllers which would meet their special needs was discussed in the Report. This is the prime area in which NZ controllers路 conditions of service lag behind those of controllers 1n other comparatively socially advanced countries. The 'flow through' from this problem to other areas was raised by the NZATCA and indeed the Ministry of Transport concurred with much that we had to say on the subject. The Commission observed 路we heard in Australia that the introduction of an early retirement scheme was likely in that country. In New Zealand the Ministry has recognized the need but no specific proposal has yet been formulated. We consider that some

solution to this complex question should be possible ... We consider that the Ministry and the ATCA should reach agreement on the basic principles of an appropriate scheme before a proposal is formally submitted.路

A310 to the Middle and Far East

Airbus lndustrie' s new generation A310 returned to Toulouse (South West France) on 6th March following a 17-day demonstration tour to the Conclusion Middle and Far East. Although the NZATCA did not seek During the tour the 210-280 seat to have a Commission of Inquiry. it true wide body twin visited nine counnonetheless became a necessity due. tries and performed 1 8 demonstration in our view. to the long neglect of the flights for seven airlines: in chronoATC system. One of the major factors logical order. Yemenia. Alia Royal which brought this situation about has Jordanian Airlines. Kuwait Airways, been sustained fiscal pressure. Ap- Gulf Air. Toa Domestic Airlines. Japan plied on an annual basis. ironically th_e Airlines and Korean Airlines. apparent savings made each year will Some 1.300 guests participated in in the long run be nonexistent and the twelve VIP demonstration flights merely a bookkeeping exercise. When f_or.which invitations were purposely the costs to bring the NZ ATC system limited _toabout 10~ ~uests per flight. up to the standard recognized as They included a1rl1ne executives necessary by the Commission are to- technicians and maintenanc~ talled. the cost in the end will exceed specialists. Civil Aviation Authority ofthat of keeping the system up to stan- ficials. Government officials and dard as a gradual process. members of the media. The passenThere are many positive aspects to gers could thus appreciate the the Commission of Inquiry. Prime spaciousness. quietness and comfort amongst these was the chance to of the new Airbus and see the most have an unbiased study of the state of advanced technology two-man cockthe ATC system and from its findings pit. unique to the A31 0. in operation. to make a 'fresh start.路 We are all The tour also included 21 ferry hopeful that the lessons learnt will en- flights lasting a total of 60 hours and sure that we do not fall into the same five minutes. The distances covered traps again. amounted to 23.380 NM/ Finally. what of the applicability of 43.311 km and total fuel consumpthis whole exercise to other ATC sys- tion to 281. 75 metric tonnes. tems in the world? Without a doubt some of the findings are applicable to other systems and as such can perhaps assist in remedying their deTwo New DC Directors ficiencies. If. like us. there are a large number of deficiencies then. trauTwo marketing directors have been matic as it is. perhaps a Commission named to_dire_ct McDonnell Douglas of Inquiry is the answerfor others too. commercial aircraft activities in Europe and the Middle East. W. C. Messecar has been named Marketing Director. Northern Europe, and D. E. Moore has been appointed IFATCA Items For Sale Marketing Director. Middle East. Messecar. 43. joined Douglas Item Members Non-members Cost Aircraft Company in 1975. having worked previously for Eastern Airlines Manual not sold 50.and Pan American World Airways. I.H.B. 50.50.From his initial position as Manager. Conference Reports 25.25.Market Development Projects. he was Hijacking Policy 3.2.50 promoted to Manager. Fleet Planning. Automation 2.50 3.and Director of Airline Economics. Training 4.50 5.50 He received a Bachelor's Degree in Mathematics from Linfield College in Ties 15.not sold 1961 and a Master's Degree in Label pins 4.not sold Mathematics from Washington State Stickers 1.1.University in 1963. Moore. 50. joined Douglas Aircraft The Controller 1972 after a 20-year career in the US Air Force. retiring with the Rank of Prices Valid From January 1st. 1 983 Lieutenant Colonel. He began as a production and delivery pilot. was All prices indicated are in Swiss Francs and items may be purchased from the promoted to senior pilot in 1976 and secretariat. Postage is charged in addition to indicated prices. to Manager. Flight Operations. in IFATCA Secretariat: 26. Carrickhill Close. Portmarnock. Co. Dublin. Ireland. 1978.



First A310

Delivered to KLM

The first of an order of ten Airbus lndustrie A3 l 0s was delivered to KLM Royal Dutch Airlines on Friday, 10 June 1983 , in the course of a delivery ceremony organized in Toulouse . The aircraft named after the famous Dutch painter Albert Cuyp was officially handed over to Mr. Sergio Orlandini, President of KLM , by Mr . Bernard Lathiere, president of Airbus lndustrie. Arranged to seat 21 5 passengers in a flexible configuration including business and tourist sections. the KLM A3 l 0 is powered by two General Electric CF6-80A engines. KLM plans to operate the A3 l 0 initially on the routes from Amsterdam to London, Madrid, Milan, Istanbul , Athens, Cairo, while further destinations such as Amman and Damascus will be added following the delivery of three more aircraft this year.

-----~-~-- .. """""'










_ _,


Airbus lndustrie A3 70 in KLM co/ors


Terminal is reserved for use by Alia , Jordan 's national car rier , while the North Termin al will be used by all other international airlines serving Amman. Although the twin terminals have a total capacity of 3 m illion passenger s per year, provisions have been made for future construction of two additional terminals w hich would double that capacit y. Within each terminal , the arriving and departing passenger flows are separated laterall y at ground level. Each terminal has 23 check-in counters and once checked in, passengers use escalators or stairs to the second level where they enter passport control. Also on the second level are duty-free shops and a snack bar, as well as VIP , First Class and Business Class lounges. Securi ty checks are conducted on departing passengers prior to check -in and at the gate lounge . The new airport's 9000-m 2 fully automated cargo c enter equipped with a Trepel handling and storage system is a separate facility with its own gates and is capable of handling 400 .000 t of cargo per year. All cargo will be handled by Alia. who will also produce all in-flight meals at the airport. The airport's two parallel runways -08R / 26L concrete runway; 08L/ 26R asphalt runway-are equipped for Cat. 2 operations. The apron positions are equipped with hydrant refuelling facilities. connected to the fuel farm by underground pipes. - In a turnkey contract valued at nearly £4 million, Marconi Radar is to supply over the next two years. an ASR 511 for dual-diversity operat ion, an S464 secondary surveillance radar , four operat ions displays complete w ith consoles.and an ATC simulator for install ation at Queen Alia International

New Airport

Operations st arted at the new Queen Ali a Intern ational Airport -Amman - less th an 24 hours after King Hussein had cut the ribbon officially opening the facility on 25 M ay 1983 , i.e. on Jordan 's Independence Day The first flight to land at the $300 million airport was an Alia B727 arriving from Aqaba. Four test services had been operated on 1 5 and 1 8 May to familiarize ground staff with procedures at the new airport to which all civil operations have now been transferred from the old Amman Airport at Marka . The airport, built 25 km sout heast of Amman on an l 8 km2 desert site has two parallel runw ays, each 3660 m long . with the termin al building positioned centra lly between them The building is formed by two ident ica l blocks on either side of a central spine road . connected by a covered bridge Each block is airconditioned and is served by five airbridges and ten remote stands. The South

IATA The IATA Airport Section has prepared a survey which indi cates that the cost for airport developm ent during the next ten years w ill be approx. $40 billion for international airports. mainly outside the United State s. A mor e recent US survey shows that such costs in the Un ited State s co uld also amo unt to $40 billion for the same period. Th e tot al estimated worldwide figure for airport development. ther efore , may reach $80 bil lion for the decade ahead. A s the cost for airport development is largel y passed on to the airline s through a variety of charges. IATA off icia ls feel that it is vital that the airlines exert every effort to reduce such costs to what is required to maintain safe and effic ient operations. In this regard . by direct consultation s with airport authoriti es. IATA airlines strive to ensure that airports wi ll be functional . cost-effective peop le mover s and not 'white-e leph ant' palaces . The same goes for air navigation facilities : overambi tious proje cts . often resulting in no benefits for airlines or passengers . will have to be curtailed . - Cost cont rol is exerted by IATA through its Air port Con sultative Committees . of which approximately 40 are c urrentl y active at 55 airports .


ICAO ICAO announced 1 5 large-scale technical assistance projects in civil aviation, totalling more than $ 14 million, as approved under the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). They are in Argentina (strengthening of the National Directorate of Airworthiness; $1,153,950). in the Bahamas (development for radar air traffic services; $525. 728 of additional funding), in Guinea Bissau (development of civil aviation; $1,574,180) in Jordan (assistance to civil aviation; $1,314,737), in Kuwait (assistance to the Civil Aviation Department; $553,435), in North Korea (reinforcement of selected civil aviation facilities and services; $1,665,894), in Peru (development of the aeronautical infrastructure; $ 530. 900 of additional funding), in the Philippines (assistance to Philippine Airlines- training; $840,850), in Somalia (development of a Civil Aviation Training School; $918,457), ~n Sn L_anka (establishment of the Sri Lanka Civil Aviation Training Centre; $ 711 .348). in Venezuela (preparatory assistance to civil aviation development; $551,396), in the Yemen Arab Republic (civil aviation and manpower develop~ent; $2,981,110) and in the Yemen People's Democratic Republic (improvement of the civil aviation infrastructure; $1,687,385). In addition, a second project was app~oved in the Yemen Arab Republic (maintenance and operation of airport facilities and manpower training) to be totally financed by Saudi Arabia at a cost of $4,386.000._ The UNDP will also finance the development of the regional East African School for Aviation to be set up in Kenya ($1,579,459).

ventions and the reorganization of the facilities, the application of the labor contract which increased the average staff cost by 23% over 1981, and the delay in the application of increases in airport charges (which came into force in January 1983 only). Revenues totalled L221 billion. To meet capacity requirements of domestic traffic, Aeroporti di Roma has proposed an extension of the domestic terminal by adding a pier with 1 2 nose-in parking positions and direct boarding via passenger bridges.

Spain A new airport is being built with Arab and Swiss capital near Malaga. at a site called Los Pinos. The objective of the new facility is to speed air trans~ort for the many wealthy Arabs who live in that area. The airport will have a 2000-m runway, and work on the project is w_ell under way. Because of its backing, it is expected that It will be finished to luxury standards and be equipped with the latest navigational aids.

A310 Flies Nonstop from Brazil to France

An Airbus lndustrie A310 landed on the 26 May. at Le Bourget aher completing the first nonstop transatlantic crossing between Brazil and France by a wide-body twin jet. The aircraft. the first KLM A31 0. had left Rio de Janeiro the previous afternoon and after a refueling stop at Recite, had travelled the 4,100 NM/7,600 km to Paris in nine hours and 1 5 minutes carrying on board officials and airline FAA guests from Brazil and other South American countries to The Federal Aviation Administration promotes interthe Paris Air Show. national aviation cooperation through its offices in 1? Prior to this memorable crossing, Airbus lndustrie' s new countries overseas. with each office responsible for activigeneration A310 twin-aisle_twin had been in Brazil for one ties in larger geographic areas. The Brussels office 1sthe week making demonstration and technical evaluation headquarters for all FAA activities in Europe, Africa and the flights for Cruzeiro do Sul._ yarig, VASP, Civil Aviation Middle East; Honolulu is the headquarters for FA~ proAuthorities. Government off1c1alsand the Brazilian press. grams throughout Asia and the Pacific; and Atlanta Is the By visiting Recite, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Brasilia headquarters for agency activities in Central and Latin and Porto Alegre, the A3 10 was able to demonstrate to the America. The FAA provides advisory assistance_ an~ sup_- three above mentioned Brazilian airlines, which now sucporting services. a visitors' program, and training in airways cessfully operate the Airbus A300 both internationally and and airport skills. domestically, its remarkable fuel savings and advantageous passenger and cargo marketing appeal.

Central America Cosecna, the ATC organization jointly staffed and funded by six Central American states, plans to computerize the en route ATC system at Tegucigalpa/ Honduras and to set up a radar network to cover Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador. Nicaragua and Costa Rica. - Cosecna is headquartered at Tegucigalpa and has respons1bil1ty for the installation and maintenance of navaids (NDBs. VORs, DMEs. ILS). communications facilities, en route ATC and flight calibration in the member countries. The organization collects up to $ 3 million in user charges annually to meet its commitments. Its staff exceeds 100 specialists, who are assigned in member countries.

ha~y Aeroporti di Roma. the operator of the two Rome airports. reported a loss of L2.76 billion for 1982, although there was a slight recovery of passenger and cargo traffic and an increase in commercial activities at Fiumicino and Ciampino. The loss is associated with extraordinary inter-


Journal of ATC Wins Award The January-March 1982 issue of ATCA's 'The Journal of Air Traffic Control.' a special issue dealing with the air traffic controller strike of August 1981, has been chosen for a special citation by judges in the Aviation/ Space Writers Association (AWA) Mideast Region writing awards competition. Tirey K. Vickers, Editor of 'The Journal of Air Traffic Control.¡ was notified of the AWA selection by L. Kim Smith, Director of the Mideast Region. AWA. The award was presented in Washington. DC, in May following the AWA Annual News Conference this April. AWAs 1983 Annual News Conference was held April 1O through April 14 at Stouffer's National Center Hotel. Arlington, Virginia.

IAL IAL engineers have begun installing new air traffic control equipment for Shell UK Exploration and Production in the Brent Log control center on the Shell/ Essa Cormorant

The world of ATC is changing and growing . With the help of computer technology you can see more and do more now than you could even five years ago, both in simulation and in radar data processing and display. Not surprisingly it is Ferranti that is changing the picture . We are foremost in applying computers and display systems to the ATC function. The work we are putting into the processing and display of ATC pictures is bringing simulators and operational systems closer togethe:r: And we are doing some forward thinking and planning for the new ATC techniques that will soon be coming into view. If you want to broaden your ATC horizons, contact:Ferranti Computer Systems Limited, Cwmbran System Sales, Ty Coch WaY,Cwmbran , Gwent NP44 7XX Telephone: Cwmbran (06333)71111 Telex: 497636


Alpha platfo rm in the East Shetland Basin area of the North Sea. The control cen ter coordinates flying acti vit ies throughout the East Shetland Basin and is a unique combination of air traffic cont rol , logistics con trol and search- and- rescue ope rations. An IAL Str at us intgrated vo ice communications control system and Park Air Electronics radio equipment wi ll replace existing equipment and gre atly improve the facilities availabl e for control ling over 1 50 .000 helicopter move ments a year in the busiest of the North Sea oil field areas.

