JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS' ASSOCIATIONS
2/82 BER N, SW ITZERLA ND
1st QUA RTER 1982
SFrs 5 .-
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IFATCA JOURNAL OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
THE CONTROLLER Bern, Switzerland, May 1982
Volume 21 路 No. 2
Publisher: Intern ational Federation of Air Traffic Contro llers' Associations. P.O.B. 196 . CH-121 5 Geneva 1 5 Airport. Switzerland Officers of IFATCA: HH . Henschler. President. Lex Hendriks. Vice-President (Technical). A . Avgoustis. Vice-President (Profession al). Pat O'Doherty, VicePresident (Administration) . H. Wenger. Treasurer. E. Bradshaw. Exec utive Sec retary. Secretariat: 6 Long lands Park. Ayr KA 7 4 RJ Ayrshire. Scot land. United Kingdom Tel. 0292 42114 Editor: A . Avgoustis 5 Athens Str. Ayios Dhometios Nicosia. Cyprus Tel. (021) 4 87 86 ~ublishing Company and Production Service: Der Bund '. Verlag und Druckerei AG 3001 Bern . Effingerstrasse 1. Switzerland Telephone (031) 25 66 55 Printed by: 路 Der Bund '. Ver lag und Druckerei AG. Bern. Switzerland Advertising Sales Office : THE CONTROLLER 5 Athen s str. Ayios Dhometios. Nicosia. Cyprus Telephone (021) 48 78 6 THE CONTROLLER. 'Der Bund' . Verlag und Druckerei AG (Address as for Publishing Co.) Subscriptions and Advertising Payments to : Account No : PK 72 892-9. Swiss Credit Bank Balexert Agency. av . Louis Casai 2 7 CH-1 211 Geneva 28. Switzerland
February 1982: Signing of the contract for the IFATCA 1983 Conference , at Split, Yugoslavia.
Subscription Rate : SFrs 8 .-per annum for members of IFATCA : SFrs 20.- per annum for non-members (Postage will be charged extra). C_ontributors are expressing their personal points of view and opinions. which may not necessa rily coincide with those of the International Federation of Air Traffic Control lers路 Associations (IFATCA) I FATCA does not assume responsibility for statements made _and opinions _ expressed. it does only accept respons1b1lity for publ1sh1ng these co ntributions . Contributions are welcome as are comments and criticism . No payment can be made for manuscript s submitted for public ation in 'The Controller'. The Editor reserves the ri_ght to make any editorial changes in manuscript s. which he believes w ill impro ve the materi al without altering the intended meaning . Written permission of the Editor is necessary for reprinting any part of this Journal.
Cartoons: Martin Germans Photos: Archives & AA Advertizers: Ferranti, Philips, IFATCA '83 , Selenia
CONTENTS Annual Report of the Executive Board Convegno su ' L'Assistenza al Volo in Italia: Problematic he Giuridiche' Controllers路 Responsibilities ATC : Need for Legal Prote ction News From Aircraft Manufacturers Eurocontrol 7th European (West) Regional Meeting PATCOvs. FAA Realism in Radar Simulation Separation of Helicopters in the North Sea More Airports for the Greater Londo n A rea ATC Now and in the Future Future Terminal Area Systems Low Leve l Wind Shear Fuel Conservation-the Airline-AT C Catalogue of SCIV Library
3 5 6 10 11 13 18 1g
22 27 29 32 34
36 39 41
The better youareat collecting,processing anddisplayingdata, . . the clearerthe ATCpicture. You need the capabilit y of Ferranti. We are not in the data acqui sition business but we will take data trom whoeyer has it ~ from civil or mi 'htary or from the country next dGor if need be. Data doesn 't have to be on the spot. It can be extracte d and fed over large distances and then co-ordinated with the data from your own sensors. In design.ing equipment for processing and displa ying the data
we'~e used our experience both of ATC and air defence. If the data is not a·vailable we can S}'Ilthesize display inforrn~tion from fliglwplans and position · reports. · . . We can also do the other kind of simulation-:--for training, validation and evaluatio n - something we have , been doin g tor many years. · Ifyou are in the air traffic managem ent business Ferranti can help . And the P\:Oplewho pay your
route charges will almost certainly appreciate your using us. Ask yourself, are you using the data available to the best advantage? Contact: · Ferranti Computer Systems · Sales Department Ty Coch Way Cwmbran Gwent NP44 7XX Tel:Cwmbran (06333)7lll1Telex:497636
·ComputerSystems CS02 l3 7 / 052
Annual Report of the Executive Board As we gather to celebrate !FA TCA 's 21 st Anniversary in the city where the founding assembly was constituted we can look back and be proud of the growth of this Federation . It began here with twelve member associations, all from Europe , and today we have sixty-one member associations representing every continent. The Federation at its inception was intended to promote and enhance the stature of the air traffic control profession and in many ways it has succeeded. The controller 's voice is now heard in the public forums of many international organisations, both in the private and governmental sectors .
Our representatives address assemblie s at ICAO . ICM . ICASM. ILO. IATA .... etc .. thereby bringing the profession and its aims and objects to the world at large. Within the profession itself the Federation has enabled technical knowledge and expertise to be made available to fellow controllers throughout the world and mutual respect and co-operation exists between our member associations. from those with the most highly developed systems to those whose systems are as yet in the embryo stage. A year ago I predicted that 1981 would be a year of turmoil. and this prediction has certainly been proven correct in the conte xt of the United States where. at the time of writing, the air traffic control system has not been returned to previous levels of capacity and where we have witnessed ext reme reactio n to the manife station of controller fru stration with working and technical conditions. While we can look back to the man y areas of progress with satisfaction. we must. with regret. admit that there are many areas where progress is yet to come. Indeed . there are areas where severe setbacks have been experienced. Speculation as to how this situation could have been avoided is at thi s stage a pointless exercise and the most important task facing the aviation comm unity is to ensure that the proper mechanisms are estab lished to ensure that such a traumat ic and devastating experience is never again inflicted on the industry. From the IFATCA viewpoint. we would contend th at the Con c lusions of the Meeting of Expe rts on _Air Traffi c Control (ATC) at the lnternat1_onal Labour Organisation form the basis on which to build the mutual trust and respect that is needed if we are to avo id a recurrence of the U .S. exper ience . The problems w hich gave rise to the breakdown of the U .S. Air Traffic Control system last August have not been ta ck led at the negotiating table and the system is c urrently operating under conside rable duress. The fru stratio n w hich gave rise to the events of 1981 wi ll assuredly resur face within a very few yea rs if the Administr ation refuses to accept that the controllers were driven to action. Administrations must accept their responsibilitie s as em ployers and must ensure that controllers can continue to press for improved cond1t1ons. Controllers shou ld never aga in be allowed to arrive at such depths of frus -
tration that they will walk off the job. Dismissal does not cure the underlying problems. it merely temporarily shelves them and they will return to the forefront sooner rather than later. The year since the 1 981 conference has seen few positive developments and when one compares these to the number of unso lved problems there is cause for concern. In many areas of the world. aviation continues to be operated without the safety guarantee which a proper air traffic control system supplies. In many areas there are severe shortages of trained controller s . These shortages will persist as long as working conditions for skilled profes sional controllers are such that other employment is more attractive. Many states do not have adequate training facilities to meet the demands and this exacerbates an already poor situ at ion. As the Federation enters its 2 2 nd yea r we have cause to be proud of past successes. but it is only through our perseverance and determination that the future can be viewed with guarded optimism. Controllers have learned to live wit h pressures and they have found ingenious ways of overcoming problems; we must co ntin ue to use thi s knowledge for the furtherance of the profession.
Part A - Administration General In keeping with the principle of regionalization the executive boa rd has put all possible emphasis on attending meetings w herever possible . We have continued the involvement with other interna tional organization s in the effort to promote aviation safety and eff icienc y. The executive board was assisted once again by the national authorities of Canada. Cyprus. Ireland and the Netherlands. A number of airlines also pro vided assistance for which we express our appreciation. In the organisation of the visit to Brazil Air Traffi c Controllers Association (ATCA) we extend our thanks to th e Pilots ' Assoc iations of Portugal and Brazil for assistance rendered . Executive Board Meetings were held w ithout any of the diff iculties of past years as regards venues or dates. On the invitation of the New Zealand ATCA the autumn board meeting was held in Auckland in October 1981 in conJunction w ith ATC Âˇ 81 . a week of ATC related activities . seminars. etc.. and with the regional meeting of the Pacific region . The February 1982 board meeting was held in
.-1111i81 i::: CONFERENCE C'
The Executive Board of /FA TCA. From the le ft: L. Hendr iks. P. 0 Doherty, H. Hens chler . E. Bradshaw . A. Avgousti s. H. Wenger .
Split. Yugoslavia. the site of the 1983 conference. Regions and Regional Meetings The executive board is pleased with the continued increase in activity in almost all IFATCA regions. With the growth in the number of member associations it is predictable that more of the federation's activities will be handled at the regional level. The executive board was represented at the following regional meetings: Pacific Western Europe Central Europe Middle East. It is regretted that a joint regional meeting of Africa East/West had to be cancelled and that the board. due to the U.S. airspace situation and the unavailability of travel opportunities. was unable to be at the joint regional meeting NCA/ SAM. There were no regional meetings in the Asian and Caribbean regions. Member Associations Direct contact. as required. was maintained with member associations. The executive board is always open to input from member associations and invites queries and requests for assistance of whatever kind. As directed at IFATCA '81. a member of the executive board. the vicepresident administration. together with a representative from EGATS. travelled to Brazil. and it now appears that the Brazilian Member Association is in the process of being reformed. Standing Committees Attendance: SC. I. by Vice-President Technical SC. Ill by Treasurer SC. VII by Vice-President Professional The executive board will submit to this conference a major plan for the reorganization of existing Standing Committees. This plan is the result of developments since the original establishing of the Standing Committees. where some have fulfilled the intent of their original charter. and where new subjects were introduced which do not easily fit into the existing structure. The Secretariat It is with great pleasure that I pay compliments to the Executive Secretary for his continued efficiency and involvement on behalf of the Federation and its members. He is truly an asset to all of us and his devotion to the profession is outstanding. 'The Controller' Journal At numerous conferences. directors have promised to encourage member associations to increase their orders for paid copies of 'The Controller·. The Journal is the forum for the regional. national and individual expression in the form of articles and letters to the Editor. To make the magazine self-supporting. increased advertIsIng revenue is essential and member associations are reminded of their obligations in this respect. 4
Finances The loss of income which PATCOwould have contributed has forced the executive board to revise spending plans in the budget downward. All major items will continue. however. their scale may be reduced. Corporate Members The executive board wishes to thank the Corporate Members· Co-ordinator. Mr. Peter Jorgensen. for his efficient liaison work on behalf of the Federation. and our corporate members for their continued support. Member associations are again reminded. that whenever equipment is to be purchased by their national administration. ·details of tender· should be forwarded to the executive secretary for distribution to our corporation members. Co-operation with International Organisations Contacts with outside organisations have been selectively reduced with regard to their cost/ efficiency. Nevertheless contacts were maintained and enhanced in some cases. namely International Labour Organisation (ILO). International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO). . _. _ International Federation of Airline Pilots Association (IFALPA). Western European Association for Aviation Psychology (WEAAP). World Aerospace Education Organisation (WAEO). _. _ International C1v1I Airports Association (ICM).
Participation in IFALPA/ ATS study group work has continued. although again attendance at meetings proved impossible for several reasons outside our control. The IFALPAAnnual Conference. held in Lisbon in March. was attended by SC. I. Chairman. Mr. John Saker. who represented the Federation in the technical discussions. As requested at the Cairo Conference. the board is attempting to have IFATCA involved in the ICAO ATFM discussions. This is a slow process and no progress can be made until ICAO Council approval is obtained. In Amsterdam at the Second World Congress on Aerospace Education. organised by the WAEO. the vice-president technical presented the views of the Federation on professional recognition for controllers. The executive board wishes to express its appreciation to all the member associations and individuals who made our input to various international organisations possible.
Part C - Professional When one deals with professional matters. PATCO's case is the predominant subject; the extent and depth of the problem cannot be realized in particular as reg~rds to the consequences which have. or will be evolved on the profession internationally. The ILO conclusions continued to be u~der review during the year so as to constitute the professional aims of the Federation. In order to achieve the best possible results the ao hoe committee established by the Cairo conference functioned in acPart B - Technical Activity in the technical area_ha~ co~- cordance with terms of reference set out tinued at its high level. Part1c1pat1onin by the conference. under the chairmanship of Jim Livingston (Canada). several international meetings and study Standing Con:imittee IV. dealing with groups proved somewhat difficult this year. because of a very careful attitude by Human and Environmental Factors is in airline companies towards controllers. in ~he process of some reorganisation. During the past year this standing committee light of known events during 1981 . had two meetings with a somewhat The work programme of the technical ~nlarged agenda. with new it~ms such as standing committee (SC. I.) has been Controller/ Pilot Salary Relationship' and completed. . . ·Air Traffic Controllers Physical Fitnes Under the supervision of the vIce-pres1- Programme· being added. s dent technical. input was again made to Standing Committee V. dealing genervarious ICAO groups. such as ally with the training of air traffic control _ the RTF (Radio Telephony) Study lers. had its first meeting. after many Yea in Rome during November 1981. rs. Group. · )p 1 _ VFO (Visual Flight Operat1~ms_ ane · Standing Co_mm!ttee VII, concerned Here again actual part1cIpat1on was with the legal hab1ht1esof the air traff often difficult because of not being able to controller had its annual meeting in cosia. in February 1982. where among 1· obtain transportation. . St The Federation·s attitudes to VFR op- ot her .items d.Iscussed . was the possible erations. SSA Mode S. and Traffic ,nfor- amalgamation of .SC. VII with anoth mation Broadcast to Aircraft \TI BA) among committee and their future role in the F er others were examined and will be reported eration. Legal matters in aviation do ~don in Committee B. . seem to display any revoluti?nary progre~t The IFATCA liaison officer to ICAO has other than in the field of h11ackingwher! maintained close contacts between the some governments tend to legislate Federation and ICAO during the past year._ towardsh some cdoncerted action against The vice-president technical paid a v1s1t states t at provI e shelter to hiJackers. to ICAO Montreal and had an opportunity to discuss items of mutual interest with Conclusion ICAO's President Dr. Kotaite. A full report _The last year was not a good one for will be made in Committee B. avIatIon. Airlines are losing money in unThe Informal Flow Control Meetings (West and East) have. as last year. been precedented magnitude. one of IFATCA's taken care of by regional vice-president member associations has been severely EUR and regional vice-president CEN. handicapped. one of the world's best air
Continues on page 4 7
Convegno su L'Assistenza al Volo in Italia: Problematiche Giuridiche' 1
For the first time in the history of aviation, let alone the air traffic control profession, the legal aspects of the responsibilities of the controller were examined in all perspect ives at a special conference organised by the Italian Controllers ' Association (ANACNA), with the general theme: 'The Air Traffic Services in Italy : Legal Aspects '. The conference took place on the 4th and 5th December. 1981 at the conference hall of the Italian National Research Council (CNR) building. in Rome under the patronage of the Italian Civil ATS Agency (AAAVTAG). the Internationa I Association of Lawyers. Jurists and Experts in Air Law and the Italian National Research Council. The co nference was attend ed m ainly by local juri sts, civil and military aviation authorities, pilots and controllers as well as observers from abroad . International spea kers were. on behalf of I FATCA, the Federation· s vice-president, Andreas Avgoustis , legal expert on ai r traffic control and Richard Weston, the eminent British so licitor who is a member of the Flight Safety Foundation of Washington and the A ssoc iat ion of Briti sh Aviation Consultants. Andreas Avgou stis spo ke on, · How Courts View Controllers· Respons ibilitie s·, and Richard Weston spo ke on, ' Legal Liability of the Air Traffi c Controller·. Other speakers and their subjects were: Dr . Piero Carlo Damiano (magi strate) : 'The international conventions on air tr affic co ntrol unit s liab ility conte nt s and expect ation s·. Prof Guido Camarda (magistrate. profe ssor) : · New lega l statu s and new admini st rati ve respo ns1b1l1t1e s of the ai r traff ic con troll ers·. Prof Rica rdo Monaco (professor): 'The te c hni ca l annexes to the Chicago Convention and the ai r traffic contro llers· liabilities ·: Dr Nella Pogli ese (expert in Criminal Law), 'Timing. certainty ,
knowledge in criminal proceedings: the air traffic controller's criminal liabilities . technical surveys and the establishment of truth·; Dr. Fabrizio Jaccheri (airports director. professor); 'The air traffic controller in the Italian aeronautical legislation and in reality'; Bruno Barra (air traffic controller. president of ANACNA's legal commission); 'The controllers sued for service related events: searching for an improved legal protection·; Prof. Aurelio Pizzacasa (lawyer, professor); 'Today· s identity crisis of controllers: legal consequences . Brief addresses were also deliver ed by : General Antonio Mura , chairman of the board of directors. AAAVTAG, Dr . Alberto Tempest a, attorney-atlaw, president , International Association of Lawyers Jurists and Experts in Air Law. Prof. Francesco Valdoni. director, CNR's finalised project on
ATC and Mr. Ezio Silveri. president ANACNA: (Note: the speeches delivered by Bruno Barra and Andreas Avgoustis are to be found elsewhere in this issue.) At the end of each session there was a question and answer period that indeed generated some useful discussion and produced important conclusions. The conference concluded with the following resolution which was sent to the Italian President and the M inister of Aviation: 'The meeting he ld in Rome at the CNR on December 4 and 5 on "The Air Traffic Services in Italy Legal Aspects'·, under the patronage of AAAVTAG. CNR and the International Association of Lawyers, Jurists and Experts in Air Law, after studying all working papers submitted and heard relevant speeches re-affirms the need for having the follow ing: 1 . to approve as soon as possible the revised text of the air navigation code, 2. resol ve the problem of the issue of operational rule s of the part related to the air navigation. 3. embody the ICAO Annexes into the national legislation following Italy's intern at ional obligations, 4. def ine limi ts of liability for the air traffic control ler. 5 . upd ate all relevant matter s to meet with the needs of service , 6. define the system of liabi lity of the ATC to protect all those th at may be aff ected as a result of ATC acts or omission s that are related to existing conventions.·
The panel, made up of experts in A ir Law. 5
How Courts View Controllers' Responsi bi I ities by Andreas Avgoustis, LL.B. (London)
Brown's pasture, flying different routes, at different altitudes, at different speeds going to different locations. The human mind can cope with such situation; I am having a hell of a time getting my computers to do the same.' Air traffic controllers are often thought of by laymen as traffic policemen or the apron marshallers seen with their table-tennis rackets. I wish this was true. It would most certainly be exciting to throw up your arms and say, 'Stop', Unfortunately, ladies and gentlemen, airplanes cannot stop or back-up in the air.
The following article is based on the speech delivered by the author, on behalf of IFATCA, at the Convegno su 'L'Assistenza al Volo in Italia: Problematiche Giuridiche', held in Rome 4-5 December, 1981. The legal liabilities of the air traffic controller have for many years now been the subject matter of discussion at various forums, more particularly at IFATCA's annual conferences and the I LO Meeting of Experts on problems facing the air traffic controller. The author is a graduate of the University of London with a degree in law. He has wide experience in aviation law and had been for a number of years the chairman of the Legal Committee of IFATCA. He is presently the vice-president (professional) of IFATCA and the Editor of this journal. He is employed with the Cyprus Civil Aviation Department as air traffic control supervisor. Mr. Chairman, this is probably the first such convention to be held, strictly to examine professional legal liabilities of the air traffic controller. and on behalf of the Executive Board of IFATCA I wish to congratulate ANACNA and the organising committee for this most excellent initiative to call experts in law as well as distinguished professionals to look objectively into the problem. _ The deliberations of this meeting will. I am sure, by tomorrow. enable us all to build up a true picture of the extent and ramifications of the issue that will eventually lead us to reasonable conclusions which should form the controller's professional requirements that national or international authorities should embody in relevant legislation.
The legal liability of the air traffic controller has been and continues to be one of the most important and unresolved issues that IFATCA is-faced with and endeavours through all lawful means to achieve some form of legal compromise. The International Federation is aware of the existing difficulties in both the national and international legal systems in its efforts to achieve its objective, i.e. to secure immunity for the air traffic controller. Before I enter into details as to the general legal liabilities of the controller and IFATCA's concern of the problem, permit me to give you bri~fly the controller's involvement 1n air safety and IFATCA's role in it.
Chess Game In its job recruitment literature the US FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) likens air traffic control as a three-dimensional chess game and states that the controller applicants must be able to withstand extreme stress and adjust to rapidly ch~ng1ng working conditions. Thou~h this may seem to you as a rhetori~ or_poetic description of the profess1~n. 1t must be admitted, however, that 1t 1sa very true statement. . Perhaps the best illustration _maybe the one given by an IBM_ senior systems analyst who was assigned by the FAA with the task of automating the air traffic control system in the USA. This same person who has worked on the Apollo moon landings proJect. when asked to explain why it_was taking him so many years to write an air traffic control programme on the computer, said: • 1n the Apollo programme we had only one spacecraft. departing from a known point to one known destination. In air traffic control you are asking us to provide a programme that will track and analyse hundreds of aircraft simultaneously, flown by pilots of varying skills, departing airports ranging from O'Hare Field to Farmer
As you are all aware, IFATCA is a non-political professional organisation having as its main objectives, the safety, efficiency and regularity of national and international air navigation. The Federation furthermore aims to assist and advise in the development of orderly systems of air traffic control. To achieve these objectives, IFATCA closely cooperates with national and international aviation authorities, sponsors and supports the passage of legislation and regulations which will increase the safe!y of air navigation and safeguard the integrity of its members. Though it would be my pleasure to discuss the nature of the profession of the air traffic controller and the problems that he is faced with, I am compelled, because of the nature of the basic theme of the symposium, to confine myself to his legal responsibilities and liabilities. I do not believe, however, if I only ~dh~re to the agenda that I shall do Justice to either the profession or to anyone present who may not be aware of the problems associated with the co~troller' s _decision-making process during the different phases of air traffi control. c The controller's judgment · rea_ching, in the _majmity of case~n spli_t-second dec1s1ons 1s impaired b · various l1m1tat1onssuch as airspac Y limitations that may be the outcome ~ obstructions (natural or man-mad ~ military restricted areas, natio e ·1 boundaries, the air traffic control ta tern itself, or perhaps due to noYsise abatement procedures. The aircraft itself is another essential factor to b considered. e Today's air traffic comprises military, commercial and general aviation aircraft. They are in fact different in size. weight. speed, performance, sophistication of airborne equipment and professionalism of pilots Traffic mixing is naturally greater at airports where all the above three categories
Front row: Andreas Avgoustis (left) and Andrea Loui se at the Convegno su 'L 'Assi stenza al Volo in Italia: Problematiche Giuridiche ' held in Rom e.
sha re the same airspace, the same arriva l and departure procedures and of course the same airport. This indeed is a constant source of danger no matter how adequate air traffic control procedures may seem to be , as for example if yo u can recall the San Diego mid -ai r co llision over three years ago between a genera l aviation aircraft and a Boeing 7 2 7 . The pi lot himse lf may create a problem , because a licensed pilot does not nece ssarily ensure a pro ficient one. Even coordination between controllers is also a great problem as wa s the ca se, perhap s of the Zagreb mid-air collision some five years ago . The weather as well as communi cations fac iliti es are two other main fac tors to be taken into consideration . It has been said . and very rightly so. th at air traffic c ontroller s must think faster than airpl anes f!y . The Law Law has alw ays been interpreted as reaso n yet in many cases it has not been reasonable at all as you will see as I go along .
The purpose of my speech is not to explain how the law behaves but only to give you some background as to how the law wants us controllers to behave. We all know that the air traffic control ler's primary objective is to ensure the safety, efficiency and regu larit y of air navigation . Any other aim th at may seem inherent in the system is in my opinion of secondary import anc e and purely of economic conseq uence or benefit to the emp loyer or the operat or. The controller , in his effort s to ach ieve the above objecti ves. has found him self many time s co-defendant with his employer in suits for damages arising as a resu lt of : • Neg ligent fai lure to warn the pi lot of thund erstorms: • Negligent failure to warn the pil ot that takeoff in fog was co ntrar y to regulation s: • Neglig ent failur e to give wa ke tur bulence warnings : • Neglig ent failure to wa rn of power line obstru ction : • Negligent c learance to the pilot t o fly below top s of mount ains . etc , et c.
