Page 1






3 / 82 3 RD QUA RTER 1982


SFrs 5 -

Wherever you 8y, rely on KLM Business Class all the way KLM

More service and comfort -same price

Unique gateway

Fly KLM Business Class from Europe via Amsterdam and enjoy extra service all the way - at no extra cost to our full fare passengers. You'll be seated in a quiet and relaxing separate cabin with its own crew There are special meals - deliciously complemented by wine - free drinks and a wide selection of newspapers. And of course there is separate check-in at most airports. It's all designed to make life that bit easier for the hard pressed business executive.

Fly via our homebase, Schiphol Airport, Amsterdam . Experienced travellers agree that it deserves its reputation for easy transfer and passenger orientated service. Amsterdam offers regular flights to all Europan capital cities - as well as to many important centres in the UK, Ireland , France, Belgium and Germany . And there are frequent flights to the USA and Canada, Central and South America , the Middle and Far East, Australia and Africa. Rely on KLM to fly you where you want to fly.



The reliableairlineof Holland


TH E CONTROLLER Bern , Sw itzerland, September 1982

Volume 2 1 路 No . 3

Publishe r: Inte rnatio nal Federat ion of Air Traffic Contro llers路 Associatio ns. P.0. 8 . 1 96. CH- 12 15 Geneva 1 5 Airport. Switzerland Officers of IFATCA: HH . Hensch ler. Preside nt. Lex Hend riks. Vice- Preside nt (Tech nica l). E. Sermij n. VicePresident (Profess ional). Pat O' Doherty. Vice- President (Ad minist ration). B. Grezet. Treasurer. E. Bradshaw . Executive Sec retary Secretariat : 6 Longlands Park. Ayr KA7 4 RJ Ayrshire. Scot land. Un ited Kingdom Telefon 0292 42 11 4 Editor : A. Avgo ustis 5 At hens Str . Ayios Dhometios Nicosia. Cyprus Telefon (02 1) 4 87 86 Publishing Company and Production Service : ' Der Sund'. Ve rlag und Drucke rei AG 3001 Bern. Effingerst rasse 1. Switzerland Telephone (03 1) 25 66 55 Pr inted by: ' Der Sund'. Verlag und Druckere i AG. Bern. Switzer land Advertising Sales Offic e: THE CONTROLLER 5 Athens st . Ayios Dhome tios. Nicos ia. Cyprus Telephone (02 1) 4 87 86 THE CONTROLLER.路 Der Sund'. Verlag und Druckerei AG (Add ress as for Publishing Co.)

H. R.H. Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands open ing the Techni cal Exhi bition at the Amsterdam Conference

Subscript ions and Advertis ing Payments t o: Account No : PK 72 892 - 9. Swiss Credit Bank Bal exert Agency. av. Louis Casai 2 7 CH- 12 1 1 Geneva 28 . Switzer land

Subscription Rate : SFrs . 8 .- per annum for members of IFATCA: SFrs 20 .- per annum for non-members (Postage wi ll be charged extra). Contributor s are expressing their persona_l points _of view and opinions. which may not necessarily coincide with those of the International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers' Association (IFATCA).


IFATCA does not assume responsibi lity for statements made and opinions expressed. it does_on ly accep t responsibi lity for publishing these contributions .

IFATCA '82 Conference The Choice ofT ec hnology for ATC Radars SSR Mode S Airbus News News from Plessey Auck land Internat iona l Airport Com per Swift- CLA 7 News from McDonne ll Douglas Europe Positions Itself for Compet it ion

Contributions are welcome as are comments and criti ci sm . No payment can be made for man~scripts submitted for publication in 路The Controller The _Editor reserves the right to make any edi torial changes 1nm_anuscripts . which he believes wi ll improve the material without alte ring the intended meaning . W riuen permission by the Editor is necessary for reprinting any part of this Journa l .

Adv ertis ers KLM- Fokker- Ferranti- M arconiPhiltps - Selenia Photos H Tade. AA. Archives Cartoons Martin Germans

3 33 38 40 41 42


44 45

Flythe fuel-efficientskiesof Fokker. Two totally different aircraft . Two totally different propulsion systems. But the same high standard of proven fuel efficiency That's what makes the Fokker F28 and F27 the first choices of short-haul operators around the world. The Fokker F28 is the only short-haul jet offering jet speed and comfort to passengers and cost-efficient operation to airlines. It is the only jet specifically designed to fly short sectors, where flights average 30-45 minutes with quick turn-around times , and do it profitably. With the lowest investment cost of any jet flying toda y, the F28 further economizes with the lowe st fuel co nsumption of any jet airliner. Over a stage length of 250 nautical miles , the F28 , with its two Rolls-Royce RB183 engines , burns up to 35% less fuel than the nearest competitor in ope ration .

Dutch. Dedicated.


The Fokker F27, with its wide-body look interior and pressurized cabin, is used by major airlines all over the world as feeder aircraft on their short-haul networks and to generate traffic on low density routes. Its remarkable energy efficiency is the result of exceptionally low drag qualities, low structure weight and efficient Rolls-Royce Dart 7 turboprop engines. These factors combine to assure fuel consumption that is less than any of the F27's competitors . The F28 Fellowship and the F27 Friendship-setting new standards of fuel-efficiency and comfort tor the airlines of the world .

~ ~

Fokke r PO Box 1065 1000 BB Amsterdam . Holland Phone #31 20 544 9111 Telex 11526

IFATCA '82 21 st Annual Conference by Andre as Avgoustis

We are told that more books have been written about Amsterdam than one person could possibly read in his lifetime. Amsterdam, better known as the Venice of the north or the capital of the 1 OOO activities, had inspired poets, writers musicians and, in our case, 21 years ago, controllers to bring into existence their International Federation, IFATCA. * Amsterdam 1982 came to remind us all of the pioneers who set up IFATCA and of their many efforts in the national and international scene that were expended to pursue and achieve the constitutional objectives that were agreed then. The general feeling and conviction of all the delegates throughout the five-day conference was that a lot has been achieved during the past 21 years, yet there was still more to be done. Cooperation and concerted action had to be the tool by which professional aims would be achieved. To the Netherlands Guild, the host association, 1982 meant also the Association's 25th Anniversary. This fact, however, was overshadowed by the presence of the Federation itself and furthermore of the presence of more foreign controllers than the members of the Guild could ever near in number. Using the words of President, H. Harri Henschler on the decision of selecting Amsterdam as the venue to celebrate IFATCA's 21 st Anniversary, 'It is particularly appropriate that I FATCA should celebrate its 21 st Anniversary, an age in which in many parts of the world is synonymous with having reached adulthood, in Amsterdam, the city where the Federation was founded in 1961.' Sunday evening, 2nd May, the 'meet the delegates' hospitality function of our hosts in the Novotel, gathered the hundreds of controllers, some with their families, from the different parts of the world and excitement built up as colleagues met again or new faces appeared in the scene and were introduced for the first time. The Conference itself went through the entire scheduled days, 3rd to 7th May, with a particularly

* We have , in our 71 82 issue, given an historical run -down of how /FA TCA came into exis ten ce to its present stat ure. It is expected that issue 4 1 82 will host views of the Corporate M embers of /FA TCA as to how they saw iFAT CA during the past 2 7 years.

heavy agenda for Committee A. A great number of exhibition stands had been taken by th e Federation's Corporate Members, the ATC hardware sources, with three new Associations joining the fraternity and two applications being turned down. What, however, made the 21 st Conference of IFATCA a more official event to the people of Amster dam , more so to the controllers, was the presence of H.R.H. Princ e Bernhard of the Netherlands at the opening plenary and the fact that the Prince put the whol e Conf erenc e under his royal patronage. 3

The Grote Zaal and IFATCA ·s Opening Plenary.

Opening Ceremony The most formal and perhaps the most ceremonial phase of the an nual con fere nce of I FATCA. The immense ' Grote Zaal' of the RAI (the Internatio nal Conference Center) on the outskirts of Am ste rdam hosted for two hours the 500 internat ional delegates and a large number of distingu ished government and other officials, belonging to the aviation activities or commun ication functions of t he Netherlands, all headed by H.R H. Prince Bernhard. Because of His Royal Highn ess· interest in av iation he could not resist accepting and put the Conference under his patronage and add ressed the Conference at its opening sess ion Th e Prince is a keen pi lot and a grea t friend of the ai r traffic control lers . His speech. w hich is g iven below reflects exactly w hat I mean . Follow ing a short add ress of we lco me . by the President of the Nether lands Guild of Air Traffic Controllers , Mr . Sip Koopmans. the wo rd was g iven to Prince Bernhard to offic ially open the Conference. The Prince ·s spe ech is as follows 'The aviation industry is in deep trouble. One only has to take a glance at the figures that were published a few months ago by the Internationa l Air Transpo rt Association to see how true this statement is. Airline s that are actually making a profit are hard to find nowadays. Route networks have to be altered or c urtailed . part of the staff has to be 4

furloughed or even fired, options on new aircraft have to be cancelled, operational aircraft have to be sold due lack of funds, etc., etc. 'Consequently , aircraft manufacturers are in trouble too . The decision to launch a new project is difficult to take. due to fast changing forecasts on demand and uncertainty whether new, even more fuel-efficient engines will be availab le in "x,, years· time. Aircraft manufacturers have to delay projects. have to change specifications or even have to stop production. 'Of course the aviation industry in genera l will survive, yet some individual companies will not and many others will only just make it . 'However . surv iving , let alone recovering, can only be possible if a major effort is made by everyone involved. In this process of getting the aviation industry back on its feet, one of the crucial role s has to be played by the air traffic controller. 'The air traffic controller's business is in the first place aviation safety. 'Safety can never be a certainty. It require s the right state of mind, experience (to be used). imagination (to forese e and define) and willpower (to progress) Safe air travel will keep passengers· confidence high (and consequent ly keep the figures on the right side of the balance sheets). But the profession ·s demands have not to be met for reasons of safety alone . An integral part of its objectives is the expedition of air traffic . a task which is now being put more firmly on the controllers· shou lders .

_'This task relates directly to airline efficiency. In modern aviation we still have to put up with A TC ground delays, fuel consuming routes and reroutes. holdings, etc., which means a waste of fuel, time and money. The pressure on the air traffic contra /le g_rows as the fuel prices contin ue t; nse . And they may do so for severa l years to come. There is an increasing demand for optimum flight levels and direct routmgs. 'Yet this demand can only be met if the _air traffic controller is properly eqwpped and mentally prepared and if a reqws1te degree of safety can be guaranteed at the same time. . 'Though today modern equipment is bemg put on the market by the aviat10n mdustry, the massive investments in modern technology on the fl1ghtdeck have for too long not been matched by the improvements to ground facilities in many parts of the world. . 'This is not a responsibility of the mdustry alone. 'The major responsibility lies with governments and administra tion s who in the main are the direct em~ players of the controllers. Failure to make the A TC system adapt to new requirements and failure to establish proper working conditions for the A TC staf f, will put at risk not only the expedition of air traffi c. but . ultimately, safet y itself _ ·Ouite obviously. proper recogmt10n and the provision of equipment which is · 'right for the job ·· (which implies specia list inpu t by controllers at all stages of the specification and pro-

curement process), will contribute to preventing labour strife with all its neg ative input on the industry and the air traveller. We have seen many of these disruptions during the last decade and a half. They have been a sign that problems had been simmering in the background which, if they had been solved in time , would have saved all parties concerned many a headache. 'So you might conclude that if we could " only " have enough well trained, currently practiced , well equipped, healthy and properly rewarded controllers all over the world, our problems would be solved. Yet, achieving this is not as simple as it may sound. But is it a Utopia? I do hope and think it's not. 'Members of the Board, Director s. Your Federation endeavours to bring about such a safe and efficient worldwide A TC system. Those pioneers in Europe who first conceived the idea of a European Federation - soo n to become worldwide-, did realize that the objectives , function s and problem s of the air traffic controller s were of a similar nature, irrespective of their nationalities and tha t these could only be mastered and solved by common effo rts in close international cooperation. '/FATCA ·s perseverance to discover problems, get them rec ognized and so lved has been an d will be important and demanding. One of the Federa tion ·s main objectives will continue to be maintaining a constant intercha ng e and input of ideas with organiz a tions such as !CAO. IA TA,

to look back at the 2 7 years which have elapsed since your foundation . The first issue of the 2 7st volume of your excellent journal · 'The Contro ller" gives the uninitiated reader an idea of your Federat ion ·s explos ive development from an idealistic initiative to its present position of an established international organisation in the field of aviation. 'This position has certainl y not been gained just by your mere existence. The importance of air traffic control in aviation has grown ever since in 7950 the In ternational Civil Aviation Organisation adopted its first set of Stand ards and Recommended practices for Air Traffic Ser vic es in Anne x 7 7 to the Convention on International Civil Aviat ion . Your pro fessional contributions to the develFollowing Prince Bernhard 's officiopments in this field have over the al opening of the Conference, the next guest speaker was the State Secretary years been ac knowledged by !CAO. of Transport and Public Works, Mr. This in turn has facilitated your J.C . Th . van der Doef who said the fol- acceptance by government s of indi lowing: vidual member State s of !CAO. 'ft is not by accident that this 2 7st 'ft is not without some national Conference of IFATCA takes place in pride that I noticed the active involve the historic city of Am sterdam . The ment in this process of your member Netherland s Guild of Air Traffic Con- association in the Netherl ands. The trollers this year celebrates its 25th Department of Civil A viation in this ann iversary. This offered an excellent country has over the years lent its occasion for inviting this year's !FAT- support to these professional interCA Conference to the Netherland s and national activities of the Netherl ands to the city where it was founded 2 7 Guild, even if it did not always agree years ago, the age which has become with the Federation 's policies and acsymbolic for reaching m a turity. tivities . 'ft is not customary for organis'ft is no secret that in 796 7 IFATCA a tion s to celebrate this event of was not full heartedly welcomed by the · 'co ming of age·· This return of !FAT - individual Member-State s of !CAO CA to its point of departure has which foresaw difficulties in their rehowever provided you an opportunity lationship with air traffic controllers

IFALPA, the !LO as well as national governments and administrations . 'During the past 2 7 years since the inaugural conference here in Amsterdam in 796 7, a path has been paved. Yet the distance to be covered is long and many a problem will lie ahead. The solution will only come about if the Federation continues to communicate to the world the unique requirements of the profession . 'In the interest of aviation, sincerely wish that from this 2 7st Conference on, which I now officially declare open , you will reach all your professional objectives, so that air traffic controllers can indeed play an important part in the improvement of air traffic safety and efficiency. ·

IFAT CA 's Executive Board at the Opening Plenary. 5

Italian Delegates: Piero Gugnoni, Andrea Luise and Piero Meledandri.

Civil Aviation authorities are responsible for the promotion of the complete field of civil aviation, as an important part of the international transport system. A part of this is the provision of Air Traffic Service s with all it entails in the form of facilities and personnel, for the provision of which the State has accepted international responsibility. A ir traffic controllers form an essential part of an air traffic control system.· they give form to the end product of the system. As such they are directly or indirectly employed by the State. The apprehension felt by !CAO Member-States was voiced by the Netherl and s Director -General of Civil Aviation in his opening address at the Inaugural Meeting of /FA TCA when he said , and I quote: " Aviation is since long no national matter. The establishment of an international federation of air traffic con trollers associations is therefore a log ica l step, if and I would stress this aga in, if it is the aim to enable the national associations to widen their ran ge of vision, to study jointly the prob lem of interest for the development of the air traffi c contro l art and last but not least , to create a better understanding and good fellowship amo ng contro ller s serving inter national aviat ion · · 6

'The objectives of your Federation have from the outset been in conformity with this statement and are summarized in your Convention as: 7. "the furtherance of safe and efficient air navigation" and 2. "the p rotection of their common professional interests·· 'The first objective is of course complete ly in line with the technical objectivities of !CAO as laid down in Article 3 7 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation , pursuant to which all Annexes to the Convention are adopted by /CAO and implemented by its Member-States. 'The second objective, your common professional interests, need not necessarily and indeed should not be in contradiction to the first. A number of unfortunate events in the last decade have however provided evidence that these two main objectives of IFATCA, to which your member associations have pledged their support, may indeed be contradictory to each other if and when the interests of controllers are given priority over the interests of aviation as a whole. Last year's events in the USA formed an unfortunate climax to this trend Dif ferent as one may think about this conf lict , there will be not disagreement on the fact that it had a very

damaging effect all over the world on the image of the air traffic control professio n. 'Over the years your endeavours have been directed at gaining public recognition of your occupation as a profession . Professional status, however , is not achieved simply by resolutions or decrees of authoritive bodies or persons. It can only by gained progressively by commending attention and respect for your valuab le contribution to the safety of air traffic. The aviation world is aware of the importance of the air traffic services provided by States and the role of the air traffic controller therein. 'Aviation, however, covers a great many fields, witness the 78 subjects of the Annexes of !CAO. It would be unwise for any group emp loyed within these different fields to cla im unique responsibilities for aviation safety. The high standard of safety in air transport is a result of the devoted efforts of a// sectors in aviation . This also holds true in the limited field of air traffic services where many disciplines combine efforts to guarantee the safety of operation. A certain amount of modesty in your claims certainly would not harm you_r . endeavours for recognition whtthtn the world of aviation. 'The rising costs of fuel have had an enormous impact on the aviation industry, but so have the rising costs of air traffic services, which increasingly have to be borne by this industry. In an Aide Memoire, IA TA already in 7980 stated, and I quote: "the cost of enroute charges on some routes is approaching the cost of fuel ; on short European routes they even exceed the fuel cos ts. This emphasizes the importance for airlines, and airspace users in general, to keep A TC costs as low as possible" In thi s context it is important to remember that the annual costs of the provision of Air Traffic Services is to some 75 % composed of personnel costs! 'Outside the aviation world your efforts for gaining recognition are directed at the general public Publi c relations are of great importance to any activity aimed at the promotion of ideas or products Su ccessful en deavours in this respect can suddenly be destroyed by one unfortunate event. This appears to have happened to your endeavours to gain attention and respect from the general public ' Your Federation has cl early gone through a very difficu lt ep iso de in this 2 7st year of its exist en c e It would be

a denial of facts if I were to keep silent on the most pressing issue with which this Conference is faced. You have arrived at crossroads and will have to decide on the road to be followed towards the attainment of your objectives . '/ wish to congratulate you on your achievements since the foundation of /FA TCA. In number of years your Federation has reached the age of maturity . May wisdom prevail in your discussions during the days to come , in order that you may reach responsible and m ature decisions in the interest of the safety of air traffic and the attainment of your legitimate professional interests. ' Mr. Doef's address was followed by the Federation's President who congratu lated the host Association for its manyfold support to the Federation and of its leading role in the international affairs. Before c losing the opening ceremony and official state guests departed to leave the delegates to start with the opening plenary. the President of the Netherlands Guild of Air Traffic Controllers, Mr. Sip Koopmans addressed the guests and said: 'On behalf of the Netherlands Guild of Air Traffic Controllers I have the honour and pleasure of welcoming you all to this /FA TCA Conference . 'Realizing that the Federation would come of ag e in 7982 and bearing in mind tha t our Guild would celebrate their Silver Jubilee during the same year. we offered to host this 2 7st Conference back in 79 78. at the Copenhagen Conference . At the time . we could only imagine what would be involved in organizing an event like this. Now. I assure you, we do have a fair idea , al though the Conference has not even really sta rted yet No matter how hard we thought . planned and worked. problems may occur. However . as in air traffic control. we will endeavour to sol ve them as expeditiously as possib le Ju st refer your problems - at least the ones regarding this Conference - to th e members of the Organizing Committee They are easily recognized by their badges. the colour of which will generally be matched by the colour of their faces¡ red. 'As you may have noticed. I myself have tactfully chosen to wear a differ -

ent one . Ladies and gentlemen. so IFATCAi s27. 'Some 40 delegates from a dozen countries met here in Amsterdam in 796 7 at what was to be the Inaugural Conference. Now we count hundreds of delegates from over 60 countries and we have several more applications for membership to deal with at this Conference. 'These figures in themselves clearly illustrate the Federation 's growth. Yet the real growth cannot be measured in figures alone. Today, the voice of !FA TCA is heard at times and in places where it should be heard. But is it always being listened to? We sometimes wonder ... 'So IFATCA is 2 7. But where do we go from here? Much more than in the past years , this important question will dominate Conference. The debates on this subject, especially the ones in the Administrative Committee A. will no doubt be fascinating. They will also be

of vital importance to the Federation's future. '/ hope that we will find a common path to follow and that no ''this way or else" will hang over the debate s like a "Sword of Damocles". 'We became united over the past 2 7 years and we will have to stand united for many years to come. We have got to do so, not just for our own good. but especially for our less fortunate colleagues whose rightfu l demands on equipment . procedures. working conditions, remuneration , etc. have not been met or. even worse. whose fundamental human rights are being violated day after day. 'The Federation will have to pursue the solution to their problems and try to create a safe and effic ient world wide A TC-system. We will have to do so in a professional manner. by offering support, expertise , constructive criticism and pressing for the 52 conclusions on A TC of the Intern ational

L to r. Mr. JC Th. van der Doe f the State Secretar y of Transpo rt and Publ ic Works . and HR. H Prince Be rnhard as they look at Signaa f's stand 7

Another view of the delegates at the Opening Plen ary .