Plessey for Ministry

of Defence

Plessey Radar today announces that the Ministr y of Defence has select ed its Watchman S-b and syste m to be the replacement airfie ld surveillance radar for its airfi elds in the United Kingdom and overseas. The select ion was made aga inst a background of intense competition. The choice of Watchman represent s a two fold succe ss for Brit ish enginee ring. It heralds the sta rt of a truly new era in radar surveillance and display technology and is a result of the company· s commitment to a majo r private invest ment project. Once aga in. Plessey has set new standards of performance reliabili ty and m aintenance w ith Watchman . Suc h reliability and performance is provided by an advanced coherent (dr iven)t ransmi tt er syst em combined w ith the latest signa l processing tech niqu es. An integral part of the Watchman system is the Plessey Intelligent Autonomous Display Console Thi s versatile. self-contained unit. including its own dedicated micro -processor. represents a significant advance in the processing and presentation of the rada r data. The displays wil l be manufactured at Addl estone; manufacture of the radars and integration of th e systems will be done from the Plessey Rada r factory at Cowes on the Isle of Wight. Plessey intends t o build on thi s success by demon strating the system to overseas count ries providing both c ivil and military users with the latest in air tr aff ic co ntrol tec hnology. and thereby conf ident ly expec t ing to build a large export market. The Watchman system w ill replace an earlier Plessey system. the A RI radar. which was subseque ntly also prov ided to 29 countr ies. as widely distributed as Au str alia. Singapore. the Gulf States. Kenya and Ecuado r. Plessey has a major sales campaign under way and is confident of winning more syste m s to add to the substantia l Mini stry of Def ence orde r . The system was deve loped by the compa ny as a private ventu re.

Higher Education Takes Flight at Ohio State University Beginning this Fall. Ohio State Univers ity (OS U) offers degrees in aviation. These new baccalau reate program s. the B.S in Aviation and the Aviation Major. are offe red by the OSU Colleges of Engineering. and A rts and Sc iences through th_e mst1tution ·s Departmen t of Aviation Both av1at1 _ on programs focus on preparing broad ly educated profess iona ls to fill existing and anticipated technica l and managerial personnel vacancies in the nat ion·s airway system ope ration s. and the aerospace manufactu ring and air tr ansportation industries . The B S. in Aviation . offered by the College of Engineer 1119 . 1s designed to provide students with the analytical skil ls 10

needed to solve emerging technology-based aviation prob lems . Although this offeri ng is str uctur ed around a preenginee ring core. it also incl udes course work in aviation. engineer ing science and analysis and transportation management. For students whose academic inclination s are directed more toward the liberal arts . or the soc ial and behavioral sc iences. the Aviation Major is offered by the Colleges of the Arts and Sciences and leds to either a B.A. or B.S. degree . These two new baccalaureate offerings complement the existing Aviation Management Special Area conduc ted in cooperation w ith the OSU College of Administrative Science . This program incorporates _courses in aviation . logistics and transportation econom ics. and satisf ies the requirements for the B.S. in Business Administration . Dr . Al Lerch. Academic Committee Chairman for osu·s Department of Aviation . encou rages all st udent s to consider courses in aviation . ·we offer credit and noncredit c lassroom and flight-ba sed course work. Student s can opt for the degree programs . electi ve co urses. or pilot cert ificat ion and upgr ading. Aviation is an exciting and vital field for many personal and profess iona l reasons .· For addi tion al information concerning Ohio Stat e's Aviation offerings. call or wr ite for a free brochure. Contact: Ac ademic Committee Chairma n. Depar tment of Aviation. The Ohio State University. P.O. Box 3022 . Columbu s. OH 43210 . Telephone: (614) 422 - 111 6. ATCA Bulletin


Display Console

The Plessey Intelligent Autonomous Display Console is an int egra l part of the W atchman system w hich has been select ed by the Mini stry of Defence as the replacem ent airfield surveillance radar for its airfields in th e Unit ed Kingdom and overseas. Th is versatile. self-contained display console with its own dedicated microproce ssor represents a significant adva nce in the proce ssing and presentation of radar data .

New DC Office in Beirut McDonnell Douglas Corporation announced it will reopen a commercial offi ce for th e M iddle East located in Beirut . Larry S. Dickenson. Vice -President Commercial Sales for the Douglas Aircraft Company division of M c Donnell Douglas. said the decision to resume resident operation s in Beirut is a sig n of his company· s confidence that Beirut will regain its former position as a business center for the Ar ab world . Dic kenson said M c Donn ell Dou g las sold more airline j et transports in 1982 than any other manufacturer. and that the co mp any is very active in t he Middle East. The new office wil l be headed by E.J. Soldo . Directo r of M arket Develop ment Middle East. Dickenson, Soldo, and other McDonnell Dougla s executives were in Beirut in ear ly Feb ruary to make arrangements to open the Beirut office in th e coming weeks.

A31 0 Demonstrations Airbus lndustrie ' s new A310 cond ucted early spr ing a 1 7 day demonstration to ur to the M iddle and Far East. The t our . cove ring some 22. 500 NM/ 4 1 .600 km . took the aircraft to nine countries: the Yeme n Ar ab Repub lic. Jordan. Kuwait. Bahrain. Om an. Unite d Arab Emirates. Qat ar. Japan and the Rep ubli c of Korea. The 20 ferry f light s ranged in duration from 30 minutes to seven hours. thus cove ring the w hole spectrum of reg ion al and loca l st age distances. In each of the countries visited. Airbus· guests had th e c hance to judge first hand the qualitie s of this new member of the Airbus produ ct line: its remarkable passenger co mfort . quietness . outstanding fu el efficiency. and true wide-body cargo capab ility. During specia l 'pilots' flight s.' flight crews were able to experience for themselves the

handling qualities. performance and advanced two-man cockp it concept of the new A310. 1 9 demonstration flight s were made during the tour. Top Airbus management. including president. Bernard Lath iere and Exec utive Vice-President. Roger Beteille. participated during various portions of the tour . accompanied by a te am of management. sales, f light and support perso nnel. Test pilot Lars Heise-Laursen was in command of the aircraft. and shared the flying wit h t est pilot Karl Nagel.


Angeles · Nonstop Record

A McDo nne ll Douglas DC-8 Series 70 reengined with advanced technology CFM -5 6 turbofan engines established a long-distance point-to-point record. flying nonstop Cairo-Los Ang eles. a distance of 8.215 statute miles (7,164 nautical mil es) in 15 hours 46 minute s. Depa rting Cairo Inte rnat ion al at 11 . 13 am. local time Tuesday M arch 29. the reengi ned DC-8 touch ed down at Los Angeles intern ationa l (LAX) at 4.59 pm PST. the same day. The aircraft. owned by Cammacorp . El Segund o. Californ ia. program managers for DC-8 reengining. was completing a week-long toc.Jr to England and Egypt demonst rating the airplane ·s fuel efficiences. noise reduction and range improveme nts resulting from its four new CFM-56 tu rbofans. ·Although we· d covered more than 8. 200 miles. remaining aloft nearl y 16 hours flying east to west against prevailing winds. we still had abo ut one and a half hours of reserve fuel - enough for an add itional 860 miles - when we touched down at LAX.' said Don Mull in. Camma co rp Dire ctor of Flight Operations and Aircraft Captain. The DC8 and its CFM-56 turbofans performed ·exactl y to predicted fuel flow values.· he said. The National Aeronautic association submitted the f light for official international recognition



Part 111 2.4. 1 Court Decisions From Trans Oceanic Airways Ltd. v. The Commonwealth of Australia 59 it follows that the Commonwealth has the duty to take due care of the safety of aircraft under air traffic control. In 197360 the Western Australian Supreme Court had to judge a case where two aircraft. flying in accordance with VFR. collided after approaching an airport to land on similar flight-paths. The Court found that both ATC and the aircrews had failed to keep a proper look-out. As we have seen in paragraph 1 .4. it is the pilot-incommand who has to separate his aircraft from other aircraft Despite the fact that ATC had no function in providing separation. the court held that ATC had a duty of care to maintain a proper look-out for the safety of aircraft and to issue appropriate warnings and instructions to avert disaster. On January 29. 1971 a Canadian Pacific airliner. which had just landed at Sydney airport. backtracked down the runway after misinterpretation of




2.4.2 Contributory Negligence Contributory negligence on the part of the plaintiff may reduce the damages awarded62; it is not a defence. but the damages recoverable must be reduced having regard to the claimants' share in the responsibility for the damage. Most accidents which can be ascribed to human error. do

2.5 United States The United States has acquired a leading position in world aviation: related to the total ton-kilometers performance the United States participate in air transportation for approximately 40%. Therefore it is not surprising that a substantial quantity of cases. involving ATC-liability. are found in this country. One of the problems to be solved is how to delineate the responsibility of the air traffic controller. From the available litigation it appears that there is a tendency to put a more onerous responsibility on air traffic control for the safety of aircraft. 2.5.1 Federal Torts Claims Act (FTCA) The Federal Aviation Act provides the statutory basis for the legal responsibility of the Federal Government

High Court. 7956. unreported. Simmonds. Supreme Court of W.A.. unreported. National Airlines Commission v. The Commonwealth of Australia and Canadian Pacific Airlines, High Court, 7975. Usually the Law Reform Act regulates the position of each party. In Nichols v. Simmonds all three parties departed from the standards of a reasonable man by not exercising a proper lookout. In the TAA-case the CPA airliner misinterpreted taxi-instructions without confirmation and the TM-airliner was held liable for his failure to abort takeoff. See also I.J. Booth: Governmental liability for aviation accidents caused by air traffic control negligence. Air Law 7976. p. 767-768.

60 Nichols v. 6 1 Australian

62 63

taxi-instructions and collided with a Trans-Australian airliner taking off on the same runway in accordance with an ATC clearance. Poor visibility conditions made visual observation inadequate and ATC failed to verify by radio-communication whether the runway was clear. before issuing a takeoff clearance. The Court decided that this was a serious departure from the standards of the reasonable man ... The Court had the view that safety in the prevention of collisions is the primary responsibility of ATC and that the duty of the air traffic controller to keep a proper look-out and to ensure that a landing aircraft is clear of the runway before issuing a clearance for immediate takeoff. is of fundamental importance to the safety of operations at an airport6 1 .

not happen from a single cause. but result from a combination of causes. In Nichols v. Simmonds and the TMcase. liability was apportioned. In both decisions all three parties were found at fault: ATC was held 40% liable and the aircraft operators were held 30% liable63_ How will a court reach a just and equitable apportionment of responsibility? In the TM-decision the Court reasoned that ·responsibility involves a comparison of the culpability of each party.' The relative degree of departure from the standard of care of a reasonable man and the relative degree and seriousness of risk created by that departure determine the degree of culpability. Both elements are considered in the TM-decision. By stating that ·safety in the prevention of collisions is the primary responsibility of ATC and the duty to ensure that landing aircraft cleared the runway before issuing a takeoff qlearance is of fundamental importance to safety .... · the court in fact said that the departure of the air traffic controller from the reasonable standards of conduct was greater than the departure of the aircrew and suggested that the expected role of ATC is more important than the role of the aircrew64

for commercial air safety and authorizes the Federal Aviation Administrator to provide air traffic control services. ATC is a function within the Federal Aviation Administration charged with the safe conduct of aircraft flight and in discharging this duty ATC pur sues the objective s enumerated in 1 .4. The Federal Torts Claims Act allows an injured person to sue the United States for negligent or wrongful acts or omissions of federal employee s within the sco pe of their employment . Until 1955 it was question ab le whether the Federal Government could be sued for negligent acts of ATC, as the United States had the view th at the air traffic controller is performing a disc retiona ry function . Su c h discretionary activi t ies are exc luded from application of the FTCA. In Eastern Air Lines v. Union Trust Co. 65 ATC had c leared tw o aircraft to land on the same runwa y at approximat ely th e same tim e. The Government brought forward that the duty of an air traffic controller is public in nature and involves the exercise of di sc retion and judgment. The court stated th at air tr affic controllers are not performing discre tion ary function s. but merel y performing the operational ta sks of prescribed procedures. The court considered that ' it was di scret ion ary to dec ide to operate the control tower , but once that decision was made the day-to-day acts necessa ry to carry out that dec ision by the air traffic controllers are operati o nal . .· Thu s, the Government is liable for the negligent execution of air traffic control fun ction s and individ uals may recover damage s from the Federal Govern ment. 2.5.2

Primary Responsibility

Th ere is no fede ral law establishing th e elements of a tort act ion. In general, damages may be recovered under the co mmon law of neg ligenc e. It has to be esta bli shed that ATC owed the pilot a duty of care and th at the bre ac h of that duty was the proximate cause of the result ant damages . Since th e decision in Easte rn Air Lines it is beyond doubt that a duty towards the pilot exists. but the question to what extent th e air tr affi c co nt roller has to exerc ise d ue ca re remains unanswered. From the liti gati on quot ed in the fo llow ing parag rap hs it is c lear th at the conc eption of the air tr aff ic con-

65 2 2 7 F. 2d 62 (D. C Circ. 7955). 66 735 F Supp. 929 (D. Mass. 7955) . 67 2 7 7 F. 2d 32 2 (5th Cir. 7960).