Let us, however, take events in their proper order. The phenomenal incre ase in air traffic in recent years and the incredible technolog ical advancement in air t raffic control automation which has inc reased tremendously the system 's capac ity has put the air traffic controller into the unique position of being increasingly responsible for the safet y of this ever-expanding and enormous amount of aircraft mo ving about the th ree dimensional airspace environment and carrying hundreds of thousands of passengers during each hour of the day. The advent of radar , for example , immediate ly put the controller into the pec uliar position of becoming directl y responsible for the safety of aircraft coming under his control. Thus far the pi lot was responsible for keeping clear of high ground but instead that responsibility has shifted onto the rad ar controller . The air traffic controller's respo nsibilities , however, have incre ased to a larger extent not necessaril y becau se of this evolut ion but mainl y becau se of judicia l precedents of cases which were adjudged by courts of law placing the controller into a more delicate position where, in many instan ces, he had taken over some of the resp onsibilities of the aircraft commander . Where positive air traffi c co ntr ol is provided to aircraft, the respon sibility in preserving safety lies entirel y upon the controller . The follow ing is a short ext ract of what Ju st ice Ma son of the High Court of Au st ral ia said in his judgement in the case of Au stralian Nation al Airline s (TAA ) versus the Common wea lth of Au st ralia ' Safet y, that is in prevention of collisions, is th e responsibility of ATC and the duty of the aerodrome co ntrol ler to keep a proper lookout and to en sure th at a landi ng airc raft is c lear of the runwa y befo re he issues a take off cl earance., Tendency This, th e judge thou g ht. was und er the circumstan ces a serious departure from t he standards of the reasonable man, despite the fact th at both pilots (depart ing and t aking off) were aware of the situ at ion and they co uld take alternative act io n . In the U S. for example judgement s show a tendency of shifting the pilots · responsib ilities more and mo re onto the controller . In earlier day s court s co nsidered that t he pilot in command of an aircraft was ultimate ly respon sible for the conduct of the air c raft when he was given c learan c e for takeoff The pilot was then thought to know the capabilitie s of his airc raft 7
more than the controller and therefore the ultimate decision after being given clearance for takeoff was his own. However. a dramatic change has come forward as a result of the judgement in the case of Hartz vs. U.S. The controller has a duty to consider wake turbulence when he issues a takeoff clearance and furthermore has a duty to re-issue such warnings if the pilot seems not to have fully appreciated the situation. In this particular case the controller had followed the book by allowing the pilot to takeoff and just warned him of the existence of wing tip vortices. This. the court considered. was not sufficiently safe because the controller at busy airports is in a better position to know the runway situation than the pilot of a small aircrah sitting in his small cockpit trying to make numerous instrument checks. Speaking of the controller the judge said: Âˇ He was an experienced controller who knew. or by exercise of reasonable care. should have known. that it is hazardous for a small plane to immediately follow the takeoff of a DC 7.' In another case. Furumizo vs. U.S .. despite the fact that the controller followed instructions in the book. he did not observe any other precautions. The controller. the court held. did nothing but watch the plane take off behind a heavier one in disregard of his warning. He had a duty to stop the plane from taking off and the court therefore condemned the inaction of the controller. With regard to radar. the courts in the U.S. held, in the case of Maryland vs. U.S. that the radar controller was responsible for the accident to an aircraft he was monitoring because he failed to warn the pilot of the existence of an unidentified aircraft that he saw in the vicinity on his radar screen. These very few instances given above give us ground to examine further the controller's legal liabilities in all perspectives. It must, however, be emphasised here that courts do usually consider precedents even of foreign courts where none exist in the countries' law reports. During his watch. the air traffic controller may be liable for his acts or omissions to three different branches of law. namely criminal. civil or tort and disciplinary or administrative. Because under most systems of law these three liabilities may be independent from each other. it is legally possible for an air traffic controller (considering him always as a government employee) to face any 8
one or all three liabilities before a court of law or administrative tribunal.
Criminal Liability We must right from the outset eliminate the possibility of deliberate acts of malice because it is highly improbable that a controller will intentionally cause an aircraft accident. He may, however, be found criminally liable for negligence in cases of death or injury where he had acted in disregard of rules and regulations. These cases may be the cause of reduction of separation minima. It may be the result of his own initiative or following superior instructions. However. in this latter instance both the superior and himself will be liable. Non-compliance with the rules and regulations concerning, for example. minimum separation between aircraft will constitute grounds of criminal liability if injury or death was the outcome. If a controller. on his authority alone. reduced these separation minima and an accident occurred. he would be liable for criminal negligence; if he was instructed so to do by his superiors. this order would be illegal and in the case of an accident both the controller and the giver of the order will be charged. Following the mid-air collision in Zagreb and the ensued court proceedings, it seems certain that the courts will not consider the overloading of a sector as mitigating circumstances. This. as you all may recall. was a case where the controller was sentenced to 7 years imprisonment for his negligence. Civil Liability This is to compensate the injured party or his heirs. Before I go any further and give details as to how the controller may be named as a defendant in a civil suit. I would like here to refer to extracts of a letter by Attorney J. B. Hill to the U.S. Bar Association on the occasion of the introduction in the U.S. Senate and the House of Representatives of a Bill that was limiting the liability of the air traffic controller in cases of aircraft accidents. In his letter Mr. Hill said: 'I would like to point out that there is a group of federal employees whose exposure to tort liability is far greater than law enforcement agents and the possibility of personal litigation has resulted in a near collapse of an individual's personal, financial and psychological life.Âˇ In 1969 an airliner crashed killing 80 people, said Hill. Suit was instituted against the U.S. and litigation proceeded on its normal course. When
settlement prospects seemed to dwindle and due to the failure of certain of the plaintiffs attorneys to file timely suits in accordance with the Federal Torts Claims Act. several suits were filed against the individual controller exposing him to millions of dollars of personal liability. Though the case I have referred to may be rare because the aggrieved person would prefer to sue the employer directly considering that his pocket is bigger. rather than suing the controller. nevertheless, the possibilities as we have seen do exist. Under the employer liability principle. which seems to be the case in most legal systems. the employer is liable for the acts or omissions of his employees. The employer's recourse against the controller is limited only to cases of wilful misconduct and gross negligence. Despite the fact that the plaintiffs have a choice of defendants and that the employer is a more appealing defendant by reason of his financial capabilities. recovery as we have seen above may be barred by the many exceptions as for example immunities of the government. or requirements of certain procedures. So the possibilities of exposing the controller before a court of law for damages are real and not fictitious as may be suggested. Another point that may also arise is where conflict of interest of two individual controllers may exist as is the case of a recent Canadian suit where the controller supervisor of one unit alleges differently from the controller of another unit. but both are involved in the same accident. The Canadian Government as the employer, although it defends both controllers. it is the general feeling that defending one controller. evidence seems to be detrimental to the other. The Canadian Government is reluctant to accept independent attorneys. otherwise it will not provide relief to the controllers if they were found liable. Before we proceed to examine disciplinary or administrative liability it is worth while considering ICAO's intentions to come up with an international convention by which liability of the Air Traffic Control Agencies (that is our employer) will be limited in all aircraft accidents. By this convention it is intended to limit the ceiling of the damages granted in any particular accident. just as the Warsaw convention limits liabilities on airlines. What effect would such a convention have upon the individual controller? It is obvious that where a person claims for an amount of money as damages but the courts can only grant
a limited amount of compensation because of the convention it is legally possible for the plaintiff to seek recovery from the air traffic controller . IFATCA is making representations through the legal commission of !CAO that the air traffic controller should not be left out of the convention otherwise his welfare will be continuously at stake.
Disciplinary Action Disciplinary action may be taken against the controller i_ndep_endently of whether civil or criminal liabil1ty 1s being considered. Such liability arises basically where the controller has committed a professional error which did not necessarily result in an accident . Penaltie s for such professional faults may range from simple_ reprimand to suspensions. reduction in salary. demotion. transfer to_ another post or duty station. or d1sm1ssal. Disciplinary action may be the greatest headache or problem of the air traffic controller. No controller can boast that he has not been involved in a professional error such as perhaps a near-miss during his career and no one can definitely say that he will not be involved in such an incident during his future career. One near miss may be excused but two will probably suspend the controller until a full invest1gat1on 1s carried out and three will perhaps see the controller away from the control conso le or radar tube . We all know that the investigation of incidents and accidents are carried out not neces sarily to find out who was at fault but to discover under what circumstances it had occurred. with the ultimate objective to learn from the mistakes so that the incident may not occur again under the same circumstances. This is the principle behind the administrative immunity afforded to controllers in some countries for vo luntary reports of professional errors. Such immunity , however , 1sl1m1ted to ve ry few countries. as for example was the case in the U S . until recently. But administrations seem to be reluctant to adopt the system because . they suggest, controllers may shelter behind this immunity for any fault. In other instances the law of the country w ill not discriminate in favour of a c lass of professionals . However, thi s may not be a well founded excuse as there are cases of immu nity granted for in stance to judges . auditors or high ranking officials of th e gove rnment s for ac t s or omi ssion s 1n the co urse of their duties . Safety in aviat ion is enhanced when we learn by our m istakes and
therefore controllers should be encouraged to report any such professional errors. Pilots report nearmisses when they notice them . The majority of near-misses are not, however . detected by pilots because they fly in most cases under instrument weather conditions.
Conclusion Before concluding I would like to remind you of the !LO meeting of experts on probems concerning the air traffic controllers during which the legal liabilities of the controller was one of the most important items to be discussed and resolved upon . Its importance is shown from the fact that
some 8 of its 52 resolutions deal w ith the protection of the controller in law sui ts for compensation in aircraft accidents. The !LO called. through it s resolution s. upon the !CAO not to exclude the controller from an y inter national convention on the lia bi lity of the air traffic services agencies. Well , ladies and gentlemen . it mus t be admitted that it is impossible to run through all the deta ils of the legal liabilit ies of the air traffic controller in just a fe w minutes. Ho weve r, I hope that I have given yo u an idea as to some circumstances und er which the controller w ould be liable and also as to the extent of such liabil ity and the danger s that the profession is liable to face.
I A Move Forward Grumman has been awarded a $ 7 7 million contract to build at least one flight demonstrator aircraft with wings that sweep forward instead of aft. This experimental design will show whether current technology can be applied to the next generation of fighter planes for the US Air Force. Grumm an has been investigating the forward- swep t wing concept since 79 76 . We have been awarded all competitive contracts granted by the De fense Advanced Research Pro;ects Agen cy . In May. the agency wil l decide whether to build a second demon strator aircraft. Earlier attempts to build planes with wings that sweep forward failed be ca use the metal wings were either too heavy or co uld not withstand the strain. Wings that are lightweight but strong can be built out of advanced composite materials . Grumman has establish ed a position as a leader in research development . and production of this materia l. The forward-swept wing design reduces drag and allows the p lane to be powered by a smal ler. less powerful en gine . The plane ca n be more fuel efficien t and easier to control. Because the cos t of an aircraft generally is depende nt upon its weight . a plane with forward swept wings might cost 10 to 20 percen t less to build. buy and operate than conventional aircraft . 9
ATC: Need for an Improved Legal Protection by Bruno Barra, Chairman of ANACNA 's Legal Commission
. The fast and revolutionary changes witnessed in the field of air transport have not been, unfortunately, supported by adequate change in the field of air law. This is probably one of the main reasons which pushed ANACNA into organising this special conference and perhaps also because Italian controllers feel anxious and uncertain of their future and welfare. Firstly. we have to express our concern for the lack of legal protection afforded to the profession of the air traffic controller. particularly when we consider the technical difficulties and the risks involved in carrying out air traffic control duties. The anxieties of the Italian controllers continued to increase particularly during the very recent years as a result of the numerous court cases where controllers either faced criminal charges. court martial (for military controllers) or were named as defendants in civil suits. During the past nine years a total of twelve court cases involved air traffic controllers out of which five have been resolved at the preliminary hearings with two still pending. In the remaining five cases. controllers are criminally charged for multi-manslaughter as a result of air accidents that occurred during their watch. Undoubtedly. these cases involve considerable judicial proceedings with the consequential mental suffering of the controllers involved. In other words. we may definitely say that controllers in our country can be easily sued and be liable to any degree of criminal charge. It is therefore urgent to claim to establish a new and adequate legislation by which the limits of the responsibilities of the controller may be defined. starting with the criminal liabilities which are too wide and too general. As controllers and citizens of this country. let us consider further as-
• This a very brief resume of the working paper submitted by Bruno Barra at the Convegno su 'L 'Assistenza al Volo in Italia. Problematiche Giurid,che · 10
pects of the problem. It is not sufficient to put the blame on the air traffic controller with eventual financial loss_esand criminal charges by simply relying on technical inquiries and on views of experts who may not be experts at all. It is our conviction that this country requires urgently the establishment of Technical Boards of Enquiry into aircraft accidents who will advise. when the need arises. the Attorney-General's Office. Let us now examine the possible charges that the controller may face working in a system where the possibilities of making errors are frequent. Statistics prove this statement when considering the high number of rule violations. such as near misses. etc. Human error should not automatically lead to acts of negligence. recklessness or omissions. The Italian Government. in 1979. attempted to resolve the problem of liability of government servants employed at risky jobs. The ad hoe bill has not passed through Parliament as yet. It was intended. through this bill. to limit the liability of high ranking administrative personnel to acts of intentional or 'heavy· fault or where guilty mind (mens rea) was present. It is obvious from the above that the bill would provide very little benefit to the controller judging from the trials of controllers involved in aircraft accidents (Palermo. 1972 and Sardinia. 1979)their faults could not be deemed other than 'heavy· faults. Lack of cautiousness and recklessness are in fact considered ·unforgivable errors·. It will surely be a hard struggle for improved or increased legal protection for the controller based on the evaluation of what is 'human error'. Such evaluation should take into account the nature of the job. the working conditions as well as the psychological condition of the operator. The task becomes even more difficult when we look at our legislation where the principle of the 'objective (i.e. automatic) liability' still stands and which ignores any consideration of the psychological conduct of the operator towards the event. Any attempt to
~hange_ the actual legislation on this issue will most certainly be a longlasting course. It should therefore be suggested that alternative courses should be adopted that would bring earlier results, particularly during the early phases of the judicial proceedings and in some way alleviating the mental stress of the controller. The proposed bill, mentioned earlier. although it contained provisions for legal aid by the employer to the employee wro happened to be tried for acts or omissions committed when on duty. did not. however. prevent the employer from claiming from the employee reimbursement of any legal co~ts had the employee been found guilty. Legal aid was not available to colleague controllers and as a result they have suffered great financial consequences in their efforts to defend themselves. despite the fact that ANACNA. our association. assisted as far as its own resources could afford. ~ecause of this injustice. ANACNA intends to propose that controllers. sued for events that are related to their profession. be entitled to a lawyer of their choice and that costs should be ~overed ~y the employer without rights to reimbursement in the event of guilt being proved. In conclusion. what we as controllers require from the state is. increased legal protection. definition of the controllers responsibilities. a different evaluation of the term 'human error· and legal aid.
ICAA Protests Duty-Free Sales Abolition in EEC International Civil Airports Associatio (ICM) has entered 'vigorous· protest wit~ European Community over proposal t abolish duty-free sales to air passenger~ travel1ngwithin the Community. in letter written to Prime M_inistersof membe~ states._Movewas d_ec1ded by association·s executive committee In unanimous . agreement. CommIttee considers P posals to either abolish duty-free sale ro· . S Or tax t hem as imports to be in opposition to directives of ICA0 Council which rec. d t hat airports ommen increase cornme~ · 1 · cIa revenuesin order to limit aeronautical charges paid by carriers. Group said airports. unable to bear loss of revenue resulting from duty-free sales abolition would be compelled to increase user charges 10% to 20%. with consequent passenger fare increase.
News from the Aircraft
Airbus First A310
The first Airbu s lndu strie A310 w as officially presented to customers and press on 1 6th February at Aerospatiale' s plant in Toulou se. Having left the paint shop where it had been painted in the livery of Swissair and Lufth ansa. the two fir st launching customers. the aircraft was 'rolled into ' the hangar where the gue sts we re gathered for the ce remony. The A31 0 is the new tw in-ai sle true widebody 210-seat aircraft specially optimi zed for fu el-efficient short to medium range operations. The A3 1 0 benefits from both the experience gained with its bigger partner . the now well proven A300. of which nearly 1 70 are in service and incorporates the latest advances in techn o logy . The aircraft. 13 frame s (7 m /2 2 ft 11 .6 in) shorter than the A300. alth ough its cab in is only 11 frames (6 m / 19 ft 6.2 in) shorter . fe ature s an aerody namicall y and st ructur ally outstanding w ing incorporating double-curvature skins. wh ic h is optimised for the A310 mission. The A310 also features the Fo rwa rd Fac ing Cockpit. of w hic h Frank Borm an. c hairm an and president of East ern Airlines . said : ' intere stingly enough. thi s t ech nolo gy belongs to Airbu s lndu stne In my op ini o n the y are at least one generation ahead of th e Am erica n producersÂˇ . This cockp it co nc ept . w hich has already been ce rtifi cat ed and is now flying in sc hed uled a1rl1n e service w ith Garuda. allows safe two -m an crew ope rati o n. The A310 flight deck represent s a furth er advance. w ith CRT di splays for flight instrum ent s and t he ECAM cen tr alised syst em moni t or. Swi ssai r. Lufth ansa. KLM and Wardair have so fa r made public their decision to ope rate th e aircraft w ith a c rew of two . The A3 10 prog ramme was offi cia lly launc hed o n 7th Jul y 19 78 . fo llow ing the initi al commitments of Sw issa ir. Luft hansa and Air France . The comm itm ent s were firmed up ear ly in 1979 . when t hese airlin es. Joined by KLM . signed co ntr act s for the new 2 1 0 seater With in two month s the A31 0 had gained 105 or-
First and second A 3 1Os. ders and options. Tod ay 1 5 airlines . of w hic h five are also A300 c ustomers . have ordered a tot al of 180 of th e A300's sma ller partner. Th e A31 0 w ill be produced on the same assemb ly line as th e A300. w hic h gives Airbus ln d ustr ie great fle xibilit y in adapt ing its production to m arket req uirem ent s Th e f irst A3 1 0 car ries t he ser ial num be r 1 62. and its maiden flight is sc hedu led for late M arc h / ear ly April Th e second A310 . aircraft (S / N 172). to be painted in Airbus lndu stri e co lours. w ill fly one month late r. wh ile the third aircraft (S/ N 19 1 ). In Lufth ansa ma rkings. is due t o fly in Augu st All three aircraft w ill be used for the t est and certi ficat ion programme. The fi rst two. to be delivered t o Swi ssair aft er refurb ishing are powered by Pratt & Whitney engi nes. whi le the t hir d. for Lufth ansa. has General Elect ric eng ines. The fourth . a Lufthan sa aircraft. and the fifth for Swissa ir. t o fly in Octo ber and Decemb er respectively , wi ll be used for rout e proving . Cert ificat ion and deliv ery to the fir st c ust ome rs, Sw issair and Lufthan sa. w ill take place In lat e M arc h / ear ly Apri l 1 983
New Airbu s Ord ers In late February Cypru s Air ways orde red two Airbu s Indu str ie A 3 1 0
aircraft The advanced techn o log y medium-range wide -bod y tw in w ill be deli vered In February and March 1984 for introduct ion on the airline' s high densit y t raffic routes from Larnaca to London and late r on to other maJor Europe an de stinati ons on w hic h the y w ill repl ace older gener ation B707 s Confi gured to seat 235 passenger s of w hich 32 are ' ClubÂˇ . the Cyprus Air ways A 3 1 0s are powered by Gener al Elect ric CF6 -80A engines . Cypr us Airw ays is the 1 5th airlin e to orde r the A31 0 and the 44 th Airbu s lndu strie c ustome r Ear lier Air bus lndu strie cu stomer s in the Eastern Mediterranean are Olympi c A irways . Middle East Air ways . Saudi Arabi an Airline s. Egyptair . Libyan Ar ab Air lines and Tuni s A ir Incepted in 194 7 by British Europ ean Air ways. t he Cypru s Government and private inter ests . th e airline tod ay operates an all narro wbody fle et of seven airc raft : four B7 07s and th ree BAC- 111 . Its net wo rk extends among othe rs to Frank furt. London and Paris in Western Europe , to Athen s. Benghazi . Cairo and t o eight de stinat ion s in the Middl e East and Gulf area. In 1980 . Cypru s Airways carried 440 .000 passengers representing a ten per c ent increase over the previous year. With the A 31 0 . Cyprus Air ways wi ll make the jump to wide-body operations 11
CRT's 1n the Airbus A310 Airbus lndustrie says that the Forwa rd Facing Crew Cockp it (FFCC). w hi c h wi ll be stan dard on all Airb us air c raft beg inn ing wi th A31 0 delive ries in Mar c h 1 983 and contin uing on w ith t he A300-60 0 and A320. has 'taken advantage of the poten tial of the new CRT tech no logy to make a com plete ly fresh approach to the prese ntation of warn ing and systems operat ion information_· The FFCC includes an Electron ic Centrali zed Airc raft Monitor (ECAM) which decreases crew wo rk load and inc reases crew integ ration by presenting al l relevant warning and systems information on two CRT's on the flight deck center pane l. Four systems disp lay modes are p rovid ed . three automatic and one ma nua l. The flight phase related mode is in use in normal operation. automa t ica lly dis pl aying information approp riate to the c urr ent phase of operation (pre -fl ight. takeoff. clim b. en route. descent. approac h or aft e r landing). The crew can manual ly se lec t a ny desired system at any ti m e fo r ro utin e ch ec king . but a built-in monitoring faci lity conti nuousl y checks that all syst ems are op eratin g wi t hin norma l limi t s. Sho ul d any para meter drift out of the no rma l ope ratin g range. the automatic advisory m o de insures that the relevant data are brought clearly to the crew· s attention we ll before a ·wa rning · level is reached The fai lur e-related mode has preced ence ove r the othe r tw o automatic modes and the manu al mode. As soon as any pa rame ter reac hes a pre-set wa rn ing level. the app ropria te system synoptic is
show n toge th er w ith wa rni ng infor mati on a nd correct ive guidance informati on on t he wa rnin g d isplay. W hen an alert occ urs. th e wa rning d isplay shows one or mor e infor mation pages. The first page ident ifies the system and t he failur e. in am ber. and th e imm ediat e co rrec ti ve act ion requ ired. in gr een . If the fa ilure is a· ge neratin g fa ilur e· affectin g othe r services. th e fac t is m ade clear by a box around the warning. If ano th er. unrelated. ale rt occ urs. it is immed iate ly d isplayed above th e exist ing
message it it is of high er pr io rit y o r be low it if it is of th e sam e or low er priorit y acc or ding to a predetermi ned hi erarc hy. Wh en the nec essary ac tion s have bee n co mpl eted . t he di splay reve rts to the fli g ht ph ase relat ed mode. The acco m pa nyin g ph oto gr ap h of th e FFCC deve lop men t mo c kup shows t he CRT' s for the ECA M in t he cen ter and two set s of CRT's for th e att itud e dir ec ti o n and horizo nt dl situ ati o n indi ca tors d irec tl y in fron t of th e pilots.
Boeing The 757's Century 2 1 flight de c k will be mo st advan ce d on a commercial aircr aft . By int egratin g digital syst ems and prese ntin g da t a on easy-to-read cath ode-ray-tub e di splays. thi s new fli gh t deck wi ll help the crew maint ain more exac t ing. co nsist ent . and eco nomica l con t ro l of th e airc raft w ith less eff ort The Centur y 21 ·s syst ems ca n coo rdin at e eac h fli g ht from j ust aft er t akeoff thr o ugh land ing and ro llo ut. lettin g th e c rew fun cti on as systems m anage rs The 7 5 7 systems display only the info rm ati on t he crew needs to fly th e aircraft or to co m bat a m alfunc ti o n Unless t he crew asks for it. routin e det ail is hand led by t he Cent ury 2 1 ·s systems or sto reci for lat er retr ieva l . The basic 7 5 7 fli ght deck is des igned fo r two c rew members
Flight de ck of the 75 7 12
Eurocontrol: A Practical Application of International Cooperation by M. Jean Leveque, Director General, Eurocontrol
Air traffic services in Europe have come in for a great deal of criticism of late; from official bodies notably the European Parliament whose members seem unable to fly anywhere in Europe on time, from operators in the European airspace complaining of inordinate delays, uneconomical operation and excessive distances being flown. Passengers comments are often unprintable. As experts in this field we know that the penalties being suffered by European airspace users. are not the unique responsibility of air traffic services but I think we have to admit that much of the discomfort being suffered by the airspace user can be _laid_ at the door of the air traffic organisations in Europe failing to meet enti_relythe aim of air traffic control of providing a safe, orderly and expeditious flow of air traffic. Safety has not really been put at cause. Operators in general accept that safety in European airspace conforms to internationally agreed safety standards. In fact delays and disruptions resulting from the imb_alance between demand and capacity are brought about. at least in part by the need to avoid any derogation of safety. But if we know the problems. why haven't we solved them. Why haven't we in Europe anticipated the situation. and taken the necessary steps to avoid it. Certainly Europe has the know-how and the industry to provide the technical requirements of air traffic services; the importance of air transport to the economic health of Europe is well understood. What then has been the trouble? It stems of course from the fact that Europe. already a relatively small area in comparison with the world's land masses when considered in aviation terms. is divided into two ideological areas and that which we refer to gen-
erally as Western Europe is split into a number of states. some very much smaller than others, whose historic frontiers had been uninfluenced by considerations of air traffic and whose airspace was only synonymous with breathing space. The problem has not only the operational and technical aspects but takes on political connotations as well. In fact. when one looks at the air traffic situation in Europe today one has to give credit to those experts who in the 1950's foresaw so many of the problems which were going to arise in Europe as a result of the introduction of jet-engined aircraft into commercial use.