Labour Office to be adopted worldwide. ' Then, apa rt from the estab lishment of the A TC-system I just mentioned, the right of association will no longer be denied to ai r traffic controllers. Al so, they will no longer be required to take secondary employments in orde r to supplement their present meagre income , which will provide either foo d of housing, but not both. 'Ladies and Gentlemen, Reverting to today's Conference I would now like to mention some of our guests a t this opening plenary. I feel sure that you will agree that ai r traffic controllers must have good relations with the users of the airspace they con trol : the pilots. Of the several pilots at tending this meeting only one is also to grant " royal patronage--. The Netherl an ds Guild consider it an honour that this pilot, His Roya l Highness Prince Bernhard of the Netherl an ds, has consented to be patron of the Confer ence and that he is with us here toda y. 'Next I wou ld like to mention ¡ His Exce llen cy the St ate Secretary of Transpo rt and Publi c Wor ks, Mr . van der Doef , The Director- General of the Department of Civil Aviation , M r . Raben . The Director of Air Traffic Services and Telecommunications, Mr . Smit and his deputy , Mr . Stalpers , The President of KLM Royal Du tch Air lines. M r. Orlandini , The Ald erma n of the City of Amsterdam , M r. Heerma. 'Ladies and Gentlemen , M any more aviation authorities from the Netherland s and from abroad are with us here today . I have also seen regis8

The Technical Exhibition

SS. Koopman s.

tration forms of many former officers of IFATCA. However , there is one I would like to mention in particular . We are ex tremely plea sed to have among us the honorary member of the Netherland s Guild one of the " Godfathers ,, as he was recently called , !FA TCA 's first president: Leo Tekstra . 'Ladies and Gentlemen , A number of distinguished speakers will address the meeting after this word of wel come. I will now conc lu de and wish you all a succe ssful Conference , for the opening of whi ch I have the honour to ca ll on His Royal Highness Prince Bernhard. Thank you . ¡

Corpo rate members of IFATCA are always given the opportunity to active ly partic ip ate in the confe rence functions eithe r by attending Committee B meetings or through a Technica l Exh ibition of their hardwa re or a Technical Panel . Th e organis in g committee at each annual conference makes avai lab le exhibition space t o manuf acturers to display their recent techni ca l developments in air traffic contro l equ ipm ent. Thi s year's conference was no exception and was in fact marked by cons ider able succes s both in number of exhibitor s as wel l as organisation . A total of 1 2 st ands were occupied by the fo llowing: Philips Telecommunication ; Signaal ; SRA Communications ; We st ing hou se; Racal ; AEG Telefunken ; Ferranti ; Selenia; Marconi Radar System s; Cassar Electronics ; YA TCA_ IFATCA '83; 'The Controller'. and 'The Guildcorner' . Mo st impre ssive were the manufacturers that are national s of the Netherlands. 1.e. Phili ps Tel ecommunication s and Signaal . who brought their hardware . PTI wi th their AERO PP System and their A l DS (Aeronauti ca l Inform at ion Data Subsystem s) display and Signaa l w ith their soph ist icated radar s. SRA being next door to the Netherland s came up also w ith their own hardware - their latest deve lopment in rad ar An officia l open ing ceremony of the technical exhibition was c ondu cted during the recess of the First Plenary .

Prince Bernhard of the Netherland s rece iving an explanation from W Vonk and D. Fnjl ing of PT/ on their AIDS Demo-model.

Opening Plenary

The Te chn ical Exh ibition was officially opened by H.R.H. Prince Bernhard after a short address to delegates. Prin ce Bernhard said :

'As I mentioned in my opening speech of this Conference , for too long the production of air traffic control equipment has been the Cinderella of the aviation industry. 'Even today, as research and development of this equipment is speeded up , we still have to close a gap with the equipment on the flight deck. Soon, sophistica ted flight management computers will be standard on all modern civil aircraft. 'In order to enable the '' man on the ground " to make equally good use of th ese airborne systems , we shou ld provide him with compatible equip ment. To achieve this an d to ce rtify a proper "man I machine " - relation ship , close collaboration between industry and air traffic controllers is essential.

'The Feder ation, through making availabe corporate membership to industry, provides an excellent platform for this. Technical panels and exhibitions like this provide both controllers and industry with very useful information . 'I under s tand that many manufac turers have decided to exhibit their products during this Conference. It is therefore with even more pleasure that I now declare this 2 7st !FA TCA Conference ¡s Technical Exhibition open . Pete r Jorg ensen, of Sel en ia , the outgoing corporate member s coordinator also addressed the delegate s and guests and thanked the Prin ce for hi s accep t ance to open thi s Tec hni cal Exh ibiti on. Mr. Jorgen se n and President H . H. Henschler esc orted the Prin ce and th e other officials to the var iou s stand s.

This part of the open ing phase of the Conference is usually taken up by routine business and directors are in meeting before work is split into the work ing committees. It follows immediately after the guests to the opening ceremony are wi thdra wn following the short recess. The first business on the agenda , that of the roll call of directors, member-associations present, revealed 4 1 present and three proxies out of a possible 61 members. A number of observers from non-member assoc iations and international organisations , such as ICAO , ILO were also acknowledged. The Presiden t referred to new applicants for membership before the report of the 1981 Conference (Cairo) was accepted. Th e President then went through the Exec uti ve Board 's report for the past year (this was published in issue 2 I 82 of 'The Controller ' ) before going into the nominations and elections of the working committees chairmen . A.D . Tilroe , of Canada , was elected as chairman of Committee A, J. Saker of the United Kingdom , as chairman of Committee B, and E. Danieli of Israel as chairman of Committee C. Committee A deals with administrative and constitu t ional matters , Committee B de als with technical matters and its chairman usually conducts the busines s of the technical panel and Commi ttee C deals mainly with professional mat ters. Once this business is conducted , that is the election of the chairmen of the three committees, the Plenary is recessed until the directors recon vene in Final Plenary to examine and resolve on the work of the three committees

Committee A Administration ' Politics ' have created traditi on I Ind eed this Committee is the busi est of the other two , fundame ntally , bec aus e of the fact that directors take it as t he forum to air their A ssoci at ion s' po liti cs. It is li ke an ancient Greek 'Agora ' w ith speakers of many schools of thought . Committee A. usually functions through o ut t he scheduled conferen c e day s and m ost of the time skipping c offee -bre aks an d on many oc casion s lun c h-bre aks 9

This year's agenda was no exception and in particular the PATCO case being fresh in everyone's mind, some hot and extensive discussion was ant icipated . The budget was another hot item on the agenda. Working


In a total of 14 areas of concern, 55 w or king papers were presented either by the relevant Standing Comm ittees or the officers of the Federat ion. Part A, dealt w ith such items as ap pl icat ions for membership and w ith t he reports of the different officers , such as the Executi ve Secretary, the Edit or and the Liaison to the International Organisations. Part A 2 , which is a common subject for all three working committees, t hat is the Technical Panel , is the business generally of the Corporate Members of IFATCA. or our hardware man ufa ct urer s. Part A 3 , Public ations and Public Relation s. Part A 4 , deal s generally with fi nances . Part A 5 , Constitutional and Adm inistr at ive polic y . Part A 6 , Regional Organisation and t he report s of the different Regional Vice-Presidents . Parts A 7 and A 9, are concerned wi t h t he elect ion of officers, in the first instance w it h th e Regional VicePresid ents and in the second with the Exec ut ive Board . Part A 11 . all about IFATCA confe rences. f uture and pa st venues. Part A 1 2 . dealing generally w ith Corporate M emb ers. Part A 12 . w ith the 1982 / 83 bud get and Parts A 1 3 and A 14 dealing j ust wi th ro ut ine bu si ness suc h as req uest s fo r nomin ation s for officers of Com m itt ee A for next ye ar 's annual confe rence and th e committee ¡s report to the fin al plenar y Conduct of Work Cha irman. Bram Tilro e. w elco med the de legates t o t he co mmitt ee and out lined t he proce dur e t o be adopt ed dur ing sessio ns. Aft er proxy votes have been hand ed in t o t he c hair, the chair man invited his V ic e-Chairm an . H.J . Tilly of the UK and th e Sec reta ry. Leslie Austen also fr o m th e UK to ta ke their positi ons at the top table . The first part of th e day was take n by the reports of the va rio us IFATCA off ice rs, sta rt ing wit h the com m o n Executive Board report and co nt inui ng to the repo rts of the Execu ti ve Secretary , the Editor and the Liaiso n to the Internation al Organisations , in Geneva 10

The latter's report raised some considerabe discussion and arguments, as it contained PATCO's case before the I LO Council . This particular issue was. however, extensively discussed before a closed session together with all matters arising out of the PATCO issue. Standing Committee II (SC II) chairman's report, referred to his resignation, because, he thought, Public Relations issues were dealt with mainly by the Executive Board and where publications were concerned, the Editor was.involved. His suggestion that it was no longer necessary for a separate Standing Committee to handle these matters , was accepted by the directors, as we will see later, and in its place a Publications and

Closed Sessions Closed sessions have become a rule rather than the exception as far as Committee A is concerned. This Committee has devoted about 40% of its time in closed sessions . As stated earlier, the PATCO case was one of the very important items that necessitated a closed session despite the act that the strike was over eight months old. Also stated above, was the working paper presented by the I LO Liaison, former IFATCA President J .D. Manin. and also the working paper by the Executive Secretary, E. Bradshaw, on behalf of the Executive Board on the past, present and future of IFATCA which was touching upon the policy of the Federation when Associations take industrial action.

Four Presidents: I tor : L.N. Tekstra ( 1961-6 7), Arnold Field ( 79 70-71 ), Jean Daniel Manin ( 19 72-77) , H. Ham Henschler ( 19 78-).

Publi c Relation s Committee has evolved under the chairmanship of the Editor. Th e reports of the Regional VicePresidents. i.e. Africa West, Africa East , Europe West , Europe Central . Middle East. Asia, Pacific and the America s were presented. The much disputed and controversial issue of Biennial Conferences fo r the Federation seems now to be gaining some support. Despite the fact that no definite action had been taken by thi s conference, it was . how ever, resolv ed that the Executive Council . i .e. the Executive Board and th e Regional Vice -Presidents, come up at the 1 984 Conference , in Lisbon. w it h recommendations of amending sta nd ing procedures with a view to im p lementin g Biennial Conferences

An ad hoe committee had been appointed by the directors , coming under the chair of the vice-president professional , to investigate possibilities as to the extent of the assistance that may be granted by memberassociations to another , where it is found to be necessary. Brazil The status and working condition s of the Brazil civilian controllers was the subject matter of a working paper that was presented to Committee A in closed session following a report made in 'The Controller ' (the Federation¡ s journal) issue 1 / 82 by Philippe Domagala as a result of a visit he had conduc t ed with the vic e-president admini stration late last year . A ction had been suggested in support of the Brazilian co ntroller s.

Thebetteryouare at collecting,processing anddisplayingdata, . the clearerthe ATCpicture. You need the capability of Ferranti. We are not in the data acquisition business but we will take data from whoever has it~ from civil or military or from the country riext door if need be. Data doesn't have to be on the spot. It can be extracted and fed over large distances and then co-ordinated with the data from your own sensors . In designing equipment for processing and displaying the data

~- - - 路---------



we've us ed our experience both of ATC and air defence. If the data is not available, we can synthesize display infonnation horn flight plan s and position reports. 路 We can also do the other kind of sinrnlation - for training, validation and evaluation - something we have been doing for many years. If you are in the air traffic mana gement busin ess Ferranti can help. And the people who pay your

route charges will almost certainly appreciate your using us. Ask yourself, are you using the data available to the best advantage? Contact: . Ferranti Computer Systems Sales Department Ty Coch Way Cwmbran Gwent NP44 7XX Tel:Cwmbran (06333)7llll Telex:497636



- ----路路-- ~---CS02


37 I 052



Corporate Members



. -=~~ ... -----,,,_ --~-- .. -------1 ...,-~., . ..........__,





Committee A Chair: I tor: P. 0 D oherty (VPA), H. H. Henschle r (pr esid ent) , H.J. Tilly (vice-chairman), A. D. Ti/roe (chairman), Leslie Austen (secretary), Marie Quinn (secretary).


for Membership

The fol lowing applications for professional membership came before this Committee. either for acceptance or dismissal. Proposed by South Africa and seconded by Uga nda. the Tanzania Air Traffic Controllers· Association had been unanimously accepted Cyprus proposed and Israel seconded that the J apan A ir Traffic Control lers· Association become a full professiona l member. Proposa l was adopted unanimous ly. Due to confus ion in t he way the app lication and consti tutional provis ion s of the Boli vian Ai r Traff ic Con trollers· Association the d irecto rs referred the app lication for cons ideration by the next ann ual confe rence. Trinidad and Tobago A ir Traffi c Control lers' Assoc iat ion. was th e th ird Profess iona l Associat ion to be unani mous ly accep ted into the fr ate rnity of contro llers fo llow ing the proposal of South Africa. w hic h was seconde d by Guyana Two app lications for professional membership had been d ism issed for fail ure to meet the requiremen s of the Federation· s co nstitu tion . Th ese were: The Inst itution of Profess ion al Civi l Servants of the United Kingdom (ATC Branch) and that of the Turkish Cypriots Both app licat ions we re ruled out of order . Finances Next item on the agenda was that of the f inanc ial comm itments of the 14

member -assoc iation s and their standing in the Federation . Conn ected to the finances is always the report of St anding Committee Ill (SC Ill) w hich is, by tradition . c haired by th e immediate past t reasu rer of IFATCA , w hic h again by t rad iti on is a Swiss. SC Ill look s into t he fin ancia l polic y of the Federation and is conce rned w ith matter s of raising income for the Federation . Noti ces of suspens ion of affiliations as we ll as termin ations come under this present part. Although th ere we re no suspensio ns, th ree Associations have been given notice of termination of affiliat ion as from the 1st September. 1982. The se Associations are. Iran, Se nega l and Turk ey Elections Th e elect ion of th e Regional VicePresidents (RVP's) was the next item to be cons idered. Because of rece nt c hanges in the cons titution and in par ti cu lar w ith c hanges in th e rotation of the terms of service some RVP' s term w ill be for o ne year only. The follow ing we re elected Adrian Enright of Eurocontrol. w ill serve for the next two years as RVP for Europe W est . He replaces Bjarne Nilssen of Norway. Adrian was nom inated by Netherlands. Eurocont ro l. Luxembourg and Belg ium. Anothe r new RVP. this time for th e Car ibb ean Region is Charles O Lester of the Netherland s Anti lles and takes the place of Ric hard Green . Charles

will serve for a period of one year and he was nominated by his own Association. Three re-elections have produced the same RVP's. These are the RVP's for North and Central America , Carlos Olmo s Mendoza , of Me xico, for the Pac ific Region , Robin Soar of New Zealand and for South America . Mario Salazar of Venezuela. The elections for the Exec uti ve Board vaca ncie s brought about two changes. that of the treasurer and that of the vice-president professional. Bernard Grezet of the Swiss As sociat ion is the new Treasurer of IFATCA, replac ing Hans W eng er and the new vice-p resident professional is Erik Serm,jn of Belgium . repl ac ing Andreas Avgoustis of Cypru s. Th e Pres ident of th e Feder ation kept his position and will serve for another t erm of two yea rs. New Committee A s st ated ea rlier . Committee A had reso lved to do away with SC 11 and in its place establish a new co mmittee (it s co nstitution will be at the discretion of th e Editor) responsible for Publi c Relat ion s and Publi ca tion s and coming under the cha ir of the Editor. Resolutions A25 . A26 and A27 give the following terms of ref eren ce ' It is reco mm ended th at a · · Publi cat io ns and Publi c Relation s" Committee under the direct co ntrol of the Edi t o r. and wit h memb ers hip se lected by him. be estab lished . ' It Is recommended that the

Director s at Committee A Meetings.

following terms of referenc e be established for the Committee : The Committee shall: a) assist the Edito r in all matters pertaining to the publication , distribution and cost control of the Federation's journal; b) make every attempt to procure and maintain a consistent leve l of advertising so that the journal will become self-supporting financially ; c) assist the Editor in his attempts to have the jo urnal circulated to every individual member of the Federation; d) assist the Edit or in all matters of Public Relation s on behalf of the Federat ion and to advise him of areas or occasions where such publicit y would reflec t to the benefit of the Federation.' Future Conferences

Robin Soar (left) and Dean Dalzell from New Zealand. From distant Suriname , director V. L. Hanenberg.

Detail s for the 1983 Conference that will be held at Split, Yugoslav ia had been given to the directors by the Yugoslav delegates. Details on reduc ed air travel, hotel accommodation and registration fees and procedures were released. The Manager of the LAV Hotel, the conference ven ue , projected a film on the ava-:lable facilities. 1 984 confer ence venue was provisionally accepted, to be confirmed next year , to be Lisbon , Port ugal. For the year 1 985 , Greece offered to host the con ferenc e The RVP for Africa East suggested that may be the year 1985 would be the year for a conference to go to his region , more so to his home country , Kenya Ita ly also advised the delegate s that the Asso c iation is considering to apply to host the co nference in that year. Howe ver, the Association will decide on a definite act ion next year . Other Business

With various item s, such as the realignment of the Caribbean region to inc lude Guyana and Suriname , Committee A de liberation s we re conc luded. With regard to annual co nference dates , it wa s reso lved th at the exact date s of these conferences shou ld be made available by the host association at least twelve months prior .

Committee B - Technical

In Committee A, I tor . Tomy Tomkins (S. Africa) and T Timlets. In the back the Argentine Delegation .

The year's wo rk of IFATCA 's St andin g Committee I (SC I) is basica lly what the dire cto rs at this Com mittee meetings will discus s. Techni cal issues of co ncern to the profess ion of the air traff ic contro ller that cam e before international meeting s durin g the year will be dea lt with . SC I c losely works wi t h the profe ssion ¡s co unt er 15

Comm ittee B Chair: I to r.路 P. Herweyer (vice-chairman) , Lex Hendriks (vice-president technical), J Saker (chairman) and A. Cauty (secretary).

pa rts, tha t is t he p ilot s and their internatio nal organisation, I FALPA. The Fede ration wit h its liaison at ICAO Headquarter s is in clo se contact wi th the Org anisati on's te c hnical experts and branches. Input o n ai r traff ic cont rol matters t o ICAO is usually gi ve n by SCI and its expe rt s



The Committee's age nd a was spl it into 1 2 areas of co nce rn w ith a tot al of 30 Working Papers or discussion subjects These areas we re: B 1 Repo rt of t he Exec uti ve Bo ard . B 2 Report of t he Chairman of St anding Committe e I. B 3 Repo rts on Liaiso n w ith Inter nat ional Organi sation s B 4 Tec hni ca l Panel B 5 Techn ica l Poli cv . B 6 Work st udi es, 路 suc h as 1982 Policy state ment s and gener al pol ic ies, V FO , SS R Mode S , etc. B 7 Reg io nal Tec hnic al m atter s B 8 The supple m entat ion of SC I by mem bers of other M ember -A ssociat io ns. The fact that SC I was made up of membe rs of the United Kingdom Guild only , gave g rou nd s t o the vice-p resident tec hni cal to ra ise the matter be fore the Conference so that membe rs of othe r A ssociat io ns interested c ould Join th is co m mittee . !6

B 9 Appointment of SC I B 10 , 11 and 1 2 being routine administrative items.

Conduct of Work It has more than become customary that thi s Committee is chaired by the chairman of SC I. Perhaps not unreasonable practice, since, as I mentioned above, the work presented for co nsideration is being prepared by members of SC I. The nature of the subjects discus sed require expertise by the chair, no doubt. Cha irm an, John Saker of the United Kingdom Guild invited his ViceChairman P. Herweyer of the Netherland s Guild and Secretary, T. A . Cauty of the Canadi an Association to take their places at the head and he then suggested how bu sine ss sho uld be c onducted and stressed the fact that thi s should be carried throughout in an informal manner . Two late working papers , one on 路 Flow Control Meeting s' and another by the Italian A ssoc iation on 'VFR Operation s in Ita ly' were accepted for co nsid eration.