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Th~ ijoan l s VieWftOiflt: *, The Executive Board of the Ferieration has ' issued · the following statement regarding R, Bootsma ·s article OR 'internat ional Aspects of Air Traffic Control Liaeility ': ~ The Executive Board of !FA TCA [ having stud ied the thesis on the · " lnternationalAspects of Air Traffic Control Liability" , by R. Bootsma whilst a student 'at law, finds that a number of statements contained therein are in direct conflir;t with various IFATCA policies and possibly in some cases may be viewed to be in conflict with the laws of concerned states . 'Any conclusions ·drawn from or intimated by the artid e must be considered to . be the , personal views of Mr. l!3ootsmamade during the preparation · and research of his thesis whilst a student at law. 'Any statements and conclus ions in the article do not necessarily coincide with the views or have the endorsement of the Federation. '


trailer's duty has evo lved from a narrow one to a w ide one. Characte rist ic of the attitude adop t ed by th e cou rts is Smerdon v. Unit ed State s66_The pilot had receiv ed a c learance for a VFR landing , while visibilit y con diti ons did not permit this type of landing . As the pilot was wa rned of th e weathe r condition s. the co urt held th at ATC was not liable. The court also held th at the duty of the air traffic co ntro ller is lim ited to the preventi on of co llision s. The early deci sions recog nize t hat ATC is req uired to perfo rm th eir dutie s in acco rdance w ith the FAA ATC Proced ures M anual . In th ese reg ulati ons we find the respon sibilit ies of and the procedures to be followed by ATC; they prescribe th e Government standard of ca re. Once th e air traffic cont ro ller has m et th ese req uirements . no ot her duty exists In Un ited States v. Schultetu s67 it was state d th at th e direct and pr imary responsibi lity for t he operation of an airc raft rests w ith th e pilot. Both airc raft were flying in acco rdance with VFR and ATC had issued a landing clearance resulting in a mid -air collision in view of th e air traff ic controllers. The co urt had th e op inion th at the pi lots cou ld have avoided the co llision

a proper look-out ; consequent ly the clearance was not th e proximate ca use of the crash. Mor eover, the co urt determ ined that the c learance was permis sive in nature and did not relieve the pilot of his duty t o exercise reasonable care w hen co mpl ying w ith the clearance Thu s fa r the cou rt deci sions placed strong emphasis upon the primary responsibility of t he pilot. In this respect United St ates v. Miller68 gives a similar reasoning. The court held that the ultim ate responsibility for the safe operation of aircraft under V FR rests with th e pilot: he has t he obligation to observe and avoid other t raffic . 2.5.3 Changing Attitude The view that ATC had no other dut y than perfo rm the functions laid dow n in the Procedures· Manual was abandoned in later decisions . Pilots we re still held pr im arily responsible for the ope ration of the airc raft, but only after having been informed of all facts necessary for safe flight. For the f irst tim e in Ingham v. Eastern Air Line s69 ATC was required to do something more th an strictl y follow the operating procedures. This decision shows the application of the ' Good Samar itan ' doctrine: if ATC und ertakes a practice that engenders reli ance. it has the du ty t o continue that practice w ith due care The air traffic controller had adv ised the pilot of the visibility, but failed to relay essential weather information during the following twelve minutes , in which time the vis ib ility decreased and came close to the minimum required for landing. This cr iti ca l change in visibility shou ld have been reported to the crew as that information wo uld have been con sidered important in determining whether to attempt a landing. The court emphasized th at the final deci sion to land is left to the pilot. ATC did not provide the information needed to make that decision and thus proxi mate ly caused the accident Th e ' pri mary respons ibilit y' defence was also alleviated by application of the theor y of reciprocal duty . It has been deter mined that bot h pilot and air traffi c contro ller have a duty toward eac h other ; the functions to be performed by pilot and controller are no longe r independent In this respect I would like to draw attention to the decision in Hochrein v . Unit ed State s70: th e ' prim ary respo nsibility

68 303 F 2d 703 (9th Cir. 7962 ). 69 373 F.2d 227 (2nd Cir. 7967). 70283 F. Supp. 377 (£.0. Pa. 7965 ). 13

defense arose only after the controller had fulfilled his duty to warn the pilot of the possible danger from the other aircraft. In Furumizo v. United States 71 the court found that under such circumstances. the air traffic controller is required to go beyond the letter of the regulations and has to exercise 'reasonable care' in the prevention of collisions. A student pilot was cleared for takeoff and a waketurbulence warning in accordance with the manual was issued to him. The light aircraft was caught in the wake-turbulence of the preceding DC8 and crashed. Under these circumstances the controller was held negligent for the failure to exercise reasonable judgment to avoid the danger created by the wake-turbulence. The court held that a second warning should have been provided by the controller when he realized that the aircraft started its takeoff immediately in disregard of the first warning. This decision constitutes a significant departure of the view that the pilot is primarily responsible and puts ATC under the obligation to take any reasonable action which could prevent accidents. Recapitulating we may say that the requirements to be met by ATC are not limited to those imposed by the ATC Procedures路 Manual. In going beyond those regulations the 路 reasonable man' test applies to the conduct of the air traffic controller and in emergency situations the air traffic controller is required to exercise reasonable judgment so as to prevent accidents. The primary responsibility still rests with the pilot. but in one situation. when the pilot is not aware of the facts he needs in order to operate the aircraft safely. the pilot is not held directly responsible for the safe operation of the aircraft. In Hartz v. United States 72 the court came to this conclusion in a factual situation similar to Furumizo. The wake-turbulence warning given to a small private aircraft was not in accordance with the standard phraseology prescribed by the manual and the failure to give a proper warning resulted in the crash of the small aircraft taking-off behind a DC- 7. The court considered that it was the duty of ATC to 路direct and guide ... in a manner consistent with safety' and that 路ATC owed a duty beyond the procedures prescribed by the ATC manual.' The


72 73 14


court also concluded that ATC had an additional duty to delay the takeoff clearance for such a period as was reasonably necessary to permit the turbulence to dissipate. The warning given to the pilot was inadequate and the pilot cannot be held responsible for the operation of his airplane. as he did not know or could have known those facts material to the safe operation of the aircraft73_

2.5.4 Standards of Duty for Pilots and ATC It is clear now that ATC has a duty to do more than merely follow the instructions given in the manual and that the air traffic controller is required to exercise judgment to avoid potentially dangerous situations. In Ingham v. Eastern Air Lines and Hartz v. United States it has been established that before a pilot can be held legally responsible for his aircraft he must know. or in the exercise of reasonable care be held to have known. those facts that were material to the safe operation of the aircraft. Application of this criterion to United States v. Schultetus leads to the conclusion that there is no liability on the part of ATC. as the pilot was aware or should have been aware of the danger. In American Airlines v. United States 74 an aircraft failed to maintain sufficient altitude during its landing approach in a thunderstorm. The court emphasized that the pilot. in the exercise of due care. should have been aware of the possible presence of downdrafts and the failure of ATC to warn of this possibility could not have proximately caused the crash. The court enunciated four standards of duty for pilots and ATC: a) The pilot is in command of the aircraft. is directly responsible for its operation and has final authority as to its operation. b) Before a pilot can be held legally responsible for the movement of his aircraft he must know. or be held to have known. these facts which were then material to its safe operation. Certainly. the pilot is charged with that knowledge which in the exercise of the highest degree of care he should have known. c) The air traffic controller must give the warnings specified in the manual.

Hong Kong According to the Crown Colony's Financial Secretary, John Brembridge, plans for building an international airport on Lantau Island have been abandoned because the project would be too expensive. The technical feasibility of a two-runway airport at Chek Lap Kok. on partly reclaimed land, had been proven by design studies. but a recent financial study, conducted by a Hong Kong merchant bank, had fixed the cost of the project at $HK 35.4 billion if financed on an all-equity basis. As the government had planned to finance 75% of the project by borrowings, the financing costs would raise the project's price ticket to $ H_K62.5 billion, with financing arrangements running through to the year 2005. - Investment so far made for the Chek Lap Kok airport proposa I tot a Is $ HK 1 8 5 million for technical studies. As the Colony's airport at Kai Tak will have to be replaced sooner or later, shelving of the Lantau project will not necessarily mean an end to airport development in Hong Kong. Kai Tak is expected to be saturated by 1990 and may run into difficulties for noise and pollution reasons earlier. Therefore, the search for a new site in the Colony or across the border in mainland China will continue.

d) The air traffic controller, whether required by the manuals or not. must warn of dangers reasonably apparent to him but not apparent in the exercise of due care to the pilot. Application of this concept is illustrated in Blount Brothers Corp. v. Louisiana 7 5 and Harris v. United States 76. In the first case ATC was not negligent for failing to warn the pilot of a displaced runway and a seven foot mound of construction sand. because the pilot should have been aware of the conditions. which were published in a Notice to Airmen. In the second decision ATC was held liable for the failure to warn the pilot of a power line obstruction on the runway approach. because ATC knew that the pilot was not familiar with the area and did not know of the obstruction.

381 F 2d 965 (9th Cir. 196 7). 38 7 F 2d 8 70 (5th Cir. 1968). In Neff v. United States, 420 F. 2d 115 (D. C. Cir. 1968) the Government was held liable because significant and immediate relevant weather information that might have affected the takeoff decision was not provided to the aircrew. 4 78 F 2d 780 (5th Cir. 7969).

Aspects of ATC A Layman's Point of View by Nigel C. Gates, M.A., M. Phil

I am Senior Lecturer in Geog raphy at the Hertf ordsh ire College of Higher Education; I also hold a Private Pilot's Lice nce . During the pe riod 19771 982 I was engaged in research into aspect s of air traffic contro l and manage ment and , in Dece mber 1 982, I was awarded the M. Phil degree by the Uni ve rsity of London (Fac ult y of Econom ics) for my th esis 'An app raisal of air tr affi c control and manag ement in southern England , w it h particular referen ce to j et tr ansport opera tion s, 19 78 -1981 · Although I am a geogr apher , and not a professiona l air tr affi c co ntroller. I nevertheless believe th at my researc h co nc lusions migh t be of int erest to reade rs of 'The Controll er., The research cove red two main areas: ( 1 ) det ailed analy sis of LATCC' s (London Air Traffi c Control Centr e) Dove r / Lydd and Seaford /Wor thing / Hurn Sector s; (2) co nsider ati on of how air tr aff ic (which, in gene ral, is moved very eff icie ntl y by European air tr affic controll ers) could flow even mo re expedit iou sly- savi ng operators time and subst anti al q uantiti es of expen sive aviat ion fu el. It sho uld be po int ed out that pilots an d controlle rs do not always see eyeto-eye and ce rtain ATC proced ures so metime s appear unn ecessary (and uneconomic al) to pi lots managin g fu el-t hir sty j et tran sports. Howeve r, the air tr affi c cont roller ca n see th e t ot al ATC situa ti on in his sector of airspace and, w ith out doubt , mo st ATC proce dur es (so me of w hic h ce rtain ly fru stra t e pi lot s) are abso lute ly necessa ry fo r safety reasons Further more, th ere w ill always be a need fo r tact ica l air tr affi c con tr ol measures (suc h as tr ack- head ing , fli ght level and speed changes) to ma intain safe separat ion However. although my ana lysis demon st rated that air traffi c normal ly moved eff icient ly and exped it iously th rough the contro lled and upper airspace of southern England . there are (ta ctica l con tro l apart) cer tain standard ATC pro ce dures which

are questioned frequently by pilots and there are so me areas w here airspace co uld be used mor e eff ic ientl y. It shou ld, howeve r, be po inted out th at some of the prob lems wh ich exist in th e airspace of so ut hern Eng land are the result of airspace restri ct ions im posed upon th e Un ited Kingd om w ith which LATCC con troll ers mu st comp ly. Until ve ry recently , a m aj or problem used to be ce rt ain danger areas (in the Portsmouth area), w hic h hinder ed the efficient and exped it ious movement of air tr aff ic in Seaford/Wor thi ng / Hurn Sec t o r. However, on 26 November, 1 98 1, revis ion of the Portsmouth dange r areas took place and , on 18 M arc h. 1 982. radi ca l c hang es in th e con tr o lled airspace of so ut hern Eng land ca me int o effect The CAA sta t ed ( 1 982). th at th ese changes we re · Desig ned t o relieve conge stion and thereb y imp rove safety, and to assist fue l saving through more dire ct ro uting s and ea rlier climb to c rui sing leve l' and t here is little doubt th at th ese radica l changes red uce f light tim e and result in sig nif ican t fu el savings.

NC. Gates

For opt imu m f uel econom y a pilot attempts to maintain a smooth, uninterrupt ed descent profile, from cruise level to runway thre shold. An y deviation from t he opt imum descent profile w ill inc rease fuel costs and pilots attempt to avoid both earl y descent and flig ht below t he optimum descent profi le w henever possible. Pilots, therefore, question certain standard de sce nt procedures: (i) when approach ing from the south and southwest (inbound to airpo rts in the Londo n TM A) the instruction to be at FL 1 20 10 miles west of Midhur st; (ii) inbound on UA2W, the instruction to be at FL260, or belo w, by Abbeville (t he France / LATCC transfer of control po int): and, (iii) inbound on UG 1, the instruc t ion to be at FL280 or below by Koksy (t he M aastr icht / LATCC transfer of contro l point.) From the controlle rs· point of view such descent clearances are desirable fo r ease of control; man y pilots, howeve r, feel that the se levels are too low and point out that the necessity to comply with these particular ATC inst ructions results in increased fuel costs. Likewise, for optimum fuel economy, pilots attempt to maintain an uninterrupted climb profile (from rotation to cruise level ), when ever possible: the necessit y to interrupt the climb (at FL60 for example) consequently results in increased fuel expendit ure. Controller s nat urally realize the need for aircraft to attain cru ise level as quickly as possible and, when traffi c permits, frequently allow deviation from procedural SIDs and provide early climb clearances Neve rtheless , the need to maintain low flight levels , when necessary, is very expensive in term s of inc reased fuel burn-off In congested terminal area airspace, procedural SIDs and STARs are obviously neces sary: howe ver. with modern high ly-accurate sophisticated navigation equipment , and with new landing aids (such as the microwave landing syste m) , it may well be possib le to use term inal area airspace more effic iently in th e fut ure. One -way airw ays / upper airways are the norm in southern England but some airways / upper airways stil l permit flight 111 both directions Duodirectional flow can . however . sometimes result in tacti ca l con trol problems - particularly when traffi c levels are high - and , if traffic level s continue to increase , it may we ll be necessary to make the remaining duo directional route s uni -directi onal and thus introduce additional c ircu latory traffic flow systems. For example , although G 1 / UG 1 is predomin ant ly one -way (eastb ound ). w estbound traffi c terminati ng at Gatwi c k and 15

MEETING THE TECHNOLOGI Portugal'sdevelopmentas a major centre for tradeand tourismis expectedto dramatically increase air trafficby the mideighties. Its air trafficcontrolsystem, whilst beingadequate for the present,will be unableto meetthe heavy demands of the future. So Portugal's aviationauthority, Aeroportos e Navegac;ao Aerea(ANA), developeda challengingmodernisation programmefor its nationwide air traffic control network. And Signaal, Philipsspecialistradar company, is supplyingand installingall the high-technologyequipmentand systems.

BasedonSignaal'sLAR-IIlongrange radar system, already well-provenin Paraguay, Singapore,the Netherlandsand theUnitedKingdom,theprojectinvolvesthe equippingof a newATC centreat Lisbon InternationalAirport,as wellas unmanned, remote-controlled,stationsat Montejunto, Foia and Lousa. All informationand data willbe processedbycomputers;radardatafromthe differentsitesbeingautomatically correlated to presenteachair trafficcontrollerwithan optimalpicture. Thistechnique,called 'multi-radardata processing',is a world's

firstin ATC. TheATCproject-designatedNAV-1 - comprisesequallyadvancedsub-systems for: flightplan processing,flightinquiry and recording,distributionand switching, closedcircuittelevision,PABX,intercom, timing,voicelogging,as wellas microwave linksand integratedmaintenancedata transferand analysis. Hereare somemoreexamplesof how Philipsmulti-productcapabilityis meetingthe technological challengeof modemaviation.