Problems The effect of the flight characteristics of these aircraft on the air traffic pattern and their economic advantages inducing a rapid increase in air traffic. would raise the need for introducing advanced technical air traffic systems which would greatly increase the costs of providing adequate services. The problems were of particular concern to the smaller countries or to those with limited technical and financial resources. The solution which the experts of the day adapted was imaginative and bold. It was to create an international organisation to provide the executive air traffic services in that part of the airspace where these new aircraft were to principally operate. i.e. the upper airspace. The International Convention for the Safety of Air Navigation Âˇ Eurocontrol'. the legal instrument giving effect to this decision was signed on 1 3 December 1960 by six states: Federal Republic of Germany. Belgium. France. United Kingdom. Luxembourg and the Netherlands.
Italy. the sixth EEC state. although having participated to a great degree in its drafting. withdrew at the 11 th hour and did not accede to the convention. Ireland acceded to the convention as from 1 January 1 9 6 5. The convention was unique in itself in that. for the first time. executive authority was accorded to an international organisation. There was. in fact. a transfer of certain national sovereignty. This was not to say that supra-national powers were granted to the permanent body that was created by the convention. Only the Permanent Commission (of ministers). the first of the organisation's two organs. is empowered to take decisions or make directives which are binding on the member states and then only on a unanimous vote. The Air Traffic Services Agency, the second of the two organs. is administered by a committee of management. composed of a civil and a military representative from each of the member states and a director general who is the highest permanent official in the organisation.
Joint Effort This two tier control exercised by the member states. at both the politico/ policy level and at the executive level. make it evident that the success or otherwise of the organisation in achieving the aims set out in the convention is a direct reflection of the joint political will of its member states. This joint effort applied also to the financing of the activities of the organisation. Basically the member states guaranteed its financial equilibrium. the net costs being met by contributions from each of the signatories to common investment and operating budgets. calculated in the main in relation to the proportion of gross national budgets. In other words in relation to a state's ability to pay. The organisation came into being on 1 March 1 963 after the last signatory state had ratified the convention. The agency was empowered. under the tutelage of the permanent commission to set up experimental units. training establishments for the advanced training of air traffic servicesÂˇ staff and air traffic control centres. And this it proceeded to do. However quite early in the life of the convention the initial premise leading to the conception of the horizontal division of the airspace between separate authorities was brought into doubt. Moreover. because of the way France and the United Kingdom had In the meantime organised their control of civil and military air traffic. these 13
IFATCA '83 Off icers and members of the Yugoslavian Air Traffic Control Association are looking forward to seeing you all in Split, Yugoslavia, Hotel Lav , 21-27 March 1983 . Make Split, Yugoslavia your rendez-vous for '83
countries declared, as a case of 'force majeure', that they could not envisage the transfer of their upper airspace to Eurocontrol's direct responsibility, as provided for in the convention, until possibly in the early 1980's. The compromise formula that was eventually adopted by the member states, and which is still being applied today, was that France and the United Kingdom would each continue to provide air traffic services in their own upper airspace on a national basis, on behalf of Eurocontrol; the agency would continue its co-ordination and planning tasks and experimentation and training but would concentrate its efforts in providing executive air traffic services to the upper airspace of the Benelux countries and the Federal Republic of Germany. The financial corollary to these arrangements were that the principle of the communal financing of the operating costs of direct air traffic services was abandoned and that in future such costs would be met on a national or regional basis. Investments would be however, continued to be communally financed either 'directly' through the organisation for communal projects developed by the agency or' indirectly' by national administrations, for projects which were funded initially by the state and subsequently reimbursed by the organisation on an amortisation basis, in respect of the upper airspace element. It was an unsatisfactory and rather complicated arrangement but within the constraints of this 'interpretation' of the convention, Eurocontrol nevertheless realised a number of important projects which have enjoyed considerable technical success: a) The Experimental Centre at Bre-
tigny-sur-Orge in France which undertakes simulation both for the organisation's planning purpose as well as on behalf of individual member states and others, it experiments with different types of equipment. e.g. colour _displays, carries out field evaluations and airborne evaluation of navigational facilities and is equipped to investigate many of the operational problems connected with the use of automation in air traffic control and the development of software used in ATC. b) The Institute of Air Navigation Services at Luxembourg for training of air traffic controllers and assistants as well as conducting courses in computer systems. analysis and programming and maintenance engineering, not only from the
agency or the member states but from a large number of other countries.
c) The upper area control centre at Maastricht to provide an automated and co-ordinated control service for the Brussels, Amsterdam and Hanover UIRs. The air force of the Federal Republic of Germany also provides services for military traffic in the upper airspace over Northern Germany from the same operations room. The civil staff are exclusively Eurocontrol officials. This is a very advanced centre. The principal facilities provided by the Maastricht system include: automatic flight plan processing; multi-radar processing. Information is displayed in digital form on SDDs of aircraft position with artificial after flow with attached label block with aircraft call sign, actual altitude based on mode C, cleared flight level, aircraft attitude either ascending, descending or on level flight and velocity leader; correlation of flight plan and radar data; rer:ilacement of flight progress strips by electronic data display; automatic short term conflict detection and alert (2 minutes); automatic and silent civil/military co-ordination facilities; automatic transmission of flight data to military ATC and air defence units; automatic exchange of flight d~ta to neighbouring centres; high in-built reliability factor. Unfortunately the Netherlands administration has not yet found its way clear to transfer the Amsterdam UIR services to the Maastricht UAC. Although initially designed to control only civil traffic, Maastricht was converted into a colocated civil/ military control centre, when responsibility for military aircraft in the northern part of the Federal Republic of Germany was transferred from the German airspace unit at Goch. Control of military aircraft over Belgium is exercised from the Belgian Airtorce Unit at Semmerzake, which has available on call-down by individual controllers the air picture available at Maastricht. However, the great flexibility of the Maastricht facilities were well demonstrated quite recently when the Semmerzake Centre was being modified. the Belgian Air Force was
able to exercise this function directly from the positions in the Maastricht UAC. I think you will agree an advanced degree of civil/ military co-ordination has been achieved. The facilities at Maastricht compare favourably with those anywhere in the world and a new operational display system is now in course of implementation. d) Building, equipping and developing of an upper area control centre at Karlsruhe, providing civil and military aircraft with an automated and co-ordinated control service in South German upper airspace. It is a fully integrated centre in that civil and military controllers share the same control suites side by side using exactly the same equipment. In this centre the staff manning the control positions are from the Federal Republic of Germany civil and military administrations. e) Building, equipping and developing new UAC in Shannon in Ireland. This centre is staffed exclusively with staff from the Irish Administration. It is a much smaller centre than the previous two centres but still enjoys a considerable degree of automation in the guise of processed radar displays to which is to be added this year flight data processing. f) Providing secondary
surveillance radar installations at Brussels, Leerdam, Shannon and more recently at Mount Gabriel in Ireland. This last installation transmits radar information both to the Shannon centre and to the London ATCC. g) Establishing at Brussels a Central Route Charges Office for the purpose of calculating and collecting route charges from airspace users, in both the upper and lower airspace, on behalf of its member states. Four non-member states. Austria, Portugal, Spain and Switzerland also use the office. h) Apart from the direct executive tasks, the organisation. through its Air Traffic Services Agency. has carried out studies on future air navigation systems. ATC methods and facilities and cost effectiveness of ATC services. It has developed high level mathematical models in aid of operational research. data analysis, forecasting and for fast time simulation studies. It has made general technical studies of ATC and navigation systems and co-ordinated studies into related airborne systems as well as future air/ ground communication and surveillance systems. 15
External Co-operation One criticism which has been levelled against Eurocontrol is that the geographical area it covers is too small. Nevertheless, Eurocontrol has concluded a number of agreements with neighbouring states having the aim of encouraging co-operation between those states and the organisation so as to facilitate the exchange of technical information, to provide for technical assistance by the Eurocontrol Agency in the development of new national ATC systems and to carry out studies on their behalf. Co-operation agreements have been concluded with Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Italy, Austria, Switzerland, Spain, Canada, the Federal Aviation Administration of the United States and more recently with Greece. An association agreement has been concluded with Portugal under which the agency is actively participating in the planning and implementation of a new automated civil ATC system for the airspace of that state. Some of these states - for example, Greece and Portugal - have stated their wish to accede to the amended Eurocontrol Convention which. it is envisaged, will enter into force on 1 March 1983, and it is likely that Italy and Spain will wish to do so too. Future Activities In spite of the technical success which the organisation has enjoyed in many of the fields of its activities, it has to be owned that it has not fully achieved the aims set out for in the convention. The restrictions on the agency's activities, as imposed by the so called 'Moroni' interpretation of the convention, has created an imbalance in the tasks of the agency with direct ATC responsibilities in one region and only a co-ordination function elsewhere. A disequilibrium and complexity in the agency's financing has also resulted from the 'Moroni' system. The progressive transfer of the financing of air traffic services from the general tax payer to the airspace user under the route charges system offers a greater flexibility to individual states of providing air traffic services on a national basis. The concept of airspace organisation has also undergone change. There has. in addition, been the fact that some states have felt unable to relinquish national responsibility in matter of civil/ military co-operation and national defence. In some quarters 1t has also been considered that the obligation for a state to concede to an international 16
body the legal and executive responsibility for the provision of its air traffic services created a barrier for non-member states to accede to the convention. The experience gained from the operation of the organisation since 1963 has also led the member states to review the future activities and tasks they wish to see carried out by Eurocontrol. The initial 20 year period of the convention is due to end in February 1983 and this has been looked upon as a convenient point to effect any amendments to the provisions of the convention which the results of the review may entail. Member states have still to take their final decision on the amendments they wish to see made to the existing convention to take effect from 1 March 1983. However. the preparation of the new legal instrument is sufficiently advanced to be able to conclude that the present obligation for a member state to transfer to Eurocontrol the legal and executive responsibility for air traffic services in any part of its airspace will be removed. Member states take the view nevertheless, that whilst for the foreseeable future an efficient air traffic service in Europe must remain dependant on nationally funded, developed and operated facilities, the effective use of European airspace demands the closest co-operation and co-ordination between the national authorities, in order to make balanced provision of services with sufficient capacity to meet the requirements of all airspace users, military as well as civil. A further conclusion is that the present divisions of responsibility between national administrations and Eurocontrol for respectively lower and upper airspace should end and that. under the amended convention, Eurocontrol should be concerned with the airspace as a whole. On this basis, the principal tasks for which, it is proposed. the organisation should be responsible as from 1 March 1983 include: the analysis of future air traffic requirements and the new techniques necessary to meet them and the elaboration and adoption by the member states of common long term objectives relating to air traffic services; the co-ordination of national medium term plans so as to establish a common medium term plan relating to air traffic services and installations; the development of common
policies relating to ATC equipment. in the air and on the ground, and for the training of air traffic services staff; the promotion and carrying out of cost effectiveness studies and the development of a meaningful programme of studies, tests and trials in the field of air navigation and as well as the distribution of the results of those studies, tests and trials carried out by national administrations; the establishment and collection by the organisation, as at present. on behalf of the member states, and of those third states wishing to utilise the system of the charges imposed on users of air traffic services. Reverting to the question of the responsibility for providing executive air traffic services, although there will be no longer any obligation for a state to transfer this to Eurocontrol, the amended convention provides for the organisation to accept such a task should a state or group of states so request and all the member states so agree. The Maastricht UAC might well provide a case in point. This centre will, in any case, have to continue in operational use well beyond 1 983 as a Eurocontrol Centre. However, the Federal Republic of Germany and the Benelux states have requested Eurocontrol to carry out a feasibility study into the future centralising at Maastricht of all area control functions in respect of the airspace of the Benelux states and the Northern part of Germany. Should the study prove positive and the member states subsequently decide in favour of implementing the proposal it could well mean a considerable extension of this centre's and Eurocontrol' s executive operational responsibilities for the future. Another important task which it may be decided should be entrusted to Eurocontrol is assistance to member states, and any such third states who may be interested, in establishing an international system of air traffic flow management. The immediate task of the agency is to study the setting up of a central data bank of aircraft movements from which national authorities may obtain up-toc!ate air traffic information on which national flow control organisations may call to guide them in their decision making process. As is well known, there is considerable imbalance in traffic capacity against demand in various parts of Europe, considering Europe in a wider geographical area than simply that of the Eurocontrol area. The long term
aim. and one in which the agency could render technical assistance. is the raising of the local capacity to meet the traffic demand. However. much could be done to reduce the problems of delays and derouting by making the optimum use of the national facilities already in existence by a system of co-ordinated traffic flow management. This is the sort of executive task which Eurocontrol is well suited to carry out. It is an indication that even if Eurocontrol should e~entua_lly lose its role of providing direct air traffic control. there will remain in Europe executive tasks which. if European air navigational requirements are to be met in the most economical manner. can best be carried at an international level. The organisation clearly has a major role to play in the development of ATC services in Europe. Through the establishment of joint working groups on subjects of common interest. it will be able to promote the development of common policies and procedures which will have a beneficial effect on the creation of an effective ATC system. Already it is working on the problem of air traffic flow managements. as I have just mentioned. on the development of SSR technology. e.g. ADS EL working group - on studies in the navigational field with particular reference to problems related to minimum navigation performance specifications (MNPS). on the problems of automatic conflict detection and resolution (SPACDAR. on behalf of ICAO). the extension of the ORCAM system throughout the EUR region. But I think it is important to stress that if these communal ventures are to lead to solution of the European ATC problems. the basic and essential requirement is the political will of states to ensure their realisation. There is little benefit to be obtained from an administration being self-satisfied with its own air traffic system if the aircraft it handles cannot be passed into neighbouring airspace. As in many other international organisations. a common political will has not always been easy to achieve. This was noted with regret in a resolution adopted by the European Parliament last July. Their transport committee has been making quite extensive enquiries into the air traffic problems in Europe and the report that was established. and the resolution that was proposed contained some severe criticism of the present air traffic system and made quite specific proposals as to how the deficiencies should be rectified. Perhaps you would be interested to hear what these latter proposals were:
The European Parliament: · Is quite convinced that these deficiencies can be relieved or removed only by far-reaching co-operation and co-ordination between the various national air navigation authorities in the management and control of air traffic.' , Pr?poses to this end the setting-up of an integrated European system for the management of air traffic flows. to be ~esponsible in particular for the tactical and strategic planning of air traffic.' 'Wishes this task to be entrusted to Eurocontrol.' ·_consi_ders it desirable that for ~ctIve air traffic control a similar integrated system be introduced inv?lving the Eurocontrol agency.· Considers it necessary therefore that Eurocon_trol continue its operat1o~al tasks In the upper airspace of Belgium. the Federal Republic of Germany and Luxembourg. that the Netherlands fulfil its obligation to tr~nsfer control to Eurocontrol. that with the accession of Italy and Denmark in prospect, negotiations with these countries be intensified and that France. Ireland. Italy and the United Kingdom give favourable consideration to :ransferring these tasks to the agency. . _'Believe~ that if there is not suff1c1e_ntpol1!1cal will to achieve this in the immediate future. the Eurocontrol Convention which expires in 1 983 ought to be prolonged automatically in its present form so that at least the air traffic control centres of Eurocontrol at. Ma_astricht and Karslruhe can be maintained.' .Considers that such an extension should_ be made use of for the execution. at the commission's expense. of a basic study of the relat1onsh1p between the development of ~ common a_Irtransport policy and an integrated air traffic control system believes. moreover. that this study needs to be geared to the future. be based on a cost-benefit analysis and be drawn up in consultation with the sectors concerned.· .. Requests its president to forward this resol_ut1onto the council and the commI_s_sIon_. to the competent authorities in Eurocontrol' s member states and to the chairmen of the competent committees in the national parliaments.· Similar views have now recently been expressed by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. Contacts between the commission of the European communities and Eurocontrol have already been established and a co-operation agreement
between the two organisations is about to be concluded. The agency is already co-operating in certain studies which the commission is undertaking in the air transport field and is shortly to undertake a study on fuel conservancy on behalf of the commission. . It is interesting to see. however. Just how closely the European Parliament's resolution represents a return to the 1950's appreciation of the P:Oblems. We seem to have gone in a circle. It remains to be seen if. this time round. we. the experts in the matter. can realise the full aims of air tr_affic control in Western European airspace.