Reports First wo rking paper s for disc ussion we re the report s of the different offi c er s w ho are co nce rned w ith techni ca l m atte rs. Following the general report of the Exec utive Board , w hic h

was spoke n of briefly by the vicepresident technical, the report of the chairman of SCI, John Saker was considered. In his report , the chairman st ressed the importance and the need for IFATCA to attend the IFALPA ATS Study Group working sessions which usually take place twice annually . John's report was very comprehensive and covered briefly the wo rk program of his stand ing committee for the year, such items as Visual Flight Operation s (VFO), SSR Mode S, Helicopter Operations, etc . The chairm an , further gave details as to the support he had provided to IFATCA's representatives/ observers at ICAO tech nical study groups, such as the SMGCS. RTF, EARC , VFOP and ASCSS . He further gave details of his liaison activities wit h such groups or organisation s as, I FALPA, Eurocontrol, Reg ion al vice-presidents, I FATCA Member-Associations, etc. The ICAO Liaison Officer's report (Art Cauty) covered general ly his activitie s w ithin the ICAO HO and his visit to Dr. A Kotaite, President of ICAO, wi th the vice-president technica l, in February thi s year. Art further gave, in his report, a list of the meet ings that I FATCA shou ld attend with its technical experts. The Liaison to ICAO in an attachment to his repo rt gave , what he ca lled , 路A brief to IFATCA observers to ICAO '.

Technical Papers Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems (SMGCS) The Liaison Officer to ICAO presented this paper and made a plea to all Member-Associations for a response to the questionnaires that were attached to his paper . In the paper there were details with regard to the progress made by the spec ial ICAO study group whose work was presented to the AGA / DIV meeting in Montreal. The AGA / DIV . as a result . made three recommendation s for changes to Anne x 11 and a request for further work to be done on nine other items . The main change . the paper states . that was made was to the term ·apron control ' which is now referred to as ·apron management' . Radiotelephony Phraseology Study Group (RTF) The paper reported that the new date for im plementation of the revised phraseo logy is 25 November. 1983 . The 4th meeting of the RTF Study Group spen t virtua lly its entire time to the draft Manual of Radiotelephony. The original draft was produced by the ICAO sec retariat and assisted by one member of the RTF SG who was seconded to ICAO for the purpose . The f ina l amendments to the Manua l mu st . how ever . wa it unti l the ANC have co nsidered the final draft letter . The Manu al is divided into eleven c hapters as fo llows: 1 . Forward and Glossary 2. Gene ral Operating Procedure s 3. General Phraseology

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Aerodrome Contro l - Aircraft A erodrome Control - Vehicles General Radar Phraseology Approach Control Area Control Distress. Urgency and communications Fai lur e 10. Tran sm ission of Meteorological and other Aerodrome Informa tion 11 . Miscellaneous Flight Hand ling .

Elimination of Ambiguity in RTF Callsigns Study Group (EARC) Th is was more of a progress report on the ICAO EARC SG and covers a year from Febru ary. 1981 . to February . 1 9 8 2 . As a result of the first meeting of this group . it was decided to carry out a feasibi lity study of the changes proposed by I FA LPA to the present cal lsign format (ICAO Annex 10 refers) at a suita ble simulation fac ilit y . Th e use of the Transpo rt Canada Air Traffic Services Researc h and Exper imentation Center in Ottawa . was requested and a st udy was undertaken by the Canadian authorit ies during late January . 1981 . The sim ulation was observed by repre sentatives from ICAO . IFALPA. IFATCA and CATCA. During the year und er review . va rious members of the EARC SG continued in their endeavours to get flight trials of the propo sed ca llsign init iated in va riou s part s of the wo rld . Earlier thi s yea r. a flight trial of alph a-numeri c ca lls1gns commenced in the Unit ed Kingdom . Germ any , it was said . is planning to conduct a similar study in November thi s year . Neth erlan ds and the UK. was revealed at the meeting . have experienced difficulty in read ing the new call sign s presented as alphanumerical cal lsign list s on electron ic

A TCA Japan delegates. I to r. H. Tade . K K,jima. A. Suzuki and Y Tagaya .

data displays and as label s on radar scopes. Furthermore . Eurocontrol have expe rienced extensi ve problems of a similar nature .

Visual Flight Operations Panel (VFPO) (Thi s study is given in fu ll on page this issue) Aeronautical Speech Circuit Switching and Signalling Study Group (ASCSS) With regard to the wo rk of th is SG . the meeting resolved that I FATCA' s parti c ipation in the futu re should be confined to corresponden ce onl y . IFALPA ATS SG SC I gave a brief account of the inabi lity of its members to attend the two sc heduled meetings . which took place in Jul y and Octob er 1981 . The Executi ve Board assured SC I that the first planned meeting to be held in Washington that there will be a rep resentative coming from SC I and a po ssi bility of attendance at the seco nd meeting . Th e representati ve of IFALPA at Committee B spoke on the topic and reassured the Committee th at inform ation on th e di sc ussions of the I FALPA ATS st udy group would be made availab le to SC I. Flow Control - Review of existing General and Regional Policy Th e pape r. which was presented by SC I, viewed th e gener al atmosphere t hat exists t hroughou t th e wor ld parti c ular emphas is been given to the European Reg ion - as far as traffic demands can be satisf ied. Int ernat ion al organisations and European states . in pa rt icular. have recognised that the air traffic serv ices system particu larly in Europe - has for a considerab le period of years been unable to sat isfy the demand of its users. As a result of t his inabi lity. measur es have been developed over t he years to reg ulat e the flow of traffi c to the capacity of the syst em. These measure s known as ' Flow Control ' are now being deve loped and enhanced into what is now te rmed as ·Air Traffic Flow M anagement (ATF M)' . A s a general policy . it is difficult to be definitive about anything other than basic precepts . as the air traffic situ ation differs from reg ion to region . For this purpose . it was suggested that the estab lished I FATCA po licy on flow control should remain unchanged . With regard to the European region . ICAO has ca rried out a great deal of work regarding the problems of demands and c apacity . A report of 17

J ohn Saker and Ar t Cauty aft er the day is over for the rest of the delegate s at Committee, looking at th e day's minute s.

ICAO's Specia l Europea n Reg ion al Air Navigation M eet ing desc ribes two separate measu res to be adopt ed . Th e first sets out me t hods of impr ovin g th e ATC system capac ity and t he sec ond found it necessary t hat an A ir Traff ic Flow M anageme nt syste m be est ablished.

VFO-Rights of Way A paper prese nted by SC I was entit led 'Vis ual Flight Op erati ons, ATC Aspects of the Right of W ay Rules'. the ru les for avoid ing ae rial co llisions, more co m mo nly know n as t he ' rig hts of way' rul es. have in rece nt yea rs been the subject matte r of cri ti c ism from suc h bod ies as t he Visua l Fligh t Rules Group of th e Euro pean Air Navigat ion Gro up and t he ICAO Vis ual Flight Operat ions Pane l . The Committee considered the recommen dat io ns made by SCI but concl uded t hat: ' IFATCA shou ld not itself be involved in any detai led review of the rights of way ru les, but a) the right s of way rules conta ined in A nnex 2 of ICAO should be revised In the light of the capabilities and limitation s of pre sent day air traff ic , w hil st ens uring . as far as possib le, 18

that they do not compromise ATC respon sibilitie s for the general assuran ce of separation of traffic in th e area; and b) such a revision should take into account not on ly that of performance ch aracteri sti cs of modern aircraft but also the three dimensiona l natur e of air tr affic .'

VFO - Classification of Airspace A discussion that ensued during t he co nsideration of this paper, high lighted th e need for clarification of the propo sed service to be provided by the V FR Monitoring Service (VMS) and also th e differenc e between VMS and CVFR. Pilots str essed the need for simpli c ity in airspace cla ssification to ensure under standing by all users. VFR Monitoring Service (VMS) has bee n defined as: ¡A service provided for the purpose of a) monitoring the path s ofVFR flights . b) providing information to each flight abo ut co nfli ct ing VFR and IFR flight s, c) advising th e IFR con t rolling auth o rity of the presence of the VFR flight, d) providing all _other flight informa t ion services.

Regarding now the c lassification of airspace, it was suggested that the different types sha ll be identified by number until VFO Panel resolves upon. It is suggested that the airspace be classified as: Airspace Type 1, where I FR flights only will be permitted; Airspace Type 2, where IFR, CVFR and SVFR (SV FR not permitt ed on airways); Airspace Type 3, where IFR, CVFR and SVFR (not on airways) are permitted and additional service to the VFR should be VMS. Airspace Type 4, IFR and VFR, with VMS availab le to the VFR, and Airspace Type 5 , where I FR and VFR are permitted, Types 1, 2 and 3 are contro lled airspace and types 4 and 5 uncontrolled . VFR flights in Airspace Type 3 wou ld be permitted under the following conditions : a) all such f lights wou ld be provided with VMS , b) would be separated, either systematically or individually from IFR and CVFR flights , and c) must be equipped with i. VHF radio ii. transponder with at least mode A capability and in due course w ith mode C.

VFO - Special Flight Operations (SFO) The term ' Special Flight Operations' was coined by the V isual Flight Operation s of the European Air Navigation Group to cover tho se flight s which cou ld not be categorised as VFR , yet which we re not cap able of meeting IFR requirements. SFO' s which are made up of a range of di sparate aeria l activitie s con stitute a significant portion of each day's flying activity. By their very nature , these SFO's do not readily conform to the VFR and hence create the problem of their integration with 'normal' VFR traffic. Unfortu nately, it was revealed, at the meeting that there wa s not a simple , all embracing , solution that can be app lied to all types of SFO 's to ensure their safe conduc t without undue restrictions imposed on them or on other flights . It wa s conc luded that the way a special activity is not ified, protected and conducted can only be decided in relation to the nature of the flight The following may be c lassified as spec ial activity : Military SFO ac tivity ¡ General . These are normally conducted in VMC and outsid e co ntr o lled airspac e . Milit ary low level flying . Such flying . w hich is nece ssitated by mi litar y requ irem ents present s a prob lem no

Irish, Israel and Italian Directors sitting together.

matter how well the ATC organisation is designed. Military low flying in IMC : although not entirely within the scope of such classification it is worth noting here that recent developments call for military aircraft to low fly in IMC using terrain following radars. This sort of acti vity can obviously take place in areas set aside exc lusively for the purpose. Other SFO's: Civil and Military Test/ Development Flights and Aerial Surveys, Aerial Displays contests and Formation Aerobatics and Glider and Balloon flying.

ATARS Beacon (Airborne) Collision Avoidance Systems and Automatic Traffic Advi sor y and Resolution Service , and Improvements in SSR Techniques and A TC Aspects of Air I Ground Data Link s, being important studies will be printed in future issues of the journal . The meeting adopted the following general policy statement on Mode S development to supplement present Air / Ground Data Link policy of I FATCA: ' Mod e S Development a) Mode S developm ents sh_ould be p lanned to faci litat e their applica tion to ATC Systems at all level s of sophistication; b) Mode S should be developed prim arily as a ground system enhancement, designed to impro ve ATC /p ilot inter action ; __ c) Mode S air-to-air link capability should be used in a support role for th e main ground syst em, pro vid ing a back-up cove r ground system errors and failures .· Furth ermore . the meeting reso lved th at. since ATC aspect s of the development and use of SSR Mod e S are of direct co nce rn to the Federation , IFATCA seek early repre sent ation on th e ICAO Mode S SSR Impro vement s and Collision Avoid ance System Panel (SICASP). Performance Data Computers ATC Aspects. Thi s pap er was presented by the Germ an Assoc iation . New generation airc raft are mo stl y eq uip ped w ith Perform ance Dat a Computers (PDC) or, as w ith the larger ones, w ith Flight Man agement Systems (FMS). __ PDC's ca lc ulate the most eff1c 1ent verti ca l flight pro file . Perfo rmance dat a of the aircra ft are st ored in the compute rs w ith manual performa nce

by the pilot s such ATC clearances 2. TI BA-type procedures w hic h (Flight level s, airspeeds , c limbs / derequire pilot s th emse lves to assess sce nts . etc .) ·dangerou s pro xim ity situatio ns· It is obvious th at such computeri sand to take crude rule of thumb ed calculations will bring about the act ion to redu ce co llision risks mo st economic c limb speed, . cannot substitut e for a ground maximum rate of climb and maximum based ATC Service developed to angle of climb. economic cruise speed the standards laid dow n by ICAO. and level , economic de scent speed 3. The strong est possib le pre ssure and top of de scent . sho uld be brought to bea r on the It is natural th at close cooperation ATS aut hori tie s concerned fo r earand coordination should be effected liest possible pro vision of t ec hn ical betwe en pilot and co ntroll er t o fa c iliti es to the standard s specif ied achieve the mo st economic in the appropriate ICAO Regional perform anc e of th e flight , w ith o ut of Plans course compromising safet y . 4 . In the meantime . for safety reasons alone . IFATCA supp ort s t he use of TIBA procedures as an int erim pa lTraffic Information Broadcasts by Aircraft (TIBA) liati ve measure 5 . IFATCA is oppo sed t o t he intro Thi s particular item was also t he du cti on of TI BA proce du res in dessubject of detailed stud y by SCI and ignated Cont rolled A irspace was co nsiderab ly discussed at last 6 . Wher e introdu ced , TI BA proyear's co nf erence in Cairo. Thi s year's cedure s shou ld be co mp lied w ith discussions we re focused o n th e by all aircr aft ope ratin g in t he airpo ssibl e mi suse ofTIBA proce dur es by space con cerned . pilots. 7. Adequate trainin g and f am iliarisThe follo w ing recommend ati ons to ation w ith TI BA proc ed ures mu st Final Plenary have now become IFATbe provided for pilot s co nce rne d CA policy: befor e th eir introd uct ion. 1 . I FATCA is seriou sly co ncerned 8 . Since TIB A proce dur es are pi lotabout th e te c hni ca l deficiencies in impl ement ed th ey cannot be comce rtain areas of t he wo rld . in parpared w ith ATC proced ures and t icul ar the AFI Region . w hic h have I FATCA ca nno t co m ment on their necess itat ed the intr od uct ion of effec ti veness as a mea ns of TI BA procedures W e deplore th e im proving separat ion ass urance. fact that. becau se of the lack of 9 . I FATCA is. however . concerned adeq uate air / grou nd and int erabout t he interac t ion of TIB A pro cente r comm unicat ion fa c ilit ies cedures on the ATC syste m s and of ground based navigation al operating in adjacent airspace aid s. co ntr ollers in the areas con pa rticu larly the safe integration of cerned are unable to provide the t raffic leaving TI BA airspa ce To level of air tr affic service required by ensure that the separation assu rairc raft oper ator s and pilot s ance function of ATC in adJacent 19

nature , and has taken rather the form of progress report. ICAO EUR Regional Informal Flow Control Meetings (FLOW/ FLOE) This paper was presented by the regional vice-president with regard to the Air Traffic Flow Management of Europe . The discussion that ensued emphasised the need for a more active interest by the affected memberassocia tion s in the two European Region s (West & Central). The present developments. the meeting held, in the air traffic management organisation in Europe appear to be in line with current IFATCA policy. There was indication of greater interest in flow aspects among member-associations indicating an intention for greater input to the respective regional vice-presidents. Committee C Chair.¡ I to r.¡ Andreas Avgoustis (vice-president professional) , Efraim Daniell (chairman), Andreas Papathomas (secretary) and David Hitchcock (vice -chairman).

areas is not comp romi sed by TI BA trans itio nal t raffic the follo w ing principles should be app lied: a) Level Chang es in TIBA A irspac e The procedu res proposed by ICAO are endo rsed as they permit level changes to be made only fo r urgent operational reasons (e.g. traffic/ wea th er avoidance) and require aircraf t to return to their original level as soon as possible b) F!tghts leaving TIBA Airspace I. Aircraft should enter adja cen t airspace on ly at designated boundary reporting points at a FL app ropriate to its direction of flight 11. A ircraft shou ld con t act the ATS Unit respons ible for the adjace nt area at least 1 5 minute s befo re crossing boundary giving flight details and estimate for the designated entry reporting point. Provi sion of O perationa l Aeronautical Inform ation Thi s paper was presented by SC I pursuant to the d irect ions of the Cairo Confe rence on the pape r presented by Philip s Telecommun icatie lndustrie BV in cooperat ion with the Advisory Gro up - Air Navigation Serv ices, Inc . Beca use it is of interest to t he profession the entire st udy w ill be serialised in future issues of the Journa l. The committee resolved that the fo llowing be accep ted as IFATCA poli cy


1 . It is the I FATCA objective to encourage st ate s to establish a com mon aeronautical information data base containing notices to airmen, aeronautical information publication data. meteorological data and operationa l and technical status data. 2 I FATCA proposes th at Aeronautical Inform ation Data Handling subsystems be implemented in air navigat ion services systems for the efficient handling of aeronautical information data and operational flight inform at ion. 3. Con sc ious that the availability of an improved AFTN cou ld greatly impro ve data handling efficiency. I FATCA encourages ICAO to acce lerate work on the subject of CIDIN (Common ICAO Data Interchange Network) wit h a view of its ear ly implement ation. 4. IFATCA propose s to extend the AFTN also into those areas of air navigation services systems. where at present no connections exist. It was further resolved that ICAO be advised of the IFATCA policy. as above. Basic Technical Requirements for the Provision of Air Traffic Services Thi s topic had been put on SC I agenda by the Cairo Conference and beca use, acc ording to the SC. the title was not st raig ht forward no definite stud y cou ld be co ndu cted and there fore the pape r was of a very general

Eurocontrol Radar Applications Specialist Panel (RASP) It was found to be a need for IFATCA to become more invo lved in RASP. The panel is dealing w ith SSR and Tran sponder operations and procedures. It was reported that there are now two panels . one on code assignment and the other on more general aspects. The Supplementation other MA's

of SC I by

As exp lained earlier thi s item came to be cons idered as a result of recent intern ationa l developments w ithin the Federation. by which it was found to be risky to rely basically on one particular associa tion to make one of the most important SC of the Federation. namely SC I. The paper was presented by the vice -president technica I and the discussion which followed gave emphasis to the fact that more MA's should be encouraged to join SC I. It was found th at although the idea was excellent yet it could not be implement ed at this stage. However . the Netherlands Guild vo lunteered to assist in the SC I functions. SC I Work Program With the approval of the Work Program of SC I for the year 1 982183 the deliberations of this committee were concluded . The following is the Work Program : 1. ICAO 1. 1 Supporting and Monitoring of a) Surface movement guidance and control system Study Group (SMGS) b) Radiotelephony (RTF) Study Group




c) Elimination of Ambiguity in RTF callsigns Study Group (EARC) d) Visual Flight Rule Operations Panel (VFO) e) Helicopter Operations Panel f) Simultaneous Operations on Instrument Runways (SOIR) g) SSR Improvement and Collision Avoidance System s Panel (SICASP) h) Aeronautical Speech Circuit Switching and Signalling Study Group (ASCSS) i) EANPG Basic Operational Requirements and Planning Criteria and Method s of Application Panel (BORG) j) EANPG Air Traffic Manage ment Group (ATMG) Liaison with other International Organisations a) IFALPA ATS Study Group b) Radar Application Specialist Panel (RASP) IFATCA Technical Policy a) Production of 1983 Policy Statement s b) Polst at promulgation Method of dissemination c) Review of existing policy Work Studies a) VFR operations Airspace classification b) SSR mode S Ground based and airborne co llision avoidance systems TCAS and ATARS c ) Helicop t er Oper ation s Furth er Policy Developm ent d) Establi shment of Dat abank feasib ilit y stud y e) Provision of ATC by independent authoriti es f) Transpo nder s - Aspec t s of operational procedure s g) Climb and desce nt profile s Pilot / Controller conf liction of int erests.


C - Professional

This Committee functioned during the past few years and deliberated mainly as a result of the work carried out during the pre-conference year by three Standing Committees. i.e. SC IV, SC V and SC VII. SC IV dealing with hum an and environmental factors affecting the air traffic controller, SC V, the controllers¡ training and SC VI I with the legal aspects of the profession . This year's meeting of Committee C. resol ved that the w ork of SC V had been completed and onl y some form of m o nitor was in futur e nece ssary . With the concurrence of SC IV, SC Vis being integrated into it and whatever studies became nec essary to be conducted on training, or monitoring the policy so far adopted , were to be carried out by SC IV member s. Working


A total of 9 fields of concern w ere shown on the agenda of this Committee with a possible 33 working paper s in accordance with the approved wo rk program of the three Standing Committees . Part C 1, covered as usual the report of the Executive Board. This as we have seen with the other Committees is merely an item that the vicepresident concerned will give addit io nal deta ils of w hat was said at th e first plenary by th e president of th e Feder ation . Part C 2. covered IFATCA' s att end ance at International Conferences co nce rning profe ssion al ma tt ers. Part C 3, aga in th e common item , th e Tec hni ca l Panel. Part C 4 , thi s was the work of SC IV that was carried during the yea r unde r review and cove red the human and environmental factors , inc luding medical aspects.