260 NM (radio)

The Dynavision500X-rayscreening systememploysadvanceddigitalimaging technologyto providea clear,sharpimage whenscreeninghand baggage.High speed imagingis complemented by ergonomic designfeaturesto enablethe operatorto see more... morerapidly.Unsurpassedfor reliability,the Dynavision500joinsthe wide rangeof Philipssecurityscreeningsystems usedin airportsthe worldover.


2 60/280 NM (r 256 NM (rada r} ::::::.



60 NM (radar ) ::::: : .

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NM ..(~



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Fulfillingthe moststringestrequirements, the newvisual aid system PAPI, fo~ PrecisionApproach Path Indicator has alreadybeensuppliedby Philips to airports in Bolivia, Haiti,Malaysia and the Sudan.

CHALLENGE OFAVIATION · Switzerlandand Yugoslavia.Philipshas NAVIGATIONAL AIDS also equippedmanyairportswith high-tech Philipsprogrammeof navigational systemsfor publicaddress,intercom, and landingaidsincludesVHF omnipersonalpagingand closed-circuit TV. directionalrangeequipment(both SVOR IJ~~I•)~rJljj(l(Jl•t-1'.Ji'm@: • · and DopplerVOR),distancemeasuring equipment(DME)and instrumentlanding systems(ILS).All VORsystemsfeature solid-state,modulardesignand incorporate fail-safemonitoringand integraltest facilities.A specialVHF Omni-Test(VOT) It is easyto installand maintain,and flight facilityenablesaircraftto do a VORcheck path recordsshowa significantreductionin from any locationon the airport. 100watt approachpath deviationscomparedto the and 1000watt DMEsystems,configuredfor conventionalVASIsystem.The PAPI units single-and dual-channeloperation, meet form part of the extensiverangeof special ICAOAnnex 10recommendation s and can lightsusedin airportlightingcircuits,such be co-located with ILS or VOR equipmen t. as approachlights, runwayand taxiway Philips ILS systems exce ed ICAO Category lights.In additionto the visualnavigational I, II and III recommendationsin both aidsPhilipscan alsosupplya complete AEROPP, Philipsdata switching performanceand monitoring.Thereare programmeof in-and outdoorlightingfor and data handlingsystemfor aeronautical morethan 300Philips Nav-aid installations your airport. in servicein over 30countries. operation,permitsgradualeconomic l'l•)te)j{•Ic§l~tclfi.ii~~ -= growth.From a smallinstallation,routing " The GreekCivilAviationAuthority lowvolumesof AFTNtraffic,up to a is usingPhilips4th generationvoicelogging powerfulmulti-usercentreprovidinga comsystemsat the majorairportsof Athensand pleterangeof aeronauticaltelecommunicationsservices.As the requirement s of the Salonicaand variousother airports. AFTNcentreexpand, AEROPPcan be Availablein 11,22, 33 and 44 channel versions,the newvoiceloggersprovidecon- enhancedaccordingly.CommonICAO tinuous24-houroperationfollowedbyauto- Data InterchangeNetworkswitching,for example. AFTN/ CIDIN and radar submaticchange-overwithampleoverlapto systeminterfacing.And flight-planstorage and processing. Together,the backbone of an integrated Air Navigation System. These are just a fewexamples of Philipshigh-technologyin aviation.If you would like more information, contactyour Phjljps organization or Prulips CorporatePlannjng and Marketing Support, VOA-0217, 5600MD Eindhoven, Th~Netherlands. Telex: 35000PHTC NL. Pleaseindicatein whjchof the subjects you are interested: 0 AEROPP 0 Arr trafficcontrol O Navigational mds 0 Baggagesecurityscreerun g O Securityequipment 0 Ajrportlighting ensurecontinuity.Similarsystemshavealso 0 Communicat ions systems beensuppliedto a.o.: France,Germany, 0 Voicelogging systems 365 Italy, Luxemburg,Malaysia,Sudan,


aerodromes south and east of the London TMA is permitted. When G 1 / UG 1 traffic levels are high, Dover Sector controllers can sometimes experience tactical control problems. Gatwick Airport is expanding and westbound flow on G 1 / UG 1 is naturally increasing. In the future it may well be necessary to create a new westbound airway/ upper airway and only permit eastbound flow on G 1 / UG1. Although the problem originates outside LATCC airspace, the flow control measures on southbound and eastbound routes (such as A 1 / UA 1 , A34/UA34, & Gl /UG1) require revision. The flow rates on these routes (normally twelve aircraft an hour which can be increased to sixteen aircrah an hour on some routes under certain circumstances), is restrictive at peak periods. Furthermore, most of the available flight levels which are allocated to aircraft are suboptimal. For example, FL270 and FL290 (the highest flight levels available on UA 1 & UA34 - with the exception of FL3 70 and above), are both below the optimum cruise level for economical flight in most jet transport aircraft. Although these flow restrictions must be viewed within the context of the originating ATC authorities, as far as traffic departing the United Kingdom is concerned, there is an urgent need for more slots and higher flight levels. However. it should be stressed that, although the United Kingdom ATC system (of which LATCC's Dover I Lydd and Seaford/Worthing/ Hurn Sectors are an integral part) is not perfect, it really is very good indeed. The United Kingdom possesses excellent ATC equipment and welltrained, highly-professional controllers who expedite traffic flow whenever possible. Our ATC system is highly regarded and, when flying in United Kingdom airspace, pilots relax knowing that they are in safe. capable hands. The prime purpose of air traffic control (ATC) is tactic a I - to prevent collisions between aircraft and to expedite and maintain the orderly flow of air traffic. The study also attempted to assess the efficacy of the European ATC system and, based upon empirical data gathered on Jet transport flight-decks, concluded that, in general, the European ATC system largely met the aims of ATC by providing a safe flow of traffic which was generally orderly and expeditious. However. obvious differences between ATC systems in northwest Europe and parts of southern Europe were noted. Air traffic rncrnagernent (ATM) attempts to improve ATC system ca18

pa city/ efficiency and allow more expeditious movement of aircrah: it is primarily concerned with strategic planning - to ensure that air traffic movement can, and will, take place efficiently. ATM is necessary to improve the international ATC system so that it can cope efficiently with greater numbers of more sophisticated aircraft in the future; ATM is, consequently, of vital importance if there is to be control - rather than chaos - in the decades ahead. In the contemporary economic environment airlines strive continually to minimize operational expenditure and the study exarrnned ways in which the air traffic management process could reduce fuel expenditure. Although the European ATC system (in general) operates efficiently there are, nevertheless, areas where efficiency could be improved and there is potential for the introduction of more ATM procedures (some innovatory) designed to increase the European ATC system's efficiency and reduce operational costs. Although highly unlikely politically, it may one day be possible to integrate the present plethora of individual nations (each responsible for their own ATC) into a single pan-European ATC authority. More realistically, the study suggests that (i) it may be possible to amend some areas of restricted European airspace (particularly military danger areas) to permit aircraft to fly more direct routes; (ii) there is potential for the realignment of some European airways to reduce the excess airways mileage currently being flown; (iii) there is a need for the general introduction of a direct-route system (for aircrah carrying the requisite navigational equipment needed to fly great-circle routes¡; and (iv) there is urgent need for a macro-European flow control management center to manage Europe's complex air traffic flows on a holistic basic (rather than the present somewhat inefficient piecemeal structure). If these measures were introduced. and if poorlyequipped nations were reequipped with the modern sophisticated equipment necessary to control contemporary air traffic efficiently, then (a) many delays would be obviated; (b) many flow restrictions would be unnecessary; and (c) cumulative fuel savings would be dramatic. My thesis (including maps, graphs. etc.), is 296 pages in length: the above is but a bare precis. If anyone wishes to read the complete thesis. copies are lodged in the libraries of The University of London and The London School of Economics: furthermore. a copy should eventually

appear in the British Museum Library. However, anyone experiencing difficulty in obtaining the thesis should in the first instance - contact me. Might I, through the medium of 'The Controller' publicly record my grateful thanks for the help I received from ( 1) the London Air Traffic Control Centre; (2) the Civil Aviation Authority; (3) the many pilots who shared their flightdecks with me and; (4) all the controllers who permitted me to observe and record their work. Finally, I should like to express my very sincere gratitude to Britannia Airways and, in particular, to British Island Airways, for all the assistance that they so kindly gave me.

Contact Lenses Permitted in Air Traffic Control CATCAhas recently been informed that air traffic controllers who meet the visual requirements for Category 1 may now wear contact lenses after a trial period of six months. Dr. I. H. Anderson, Director of Civil Aviation Medicine, sent the following Memorandum dated February 4, 1983, to all Regional Aviation Medical Officers: Medical Standards - Contact Lenses for Category 1 and 2

Since 1977 the Department of National Defense and Transport Canada have conducted studies to evaluate the use of contact lenses in flying and air traffic control operations. The data obtained in both studies indicated that the use of contact lenses for distant vision correction does not constitute a safety hazard. On the basis of our own experience and that of other ICAO member states, the use of contact lenses for distant vision correction has been accepted as being within the medical standards, provided the visual requirements for Category 1 and 2 are met and the refractive error falls within the range of plus or minus 3.5 diopters (equivalent spherical error). An eye specialist's report is required after six month's trial, confirming that the contact lenses are suitably fitted and adequately tolerated. All contact lens wearers are required to have replacement glasses available for immediate use in the event the contact lens(es)become dislodged or are required to be removed in flight. Hard contact lens wearers may be required to have two pairs of glasses available to overcome the frequent phenomenon of spectacle blur. In such cases one pair of glasses should correct the vision immediately following removal of the lens(es). the second pair should correct the vision after the eye is stabilized. Effective immediately.

The Choice of Technology in ATC Radar Part 11 (a) by H. W Cole

A Way out of Confusion Part I of this series aimed at giving to users insight into the issues at stake in choosing transmission techniques for a Terminal Area Radar . The same aim is taken here in relation to the Signal Processing techniques and technology. In thi s realm the technical jargon and mathematical terms are stranger and more numerous than was the case for tran sm ission techniques. Thi s tends to reinforce in the user and his adviser the notion that the issue s are too comp lex for the user to understand At fir st sight, terms suer. as ' Doppler Filt ering ,' 'Time Weighted Coefficients,' ' Filt er Sidelobes,' 'A liasing' seem daunting indeed. The user who is unfamiliar with them need not be put off, for the meaning of such t erms can be expressed in other ways and permit their und erstand ing in terms of the operationa l imp act and effects upon radar performance. Basic Objectives of Signal Processing I believe few in the radar business these days, be they user, procurement authority or designers, need remind ing that th e range of any radar, for 100 % probability of detection, is zero Not nearly zero , but precisely zero! Thi s is because of the nature of the target - it fluctuates in a random manner, somet ime s having extremely high or extremely low va lues of echoing area . Phil osoph ica lly, values range from zero to infinity and de signers are forc ed to use a stat istical mean va lue of echoing area to express the radar range in statistica l terms of probability dete ction. For this imp ortant reason we can state th at the prim e obje ctive in an ATC radar design is to give the user a system which max imi zes the avail ability of wanted signa ls To th is end it mu st have super and sub -clutt er visi-

bility. In the ATC world nowadays the wanted signals are almost exclusively those from aircraft, but with those from weather coming a close second!

Basic Problems The wanted target signal s have to compete with others suc h as a) Noise and Interferen ce b) Ground Clutter c) Weather Clutter d ·Angel· Cl utter The business of the processor designer is to seek differences between wanted and un wa nted sign als and accent uate these to the advantage of the wan ted signal for the user. The first c lass of unwanted signal (Noise and Interferen ce) can be overcome by accent uating the difference between noise, which is random , and the wanted signal which is repe ate d at known times and with an expected amp litude history. Interf erence can be rejected by Pulse Repetit ion Frequency Disc rimin at ion technique i.e

Hen ry William Cole (M arco ni Radar Systems Ltd ) Corpo ra te Me mbers Coordinator

exploiting difference between repetitions of the wanted and un wa nted signals. The other three have amplitude and movement characteristics different fromt the wanted signal Unfortunately these are not totally unambiguous and differing processing techniques have been invented from which the user has to choose. It is the aim of this artic le to assist in understanding factors in this choice

MTl and Doppler Filtering Most readers will be familiar w ith the term Moving Target Ind icator (MTI). To effect MTI it is usual to rely upon the 'coherence' of the radar system (as described in 'The Choice of Technolog y for ATC Rad ars,' Part I, 'The Controller,' 3rd Otr ., 1982 ) and differentiate signals whose phase between successive samples (rep etitions of the radar transmitter) changes very little ('stationary' targets) or changes a lot (mo ving targets). One has to rel y upon phase measurement becau se samples are taken too rapidl y for pure range measurement to be adequate . For example, consider a TAR having a sample rate of 600 per s ( PRF of 600 Hz) and a pulse w idth of 1 . 5 µs. An aircraft tra velling radiall y toward s th e radar at 200 kts would mo ve only about 10 cm between sampl es. The pu lse length repre sents a di stance of about V8 or 740 ft and if range incrementation is even as sma ll as 1/ 32 it is far too coarse for range difference measuremen t bet w een sa mples to be me an ing f ul. The phase measuring system can be likened to a ·vernier ' of range me asuring and can be under stood in a way lead ing to the notion of Doppl er filtering Fig 1 shows the principle of cohe rent phase detection and how it permits f ixed t argets to be canc ell ed and mov ing tar gets to be detec t ed by successive pulse amplitude compar ison. Th e range to a target (or c lut te r) can be exp ressed as a number of integra l ha lf wave lengths plus a fraction . If th e an tenna was stat ion ary and illu min at in g a perm anent echo , e.g. a st ationary t all mast and a m ovi ng aircraft . then the va lue of ni + Oi for th e mast would remain co nst ant from one tr ansmi ssion to the next. However the va lue for the moving aircraft wou ld c hange. A co herent system has an internal ve ry st able oscillat ion wh ich is used as a referen ce for all returned sig nals Compar ison is made between thi s ref erence and input signal s by a phase sensitive dete ct or The refe ren ce os c illat ion is fed into one arm of the de tector and the signals for measure ment s go into the other A typ ical 19

phase detector characteristic is shown in Fig. 1 . Its output varies as a function of the phase difference between reference and input signal. Because of the establishment of coherence. the range continuum can be regarded as made from sets of these characteristics stretching out in space. each completely side by side with no gaps or overlaps. Thus our tall mast would give the same output (magnitude and polarity) from the phase detector at every signal sample (i.e. each transmission). The aircraft illustrated. because of its movement relative to the radar. would give different outputs from the phase detector from sample to sample because successive values of n½ + differ. The detection system only needs the values to be measured in order to tell fixed from moving targets. A salient point emerges from this: The signal phase changes with time result in amplitude changes at the phase detector output. The rate at which the amplitude changes is the target's Doppler frequency. Thus a fixed target exhibits zero Doppler frequency and a moving target. a nonzero value proportional to radial velocity.

tude and polarity because ·n· would change by an integer and ½ remains the same. Thus the aircrah would appear as a fixed target. resulting in its signal being cancelled. Put another way- the Doppler frequency equals the sample rate or PRF. If we plot output versus velocity for a simple 2-pulse cancellation system of regular PRF we see. in Fig. 2. the familiar comb-filter set with zero's at multiples of the PRF. i.e. when the target moves integral numbers of halfwavelengths between samples. These repeated nulls can be removed by successively changing the sample rate. i.e. staggering the PRF. The output versus velocity characteristic now becomes typically as shown in Fig. 3. Radial velocity is directly proportional to the Doppler frequency at a fixed wavelength. thus we can look upon the curve of Fig. 3 as the characteristic of a filter of Doppler frequencies. We see it rejects Doppler frequencies of zero and has a bandwidth. like all pass-band filters. This allows very slow moving targets also to be rejected. Ideally it should have the shape shown dotted so that rejected and acceptance are clearly defined.