End Sought to Price Cutting . Amid charges and counter-charges of disastrous price-cutting. being exchanged among airline executives. IATA members took up problem at Cannes meeting and concluded change_ is in order if bankruptcies are to be avoided. Moves. aimed at s_temming tide of well below face value ticketing._ and granting of travel agent commissions above the 9% limit up to as high as 20%. were approved. Spread of discounting. particularly over once-profitable North Atlantic route (no profit since 1970). was affirmed by July IATA survey. Resolution aimed at outlawing discounting was passed by 100 members. following long debate in which it was shown that 20% general fare rise would be needed if losses were to be corrected by fare increases alone. Effecting the resolution will be difficult due to fact all international carriers do not belong to IATA. and many governments promote fare cuts they do not consider illegal and which are supported by the public. In the Far East and Southeast Asia. governments openly encourage _non-IATA carriers· price cutting in compet1t1on with IATA airlines. Aer Lingus CEO David M. Kennedy charged efforts in Britain and European Community to encourage cut-price competition were fostered by 'forces of extreme consumerism_and political opportunism·. 1n a maJor cnt1c1sm of EEC deregulation efforts. (Director General HammarskJold told meeting European air fares will go up 3% January 1 with some regional exceptions.) A resolution to limit number of seats put up for sale was reJected following walkout of representatives of Braniff International Flying Tigers and Pan Am. whose vice: president-international affairs. John Champion. warned that discussion of capacity conflicted with US antitrust laws
7th Regional Meeting - Western European Region of IFATCA by Bjarne Nilsen (Regional Vice-President) and Andrea Luise (ANACNAI IFATCA liaison)
Lengthy disc1,.Jssionsensued on the Hotel Boston in Rome prov ided exA total of 20 work ing papers , some cellent fac ilities for the participants at of them dealing w ith the future of the agenda items 3. 4 . 6 and 7 and it is the 7th Regional Meet ing of the region and the Federation , were pre- fair to conclude that industrial action European region of IFATCA th at took sented to the meeting for study and in support of other members seems place on the 13th and 14th November ap pro val. The agenda comprised the somewhat difficult due to restrictions last year. following : existing inside the local constitutions . 1 . The Regiona I Vice-President's The meeting heard conflicting views The host associat io n ANACNA though it was generally felt that sup(Associa zione Nazionale Assistenti e report, 2. Outstanding matters from the portive spirit was present but circumControllori della Navigazio ne Aerea) sta nces may prevent effective action. through its public relations commit tee previous year . The executive board representa3. Review of the regional activities spa red no efforts to see th at the meetbefore and subsequent to the tives gave a detailed run-down of the ing wou ld be an absolute success. The board 's activities on the PATCO issue Amsterdam emergency confercommi tt ee's chai rman Piero Gugnoni and assured the meeting that ence . managed sponso rship from a number PATCO's requirements in internation4 . The U .S. situation . of organisat ions such as: Selenia 5 . Information from member-asso - al support is only financial and appeals (co rporate membe r of IFATCA) , Alto the US Government to re-employ ciations. 1talia. Air France, TAP Portugal , Air the dismissed controllers. 6 . Industrial actions member Malta. Lufthansa . Air Afrique . CSA The meeting agreed that member Eurofly and Fiat. associatio ns' policies . 7. Propo sed changes to IFATCA's associations. on their representatives 路 Sele nia provided for a short technireturn home. stud y the extent of co nstitution. cal session during the meeting. Peter 8 . Re-alignment of the European financial support to be given. Jorgensen ( I FATCA ' s Corporate A cable was also sent to President regions of IFATCA Membe rs' Coo rd inator) an d B . Lan Reaga n demanding the immediate re9. Follo w -up of I LO reports. d1no spoke on new deve lopments in 10 . Air Traffic Management. IFATCA inst atement of PATCO controllers. the use of radar systems demo nstratAnxiety was expressed by some policy . ing thei r company路 s adva ncement in the field. member associa tion s on the new 11 . Pilot / co ntroller relation ship . constitutional provision of I FATCA in 12. IFATCA ' 82. Amsterdam. and The meeting was ad dr esse d by 1 3. An y other business. relation to the member ship declarMr. B. Rossi Dora. Councillor for Tourism of the Rome Muni c ip al Continues on page 4 7 Autho rity . The chairma n of the m eeting was BJarne Nilse n w ith Andrea Lui se as sec retary and ass ist ed by Mi ss Rit a Luise with backstage ass ist ance from Gianni Boccad oro and Piero Mele dandri. A tota l of t hirt ee n Member A ssociat ions we re rep resent ed at the meet ing - a norma l numb er at such meet ings The Exec uti ve Boar d of I FATCA was represe nt ed by the President, H 路 Harri Hensc hler and Pat o路Doherty, V ice- President Administration . In his openi ng add ress, the Regional Vice- President exp lained th at although t he meeting was origina lly planned to be a joint We stern European/ Cent ral Europea n , it turned out to be only a Western European meet ing because of administrative diffi c ult ies encountered along the way . He said that the idea was fu lly supported by both reg iona l vice-p residents and also by the board of Andre a Luise (left) and Bjarne Nilsen discussing proceedings as Rita LU/se walk s IFATCA away. 18
PATCO vs. FAA In our issue 4/81. we were involved in a lengthy report on the PATCO (Professional Air Traffic Controllers· Organization) strike and IFATCA's emergency conference which took place in Amsterdam. in August 1 981. to consider the problem and resolve upon possible action. It is almost a year since PATCO went on strike resulting in the Reagan administration's vehement reaction dismissing a total of 12.000 professional air traffic controllers from units throughout the country. It was hoped that during this period of time some form of settlement would have come about. Unfortunately. nothing as yet has evolved. at least as far as the controllers are concerned. despite some hopes expressed by both sides following the decertification of PATCO as a negotiating organization for controllers: It is feared that the rehiring of fired controllers is seen only in the distant future. To give an update of what went on in the U.S. during the past few months and some of the consequences as a result of the strike. here are some brief details: 50% Insurers Increase - Scheduled U.S. airline flights were 25% fewer but passengers buying trip insurance were up as high as 50%. 'Journal of Commerce· disclosed. Before controllers· walkout. one in every hundred passengers bought trip/travel insurance. Tele-trip. the only company serving New York area travellers. cited sales increases of 50% at Newark (New Jersey) International Airport. 30% at LaGuardia Field and Kennedy International Airport. Firm also noted Boston. Philadelphia airport offices showed a 50% rise. with Chicago's O'Hare International Airport and Los Angeles International Airport. 35% and 25%. respectively. Mutual of Omaha. largest travel insurancer purveyor. notes overall sales at airline insurance booths up 25-30%. Controller strike is said to have contributed greatest effect but August volume also is tr~ditionally high due to vacation traffic surge. In unrelated insurance matter. Lloyd· s of London aviation account showed loss for first time since 1957 as settled claims exceeded premiums
by $ 3. 7 million. 'The Times· of London reported. Airline Losses at $ 250 Million Air Transport Association (ATA) puts losses due to controllers strike in excess of $ 250 million. ATA figures indicate $ 30 to $ 40 million loss on first day alone. $ 200 million between August 3 and August 31 . plus an estimated $ 40 million in June when strike action threatened travel plans. Ho~ever. ATA President Paul R. Ignatius told congressional committee there is reason to believe 'airlines will be able to conduct a viable economic operation in the months ahead' because of reliable schedules. load factor improvements. cost adjustments effected by capacity reductions. Two commuter carrier casualties of strike were Golden Gate Airlines and Swift Aire which ceased operations. Former said controller strike reduced demand for air travel. United Airlines began layoff of 4% of its workforce because of schedule reductions. Notices were sent to 800 flight attendants. 1 .300 ground employees. Flight reductions also are impacting on hotel and car rental company results. with former reporting overall 10% cancellation rate since strike began. 50% Controller Trainee Failure Cited - Half of 72 students in first post-strike air traffic controller class at FAA training academy in Oklahoma City failed. This is double usual number of failures. Students had been selected from among pre-strike appli~ants. according to academy superintendent. Edwin Harris. An FAA spokesman cited outdated two-yearold application lists. and short recruiting ti~e. as partially to blame. noting cond1t1onalready had occurred in prior years. About 10.000 controllers now ha~dle air traffic which is 80% of prestrike level (3.000 supervisors. 5. 700 nonstriking controllers. 1 .000 military controllers). About 7 .000 new recruits are expected to be added to the air traffic control system in next two years. to bring force up to 13.000. 3.000 less than pre-strike. Training program is 1 7 to 20 weeks for en route controllers and terminal controllers. respectively. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Chairman James B. King told convention of
Commuter Airline Association of America (CAAA) his agency was concerned regarding long-term controller fatigue and stress under FAA' s emergency flight control plan and has recommended development and distribution of an early detection program. He also said recent federal air traffic control action favors carriers with ·established economic and territorial positions.· FAA Cuts Back Private Flying Doubling of air traffic delays over precontroller strike levels caused FAA to impose new restrictions on private pilot use of air traffic system. Commercial airline traffic. already cut back. expected to be further reduced December 1 . Administrator J. Lynn Helms said FAA move was designed to 'balance general aviation and air carriers at the same reduced levels'. An FAA spokesman said 30-minute or longer delays have reached more than six times pre-strike levels. or about 3. 14 % of total daily flight average. which is under 22.000. Transportation Secretary Drew Lewis previously had noted airline passengers could expect delays at major airports through December. perhaps into next spring. NTSB Chairman James King said agency will pass along to FAA recommendations made by staff study team to cut back number of flights handled by controllers. develop programs to monitor controller fatigue and stress. He noted former already was being addressed by flight cutbacks; that. although teams did not find controllers affected by fatigue. they are overworked. (Board had recommended restrictions on visual flying which is principal aim of new private aircraft cutback.) DoT is reported to be putting together wage and benefits increase plan for controllers who stayed on job. Annual wage increase of 11 .4% (same total offered to union) is expected. One government source was quoted by ·Associated Press· as saying Administration would consider rehiring some controllers once union · has been considered out of the business·. Meanwhile. FAA is reported to have asked for 400 more military controllers as stop-gap measure. Air Traffic Cut Again- FAA effected proposed 5% additional cut in U.S. air traffic at busiest 22 main airports. bringing level to 78% of that before air controllers struck. Latest reduction is not expected to cause any serious traveller inconvenience since recession has reduced air travel and carriers have been able to maintain needed seat capacity through addition of more wide-body aircraft. more seats per aircraft. Thanksgiving weekend (one of busiest) saw more delays on 19
reservations telephones than in the air. according to one industry observer. Most airlines operated at about 90% of capacity (based on 1 980 traffic) and with an insignificant number of delays. Further to ease the strain caused by the air traffic situation, CAB is allowing airlines to discuss ways of exchanging take-off and landing slots in open meetings. It refused, however, to allow exchanges to take place immediately, at least not without its approval. Associate FAA Administrator Donald Segner has publicly commended airlines for shifting schedules to off-peak hours and for shihing to underutilized airports. September consumer complaints declined 54%, despite controllers· strike. CAB says. Controllers New Hope - Governing body of International Labor Organization (ILO) agreed with its freedom of association committee findings that U.S. Government did not interfere with trade union privileges when it took action against PATCO. Finding was published over objections of U.S.S.R. Committee noted lives were endangered by withdrawal of controllers· services. agreed upon use of m1l1tary air controllers as justifiable alternative to shutting down all air services. The U.S. Supreme Court refused to overturn appeals court ruling affirming federal courts' right to issue Injunctions against striking federal employees. PATCO contended Federal Labor Relations Authority only, had power in such circumstances. Union. which has $ 140 million in claims and debts as result of illegal strike. filed under Chapter 1 1 of bankruptcy law. Aggregate amount includes $ 1 30 million in damages sought by ATA on behalf of airline members. $ 4 million in attached assets.$ 1 .5 million in federal contempt fines. $ 635.000 in attorneys· fees. PATCO now is without dues due to decertification order. which prevents further collections; must file plan with court for settling debts. In Fort Worth (Texas). three PATCO leaders pleaded guilty, under plea bargaining. to reduced charges of criminal contempt in connection with strike action. while three others rejected offer and will stand trial on felony charges. Two Tampa (Florida) controller's union leaders were fined $ 1 .OOO each for criminal contempt AFL-CIO convention delegates demanded rehiring of fired controllers but stopped short of backing one-day union walkout to show support for PATCO. President Reagan indicated, in talks with Teamster Union. President Roy Williams. Adm1n1strat1on is considering development of plan which could result in
rehiring of some controllers who participated in strike action. Waiver of law preventing fired controllers from returning to federal employment for three years is required. No Strikers to Return to Control Towers - President Reagan removed ban which prevented fired air traffic controllers from seeking U.S. Government employment. However. they will not be permitted to return as controllers. Government officials said applicants would be investigated on what they did during strike and whether they were involved in acts of ·coercion· or 'threats'. Administration contends tower return ban is necessary because controllers who remained on job do not want their former co-workers back. a stand which PATCO labels ·a cruel hoax·. However. Transportation Secretary Drew Lewis says he has communicated with half of FAA' s towers and consensus is for not rehiring. Fear is personal animosity between strikers and nonstrikers would endanger safety of the air traffic system. An editorial in 'The Wall Street Journal' states that 'FAA officials have evidence some controllers from last June until the August 3 strike date deliberately endangered the safety of the air traffic system'. It also cites tire slashings and personal threats against controllers who remained on the job. These factors. the editorial says, 'make it impossible for the strikers to return to the towers'. The Pentagon, in a reversal of policy. said it would allow strikers to enlist as military controllers but at far less pay than in their civilian jobs. The NTSB unanimously endorsed findings of its investigators that the air traffic control system has operated safely since the strike. However, it warned against controller fatigue. called on FAA to make major management changes in the system. Airlines, Controllers Agree on $ 28 Million Damages-PATCO and 14 airlines represented by ATA agreed upon $ 28 million as damages incurred by latter as result of first three days of strike. Controllers accepted settlement 'in lieu of trial' and it was approved by Judge Thomas C. Platt. Costs cover losses August 3-5 (the time controllers struck and strike was declared illegal and controllers fired). Settlement is in addition to $ 4. 5 million levied against union previously, plus another $ 300.000 for court costs. Settlements are: American, $ 4.3 million; Braniff. $ 1.5 million; Continental. $ 1 .6 million; Delta. $ 636,000: Eastern. $ 4.9 million: Northwest. $ 1 .6 million: Ozark, $ 1. 1 million: Pan American, $ 699,000: Piedmont. $ 791.000:
Republic, $ 2.6 million; Trans World. $ 1 .6 million; United. $ 4.2 million; USAir. $ 2.6 million; Western. $ 675,000. ATA lawyers estimate PATCO assets at$ 3.8 million. Union filed for bankruptcy under Chapter 11 of Federal Bankruptcy Act. U.S. Air Control Copes With Weather Successfully - A three-day performance under persistent bad weather conditions put U.S. air traffic control system under its first serious test since August 3 controller walk-out and. according to both airline and government officials. plan for handling winter traffic was adequate. 'The New York Times· reports. One airline executive appeared to sum up consensus saying: 'There had been anxieties that the traffic would be crippled overnight by bad winter weather. But the horrors have not turned out to be reality'. Administrator J. Lynn Helms told House subcommittee FAA officials were · now confident that our plan for handling winter traffic was adequate'. On the overall picture and outlook. Helms said present level of 78% of normal operations will be maintained through February. He acknowledged training of new controllers may take longer than originally seen but said FAA has pool of 50,000 prospective controllers who took civil service exam. Half are expected to pass. Helms predicted 1 3. OOO controllers would be working by year's end, half again over those currently in system. To ease controller workload. FAA hired about 1 .300 flight data specialists. 800 of whom are former airline pilots. 1 59 former military air traffic controllers.
Letter to the Editor Dear Sir, Allow me to forward my best wishes and congratulations for the fruitful subjects which your IFATCA Journal contained in Volume 20 issued on March. 1 981 . With reference to the subject regarding ATS in Africa. I would like to thank Mr. Klaya for clarifying the matter and its difficulties. But it will be much useful to all if the relationship between Air Traffic Services and other related sections such as Telecommunications. A.I.S .. etc. is clearly explained, because the problem of poor pay and poor prospects is not facing the controllers only. but others as well. Thank you once again A. El Rasheid Abdul Rahman Acting Chief A.I.S. - Sudan
New PATCO Chief Anticipates Long Fight for Solution
Washington - New Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization President Gary W. Eads said the union is bracing for a 'long-haul' fight that could last another two or three years. Eads. 3 7. former Kansas City regional vice-president of PATCO. was elected by the PATCO executive board to replace Robert E. Poli. who resigned effective January 6. Poli said he hoped his resignation would make it easier for negotiations to resume. But John Leyden. former PATCO president and currently executive director of AFL-CIO's Public Employee Dept .. which includes PATCO. said he does not expect the change in PATCO leadership to have any effect on negotiations. ·1 wish them well. but they face an almost impossible uphill task'. Leyden said. 'The government did an effective job of breaking the union. There is not much more we can do for them.' Eads agreed he is n? l~mger confident that resumed negotIatIons or congressional action would lead to a quick solution to the walk-out. though he continues to hope such support will develop. Hopes Pinned Eads is pinning most of his hopes on PATCO's legal case charging the Fe?eral Aviation Administration (FAA) with violating controllers· due process rights when they were fired. He said the FAA violated controllers· rights to notice of termination and their rights to 10-day suspension with pay during the investigation period. among other violations. His main goal is to hold the union together long enough to win ~hose cases. either in the normal adm1n1stratIve procedures or in the federal courts. 'The air traffic controllers have a very winnable case if we can stick together long enough to carry it through'. Eads said. ·1 realize it's going to be difficult to believe that the American system can still work. If this is handled objectively. we have a case.· Eads also said the union must hold to_gether to help those controllers who are still facing criminal charges. Maintaining the union is likely to involve some reorganization. Eads said. an_dthe union may face cutting back the size of regional offices and the national office and possibly moving the national office out of its expensive quarters near the Capitol in Washington.
The union. meanwhile. will continue to work to reopen negotiations and to improve relations throughout the industry. Eads said he plans to maintain a low profile and avoid 'antagonistic rhetoric' while developing airline and general aviation support for rehiring the controllers. 'They say the system is working well without us. but there is no flexibility in it and no room for growth'. Eads said. 'They talk about rebuilding the system in two or three years. but I believe it may be 1 990 before it gets back to full capacity. · 1 am convinced there are people who would like to see this end'. he said. ·1 know that there are airline people who have become so antagonistic toward PATCO that they will take any loss if it hurts PATCO. but we want to end that.' Eads also believes smaller airlines are beginning to realize that the larger airlines· have the financial resources to survive the traffic slowdown longer than they do. and that general aviation is getting restive under its restrictions. FAA officials claim that the air traffic system met an important test during the Christmas holidays by handling about 95% of all commercial flights at the 22 capacity-constricted airports. Delays averaged about 450 per day during the period. up sharply from 260 a year ago. but the FAA said most of the delays occurred December 2 2 when bad weather hit most of the nation. FAA officials continue to say their success during the holiday period indicates there were too many air traffic controllers and that some controllers may have been impeding traffic. They also said the change in administration at PATCO will have no effect on their decision to decertify the union. PATCO officials are hoping for a decision on their appeal of the order decertifying the union within a couple of weeks. Further appeals are likely. Leyden said further action by the AFLCIO is stymied until the appeals are completed. The AFL-CIO continues to recognize the union as the controllers· bargaining agent until the appeals are completed. he said. but the labor organization is not likely to make more efforts to bring about a resumption of negotiations. Previous efforts by the AFL-CIO ended when the Administration agreed to allow controllers to take other federal jobs. but not to work as controllers. A group of non-striking air traffic controllers is seeking to replace the current
PATCO leadership and take over representation of air traffic controllers. The group claims that air traffic con·trollers effectively resigned from the union. according to the PATCO constitution. when they went on strike. They want to be certified as the controllers· bargaining agent and to obtain access to the union dues they have contributed since the strike began. The group. headed by former PATCO official Robert Sturgill. has petitioned the Labor Dept. for a ruling that they represent the union and will ask the Federal Labor Relations Authority to delay decertification proceedings until the department's decision is handed down. Authority officials. however. said there has been little sentiment expressed to help the nonstriking controllers retain a union. even if the agency legally could do so. Union Dues The 3.200 PATCO members who continued working said they should have access to the$ 4 78.000 in union dues they contributed after August 3 and to the organization structure. including mailing lists. of PATCO. The new organization. however. prob, ably would change the PATCO name. as well as its way of doing business. 'It is up to the controllers across the country to determine the goals of the new organization·. Sturgill said. 'But I envision. based on the people I have talked to. an organization that will represent the controllers in a professional manner and negotiate with the government. but not in an adversary position and certainly not in a strike posture. No controller wants an organization that advocates striking.' Sturgill said it might take as long as two years for the non-striking controllers to form a new union if it cannot take over PATCO. and he believes it is in the government's interest to help those controllers who have remained loyal. 'The main thing is. we don't want any association with Poli and his group'. Sturgill said. ·we want to clean PATCO's name up.' The new group of controllers also was planning to enter court motions that would stay any actions to impound PATCO assets in bankruptcy proceedings but was concerned that too close association with PATCO could subject them to PATCO's multi-million dollar debts. Drummed Out Eads said the new group· s move probably comes too late because the non-striking controllers will be drummed out of the union at the end of the month for failure to pay their union dues. 'But the new union group is delivering a very specific message - all is not well in Camelot'. Eads said. 'The working controllers have received a lot of pats on the back. but already they are finding they need union representation. None of this has solved the basic problem. which is FAA administration of the air traffic control system. The PATCO name may not exist. and it may take another five years. but they are going to be right back in the same situation eventually because there are basic problems.· 21
Complete Flexibility and Realism in Radar Simulation by Colin Buttars , Manager A TC Training, !AL
The use of automation and processed radar systems is spreading rapidly throughout the world. As a result training techniques and radar simulation equipment must not only match these developments, but also be able to bring complete flexibility and realism to the training of student control lers . Thus alleviating the shortcomings trad itionally exp erienced wh en using training equipment as opposed to w orking on electronic aids in the live operational environment. In the forefront of this field is IAL. Since 194 7 International Aeradio has greatly expanded its traditional field of business, pro viding worldwide aviation and communications services, equipment and systems to industry, commerce and go vernments. Training is a vital ingredient in this marketing mix, and has long played a major role in t he serv ices offered by IAL. to the extent that the company now has un ique experience in the prov ision of technical training in Brita in and overseas. IA !'.'."' s involvement in air traffic services traini ng began in 1 958 when the Depart ment of Air Traffic Control was estab lished at Southall , Middlesex. The international reputation ga ined at this sc hool led to the provision of training facilities for ove rseas gove rnment s and civil aviation adm ini st rations . Demand for the courses continued to increase and in the mid -70 's the departmen t mo ved to Oxford Airport and was renamed the College of Air Traffic Services. Thi s was soon fo llowed by the ce nt ra lisat ion of all IA L' s t rain ing services w ithin the unique env ironment of Bailbrook College, an eleg ant Georgian mansion over look ing t he Avon va lley on th e outsk irts of Bath. It is at Bailbro ok Colle ge t hat IAL 's total comm itment to provide the mo st adva nce d ATC tra inin g facilities in the wor ld has been rea lised w ith the inStudent contro ller s at practical exer cises on the Surveillance Radar Simu lator
stallation in late 1978 of a new digital air traffic radar simulator. This replaced the analogue computer based simulator previously used by IAL. The design requirement of the simulator was initiated by controllers for controllers using IAL' s substantial experience, achieving complete flexibility and realism in all aspects of radar training. This means in effect that the ATC training potential offered at Bailbrook is virtually unlimited .
Own Model The Department of Air Traffic Services has designed its own model flight information region (FIR) to provide radar training capable of being applied anywhere in the world . In addition to this model any FIR can be simulated to meet individual customer needs. This includes the provision of t ai lor-made video maps as required . Any approach or area radar characteristic can be simulated on either of the two radar heads. Presentation ranges from raw primary radar echoes and passive secondary responses to alphanumeric code/ callsign and Mode C labels . The capabilities of the simul ator enable the college to offer training in the se techniques to experienced controll ers in advance of new installation s.
With students attending the courses from all over the world , their training needs are not necessarily the same. The simulator is able to handle three distinct training exercises simultaneously, each with its own exercise time and exercise freeze facility. Also , simulator time can be retarded without reducing the traffic rate, thus catering for varying levels of student capability and progress.
Specifications IAL's simulator at Bailbrook is based on the Interdata Corporation's 8/ 16E digital computer and has considerable capacity for further expansion . Offering an exercise area of 1,024 nm sq with altitudes up to 100,000 ft, it is possible for two students, sitting side by side, to control situations representing stations on opposite sides of the world. Alternatively, the students can act as area and approach controllers, operating within the same system and handing over traffic to each other. The system has the built-in capability to operate up to seven student controller displays, but currently there are three in use. Each radar display comprises a 40 cm console situated beside a 32 strip procedural consolethis enables combined radar/ pro-
cedural exercises to be run, as required. There are three intercomm points at each radar display. and full controls are provided including SSR and rolling ball . Cathode ray direction finding (CRDF) is displayed on the plan position indicator (PPI). Three Aircraft Control Units are provided . each capable of controlling 16 aircraft by keyboard input. The electronic data display (EDD) shows: full aircraft data ; computer replies to keyboard injected demands; aircraft reports either as a result of keyboard injection or automatically. A further EDD and keyboard console with multi-page capability is situated on each side of the initiating instructor's 40 cm radar console. These EDD' s can be used as extra ACU 's if required. They also enable the initiating instructor to introduce faults. changing weather patterns . and radar performance dat a. or to recall and edit exercise data stored in the computer. Realism is further enhanced by introducing noise to the radar when required The initiating instructor can select and monitor on his conso le any of the 'three student radar displays. Alterna tively . the conso le can be operated as
an independent unit or fourth student position. Multi -channel int ercom munication facilities are provided to enable instructors situated at the student positions to confer. A video tape recorder is included in the system so that training exercises can be recorded for later play back at any of the four radar consoles. The instructor can dub audio comments on to the tape for subsequent play back. Realism Bailbrook 's 8/ 16E computer is programmed with the performance envelopes of 9 6 aircraft types. thus ensuring that training exercises are not spoi led . either intentionally or unintentionally by unrealistic flight characteristics . The computer will reject instructions causing aircraft to execute manoeuvres outside their performance envelopes . (Performance envelopes include indi cated cruising speeds . rates of climb . descent speeds between three level s. and ang les of bank.) The 8 / 1 6 E is a Isa programmed with international sta nd ard atmosphere . turn and indi cated air speed data. These enable aircraft alway s to maintain true airspeed and rates of turn whether they are flying straight and level . or c limbin g or descending ;
Trainee controllers in the Simu lated Flight Information Cen tre.
they respond gr aduall y. rather than instant aneously. to instructions to change / maintain flight level or di rection , thus realistic ally simulating actual flying condition s. Thre e w ind layers can be specified to give varying drift effects at different leve ls with random gusts on final approach. We ather c lutter is provided . moving at the ve locity of the lowest w ind. Aircraft on ILS ap proac hes must be po sitioned with in accepta ble approach c one s pert inent to t he types of aircr aft to be landed . ot he rwise the simu lator wi ll ca use t hem to overshoo t Th is enco urag es accurate vectoring by studen ts and prevents them handing over respo nsib ility to p ilots in order to resolve their imm ediate diffi c ulty Two radar heads ca n be simu lated at the same time . each operating as requi red . either as an area or an ap proach radar and prog rammed w ith th e operational data . beam width . pulse length . etc . requ ired . Each radar head has its own secondary sur veillance radar (SS R)
AEROPP. En-routeto an
integratedtelecommunication s â€˘
AEROPP, Ph ilips data switching and data han dling system for aeronautical operation, permits gradual, economic growth: from a small installation, routing low volume s of AFfN traffic, to a powerful multi -facility centre providing a complete range of aerona utical tel ecommunications services. For example, an AEROPP system may be initiall y configured to switch AFfN message traffic, then extended in steps to perform collection, sorting and
distribution of METEO, flight plan, NOTAM,flight safety and ATA/ IATA messages. AEROPP equipped AFrN centres can serve their lowtraffic subsciiber s by inte1facing the system to telex or public data networks - connection s which also provide for network fallback. Aeronautical information files, also, may be maintained on AEROPP to allow Aeronautical Information Service.biiefing offices, Flight Information
Centres,Airline OperationsCentresand Air Traffic Control units, rapidand convenientaccess to this data.In addition,Flight InformationCentresand AeronauticalRadio Stations may utilize the system J for efficient distributionof informationsuch as VOLMET's,AIREP's,position reportsand air-filed flight plans. AEROPP,moreover,can be enhanced to provide switchingfor the CommonICAOData Interchange Network.In short,AEROPPis capable of
AirportSurfaceDetection Equipment, ASDE, from Signaal utilizes a Ku-band syste m (with an antenna turnin g speed of 60 r.p.m. for enhanced reliability) housed in a 5.8mtr high radom, to detect a 3m 2 moving targ et within a range of 10km. Ev en in adverse weat her - a 15mm/ hr rainfa ll for examp le - dete ction ra nge is 5km . Range discrimination is appro x. 7mtr with an angu lar discrimination of 0.25°. Digit al scan converte rs, DISCO's, are used to supply synthetit: video informat ion for bri ght display puqJOses: each DISCO at:commodati.ng up to six display consoles . A display luminan ce of 35cd/ m2 enables viewing under high amb ient light t:ondi~ tions.
forming the backboneand connections for flight plan, radar,and informationprocessing sub systems - an integratedtelecommunications service. AEROPP is just one example of the high stateof-the-artof Philips equipment,systems and services for aviation. Here are some more.
·voice logging. Frankfur t Inte rn at ional AiqJ01t is one of th e man y airp01ts in West German y using Philips' multi-chann el cornmunit:at ions record ers t o pr ovide continuou s loggin g of all ATC voice communicat ions. Available with 11, 22. 33 and 44 tr ack recording facilities. their exce ptionally high quality is reflected in the fact th at th ey have so far bee n insta lled in no less than 120 major aiqJ01ts th e world over. If you wa nt to kn ow more, th e book ·Philip s in Aviat ion· is your s for the as kin g. Ju st se nd your bu siness card or name and address to: Ph ilips Indu stri es C.M.S .D.. Mark et ing Communi cat ion Av. \/ Op. Room 22, Ein dhovc n, Holland.
Total capabilityfromthe ground up. By combining the know-how of our spec ialist compani es we can offer a closely integra t ed programm e of equipment , syste ms and services to the Airport Auth ority . Th e programm e includes : specialised lighting systems for tax iing, ta ke-off, apron positioning and rnn way appr oach, as well as indoor and out door te rminal light ing: navigat ional aids such as ILS, D ME and VOR: HF / VHF / UHF and microwave ra dio communicat ions; computer-based radar for air traff ic control and ai.rpo1t sur face move ment (ASDE): term inal sonorisat ion and security systems, and a ran ge of services exte nding fr om advance stud y and eva luation of airport req uirements to airport const ru ction and t:ommissioning. From equipment des ign, supp ly an d insta llat ion to the supervision and tra ining of operat ional and tech nit:al staff.
Targets The 8/ 16E can display 48 targets. all programmed and manually controllable at any instant, with a further 48 flight plans in reserve. It is also possible to generate targets anywhere in the exerc ise area at any time . More than 1 00 navigational reference points can be simulated where necessary. specified as such real aids as non -directional beacons (NDB) and V HF omn i-directional radio ranging systems (VOR). Each has its own holding pattern w hich aircraft enter when instructed. carrying out the ap propriate ICAO joining procedure. Alternatively, reference points can be specified as ghost beacons to indicate standa rd instrument departures (SID), standard terminal arrivals (STAR). etc., to the computer. It is also possible to make distance mea suring equipment (DME ) reports. The Secondary Su rveillance Radar (SSR) display is var iable from basic mode and code slashes and blooms , w ith thumb w heel selection for three chann els of pass ive decoding and Mode C flight leve l read out , to alphanumeric code / callsign conversion and trackin g label display. Acti ve de coding is by rolling ball and electronic marker and a height filter is in co rporated.