Part C 5 . covered th e report of t he Ad Hoe Committee on the I LO con clusions. Part C 6, cove red th e work of SC V, that is recruitment and train ing of the air tr aff ic co nt roller . Part C 7, cove red the wo rk of SC VII, th at is legal aspects. The rem ain ing parts, dealt, as with the other co mmittee s, wit h adm ini strat ive mat ter s. Conduct of Work The chai rman of Committee C. Efraim Danieli , anno unced that there was on ly one prox y vote in the Committ ee t hat of France being held by Ital y. Th ere w ere two late papers by the Medical Sub-committee of SC IV w hic h we re accepted by t he directors The chai rm an then asked the ViceChairman , D. Hit chcock of UK and the Secr etary, A. Papathomas of Cyprus to take their positions by the chair. The f irst part of the business. after th e admi nistrative procedure. was the examination of the Executive Board's rep ort. In the case of this committee . the vice-pr esident profession al answered questions and adde d a few more det ails whe re there was a reque st. The report of the Chairman of SC IV, Egbert Ju st. followed. Egbert announced in his report that he was no longer to be the chairman of this SC but promised that he w ill assist his suc cessor w hene ver necessar y Egbert had been the chairman of SC IV for the past 1 2 years . The UK delegate expressed on behalf of all delegates the ir th anks and appreciation for the good wo rk that he had done during the last twelve years. The V- P Profe ssional acknowledged also on behalf of the Executive B oard . the Board's appre ciat ion for the work and efforts of Egbert

Lady controllers attending Committee C Sessions. I to r. Mi kaela Louh,ja (Finland ). Teresa N. Perp ,na (Spam ) and Paula M cAd am (Guyana) 21

the only possibility of any work being done on recruitment and tr ai ning was a monitoring function by a body which did not necessarily req uir ed a sepa rate SC. The c hairman suggested, as he stated, in a separate working paper that this function should be taken by SC IV. Aptitude Testing for Air Traffic Controllers

Egbert Just (German y, chairman SC IV for the past 72 years) hands over to U Windt (also from Germany) the new SC IV chai rm an.

Retirement Program for Air Traffic Controller s Exte nsive di scussion ens ued o n this particula r pap er based on the ILO Conclusions relat ing to the same item The New Zeala nd delegate stressed the need that there sho uld be a differentiation between loss of licence compensa tion and early retirement sche me . A sec ond career sc heme shou ld be pu rsued as part of t he co mpensat ion for loss of lice nce. The Cana dian delegate reviewe d th e c riter ia prevai ling in Canad a and explain ed the proce dur e w hich is fo llowed in such cases . The meeting then proceeded to reso lve on cert ai n c hanges to be m ade to some part s of th e t ext of the paper and suggeste d the following to become IFATCA po licy 'There shou ld be an early retire ment sc hem e for AT CO' s and all pen sion arrangements should be such as to produce suc h benef its as if servic e had cont inu ed to no rmal ret iremen t age. Controll er I Pilot Salary Relationship and Comparability

SC IV, had been directed by the Cairo confe rence last yea r to con sider , on an inte rnat iona l basis, the advantages and d isadva ntage s of co ntr o ller I pilot salary co mp ara bilit y with a view to fo rmu lat ing . if benefi c ial to th e profess ion, an I FATCA po licy favo uring such arrange ment . At the t ime the on ly known cas e that con tr ollers' salary as compa red to t hat of the pi lot was 111 New Zealand . SC IV , howe ve r,


found the time very short to come up w ith any serio us study and recommendations and therefore asked for time to report at the next year's confe rence . SC IV sub-committees, IFATCA Hand book (I HB }, SC IV Library and M edica l had mad e short repo rts on their act ivit ies. Sub-committee I H B st ressed the importance of prompt replies to the qu est ionnaires sent out w hich are abso lute ly necessary to have an updated version of the IH B. Sub -com mitt ee Library provided the de legates w ith an updat ed list of litera tur e avai lab le w ith SC IV and that MA' s we re free to use the library's fac ilitie s The Report of the Chairman of the Ad Hoe Committee on the ILO Conclusions of Experts In t he absence of the chairman of thi s co mmitt ee, his report was read and explained by the two member s of t he co mmitt ee present at th e con ference , J . Kalvik and Dean Dalzell. A number of c hanges to t he repo rt had been made and it was further sugge sted th at th e co mmittee should co ntinue to fun ction until it co mplete s its task. it was establ ished . Report of SC V Chairman

Th e Chairman SC V, Adrian Enright, report ed on the acti vities of his co mmitte e and also of t he meeting the SC had in Rome late last year. Adrian suggested th at his SC shou ld now be disband ed beca use it has accomp lished its purpo se for w hich it was estab lished and suggested that

For a number of years various tests have been devised in an effort to dete rmine which of t he ca nd idates presented to a select ion board possess those qualities deemed essential fo r controlle r select ion. There was at one time the tendency to believe that when a person had been selected to be a pilot then he wou ld have no difficulties in tr aining as a contro ller . It is nowadays admitted that although the skills required for a pilot remain the same , those for the air traffic contro ller have c hanged . Consequent ly as the skills have change d so wou ld be the criteria fo r the selection. Admitted ly, there are some similarities in pilot and co ntroller skills but there are also a lot of dif feren ces. Tests designed exc lusively for pi lot selection are not suitable for th e co ntroller and vice versa. The who le st udy had been an nexed by three other papers, that is th e q uesti onnai re upon w hich Adrian based his working pap er, Dr . Niels Busch-Je nsen, a Danish psychologi st who gave his professiona l views on ATC select ion and the third annex gave details of the so urces upon which the st udy was made. The following reso luti ons we re adopted as a result of th is study a) th at aptit ude te st s specifica lly designed fo r air traffic co ntroll ers be included in the select ion process for air traff ic contro llers: b) th at the select ion board inc lude a psyc hologi st , tr ained in , or fami liar with all aspects of ATC and a co ntroller trained in selection method s and procedures: c ) th at Member -A ssoc iation s, 1n co nsultat ion wit h their adm ini str ation , encourage th e development of suit able stat ic and dynamic aptitude te st s for th e select ion of air traffic co ntrolle rs; d) all the above be accepted as IFATCA policy. The report of the chai rm an of SC VI I foll owe d w ith the variou s st udie s co nducted by his st anding comm itt ee Intimidation

of the Controller

The paper on intimidation men tioned two distin ct cases of intimidation of the air tr aff ic c ontrol ler . The first case co ncerned the PATCO issue

L to r: V. L. Hanenberg,

Suriname ,

J. Wang and H. Liu of Taiwan (Rocatca).

5. Exam ine and repo rt on the legal impl icati o ns of employment of ATC personne l by independent Civil Aviat ion Authorities. 6. Study the different method s adopted by Civil Aviation Au t ho rities to revoke air traffic controllers · licences. 7. Study the legal implication s of granting immunity to controller s voluntarily reporting of incident s. 8. SC V II maintain progress w it h regard to lega l systems and upda ting of the append ix, which were the subjects of last Working Paper s with the objective of advising member associations should t he need arise .

Fina l Ple nar y and th e seco nd t he Brazilian . SC VII gave detai ls of wha t it s members th o ught th at th e acti o n by th e US Gove rnm ent amount ed t o direct or ind irect itim idat ion. There was litt le disc ussion on t he issue beca use t he matter had already been discussed by Committee A.

Investigation of Air Incidents/ Accidents Thi s is anothe r field of activity by SC V I I subcomm ittee t hat is being looked aft er by t he Israel Association The pape r present ed was more of a prog ress repo rt togethe r w it h a questionnaire that members were asked to comp lete and sent to SC V II . The fo llowing are the wo rk program s of the two now main SC' s: Standing Committee IV for 1982/ 1983 Both agenda items C.4.6. and C6 4 . W P.23 and 26 were present ed togethe r due to t he ama lgamat ion of the two Standing Comm ittees into SC IV . Moved by Luxembourg and seconded by Belgi um The following prog ram was recommended by SC IV for the year 1982 / 1983 . It is recommended to Confe rence to acc ept the following work progr am for SC IV for 1982 / 1983 1 Continuance of updating the SC IV Quest ion naire and the IHB . 2 . Operation of the SC IV Library. 3 . Study of controller / pilot salary relation ship and comparability 4 . Air Traffi c Controlle rs physic a I fit ness progr am .

5 . Medical resea rch on occu lar dis6.

7. 8.



1 1.

1 2.

eases . W ork ing cond it ions in ATC from t he med ica l po int of view. Headse t effects on hear ing and hyg iene factors . Contac ts w it h nationa l and / or internationa l institute s. administ rations or organisa t ion s regarding the identification of profession -related di seases and their promu lgation. Reexamination of Professiona l Policy as contained in the IFATCA M anual . Revision and updating of IFATCA's po licy on Rec ruitment and Tra ining where considered nec essary. To prepare a more informati ve presentat ion of IFATCA's policy on t raining and SC IV working papers in the IFATCA Manual . To study the availabi lity of training fac iliti es to countries not having the ir own ATC schoo ls.

Stand ing Com m itt ee VII for 19 8 2/ 83 The paper w as presented by the chairman of SC V II and the follo w ing program was approv ed . It is rec omm ended to Conferen ce that the fo llowing item s m ake up the work program for 1 982 / 1 98 3 of SC V II 1 . Lega l Matter s and Leg al Develop ments in Aviatio n . 2 . Lega l Liabi lity of th e Controll er . 3 . Intimid ation of the Air Traffi c Controller . 4 . Inc ident and A ccident Invest iga t io n .

The President. H.H . Hen sch ler. opened the Final Plenar y Sessio n by thanking everyone for their att endance and hard work during Conf erence. The roll call of dire ctor s ind icated that 4 1 were pre sent plus o ne proxy remained of the three declared valid at the Opening Session Therefore of the possible vote s. 42 , fo r the purpo ses of recomm endat io ns require a tw o-third s majo rity. 2 9 votes would be requir ed for accepta nce . The Committee Reports we re present ed in reverse ord er as usual to minimi se mo vem ent in th e hall resulting from the Com m ittee A elect ion s . Commi tt ee C Mr. Efraim Danielli (Israel). Chairm an . present ed his report and th anked me mb ers of the comm itt ee for t heir input d ur ing the week . th e Vice- Chair man Mr . David Hit c hcoc k ( UK ) and Secre t ary M r. A ndre as Papat hom as fo r t heir man y hour s spent co m piling t he repo rt . Italy propo sed acceptance of the report . Thi s was seconded by Germany and un animou sly accepted . Committee B. M r John Saker ( UK ) Chairm an. presente d a very c ompr ehens ive repo rt wh ic h ref lec te d th e hig h q uality of t he te c hnica l expert ise of t he Federa t ion with only min or c hange s to t he ·act ion c o lum n ·. M r . Saker c losed by th anking M r . P Herw eyer (Nethe rland s) Vice Chairm an. and M r. A . Cauty (Cana da). Sec reta ry_ fo r th eir assistanc e and ded icat ion to c ommi ttee program . Belg ium propos ed t he acc eptan c e of t he report . Greece sec onded and th e report wa s unanimou sly acce pted .


IMPROVING AVIATION SAFET Britain'snew air trafficcontrol radar network,due to becomefully operationalin 1983,is intendedto serve the combinedciviland militaryneeds ofthe U.K.NationalAir TrafficServices up to the turn of the century. England, Walesand most of Scotlandwill be coveredby five dualpurposeprimary/secondaryradar stations,each fullyduplicatedfor maximumreliabilityand equippedforauto-




mated unattendedoperation.Remote real-timemonitoringof radarinformation as wellas systemperformance and serviceabilitywillbe carriedout by the LondonAirTrafficControl Centreat WestDrayton.Eachstation will handledata forup to 800 aircraft within its coverage,whileoperational ranges of the completeradarnetwork willvarybetween80 and 250NM,with height coverageup to 26,000feet for

short-rangefunctionsand 70,000 feet for long-rangesurveillance. In selectinga technicalpartner forthis complexnationwideATCproject,Britain'sCivilAviationAuthority chosePhilips'specialistradar company - Signaal.The technology,operational efficiencyand systemreliabilityoftheir advancedradar equipmentare already provenby similarATCinstallations suppliedto Eurocontrol,Paraguay, Singapore and The Netherlands. ATCradar is one exampleof how Philipstechnologyis improvingaviation safetyand efficiency.Hereare some more.

I t

BAGGAGE SECURITY SCREENING The new PhilipsDynavision500 X-rayscreening system employsadvanced digital imaging technology to providea clear, sharp image when screening passenger hand baggage. The high-speed imaging is complementedby ergonomic designfeaturesto enable the operator to see more .. . more rapidly, a vital considerationduring peak boarding periods. l 1nsurpassed for reliability, the Dynavision 500joins the wide range of Philips security screening systems already in use in airports the world over.








The Greek CivilAviationAuthority has chosen Philips'4th-generationmultichannel voice loggingsystems for their air trafficcontrol network;two 44-channel versions for the airports of Athens and Salonica and six 11-channelversions for various other airports. The new voice loggingsystems, which are available in 11, 22, 33 and 44-channeLversions, providecontinuous 24-houroperation folINTEGRATED lowedby automatic change-overwith ample overlap to ensure continuity. Philipsvoice loggingsystems are used at SERVICES more than 150major airports around the The outdoorlightingat Singapore's world;the latest versionsbeing already AEROPP , Philipsdata switching Changi International Airportis the and data handling system for aeronautiin servicein France, Germany, Italy, world's largest installationof its kind. In Luxemburg, Malaysia,Sudan,Switzerland cal operation, permits gradual economic the terminal area Philipsprovided650 growth from a small installation, routing and Yugoslavia. low volumes of AFTNtraffic, to a powerful antiglare floodlights to illuminate 53 multi-user centre providing a complete parking aprons to the standards of the range of aeronautical telecommunications InternationalCivilAviation services. As the requirements of the AFTN Organization. Morethan half of these are centre expand, AEROPPcan be enhanced antiglare type SNF011floodlightsfitted accordingly to provideCommon !CAO with 400WSON/Thigh-pressure sodium Data Interchange_Networkswitching, lamps to the specificationof the Visual AFTN/CIDINinterfacing,flight-plan AidsPanel of the !CAO. storage and processingfacilities and Antiglarefloodlightsare also radar sub-system interfaces- together, the mounted on high masts at main road inbackbone of an integrated Air Navigation tersections around the airport so as to System. avoid upwardglare in the path of approaching aircraft. Securityillumination of the airport's perimeter is by means of SOXlow-pressure sodium lighting. These are just a fewexamples of Philips high-technology in aviation. Outdoorlighting, however,was Ifyouwould likemore info1mation , write to your local Philips organizationor to Philips C.M.S.D .. only a part of Philipstotal cont1ibutionto VOA-0225, 5600MD Eindhoven, the Netherlands. Or telex:35000 PHTC NL/CMSD,VOA-0225. Eindhoven, the Netherlands. Please indicate which of the abovesubjectsyou are interested in: this ambitious airport project. Wealso supplied and installed the long-range 0 --------------------- --radar and displaysystem, LORADS , and the Airport Surface Detection Equipmen~ 0 ------------------------ASDE, and equipped the tem1inal buil0 --------------- --- - ----dings with the world's largest (7500loud0 --------------- -- --------speakers),electronically-controlled, public address system.

l•@:il-~@:iiM~l•J.i•Il)~l• W


Shortage of hotel accommodation in Amsterdam forced the IFATCA council members to move to Rotterdam prior to the Conference for their Council meeting. These regional vicepresidents are pictured here at Rotterdam Central Railw ay station whilst waiting for their train to go to Amsterdam. L to r: Carlos Olmos (Mexico), Dave Klaye (Ghana), Ralph Kimilu (Kenya), W Schindler (Austria) and Peter Georgis (Cyprus).

Committee A. The president announced the procedure to be adopted for the presentation and acceptance of this report: The Chairman would present the report as a whole and a vote on its acceptance would be taken excluding Recommendations A 7, A 8, and A 1 0: Election of new Members Recommendat ions A 14 , A 1 5, and A 16 : Expulsio n of Membership. Recommendations A 1 7, A 1 8, A 1 9 and 20 Election of Region al VicePresidents. Recomm endations A 21 , A 23 and A 24 Election of Execut ive Bo ard which were subject to separate vote s. Chairman , Mr . A .D Tilro e presented the repor t co mmenting th at the agenda had provoked considerab le discussion both in the open and c losed session pe riods He than ked the directors for their patience and hard wo rk, Co-Vice-Chairman Mr. H H. Tilly (UK) (had to leave after two days), Mr. L.W . Curry (UK) and Secretaries Mi ss Leslie Au stin and Mi ss M arie Quinn for their effic ient recording of the proceedings which wa s always a difficult task in this co mmittee . Th e Report excluding t he above rec omme ions was unanimously acc epted : in accordance w ith the con st itu t ion , the above recommendat ion s we re vote d upon separately . Corporate


The president stat ed it is customary at Conference to anno unce details of new Corpor ate M embers and on this occas ion it w as his pleasure to we lco m e ' Rediffu s1on Simul ator s lnco r-


porated' to membership of the Federation. The Charter and documentation to be forwarded, as regrettably the company's representative was not able to attend. Any Other Business

With reference to statemen t s made by the Institute of Professional Civil Servan ts (UK) in the ir application address to Committee A, Mr. E.G.H. Green, Director of the Guild of Air Traffic Control Officers (UK) made the fo llowing comments to Plenary: 'Mr. President , Members of the Board Delegates, Ladies and Gentlemen¡ Since the statement by !PCS to Committee A concerning their application to join !FA TCA the UK Guild has been questioned and challenged by many delegates concerning their membership numbers. The UK Guild would therefore like to make a short statement to clarify their own position. The UK Guild believes that, to the best of their knowledge the !PCS statement is statistically correct. Howe ver, it helps to explain the situation 'IVhen we state that many controllers are mem bers of both organ isatio ns (i. e. !PCS and GA TCO). The UK Guild actually represents 65 % of all UK controllers, 70% of CAA controllers and has the capability of representing 100 % of all UK controllers. Currently our member ship is 7, 207 and increasing . Thank you .' There being no further business from the floor , the president invited the guest speakers to take the rostrum as follows : Mr JS Smit , Director of Air Traffic Servi ces and Telecommu nications , Mr . A. Gil of the !LO, Cap-

tain Sansalone of IFALPA and the chairman of the Yugoslav Association Mr. Kapetanovic. Address by J.S. Smit, Dire ctor ATS and Telecommunica tion s, Department of Civil Aviation, Nether land s Mr. President, Ladie s and Gent lemen , I would like to make some observat ions with respect to the development of international air traffic control. In this context I shall consider international air traffic control to be the totality of measures which we have to agree internat ion ally in order to ensure that aircraft can fly expeditiously from A to 8 - wherever A and B may be in the world - and are flying equal ly safe wherever they are and in spite of the variances there may be in the degree of sophistication of the A TC systems . Against that background I would like to look at a number of issues in the area of A TC operation and safety that face the international community In particular I ask your attention for the international conformity of what I choose to call the 'tool s of A TC', i. e. rules, procedures, cont rol methods and equipment These, together with the skill of the personnel providing, maintaining and using these 'tools ¡, determine the A TCefficiency that is the capability to control traffi c at a movement rate which - within reason - meets the demand while maintaining levels of safe ty which conform internationally A ccording to Webster , the verb 'to co nform , indicates a likeness or agreement in form , in nature or in essen tial character I prefer to use that

The Secretariat always.