Blind Speeds The illustration also shows how 'blind speeds' occur in simple systems. It is possible for the target to move at a speed equal to ~ between samples. At this speed (approximately 1 20 kt for a typical L-band TMA radar) the successive outputs from the phase detector would be of the same ampli-

Tangential Fading The model shown in Fig. 1 also allows understanding of tangential fading. Here the target travels at a tangent to the beam's rotation (i.e. into the page) so that despite its movement there is no change in its radial distance to the radar between samples. i.e. its Doppler frequency



Blind Phases The phase detector characteristic is symmetrical about its mid point. It is thus possible for successive samples to give the same amplitude and polarity of output from the phase detector. Successive comparison would result in cancellation - as for fixed echoes. This effect results from what are called 'blind phases.· It is overcome by having two phases detectors operated simultaneously and making their reference oscillators have a 90 ° (equivalent to ~) phase difference. It will therefore be impossible for both to produce blind phases together and thus the loss is avoided. Reverting to the model in Fig. 1 the system can be likened to two chains of phase detector characteristics in space displaced by one quarter wavelength. Technology Cancellation of permanent echoes (rejection of signals with zero Doppler frequency) is carried out by combining each signal with that obtained exactly one sample period earlier. Modern technology uses digital techniques for this. breaking the sample period into small range increments. each examined in regular sequence using digital shift registers. In earlier systems this sequencial examination was done by using analogue accoustic delay lines of water. mercury or quartz as the delay medium. Fig. 4 shows a basic

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component is zero. as for fixed targets. and hence produces no MTI output. This defect can be overcome as will be seen later.



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block diagram of a digital 4-pulse comparator. i.e. a Triple Cancellation system and its modern version using summing techniques instead of comparators or subtraction circuits. Each pulse input is successively delayed by periods equal to the sample time interval (the transmitter pulse period). Delayed outputs and current video signals are taken to a summing network which does the necessary arithmetic with successive samples to produce a cancelled output. Note that summing network inputs are passed via amplitude controllers C 1 C2 C3 and C4 to ensure maximum cancellation. They can be regarded as setting different coefficients of magnitude to the summing circuits. The detailed mathematical principles behind this may be read in ¡Introduction to Radar Systems.' M. I. Skolnik. 2nd Edition. p. 110. Time Varying Weights (TVW) The technique of TVW eliminates two disturbances to the perfect working of an MTI system with staggered PRF (M.I. Skolnik's !stagger and lscan)The second of these is taken as illustration. being easier to understand. If the radar is operated at a fixed PRF. signal samples into the system from a fixed permanent echo will have an amplitude variation imposed upon them by the curved shape of the antenna beam as it sweeps over them. This results in incomplete cancellation. Repeated summations of successive samples as shown in Fig. 4 improves the cancellation. However. if the PRF is staggered. some samples will be closer together in time and others further apart. dependent upon the stagger ratios. This exaggerates the effect of the antenna beam's modulation and spoils cancellation even more. But since the stagger pattern is known to the system in advance, it is possible automatically to vary the values of the coefficients C 1 C2 C3 and C4 proportionately and so restore cancellation to the level achieved without staggered PRF's. This is the technique of Time Varied Weighting (TVW).

No Stagger

Total MTI




System Response





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Target Doppler Freq.= Radial Vel. Fig. 2

Simple MT! System Response.

Staggered PRF



System Response

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Cancelled output.

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Signals Ref. Phase Sensitive Detector

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Fig. 4

Two types of MT! Cancellers.

4b}- Summation Canceller.

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Cancelled output 21

25th Session of ICAO Legal Committee on: Liability of ATC Agencies A report by WJ. Robertson (SC VII representative of IFATCA)

Since I could not obtain an accurate timetable for the discussions in advance of the meeting. I was required to be in Montreal at the opening of the meeting on April 1 2. Very fortunately the committee decided to address this issue first and I was able to conclude IFATCA's participation on April 13. Conference '83 gave us no policy direction to follow with respect to the liability of ATC agencies or controllers. As a result. I was given a pretty free hand in articulating IFATCA statements on the subject. I drew upon Ted McCluskey's study on Legal Liability of the Controller, W.P. 52/83. and the briefing given to me by Vice-President Professional E.Sermijn while at IFATCA '83. All of these sources were of great assistance in formulating the written comments I put forward. When I introduced these to the Legal Committee I emphasized that they were points for discussion only and that IFATCA wanted to follow very closely the course of development of this subject. I also noted that my written and spoken comments were not 路cast in stone' and that we looked forward to discussion of all ideas. At this point I will turn to comments made by various States during the committee deliberations. During my attendance at the committee sessions there were forty-two States in attendance. The following is a summary of my notes of their remarks: Argentina -Considered the subject to be one of importance to the extent that they had brought with them a draft Convention. The document runs to 29 pages and was presented in Spanish only. The Secretary of the Committee undertook the translation and distribution of same but it was not expected to be received before the end of the meeting. I have yet to receive a copy from the committee secretary. As soon as it is received. I will copy it for SC VIII members. Canada - There is no justification for an international instrument. If any solution at all is required. the Cana-


dian Government favors the drafting of 'model' legislation which each country could adopt (or not) at will. Brazil - Does not believe there is a need for an international solution, however, if it is to be discussed by the committee, Brazil will contribute to discussion. Norway - Felt further study by the secretariat might be of interest but saw no need for a Convention. Sweden - Shared to a large degree. opinion of Canada and Norway. Emphasized that Swedish response to premeeting questionnaire must be carefully interpreted. Stated that a Convention would be superfluous at this time. Favored a study by secretariat to identify problems and recommend possible solutions. Japan - Was of the view that there wasn't sufficient international element to justify an international instrument. Finland - Was against a Convention but willing to listen to opinions. Germany (FR) - Opposes a Convention because there seems to be no hope that it would be adopted. Did favor a thorough analysis of questionnaire replies. Spain - Felt there was no need at this time for a Convention. USA - Opposed a Convention but favored more study. Czechoslovakia - Thought it would be useful to unify all problems of liability. USSR - Favors a Convention and suggests that a subcommittee be convened in next triennium. France - Characterized their position as a 路waiting posture.' They felt that a panel on subcommittee would be the best way to handle this question. Indonesia - Felt that it was premature for a Convention but favored the formation of a subcommittee so that there could be in-depth study. Switzerland - Suggested that a Convention was desirable but not urgent. Two rhetorical questions were also posed as logical by the Swiss delegation: 1) Why should privileges of

the Warsaw Convention apply only to air carriers? and 2) Why shouldn't there be a system of equitable distribution of damages? Senegal - Was skeptical on the need for a Convention based on the low return rate (approximately 30) of the premeeting questionnaire. The Netherlands - Believed that there was not widespread support for a Convention. but felt that the subject deserved more study. Ireland - Saw no need for a Convention at this time but said they were willing to learn. Egypt - Supported position of Canada. Israel - Saw an international element in the question but felt there was no need for a Convention. Mexico - Reported that there is no legislation in that country on liability of ATC agencies and that liability is presently based on fault. Saw great merit in draft Convention. Costa Rica - Did not answer questionnaire due to 路 reasons beyond their control.路 They reported that there is no legislation in Costa Rica covering liability and therefore felt a need for an international instrument and supported those who favor a Convention. Italy- Supported the concept of an international instrument. The chairman offered some views throughout the discussion which might be best summarized as follows: He thought that 'model legislation' was a valid point as an alternative to Convention. Felt that the chances of a widely ratified Convention are small. Opined that it was unfortunate that there wasn't such a thing as a Legal Annex to which differences could be filed. Cautioned that lack of response to the premeeting questionnaire should not be read as lack of a problem. Reminded States that some States cannot respond to questionnaire for a variety of reasons such as insufficient resources or a desire to hear debate before putting comments in writing. I was invited by the chairman to address the meeting and did so in the following manner: Expressed our appreciation for invitation and opportunity to speak. Suggested that I would speak as a practitioner of ATC versus point of view of lawyer, etc. (I made this comment because a large number of States seemed to be addressing the subject as though the only event they were considering were accidents within their own geo-

graphical territorial areas.) I pointed out the NAT, COCESNA (CENAMER), and Eurocontrol situations to illustrate how there was a significant international element everywhere. Pointed out that we represented not only state-employed controllers but also public and private international controllers, as well as a situation I don't believe even they had considered - controllers on ICAO assignments. Proposed that the integral questions that should be resolved at the same time are the studies relating to aerial collisions and the study relating to the authority of the aircraft commander since the authority of the controller and ATC agency will ultimately dovetail into these situations. This comment was made as a result of discussions I had with Capt. A. A. van Wijk of KLM, Chairman of IFALPA's Legal Study Group who had brought this as an IFALPA position. Like the Swiss delegation, I also suggested that if there was a rationale for two air carriers to be covered by the Warsaw Convention in the event of, as an example, an on-board navigation error which resulted in a collision in the NAT OCA. then there must also be a corresponding rationale to have a Convention covering ATC agencies and controllers.

I closed my remarks by stating that we were not irrevocably wed to the idea of a Convention but were pragmatic to finding a solution to problems identified. I also said that we looked forward to working with ICAO on this question and invited them to call on us for any assistance required. Since the subject was not under further consideration¡ until the committee studied the work program, I left Montreal and received a telephone update from the secretary, Dr. Giduani, following the conclusion of the meeting. The legal committee decided as a result of its deliberations: 1. To continue the subject as Item 2 of the work program. 2. Have the secretariat produce an indepth study and consult the States on the need for the formulation of a subcommittee (IFATCA will also be consulted). 3. Following that study to allow the Chairman of the Legal Committee to decide if a subcommittee should be formed. According to Dr. Giduani, the study and consultations will not take place until after the General Assembly scheduled for this September. The Legal Commitree appointed a new chairman at the end of this meeting. He is Dr. Sciola Lagrange from Italy.

Spain During the official inauguration of a new ATC room at Barcelona Airport on 2 March, 1983, Spain's new Director General of Civil Aviation, Pedro Tena, announced details of his department's Four-Year Plan (1983/86). Of the total spending of Pta 85 billion, some Pta 60 billion will go into airport development, Pta 8.66 billion are earmarked for ATC improvements, Pta 13.5 billion will be spent on new navaids, and the remainder is available for training, etc. New runways are to be built at Madrid and Palma de Mallorca. The terminal at Barcelona Airport will be expanded and converted to split-level operation. Ground-toair communications will be improved at the airports of Girona, La Coruiia, Lanzarote, Madrid, Malaga, Melilla, Palma de Mallorca, San Sebastian, Sevilla, Valencia and Zaragoza, while the control towers are to be modernized at Almeria, Asturias, Barcelona, Cordoba, Girona, La Coruiia, Lanzarote, Madrfd-Barajas. Malaga, Melilla, Palma de Mallorca and San Sebastian. New ATC systems will be installed at Madrid, Barcelona and Palma de Mallorca.

Use of Part-time Career Employment in FAA Professional/Technical Occupations


Headquarters FAA has encouraged the field to investigate the use of part-time career employment for augmenting the full-time work force within the agency. FAA's primary interest is use of part-time employment in the professional /technical occupations, particularly the air traffic control occupation. Since there is currently a shortage of experienced air traffic control personnel, FAA believes that use of part-time controllers may be beneficial during the rebuilding process. Specifically, they recommend the following:

The Cuild ofAirTraffic Control Officers The British Guild of Air Traffic Control Officers (GATCO) is holding its fourteenth Convention and associated Exhibition this year in Cambridge, the University City, on 22 and 23 September. It is hoped that as many members as possible from IFATCA will be able to attend. The theme of this year's CONVEX is 'ATC and the Development of Regional Air Services.¡ The number of delegates attending has to be limited to 250, so if you wish to come to Cambridge and join us please register as soon as possible with the Registration Secretary. Mrs. J. Morecroft. 43 Vernons Close, Henham, Bishops Stortford, Herts .. CM22 6AF, United Kingdom.

1 . Rehire, on a part-time basis, retired air traffic controllers to augment the full-time staff. 2. Allow experienced controllers who have reached retirement age to go part-time prior to retirement. This will allow for a transition period for training new personnel and allows the employee to adjust to retirement. 3. To reduce attrition part-time employment should be offered to experienced personnel as an alternative to their leaving the agency for personal reasons. In addition, consideration should be given to exrerienced employees who have left the agency and may wish to return on a part-time basis.


Capacity - The Big Word (Note: The following is the tex t of the speech made by IFATCA ¡s Vice-President Technical , Mr . A. W. F. Hendriks to the 4th European Conference of the International Civil Airpo rt Association, in Basle, on May 78, 7983.)