CAB Set $ 300,000 Liability CA B set $ 300.000 per passenge r as minimum liab ility insurance ai rline s mu st carry against c laims by passenge rs o r survivors after crash. Same minimum leve l, times 75 % of aircrattÂˇs sea ting ca pa c ity, plus $ 20 mil lion. app lies fo r c laim s invo lving property damage, inju ries to those ot her than passenge rs, reports 'Th e Wall Street J ournal'. CA B said it began prescrib ing m inimum leve l insurance because new air line s are p ro lif erating, and need to ca rry insurance to m eet co nt_ingencies . US Cong ress also comes to gnps with Warsaw Convention revisions, with focus on proposed boost in airline passe nge r liability limits on international flights of $ 1 25 .000 (fro m $ 75.000). Part icipating co unt ries wo uld be required to sup plement convention limits with added $ 200 .000 in liabi lity coverage for each passe nger under suggested changes. Âˇ No fau lt' provis ion included in revisions wins endo rsement of US A ir Transpo rt Associat ion (ATA). It contends provision wou ld relieve c rowded co urt ca lend ars. cut costly litigation. Two-thirds Senate vote need ed for ratif icat ion .
Read all about the 21 st Annual IFATCA Conference in our next issue
Kai Tak's First Female Controller Miss Pauline Lee Po-lin became Hongkong' s first woman air traffic control officer , December last. She qualified after passing examinations set by the Air Traffic Management Division of the Civil Aviation Department. When presenting her with her controller 's licence , endorsed with the area control rating , the Director of Civil Aviation , Mr B. D. Keep, said that her achievement was an important milestone in the department's air traffic control officer training programme, which began in 1964. He pointed out that the first student was now a senior air traffic control officer with the department . Since then , a further 67 licences had been issued to graduates of the training sc heme , but all of them had been males. Mi ss Lee joined the Civil Aviation Depa rtment as an air traffic control assis tant in October 1978. In April last year she was appointed a student air traffic control officer
against stiff competition from over 300 eligible applicants for the job . Since joining the department she has undergone four departmental preparatory air traffic control training courses and the basis aerodrome and approach course at the College of Air Traffic Control in Britain. She has also completed the departmental area control course . conducted to International Civil Aviation Organisation standards , and on-thejob training in area control duties. With her air traffic controller's licence Miss Lee will be authorised to work solo in carrying out control duties in her first qualified control position . She will shortly start a flying training course to qualify for a private pilot's licence . For further experience , she will have to attend set training courses before she can be awarded four other air traffic control ratings . Miss Lee will undertake a search and rescue mission co-ordination course after attaining her last air traffi c control rating and then she will be a fully fledged air traffic controller. This will take another five or six years.
Mis s Lee receiving her licence from M r Keep as the air traff ic general manager, Mr Peter Lok looks on. 26
The Separation of Helicopters in the Northern North Sea (Paper presented at the 21 st Annual Conference of /FA TCA)
Introduction The separation of helicopters in the Northern North Sea? Many not involved in aviation in the North Sea have probably never given the subject a thought. Those who have probably think what is all the fuss about. Their experience of helicopters is probably watching light helicopters like the Jet Ranger popping in and out of their local airfield. Operations with these 'do anything. land anywhere· machines in. for the most part. quite reasonable weather are fairly straightforward. The map of the Northern North Sea area shows the positions of the main helicopter bases and oil rig complexes - and the network of Helicopter Main Routes which link them.
Main Routes - Northern North Sea ,.
Traffic Growth In the Northern North Sea. in 1968 the airport at Aberdeen. on the Scottish mainland. and Sumburgh, in the Shetland Isles. were maintained only to cater for a basic network of scheduled services, the odd charter flight and a certain amount of private flying. No radar. limited aids and no regulated airspace. Commencing in 1969 oil rigs started appearing to the East of Aberdeen and later Sumburgh. By the mid-1970s these numbered in the region of fifty. by 1 981 the figure was over one hundred. The growth in movements at Aberdeen and Sumburgh was unprecedented. At the time of writing. in terms of commercial movement figures, Aberdeen is bettered in the UK only by London's Heathrow and Gatwick. With this in mind. one would expect North East Scotland and the Northern North Sea to be criss-crossed with regulated airspace, monitored by controllers equipped with all the latest equipment. This is far from being the case. Current Operations So. how do the helicopters operate in 1 981? The only regulated airspace to be introduced is Special Rules Airspace around Aberdeen and Sumburgh. (These two remain the centres
of oil related helicopte r operations.) Once the helicopters are clea r of these Spec ial Rules Zones / Areas they are in open airspace and obvious ly seek all the help they can get. Two sets of procedu res have evolved. one based on Aberdeen the other on Sumburgh . Before describing these procedu res in detail perhaps it should be pointe d out that these types of operatio n we re unique in the history of UK aviatio n and so earlier ideas and techniq ues co uld not be emp loyed. From the outset the pilots have prefe rred to fly VFR wheneve r possib le. How much of this is due to the indiv idua l's desire to see and be seen and how much is due to commercia l pressure to achieve th e more flexible operation where only VFR fuel reserves need be ca rried is uncertain. One would hope in this type of environment it is very much the formerl However. one can question the amount of time the crew of. say. a Sikorsky S61 have to keep an effective look -out. The ir wo rkload is high co mp ared w ith comme rcial fixed wing aircraft - there are in most no ca bin staff. and there is no autop ilot . The newer Sikorsky S76 is often operated with single crewl The Aberdeen setup is based on a syste m of tracks centred on the Aberdeen VO R (AON ) The system is keyed to the master track . designated 033 ° M outbound . co mmen cing 30 nm from the AON VOR and te rminat ing at Gate · Lim a· one of the entry points int o t he Shetl and Basin Helicopte r Flight Info rmation Service Area ( HF ISA) The ot her tracks. spaced at 3 ° inte rvals are de sig nated alterna tive ly 'i nbo und ' and are identif ied by the radial bea ring . The tracks from and to permanent installation s are desig nated as Helico pter M ain Routes (HMR s) Wh en ope rating to mobile insta llation s the heli copte rs fly the nea rest HMR s o r. where this is not pract ica ble. the nearest 3 ° tracks These tracks are flown using Decca. Until the t rack is pic ked up by out bounds at 30 nm from the AON VOR .
the corresponding VOR radial is flown. Similarl y inbound s at 30 nm change from Decca Track/ HMR t o VOR radial . Outb ound s interc ept their radial s as early as. and inbound s remain o n their radia ls as long as. Aberde en Special Rules A irspace entry/ exit procedures permit.
Shetland Moving north to Shetland. most of the oil installations tend to be bunch ed togeth er in an area known as the East Shetland Basin . As a result the Aberd een syst em. which is well suited to the fan like spread of insta llation s off Aberdeen. wou ld be of limited use. A syst em of one-way HMR s has been devised which uses the Sumburgh VOR (SUM) to a limited extent but is mainly once aga in based on Decca Tracks (see diagram). Th e Ab erdeen and Shetland systems of H M Rs do not operate in isolation and are int erlin ked to cope with those insta llations w hic h ca n be serviced by helicopters from eit her place. This fact has become very important recent ly since 1 98 1 has seen a major change in the pattern of ope rat ions . Until this year rigs and platforms in th e East Shetland Basin have been serviced . almost exc lusively. by helicopters from Shetland. The personnel being flown to Shetland by fixed w ing ai rcra ft . With t he intr oduct ion of new he licopters like th e Sikorsky S76 and Boeing-Vertol Chi nook , with their supe rior range and speed. the oi l co mpanie s are opting to fly their personne l direct from Aberdeen by helicopte r. Thi s trend looks likely to continue. At the t ime of writ ing Aber deen hel icopter movemen ts are show ing a maj or growth largely at t he expense of Shet land . Whether the system described above wi ll have to be modified to accommodate thi s c hange is unce rtain at this stage, Comprehensive as they may sound. the procedure s above on ly establish a deg ree of late ral separation for the participating helicopter s. This separ-
ation , becomes non-existent as the tracks converge on the ·AON' and ' SUM '. Also much of the t rack system is outside UK airspace - what hap pens w hen they cross into Norw eg ian Airspace? To deal with the last point fir st, international agreements have been made which cater for thi s. The cou ntry which has the exploration right s in a part ic ular area is also responsible for t he air traffic services in that area, up to and inc ludin g FL 60. The demarcation of suc h areas depends on the Conti nenta l Shelf and does not relate to the FIR boundaries. To help build in some extra separation, this t ime vert ica l. a conven tion has built up in the North Sea wherein helicopters flying eastbound track s w ill fly at 2000 and 3000 ft, and tho se flying wes tbound will fly at 1500 and 2500 ft RPS (Regional Pressure Setting). Abo ve the tran'sition altitude they comply wit h the Ouadranta l Rule. Thi s procedure does not app ly within the HFISA , where most flight s operate at. or below , 500 ft , as do the m ajor ity of inter-rig flight s. Civil fixed wing traffi c is advised to fly above the transition altitude at the appropri_ate qu adrant al level w herever possible. Wher e milit ary aircraft are unable to fly above the transition altitud e the y wi ll norm al ly fly at or below 1OOO ft RPS. The alti meter sett ing reg ion s in t he Northern North Sea have been alte red so that helicopte rs on adj acent tracks are using the same pressure setti ng . Within 30 nm of the 'AON ' and ' SUM ' VOR s the app rop riate Aberdeen or Sumburgh airfield QNH is used. The above procedures co llecti ve ly form the basis of a good system as long as certai n cond ition s a re sat isfied , namely: a) W eath er cond it ions are good, b) navigat ional aids remain serviceable. and c) non-p articipating airc raft ca rrying out unp redic t able manoeuvres are absen t. If any or all of the se co nditi ons are not fulfill ed , then one is really back to square one. althou gh non-participating aircraft are not too much of a problem as long as the weathe r remain s good. Weather is the most im portant fact or . when conditions are bad . as is the case more often than not, one finds all th e helicopters flying very low . This is to enable them to remain VMC and also to avoid one of their worst enem ies - icing . Fortunate ly radar has co me to the rescue and most of the maj or shortcomings of the procedural system have been overcome . Ind eed . when under radar surveillance , and as long as icing conditions do not exist. many helicopters Continue s on page 4 7
More Airports for the Greater London Area '
by Basil L. Watkin (Sqn. Ldr. RAF ret.)
This paper has been prepared mainly as a result of a request from a personal friend in England who has been concerned at the proposed increase in the number of airports which interested parties have been trying to persuade the Department of Trade are needed in the Greater London area. But also following my attendance at the London Airport conference at my former university, the University of London, in 19 78 and subsequent frustration at the indefinite replies to my professional questions on the statistics that had been produced. For obvious reasons I have made no attempt to answer the questions that evolve in the paper. It came as a considerable surprise when I read the 'Times·· reports. and I suspected that the arguments and questionable statistics were similar to those I encountered and questioned at the London Airport conference. I also wondered whether they had been submitted by the same. or similar orientated organisations. who appear to be attempting to 'panic' the Department of Trade not only into making the ·crowded skies· even more crowded and literally wasting precious airspace. but also into building even more concrete runways and hardstandings with associated buildings at the inevitable cost to the taxpayer and the environm_ent _by 'blinding· them (the authorities) with figures. Is this a form of Parkinson· s Law? If one listens too hard to so-called aviation experts constantly substantiating their case whether their figures are accurate or their arguments are valid or not. can the listener be blinded with their science? To merely divide the number of air passengers into varying types of aircraft to find the numbers of aircraft required to transport those passengers from A to B does not give a true picture.
The Unsuspecting Flying Public (U.F.P.) I have called those air passengers who wish to travel by air the· Unsuspecting Fly-
ing Public' or the U.F.P. Apart from the fact that once they submit themselves for flight not only are they strapped-in-andtrapped-in an elongated. thin skinned. cigar shaped tube travelling at speeds approaching the speed of sound. but also they are forced to accept a 'blind faith' in aerodynamics as practised by the aircraft designer and the unknown pilots up the 'front end'. Of equal importance that the practising Air Traffic Control Officer (the controller) controlling their aircraft is not only working in an environment that meets with all the requirements of air-safety. but also he is performing his functions in that indivisible aviation team of controller and pilot as he expedites his air traffic (the U.F .P.)within the vagaries ofthe Air Traffic Control (ATC) system and the weather.
Air Traffic Statistics As I have already proved in my 1975 paper to the International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers· Associations (IFATCA) and the New Zealand Ministry of Transport. it is still my confirmed conviction that the existing methods of recording air traffic give no real indication of the amount of air traffic. The method of recording air traffic throughout the world is so variable and the criteria used are so different that the resultant statistics really have little value. Although my 1 9 7 5 paper referred to New Zealand air traffic my comments can be considered as valid for international air traffic. This has been confirmed by my further research from 197 7 to 1 981 when I visited and studied a number of airports and ATC units throughout the world during my. unfortunately unsuccessful. search for medical relief from the pain and disability resulting from my ATC work-related accident whilst actually carrying out my duties as a controller controlling air traffic at Auckland International airport. The airports and ATC units visited included: England - R.A. F. LATCC. Prestwick. Coningsby and Shawbury including the excellent school of ATC: - civilian LATCC. Prestwick. Heathrow, Gatwick. Hurn including the School of ATC: Europe Helsinki. Kastrup, Geneva. Cannes: Greece and Cyprus Nicosia. Athens:
USA - US Navy and US Coastguard Pt. Mugu. El Centra. New Orleans: - civilian Los Angeles. San Antonio. Harlingen: Canada Vancouver. As will be realised the problem cannot be solved by merely dividing numbers of U.F.P. into aircraft to find the numbers of aircraft required to transport those U.F.P. from A to B to plan the number of airports that will be needed to accomodate these aircraft and the U. F. P. It is admitted that it is possible to arbitrarily select a · loading· figure which can be based on quite valid figures obtained over a number of years and which is the present method of statistical planning, however there are so many other variables that prevent an accurate estimate to be made for planning purposes. The final factor is so often ignored. or perhaps not understood. but whatever statistic eventually arrived at there is still the method on how the controller actually expedites his air traffic.
The Executive Air Traffic Officer According to the ATC system that is in use at this time the delegation. use and availability of air space is decided by the Executive Air Traffic Officer. These officers are the ex-controllers who have been taken from the ATC unit in the field and promoted (?) to the ranks of managment. Depending on in which country they are employed so they remain in this position: two extreme examples are England and New Zealand. In England an executive ATO normally remains in an executive position for a maximum of five years to ensure that he can remain current as a controller when he returns to the field. and at the same time it means that ATC is kept upto-date by the regular flow of controllers to and from executive positions. Unfortunately in New Zealand the reverse is the case with an adverse effect on the air-safety of the U.F.P. The executive ATO is selected from the field and promoted (?) to management. but there the similarity with the English system ceases. as having reached the management sphere there the ex-controller remains. The result is that the majority of executive ATO' shave not practised as controllers for upwards of 20 years and in some cases as long ago as 30 years which has meant an ever increasing operational gap between management and the field. This has been disastrous. and as at the ATC' 81 conference in October 1981 the gap was even greater than when I was a controller. It has meant that out-of-touch executive ATO's are so out of touch with the reality of modern air traffic that the New Zealand Air Traffic Controllers· Association (composed of controllers) have insisted that every ATC procedure be vetted by the controllers before it is introduced as a regulation by those executive ATO's. Although this unfortunate state of affairs is offset by the fact that New Zealand does not have military controllers - the controllers on R. N .Z.A. F units are civilian volunteers who are employed and paid the same as their civilian counterparts on
civilian airports-which ensures complete standardisation of all ATC procedures. Additionally there is only one school of ATC in New Zealand. which ensures complete standardisation of training of all controllers. Unfortunately this does not mean that the statistics are of value for planning purposes. although the method of recording is normally standardised at both the civil and military units. Although the English and New Zealand methods of using controllers in the management role are completely diverse. neither country has been able to decide on a method and criteria for recording air traffic statistics for practical use for ATC planners or airport planners. I had the good fortune to discuss the series of air traffic figures that are correlated and analysed within the Department of Trade offices in London. Unfortunately the difference in the methods of recording and the variations between ATC units on the criteria used to differentiate between types of flights means that there is still no real statistic of air traffic which could be used successfully in ATC and airport planning. The fact that there are four distinct separate ATC training schools in England would tend to complicate the issue.
Air Traffic Statistics for ATC Planning This is covered in complete detail in my 1975 paper. but basically the paper highlighted the need for an internationally agreed method and criteria for recording air traffic as statistics for the planners of ATC. The one obvious basic requirement that must remain constant is that accuracy must be maintained at all times. which dispenses with the use of ·guesstimation· so often used in so many towers and terminal rooms throughout the world. Having decided upon the criteria and impressed all controllers of the need for accuracy. there are still a number of vital and inescapable factors which affect the use of air traffic statistics for planning. this includes any airport planning. These factors are based around four main characteristic parameters: a) Air traffic control requirements - Airspace availability; b) Airport runway/ s - Runway availability; c) High speed and normal taxiways - Taxiway availability; d) Airport hardstandings - Concrete availability. ATC Requirements - Airspace Availability Whatever ATC system that may be devised by the civil authorities. consideration must be given to the controller and his ability to expedite his air traffic. He has the final say as to how he moves (or controls) his air traffic. consequently his health. his environmental working conditions and the ma1nta1nance of his professional expertise are vital factors in airspace availability. Some of the professional problems that affect the statistics include: a) amount of airspace available for each aircraft in the approach phase:
b) amount of airspace each aircraft needs to use the navigational aids that are available to make an approach and landing; c) number of aircraft that may be able to land simultaneously when more than one runway is available. or the spacing between aircraft 'in-the-slot' may be decreased or increased; d) departing aircraft; e) ATC special separation standards between approaching/ departing aircraft (military. turbulent wake. noise abatement. radar or no radar); f) emergencies. including baulked takeoffs and hi-jacking.
Runway Availability Obviously more than one runway can increase the landing rate and the take off rate on most occasions. Some of the problems are: a) For one runway Arriving and departing aircraft can be sequenced by expert controlling to give maximum use of runway. but always within ATC separation standards and local requirements; b) For two or more runways Depending on the geographical separation of the runways and their bearings. frequency of departures and landings can be increased; c) Departing and arriving aircraft Possible use of one runway for take offs and the other for landings; d) Emergencies All controllers must be constantly on the alert for the need for runway availability for emergencies both for takeoffs and for landings.
High Speed and Normal Taxiway Taxiway Availability When high speed taxiways are available. especially for jumbo jet aircraft. the landing rate can be increased subject _to local requirements already mentioned with an almost corresponding increase in takeoffs. However the direct relationship between amount of taxiway availability and runway usage does reach a saturation point. this point being a variable depending on each individual controller. Airport Hardstandings - Concrete Availability It is obvious that when an aircraft is not flying it must be parked somewhere on an airport. The controller has no responsibility for the ground-safety of an arriving aircraft once it has reached its 'Gate· position and when it is being towed about the airport. usually via the taxiways. for 'positioning· purtJoses or to/from maintainance areas. however. the controller must give the clearance for the aircraft to move to the ground engineer-in-charge of the aircraft on the R/T. the route to be followed and consequently the controller must maintain a watchful eye on the aircraft-under-tow. He must be able to instruct the aircraft to stop. alter the route or issue relative instructions as the aircraft-under-tow may affect other aircraft under taxying orders.
At the major airfields. Heathrow and Gatwick. there is a ground movement controller in the control tower during peak periods. who liaises his ground traffic with the other controllers in the control tower. At other airfields this ground movement control is the responsibility of the controller in the control tower. who could be controlling all aircraft departing. arriving and taxying from his airfield.
Statistics for Airport Planning The statistics for airport planning are very similar to those required for ATC planning. and moreover they must be coordinated with the controllers not only at a specific airport but also with the controllers at the ATC centres. in particular L.A.T.C.C. (London Air Traffic Control Centre) and the RAF ATC centers in the area. The actual information that the airport planners may require will depend on the end result. namely how much concrete or land that will be required for the aircraft that are planned to carry the proposed U.F.P. The basic requirements that must be obtained before any statistical recording is considered are: a) all criteria must be consistent and on an international level; b) when and how the recording is to be made; c) the criteria must define all types of air traffic. It is pertinent to note that the most blatant misrecording of air traffic I discovered in my research was at Auckland International airport. New Zealand. where the Ministry of Transport made the ludicrous decision that when a jumbo jet on training was completing an overshoot this movement was to be recorded as ·one movement' under the column for agricultural aircraft. The resulting statistics obviously were completely erroneous and so useless. It is suggested that the airport planner will need to have statistics to advise him on the amount of land. and concrete. that he will require to accomodate the planned numbers of aircraft that will use his airport. and as coordinated with the controllers. These statistics will include: a) to takeoff and land - departing and arriving aircraft: b) for non-flying periods: i. taxying to/from runways and parking areas. ii. loading/unloading U.F.P .. iii. loading/ unloading freight. iv. for maintainance. v. for non-flying periods other than those in i. to iv .. vi. for emergencies. including hijackings.
Land Required for Departing and Arriving Aircraft The amount of land required for the arrivals and departures is directly associated with the statistics required for ATC planning as it affects the runway availability. This must include such ATC operational needs as navigational aids. holding patterns for ATC. approach procedures.
availability of radar for both air traffic and ground traffic and length and number of runways.
Land Required for Nonflying Periods During all nonflying periods the aircrah must be parked somewhere on the airfield. and for the larger aircrah that is on concrete hardstandings. Aircrah can be 'juggled' in positioning to economise with space during loading/ unloading. maintenance and other non-use time. with a separate area for hijackings. The 'hijacking· or other emergencies such as 'bombon-board' areas must be kept well clear of all buildings and aircraft. with particular reference that this includes aircraft landing. taking-off and taxying. with overall requirement that the area must be· secure · . It is pertinent to consider the need for the operational definition of the criteria for ·well clear' and ·secure·. Recent Airline Economics The past two years ( 1 98011981) have seen the majority of airlines facing huge reductions in passenger traffic . that is the U.F.P. are refusing to fly as predicted by the so-called aviation expert planners. This has meant a corresponding loss in revenue to the extent that some ·national' airline s are kept flying in a 'fly-the-flag· situation at the expense of the long-suffering tax payer. Some of the more outstanding losses as reported 1n a December 1 981 New Zealand television programme are: a) Air New Zealand - $ US 100 million; b) British Airways - $ US 320 million; c) Continental Airways (USA) $ US 60 million; d) Panam $ US 300 million; e) Qantas - $ US 41 million. The news media throughout the world continually report that these and other airlines have been subjected to wage freezes. wage cuts. staff cuts and large scale dismissals . while the strong unions within the airlines from the Airline Pilots Association down to the Clerical Workers· Union have been powerless to prevent this drastic situation continuing. It is an indisputable fact that until more of the U.F P. can be per suaded to fill the continuing empty seats in the aircraft. with drastic loss of income. then airline economics will continue to decline. This has meant a continual reduction in the numbers of aircraft required to transport the declining numbers of U.F.P. over the past two years. 1 980 and 1 981 .
ed and unplanned drop in all figures relating to ' air traffic ' . This forces me to question the statistics that were used to · enable this ·working party' to make this strange prediction as late as September 1 981. It is very pertinent that the Department of trade will have received all !CAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation) reports and statistics referring to air traffic , yet !CAO reported at about the same time · . . . In 1980. according to !CAO. which is the aviation technical agency of the United Nations. world schedule passenger - (the U. F. P. )- traffic fell by 0. 5 percent. the first fall recorded in the post-war period. ·; b) · ... Air Traffic May(my italics) Double by 1995 . . . · It is noted that like so many statisticians. the planners have left themselves a · let out' by the use of the word ·may · . There is no magic formula for succes in the airline business, and a study of some of the successful airlines. such as Singapore Airlines , would reveal some interesting facts on how to manage an airline. I have travelled on SAL and the opportunity presented itself for a close study of both the airline and the associated new airport Singapore and the previous Singapore airport of Paya Lebar with particular reference to air-safety and the ground services . It is obvious that SAL and the Singapore government department responsible have managed to convey the vital message to all their staff that the U . F. P. a re their · bread and butter · and as such they must be cared for and protected at all times . The conse quences of which are that the flight crew from the captain down to the newest inflight crew member are strictly conscious of the air-safety of their aircraft while the services in the air and on the ground are almost faultles s. The result is t hat th e U.F.P. are nearly queueing-up to fly on SAL with the obvious profitability .