word rather than standardize, as it expresses more flexibility and less rigidity and authori tative air, but it preserves the essentials. Some of you may know that at the 1980 Annu al Conference of the Air Traffic Controllers , Association, I presented a paper which expressed a feeling of concern with respect to the diverging speeds of- on the one han d - technologic al devel opments and - on the other hand the development of internationally agreed rules , performance specifications, or whatever name you want to give to material which ensures that our A TC systems - and here I quote Webster again - agree in form , in nature or in essential character . Of course, international agreements will always lag behind the developments of technology , but my point is that the backlog is becommg too big. As long as developments in A TC systems are, as the saying goes, evolutionary rather than revolutwnary , use can be m ade of experience and acquired knowledge But in many cases, developments are not evolutionary any more, at least not in the sense it was onginally meant A wide array of choices in advanced techn ology is now a vailab le, in hardw are and software and is offered in a large variety of possible system designs . The inter national character of air traffi c con trol demands th at the development s of our systems do not diverge This can only be guaranteed if there 1s adequate internationally agreed gwdance . However , the incompleteness or even absence of such guidance is gradually

growing to a level that puts the conformity of A TC systems internationally at risk . These risks result from the flexibility of modern systems and the large number and variety of authorities, industries and individuals Which define the performance capabilities of those systems , without there being valid common denominators . There is an enormous variety in the degrees of sophistication of A TC environments in todays world. In the same world technology makes progression possible at steps which seemed inconceivable less than a decade ago. A TC systems may jump from procedural control with paper strips to radar control based on digitized radar pictures , tomorrow maybe from an A/dis lamp to satellite data link . Can we digest all that progress? Certainly , the experience and knowledge in a number of states with advanced A TC sys tem s ensure that a satisfactory operational application and safety of air traffic is adequate ly maintained, although there m ay be shades of difference in the 'standards¡. However , the situat ion is somewhat more difficult in parts of the world where states with only shallow operational background, sometimes faced with explosive development of air traffic and being bombarded with advanc ed technology , cannot but pass over cer tain pre -c omputeri zed era 's - such as for instan c e the use of analogue radar - and therefore will never acquire the same experien ce and knowledge . There are indeed already many advanced technological applications in use whi c h seem to be

busy as

commonplace for some, but which for others are still concealed in the Ede n of promised technology. Example s are digitized radar , radar tracking , sophisticated flight trajectory prediction , conflict detection and warning , automatic data distribution and displa y, etc. Further advanced developm ents are already within sight , such as SSR M ode- S, Traffic Alert and Collis ion A voidance System ( TCAS), MLS with flexible approach paths in the vertical and in the horizontal planes, conflict resolution, flight management systems with 30 and 4 0 navigation capability encouraging fuel-efficient profiles , and mention is even made of automated en route ATC and airborne traffic situation display. The question can be posed whether those that are in the lead have not pushed on too far ahead without leav ing behind adequate route-indicator s to ensure that those that are to follow stay on tracks that do not diverge . Without wanting to dramati ze imper fect ions of past and present , it appears to me that internationally we are neglecting some uncompleted work and if we 're not careful we risk to ar rive at a degree of divergency that ma y increa se to the point at whi ch rec oncili at ion will become a major prob lem. In summary , there is a tw o-fo ld cha llenge for international A TC One is to consolidate internation ally the knowledge and exp erience of p ion eers, precursors an d of early app li cation for the benef it of thos e to fol low.¡ we have to catch up arrears For instance . a good !CA O manual with


of IFATCA. Also, that the Federation will have to concentrate on finding ways to overcome shortcomings of A TC systems in many areas of the world to ensure adequate aviation safety everywhere. In that context, Mr. President, I believe that your international Federation has an intimate interest in the international issue that I raised. This is particularly the case now that more and more A TCfunctions and A TC related functions are being included in hardware and software both on the ground and in the air. The international activity that I implicitly advocate clearly falls within the sphere of responsibility of !CAO. But, as an international organization, /CAO is not an isolated self-supporting body. It can only initiate and successfully complete activities if and when the inJS. Smit. ternational aviation community feels and agrees the need and gives its support. That stage has not been reached some rules or principles about basic yet, mainly because the larger part of radar accuracy, the digitizing process, the aviation community has - neither the combination of radar signals from nationally nor internationally - given different sources, how the integration enough thought to the issue that I of signals with different characterraised. istics and accuracies affects overall Mr. President, Ladies and Gentaccuracies, etc., would already be a lemen, you have an excellent opmost useful document, particularly for portunity to promote and foster the rideveloping countries. But it does not pening process that is still needed. In exist. the first place because of your proThe other challenge is to find new fessional relationship with the subject. ways and means to describe and In the second place because, through document the rules required to ensure your member organizations, you can that also in future developments there reach many authorities, users, and inwill be 'likeness or agreement in form, dustries in the world. in nature or in essential character'. Promotion of the subject will reFor this a more inventive approach quire the support and cooperation of is needed. We must try to find many members of the aviation commethods to define A TC system munity at national and international performance characteristics to prolevels. I realize. as well as you will do, tect and safeguard the quality of in- that /FATCA is but one of those. But ternational A TC. Such a new ap- your voice, Mr. President, Ladies and proach could be found, I believe, in Gentlemen. could carry weight ... if the development of minimum per- you don't make it too heavy .. . formance specifications for A TC sysI sincerely hope that you still have a tems in which we specify minimum little space left in your baggage to qualitative criteria and conditions that carry this thought home ... A TC systems are to fulfil to be recognized by international aviation. Those Address by Mr. A. Gil of the ILO: minimum performance specifications w,J/ have to be consolidated in worldAs the official responsible for Interwide meetings of /CAO. But those national Labour Organisation activimeetings will be fruitless if the ties in A TC, I am honoured to address preparatory work is not done properly. the 21 st Annual Conference of !FATAnd even before we can start such CA. On behalf of the Director-General preparatory work, a precondition is of the International Labour Organithat the international aviation world sation. I should like to thank the Fedcommunity is convinced that there is eration for having invited the Interth,s job to be done in the interest of the national Labour Organisation to be same international aviation. represented here. Mr President, you yourself, in The As you may know. a close working Controller¡, mentioned that the imrelationship has developed between provement of air traffic control equip/FATCA and the International Labour ment. procedures and working conOrganisation over the years, a ditwns will continue to be the priorities relationship which. especially during


the past year, has expanded significantly in several new directions. In September 1981, the International Labour Organisation was represented for the first time in the Fourth /FA TCA Regional Meeting for North, Central and South America, held in Lima. This representation has been of great value to the International Labour Organisation in more than one way. In conjunction with that Regional Meeting, at the request of the Peruvian Air Traffic Controllers¡ Association. the International Labour Organisation carried out an on-thespot study on the conditions of employment and service of air traffic controllers in Peru. This was also the first time that the International Labour Organisation has undertaken such a specific local study with a view to applying the conclusions of the International Labour Organisation Meeting of Experts in the Peruvian A TCsystem. Following that study a number of other /FA TCA Member Associations have requested the International Labour Organisation to carry out similar studies in their countries. May I indicate that very limited funds are available to the International Labour Organisation for such purposes. Requests should therefore include a detailed outline of the subjects to be studied and if possible, a brief description of the existing conditions of work. The International Labour Organisation will carefully consider these requests in the light of the financial possibilities available to it and of other competing priorities. Again, for the first time, the International Labour Organisation Committee on Freedom of Association considered two complaints concerning A TC disputes in the United States and in Greece. Its findings have been made available to /FA TCA. All these developments show that the role of the International Labour Organisation in air traffic control is far from over, and that its relations with IFATCA will grow closer yet. At the risk of repeating myself, Mr. President, I wish to refer to the report and conclusions adopted by the 19 79 International Labour Organisation Meeting of Experts on Problems concerning Air Traffic Controllers. Unlike International Labour Standards which are adopted by the International Labour Conference of the International Labour Organisation, these conclusions are not legally binding, and their follow up is not subject to a formal review procedure by the International Labour Organisation. Nonetheless, as they were officially communicated to the Governments of all

International Labour Organisation member states, they cannot be regarded as a purely internal International Labour Organisation document. Indeed there is much evidence that they are being used in many countries. In this respect, Mr. President, I should like to reiterate my appeal to your Federation membership: it would be of great help to the International Labour Organisation if the controllers informed it regularly, and in good time, - and that means at the very initial stage - of the manner in which these conclusions are used and of the extent to which they have been applied in each country. The importance of such action, Mr. President, should not be underestimated. Ladies and Gentlemen: many of you have met Mr. van Mura It, Head of the Basic lndustnes and Transport Branch, who is my immediate chief in the International Labour Organisation. This was the first time he attended an /FA TCA Conference He very much enjoyed the short time he spent in your company and regretted to have to return to Geneva after staying only for two days. So, on his behalf, I wish !FA TCA and air traffic controllers all over the world every success in their future endeavours. Thank you . Mr. Kapetanovic, being the chairman of the host Association of the 22nd Annual Conference of IFATCA, addressed the de legates briefly inviting them all to Split, Yugo slavia, the venue of the next conference. With Kapetanovic 's invitation being de livered. it was time for the host Association's Chairman , Sip Koopmans, to bid farewell to his and his Association's hundred s of guests and acknowledge the hard work of the many peop le who made up the organising committee, the secretariat, etc. 'The Controller ' wi ll not add anything more than what their Associat ion's president had to say about them all . Sip Koopman 's address reads as follows: Members of the Board and Council , Director s and Deleg ates, Distinguish ed Guests, Ladie s and Gentlemen , I do not intend to speak at great length. What this speech will boil down to is one big 'thank you ' To star t with, I wish to thank you all for attendmg this Conference. Some of you left us in uncertainty for a long time whether you would a ttend or not. This fact , / 'm happy to say, did in no way make the Conference less successful even though it did worry the Organising Committee (and me).

On behalf of the Board of the Netherlands Guild of Air Traffic Controllers and the Organising Committee, I wish to thank everybody who helped to make this Conference a success. I express our thanks to the Authorities of the Netherlands Department of Civil Aviation for their support and sponsorsh ip . They found themselves in a tight spot when we made our impressive request for special leave to either organise or at tend the Conference. One of the control units was fighting a shortage of staff even before we made our request! Neverthele ss, the utmost was done to meet demand - just like in air traffic control. I would like to mention the DirectorGeneral, Mr. Rab en, whose help and support deserve our appreciation. I wish to thank the Director A TS, Mr. Smit , for his assistance and for coming here to give us some thoughts 'fo r the road'. Howe ver, most of us will travel by air and at less expense than usual, thanks again to the efforts by the Department of Civil Aviation. Next, I wish to thank the Corporat e Members of the Federation for their support. Many of them exhibited their products at the Technical Exhibition and an interesting and well- a ttended Technical Panel was followed by an equally well-attended Corporate members lunch. Our special thanks to the Corporate Members Co-ordinator , Peter Jorgense n. The new Co-ordinator we wish good-luck. To follow are the companies and au thorities responsible for all the 'special arrangements'. We appreci-

ated and enjoyed the lunches hosted by the Department of Civil A viation, the Fokker Company and KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, as well as the reception by the Burgomaste r and Aldermen of Amsterdam . I feel sure you have enjoyed yesterday's evening arrangement, which the Netherlands Guild was able to offer thanks to the cooperation of Mart inair Holland. I feel equally sure that you will enjoy what is still in store: tonight's canal s tour, hosted by HSA, Ho llandse Signaalapparaten. Also, the Guild and the Organising Committee wish to thank the adv ertisers of the Confere nce Program bro chure. For easy and efficient registra tion and a smoothly operating secretariat we are indebted to WANG Computers, who provided word processors, printers, programming and the blue, red and yellow paper used at this Con ference. Mr . Spies and Mr. Moo lenbel gave up many hours of their valuable time to make this all possible. If you are ever on the lookout for the easiest thing but p en and paper and yet much more flexible. I suggest you contact them. I also like to express our gratitude towards Canon , who provided us with a copying machine at extremely short notice and at attractive conditions too. I have now arrived at the Organ ising Com mi ttee. M ore than two doze n colle agues, friends and relatives have been ext remel y busy , not only this week , but also in the preceding weeks or even months. Without their efforts it

As always the European Region with a very strong presence at !FA TCA ¡s Annu al Conferen ces


Helmut de Groot, chairman of the Organi sing Committee escapes in a corner for a brief breath.

ttcular even more benefits than those could not have been done. And that have been brought about in the although they may not appreciate this move, I would still ask all members of past 2 7 years. I wish you all a pleasant evening tour tonight : if you are not yet the Organising Committee to stand up J. Kapetan9vic (president YATCA), leavi ng: a nice and sunny stay in Holso that we can give th em a big hand 'lobbying ' J. van Eck of EGA TS for the for the tremendous amoun t of spar e land, and whenever you leave: a safe 1983 Conferen c e. journey home. With these wishe s I time they have put at our service. now formally close the 2 1st Annual I would like to m ention one person in particular: Helmut de Groot, Chair- Conference of the Intern ational Federation of Air Traffic Controllers' Asman of the Organising Committee sociations. Thank you . Helmut, I am sure you nev er expected these last few months to be as hectic as they turned out to be. J ust a few minutes more and you too can si t back and relax. Thank you for doing a magnificent job! By the way , I suggest the two of us mail our next telephone b ill to the Guild's treasurer withou t bothering to open the envelopes. Ladies and Gent lemen, I am approachi ng the end of my list now. However, we should not forget the wives, husbands, fiancees, or what have you of those involved in organis ing this Conference for their support, help and patience Also, anyone not mentioned so far: you have not been forgotten, because this 'thank you ' is to you . M y personal thanks finally to Ian Ftnlay from the UK and my wife Loes, who together helped me out when my usage of Engli sh tended to become non-common and who, I' m happy to say, nevertheless are sti ll on speaking terms! Ladies and Gentlemen , Our Fede ration has come of age . Let us hope The 2 2nd Annu al Conference organise rs Alexander Stefanovic ( 1969 /FA TCA that this adulthood will bring aviation Conference organise r), sec retary for the organising co mmittee (cen tre) On the in general and the profession in par - left Al exander Cvarkovic also of YATCA.


Marconi RadarSystems

brings processing power ¡to the airfield controller



Marconi RadarSystemsLimited,WrittleRoad,Chelmsford , EnglandCMl 3BN.Tel: 0245 67111.Telex99108.

New IFATCA Officers

Erik Sermijn (Vic e-Pres ident Professional)

Bernard Grezet (Treasurer)

Erik Serm,jn, born in Gent in 1943, j oined the Belgian A irp orts and A irways Agency in Dece mb er 1964 , start ed his A TC training in 1965 an d qualified as a radar controller in 197 2. He is presently working as a radar controller at Brussels ACC Since 796 7 he is a member of the Belgian Guild of Air Traffic Controller s. He was elected as a Board Member in 7969, where he acte d as Editor of the Belgi an ATC magazine. In 19 74, he wa s elected President of the Belgi an Guild, was reele cted three terms and is still holding this office He attended Several IFATCA Conferences an d Regional Meet ings and was the Chairman Organising Committee of th e !FA TCA 79 Brussels Conference

Bernard joined Radio Suisse in 1969 soon after his graduation from school. He joined the 39-strong Geneva Tower control team in 19 76 after becoming an air traffic controller in 19 74. Bernard has since 1971 been a very active member in his As socia tion's activities and is, since 19 73, a full member of !FA TCA 's Standing Committee Ill (SC Ill ) which deals with IFATCA 's finances. His new post will most certainly keep him very busy but for sure the new functions will not be stran ge to him. Not a stranger to !FA TCA conferences, Bern ard has attended regularly since 19 75. Bernard replaces Hans Wenger who now chairs SC Ill .

Adrian Enright (Regional Vic e- Pre sident for Europe-West Region) Adn an began his A TC ca reer m January 7966 when he joined the Umted Kmgclom M m1stry of Civil A vi3?

ation as an A TCO Cadet. In 1969 he completed his training and received his A TC Licen ce with all radar and non radar ratings. In January 19 72, Ad rian joined Euro control at the Brussels UAC as a contro ller moving to the M aastr icht UAC in M arch of that year. Sinc e 19 75 he has been an ATC Instructor at the Euro control Institute in Luxembou rg teaching in all aspects of air traffic control, instructor techniques and management studies. Sin ce the Ni cosia Conference ( 1977) Adrian has been the Chairman of SC V and has been responsible for form ulat ing IFATCA policy on Training and Recruitment during this period Formerl y a member of EGA TS, Adrian is resident in Luxembourg and a member of the Luxembourg Guild

Hans G. Laube of AEG-Telefunken (New IFATCA Corporate Members Co-ordinator) Hans joined AEG -Telefunken 24 years ago and has represented AEGTelefunken 's radar systems division at /FA TCA conferences sin ce 19 7 1. Before Hans joined the technical sales department of AEG-Telefunken 's radar system division, where he works as department manager, he gained his experience in the A TC field on several international and domestic GCA projects as group leade r and engineer, in the radar system testing field and the system development section.

Charles 0. Lester (Regional Vice - President for the Caribbean Region) Charles work s as a radar control ler for the Neth erlands Antilles Civil Avi ation at Curac;:ao He is the first vicep reside nt of his A ssociation. Charles takes the place of Richard Green who held the pos t for the past four years.

The Choice of Technology for ATC Radars Part I - Transmitters by H. W. Cole

Introduction The ATC world is under pressure. Carriers with rising fuel and operating costs are under pressure to win the competition for profitable route-miles. ATC authorities are under pressure to meet the carrier's requirement for a safe. fuel-economic service in the face of their own rising manning costs. A TC technical services are under pressure to deli ver ATC equipment performance at high system availability with static or reducing number s of techni cal and maintenance staff. who are also required to keep abreast of new technolo-

gv. Procurement executives have to respo nd to pressures from all th e above to implement or expand ATC system s with high reliability and low life cycle co sts to meet modern operational requirement s. It is self-evident that the need to increase mutual understanding of modern prob lem s in these areas was never greater: The pressures increa se ' information gaps ' between all concerned. During the Technical Session of th e 1982 IFATCA Conference there was evidence of one source of 'in form ation gap' . Exp ression s from practicing controllers in

Henry William Cole (M arconi Radar Systems Ltd ) Harry has been in th e radar business since he join ed ·as a wet -no sed lab assistant ' to B.C. Flem 1ng-Will1ams during th e 2nd World War. After service in the Roya l Corps of Sign als in th e Middle East ._he did develop · m ent work on MTI systems . field tria ls and co mm issioning of ATC radar system s. Af ter _mo re develop ment work . beca me a radar system s engineer . Joining The Mar con i Co . in 19 60 . in that ca pac ity . In the late 5o ·s he was engaged in produ ct planning for 3 yea rs . For the past 8 years he has lectu red to t_he post g radu ate Boswo rth Course at Birmingham Uni versity . on rada r and AT C. He has had many pape rs and arti cles p,; blished - some in 'The Controller' He has_particu lar int eres t in SSR matters and 1scurrent ly Princ ipal Radar Systems Engin eer at M RSL. He is proud to have been elec ted his company's IFATCA and GATCO Corporate M em bers Represen tative last year .

th e audie nce made it clear that designers were not getting across to the users the good news of the benefits resulting from modern technology towards reducing some of these pressures. The author delive red a short paper at the conference w hich aimed at making good thi s short coming and has gladly taken th e opportunity of publishing its substan ce at length in two articles, of wh ich this is the first. The Problem Let us go back to the beginning - w hy are th e information gaps there? It w ould seem simple to explain. Users and planner s have developed their expertise in the use of equipment furnished for them by procurement exec utiv es to meet operational requ irements. Procurement exec uti ves and th eir technical advisers have developed expertise in phy sic s, engineering and technology wh ich they use to int erpre t operational requirements and hence determine syste ms for the user. Thus there are two areas of experti se in two differing discipline s. An ideal reso lution of this situ at ion wou ld be to find the user wi th knowledge of modern technolo gy, served by a procurement exec ut ive

w ith know ledge of modern ATC practice s and requirements . All administration s strive to reach thi s ideal. I belie ve it is too seldom ac hieved , because this need for shared detailed knowle dge by both parties too often remains uns atisfied. The Effect of the Problem Procurement execut ives and their technica l advisers have the onerous task of translat ing operational requirements into techni cal specificat ions . They are usuall y under pressure to· get on with the job · and do not always take the necessary time to explain. in terms understandable by the user, the various technical choices made by t hem on the user's beha lf. This result s in the user quite often being led to belie ve or accept on ly one set of 'tr uths' - those give n them by their advisers . Also it is the procurement executive's technical spec ifications to which the sup plier responds in like technical term s and so a bia s towards technical matter s c reep s in at the beginning. Users . in turn , are not always able to be as rigorou s as t hey sho uld in specifying their operational requir ement in scientific . unamb iguous te rms . Sm all wo nde r then . in the se days of fast-changing techno logy, that the infor mation gap between user and te chnical adviser (p lus those further down the cha in) is grow ing . These arti c les are aimed at giving users some insight into ATC radar technologies . w hich are competiti ve in a given ATC ro le, so that they may enter int o di alogue with their techn ical advisers on a better footing . Competitive Technologies Engineers will p ersist in comi ng up w ith new ideas and c hoi ce amo ng these gets more diffi cu lt as technology advances . New and strange terms are band ied about mak ing it appea r to th e user t hat · it is all beyond him '_ This would seem to fo rce the user int o ever deepening reliance upon his te c hni ca l adv isers . I believe it possib le to bridge thi s gap in unde rstanding and take as examp le the case of the Terminal Area Radar (TAR ) for the fo llowing reasons En route (ERR) and Approa ch Surveil lance (ASR ) radars need perfo rmance c haracte risti cs which 1nhib1t one radar from performing both roles satisfa cto rily