Long q ueues on t he hig hw ays leading to airp ort s, satur ate d c ar parking lot s, satu rat ed t ermin al buildings. sat urat ed air c raft parking areas. and long que ues of air t raff ic o n the airways fro m the ai rpo rt s. Will this be the futu re or not? Today I wo uld like to go bac k in history a few years and review w ith you the est ablishment of Flow Co ntr o l for air t raff ic . it s cons equence s f or the aircraft op erato rs and the airport autho rit ies. and I FATCA ' s view on future devel opmen t. Years ago a nice ly balan ce d aviation envi ro nment existed. beca use 1. The re was litt le dem and for mu c h capaci ty The airc raft as an effic ient me an of transpo rt ation was n't yet di sc overed by the ge nera I pu bi ic. 2 Traffic flow was pre d ic t abl e Main flow existe d o nly be tween maJor c ities. e.g London -P aris o r Amsterdam -F rankfu rt. etc . 3. ATC compati b ilit y on th ose ro ut es. The ATC system s along t he mo st frequently used ro ut es we re ve ry similar. consist ing of basic fli g ht progr ess boa rds. a te lep ho ne and a telex-line and somet im es left ove r Wor ld War II rada r. 4. Pilot s still acce pted the see-an d-besee n princip le to a great ext en d . Th is was in tho se day s stil l pos sible since the am o unt of tra ffi c was small and the c haracter ist ics of the t ranspo rt airp lanes didn't d iff er much. Th e fa st est tansport may have been a DC-6 do ing 24 0 kt agai nst a DC-3 with 1 4 0 kt . Nowa day s speed ranges from 490 kt for jets t o some th ing like 1 60 kt for an SD-3 Then sudde nly. as if nobody could have fo reseen thi s. air traff ic c han ged in qu it e a few ways In on ly a few years t im e eco nomy boomed. jet t rans por tation beca me com monl y used and . perhap s becau se of t hese fac tor s. both b usinessme n and hol iday trave ller s d isc overed the aircraft in ever inc reasing q uant it ies Regular airl ine c ompanie s. par t ly bec ause of thei r 24

structure . couldn ' t cope with certain areas of this newly developed demand . Charter companies. especially de sign ed to acc omodate the holiday tra vellers. w ere established . Pilots , because of the higher density of air traffic and because of the greater speed differences bet w een aircraft . urged for better protection against other airc raft ; a more stringent ATC environment. Only. nobody fully realized the impact of thi s traffic boom on historically less bu sy part s of the world . Countries offering holiday resorts w ere more than happy to accept the fl ow of touri st s and the acc omp anying mone y but w ere not exactly eager to spend large amount s of money to acco mod ate thi s flo w of traffi c or. like in so m e countri es. d idn ' t have the expe rti se to qui c kly increa se th eir airport and air t raffi c co ntrol ca pac ity Not yet full y recovered from this . t he aviat ion w orld faced a new challenge: hig h density tr aff ic acro ss the Atl anti c Oc ean And w hat will come next? Well . Ladi es and Gentlemen. I'm not a so-ca lled doom-thinker . I remain op timi sti c . but it mu st be c lear to you t ha t th e key-wo rd is capa city. Capacity alon g t he airways . but mo st important to yo u . cap aci ty at th e airp orts.

Fuel Crisis W hat hap pened only a few years ago and m ay st ill happen in some areas of th e w or ld? A irc raft o perators w ishing to fly t o o r t hr o ug h co ngest ed areas simply fil ed a fli g htpl an and too k off . Delay en rou t e was t o no body's liking but was acce pt ed as a fac t t o live w ith ; delay ofte n ca used by t he inabil ity of airports to hand le all t he t raffi c. Palma de M allo rca was an example of thi s. an exa m p le t hat has been cor rected by th e way. But ai rc raft holdin g en rout e also use up a lot of ATC capac ity of w hic h we already have so littl e. The way to inc rease t his ATC capac ity is long and

very. very expensi ve. To give you an idea. The Netherlands last year introduced a new ATC system. It took more than ten years to specify and build and cost several tens of millions of dollars. But now they have a system that is capable of handling huge volumes of traffic. But still delay is encountered in the Amsterdam Flight Inform ation Region. traffic delay inbound Amsterdam Schiphol Airport. not one of the smallest airports in Europe and cer tainly not the worst equipped. This delay how ever is the direct result of scheduled high traffic volumes during very short periods of time. Please note the word scheduled The fuel crisis came followed by tremendous increases in fuel prices. Fuel con servation became a big topic. No more ju st taking-off and as little as delay as po ssible en route. Operator s now w ant to be sure they can reach th eir destin ations undisturbed. You ca n say that parts of the world are now fac ed with almo st sc hedul ed del ays becau se aircraft operator s all w ant to use the existing capa c ity at the same time . The delay is now absorbed on the ground w hile waiting for th e allo cated slottime. Thi s in itse lf causes oth er problem s: gat es at d eparture airport won't come vac ant for oft en long periods The w hol e airport gat e planning goe s astr ay . M ea nwhile. the amount of money spent by ATC to coordinat e th ese fli g ht s o n a n ad hoe base. and the worklo ad invo lved is trem endou s . Tim e has com e to st art using our ca pac ity more efficiently throu g h better fli g ht sc hedul e coordination or . if we wa nt to prevent th is from happ ening. inc rease yo ur c apac ity No indi cati on has yet been give n as t o w hi c h road sho uld be fo llowe d prec isely I FATCA feels it sho uld be a co mbi nat ion of both Wh ere AT C syste m s. and wi th thi s I also m ea n airway stru ctur e. elimin ati o n of as mu c h rest rict ed airspace as po ssib le. a ca pable ATC co m puter syst em , ATC radar syst em and not in t he last place suffi c ient qu alifi ed air tr affi c co nt rollers. are not co mp atib le w it h syst em s

Continues on page 32

The 38th Annual Conference of IFALPA Report by A. W F. Hendriks

The 58th Conference of IFALPA. originally intended to be held in Caracas Venezuela but diverted to Dublin because of withdrawal of financial support by the Venezuelan Government. was this year held from 15-20 April. This year. IFATCA's Executive Board. in an atempt to reestablish close contacts with I FALPA' s Board of Principal Officers. was represented by its Vice-President Technical. Lex Hendriks. The assignment was threefold: attend as many of the working sessions of Committee D (technical) as possible; assess the principle of having Plenary Sessions in between Working Sessions; and. most important. make contact with the Principal Officers

and it is the responsibility pilot to:

of the

reprogram his navigational equipment as far as possible; Check his forward estimate for MNPS airspace entry and. where necessary. notify ATC of any significant change; ensure that the revised route through MNPS airspace and its associated non-MNPS airspace routing are fully understood. If any doubt exists details should be confirmed with ATC.'

Visual Clearances

At Conference a POL-STAT from 1975 was reviewed. which stated: 'The objective of the Federation is the complete elimination of VMC clearCommittee D ances to I FR flights. Pending such. the The agenda for ~o_mmittee D following policy applies: IFALPA pilots (chairman Capt. C~nst1an Denk_e) members should not initiate a request consisted of over 20 items. categorizto fly any flight or any part of a flight ed under 4 main headings: (e.g. climb or descent) under a VMC - Rules of the air/ Air Traffic Control, clearance.· Communications. After a lengthy discussion as to Meteorology and whether or not this should be deleted Regional. completely a new policy was drafted: 'The Federation maintains that ATC RAC/ ATC dealt. among other systems should evolve so as to prothings with: gressively reduce the number of occasions where clearances to fly Longitudinal Separation maintaining own separation while in Three existing policies were deletVMC render an operational advaned since these are now covered by tage· ICAO documents. As far as visual approaches are concerned. IFALPA's policy is now: Minimum Navigation Performance 'When so requested by the aircraft I FR Specifications flights may be cleared to execute Under 'Operational procedures/ visual approaches provided the pilot Clearances which differ from the filed can maintain visual reference to sigflightplan' the following policy was nificant geographical features and adopted: if the reported ceiling is not below 'If ATC issues a clearance or rethe approved initial approach level clearance for a flight through MNPS for the aircraft so cleared; or airspace which differs from th~- filed if he reports at the initial approach flight plan. it is the respons1bil1ty of level or at any time during the ATC to: instrument approach and he has ensure that any necessary consereasonable assurance that the quential route changes which are landing can be accomplished; applicable in non-MNPS aI_rspace at night. has the aerodrome lights are coordinated and so not1f1ed to in sight.' the pilot;

Radiotelephony Cal/signs for Aircraft A paper was presented proposing the upgrading of the current Draft Policy to POL-STAT status. since the subject (alpha-numeric callsigns) was believed to be sufficiently mature. A joint effort by Capt. Sansalone and our IFATCA representative to let the matter rest for the time being was successful. One will now await the trial at present being conducted in South Africa. Other 'D' items included OFIS - FIR boundary times - ICA System of Vertical Separation. Topics from other Committees were. among others (co)pilot training. single pilot operations technical requirements for 2-pilot operations. accident investigations. MLS and longrange operation of twin-engine aircraft. The system of having Plenary Sessions in between Working Sessions has certain advantages. Controversial items can be discussed in Plenary where the decision can be made to refer it to committee under certain guidelines. Under our own system. this would mean the loss of another year. Another advantage is the short time needed for Closing Plenary. since most papers have already been passed in other Plenary Sessions. During Closing Plenary. where traditionally no speeches from observers are accepted. an exception was made for IFATCA's representative. He said: 'On behalf of the President of IFATCA I would like to congratulate you on the successful completion of your 38th Annual Conference and express my deep appreciation for making me feel so welcome to this Conference. 'As some of you may know. IFATCA finished its own Annual Conference only 3 weeks ago and 1• m very pleased to note the great similarity between many of the Policies adopted here and at our Conference. 'This has convinced me even more that a coordinated or even common approach by IFALPA and IFATCA to problems facing the aviation world would be ideal. We also however realize that the relationship between our two Federations has been less than optimal in recent years, for whatever reasons there may have been. ·And it is with this specific task that the Executive Board of IFATCA has sent me. as its Vice-President Techni

Contmues on page 32


Introducing IFATCA's Corporate Members

IKOSS GMBH is a software house as well as an engineering company. The company's main business is the realization of basis and researchoriented data applications utilizing the latest data-processing techniques. thus providing profitable software applications for the market. Based on this realization. IKOSS has entered into cooperative projects with private and official research-anddevelopment institutions. The result of these combined efforts are tested as to their marketing potential and are. whenever prospects are promising. offered on the market as standardized software products. IKOSS is therefore able to offer its customers standardized softwaresystems based on the latest technology as well as engineering services. Listed below are some fields in which IKOSS has developed particular expertise. Software Engineering IKOSS interprets ·software Engineering· as being the development of software systems with complete acceptance of responsibility for planning. development and installation. Geometric Data Processing Production. storage. processing and representation of geometryoriented data of technical objects to be produced for computer-aided manufacturing of production plans (drawings. work schedules. parts'lists. geometrical and technical calculations). EDP-supported Maintenance Failure and damage analysis of components in industrial plants; control of spare parts; maintenance strategies derived from damage statistics. Real Time Systems Consulting (design-and-requirement documents) for the realization of process computers. hard and soft26

(IKOSS) IKO Sofrware Service GmbH

ware specification. realization of depot administration and control systems (high-shelf warehouse system. order picking system. distribution center of goods). special working data acquisition. automation of large-scale photographic laboratories. communication technique (control of photocomposing machines). agency systems for newspapers and publishers. computer coupling. Process Control Measuring. monitoring. controlling. regulating technical processes and technical plants (e.g. warehouse system control. test data processing for hospital laboratory equipment. automation of photo-laboratory ·systems). Engineering Applications Another goal set by IKOSS is to apply the latest engineering know-how. combined with efficient computer technique. for the solution of technical problems. In the center of this endeavour IKOSS sees the engineering tasks to be solved with the help of the company-developed software packages. Structural Analysis The I KOSS engineers are using software systems (ASKA. IST-TOPAS) for the computer-aided solving of complex structure problems. The systems are based on the Finite Element Method. ASKA is a universal concept used for calculation of design and development problems within all techni·cal fields. ASKA has a worldwide reputation as a standardized software system. Special meshgenerators(e.g. Femgen. Fenger) and graphic programs for result demonstration (Femview) are introduced in order to reduce costs and increase operator comfort. Fluid-Flow


Fluid-mechanic. pyrometric and chemical processes are described and solved numerically with the programsystem Phoenics (Finite difference method).

The essential applications are within the fields of • flow mechanics external aero-dynamics (e.g. flow around and through a vehicle body). flows in pipes • heat transfer cooling systems. steam generator. heat exchanger • combustion internal-combustion engine. chemical reaction in flows • mathematically analogous processes electrostatics. magnetohydrodynamics. Simulation of Mechanisms (Disko) The program system Disko is used for computer-aided simulation and optimization of mechanisms in machines with controlled operation. Disko is. i.e. successfully applied for the technique of cam driven linkages and is aimed at increasing the efficiency and reducing the noise level in tolerance analysis and peripheral computation. Training Training courses and workshops are part of the IKOSS activities. The seminar participants are divided into small groups and familiarized with the IKOSS software systems and their application. Integrated Hardware and Software Systems IKOSS incorporates its extensive user know-how and its vast hardware experience into turnkey systems; on customer's request the company will act as general contractor. From a neutral position IKOSS is offering man ufactu rer-i ndependent support in system configuration as well as in the preparation and execution of benchmark tests. With its technical. standardized software packages IKOSS provides CAD-working places on mini computers including graphical peripherals.

The A320the 1 50 Seater of the Future

The A320 will be a 'wide' single aisle twin allowing a variety of seating options: four-abreast 'super¡ first class. five-abreast domestic first class or international super business class and six-abreast economy class. In all cases the seats will be wider and more comfortable than those of any similar aircraft because of the extra wide fuselage. In a typical mixed-class configuration the A320 will carry 14 7 passengers with 15 seats five abreast with 36 in pitch in business class and 132 six abreast with 32 in pitch in economy. Alternative layouts are 155 seats with 63 six abreast at 34 in pitch in business class and 92 at 39 in pitch in economy or 158 in a single cla_ss 32 in pitch configuration. In high density layouts. the A320 will accommodate up to 179 passengers. The all-new A320 design meets both present and future passenger and frei9ht requirements. The fuselage cross section is significantly wider than those of existing narrow-body aircraft: 155.5 in/3.95 m which is 7. 5 in/ 19 cm wider than the narrow bodies most widely used today. As a result wider - 62 in/ 1.575 m - triple seats of a new design can be fitted to provide more passenger comfort. Alternatively with standard 59. 5 in/ 1 .51_m triple seats. the aircraft has a 2_4 in/ 0. 61 m-wide aisle. allowing the service trolley to pass a passenger and enabling faster turnrounds since boarding and leaving the aircraft can be done more quickly. Fiveabreast business class seating would provide a similar standard of comfort to that offered as first class on DC-9s and B767s. The wider aisle will mean quicker turnrounds: 2 5 minutes for main bases an_d1 5 minutes for through stops. The 25-minute turnround compared to 30 minutes for standard single aisle aircraft c_antypically provide a five percent increase In uti11zat1on for a ten aircraft fleet averaging one hour flights. with consequent operating cost advantages. The 1 .84 cu ft overhead stowage space per seat is greater than that available on similarly sized existing aircraft and provides unrivalled carry-on luggage space. Improved seat design and positioning of the seat rails provides the same amount of usable space under the seats. The double-bubble form fuselage cross section is 1 63 in/ 4. 14 m deep providing increased freight volume and working height as well as the ability to carry containers derived from the standard 1nterl1ne LD3 containers. As the base of these new containers is the same as that of the LD3. all existing wide body aircraft and ground handling equipment can. accept them without modification allowing them to be

Airbus lndustrie A320


handled and interlined just like standard LD3s. Thus Airbus lndustrie's successful formula of interline cargo compatibility will be extended to another sector of the market.