It would be interesting for the so-called experts in aviation to stud y th e reaso ns that specifically enable the Singapore airline to be so successful. that is. w hat statistics are they using for planning? Al so w hy are some of their top executi ves being utilised by other airlines to sol ve proble ms?
Other Airline Loss Symptoms Apart from the accepted presen t wo rld recession , increa sing oil pri ces and inflationary conditions that exist. every airline is faced w ith other loss symptoms . The major problems inc lude: a) Hijacking I have includ ed the little-kno wn an d seldom publicised · bomb-on -board ' warnings that do occur. particula rly when the aircraft is in the air. Fort unately New Zealand has yet to expe rience the first hijac k but ' bom b-o nboard ' warnings do occur at infreq uen t intervals. However the assoc iat ed loss and costs to the airl ine are of ma Jor im portance . What stati stics are avail ab le for ATC and airport planners? b) A Major Disaster One of New Zealand ' s mo st t ragic disasters in aviation histo ry was t he A ir New Zealand's DC-10 cr ash in An ta rtica in November 1978 . As w it h ot her similar holocausts the fin anci al and legal wranglings are far beyo nd t he expectations of the New Zealand Government. w ho ow n Air New Zealan d. and the board and sta ff . As my disabil ity and health permitted - ca used by my acci dent w hilst actuall y con t rolling air t raffic as a co nt roller - I att ended the Royal Commi ssion of Inqui ry into t he crash . M y aviat ion caree r as a RAF off icer (pilot ). c ivilian pil ot and contr o ller of 40 yea rs prevented sur pri se at seeing the leg al professio n. profess ional aviator s. exec uti ve ATO and so-ca lled aviation expert s locked in t he t hrust and coun t er-thru st of the ma ny varying
Continue s on page 3 3
' ... Air Traffic May Double by 1995 ... .' As reported in the appendix the planners have made two pertinent comment s in their comments: a) . The report by the air traffic fore casting working party of the Department of Trade. takes as its base year.
But the trend following 1979. the year selected by this ·working party ' . has shown an unprecedented. unforecast -
Cassar display s at Gatwi ck Airpor t 31
Air Traffic Control Now and in the Future by Pat O Doherty,
Vice-President Administr a tion , !FA TCA *
Mr. President, distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen and fellow controllers, I take this opportunity on behalf of IFATCA to extend our congratulations to IATCA for the efforts they have put into the organisation of this ' Day of the Controller'. I am proud to be a member of IATCA particu larly as it was a founder of the Inte rnat ional Federation. My presence here on behalf of IFATCA is the Federation's acknowledge ment of the efforts of IATCA in projecting the aims and objects of the international fraternity of air traffic contro llers. The views and comments emanating from this semina r w ill be circulated among the members of the Federat ion and will rece ive the respect earned by IATCA over the last 21 years. When I was given the brief to present an IFATCA paper on 'Air Traffic Control - Now and in the Future', I approache d the matter wit h some trepidation The present state of air traffic services throughout the wo rld leaves a lot to be desired and there are no obvious, easy, answers. I believe that suffic ier\t goodwill exists amo ng contro llers to lead to improvement but the control ler is not the only element in the problem Air traffic control in the fut ure must develop rapidly in order to keep pace with the aircraft being contro lled. The modern jet transport is an extremely sophist icate d piece of equipment, and ope rates wi th the help of ve ry complex systems that monitor al l phases of the flight The onboard navigational equipmen t has long out stripped the eq uipment of the air traffic contro ller Mu ch of the ground based equipment 1s as old or indeed older than the controllers operating it - and in Europe t he majority of contro llers are in the 30 to 40 age group. IFATCA does not advocate com puterised equipment for all - it mere ly recommends that the best possible equ ipment, adequate for the tasks in hand , should be prov ided . Secondary radar is no longer a luxury. It simplifies the tasks of the c ontroller and therefore ensures a higher degree of safe ty
Pat ODoherty Equipment costs money - but the aircraft operators are supplying the money through user and en route cha rge s. Is all this money going to the provision of better. safer air traffic systems? I think not. In many cases it goes direct to central government funds and very little of it is reflected in improvements to air traffic control systems. Let us now turn to the airspace itself. Fuel conse rvat ion is the current urgent plea from the industry and such conservation can be aided by the use of direct routes particularly where good radar coverage is provided. In many cases these ' direct routes' are not avai lab le because of unavoidable restrictions such as high gmund or highly built up areas. In too many cases, howe ver, the reasons are directly att ributable to our military brethren Military flying areas, restricted areas, safet y descent areas and danger areas cover great chunks of the globe and are often established without any reference to the civil operators. One accepts that there is a need for military flying and training and it is perhaps politically more expedient to allow the military flyer virtually unrestricted use of airspace whi le the civil transport must deviate
from the direct route beca use of one or two highly manoeuvrable aircraft desiring to perform some aerobatic , operation. In Europe in particular, the problems of civil/ military co-ordination and or integration must be overcome if the industry as a whole is not to be forced to pay an extremely high price for the restrictions being forced upon it. So far I have mentioned the airspace, the military, the operators and the pilots. I must now come to the controllers themselves. Anyone who reads the newspapers or listens to the news on radio or television will be well aware that all is not well with controllers in many countries. IFATCA is currently examining the prob lem but with limited manpower and even more limited funds will take some time to propose solution s. Mo st controllers are employed by their national governments and are therefore civil servants. The civil service is generally regarded as a good employer, but I would contend that its methods of dealing with problems of personnel are not geared to the air traffic services. Controllers are required to make instantaneous and co rrect decisions every time they control an aircraft. They tend to expect that tho se with whom they must negotiate will act as quickly as they are required to . The c ivil services of thi s world procrastinate and delay decisions to the point where cont rollers rebel - when the y do this the travelling public and the airlines hear about the problems for the first time. Civil services by and large resent co mment from outside on dealings w ithin the services. A case in point here is the report of the Intern ational Labour Organisation (ILO) issued in
* This article is adapted from the address delivered by Pat O Doherty, on behalf of IFATCA, to the seminar organised by the Irish Controllers ' Association (IA TCA) to mark the 'International Day of the Controller '.
1979 after a tripartite meeting on the problems of air traffic controllers. The I LO came up with 5 2 recommendations covering items from recruitment to retirement and covering various items in between from salaries to conditions of service. IFATCA circulated copies of this document to departments of labour and transport all over the world and there has been virtually no reponse. Even on the relatively simple matter of the establishment of joint consultative committees on technical matters such as the provision of new equipment. there was either no response or an adamantly negative one. Salary scales have not been examined in the light of the recommendations. Early retirement and second carreer development have been ignored. One can only assume that the decisions not to implement many of these recommendations were arrived at because of fear of leapfrogging by other civil servant?. It therefore seems that the only satisfactory solution to the problems will be found in the establishment of independant agencies to look afte~ the air traffic services. Such agencies can budget rationally for the services provided and then perhaps user charges will be put to the use for which they were originally intended - that is. the provision of a safe. expeditio_u~ system. The users. that is the airlines and their passengers. ~r~ alr_eady_ paying for this service and 1t 1s high time they were given it. My conclusions_therefore. ar~ that if there is to be an 1m~rove~ent in the nature of the air traffic services there will have to be some straight talking between the employers. the users and the controllers. The controllers make the system operate and w_ithout their input. their frustrations will continue to grow to the detriment of the system. Recruitment and training and appropriate conditions .of service must be a top priority and 1fthis means the establishment of independent agencies or authorities then let it proceed without delay. The provision of equipment equal to the task in hand must be provided. with continual update as necessary. Civil/ military integration of traffic must be more closely examined. Pilots and controllers must accept that they are interdependent. and should work together to iron out the flaws in the system. Goodwill. not just from controllers. must be forthcoming on all sides and national systems should not be developed in isolation - if computer technology is to be used at least let the computers be compatible with each other.
More Airports from page 37 ramifications of the strange. yet exciting. world of professional aviation. The final cost in dollars to the taxpayer cannot be calculated. while the loss of so many of the U.F.P. who cannot. or will not. fly Air New Zealand will require considerable persuasion from the new chairman and new general manager down to the newest recruit before Air New Zealand regains its previous position as a top-rate airline. What statistics are available for ATC and airport planners?
Statistics for 'Other Airline Loss Symptoms' I am not aware of any statistics for bomb-on-board warnings. but those recorded for past hijackings are useful to interested parties trying to obtain some indication of 'patterns· in the hijacking of aircraft. These statistics can confirm to the planners some of the following: a) A TC Planners The need for ·extra· controllers. and other air traffic staff. readily available to cope with the sudden onrush of drarl"!atic stress and strain of dealing with a h11ack.It requires considerable ATC experience to apply some form of air traffic control whilst being forced to accept constant political and government interference and instructions under con~tant amendment to prevent jeopardising the pilot and his U.F.P. and ease their horrific plight. At the same time the controller must keep all his other air traffic · clear' of the hijacked aircraft both in the air and on the ground. But what Is the criteria for · clear' and ·extra· for the controllers to use?; b) Airport Planners The need for · extra· staff. particularly security personnel. and equipment with suitable 'holding-area/ s·. preferrably of concrete. · clear· of all aircraft - arriving. departing. taxying and non-flying and _airport buildings. Again what criteria Is used for 'clear' and ·extra· for planning purposes? It will be appreciated that under these circumstances that there will be few real statistics that will enable ATC and airport planners to plan the correct facilities for hijacked aircraft. Admittedly hijacks have been dealt with and will continue. but how right or wrong was each hijacking processed? What statistics. and how are they to be recorded. are required for hijackings and for bomb-on-board warnings?
IFATCA There is only one international ATC organisation and that is IFATCA. as mentioned in paragraph 6 above. However despite its world-wide membership its member associations do not represent the world-wide ATC system that is being used today to control air traffic. For example the Peoples· Republic of China has no representation. and I for one. as a Chinese
scholar. would be delighted for their representation at the IFATCA annual conferences. There is no doubt whatsoever that they must have something to contribute to air traffic control and air-safety as they would receive value in return from their colleagues. Apart from the single paid executive director. IFATCA is composed of controllers and their individual efforts to their member association and to IFATCA is purely due to their dedicated professionalism. The controller receives no financial reward for his efforts in this respect. in fact the strangely worded rules of IATA (International Air Transport Association) precludes the controller - in some countries like New Zealand - from being able to take advantage of airfare concessions afforded to all airline and other associated employees. This even precludes the controller from attending official IFATCA functions unless he pays normal airfares. where his sole interest is to improve his professionalism as a controller as he expedites his air traffic and strives for the complete air-safety in air traffic control of the pilot and his U. F. P. thus saving every airline considerable unplanned savings every day. IFATCA is the only professional organisation that can assist the ATC and airport planners in providing the real statistics for them to plan for the future. Only IFATCA can ensure an international criteria for all air traffic and airport statistics which must be gathered and corelated in an identical manner throughout the world to ensure continuity and relativity. The only manner in which any planners can decide on the requirement of airports in the Greater London Area must rely on accurate statistics obtained from a realiable professional source. I am convinced that IFATCA can provide an answer.
Airline Scheduling Hampered by Stricter FAA Spacing Rules FAA decree requiring greater spacing between airliners during controller staff limitations generates carrier scheduling problems. Restricted numbers of departure/ landing times at airports. creates severe dissension among carriers. reports 'The Wall Street Journal'. New services. routes are cancelled unexpectedly after being announced (such as People Express projected Newark. New Jersey-Pittsburgh operation which was dropped before first flight). Delays and · chameleon-like' switches in fares confuse. harass travelers. newspaper observes. FAA bids to ease situation by hiring 8.000 controller trainees this year. 6.500 more in 19821983. But US Air Force will cease supplying controllers beyond 635 in original force. Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (PATCO). whose illegal strike spawned current air traffic restrictions. was decertified as labor union. 1 1 400 strikers will not be re-hired. Reagan Administration said.
Future Terminal Area Systems by P. A. Jorgensen *
In any. or almos t any air traffic environment. the Termi nal Area presents the busiest airspace . You have here the highest concent rat ion of aircraft. hence the highest tension on the control ler. At the same t ime it is the area in which the aircraft do the mo st maneu vering , both in altitude and direction. giving t he highest work load on the flight deck . The step from procedural TMA control to radar contro l has made air traffic, as we know it today , possible ; and the first system a country purchases is almo st alw ays a radar TMA system w ith primary and secondary radar . The se systems have toda y reached a high level of sophistication . How ever. the re is still room for impro ve ments . Naturally, almost all the emphasis has been put on the safety aspects. and the safet y record shows air transport to be one of the safest means of travelling. However, this very high degree of safety has been obtained at the cos t of airspace capacity and flight delays , which may be translated direct ly into time cost for passengers and aircraft. and increased consumption of fuel . Nobody wi ll of course argue that safe ty ca n be traded for money. but one must ask if air safety reall y is incompatible w ith economy. The aircraft manufacturers are spending fortunes to design new ways of mak ing t heir air traffic more fue l effective. and air carriers are work ing hecticly to find ways of saving fuel and money. Especia lly one field of design impro ve ment s has a potentia l positive effect on the air tra ffic cont ro l system, the Flight Managemen t System (FM S). The Flight Management System (Lockheed) or Flight Management Comp ut er System (Boeing ) are soph isticated systems w hic h are ab le to pilot the aircraft accord ing to a precise. preestablis hed f lig ht profile in 4 dimension s. Th e FMS consists of a minicomputer. w hich int erfaces w ith the conventiona l autopi lot and autothrottle syste m of the aircraft. fig. 1. At the same time it interfaces to all the navigation inst rumentation on board. Th e co mputer ca lculates opt imum speed and altit ud e. distance and time to c limb . and opt imum prof iles for descent. We can expec t a large amount of aircraft t o be equippe d wi th these systems in a few yea rs But yet we have not hing on the ground w hic h can match. or interface wi th the FM S. To the TMA. especia lly the desce nt phase of the aircraft is of interes t. Lockheed c laim s to be ab le to co ntrol their L- 101 1 w ith 4- D FM S thro ugh a co mplete descent prof ile w ith an end accuracy of ± 8 s . airspe ed ± 5 kn., and end pos iti ve error of less than ±0 . 5 NM . But t he full utilizati o n of suc h syste ms requires a Term inal Area Management Syste m . i.e. a syste m whe re a g iven f light prof ile may be tested by a
• P. A. Jorgensen is the co rpor ate members· co -ordinator This article was presented at /FA TCA ·s West European Conference held in Rome , 72- 74 Novembe r 798 7. Mr . Jorgen sen works for Selenia S.p.A. on whose behalf the paper was presented.
Mr. P. A. Jorgensen , standing, addressing the 7th IFATCA European Region al Meeting .
computer in real time before actually flown , so the contro ller can issue a c learance for an enti re descent from leaving cruising altitude to 1OOOft on the glide slope , wh ile letting the aircraft fly under own navigation . Several studie s are going on now to estab lish the consequences of such an approach, espec ially with regards to fuel conservat ion , safety and air space capac ity. Currently a number of airline s are experimenting with d iff erent approach profiles The standard descent profile, the low drag / low power app roac h as developed by Luft hansa and now adapted by IATA, and a low drag / delayed flap s approach are of specia l intere st . Fig. 2 shows the actual fuel consumption. measured by the author , on three flight s. Flight 1 used a standard desce nt, flight 2 an IATA approa ch, and flight 3 a low drag/ delayed flap s approach. Th e fue l saving on th e third flight is several hundred kilo s com pared to a standard approach. Typi ca lly. the autho r has found that a DC-9 type airc raft m ay save 200 - 300 kg per approach, and a w idebody up to 600 kg on an approach, compa red to the standard approach with repetitive leveling and speed restriction s. The IATA approach has the advantage that it may be performed without an FMS, but from a flight profi le table . The third approach show n on fig. 2 was flo wn by hand and not by FMS . As ca n be seen from fig . 2, it is abso lute ly essential that t he pilot can plan fo r the descent at least 1 5 minute s before touchdown On th e type 3 approach , the motor s are set on idle, and the aircraft is flo wn without adding further energy before flaps are extended at 1OOOft Th e airspeed is higher than during standard approaches, being above Vc lean . Th e app roac h power is added at 1OOOft. and a norm al. stab ilized approach and landing is performed
The information needed by the pilot to execute the fuel saving approach is: Speed. above Vclean. to be used Track miles to touchdown Clearance to middle marker Standard arrival to be flown. The Terminal Area Management System must forecast a suitable approach routing which will allow for a continuous descent. From here it follows that the TAMS must be able to analyze and test fly ahead of each arriving flight a flight path in 4 dimensions to match the 4-D capabilities of the FMS. As the aircraft must be under own navigation. an increased number of STAR's must be available. fig. 3. The controller would see an advised approach route and speed on his microtabular display for each arriving aircraft together with track miles to go. and his task would now be concentrated on monitoring the separation between the aircraft. The probability of his need for intervention would be small. because the computer would distribute the aircraft in an optimum way. The effect of such a system was studied by Tobias and o· Brien (ref. 1). It was found that a terminal area management system would not co~promise the airsafety in any way. that the system ~apacIty actually was increased; the system unde~ s1mulat1onwas n?t _co11:puterassisted as to spacing the aircraft. and some ~1ff1cult1eswere found when mixing the three descent profiles. However. even with a manual system. improvement was obtained. The conce_ptof distrib~ted intelligence in ATC systems. as employed in the Selenia SATCAS-80 system lends itself to a TAMS system. To be effective. the sy_stemmust work on very precise radar track data. as obtained by the Selenia adaptive radars. and an effective correlation programme between flight data and actual position data must be available. Furthermore. the controller shoul~ h~ve a very efficient manmachine interface system at his disposal. as provided with the DDS-80 display with built-in display processor. We find it is important that the ATC ground environment follows the development of the airborn equipment and procedures. not to let the one sy~tem be delayed compared to the other. as this inevitably will lead to loss of one very important part of the two indepen~~nt co_mponents which ensure a safe. orderly and exped1t1ousair traffic.
FLIGHT DATA STORAGE
Figure 7. Flight Management System (FMS)
__ IUll lllllJ/h
,. '. 22
...__ ___._, __>-+--~--~ ......... -~-+-------
A"'DllAPSATIODOII llAPS 10 40o MAIi
21 20 19 IB 17 16
12 11 10
Figure 2. Measured fuel consumption
References 1. L.Tobias. NASA and P.J.O'Brien. FAA · Effectiveness of advanced fuel-conservation procedures in the transitional ATC environment'. ASARO Meeting. October 9-12 1979. 2. Eurocontrol. Division E 1 'Fuel saving in Air Transport'. Draft. May 4 1981. 3. R.R. Ropelewski. 'Aviation week and Space Technology·. Jan. 26 1981 · Fuel-Efficient Descents sought for L-101 1 Tri-star'. 4. C. D. La Fond. !CAO Bulletin. July 1981 'The Flight Management System·. 5. P.A. Jorgensen. Selenia 'Modern Systems for Air Traffic Control', IFATCA Con., May 1979. 6. PA.Jorgensen. Selenia 'A system approach to ATC', IFATCA Con .. May 1981.
Figure 3. Possible standard arrivals. used for time spacing 35
each approximately , 1 200 m from the nearest runway . Each anemometer supplies vector component values of wind data in analog form to associated remote station electronic equipment at the anemometer site. The analog vector components are conditioned and filtered to remove microscale wind variations and retain the mesoscale wind variations associated with wind shear . The remote station equipment then converts the data from analog to digital for transmission back to a central station at the control tower. Transmi ssion of data from anemometers ; one center-field instrumometer sites to the central station is ment is located near the center of the airport and five boundary ane- . by FM radio operating in the VHF range . mometers are located near approach The official FAA designation for this and takeoff areas of the airport. system is LLWSAS which stands for From this data, the central station Low Level Wind Shear Alert System. computes the value of horizontal wind This not being a particularly memoshear bet wee n each of the remote loc atio ns and the central site. No rable acronym however, it has become known more recently as SWIMS mea surement s are taken of vertical which stands for Surface Wind wind shear or shear of vertical winds, Measuring System . but it is firmly established elsewhere that the se factors represent only a Figure 1 indicates the ba sis of th e small , if any, proportion of the system diagramatically and figure 2 illustrates its major components and problem . interconnections . Studies of gu st-front propagation indicat e that the five boundary anemometers should be about 1,2 00 m from the runway threshold, LLWSAS System Performance beyo nd the instrument landing system The system alert s controllers to ( I LS) middle-marker location and be- wind shea rs by visual and audible tween 9 and 1 5 m above ground alarms. The tower controllers also releve l. Th ey are located more or less ceive center field wind-gust updates sym metri ca lly around the airport, when they occur, along with wind direction and wind spe ed. Controller s in the Terminal Radar Approach Control Facility (TRACON) or Area Control Center (ACC) room , receive the center field w ind direction , speed and gu st update s but do not receive wind shear alarms. The syst em require s no essential operator intervention while in operation. It is de signed for continuous uninterrupt ed operation , proce ssing data , monitoring it s own system stat us, and displ aying the result ant airport wind condi tion s information with no operator actions required. Figure 8 is an illu stration of the display the controller sees. Wind shear is determined by calculating the differ ence between the vec tor compo nent va lue s of th e wind at a boundary loca tion and the cente r field loca tion . Th e threshold for w ind shear is 1 5 knots. When the vec tor differen ce of the measured wind vecto r at a boundary locat ion and the me asured w ind vect or at the ce nter field loca tion is
The Detection of Low Level Wind Shear (Part 11) - by Peter D. Simmons
The above stage of development of the meteoro log ical theo ry of w ind shear, contrib uted to very largely by meteorologists at the Feder al Aviation Administration but also by man y others, not ab ly Profes so r Fujita of Chicago Uni versity, was reached in approximate ly 1976 , and, given the contention already described, is still current. At that time the FAA was under considerable pressure from Congr ess to find a so lut ion to the continuing wind shear assoc iated accidents in USA. From the abo ve t heor y the y deduced that an ability to detect horizontal wind shear would substantia lly solve the prob lem. Acco rding ly, they de ve loped a realtime microcomp ut er-co nt rolle d, data acquisition, analysis and d isp lay system. It collects w ind direction and wind spee d data from six ane-
Figure 7 36
1 5 kn or greater. a hazardous wind shear exists and the system automatically alerts the tower controllers. The wind-shear alarm feature of the display identifies each boundary anemometer where a wind shear 1s occurring and identifies the wind direction and speed at the boundary site. To compute the wind gusts. a wind gust threshold of 9 knots is used . Wind gusts appear on the displays only when the threshold is exceeded. A separate peak-detecting m~asurem ent of wind at center field 1s compared with the average of the last 1 5 vector component measurements from the center field . When the difference is greater than 9 knots. the actual wind-gust value appears on the wind displays. When air traffic controllers receive a wind-shear alarm . they relay the information to pilots in the airport area by voice communi_cation. The pr_actice is to advise the pilots of the wind direction and wind speed at the center field and also the wind direction and wind speed at the boundary site where the low level wind shear is occurring. 1n extreme cases the decision may be taken temporarily to close the airport and stack incoming aircraft until the shear has decreased to safe limits. Proof of the effectiveness of a system of this nature is extremely difficult to establish. The only approach _isthe statistical approach and sta_t1st1csof course are only absolute at 1nfin1ty. Six accidents proven to be windshear associated occured in USA alone between 1973 and 1975 . Further examination of accident records in the light of modern wind-shear theory show that between 1964 and 1973 at least 25 accidents in USA alone were in reality due to wind shear phenomena. This indicates an average wind-shear accident rate for USA of the order of 3 per year. Installation of LLWSAS systems in USA airports commenced in 1977 and currently 58 such systems are in ope ration . There have been absolutely no wind-shear accidents in USA since 197 7. the commencement of the installation of these systems. While this is by no means statistical proof, it is a fairly powerful indication that the system is contributing substantially to air safety in the USA. While there have been no accidents, there have in fact been one or two ·i ncidents '. One of these has achieved prominence as 'The Atlanta Incident'. The inc ident is worth examining in more detail: An Eastern Airline Boeing 727 encountered a
REMOTE STATION ANTENNA (6 UNITS ; •.