Althoughsystemsclaimingto perform bothrolesarebeingmarketed . compromises of consequence to A TC have to be ma de. F or insta nce. tvvo vastly differ i ng antenna rotation rates cannot be provided simultaneous ly from a si ngle radar. Th e



-- •:


· ,-

,·: -- - =-


TAR's performance falls between the ERR and ASR and choice of parameters such as pulse length. antenna rotation rate. beamwidth. etc. is much wider and more difficult to make if an optimum is to be ach ieved. The Terminal Area Rad a r (TAR) Typ ical parameters resulting from the operational requirement are as follows: Data Rate : 1 2 per min for good track continuity Range: 80 to 100 nml fo r longer marshalling time and weather monitoring Pulse Dur ation: 1 to 1 5 µsec for good range discrimination Azim uth Beamwidth: 1.5 ° to 1 7 ° for good MTI and adequate azimuth discrimination (2 nml at 90 nml) M inimum Range: half nml. for fall-back into approach role. Clutter Rejection : Dealing with pe·s (per manent echoes) moving c lutter. angels. second -time -round signals . Cosecant Squared: for cover on over-fliers at close range V PD (Vertical Polar Di agram) Tec hno logie s to satisfy the require ments fa ll broadly into three areas: antenna techni ques. t ransmission techniques and signal processing techniques. Although these are inter-related as far as system pe rformance is concerned. thi s art ic le will conce ntrate upon tr ansmission tech niq ues. the others being refe rred to only as necessary. Part 11will be concerned with signal processin g for the TAR . The First Choice to be Made An ove r-riding cons ider at ion is the rad iat ion fr eq uency to be used. Here there 1sa choice. which is not difficult to make . The options are : 600 MHz (5 0 cm). 1 300 MHz (L band 23 cm). 2900 MHz (S band 10 cm) For maxim um immunity from weather clutter and best possib le rejection of ground c lutt er and ange ls . 600 MH z is undoubtedl y the best cho ice . The long wave length takes fu ll advantage of the low leve l of clutt er fluct uat ion s (moving tree s and vegetation. et c.) which can spoil the MTl 's ca ncellation of pe·s. For a given transmitte d power density an d resolution ce ll the sign al ret urned from rain is 28 d B (625 times) less at 50 c m than at S band . The signal from airc raft in a reso lution ce ll (w hic h m ay also contain rain ) would be ab out t he same at bot h frequencies . Ther e are so metime s requirement s to detect . as we ll as reje ct . weat her signa ls simultaneous ly in o rder to lo cat e weathe r of conseq uence to pi lots and to get some meas ure of its movement and seve rity. For TAR' s th e weather immunity of 50 c m can be a d isadva nta ge S band is at t he o the r ext reme since severe weather . even if c irc ular polarisation tec hnique s are used . can obscu re too many wanted ta rgets Thu s the c ho ice 1s d irected to L band


A modern dual-channel radar Transmitter -Receiver and Signal Processor. Seen middle of secon d cabinet from left is the Coaxial Magnetron CFO. below which is a multi-module solid state modulator . Design gives reliability . longevity and simplicity. Photo gr aph courtesy : Marconi Radar System s Limited .

- 23 cm. At this value weather detect ability and immunity tend to balance at an opt imum Two Classes of Technology for MTI All Doppler M TI systems rely upon a property of the radar cal led ·cohe rence ·. By this is meant that there is. by des ign. a known phase relation ship between rece ived signals and a reference frequency internal to the radar . In a coherent system. the phase of signa ls received from permanent echoes relative to the reference is constant from one tran sm issio n to the nex t . Using phase detection . cance llation of fixed echoe s can take place . Because of the system's phase sensit ivity and stab ility. target s moving a fraction of a wav elength between tran smissions can be detected - hence ·moving target detec tion ·_ Th ere are two distinct methods of producing co herence. One is to use a power am plifier tran smitter wh ich takes. as input. ga ted samples of a continuous stable osc ill at ion. The gate durat ion forms the output pul se: it s frequency of repetition determines the interpul se period. The other is to use a selfosci llat ing device whose out put is prod uced w hen a suitab le high voltage is impressed acros s it. The output pu lse is generated for th e time the voltage is pre sent . The rate at which it is present sets the pul se repetition period . Such devices have an output pulse w hose starting pha se varies from pulse to pulse. The required pha se reference to give co heren ce is produced by sampling eac h tran smitted pu lse and lat ching an oscil lator to it during each success ive int erpu lse period This is the c lassica l Coho -Stalo te chnique The fir st system is various ly known as ·self- co herent' . ·driven · or · power aplif ier' . Th e second syste m is generally known as the ·co ho-Sta lo· or ·self-oscil lator' sys-

tern . Both of these are described in detail in Sko lnik's ' Introduction to Radar Systems· and other standard works . (refs. 1 . 2 and 3 .) Transmitter Technologies These are governed by the o utput de vices available now . They are summarised in Table 1 . A major factor in the cho ice will be the degree of risk deemed acceptable by the buyer in choosing between devices with diffe ring fi eld track record. Of the se we can dism iss two candidates at the sta rt : The Amplitron on grounds of its low gain and th e 'Twy st ron · because the mean powers required by the TA R are much lower th an such dev ices are designed for. This narrow s the choice to Cross Field Oscillator (Magnetron technology) . Klyst ron. TWT . and Mult iple Transi sto r Module s. Radar performance is a function of the me an power irradiating the target and values of betw een 1OOO to 2000 W are suitable tran smitted mean powers for a TAR as specified above. With th is in mind Table 2 gives a compa rison of output devices in the context of the TAR . A simp le scoring system of ·weighting · is used . Even though other weightings could be given to the cha racterist ics in Tab le 2. the author sugge sts that provided the required perfo rmance is achieved (remembering performance include s the ability to conti nue to perform) . the league tab le would sti ll give the modern CFO top place . fol lowed by the Solid State Transmitter . The table is by no mean s exhaustive but draw s attention to salient points . A singu lar differen ce can be spotted . All but the CFO allow self -co herent syste m s The im portan ce of thi s is c urrently made mu ch of to th e point of emotional bia s against the

Marconi Radar Systems S600 L band transmitters give average life-times of about 5000 hours. In MRSL's S600 ATC systems this figure is nearer 10,000 hours with recent records showing more than 13,000 hours.

Table 1

Cross Field Devices

Magnetron (SO)

Linear Beam Devices

Resonant Cavity (SO)

Klystron (Dr)

Coaxial (SO)

Travelling Wave Tube (TWT) (Dr)

Solid State Devices

Multiple Transistor Modules (MTM) (Dr)

Hybrid TWT / Klystron (Twystron) (Dr)

Amplitron (Dr)

SO = Self-Oscillator Dr = Driven Device (Power Amplifier)

CFO. It is as though driven systems have just been invented - that there is some magic or sanctity in them. They are in fact the oldest technology in the radar art. Note particularly the date of reference 3.

turer' s figures of performance, it can be shown that the driven and self-oscillating devices have the same performance in terms of system stability for a pulse duration of 1 .35 microseconds. The graph in Fig. 1 shows that at pulse durations less than 1 .35 microseconds the self-oscillator performs better. At pulse durations between 1 .35 and 1.5 microseconds the difference can be regarded as negligible. Thus the TAR requirement can be fully met by the self-oscillator.

Driven Systems versus Self-oscillators - The Break-even Point Modern digital signal processing techniques have advanced so far that they are no longer the limiting factor in MTI performance. It is much more common to find the radar system stability as the limiter. The biggest component of this is transmitter performance. Claims are made that driven or self-coherent Klystron systems produce stability superior to self-oscillator systems. This is true up to a well-defined point. Both systems require pulsed transmissions and thus use a pulse modulator. In both cases the purity of the RF output is a function of the degree to which the modulator matches the requirements of the output device. In both cases the rate at which the modulation pulse rises and falls, its constancy of amplitude during the pulse, and from pulse to pulse, are factors determining system stability and hence MTI performance. Given an optimum design of modulator and using manufac-

Table 2

Life Time As examples of CFO's, early and current magnetrons have an undeserved reputation for short life and high failure rates. This is largely because their track record includes data upon very many badly operated systems - bad in the sense that the modulator was not properly designed to match the magnetron. A big contributory factor is that many modulators used gas discharge tubes to generate the RF output pulse. Typical reliability figures for hydrogen thyratrons (commonly used gas discharge tubes) are in the range 500 to 1OOO hours. However. by careful overall transmitter design, even with such modulator tubes. magnetron reliability in the

Improved Cross-field Devices In the context of the TAR, modern magnetron derivatives can be operated at something like half their permitted mean power rating. This confers extremely long life upon the devices, approaching that of linear beam tubes, at much lower cost. This, coupled with the very high reliability of a modern solid state modulator offering graceful degradation, makes this device very attractive. Its high efficiency (about 40%) is far superior to that of an equivalent klystron or TWT (about 1 7% ). Also the inherent simplicity and classic design of the whole transmitter adds to its attractiveness, avoiding complex liquid cooling and high voltage supplies. To summarise the above, attention is drawn to the following vital points: a) Judgement of cross-field oscillators should be made in the light of modern devices and their continuing development. Design technique has reached a point where the transmitter can be considered as consisting of a mutually supportive combination of modern modulator and modern tube and not two separate entities as in the past. This confers performance on the 'whole' which is greater than the ¡sum of its parts'. Future Development The most widely used CFO is the magnetron. Its critics point to its lack of selfcoherence - however. I shall show in Part 11 that self-coherence is not always a blessing to the user! Current developments include improvements embodying the multipactor principle by which auto-coherence can be achieved by the CFO and criticism on this score will no longer be justified. The multipactor technique will also make high speed electronic tuning, phase coding. Barker coding and pulse corn-

Comparison of TAR Output Devices


Cross Field Oscillator



Solid State

Life Time Cost of tube or output devices Efficiency Size (of TX equipment) Cost of transmitter Cooling Output device protection Mechanical handling Shelf storage Self coherence (driven system) Complexity of transmitter Device failure mode Signal processing overhead Electric stress Field experience

+ 0 + + + + + + +

+ low catastrophic + low + low + much

+ long high low 0 moderate high complex v. complex difficult difficult + yes V. high catastrophic V. high high 0 moderate

+ long high low v. large high complex v. complex v. difficult difficult + yes high catastrophic + low 0 moderate + much

+ long high + high 0 moderate 0 moderate + simple + simple + easy + easy + yes 0 moderate + modules replacable on-line V. high + v. low V. little

Total Weighting

+ 12-3=+9

+ 2-15=-13

+ 4-14=

+ 10-5=

long moderate high small low simple simple easy easy







,.--___,_!!-!i~Jjz!:"f:: :::: ;:t:!i!i::C


_I ••!.

O 0·1




PULSE Cl.JRATIONMICROSECONDS ----1..,~ (:11:)A::> ()

wtwX ::>IWHll\lV!)01




"NOISSIWl:f3dN3UIIIM 1n0HUM AUfYd OIIIH1 'f OJ. 03$01:>SIO HO 03:>no ·01:fd3Y '031dO:) 38 0.110N SI H:)IHM '~NIMYl:fO SIMl :tO J.H!)IYJ.dO:> 3M1 NMO GU.INn ANYdllO::) INO:>IIYII JH.1

pression possible: All characteristics previously ascribed only to driven systems.

The TWT and Multiple Transistor Modules (MTM) Both of these. despite their emphasised ability to achieve self-coherence. suffer a major disadvantage - low peak output power. The TAR transmitter is required to produce mean powers of between 1 and 2 kW. With both TWT and MTM. pulse durations greatly in excess of 1 .5 microseconds have to be transmitted in order to translate their low peak power into the necessary mean power. This is made tolerable to the user only by pulse compression techniques. A launched pulse of tor example. 50 microseconds duration is processed back upon reception into a 1 microsecond version. the 'long whisper· to produce the ·short sharp shout'. A major difficulty is encountered because the radar system cannot 'listen· until it has finished 'talking· and such a system has a minimum range of 50 + 12.36 nmls. i.e. about 4 nmls. This is not good enough for a TAR. To overcome this serious disadvantage the transmission has to be duplicated: The long pulse (frequency modulated) must be followed by a non-compressed short pulse at a different frequency to allow the short minimum range requirement to be met. This is illustrated in Fig. 2. The increase in system complexity is self-evident. In TWT transmitters. the output tube's potential


so.,.. SEC 114-n.ml5 .-'------'




1' _




..._ ______

F1• fm









UL __








,A,. ___

reliability is off-set by its very high cost. greater system complexity and unreliability of the modulator sub-system. In the case of the Multiple Transistor Module transmitter there is also a cost penalty to be paid. Equally complexity is very high. However. an attractive virtue of the MTM is the ability to replace failed modules 'online·. The emergence of solid state technology and its wider use in future is inescapable but the solid state RF output device is still new and expensive with little field experience making it a doubtful 'front runner' for those with limited budgets and techical resources. The distinct virtue of the TWf is its ability to produce its power over a very wide frequency band. This is highly desirable in military radars requiring frequency ·agility' to counter jamming systems. This virtue is not called upon in ATC radars. Conclusion I hope that the above arguments and discussion will not be regarded as special pleading out of technical weakness. Perhaps it will suffice to say that my own company has proven competence in the design. manufacture and supply of all the alternative transmitters mentioned above. It has been my intention only to show that there are no absolute 'bests' in the technical realm when seen from other than academic viewpoints. Other considerations such as: Initial costs Life cycle costs Training and maintenance costs Simplicity of design High reliability System availability all govern what. for the user and his procurement executive is best for them in their particular circumstances. References 1. Introduction to Radar Systems (International Student's Edition) Edited by M.I. Skolnik 1st Ed. McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1962 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill Koga Kusha Ltd. 1980 2. Electronic Engineer's Reference Book. 4 th Edition Edited by L.W. Turner Published by: Newnes-Butterworth 1976 3. The Marconi Review No. 121. Vol. XIX. 2nd Otr. 1956. pp. 53-60

Concorde Fiscal Returns Vary British Airways claims New York-London SST operations earned profit (unspecified) in 1981 . but for Air France Concorde lost$ 2.8 million on NewYorkParis route. despite 35% passenger rise. French carrier observed Concorde enjoyed 65% load factor on North Atlantic for ·very, very healthy' showing. 'The Wall Street Journal' reports. French Government wants Concorde service to Rio de Janeiro from Paris ended. British and French Transport Ministers have held talks regarding continued SST subsidies. Recent U. K. Government study showed cost of assistance to be$ 35 million more than abandoning Concorde operations. prompting 'The Times· of London to forecast SST 'will not be killed off in 1982 .

F-16 program at Fokker The 1 00th Fokker assembled F-1 6 was officially handed over to the Royal Netherlands Air Force. Monday. June 14, bringing the total of the Netherlands Air Force's F-16s to 62. The other 38 were delivered to the Norwegian Air Force. Fokker began F-16 assembly in 1978 and is halfway through current orders for these fighters, production of which will continue until 1986 at least. Expectations are that. as a result of Royal Netherlands Air Force followon orders in the coming years, the program will continue up to the nineties. Important spin-off from this program can also entail orders for repair and modification. Approximately 1 300 employees at all the Fokker plants are involved in the F-1 6 production and its various components. Current volume of the program exceeds Dfl. 1 billion. The F-16 program is very important portion of Fokker' s total production. Due to the nature of a government order of this kind, production is established for a number of years, so that steady employment is assured. Some 14% of Fokker's total workforce is involved in the program. Three F-1 6s per month are currently assembled and 1 0 center-fuselage sections and 10 sets of wing moving parts are manufactured. In the course of the year. production of F-1 6 carbon fibre tail sections will begin at Hoogeveen. This new order resulted from the first Royal Netherland Air Force follow-on order for 22 F-16s. The F-1 6 program entails highly advanced technology, and very up-todate techniques have been introducted into the company: new five-axis NC machines. advanced aircraft systems and. very soon. components will be manufactured from new composite materials (carbon fibre components). Through the links with a major US aircraft manufacturer. Fokker has gained considerable knowledge of management techniques. A government order of this nature demands sound project management and. in addition. more discipline and a more formal approach than with civil aircraft programs. With the delivery of the 1 00th F-1 6. Fokker handed over 49 single and 1 3 two-seaters to the Royal Netherlands Air Force. Thirty-one single and 7 two-seaters have been delivered to the Norwegian Air Force to date.

F- 1 6 center-fuselage component production at Drechtsteden. Ypenburg and Schiphol, wil reach a milestone next month when the 500th center-fuselage component will be delivered. Fokker also delivers these important components to the US Air Force to meet its needs of F- 1 6s for the USAF and those sold to 'third countries'. On the same day. Fokker will also deliver the 500th set of wing moving parts. Productivity in Fokker' s F-1 6 component production fully compares with that of the US manufacturer.

M LS development wi II reach a milestone in September when the first production, publicuse microwave landing system is scheduled to be commissioned. The facility is to be installed at Wexford County Airport in Cadillac. Michigan. The MLS ground equipment will be provided by Hazeltine Corporation of Greenlawn. New York. Hazeltine and Bendix are developing airborne MLS receivers for air carriers that are expected to cost between $ 2. 500 and $ 1 0 OOO. Several avionics are working on units for general aviation aircraft that are expected to cost between $ 2500 and $ 3000 and will follow the introduction of the receivers for airliners.

Aircraft Thieves Upgrade Pickings Although 210 private aircraft stolen in 1981 represented 13% dip from prior year. value of purloined planes rose to $ 25 million from £ 20.7 million. an increase attributed to fact two turbo1ets were included in total. Trend toward theft of aircraft with greater capacity was foreseen by International Aviation Theft Bureau (IATB). which attributed development to ·more sophisticated' federal. state. local law enforcement techniques that take narcotics smuggling more difficult. IATB. which is project of Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association. noted Florida incurred most aircraft thefts followed by California. Texas. Most popular 'victims· are Cessna 172 and 210. IATB added. An unrelated item in 'The New York Times· notes that one method smugglers use to elude authorities is 'tailgating· commercial airliners to escape radar detection In 1980. 1 79 of 290 smuggler aircraft seized in U.S. were confiscated in Fonda


SSR Mode S Improvements in SSR Techniques and ATC Aspects of Air/ Ground Data Links (As presented by Cl I at the Amsterdam

Introdu ction The imp rovements to SSR t ech niques have naturall y had a major impact on ATC procedures and methods These changes, brought about as th e result of improved equ ipment w ith enhanced capabi lities. have been tempered by equipment and syste m limitations and deficiencies. It is c onsidered by SC I that IFATCA policy has kept pace with the technical de velopments from wh ich A TC t echniques have stemmed in this area. The subJect of 'Air/ Ground Data Links' has been actively cons idered by IFATCA since 1964 and much guidance mater ial has been adopted. ICAO has recent ly defined SSR Mode S to include not only all da t a link functions but also discret addressing and therefore mono-pulse tec hniqu es. The ATC techniques w hich w ill no doubt evolve and be deve loped to take advantage of new facil iti es w ill also have to allow for the fact tha t the se syste m s are not alw ays perfect. The Development

of SSR

The deve lopment of the use of Secondary Surve ill ance Radar (SS R) has been a g rad ual process. which in so me areas is st ill taking place. With the introduct ion of Mode S and air/ ground data transfe r on the operationa l horizon. it is t imely to cons id er the lessons lea rned so fa r and to app ly these lesso ns to Mode S where possible . . Although the t heor y of enhanced aircraft identif icat io n was we ll fou nded, the ear ly days of SSR as a deve lopment of I FF was often a tr ial and error period for co ntro ller s to develop th eir own techn iques Th ese techniques have been assoc iated with para llel development of equipment enhance ment s in the air (e .g. 4096 c ode s and M ode C altitude) and on t he


Conferenc e)

ground (e.g. digital labels associated w ith the target s). It could be argued that SSR has only come into its own w ith the provision of these later equipment enhancements . In this case. the changes in ATC techniques and the limitations imposed by the equipment should assist in assessing the possible imp act of Mode S. ATC Developments

One of the major changes in ATC techniques has been the change in empha sis in monitoring aircraft. With

a primary only radar picture, every controlled aircraft must be regularly monitored in order to retain memory identification of targets and to refresh assessment of the total air situation to compare against strategy. With digital labels, especially those associated with tracked or code/ callsign paired targets , continuous monitoring can be relaxed. This is because identity of targets is no longer the prime mental function , and the air situation can be reassessed with identity maintained on the display. The ability to remember

the identity and predicted positions of a number of moving radar targets has never been acquired by many controllers and may now have been lost by many others who have worked with labelled displays for some time. However. labelling is a very positive advantage because the controller¡ s mind has been partially freed of one responsibility to concentrate more on other control functions and thus handle more traffic. The dependence for vital control functions on equipment must not be overlooked. With each advantage provided by electronic equipment there are usually disadvantages. and SSA is no exception. Some of these disadvantages have only recently become of direct concern to the controller. For a controller, consistent data is of more importance than technically perfect and precise data, i.e. technical limitations because of greater precision should not be apparent to the observer. With the reduction of constant surveillance. the occasional incidence of garbling or incorrect data has not proved impossible to tolerate. However. such deficiencies as lack of azimuth resolution of digitized SSA targets can be intolerable in areas of high aircraft density. especia_llywhere positive radar control Is being exercised. i.e. the monitoring function is a high priority. Even in this situation the occasional incorrect Mode C or Mode A transmission is tolerable. because the information is easily disregarded as not fitting into an established pattern that is known to be safe (controllers have often denied that such incorrect transmissions occur). However. false indications of target heading changes resulting frnr:n poor azimuth resolution and track Jitter can immediately affect the controller¡ s belief that a safe situation is being maintained.