Continued Technological Advance The A320 has an overall fuselage length of 120 ft 1 in/36.83 m and a span of 111 ft 3 in/33.91 m. The wing design continues the Airbus philosophy of small. highly loaded wings. offering high structural integrity with a considerable weight reduction compared to conventional designs. The result is a highly efficient wing whose weight savings benefit the aircraft in all phases of flight. At lower altitudes the small area keeps drag to a minimum while

at higher altitudes the advanced design as evidenced on the A3 10 - gives a better load distribution resulting in cruise characteristics equivalent to those of a larger wing. Featuring an even more advanced version of the one generation ahead Airbus flight deck. the A320 will be certificated for two-man crew operation and category 3b all-weather landings. Elevators. horizontal stabilizer. ailerons. roll spoilers. all trimming controls plus slats and flaps will be fly-by-wire. There will be extensive use of carbon and Kevlar composites in primary structure and controls where sufficient damage tolerance is maintained. notably tailplane and fin. as well as in secondary structure and controls.

A320 Fact Sheet Wing span overall Length overall Height overall Fuselage diameter Cabin width Maximum takeoff weight Maximum landing weight Maximum zero fuel weight Maximum fuel capacity

Operating weight empty Maximum structural payload Seating. all economy 32 in pitch First class layout Economy layout Passenger and baggage payload Cargo payload Hold capacity forward Hold capacity aft Hold capacity total Container capacity Range ( 1 58 passengers) First delivery

111 ft 3 in/33.91 m 120 ft 10 in/36.83 m 38 ft 8 in/11.79 m 155.5 in/3.95 m 146 in/3.72 m 64.000 kg/ 141.100 lb 59.500 kg/131.175 lb 55.800 kg/ 123.020 lb 15.9061 12,720 kg 4.202 USg 28.034 lb 36.527 kg/80.527 lb 19.273 kg/ 42.493 lb 158 4abreast. 28.5 in/72 39 cm seat width 6 abreast. 20.6 in/52.32 cm seat width 14.333 kg/31.600 lb 4.940 kg/ 10.893 lb 14.07 m 3 /497 ft 3 24.30 m 3 /858 ft 3 38.37 m 3 / 1.355 ft 3 7 LD3 base containers 1.800 NM/3.340 km early 1988


NCA and SAM Regional Meeting by A. W F. Hendriks

A joint Regional Meeting NCA and SAM was held in Mexico City, J anuary 24-26, 1983. Although the intention was to include the CAR-Region in th is meeting, communica tion problems prevented this from happening. Member Associations from the fol lowing countries w ere pr esent : from the NCA- Region Canada, Costa Rica, Honduras, Me xico and Nicarag ua. from the SAM -Region: Peru and Venezuela. Further attendance showed associa t ions from Honduras (a seco nd associa tion), Panama and El Salv ador , the last two showing act ive interest f o r aff iliation with IFATCA, plus rep resentation from the Mex ica n Pilot association The Executive Bo ard was represented by President Harri H . Henschler and Vice- President tec hni ca l Al ex W.F. Hend riks. After introductary speeches by Mr. Carlos Olmos Mendoza (RV P NCA). and President Hensc hl er, th e Meeting was formal ly opene d by Sr. Ing. Carlos M oran Mogu el, the Director Gener al of Aeronautica Civil. After the start of the Work ing Sessions, Carlos Olmos was elected Chairman, while Mr. M o rales (Venezuela) was elected Secretary. After the elect ions a one minute silence was held 1n memor ial of Ted Bradshaw. The agenda co nsisted of it ems such as:

Repo rts of RVPs, Parti cipat ion of MA s in IFATCA, Regiona l Orga nization , Te chn ica l Problem s w ithin the Federation Trai ning , Engli sh Langu age, Profes sional probl ems wi thin the Federat ion , Acceptance of ILO Conclusions of Experts on ATC, IATA Reso luti on 200, Upd ate on Brazil .

Reports of RVPs

Mr . M ario Salazar(RVP SAM) gave a brief rundo wn on his visits to countries in his Region and subsequently read his extens ive Annual Report. An ext rac t of this was presented in Eng lish at the 1 983 Conference. A me ssage from Brazil was rece ived report ing the possible estab lishmen t of a new assoc iation based in Rio. Controllers from Brasilia (the cap ital) are in agreement w it h this move sinc e it w ill c ut down many formalities now encountered. The new associa tion asked for ways to (re )aff iliate in IFATCA. Mr Carlos Olmos (RVP NCA) repo rt ed on his region. Emphasis was placed on internat ional econom ic prob lems, w hic h affect thi s region in part ic ular. The recess ion is fa r wo rse than anyo ne wo uld believe at fir st sight. Control lers are doing their utmost to co ntinu e offe ring good ser-

vices to the airlines. Often , howe ver , co ntrollers simply cannot afford to be controllers any longer and are forced to move to other professions where salarie s are better . CATCA's President, Bill Robertson offered to provide the Meeting with further information on the US-situati on . A new assoc iation has been formed, called USATCO, with basica lly the same Exec uti ve as PATCO. At the moment USATCO has so me 2500 membe rs, most of them former contr ollers. Active controllers would be allowed to join but the FAA has wa rned them the y wo uld be fired if doing so . Rehirement of controllers will depend on the outcome of appeal cases. Canada expressed concern th at the Canadian government w ill completely abolish the bargaining rights of the union s, including CATCA's . The remainder of the Meeting can best be summarized with two questions that were raised : Should the Latin American associations form a separate block within IFATCA since their problems are closely related (language , training, politics)? Basic in the discussion was the language problem. A great maj ority of Latin American control lers don't speak Engli sh and are, as a result, less familiar with the operations of IFATCA. Agreement was reached to tran slate the Manual . Circulars and (if possible) Conference Working Papers. Further agreement was reached that ALL controllers should be taught Engli sh, but for this training programs should be set up . Wh at can IFATCA do to provide bett er tr aining in Latin America? In Nicaragua th e government is plac ing mor e emphasis on pilot training th an o n co ntr o ller-training Peru has an ACC in use since 197 3 but still has no properly qu alifi ed instructor s. Costa Rica on the other han d has instr ucto rs but no eq uipm ent th at

Continues on page 32


General Aviation Safety Panel Reports

Under the chairmanship of John W. Olcott. Editor and Associate Publisher of 'Business and Commercial Aviation· magazine. a panel of 13 representatives from the aviation community met several times since last year to consider ways by which the FAA could increase its positive influence on general aviation safety. The panel's efforts were in response to FAA Administrator Helms· challenge to the aviation community to take a more active role in issues concerning the FAA and the agency's response to aviation problems. The panel concentrated on four areas: Weather. Training. Crash Worthiness. and Dissemination of Safety Information. Weather is a cause or factor in about 40 percent of fatal accidents within general aviation. with low ceilings and 'pilot continued VFR flight into adverse weather conditions· cited most frequently as causal factors. Analyzing NTSB data. 60 percent of the fatal accidents occurred where the pilot continued VFR into adverse weather where ceilings were 1OOO_ ft or le~s. The panel said that the failure _or inability to follow IFR procedures in the presence of adverse weather was present in 95 percent of the fatal accidents. Further. although only 5 to 10 percent of VFR flying by general aviation pilots occurs at night. over 50 percent of the accidents occurre~ at night. The panel concluded that pilots should be encouraged to avoid marginal VFR conditions (ceilings 1OOOft or below and visibility 3 miles or less). and pilots should also be encouraged to obtain an instrur:ient rating and use it whenever marginal VFR or lower conditions exist. The panel recommended that for fixed-wing aircraft 'the weather minima for all airspace. controlled or uncontrolled. at night be standardiz~~ . _at the requirements for ceiling. v1s1bil1ty.and distance from clouds that presently exist for controlled airspace.· The rules for special VFR would remain unchanged. Also. a recommendation was made for the FAA to ·accelerate the dissemination of weather information. particularly real-time weather

data. to pilots for preflight planning and en route decision-making.' In addressing the issue of training. the panel said the available evidence presents a very strong case in favor of recurrent training on a regular basis. The Biennial Flight Review (BFR) actually is more a checkride than recurrent training. and the available evidence strongly favors training as opposed to testing. Comparing the relationship between the accident record of various segments of the aviation community and recurrent training showed that the pilot who flies principally for pleasure has the highest rate of fatal accidents per 100.000 flight hours; and recurrent training is an infrequent event for this group of pilots. Most rely only on the BFR to refresh their skills. The panel recommended 'that FAA endorse a program of yearly recurrent training.· and proposed 'two hours of dual instruction to all pilots. regardless of total flight experience or yearly flying time: and would replace the requirement for a BFR.' An alternate recommendation offered by the AOPA panel member. and supported by EAA and the AOPA Safety Foundation. would allow the two hours of training each year to substitute for a BFR. The panel also recommended that the FAA develop long range programs for elevating the teaching skills and accountability of certified flight instructors and suggested a program for holding CFls more accountable for the success or failure of their students. This would include a means for identifying CFls who had given training to pilots involved in an accident. In regard to ·crashworthiness.' the panel concluded that the time had come for a strong management effort on the part of FAA to join with industry for the purpose of collecting and disseminating available data on crashworthiness and to define whatever additional research and data collection are needed to produce effective design criteria for improved crash survivability. Among the recommendations offered by the panel were that all Part 23 aircraft should have shoulder harnesses installed and the

creation of a joint FAA/ NASA office for the purpose of accelerating the generation of design data that can be used by general aviation manufacturers to improve crash survivability. As to dissemination of safety data. the panel said that it is in the best interests of everyone involved in general aviation to promote safe operating practices. including the effective flow of information that affects safety. In spite of the infrastructure within the aviation community that exists for feedback and transmission of safety data. the panel (which was constituted to represent the major elements of the feedback system) perceives a need for a forum for facilitating the dissemination of safety data; particularly data related to the operational characteristics of aircraft. The creation and functioning of such a forum. however. lies outside the FAA. and the panel suggested a meeting of interested parties under the umbrella of the current General Aviation Safety Panel to explore the issue. The panel recommended that the FAA accelerate its efforts to inform the aviation community of the advantage of participating in the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) and the Service Difficulty and Reporting System (SDRS). They also recommended an additional meeting of the panel with key representatives of the aviation insurance underwriters and suppliers of general aviation products to discuss the issue of the transfer of relevant safety data on a timely basis. In addition to Chairman John W. Olcott. members of the General Aviation Safety Panel included: James N. Baker. Pres.. Baker Flying Service Max E. Bleck. Pres. & CEO. Piper Aircraft Corporation John V. Brennan. Pres. & COO. U.S Aviation Underwriters. Inc. Richard L. Collins. Editor. 'Flying· magazine John H. Enders. Pres.. Flight Safety Foundation. Inc. Donald E. Francke. Air Traffic Control Association. Inc. John J. Sheehan. Planning Officer. Technical Policy & Plans. AOPA Preston Parish. Vice Chairman. The Upjohn Company. (Chairman. NBAA Safety & Awards Committee) Paul Poberezny. Pres.. Experimental Aircraft Association. Inc. Archie Trammell. Exec. V.P .. AOPA Air Safety Foundation A.L. Ueltschi. Pres. & Chairman. Flight Safety International. Inc. Dr. Richard McFarland. Avionics Engineering Center. Ohio Un,v - from A TCA Bullettn


T he CATCA Convention M ay 1983 by B. Grezet. Treasurer IFA TCA

CATCA' s bienn ial Con vent ion , held in Ottawa May 24 t h-27th , 1983 was attended by almost 1 00 vot ing delegates, the CATCA Nation al Executive, Regiona l Directors , ob servers from USSR (CAW U), Au st ralia, as w ell as IFATCA's President. CATCA's President's welcome t o the dele gate s was followed by explana t ion s o n the revised proport io nal vot ing procedures, and acceptance of the var ious office rs¡ and St andin g Committees¡ reports. The Sec reta ryTreasure r, E. St apl es, then read the roll call of the de leg ates, asked fo r appointment of t he audit o rs and for the setting of t heir rem unera ti o n f or the coming year. Del iberations start ed right aft er t hi s standa rd agen da item on thi s Tu esda y afternoon with by-law amendmen ts. Directed by a ve ry eff ica c ious Chairman, assisted by a very helpf ul leg al counse l, th e assembl y onl y acce pt ed minor by-law c hanges. The po lic ies were the main top ic of d isc ussio ns, most of the pro posa ls dea lin g w ith finances on a cost sav in g basis . (On e third of the total CAT CA 's bud get is fo r salaries, 1 0 percent is al located t o the branches as reb ates. and ano th er 10 percent is being used for leg al purposes.) Convention o rganizat io n , executive's meetings, bra nch reba t es, unit visits, collec t ive barga inin g, retirement benefi t s and the set ti ng of

sub scr ipti o ns for t he next time period w ere disc ussed , some of t hese in closed sessions exluding by t his proce du re all o bservers. Coo perati on wi th IFATCA w ill probab ly be most helpful o n a study to be made co ncerni ng t he inc orp orat ion of ATC services in a Crown Corpo rati on, or private ent erpr ise. A report on th is matt er is to be made to the next Convent ion , w hich wi ll be held in Gander (no doubt t here w ill be muc h ' screec hing ,' w hich is t he ' nat io nal' drink of New found land , at th at t ime.) Awa rds w ere given during the President' s Lunc heo n : Awa rd of honor t o R.D . Scott and W / 0 A. Collins of Otta wa for th e high profe ssionalism show n w hen assum ing contro l of an aircr aft wi t h non -func t ioning alti mete r unt il it s land ing ; award of me rit to J .M . Living ston , past CATCA President , for outst and ing services t o th e assoc iat ion on various matters . There wa s. on t he last day, no real comp etition for the electio ns of the Nati on al Exec uti ve, Mr . J .C. Butt being elected as president , R.A . M arc hand as Vic e-President Adminis t ration . and R.W . Randa ll as Vice- Presiden t Tec hnica l, M r. J.C. Butt and M r. R.W Randall had been elected by acc lam at ion , th e othe r candid ate for Vi c e- President Tec hni ca l withd rawi ng befor e the Convent ion . It is my feelin g in con c lusion th at th e oppo rtunit y sho uld be given to eve rybody to att end such a Conventi o n , it g ives t he observers an insight into CATCA proce dur es and operati ons and a bette r understanding w hat input CATCA can have in IFATCA fo r th e benefit of all contro llers.