REMOT E STAT ION (6 UNITS)
TO NEXf TOWER DISPLAY CENTRA L STATION
- AC POWER IN
TOWER DISPLAY POWER SUPPLY
SWIMS Major Components and Interconnections
MILE FROM THRESHOLD
Ol&TUllaANCE flCIITION A. A/C CS.1c•nd• bal._ plda •~
bvt r.c:o--. wt,-n downdt•"9h1 •• c~M to l\ona. ,WW'ld. S1att1 oo 010""'4 at uf• heitM, F, ight , but no d•matlll An1mome1et' too far .. .,. 10 de-1.ct
1hu, . Thi•,,.,,
At this distance clear of it It might
tt.e 'ATLANTA iNCIOlNTf .
DIITUIHAl'fCI iJIOaJTlON 8. A/C low- 1ftttud1 and BTAUS~ ~ to mau~ c~fl'om Headw ind to f,y. wtN1. If IWIMS ..,.,,lled 1nemom11., -•Hy detK11 ~mout atMw . P ilot vn rned ,n t1m,e to dacHM no, to be hefa now. o, 1irpon 11moourity
aircraft enters downburst
at over 300 meters altitude and will fly
a few people but it is not going
t he aircra ft.
If downbursts were closer to threshold aircraft would enter at only about 50 meters and would be doomed due to horizontal shea r creating enormous instan t tailwind , In this case , however , disturbance is close enough to trigger the SWIMS warning and the ai rcraft will never arrive at the point of dange r.
very severe downdraft/wind shear situation on approach to Atlanta Airport in August 1979. The aircraft entered the downburst when approximately 4 miles (6½ km) from the end of the runway and at about 1400 feet (425 m) altitude. Prompt action by the pilots was incapable of averting a descent below glide slope which was only flown out of when the aircraft reached 3 7 5 feet ( 1 1 5 m) altitude at about 2 ½ miles (4 km) from the end of the runway; it then executed a go around. One of the earliest systems was in existence at Atlanta at the time and did not indicate any excessive wind shear. It has been suggested. therefore. that (A). down-drafts in excess of the climb rate of an aircraft can exist close to the ground. and (B). ·some microbursts are so small that they may not trigger the warning device of the anemometer network' (AIAA paper by T. Fujita. 1 981 ). It could be inferred from the incident report (NTSB Incident Investigation) that the aircraft only began to climb when it flew out of the down burst. It is. however. equally likely that the aircraft started to climb when it had descended to an altitude (375 feet/ 115 m). at which the downdraft speed had ceased. due to ground effect. to be in excess of the climb capability of the aircraft. 375 feet is well above ·decision height' and. therefore. cannot be considered to be a dangerous altitude to start a go around. See figure 3. Also. it may not have been the small size of the microburst which inhibited the triggering of the anemometers but its distance (3 miles [5 km] or more) from those anemometers. It is this separation which establishes the safety of the system. I.e .. 1f an aircraft enters such a downburst 3 or 4 miles from threshold. and. therefore. at over a thousand feet (300 m) altitude. then providing the pilot_ reacts sensibly. it will fly clear of the incident. It might frighten a few people but it is not going to destroy the aircraft. If. however. the downburst were much closer to threshold. such that the aircraft would enter it at only a few hundred feet. minimum pilot and Jet engine reaction time would not prevent descent to the 1 00-200 ft. (30 to 60 m) region. a mile ahead. where the horizontal shear effect of the downburst would be an instant tailwind of up to 80 knots. In this case. however. the disturbance is. by definition. close enough to the airport to trigger the system warning. which will result in the aircraft never arriving at the point of danger. 38
Other Methods of Wind Shear Detection The Ground Based Radars Hitherto radar has been confined solely to the ability to indicate the position of intense storm activity (actual precipitation). Research currently in progress indicates some possibility that. in the future. one or more types of radar may be capable. of detecting wind-shear effects. Even the most recent technical papers on this subject. however. indicate that there are still considerable problems to be overcome (sensitivity to tracers. requirement for signature analysis. etc.) to say nothing of very high costs (probably over one million dollars per system for microwave Doppler). Such capabilities. are. therefore. a number of years away. ·we must conclude that while a number of remote sensors have a strong potential for use as wind and wind-shear measuring devices their cost effectiveness needs further evaluation. Also. a time table for their operational application is still in the draft stage.' (FAApaperbyJ.T. Lee.) Three different types are currently under development Microwave Doppler This appears to be the most promising avenue of research but it is evident that it will be a long time before practical systems are available and they will be extremely expensive. Acoustic Doppler Radar This is also referred to as SODAR in Europe. Noise caused by precipitation and aircraft severely restricts its potential usefulness as an airport windshear detection system. Problems of performance and interference on this system are currently so limiting that it has been formally abandoned by FAA. ·we concede to your findings that the system is expensive and is inoperable in heavy precipitation. and we encourage you to continue working for the development of a pulsed doppler laser technique· (NTSB recommendations to FAA. 1980). Laser Doppler The same basic principles. applied with the use of laser beams instead of radio waves. Cannot be operated in precipitation or fog. Even in clear air range is very limited. Cost is very high. On-board Wind-Shear Detection There are two fundamentally different approaches to the idea of detecting wind shear from on-board the aircraft. Neither is ever likely to be of any help to general aviation owing to inherent high cost.
Microwave Doppler Radar This is exactly the same basic technique as referred to above. Since the basic ground based system is still in a very early developmental stage it is obvious that the availability of airborne systems is still further away and will be in all probability. prohibitively expensive. There is a possibility that this might become an operational system during the 1990's. Air Speed/Ground Speed This technique makes use of comparison of the airspeed of the aircraft with its ground speed in order to detect when it is entering wind shear. The problem is the detection of ground speed. If an inertial navigation system is fitted. this is relatively easy and systems are in operation using that technique. If a means of ground speed detection has to be added to the aircraft then the system becomes extremely expensive. Either way. this technique is of no use whatsoever to general aviation on the grounds of cost. The idea of an on-board air speed/ ground speed wind-shear detection system is a good one. of course. on the basis of always optimizing the information available to the pilot. There is. however. a tendency to regard such devices as a possible future general wind-shear system. This is incredibly dangerous thinking. An air speed/ ground speed wind-shear detector can only state that the aircraft is in wind shear. It cannot forecast arrival in wind shear.
Datasaab AB Division Interactive Data Systems On January 1. 1982 the Interactive Data Systems (IDS) division of Datasaab AB was transferred to SRA Communications AB. The other divisions of Datasaab. together with two divisions from Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson. formed a new company - Ericsson Information Systems- as of the same date. The activities pursued by IDS up to December 31. 1981 will remain unchanged within SRA. Naturally. all agreements signed between IDS and its customers. representativesand suppliers will remain in force vis-a-visSRA. The office of the former IOS division will during the second quarter of 1982 move to newly erected premises adjoining SRA's head office in Kista.
Fuel Conservation - the Airline - ATC
(Speech delivered at A TC ,8 7, Auckland, New Zealand)
by P.M. Grundy
Much has been written of late about fuel conservation. As the most energy intensive industry in the world. aviation is in a vulnerable position. Not only is there no alternative to hydrocarbon fuel (at least not in the forseeable future) but its availability and price present the industry with a unique problem . Either we conserve fuel or we cease to be a viable transport medium. If the 1960's attitude to fuel were to apply in the 1980 ' s we would be out of business. To assess the importance of fuel to airline economics consider the following: 1 . A B74 7 uses 11 metric tonnes (or s 4400) of fuel per hour of flight = $ 73 per minute. 2. On long haul flights for every 1 OOO kg of fuel load ed above the optimum fuel load it takes nearly 500 kg ( $ 200) of fuel to get it there . 3. One minute of fuel = 2 passenger s. 4. For every 1 kg extra weight carried it costs appro ximately$ 95 per kilo per aircraft per year . If revenue loss is included in the equation we can see thi s increa sing to $ 250 per kilo per aircraft per yea r. 5. Fuel cos ts are predicted to increa se by approximately 1 2. 5 % per yea r. but thi s is only a ' best gue ssÂˇ and co uld be very wide of the m ark. Air New Zealand has done a great deal to minimi se fuel burn s w ithin the bound s of safet y. We have for example reviewed our fuel polic y w ith the Ministry of Tran spo rt and are currently looking at the nomination of Ohakea rath er than Chri st c hurch as an alter nat e for Auckland. Thi s alone co uld save near ly $1 million annu ally . simpl y by not ca rrying (which me ans burning) the fuel required to the mor e distant alt ernate. Other co nsiderati ons w hic h have been implem ented are as fo llows 1 . Using ca rdbo ard containers in lieu of m eta l con t ainers Thi s has the potential of sav ing a lot of
weight on long hau ls but the cos t of providing the ca rdb oa rd containers and th eir life expectancy has t o be we ighed up aga inst the cost of fuel sav ings. At this stage the result favours buying ca rdboard con t ainers ! 2 . Reduc ing ope rating empty we ig ht s Th e we ig ht reduct ion programme is an ongo ing exerc ise. Substi -
tution of heavy cabin services it ems with lighter equipment. reduction in total amount of water carried . seat design . cat ering scales and hundred s of othe r items are scrut ini sed and wherever possible weight reduction s are im p lemented . 3. Passenger we igh ts . Genera lly nothing can be done In thi s rega rd . bu t it is interesting to reco rd
the experience of a predominately Orient airline. This airline realised that its passengers. being mainly Orientals (and 20% female) had an average weight of 1 0 kg less than Europeans. Using this weight the fuel uplifts for their B74 7's were reduced to the extent of $ 500 per aircraft per year. 4. Flying at optimum altitude: Turbo jet aircraft fly most economically at their optimum altitude which is dictated by the aircraft weight and sometimes by windshear at altitude. Ideally the aircraft should adopt a cruise climb technique for maximum economy but this is not practical either in terms of the flight management - autopilot capability. auto power settings. etc .. - nor. is it recognised. from an air traffic management point of view with respect to vertical clearance. etc. We have found that one practical alternative in achieving as near as possible the Âˇ cruise climb' is by climbing in steps of 1 OOO ft so as to equally straddle the optimum cruise altitude/weig_ht line and this technique required a substantial use of non-standard levels within controlled airspace. This technique has been recommended whenever non-standard levels are available and the airline is most appreciative of the cooperation it has received to date from the various ATC authorities. When one considers that. for the Air New Zealand DC- 1 0 fleet. cruising only 2000 ft off optimum altitude on all flights would cost the company as much as $ 532.000 per year, the significance of this technique becomes evident. For B74 7 aircraft even higher costs are involved. The provision of levels as near to optimum as possible is so important that it is almost always preferable to accept delays on the ground if flight plan altitude is not immediately available.
5. Ground Running: The DC-1 0 costs $ 1 6 per minute for ground running of engines. In opting for delays on the ground to gain desired flight levels. such delays should. wherever possible occur at the departure gate without engines running. This also applies to departure routing delays, i.e. diversionary routing due to other traffic arriving or departing. ATC can do much in this area by advising aircraft of likely delays prior to starting engines and a
useful system in use in some areas is for the aircraft to call on a special Âˇ clearance deliveryÂˇ frequency when '5 minutes to taxi'. At this time advice can be given on availability of levels and also of departure delays, etc. due to other traffic if such are indicated. 6. Direct Routing: Here too, tremendous savings in fuel can be achieved by taking off in the general direction of the track to destination and by uninterrupted descent and straight in approach. Each additional minute spent at cruise level costs $ 53 for the DC-10 and $ 73 for the B747. Downwind take-off to the limit of the direction of the flight. Similar savings apply to approach and landing. As well as sequencing traffic to effect direct departure and arrivals ATC can assist greatly by providing information or downwind and/ or cross wind components as well as runway condition in the ATIS broadcast so that crews can assess and plan ahead for the most advantageous procedure. Whilst this may not seem a very significant point, cockpit workload to effect last minute changes in take-off or landing direction can often preclude such changes and result in a loss of fuel which could possibly have been saved by earlier advice. 7. Linear Holding: If the possibility of an advantageous change in landing direction becomes available after the aircraft has commenced descent, speed control to effect delayed arrival time (linear holding) is far preferable to other forms of holding, e.g. orbitting, especially at low level. Sometimes holding can be eliminated altogether by a substantial speed increase to achieve desired sequencing. 8. Speed Control: Reduction of cruise Mach no. from 0.83 to 0.82 has for the DC10 resulted in approximate savings of 0.8% of fuel. The increased cost of flight time does not offset the gain in fuel savings and practically every airline is flying at their minimum, drag cruise speed. Unfortunately some aircraft are more difficult to control close to the back side of the drag curve and this makes LRC operation impractical. Those aircraft fitted with an autothrottle system are less affected in this regard.
9. Flight Planning: Computerised flight planning is here to stay. With it we have a system which provides for a great deal of flexibility and a means of applying individual aircraft performance deterioration to the nearest decimal point. This allows very accurate burn out calculations which in turn results in optimisation of the fuel load. 10. Loading for favourable centre of gravity to reduce trim drag: The practice of loading toward an aft centre of gravity can result in up to 0.5% reduction in fuel burn. Wherever possible this is done. 11 . Navigation: With R/NAV systems the ability to navigate within fine tolerances on great circle tracks has enabled some legitimate corner cutting to be employed. The establishment of routes which recognise the airborne equipment capability (on a world wide basis) would significantly reduce fuel burns for all airlines so equipped. Naturally this is a lengthy business but our own experience in New Zealand is that we have had a cooperative response from the Ministry of Transport to minimise route mileages wherever possible. 1 2. Crew training and procedures The adoption of low drag approaches has a significant effect on fuel burn. The old philosophy of a high drag approach from the outer marker for a swept wing jet transport no longer applies. Providing the approach is stabilised from 1OOOft there is no need to select a high drag configuration at 3000 ft. Indeed where aircraft have variable landing flap selections there is no reason why full flap is necessary in other than runway performance limit landings. Having presented some (but by no means all) of the fuel conservation measures we have implemented I would like to mention the one remaining measure which is probably more effective than the sum of all the others. That is the ability to carry out an optimised descent. Without question this is the area where the greatest savings (or penalties) can occur. To held a B 7 4 7 at a low altitude is very expensive (5 min at 5000 ft results in an increase of 900 kg [$ 560] above that planned). As an illustration an aircraft planning a landing on R/W 05 at Auckland notified of a change to R / W 23 after descent has commenced will result in considerably more fuel consumed compared with delaying the descent if notified earlier. Continues on page 4 7
Catalogue of Standing Committee IV Lending Library
Presented by Standing Committee IV, Human and Environmental Factors Introduction Speaking in broad terms of a library the following arguments in favour and against can be made: In favour: the information received by SC IV should become available for those interested inside the Federation, when a library is functioning the accessibility of information will become e~sier. because the participation will grow due to higher mot1vat1on. Against: . . . _ one is not interested in a library, costs and eff~rts compared with the benefits are too high. This is not only valid for the start. but also for the functioning of the library on the long term. the majority of the information is in the English language and reflects mainly the Anglo-American viewpoint. All material. e.g. books. articles. studies. lectures in the field of human and environmental factors with the emphasis on air traffic control should be forwarded to the SC IV Library. As most probable sources to provide the material to the library we see: the Member Associations (material of national origin) the Executive Board (material from international bodies) the Editor (material from publishing houses or others to be used for the Journal).
Lending Procedure A lending order should be addressed to: IFATCA, Standing Committee IV Library cl o The Netherlands Guild of Air Traffic Controllers P.O. Box 7590 Schiphol Airport Central The Netherlands. and must include: catalogue number(s) of the requested paper(s) title(s) of the paper(s) mailing address to which the paper(s) should be sent when appropriate: NO AIR MAIL DELIVERY.
SC IV 75/6 (E) AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL OCCUPATIONAL STUDY: By: Canadian Bureau of Management Consulting. Ministry of Transport. July 1970. 2 vol - 38 p.- 190 g + 220 p. - 1015 g. Vol. 1. Lisson Report of the study. including recommendations emanating from the study. Vol. 2. Details and basis of findings from which the recommendations are made. Dealing with the Canadian situation. chapters of inernat1onal ATC interest are: health and safety- careers - exit - forecasting and recruiting - operational training - bilingualism.
SC IV 75 5 (E) THE CAREER OF THE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLER - A COURSE OF ACTION: By: Office of Secretary of Transportation. United States of America. Jan. 1970. 151 p.- 450 g. Corson Report. represents the findings of Air Traffic Controller Career Committee dealing with the ATC situation in the USA. Presents recommendations for: manning the air traffic system - improving working condition - bettering the controller's career - improving employer-management relations. 1 8 appendices: several of interest.
SC IV 76/ 1 (E) A DEMANDING PROFESSION STILL WITHOUT STATUS. By: J. Monin. International Labour Organisation. Geneva. 1 974. 1 p. - 5 g. Published in the 'ILO-lnformat1onÂˇ Vo! 10 number 4. October 1974 Examination by the President of IFATCA on the working conditions of the Air Traffic Controllers Asks for a less rigid framework inside the public service and the need for a special status.
SC IV 76/ 2 (E) REPORT ON HUMAN, ENVIRONMENTAL AND WORKING CONDITIONS. By: B. Fasy. Eurocontrol Guild of Air Traffic Controllers. Maastricht. 1974. 12 p. - 60 g. Request for a reassesment of the conditions of employment of the operational control stall of Eurocontrol. Chapters on stress. the ATC task. human factors affecting performance. work stress. the family as a source of stress. effects of stress on performance. noise. pensions and medical. career. working hours. stress and illness stress and age. diet and nutrition drugs and medication. are included while the report closes with recommendations on these subjects and on training before/ a her l1cens1ng. lam .. flights and liaison visits.
SC IV 76/12 (G) GUTACHTLICHE STELLUNGNAHME ZUR BEWERTUNG VON BEAMTENDIENSTPOSTEN IN DER FLUGSICHERUNG. (Payment of the Civil Servants in ATC). By The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany. Dec. 1 968.
13 p - 65 g.
General, ATC Profession as a Whole
A proposal from the government with reasoning tor a collective bargaining with the trade unions.
SC IV 75/7 (E) A RESEARCH INTO AIRWAYS OPERATION -THE WORK OF COMMUNICATION OFFICERS AND AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS. By J. F. Clark and Staff of the School of Applied Psychology. University of New South Wales. Australia. 1963. 93 p. - 525 g.
SC IV 76/13 (E) INTERNATIONAL STUDY ON TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT FOR AIR TRAFFIC CONTIROllEIRS. By Canadian Public ServiceÂˇ Staff Relations Board. Report 69 I 93. July 1969. 13 p. - 165 g.
Covers main aspects of ATC profession in Australia. Findings and recommendation are made for general task and system analysis - social system of the organisation anxiety- health -working env1ronment(phys1cal)- shih work- sick leave- rosters promotion - role conceptions - JObattitude.
Nine selected countries were approached by means of a quest1onna1re to present ,n formation on hours of work. overtime. shih differentials. paid holidays annual vacations. rest and meal periods. loss of licence consideration physical standards for air traffic controllers salary increases. number of air traffic controllers employed
SC IV 76/24 (E) AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLER CAREER ACT. By: Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organisation. PATCO. USA. 1972. 1 p. 5 g. Published in the 'PATCO Newsletter' vol. 5. nr. 5. June 1972. Signing of the act by the President of the USA and accompanying letter with some specific statements of the profession of air traffic controller.
SC IV 77 /4 (D) STRUCTURE OF THE BELGIAN AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICES SYSTEM (and amendment). By: Belgian ATC Personnel. Belgium. 1971. 156 p. - 840 g. 20 p. - 120 g. Complete breakdown of ATC personnel and how to cope with it e.g. training cadets. career. remuneration.
SC IV 77 /6 (E) HUMAN AND ENVIRONEMTAL FACTORS. By: New Zealand Air Traffic Controllers Association Inc. New Zealand. Aug. 1971. 26 p. - 140 g. Human and environmental factors relating to the working conditions of the New Zealand air traffic controllers.
SC IV 77 / 11 3 (G) BERICHT OBER DIE EXPERTENGESPRACHE ZUR ORGANISATIONSFORM DER BUNDESANSTALT ZUR FLUGSICHERUNG UND ZUM STATUS IHRES PERSONALS. By: D.A.G. (Deutsche Angestellten Gewerkschah). Germany. BonnBad Godesberg. 12. Aug. 1976. 112 p .. 5 annexes. Report on the discussions of experts with regard to the kind of organisation of the department of air traffic control and with regard to the status of their personnel. German trade union organisation. Many cases being discussed. following the legislation In the countries concerned.
SC IV 76/17 (E) CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS IN EVALUATING ATC PROFICIENCY. By: Dr. J.C. Helbing. University of Amsterdam. 1967. 7 p. - 35 g. Published In 'Flight Safety· vol 1. nr 2. 1967. UK. A study within the RNAF on personnel ratings of controllers. Difference was found between ability and devotion. Have different conditions of evaluation an effect on the ratings? An attempt to provide insight of the critical requirements on the function of controller at different stages in-service training or job-fulfilment.
SC IV 76 / 16 (E) .. ZUR PSYCHOLOGISCHEN EIGNUNGSPRUFUNG DER FLUGLEITER (Psychological Testing for Air Traffic Controllers). By: Dr. Ing. Hans J. Zetzmann. 1961. 9 p. - 45 g. Lecture on the 6th session of "Factor Human Being·. Dusseldorf Dec. 14. 1961. The development of a new test battery for the recruitment of new air traffic control personnel.
SC IV 76/18 (E) THE MAN'S THE THING - EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MAN IN THE SYSTEM. By: Mervin K. Streckler Jr. special assistant for Aviation Education Department of Transportation. Federal Aviation Administration. USA. April 1971, 12 p. 60 g. A lecture give~ at the National Av1at1on System 1g71 Planning Review Conference. Arlington. Virg1n1a The author gives def1n1t1onof· education' for special professions to replace the word ·1ra1n1ng· Mechanisms of learning are described ,n short.
SC IV 77 / 1 (E) THE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLER'S LICENCE AND STUDENT AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLER'S LICENCE. By: C.A.A. - Director Air Traffic Control (S.L.) - Her Majesty's Stationery Office. England, 197 2. 86 p. - 1 2 5 g. Rules 1n order to obtain licences and conditions to meet In order to pass examinat1ons
SC IV 77 / 5 (E) SELECTIONS OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS. By: Public Service Commission of Canada. June 1970. 27 p. - 175 g. Selection standards. technical category. air traffic control group
SC IV 77 /7 (D) INTERNATIONAL TRAINING IN AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL. By Eurocontrol lnstitute for Aviation. Luxembourg, 1969, 32 p. - 125 g
SC IV 77/118 (E) CANADA'S ATC SIMULATION CENTRE. By: Ben Mooy. Digital Method Ltd .. Ottawa. 1976. 3 p. Article from IFATCA Journal 'The Controller' vol. 16. nr. 1. page 34-36. Description of the possibilities of this ATC simulation centre for training as well for research in control procedures.
SC IV 77 / 134 (E) PROBLEMS IN AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT IV. COMPARISON OF PRE-EMPLOYMENT JOB-RELATED EXPERIENCE WITH APTITUDE TESTS AS PREDICTORS OF TRAINING AND JOB PERFORMANCE OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SPECIALISTS. By: David K. Trites and Bart B. Cobb. Civil Aeromedical Research Institute. Federal Aviation Administration. Oklahoma City. Oklahoma. USA. CARI Report 63 - 31. A study of over 700 en-route and terminal air traffic control specialist trainees revealed that different kinds of pre-employment job-related experience had differential value for the prediction of training peformance. In general experience directly related to ATC work was a positive predictor; experience related to communications and piloting was negative.
SC IV 77/135 (E) PROBLEMS IN AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT V. IDENTIFICATION AND POTENTIAL OF APTITUDE TEST MEASURES FOR SELECTION OF TOWER AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLER TRAINEES. By: Bart B. Cobb. Civil Aeromedical Research Institute. F.A.A. Office of Aviation Medicine, Oklahoma City. Oklahoma. USA. Report no. AM 65. 19 July 1965. 9 p. A study of over 200 terminal air traffic control specialists indicated that their training performance could be well predicted by a composite of 4 aptitude tests measuring: numerical ability- non verbal abstract reasoning- ability to solve simplified air traffic problems and verbal abstract reasoning. Pre-employment experience directly related to ATC was also found to contribute to the prediction of training performance.
SC IV 78/ 1 (E) DEVELOPMENT OF NEW SELECTION TESTS FOR AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS. By: John T. Daily. PH. D. and Evan W. Pickrel. Ph.D. Office of Aviation Medicine. F.A.A. Washington D.C. USA. Dec. 1977. Report FAA-AM-77 / 25, 10 p. 55 g. Report describes the development of a new Multiplex Controller Aptitude Test for initial screening of air traffic controller applicants. The available data indicate that this new and customized instrument promises to be a significant improvement over the existing battery for screening FAA air traffic control applicants.