The Impact of Mode S The improved surveillance service provided by Mode S_will hopefully alleviate these difficulties. However. the final objective of providing a data link alternative to voice RTF channels seems to be receiving undue priority over the many intermediate development uses. Because of the high cost of development and some recent accidents. there are inevitably strong political and emotional pressures to justify this objective. If this is the general attitude then ATC may be asked to absorb technical difficulties associated with all such equipment in early stages of its development. before ATC techniques have been evolved to make best use of its advantages. Because of the technical difficulties yet to be

overcome. or even to be discovered. the lengthy systems integration necessary and the total time before full operation. it is suggested that as much advantage should be taken of less critical areas of Mode S development potential as is possible. In this way Mode S will be able to provide benefit for the widest possible range of users. and experience so gained will benefit the longer term objectives. One example of such a use of Mode S is to automatically report aircraft heading. rate of turn (roll angle) and rate of climb and descent. to ground based radar data processing systems. This application of Mode S does not feature significantly in some of the proposals for Mode S. most probably because of the differences in radar target reporting and different track prediction methods in use in different states. In order to improve target position display and provide more accurate prediction. especially for conflict detection. many ground systems would benefit from data received directly from the aircraft. Improved surveillance would provide controllers with the additional advantages and enable them to develop the new techniques required to take advantage of the full potential of Mode S. hand in hand with the technical developments. Some of these techniques will require regulation. as with SSR. For example strict regulation of SSA code allocation. code use and verification procedures has been necessary. Even so. code duplication still occurs. In some areas code duplication is still a normal practice (e.g. all departures in a particular direction assigned the same code) where it is not practicable to use code allocation procedures which conform with the basic ICAO principles that an aircraft should be assigned only one code per flight. and that this code should not be assigned to any other flight. The final objective of Mode S appears to be the best the system can offer at best performance. It is known that SSR cannot be relied upon to provide always perfect performarce. and that occasionally there are procedural difficulties. Controller interaction is deemed to be a vital part of Mode S operations. especially where Mode Sis a backup or replacement for voice channels. ATC systems vary considerably and not all have the same level of sophistication. It is therefore necessary that simple procedures and principles be developed which can be applied to as many ATC systems as possible. The possibility of confusion. malfunction and human error should not go undetected. yet be easy to overcome.

Conclusions 1. In order to achieve these goals Mode S should be regarded as enhancing ground (ATC) systems. In this way it should be able to provide benefit at many intermediate levels of sophistication. 2. As the air-to-air capabilities are developed. these should be regarded as a back-up providing an additional level of safety in case of groundbased ATC system errors or failures. This built-in level of safety is becoming increasingly more significant as total systems become larger and more reliant on each subsystem functioning correctly. Mode S appears to offer a solution to assist in overcoming the increasingly difficult problem of technical failure of ground subsystems. 3. In order that a wider approach to Mode S can be presented. it is strongly suggested that IFATCA take up any option to be involved in forming Mode S policy with ICAO. when the political and emotional pressures associated with Mode S (especially in the areas of ATC instruction confirmation and conflict avoidance) can hopefully be put into perspective.

Independent Study criticizes FAA/ Controller Relationship A special FAA-appointed task force has warned that unless the agency takes steps toward improving the relationship between FAA management and controllers. the agency is headed toward the same problem that led to the controller walkout last year. The task force was commissioned to evaluate the working conditions of controllers following the walkout. In its findings. referred to as 'The Jones Report'. the study group said that deteriorating relationships within ATC facilities were caused by: inadequate methods for selecting. training and promoting people: an attitude among controllers that the FAA had little concern for them; a management structure that was centralized. rigid and insensitive; and the escalating militancy of PATCO. The report also contains 1 3 recommendations. DOT Secretary Drew Lewis said his staff intend to 'study the report fully and use it as a tool in the restructuring of the work environment within the FAA"


Airbus News

A310 Makes First Flight

Production of New Super Guppy Complete

Th e third Super Gupp y aircraft for Airbus lndustrie was rolled out ear ly in the month at UTA Industries ' Le Bourget plant afte r completion of the production/ mod ification program undertaken tw o yea rs ag o. The Super Gupp y is the fo ur tu rboprop engined transport w hich carries big , fully equipped and technical ly complete Ai rbus A300 / A310 subassemblies from the place w here they are manufactured throughout Europe to the final ass embl y line in Toulou se. T he third Super Gu ppy w ill joi n the present fleet of two in June this yea r and wi ll be o perate d like its two companions, between Le Bourget/ Manchester/ Ch est er in the UK (British Aerospace), Brem en/ Lem we rder , Hamburg / Fin kenwe rder (M BB ) in West German y, Madrid (CASA) in Spa in and St-Naz aire, Nantes and Toulouse (Aerospatia le ) in France. A fourth Su pe r Gupp y wi ll join the fleet in spring 1 983. The add itional Super Guppies are par t of the in ves tment

program undertaken to enable the production rate _to rise to eight A300s/ A31 O's per month by mid1984 . The two first Super Guppies entered service in Novem ber 1971 and September 1 9 7 3 respecti ve ly . Nicknamed the , Pregnant Whale ·. the Super Gupp y is a development of the ' Gupp y' w hich is in itself a development of the 8377 Statocruiser . Aerospacelines in Santa Barbara (California, USA) . now merged into Tractor Aviation, produced the first Guppies at the request of NASA to transport the modules for the Saturn V program. They were also in charge of the design and production of the first two Super Guppies for Airbus lndustrie . The third and fourth Super Guppies are being manufactured by UTA Indu st ries . who are responsible for the fuselage modification and final asse mbly, while cockpit, wings , nacelles and rear fuselage and tail modifica tions we re subcontracted .to Tractor Avi ation .

The Airbus lndustrie A310 flew for the first time on Saturday, 3rd April 1982. taking off from Toulouse (France) at 06 .33 GMT under fine weather conditions with no w ind and landing three hours fifteen minutes later with the same weather conditions after completion of a full test program . The aircraft with the registration F-WZLH was flown by a crew of two, with Bernard Ziegler. senior vice-president flight and support directorate, and Pierre Baud. vice-president flight division . Gunter Scherer. Gerard Guyot and Jean-Pierre Flamant were also on board as flight test engineers to manage the large test recording / analysis insta llation ( 1 ,OOO parameters controlled). ·All the objectives set up for the A31 o·s first flight have been met' said Bernard Ziegler after the flight during which a fairly wide flight envelope was explored in all configurations. extending from 1 . 1 Vs in landing configuration to 300 kts / Mach .75 and 31,000 ft in clean. 'It was an outstanding ly easy flight, which does not come as a surprise: this new bird just flie s as smoothly as its elder brother the A300. ·

The Super Guppy operation has been subcontrac ted by Airbus I ndus trie to the charter carrier Aeromaritime. a daughter company of the UTA airline. 45 flight hours are needed to carry all the A300/ A310 sections to Toulou se.

Al / GCP 5 / 8 2 GL - 7st April 7982 Third Super Guppy aircraft for A irb us lndustrie roll -out a t UTA Indu stries · Le Bourget plant The air c ra ft ;o,ned the present fleet of two in J une 7982.


News from Plessey

Plessey DVOR installation in Norway, of the same type now to be supplied to Spain.

Conseiller J ohn Dore y, Presiden t of the Board of Admin istration of Guernsey (left), exchanges the certificate of acceptance of the new upgraded AR- 7 radar for company documentation offered by Mr Danny Winter sales manager for Plessey Radar. Al so in this picture are members of the Bo ard of Administrat ion. Airp ort and Plessey staff.

Spain Orders Plessey DVORS Plessey has received an order for four Doppler VOR radio navigational beacons from the Spanish Civil Air Transport Authority . The first beacon wi ll be installed near Barcelona during 1982. The three remaining beacons wi ll be completed on a phased installation program terminc1ting in 1 983 . This is the first DVOR order Plessey ha s received from Spain, and is va lued at well over half-a-million pound s. The Plessey Plan 50 Doppler VOR is already in extensive use in the United Kingdom, the most recent installation being in Jer sey where successfu l fl ight acceptance trials have just been conc lud ed The equipmen t provides a cost-effective so luti on for both en route and terminal navigationa l requirement s. Great flexibility is pos sible in the choice of site, w hil e high er accuracy and the reduction in routine flight ca libr ation result in an overall lower cost of ownership when compared with co nve ntional VOR . The equipment is we ll proven and maintenan ce costs are minimal.

Plessey Wins Grenada Airport Contract Plessey Airports Limite d has won the contract for a new inter national airport at Port Salines. Grenada . The contract. valued at £ 6.6 million . was signed on May 6 by Bernard Coard , Finan ce Mini ster and Deputy Prime Minister of the People 's Revolution ary Government of Grenada . It brings the total of new airport contracts announced by Plessey in the last month to approximately £ 1 8 million , and was won in the face of intensive worldwide competition. Grenada, about 20 miles long by 9 miles w ide , w ith a popu lat ion of 1 20.000, is one of the most attractive islands in the Caribbean. It has the special advantage of a stab le c limate. The new airport wi ll sti mulate economic deve lopment. in par ti cular the growth of tourism already among the most important aspects. There is an existing airport at Pearls . but the new 9000 ft run way at Port Salines w ill for the first t ime offer a landing faci lity to widebodied Jets.

Plessey Completes Enhancement

Guernsey Radar

A major program to enhance the Air T rafi c Control system at La Vi lliaze Airport on the island of Guern sey has just been completed by Plessey Rad ar and the airport authority. Th e island's AR-1 rada r was o rigin ally installed by Plessey in 1965 . The latest enhancements include high-in tegrity solid-state receive rs, new high speed digital MTI (Moving Target Indicator) in place of the ana logue MTI, and a new radar display system with 16 in diameter Mk . 8 display s incorporating fully digital video maps . The program . which cos t over ha lf a million pounds . wa s completed during the w inter month s to be fu lly operational in time for the busy summer season with it s high level of tourist traffic . La Villiaze Airport is an econo mi c lifelin e for Guern sey. It handle s a large volume of movements and the demands on its rad ar equipment are of correspondingly high o rder . While the weather is mi ld and gener ally good, low level vis ibility is often poor due to sea nr·ist . Th e Guernsey installation is of spec ial interest as an example of an ATC rada r which also fulfil s a maritime ro le. a status more cha rac terist ic of coastal radars. The radar plots fishing fleets and local shipping and . in coope ration with a rescue helicopter per mit s the island lifeboat to be accurately directed to vessels In di stress . In futur e it is hoped that the service can be further extended when t he ai rport upgrade s the secondary radar and the lifeboat can be equ ipp ed wi th a compatible transponder . This will facili tat e the presentation of the lifeboat's individual identifi cat ion code on the rada r sc reen . Conse iller J ohn Do rey. Presiden t of the Board of Admin1 st ra tion , co mmented in presenting the Certificate of Acceptan ce to the co mpan y, that the newly upgraded Plessey equ ipment gav Guernse y a standard of civil radar service well in advance of othe1 co mparable island airports in the world . 41



Auckland is the largest and most indust rialis ed centre in New Zeala nd. Loca ted in the northern half of New Zea lan d ' s North Isla nd. it has a mild to


war m climate , a long and scenic coas tline on two sides. three major harbours . two main ranges of hills cover ed with nati ve forest and rolling

Aer ial picture of Auckland A irport taken abo ut 1930 looking east. established by the Auckland Aero Club.

M ode rn p,crure taken from similar angle for comparison


farml and which contributes to New Zealand' s inten sive primary production and exports. With sea to east and west. the region has a particular maritime charm and its combination of recreational opportunities and fair climate have stimulated Auckland's growth since World War II. Auckland International Airport is New Zealand 's largest. and the main de stination for the jetliners which link this country to the world. It is the maj or gateway to these South Pac ific Islands. Sited behind the Manukau Harbour . the airport is in a rural land scape w hich offer s overseas visitors a green carpet welcome and an introduction to the grassland farming on which New Zealand 's economy is based. It is only 21 km from the city ce ntre. Auckland has one-third of New Zealand's population and it s airport handl es more than 2 million inter national and domestic pa sse ngers a yea r - equivalent to two-third s of New Zealand' s total population - and mor e th an 61 .OOO tonnes of freight and mail. The airport opened in 1 965 t o put New Zealand dir ec tl y on th e major Pac ific air route s. Its 2.590 m (8.500 ft) runway was extended to 3,355 m (11.000 ft) in 1973 for wide-bodied jet s which brought non stop cross- Pacific flying . doubled passe nge r lo ad s and gave a stri king impetu s to New Zealand 's export s by air . Th ese jet s required new handling faci liti es and th e Intern at ion al Passenge r Termin al pro vides th em. It incorporates not only modern t ech nology but also. in its mural s. ca rpet s. timb er and st one fin ishes . some of New Zealand 's c haracter. The terminal is part of an airpo rt co mple x wh ic h in c ludes a d omestic passe nger termin al. exten sive ca rgo fac ilitie s. th e bigge st j et maintenan ce base in the reg io n and serves the airlines wh ich connect New Ze aland cent res and New Zealand w ith it s So uth Paci fi c neigh bour s an d th e wor ld

Camper Swift -


Thi s aircraft was the first batch of the Camper Sw ift s completed at Ho oto n Park in 1932. It was used for m a ny years as private tr anspo rt for a te st pilot. Ch arles Gardner . between Ham sey Green in Surrey and Rochester in Kent. The aircr aft surv ived th e wa r. no doubt because of its folding wi ng ab ilit y and was ac quired by Group Captain J . Kent w ho had it overhauled during hi s periods at Farnborough and Tan gmere . Like many vint age aircraft it subse quentl y passed through a number of private ha nd s and was eventually damaged in a forced land ing in 1964 . and sto red Th e aircra ft was t hen acquired by Mr . J . M enz ies w ho had the damage repa ired but th e airc raft rem ain ed conf in ed to th e ground until it was p urc hased by Mr. P. Channon in 197 4. Within five weeks of purchase. and wi th the help of the members and st aff of the Tiger Club at Redh ill . the airc raft was bro ught back to flying cond iti o n. its fir st pub lic appea rance

being at Biggin Hill Air Show whe re it appeared for all the three days. The airc raft has sin ce been a regul ar attender at air shows throughout the Briti sh Isle s and is one of the few Swifts that is flo wn on a regular bas is at air shows around the co unt ry. A deci sion was m ade in 1978 that if spares we re ava ilab le the aircraft wo uld be used for an attempt t o fly to Australia to commemorate the 50th anni versa ry, w hen a Mr. C. A. Butler d id it in 19 3 1. Over the years a number of va lu able part s have been acq uir ed w hich made the attempt feas ibl e . Th is w ill be th e fir st time a 50th ann iversa ry flight has been attempted in t he o rigin a l type of airc raft and en g in e and it is of not e that G-ABTC was the next plane off the produ ct ion line afte r G-ABRE (M r . But ler' s aircr aft) Th e a ircraft is ow ned jointl y by Mr . Pete r Channon and Mr. J ohn Harper . both of whom a re member s of th e Tiger Clu b. and it is based eith er at Redhi ll in Surrey or in Corn wa ll . ·

G-ABT C. th e Camper Sw if t at Larnaca airport (wings folded) en route from UK to A ustralia .

Th e ai rcraft has been modified by the owners for this trip wit h t he inc lu sion of extra fuel and oil tan ks. a radio . brakes and it has also bee n given a complete overhaul and bee n recovered w it h ne w fab ric . The engine has be en overhauled and . a lth o ug h this took a cons id erable amount of t ime with specia l pullers and ext rac tor s made to take out and reas semble the engine . it w as found to be in g oo d cond it ion. A spares package has also been made up and w ill be se nt o ut by air freight should the nece ssity arise To summa rize: 1 . G-ABTC w as bu ilt in 193 2: 2. Seven cy linde r Pobjo y e ng ine : 3. 90 h.p.: 4. Ma xim u m A U .W . includ ing p ilot 958 lbs. : 5. Crui sing speed 120 m p.h.: 6. Ma ximum speed 150 m .p .h.

Airline Red Ink Measured Bankers are expected to predicate fut ure airline loans on fare increases. especially for private carriers. according to a survey of airline indebtedness in 'The Times· of London. Newspaper notes government-backed carriers wi ll have less diffic ulty in arranging financing due to fact taxes can be raised to cover deficits . It adds this may give latter unfair competitive advantage on fares. Listed as top five carriers in terms of total debt are: British Airways. $ 1 .86 billion: Pan American World Airways . $ 1. 1 6 billion; Trans World Airlines. $ 672 million: Eastern Airlines . $ 6 66 million; Republic Airlines . $ 532 million. Only$ 9 million is owed to banks by Pan Am . 'The Times · states . while 85 % of Republic debt is thus allocated Laker. collapse of which was hastened by banks · refusal to agree on credit extension pro gram. ranks sixth in total debt with $ 504 mi llion . A result. fare rises of 35 % are being predicted for transat lantic routes by bankers who wi ll judge future lending risks on airline viability. newspaper said . U S carriers. overall. were reported by Air Transport Association (ATA) to have record $ 300 million operating losses last year (vs. $ 225 in 1980) . based on estimate of earnings of 80 scheduled carriers . Factors behind red ink inc lude $ 1 50 mil lion added to airline expense by contro llers· strike. $ 100 million for higher interest charges (prime rate increases hike industry interest cost $ 30 million per percentage point) . discount fares ( 70 % of all passengers travel on cut rates) . 'The New York Times· quotes several airline industry sources as singling out deregulation as underlying facto r in airline financial prob lems . They indicate execut ives. whooper ated in a CAB-protected environment . were unable to ch ange practices and habits fast enough to complete in · free-for all' environme nt of overcapac ity and dis count ing dereg brought about


News from McDonnell

Douglas Corporation

Aircraft with Perforated Wing An aircraft wing perforated with millions of tiny holes is being studied at McDonnell Douglas Corporation as a way to reduce fuel consumption substantially on long-range flights by the next decade. Engineers at the Douglas Aircraft Company here who are testing the porous upper wing surfaces as a means of reducing drag estimate fuel savings of up to 40 percent. The work is supported by contracts with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The perforated wing is designed to promote a smooth or laminar flow of air over the full width of the wing. A leading edge section of the laminar flow control wing is scheduled to be flight tested on a NASA aircraft in 1983. Already It has undergone dozens of wing tunnel and structural tests during its development. On current aircraft the air flow begins to become erratic and roll over as it move farther back on the wing. similar to the action of a wave breaking on a shoreline. This is called turbulent flow. which greatly increases aerodynamic drag on aircraft. The thin layer of air next to the wing surface is called the boundary layer. Stabilizing the boundary layer to maintain smooth laminar flow and avoid the onset of turbulence is a key to reduced drag. Reducing the drag means a reduction in the amount of engine power needed. and this reduces fuel consumption. particularly on longer-range flights. The Douglas wing design uses suction pumps to draw a small fraction of the boundary layer through the tiny holes into ducting within the wing. This prevents the smooth laminar flow of air from becoming turbulent. While the principle is relatively simple. a practical application has been eluding aircraft designers for a number of years. Douglas engineers have experimented with a thin sheet of perforated titanium as the wing surface. An electron beam is used to perforate the metal sheet. making holes as small as .0025 of an inch in diameter. less than the size of a human hair. The holes are spaced only .025 of an inch apart. resulting in 1600 holes in each square inch of the wing surface. Douglas engineers have overcome a number of problems in developing the wing. A protrusion no higher than .004 of an inch above the wing could destroy the laminar flow. Thus. bug spots that would go unnoticed on the windshield of a car could have a significant effect on a laminar flow control wing. · This problem was overcome with a retractable shield that is deployed in front of the wing during take off. climb. descent and landing. The shield also acts as a high-lift device. In case some contaminant should get past the shield. engineers have developed a system to spray a liquid film over the wing to keep foreign matter from sticking to the surface. Only occasional steam cleaning of the wing is required. In addition to the electron beam drilling of holes. a number of other new manufacturing techniques have been developed. For example. rather than riveting the titanium surface to a metal structure. the surface is bonded to corrugated non-metallic composite material. The corrugated composite provides the air ducts that convey the air that is being sucked in through the holes in the wing. The titanium wing surface sheets are welded to form large panels using a tungsten inert gas process to prevent oxidation of the metal along the weld line. The panels are then heated and formed against a smooth surface. This technique results in a strong very smooth weld. again to avoid any disturbance of the airflow along the wing surface. Studies indicate that wide-cabin long-range aircraft with laminar flow control on the upper wing surface would use as much as


20 percent less fuel than the most efficient airliner of that size that could be designed today using conventional techniques. Compared with long-range wide-cabin aircraft flying today. it could be as much as 40 percent more fuel efficient.