IFATCA since rely regre t s to rep ort the very unt imely death , early Au g ust, of a great fr iend of Contr ollers, th at of Mr . Ric hard W est on . Ric hard wi ll alway s be remembere d for his dedicat io n to aviat ion safety . His co ncern fo r th e ATC pro fession and th e lega l st at us of th e co ntr o ller are wel l known and app reci ated. Ric hard 's ideals w ill co nti nue t o be w ith us. W e ext end our deepes t and mo st since re sympathy t o his wi fe Helen and his fami ly .

Morocco M ore deta ils have becom e ava ilab le on SNAM -Progett i' s co ntr act for t he new Agadir airpor t . The Mil anbased con sultan cy bra nc h of t he ENI gro up w ill be respo nsible for deta iled plan ning and co nst ruct io n supe rvision . The airpor t wi ll have a single runway capa ble of han dlin g B7 4 7 s and a te rm ina l fo r 3 milli o n passe ngers per year. Toget her w ith all infr ast ruct ure developments req uir ed , the new airpo rt is expecte d t o cos t m ore t han $ 100 mil lio n .

New Prize for Man-Powered Aircraft

(From left to right) B. Grezet, J. Butt and H. H. H enschler.


M r. Henry Kremer w ho has provid ed a number of subst anti al ca sh prizes in the past to encourage th e deve lopment of man-powered airc raft , cu lmin at ing in the spectacu lar c rossing of the Eng lish Channe l in Ju ne 1979 by th e Gossamer A lbat ross peda lled by Bryan A llen, is to pro vide a new prize for a speed competition . This compet iti on w ill be adm ini stered by th e Roya l Aeronauti ca l Soc iety Mr . Kremer pre sent ed a c heque fo r th e prize to th e Soc iety at it s Lon don headqu arte rs at a spec ial press brief ing on 2 6th A pril .

Book Review Biplanes

by Michael F. Jerram

This eye-widening volume recalls all the glories - the Spads and Fokkers and Scouts. Experimental of the Great War ; the Flying Barrels . Moths and Dragons. and the contender for 'the most beautiful biplane in the world' (the Super Fury). of 'twee n-war years; right up to those still in production today : the Schweizer AgCat and the build -it-yourself Whing Ding. The whole story is set out and devel-

aped with textbook acc uracy tempered with nostalgia. A Portfolio of Bipl anes to conclude; with gems like the Farman Goliath . the Vickers Vimy. and the one you could get in your garage. Sitt' s Sky Baby (with a 7' 2" wingspanl). Book size: 12"X9 ¼". 192 p.; 40 illustrations in color; 1 50 in black-andwhite. Published by Michael Joseph at £9 .95

Lockheed Aircraft since 1913


reader s w ill recall. arose in the mid-se ventie s w hen French speaking controllers and pilots used French and English as the official aviation languages. The book provides information on th e opinions held by the opposing parties during the conflict. In their sales promotion public ity the publishers quote personalities· comments. J im Livingston. former President of the Canadian Association is quoted as saying: ' Deserving of the highe st pra ise . this book wi ll help the public to better understand the rather traumatic event s of the summe r of ·75_· Th e book is publi shed by M c GillOueen·s Un iversit y Press in a small c lot h edition mainly for the librar y market and a quality paperback w hich dif fers only in the binding . Price . $30.00 for cloth and $1 2 .95 for paper.


All the aircraft ever built by Lockheed . from the first float plane to some still under secu rity w raps! It so unds a tal l order. but Rene J. Francillon . author of 'Mc Donnell Dougla s Aircraft since 1920' . has pulled it off . His book traces development from the original Laughead brothers . through success ive companies. up to the reorganization of the present Lockheed corporation in 197 7 . The main section. howeve r (the details true buffs wi ll drool over) gives descriptions of all the aircraft designed and built ; from the first Laughe ad Model G up to the high performance machines of today. De-

sign . development and service histories of no less than 53 types in great detail . The sing le-engine tr anspo rts - the Vega. Air Express and Orion ; the Electra and Super Electr a and Lod estar ; the Conste llat ion family ; the prope llor-turbine Elec tr a and the Trista r. The Lockheed military family the P-38 . the Neptune. Starfire. Starfighter. Galaxy. Hercu les and Viking. And . as far as sec urity allows. the U-2 series and the alm ost unbelievable SR-71 . Appendices on Selected Projects. Production Details and Constru ctor · s Numbers. Publi shed by Putn am at £20 .00

The Language of the Skies: by Sandfo rd F. Banns The Bilingual Air Traffic Control Conflict in Canada Thi s book is one of a series of books spon sored by the Institut e of Public Ad ministration of Canada as part of its con stitutional commitment to encourage research on contemporary issues in Canad ian public admin istrat ion and public policy . Th e author was born in Toronto and educated at Harvard Un iversity He has

been a consultant for many go vernm ent agencie s in Canada and he is now associ ate Professor of Business and Public Pol icy in the Fac ulty of Admini strati ve St udi es at York Un iversity Professor Bori ns in his boo k chron ic les one of the most bitter crises in Frenc hEnglish relatio ns in Canad a particu larly in th e ATC. The co nfl ict . 'The Contr oller'

by Kenneth Owen

Told large ly in t he words of the desi gne rs and eng inee rs. the pilot s and manage rs invo lved . this book is an exciting attem pt to exp lain the technoloy of the wor ld 's most beaut iful aeroplane . For the first time in the whole twent y-year. two nation proje ct it reveal s the true techn ical chal lenge ; shows w hat was planned and wha t happened . what the 'd evelopment · of an adva nce d ae rop lane really means . and the imp licat ions of supersonics It's no supe rficia l account of Con co rde ' s genesis and produ ct ion . rather the fas ci nating fee ling of what It was like to parti cipate in this great adventu re Book size · 9 ¼ "X6" . 240 p 50 illus trations . Published by Jane s at £ 10 00 31


from page 24

in surrounding countries. or where airport facilities don't meet demand. priority should be given to upgrade these. But even in areas where highly sophisticated ATC systems and good airport facilities exist saturation can occur. Th_enaircraft operators should be forced to review their schedules. From the passengers· point of view it would be much better to know you have a two or even three hours stopover between two different flights. time that can be used to visit tax-free shops or mail a postcard. than to have a scheduled stopover of half an hour. half an hour that is taken up by traffic delay and followed by a subsequent missed connection_ To summarize my speech. Ladies and Gentlemen: 1. Air Traffic Control systems should be compatible with neighbouring systems and have good capacity; 2. Airports should have sufficient capacity for a little more than average traffic demand. Even if you have a modern and high capacity ATC system. if this system has to feed large amounts of traffic into outdated airports you would still have traffic delays; 3. If there is sufficient capacity in both for normal operations then peak traffic congestion should be avoided through airline flight schedule coordination. Only then will we prevent totally congested airports and airways. only then will we make optimum use of the facilities we have for reasonable prices.


cal. to your Conference; to offer you friendship and if needed support. 'IFATCA strongly believes that a united approach could bring early and expeditious solutions to our problems. IFALPA is a strong Federation. IFATCA is equally strong. also representing 63 countries at present. 'Together. as the two parties that use the airspace. we can be the very strong voice of the professionals. both pilots and controllers. that must and will be heard. 'Mister President. Principal Officers. consider this as an open offer from our Federation. on which we hope to receive an early answer. 'However. it can only be successful when there is no distrust from either side. only when we accept and respect each other's position. 'Mister President. I hope I may use this opportunity to thank Capt. Philipo Sansalone. who was so rightfully honored with an award last night. and Mr. Vic King; two persons with whom IFATCA has maintained such an extremely good relationship. ·we· re sorry to see them go and we hope their successors Capt. Christian Denke and Capt. Terry Payne will continue this special tie with IFATCA. Final agenda item. the elections. brought the following results: President Captain R.F. Tweedy Dep. Pres. Captain J. LeRoy PrVP Adm. & Fin. Captain 0. Lagerhus PrVP Gen. Aft. Captain B. D'Alba PrVP Memb. & Reg. Captain A. Palma PrVP Repr. Captain R. Smith


"CONVENTION 84" 4-10 NOVEMBER 1984 SURFERS PARADISE GOlD COAST, AUSTRALIA The Civil Air Operations Officers· Association of Australia (CAOOAA) will hold its third Biennial Convention from Sunday. November 4 until Saturday. November 10. 1 984. at the Chevron Paradise Hotel. Surfers· Paradise. Queensland. CAOOAA. the Australian ATC Association. a professional and industrial organization representing also the interests of air safety inspectors and flying operations officers within the Department of Aviation. would like to


from page 25


from page 28

can be used for training purposes. New radar is installed but since no training is available this radar isn't used. Panama now has its own training center but trains only VFR-controllers. The FAA is now assisting with an 8-month course for VFR / I FR controllers. In Honduras anyone with at least high school can become a VFRcontroller after one month of training. Honduras is requesting help from SC IV to set up a training program. Venezuela has a good training facility under supervision of the FAA. Venezuela offered Honduras 3 scholarships. El Salvador has 3 ATS-units (one government owned. two private). Training is partly done in Argentina. IFATCA was asked to provide instructors for El Salvador and to help to unify both groups of controllers. Canada stressed that MAs should encourage their authorities to contact the Canadian Government in order to try to obtain scholarships. which are negotiable. So far the Working Sessions. Throughout the meeting the Mexican Authorities showed great interest in the progress of the Meeting. The organization of this Fifth Regional Meeting by the Mexican Association and RVPs was excellent. The best description of the Meeting can be given as follows: ·very interesting discussions and great hospitality.·

extend an invitation to all readers of 'The Controller· to come to Surfers· Paradise in 1984. The Third Biennial Convention will have the theme 'Economy In Aviation· and a number of distinguished speakers from Australian and international aviation organizations have been invited to address the Convention. In addition. working sessions will be encouraged to exchange ideas between pilots. controllers and management at all levels. A trade exhibition and input from equipment manufacturers has also been invited and a full social program will be provided for both evening entertainment and during the daytime for nonparticipating guests. In conjunction with Trans-Australia Airlines. QANTAS. and the Queensland Tourist Bureau, discounted air fares will be available to. from and within Australia. Package holidays and tours can be arranged for any delegate who wishes to combine attendance with a holiday A unique opportunity to see the fabulous Great Barrier Reef. or Inland Australia. the unbelievably vast ·Bush.· Alice Springs. Ayers Rock. cattle stations as big as some European countries. one of the last great unpopulated areas of the globe. For registration forms or any information concerning the Convention. contact: The Secretary, Convention '84. P.O. Box 512. Hamilton Central, OLD 4007. Australia.

Corporate Members of I FATCA AEG-Telefunken. Ulm. West Germany Allcorn Data. Ltd .. Nepean. Canada AMECON Division. Litton Systems Inc .. Maryland. USA AN SA Advisory Group Air Navigation. West Germany Cardion Electronics. Woodbury. USA Cossor Radar & Electronics Ltd .. Harlow. UK Dictaphone Corporation. NewYork. USA Eaton Corporation. AIL Division. Deer Park. USA Ericsson AB. SRA Communications. Stockholm. Sweden Ferranti Limited. Bracknell. UK Goodwood Data. Systems Ltd .. Carleton Place. Canada IKO Software Service. Stuttgart. West Germany Jeppesen & Co. GmbH. Frankfurt. West Germany Lockheed Aircraft Service Company. Ontario. USA Marconi Radar System. Chelmsford. England M.B.L.E .. Brussels. Belgium The Mitre Corporation. McLean. USA N.V. Hollandse Signaalapparaten. Hengelo. Netherlands N.V. Philips Gloeilampenfabrieken. Eindhoven. Netherlands Philips Telecommunicatie lndustrie B.V .. Hilversum. Netherlands Plessey Company Ltd .. Waterloo. Canada Racal Decca Systems Ltd .. London. England Racal Recorders Ltd .. Southampton. England Raytheon Canada Ltd .. Waterloo. Canada Rediffusion Simulation Inc .. Arlington. USA SandersAssociates. Inc .. Nashua. USA Schmid Telecommunication. Zurich. Switzerland Selenia lndustrie Elettroniche. Rome. Italy SEL-Standard Elektrik Lorenz. Stuttgart 70. Germany Societe d' Etude et d' Entreprises electriques. France Sofreavia. Paris. France Software Sciences Ltd .. Farnborough. England Sperry Univac. Sulzbach. West Germany TERMA ElektronikAS. Lystrup. Denmark Thomson. CSF. Paris. France Ulmer Aeronautique. Clichy. France VWK-Ryborsch GmbH. Obertshausen. West Germany Westinghouse Electric Corp .. Maryland. USA

The International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers¡ Associations would like to invite all corporations. organizations, and institutions interested in and concerned with the maintenance and promotion of safety in air traffic to join their organization as Corporate Members. Corporate Members support the aims ofthe Federation by supplying the Federation with technical information and by means of an annual subscription. The Federation¡ s international journal 'The Controller' is offered as a platform for the discussion of technical and procedural developments in the field of air traffic control.

Air Traff ic Control SELENIA

Experience is the key wo rd in the design of Air Traffic Control Systems. Since the introduc tion of the fir st Air Traffic Control radars in 1960,Selenia has dedi cated major r esources to the design and developm ent of JITC systems. Important breakthroughs, inclu ding tru ly site and environ -

ment adaptive radars and the concept of extended distributed intelligence , have gained Selenia a position as one of the leading companies in Air Traffic Control Systems. A fact supported by the sales of more than 300 channels of radars and more than 50 SATCA S ATC Systems to 27 diffe re nt countries.

Selenia is experience in air traffic control systems


CIVIL RADAR AND SYSTEMS DIVISION Via Tiburtina Km 12,400,00131ROME,ITALY Tulex 613690SELROM I, Phone 06-43601

Selema RE Pubbhc11a ·a3

IFATCA The Controller - 3rd Quarter 1983  
IFATCA The Controller - 3rd Quarter 1983