The Super 80 McDonnell Douglas Super 80 Jetliners are now making more than 500 flights a day. although the first airplane delivered has not reached its second anniversary in service. The fleet of 84 Super 80's has surpassed 150.000 revenue hours since the first of the new-generation airliners began service in October 1980. During that time. the fuel-efficient Super 80' s have carried an estimated 1 2 million passengers on the short-tomedium range routes of airlines in the United States. Latin America. Asia and Europe. In a recent survey of passengers who are frequent flyers. the Super 80 was preferred by a three-to-one margin over the mostused short-to-medium range transport. Flight times of the Super 80 vary widely. according to the needs of the airlines. One airline is flying the Super 80 on flights that average less than 25 minutes in duration. Another operates its Super 80's on flights averaging 3 hours and 30 minutes. Across the airlines. the average Super 80 flight is about an hour. slightly longer than the rest of the DC-9 fleet. The fleet averages nearly 7 hours a day in the air for each aircraft. with one operator reporting more than 10 hours a day per aircraft. At least two airlines have scheduled as many as 9 flights a day with some of their Super 80's. The mechanical reliability of the Super 80 has been evident in the high usage. Since it began service. its dispatch reliability has been nearly 99 percent. Just slightly more than one flight in 100 has been delayed more than 15 minutes due to mechanical difficulties. and 98.3 percent of the flights have left with no mechanical delays at all. Airlines operating the Super 80 are Aeromexico. Austral Lineas Aereas of Argentina. Toa Domestic Airlines of Japan. Martina1r of Holland. Austrian. Swissair. Balair of Switzerland and lnex Adria of Yugoslavia. and in the United States. Frontier. Hawaiian. Muse Air. Aircal. Pacific Southwest Airlines (PSA). Republic and Jet America. Those Super so·s are part of the DG-9 fleet of more than 1050 aircraft that have been delivered by Douglas Aircraft Company since 1966. The DC-9 fleet has more than 24 million hours of revenue service. has flown more than 1. 5 billion passengers. and covered more than 8 billion miles.

lnex Adria Airways lnex_Adria Airways of Yugoslavia announced the purchase of an add1t1onal McDonnell Douglas Super 80 jetliner. the third Super 80 for the fleet. Frnnc Sever. managing director of the Yugoslavian charter earner headquartered in Ljubljana. said the Super 80 was selected for its superior fuel economy. its larger passenger capacity and its advanced technology features. T_heaircraft was scheduled for delivery in April. Sever said. · For service during our summer tourist season. when we will be carrying passengers between Yugoslavia and all of East and West Europe'. The lnex Adria Super 80 will carry 161 passengers in comfortable flve-abrea_stseating. with seats as wide as those on larger wide-cabin Jetliners. It will be equipped with fuel-efficient Pratt & Whitney JTSD-217 engines. each generating 20.000 lb (9072 kg) of thrust.

Europe Positions Itself for Competition

Concorde transatlantic services by Air France and British Airways - the first and still the only scheduled supersonic passenger flights in the world - continue to remind us of pioneering airtransport collaboration between British Aircraft (now part of British Aerospace) in the United Kingdom (UK) and Sud Aviation (now part of Aerospatiale) in France. Concorde's technological success. however, has been mitigated by ever-rising operational costs. and its politically shaped management structure - everything split down the middle to reflect absolute equality of the partners - gives business schools a classic 'how not to do it' case history . Concorde taught Europe how notto run a joint venture in aerospace. On the evidence of current European programs, the lessons have been learned. Political projects are out : commercial projects are in . Reconciling national (and company) traditions with present-day commercial realities has been a long and painful process. Company mergers, nationalization s. and denationalizations have not helped. What has emerged is a varied collection of ad hoe aerospace collaborations. both civil and military . In them we see Europe set to keep up its competition with the traditional US transport-aircraft leaders.

Collaborative rather than national projects will be the norm. with the collaboration often extending beyond the boundaries of the European continent. Europe's reemergence as a major supplier of commercial tran spo rt aircraft to world markets is closely linked to the rise of the Airbus lndustrie consortium. headquartered in Toulouse. This joint company was set up in 1970 to coordinate the design and manufacture of the 250-passenger A300 Airbus and to furni sh marketing and support services. The 21 0-passenger A310 was launched in 1978 . These programs represent cooperative ven ture s among partner-companies Belgium . France. the Feder al Republi c of German y (FAG), Spain. the Netherland s. and the UK. Funding comes from the three main partners: Aerospatiale in France (40 %). Deut sc he Airbus in the FAG (40 %). and British Aero space (20 % ). At the end of 1 981 sales for the two models stood at 343 firm orders and 159 options from 42 airlines . Some 157 planes have been delive red and have entered service with 28 airlines. Thi s sales success for the A300 and A310 may be a difficult act to follow . By the end of 1981 the Airbus partners had

Airbus ln dustrie ·s 200th aircraft . an A30084 -200 for Egyptair . at present undergoing final assembly at Aerospatiale ·s factory in Toulouse .

selected their next aircraft type for deve lopment but had not formally launched it as a firm program: a single-aisle. 1 50- seat A320. possibly powered by the planned Anglo-Japanese Roll s-Royce RJ500-25 turbofan. Development cost of the A320 should run about $ 2 billion. Air France has said it wi ll take fifty A320s. and Airbus lndu strie hope s that a Delt a Air Line s order will justi fy a formal go-ahead. Winning t he engine order would clearly help Rolls-Royce overcome the blow of Lockhee d's decision to cease production of the L- 1011 TriStar. which uses Rolls-Royce RB211 s. General Electric / Snecma and Pratt & Whitne y Aircraft are also bidding to power the A320. (GE's CF6s and P&W's JT9Ds are used in the A300 and A31 0 aircraft). A decision by the Airbus consortium is expected soon. Changes in the work-sharing arrangements bet ween the Airbus partners. and indee d a widening of the partnership to incl ud e non-European member s. may als o emerge if and whe n the A320 is launched. For this project the partners may include companies In Canada. Japan. and Australia . The final pattern of funding and wo rk-shar ing has yet to be ag reed .

NTSB Studies Major Air Crashes U S. National Transportation Safet y Board (NTSB ) now involved with study of two major airline acc ident s as result of latest incide nt . at Boston. in which World Airwa ys DC- 1 0 skidded off runwa y into shallo w water on landing . Two passengers among 196 and 1 2 crew were reported missing and presumed dead . four were serious ly injured . Aircraft split in two behind cockpit and most aboard escaped by wading or swimming ashore Acciden t was second w ithin 11 day s involving severe winter w eat her. Previously . an Air Flor ida 73 7 crashed on takeoff from Washington (D.C ) Nat ional Airpor t in a heavy snowstorm , with loss of 78 live s. NTSB said prelim inary flight recorder st udie s showed 1 5 seconds longer than normal takeoff . speed loss when ai rborne . A major point of speculation raised in the Washington crash was that w ing icing caused the accident. An attorney for the families of ten of the dead and two survivors said this is most likely issue to be raised in damage suits. Both 'The New Yo rk Tim es · and 'The Time s· of London carried sto rie s which showed previou s 73 7 involve ment in accidents due to icing . Brita in · s Civil Aviation Authority orders carriers to inc rease 7 3 7 speed five knots on takeo ff in icy weather . Boein g fir st recommended special takeoff procedure s In 1979 and as recently as last June . NTSB notes 7 3 7 is rated second best to BA C1 11 in tally of fatal accidents from 1970 to 1979 . Ai r Florida insurance cove rage inc lude s $ 500 m illi on liab ility . $ 1 2 million on airc raft . American A1rl1nes. whi ch de-iced 737 . and FAA also were mentioned by the attorney as poss ible defendants . 45

Martin Germans' Page <:-: I





- -


Judge Says United Must Rehire Married Attendants As if current labor and financial woes weren't enough to give major carriers plenty to worry about. United Airlines recently suffered another blow as the result of a ruling that ended a long-standing court case. In January. Federal District Court Judge James B. Moran told the airline it had to rehire female flight attendants it had forced to give up their jobs when they were married in the 1 960s. if they wish to return to work. ¡we don't know what that ruling will cost yet'. says United' s corporate communications manager Joe Hopkins. ¡compensation and back pay still haven't been decided.' But whatever the cost in dollars. the ruling will put a strain on the company's labor relations. Following individual hearings. the reinstated employees will be merged into United's lists of active and furlaughed flight attendants. Hopkins estimates that 200 of the plaintiffs will have enough seniority to enter active duty. That means layoffs for currently active attendants. a prospect which made the Association of Flight Attendants (AFA) unhappy enough to intervene in the case on behalf of its current workforce. Without its intervention. claims AFA director of communication Francine Zucker. the current seniority system would have stagnated. There were more than 1. 700 plaintiffs in the court case. and nearly 1 . 500 United attendants are already on furlough. But because of AFA's intervention. Zucker says. reinstatement with full seniority was denied. Instead. the rehiring will proceed as follows: Individual hearings will be held to determine which former attendants qualify. For those who do. seniority for purposes of salary. vacation and passes will be retroactive to the original date of hire. But seniority for bidding. transfers and furloughs wil take into account the length of time the attendant was employed before the no-marriage clause took effect. According to Zucker. the average plaintiff has one and one-half years of seniority - less than most currently furloughed United flight attendants so the ruling might affect 500 or so flight attendant on the lower end of the seniority lists.

Ground-based Radar in the Cockpit The FAA is testing an avionics system that could revolutionize the way pilots receive updated weather information while airborne. This relatively simple system uses existing technology. is operating in a 'breadboard' form comprising mostly commercially available components. and could place pictorial weather data within reach of operators of any light twin and most single engine airplanes. The system also may die aborning. a victim of the current Federal budget squeeze. The cockpit weather dissemination system. as it now is being tested. uses a dot matrix printer to provide the pilot with a four-level depiction of rainfall rates detected by the National Weather Service¡ s ground-based WSR-5 7 radars. The pilot can select a digitized picture covering a maximum area of 256 nm on a side (essentially a 1 28-nm radius around the radar) and centered on either the ground radar. one of the quadrants around the radar or any VOR in the coverage area. The scale can be reduced by up to a factor of nine. providing a coverage down to about 28 nm on a side ( 14 nm in radius). The picture is not real-time. but it would not be more than one minute old. A completely passive device. the cockpit weather dissemination system transmits no energy. as does a radar system. The CWDS receives its data continually on the voice channel of a VOR station. without interfering with the station's normal operation. With some additional equipment on the ground. the CWDS transmission would include surface weather observations. pireps and NOTAMs. and even a map depicting hazardous weather. any of which could be selected by the pilot as needed. The breadboard CWDS was designed and built for the FAA by MITRE Corporation and is being test flown by the Avionics Engineering Center of Ohio University in Athens. Ohio. Professor Richard H. McFarland. director of the center. noted that about 20 pilots of varying experience had used the system over a test course with a recorded weather pattern transmitted through the Zanesville Vortac. The test subjects commented very favorably on the system. and their performance in using and interpreting the information was excellent. McFarland said.

Slippery runways are a known haz<;lrd.An airport may be sued for a major accident. Warnings may help avoid liability.

Facetio_usly. unknown conditions might be symbol1_zedby the above sign, printed in the magazine of the American Automobile Assoc1at1on to 1nd1cate confusion.

More to the _point. when runways are known to be slippery_ from ice. snow or water. the above skidding aircraft sign. like the skidding auto signs on roads. might be appropriate. This was suggested by John Walaschek. maker of MU-MIXfor friction surfacing. Robert P. Moore of ATC International says he can make illuminated signs. resistant to jet blast. if there is demand. Just a thought. A better way is to keep runways breakeable.

Controllers shoukl 111lot have to recomme111dl altitudes to pilots making ASR approaches. according to the FAA The agency came to this conclusion after performing a lengthy study in response to an NTSB recommendation originally made three years ago (BICA. May 1979. page 24) The FAA said that not only does it believe that there is no problem if controllers do not provide recommended alt1. tudes. but also that the proposed changes could create. rather th,rn solve. a flight safety problem 47

Eleven Carriers to Offer Air-to-Ground Phone Service Before 1 98 2 e nd s. passe ng ers o n 11 US airlines w ill be ab le t o mak e personal telephone ca lls to anyw he re in the co untry fro m pla ne s in f ligh t. according to Western Uni on Corp a nd Air Fon e . Inc . partne rs in a new c o mmunications ven ture. The solid -state Air Fone looks lik e a regular t eleph on e and can be inst al led either at pa ssengers· seats or on the aircraft cabin wa ll To plac e a call. the pass enger wi ll insert a majo r c redit card or special ·cash card' in t o t he unit. th en dir ect dial t he des ired n um ber The system reli es on a singl e sideband radio transm iss ion technology by which sound w il l b e

carried by radio waves from the plane to one of the company ' s ground recei v ing stations . The ground station transfers the radio wave s onto regular telephone lines. The company says the system w ill be able to handle up to 1 . 700 call s per hour in 'hea v ily tra ve led areas· . Cu stomer s will pay a flat rate (estimated to be $ 7. 50 for the first three minut es and $ 1 .25 for each additional minute) to place call s . The y w ill not be able to recei ve call s from th e ground . ho w ever. In addition t o in-flight call s. pa sse ng ers w ill be abl e to use the units w hil e wa iting onboard planes at the g at es of 1 6 US airport s . the company says . Carrier s w hich have c ontr acted w ith AirFone to pro vide the service on so me lo ng -haul routes include America n . Republic. Pan American . United . TWA. Contin ental. Altair. Northwest. Air One. Delta and Braniff.

A new phone system. When a ca ll ,s being placed. the airc raft radio scans all ground stat ion units . Air Fone ·s tran sceiver locks on to the fart hest usab le sig nal ahead of the plane. allowing fo r maximum con nec tion time pe r call.




A li st of hotels granting di scount s to IFATCA m embers upon production of their valid m e mb e rshi p card is available from tfne IFATCA Secretariat and w ill be provid ed on request.

Airline Accidents' Impact on Airport Rules, Flight Insurance Recent major airliner accidents appear to be factoring in legislation being drafted by FAA to restrain local airports· authority to issue anti-noise regulations. They also have spurred increased interest in passenger flight insurance. FAA Administrator F. Lynn Helm s told Southern Methodist University aviation law symposium that some local airport noi se restrictions ·compromi se· safet y and could serve to ·cripple' air transport system. In his speech. Helm s referred specifically to rules which require airliner crew members to ' perform a difficult maneuver during a critical moment in flight'. Proposed legislation mandate s FAA approval of airport rules for operating aircraft : makes Federal Government liable for damages in noiserelated law suit s. Meanwhile. an immediate cour se open to FAA Helms said. is to initiate court action opposing restricti ve rules of w hic h it disapproves. Agency also can use lever of airport grants to assure reasonable hours of airport operation. the official noted . 'The Journal of Commerce· observes recent tragic accidents have ·sharpened awareness · of dangers of air travel among gen eral public. It quotes an insurance company official to the effect air disasters increa se sale of life insurance at airports. ' particularly while the accident is fresh in people's mind s' . After fatal Tokyo crash of a Japan Air Lines DC-8 . ·sales we nt up everywhere·. according to another insuran ce expert. but th at effect lasted only a few days. In that accident . investigator s were told a struggle took place amon g the c aptain . co-pilot and engineer. Latter two crew member s were reported in 'The Tim es· of London to have said the captain 'began to act strangely ' before tou c hdown . Japanese CAA investigator s found plan e' s fourth engin e had been placed in reverse thrust while airborne. an act attributed to the capt ain by oth er cockpit crew member s. Investigators revealed he had suff ered previously from psycho somatic disorder s. accordin g to th e news pap er .








Corporate Members of IFATCA AEG-Telefunken. Frankfurt a. M .. Germany AMECON Division, Litton Systems, College Park, USA ANSA Advisory Group Air Navigation Services. Westerngrund, Germany CAE Electronics Ltd., Montreal, Quebec. Canada Cardion Electronics, Woodbury, N.Y .. USA Computer Sciences Europe SA Brussels. Belgium Cossor Radar and Electronics Ltd .. Harlow. England Decca Software Sciences Limited. London. England Dictaphone Corporation. USA ELECMA Divisions Electronique de la SNECMA Suresnes. France Ferranti Limited, Bracknell, Berks .. England Goodwood Data. Systems Ltd .. Ontario. Canada Ground Aid Group. Esbjerg, Denmark Jeppesen & Co. GmbH .. Frankfurt. Germany Lockheed Aircraft Service Company. Ontario. California 91 761. USA The Marconi Radar Systems Ltd .. Chelmsford. England M.B.L.E., Brussels. Belgium The Mitre Corporation. McLean. Virginia. USA N.V. Hollandse Signaalapparaten, Hengelo, Netherlands N.V. Philips Division ELA Eindhoven. Netherlands PhilipsTelecommunicatie lndustrie B.V .. Hilversum. Netherlands The Plessey Company Limited, Weybridge, Surrey. England Racal Recorders Limited. Southampton. England Raytheon Canada Ltd., Canada SandersAssociates. Inc., Nashua. USA Schmid Telecommunication, Switzerland Selenia- lndustrie Elettroniche Associate S.p.A.. Rome. Italy SEL-Standard Elektrik Lorenz. Stuttgart 70. Germany Societe Artistique Franc;:aise.Paris. France Societe d' Etudes & d' Entreprises Electriques. lssy Les Moulineaux. France Sofreavia. Paris. France Software Sciences Ltd .. Farnborough. England Sperry Univac. Sulzbach/Ts .. Germany & St. Paul. Minnesota. USA SRA Communications. Sweden TERMA Elektronik AS. Lystrup. Denmark Thomson-CSF. Paris. France Ulmer Aeronautique. Clichy. France VWK- Ryborsch GmbH / Aeronautical Maps & Charts Division. Germany Westinghouse Electric Corporation. USA

The International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers¡ Associations would like to invite all corporations. organizations. and institutions interested in and concerned with the maintenance and promotion of safety in air traffic to join their organization as Corporate Members. Corporate Members support the aims of the Federation by supply;ng the Federation with technical information and by means of an annual subscription. The Federation¡ s 1nternat1onal Journal 'The Controller' is offered as a platform for the discussion of technical and procedural developments ,n the field of air traffic control.

ODs-BO Intelligent Display with the Selenia NOC 160 16-bit incorporated minicomputer



distributed intelligence - the system of the future The SATCAS 80 ATC System is based on the concept of distributed processing, using the Selenia developed NDC-160 minicomputer wherever intelligence is required. Radar data from the Selenia primary and secondary radars are extracted and processed by radar head processors. Transmission is narrow band to radar processors, which interface to flight- data processors and built-in display processors. The benefits are better cost-efficiency, tighter program control and better man-machine interface.

New Selenia SATCAS-80 radar control suite

~~ ~-~ INDUSTRIE ELETTRONICHE ASSOCIATE S.p.A. CIVIL RADAR AND SYSTEMS DIVISION Via Tiburtina Km 12.400 , 0013 1 ROME , ITALY Telex 613690 SELROM I. Phone 06-4360 1


IFATCA The Controller - 3rd Quarter 1982  
IFATCA The Controller - 3rd Quarter 1982