Work Environment SC IV 76/ 11 (D) UNTERSUCHUNGEN DES FLUGMEDIZINISCHEN INSTITUTS IN F0RSTENFELDBRUCK OBER FEHLREAKTION. (Studies on decreased reactions by the aeromedical institute in Furstenfeldbruck). By: Dr. G. Schmith. Frankfurt. Germany, Sep. 1968. 2 p. - 10 g. A recommendation is made on work/resttime as a result from the findings of the studies. Also a double manning of the control posts is mentioned.
SC IV 76/ 14 (D) BIOLOGISCH RITME EN PLOEGENARBEID. (Biologic rhythm and shift work). By: Dr. P. Colquhoun, Aug. 1968. 2 p. -
10 g. Article published ,n "Management and Technology·. Amsterdam. Aug. 29, 1968. Report on tests of shiftworkers with the emphasis on b1olog1crhythm and the occurrence of mistakes. An emphasis was also made on night shifts
SC IV 76/15 (G) VERBESSERUNGSMOGLICHKEITEN BEi DER ANPASSUNG DER GERATE UND BETRIEBLICHEN BEDINGUNGEN AN DIE ERFORDERNISSE DES MENSCHEN IM FLUGSICHERUNGS-KONTROLLDIENST FOR EINE OPTIMALE LEISTUNG IM INTERESSE DER FLUGSICHERHEIT. (Possibilities to improve the adaptation of equipment and procedures to the requirements of the human being working in air traffic control in order to reach an optimal performance in the interest of aviation safety). By: Prof. Dr. Med. S. Ruff. Dr. Phil. Steininger and Dr. Phil. Seifert and Dr. Ing. H. Zetzman. Federal Republic of Germany, Ministry of Transport, 1960/61. 57 p. - 285 g. Lengthy report on the physical and psychological demands on the Air Traffic Con· trailer. Requirements for a high performance Improving working contIons. Six ap· pendices and a literature list are included Report on the sItuatIon at Paris-Orly. eye protection for people working with radar equipment. operations room requirements.
SC IV 77 / 11 (E/ F) WORKING AGREEMENT. Canada. C.A.T.C.A .. 1974. 87 p. 60 g. Agreement between the Treasury Board and the Canadian Air Traffic Control Association.
SC IV 77/125 (E) ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE CONTROLLER. By: Dr. Victor B. Maxwell. Symposium on 'Stresses of the Air Traffic Control Officer' (latest developments). England. Manchester. 10/ 11 April 1976. 5 p. As member of the Medical Advisory Board of the British Guild. the author describes a questionnaire and their findings leading to the following recommendations: A) legal limitation on working hours. B) accommodation upgraded (e.g. chairs). C) what are reasons for "loss of picture·. D) to look for manifestations of early stress before the harmful stage has been reached.
Early Retirement and Pension SC IV 75/2 (E) THE EARLY RETIREMENT BILL, REPORT OF THE 92nd CONGRESS. By: Government of the USA Jan. 1972. 8 p. 40 g. Problems of early retirement and possibilities of retraining of the air traffic controller in the USA. Explanation of the Early Retirement Bill given by Mr. R. Campbell (which was issued in the CATCA Journal).
SC IV 75/3 (E) THE EARLY RETIREMENT REGULATION. By: The Government of the Netherlands. Sept. 1969. 2 p. - 1O g. Translated and abridged from Dutch. gives the essential information on early retirement regulation for the arr traffic controller rn the Netherlands (the regulation is not ideal. but acceptable).
SC IV 75/4 (G) .. FR0HPENSION FUR FLUGLOTSEN. (The early retirement regulation for Air Traffic Controllers). By: The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany. Aug. 1974. 5 p. - 25 g. From an article published in 'Der Flugleiter' (official magazine of the GATCA). Follows in detail the words and reasoning for the new early retirement law.
SC IV 76/26 (E) ATC-CAREER LEGISLATION - FACTS AND FIGURES. By: The Dep. of Transport. Federal Aviation Administration. USA. 1972. 5 p. - 25 g. Some background information published through a special FAA-Intercom on the legislation of a new act in the USA concerning early retirement and special second career.
SC IV 76/ 27 (E) ATC-CAREER ACT. By: The Congress of the United States of America. Jan. 18. 1972. 5 p. - 25 g. The original text of the legislation as passed in the Congress dealing with the early retirement and second career training of the arr traffic controllers in the USA.
SC IV 76/28 (E) REPORT OF THE PATCO/FAA SECOND CAREER- EARLY RETIREMENT REVIEW COMMITTEE. By: Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization. PATCO Washington. USA Aug. 6/101973. 26p.-30g. A report to the employer for appropriate action on necessary modifications amendments on the ATC-Career 1mplementatIon.
SC IV 77 /3 (D) EARLY RETIREMENT FOR ATCOS IN BELGIUM. By Gemeenschappelijk Front (Trade Union). Belgium. 1971. 5 7 p. 285 g. Study on the subiect of early retirement and proposal how to implement.
SC IV 76/3 (E) MEDICATION AND AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL. By: Civil Aviation Authority Medical Branch. Aeronautical Information Service. Pinner. Middlesex. United Kingdom. Feb. 1974. 2 p. 10 g. Published as Aeronautical Information Circular. UK 15/ 1974. 25th guidance on the effects of medication on work performance. since there many flying accidents and incidents have occurred as a result of pilots medically unfit. A parallel can be drawn in ATC. Some types of medicine ed.
Feb .. gives is proof that flying whilst are present-
SC IV 76/6 (E) THE EFFECTS OF A STIMULANT DRUG ON AN AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL TASK. By: Med. Dr. L.R.C. Haward. University of Surrey. England. 1967. 5 p. - 25 g. Published in 'Flight Safety' vol. 1. nr. 2. 1967. A study on mental fatigue and loss of vigilance in air traffic control tasks. Loss of efficiency due to anxiety or fatigue? Findings on working and rest time.
SC IV 76/9 (G) DIE PHYSIOLOGISCHEN UND PSYCHOLOGISCHEN PROBLEME DES RADARBILDSCHIRMS. (The physiological and psychological problems of the radarscope). By: Dr. M.V. Strumza. Germany. 1961. 6 p. - 30 g. A contribution to the Three Nations Congress on Prevention of Collision. May 1 961. Dosseldorf. The author describes the different problems existing amongst personnel working with radar equipment. Emphasis is made on the radiation aspects. the work in a small dark room. the responsibility feeling.
SC IV 76/20 (E) JOB STRESS - HIDDEN HAZARD. By: Phyllis Lehman. U.S. Dep. of Labour. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. USA. 1974. 8 p. - 40 g. Article published in "Job Safety and Health" vol. 2. nr. 4. April 1 974. A report on Jobrelated illnesses in the USA. Job stress can make a worker ill. accident prone and less productive. The job of air traffic controller is the central one in this report. wh,ch offers some suggestions for management to alleviate the situation.
SC IV 76/21 (E) PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ILLNESS IN AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SPECIALISTS: WHAT TO LOOK FOR? By: Med. Dr. W. Wayne Sands. American Academy of Air Traffic Control Medicine. St. Charles. Ill. USA. 1971. 2 p. - 10 g. Article published in 'The Examiner" summer 1 9 71 ,n which the editor presents a lrst of most occurring diseases. which require special attention from the medical srde
SC IV 76/ 22 (E) HYPERTENSION, PEPTIC ULCER AND DIABETES IN AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL. By: M .D.·s Sidney Cobb and Robert Rose. American Medical Association USA. 1973. 4 p. - 20 g. Article published in 'Journal of the American Medical Association· April 23. 1973. vol. 224. nr. 4. Report of research on aeromedical examinations on 4325 controllers which supports the hypothesis that the work of air traffic controllers Is stressful and leds to excess illness. Graphs and reference list included.
SC IV 76/23 (G) STRESSUNTERSUCHUNGEN AN FLUGSICHERHEITSPERSONAL UND MASSNAHMEN ZUR STRESSVERHUTUNG. (Research on stress amongst air traffic control personnel and action to prevent stress.) By: Prof. Dr. Phil. Dipl. Psych Dr. J. Geratewohl. 1971. 4 p. - 20 g. Article published in 'Der Fluglerter' (The Controller). journal of GATCA. Research on stress In the USA and the resulting action in the field of recruiting. training. work environment. work-rest scheme.
SC IV 76/30 (E) STRESS AS A PRECIPITANT OF DISABILITY. D. Boaz MD. 1973. 10 p. - 50 g.
Medical, Physiological and Psychological
A lecture held at the Second Annual Seminar on Stress of the American Academy of Air Traffic Control Medicine. Chicago. June 15-1 7. 1973. Observations suggest that not only the state of health prior to the stress ,s significant. but even more revealing rs the prior experience of handling stressful srtuat,ons Therefore trarn,ng of the individual arr traffic controller ,s necessary ,n a way how to determine stress fact ores to understand them and the most ,mportant how to cope wrth them
SC IV 75/ 1 (E) STRESS AND THE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLER. By: Dean A. Danzell. Auckland Airport. New Zealand. 1971. 24 p. 1 20 g.
SC IV 76/31 (E) STRESS IN THE JET AGE. By: William M. Rutherford M.D 1973. 7 p. - 35 g.
Review of literature on stress interpreted rn terms of NZ ATC personnel for the N.Z. ATC Assoc,at,on _Covers almost every problem area. even those on which no literature rs available - lists 52 refs
A lecture held at the Second Annual Seminar on Stress of the Americ,m Academy of Arr Traffic Control Medrcrne. Chicago. June 15-1 7. 1973. on stress amongst the airline pilots and the medical exam,natrons in the USA
SC IV 76/32 (E) STRESS AND STRESS DISEASE AMONGST AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS. By: Richard R. Grayson M.D. May 19. 1970. 11 p. - 55 g.
SC IV 77/12 (E/F) AVIATION PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH. By: Western Europe Association for Aviation Psychology, 1967. 130 p. 375 g.
Personal observations of Dr. Grayson on patients being air traffic controllers with high scores in the peptic ulcers and acute anxiety state. Gives some proposals in the solution of some stress producing elements: agressiveness. controller-supervisor relationship. administration relationship and research of the FAA.
Report on the 7th Conference including: Human engineering. problems of air traffic control tasks. mental load and learning behaviour in manual tasks.
SC IV 77/106 (E) PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MALE AND FEMALE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLER APPLICANTS. By: .Samuel Karson andJerryW.O. Dell. Eastern Michigan University. Ypsiland. Michigan. USA. 1974. 3 p. - 80 g. In this article published in 'The Journal of ATC" Nov./ Dec. 1 974. based on a comparative study of female and male air traffic control trainees. the authors arrived at the conclusion that the person applying for an ATC position has essentially the same personality structure. whatever her/ his sex may be.
SC IV 77/13 (E) STANDARDS OF ACCEPTABLE LOAD IN ATC TASKS. By: J.W.H. Kalsbeek. Laboratory for Ergonomics. T.N.O. Holland. Delh. 1971. 10 p. - 25 g. SC IV 77 / 122 (E) STRESS ON AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS: EFFECTS OF ARTS - Ill. By: C.E. Melton. R.C. Smith. J.M. McKenzie. S.M. Hoffmann and J.T. Salvidar. FAA. Nov. 1976, 10 p. 50 g.
SC IV 77/107 (E) AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS TELL IT LIKE IT IS. By: Ph. Dr. Roger C. Smith. Aviation Psychology Laboratory. Civil Aeromedical Institute. FAA. USA. May-June 1974. 6 p. - 80 g.
Medical report no. FAA-AM-76- 13 on the measurements of stress before and after implementation of the Automated Radar Terminal Systems Ill. at Los Angeles and Oakland. Total stress increased. leads finally to the assumption that time of implementation was too short (5 months).
Article published in 'The Journal of ATC' answers questions on: what kind of individuals comprise the controller side of the A TC system? Considerations on controllers in myth and reality. Job related attitude.
SC IV 77 / 124 (E) STRESSES ON THE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL OFFICER (LATEST DEVELOPMENTS). By: University of Manchester and the British Guild of Air Traffic Control Officers. Manchester. England. 10/ 11 April 1976. 83 p. - 465 g.
SC IV 77/108 (E) PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES IN AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL PERSONNEL. HOUSTON INTERNATIONAL TOWER. By: C.E. Melton. J.M. McKenzie. David B. Polls. Marlene Hoffman and J.T. Salvidar Jr. FAA Office of Aviation Medicine. Civil Aeromedical Institute. Oklahoma City, USA. Dec. 1973. 19 p. 100 g. Report no. FAA-AM- 73-2 1. Biochemical and physiological indices of stress showed that the level of stress of 16 ATCO's of Houston Tower was indistinguishable from that of control populations. Groups showed about the same deg_ree of adapt1on. shifts were compared. Either air safety or controllers' well-being 1s 1n question.
SC IV 77 / 109 (E) PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES IN AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL PERSONNEL. O'HARE TOWER. By: C.E. Melton. J.M. McKenzie. David B. Polls. G.E. Funkhouser. and P.F. lampietro. FAA Office of Aviation Medicine. Civil Aeromedical Institute. Oklahoma City and Aerospace Medical Research Department U.S. Naval Air Development Center. Johnsville. Pennsylvania. 1971, 11 p. - 55 g. Physiological and biochemical measurements were made on 22 o·Hare TWR ATco·s during different shifts. medical findings were compared to normal people. schizophrenics and combat pilots. Report FAA-AM- 7 1-2.
SC IV 77 / 110 (E) PHYSIOLOGICAL BIOCHEMICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL RESPONSES IN AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL PERSONNEL: COMPARISON OF THE 5-DAY AND 2-1-1 SHIFT ROTATION PATTERNS By: C.E. Melton. J.M. McKenzie. R.C. Smith. B.D. Palis. EA. Higgins. SM. Hoffmann. G.E. Funkhouser and J.T. Salvidar. FAA Office of Aviation Medicine. Civil Aeromedical Institute. Oklahama City. USA. Dec. 1973. 16 p. - 80 g. Report no FAA-AM- 73-22 sleep
Psychological tests. stress. hormones. shifts. anxiety.
SC IV 77 / 111 (E) EXCRETION PATTERNS OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS: By H.B. Hale. B.N. Smith. E.W. Williams and C.E. Melton Jr. FAA. Aeronautical Center. Oklahoma City. USA. 1971. 11 p. 55 g. Report no. FAA-AC- 71-5637 Study on attempts to measure stress 1ntensit1esby means of urinary epinephrine a o. of air traffic controllers at O'Hare and other av1at1on professions
SC IV 77 / 11 2 (E) NEIUROEI\IDOCRII\IE AND METABOLIC RESPONSES TO INTERMITTENT NIGHT SHIFT WORK. By: H.B. Hale. E.W. Williams B N SmithandCE Melton Jr. FAAAeronautical Center. Oklahoma City. USA. 1971 . Report no FAA-AC 7 1-5639 _Study on the psychological responses to rotating shift work changes in work I sleep schedules
Report of a symposium where papers were presented dealing with different approaches of the stress problem s.a.: 77 I 1 26 B.L. Watkins: Stress on the Air Traffic Control Officer. 77 I 127 C.E. Melton: Biochemical and Physiological Estimates of Stress on United States Air Traffic Controllers. 77 I 128 J.W.H. Kalsbeek: Some Aspects of Stress Measurements on Air Traffic Control Officers at Schiphol Airport. 77 I 130 W. Rohmert: Determination of Stress and Strain of ATCO's. 77 I 1 29 V.D. Hopkin: Performance. Workload and Stress. 7 7 I 13 1 M. E. Carruthers: Risk Factor Control. 77 I 132 A.E. Wagstaff: The Dilemma of the Middle-Aged Controller. The report presents the discussion on the papers and closing remarks.
SC IV 77 / 126 (E) STRESS ON THE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL OFFICER. By: B.L. Watkins. 6 p. Paper written for the IFATCA by 'Watty' Watkins and dealing for a part with NewZealand ATC situation. He discusses the four aspects of stress on the controller: the administration who administers stress to the controller. the medical profession which alleviates the controller. the pilot who is affected by stress on the controller and the controller who suffers stress. Control stress. medical examination-stress. OTJ training-stress and emergency-stress.
SC IV 77/127 (E) BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ESTIMATES OF STRESS IN UNITED STATES AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS: By: Dr. Carlton E. Melton. Descnption of tests performed in the field of electro-cardiographic recorders. urine specimen (rest/work). discussing sh1ft-rotat1on 2-2- 1 and straight 5 day pattern. Discussing 1mplementat1on of ARTS Ill.
SC IV 77/128 (E) SOME ASPECTS OF STRESS MEASUREMENTS ON AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL OFFICERS AT SCHIPHOL AIRPORT. By: Dr. J.W.H. Kalsbeek. Paper describes current thoughts about mental loads 1n ATC. Measure of mental work load compared_with work physiology. decision capacity. preventive ergonomics. attitude air traffic controller closely resembles paranoia. Job rotation.
SC IV 77 / 129 (E) PERFORMANCE WORKLOAD AND STRESS. By VD. Hopkin. Defines: performance. workload and stress. Reasons the measuring of each item and describes the claimed available methods for doing so.
SC IV 77/130 (E) DETERMINATION OF STRESS AND STRAIN OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS. By: Prof. Dr. W. Rehmert. Analysis of the tasks of the controller. field studies at Frankfurt Airport and examples of the results. Three starting points in evaluating the controllers input and his share in the ATC system: A) Demands of the task-special kind of Job evaluation. B) qualifications of the ATCO. C) capacity of the ATCO
SC IV 77/131 (E) RISK FACTOR CONTROL. By. Dr. M.E. Carruthers. Possible measures to avoid problems in ATC with regard to stress. Three factors: Selection. Training and Attention to working conditions. Earlywarning signs of stress related disorders.
SC IV 77 /132 (E) DILEMMA OF THE MIDDLE-AGED CONTROLLER. By: Dr. A.E. Wagstaff.
SC IV 76/29 (E) AUTOMATION MAY SOLVE AIR TRAFFIC CRISIS. By: Theodore R. Kornreich. Bee. Ph. D. Ms. 1973. 8 p. - 40 g. Published in the "North Western University News· Ill. USA. Automation which takes place of human observation effort and decision can increase or decrease stress and can lead to more tolerable working environment.
SC IV 77 / 15 (E) SOFTWARE PLANNING IN SEMI-AUTOMATED SYSTEMS. By: Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm. 1973. 20 p. - 150 g.
Working period for an ATCO is 30-40 years. control of traffic changes with time. Question: will the personality type chosen now. be the right type for 20 years hence? Personality assessment. job stressors. job satisfaction. physiological and psychological ageing process.
Human performance analysis as basis for software planning in semi-automated systems.
SC IV 77/133 (E) INDEX TO FAA OFFICE OF AVIATION MEDICINE REPORTS 1961 THROUGH 1976: By: La Nelle. E. Murcko. J. Robert and J. Dill. M.D.'s. Civil Aeromedical Institute. FAA. Oklahoma City. USA. Jan. 1977. 63 p. - 160 g.
SC IV 77/117 (E) MORE ABOUT THE USE OF THE COMPUTER AS A TEACHING TOOL FOR THE TRAINING OF STUDENT AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS. By: C.E. Krug. Director Eurocontrol Institute of Air Navigation Services. Luxembourg. 1976. 3 p.
Report FAA-AM-77-1. lndextoOfficeAviation Medicine Reports(1964-1976)and Civil Aeromedical Research Institute Reports ( 1961-1963). presented as a reference for those engaged in aviation medicine and related activities. Provides a listing of all FAA aviation medicine reports published from 1961-1976. by year. number. author. title and subject.
Article from IFATCA journal "The Controller" vol. 16. no. 1. Use of the 'Institute· simulator as a teaching tool: reality in simulated working conditions; training process connected to the trainee as an individual; multiple choice programme using the computer.
Man and Machine
SC IV 76/4 (D) THE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLER IN AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL. By: lr. C.K. Pasmooy. Royal Institute of Engineers. The Hague. The Netherlands. May 1975. 5 p. - 25 g. Article published in ·oe lngenieur· (The Engineer). the official magazine of the Royal Institute. vol. 87. no. 1_9.May 9. 1975. An analysis on the human being controlling air traffic and his function in the development !)hase of a new air traffic control system as a system component. Human capacity. man-machine relation. optimal workload are dealt with.
SC IV 76/5 (E) FUTURE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS. A PRELIMINARY STUDY. By: Air Traffic Control Systems Committee. British Air Line Pilots Association. Guild of Air Traffic Control Officers and Royal Aeronautical Society. London. United Kingdom. April 1974. 48 p. - 240 g. A system design study undertaken by _theprinciple users. Part 4 is dealing with the human and environmental cons1derat1ons.followed by appendices C and E. which are dealing with the broad headings and equipment. the ambience and the psychological and organisational factors.
SC IV 75/8 (E) AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL IN NEW ZEALAND. By: B. Watkin. Auckland International Airport. New Zealand. 1973. 37 p. Published in "The Controller" May/ Aug. 1974. Aim of the report to show there is a requirement for statistical recording of air traffic.
SC IV 76/19 (D) OMGAAN MET CONFLICTEN IN ORGANISATIES (Managing Intergroup Conflicts in Organisations). By: Dr. H.W. von Sassen. Holland. 1971. 8 p. - 40 g. Article published in 'lntermediair' Jan. B. 1971. The author tries to give an answer on the fact that there is a growing tendency in number and seriousness of conflicts in organisations and society. He describes the negative and positive points of such conflicts and gives a possible solution 'to control' these.
SC IV 77 /2 (E) REPORT ON ACTIVITIES. By: International Transport Workers· Federation ITF. Maritime House. London SW4. England. 1971 / 72173/74. 173 p. - 300 g. Report of disputes and industrial action. e.g. French ATCO"s dispute.
SC IV 76/8 (E) ATC SYSTEM ERROR. By: F.G. O'Connor and G. Pearson. USA 1967. 2 p. - 10 g. Published in "Flight Safety" vol. 1. no. 2. U.K. 19_67. Abstract from FAA report AM65-1 O. A study on incident reporting system which will give a correct feedback on the system weaknesses. A system is composed of man. machine and procedures.
SC IV 76/10 (G) DER FLUGLEITER, MENSCH ODER AUTOMAT? By: Dr. Ing. Hans J. Zetzmann. Federal Republic of Germany. 1961. 6 p. 30 g. The Air Traffic Controller-Human Being or Computer? A contribution to the Three Nations Congress on Prevention of Collisions. May 1961. DOsseldorf. The author describes the problems in air traffic with regard to the continuing process of technology versus the ATCO
SC IV 77 /8 (E) INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION SEMINAR. By: Trade Union of Transport Workers Secretariat. Czechoslovakia. 1971. 161 p. - 220 g. The declarations adopted and speeches made by the participants in the seminar. held in Moscow. 7110 Sep. 1971.
SC IV 77/101 (E) RECENT EVENTS AND DEVELOPMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC SERVICE. General Report by: The International Labour Organisation. Geneva. Switzerland. 1975. 100 p. - 180 g. Report prepared for the second session of the Joint Committee on the Public Service. covering various aspects of the public servants. ATC has not been mentioned.
SC IV 76/17 (E) A COMPUTERIZED SKY - TOMORROW'S AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL. By: Edgar E. Ulsamer. Ass. Ed. of Aerospace International. USA. Sep.I Oct. 1970. 8 p. - 40 g.
SC IV 77/102 (E) CONDITIONS OF WORK AND EMPLOYMENT OF PUBLIC SERVICE PERSONNEL OF LOCAL, REGIONAL OR PROVINCIAL AUTHORITIES. By: The International Labour Organisation. Geneva. Switzerland. 1975. 61 p. - 110 g.
Article from 'Aerospace International' in which the author describes the plans of the Federal Aviation Agency for the coming decade in the field_of automation in ATC. Switching from a people intensive system into a machine intensive system.
Report prepared for discussion at the second session of the Joint Committee on the Public Service. dealing with general information of local. regional or provincial public servants.
SC IV 76/25 (E) THE AIR TRAFFIC DILEMMA AND POSSIBLE CURES. By: The International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers· Associations. London. U.K .. Nov. 1969. 14 p. - 70 g.
SC IV 77 / 103 (E) DISCIPLINARY CODES AND PROCEDURES IN THE PUBLIC SERVICE. By: The International Labour Organisation. Geneva. Switzerland. 1975. 66 p. - 125 g.
Paper presented at the British Air Line Pilots Association Symposium: Challenge of the 70' s Air Transport· s growth with regularity and safety. Although a more technical paper. subJects such as automation ( 10-13) and professional ATC advice (40-44) are of interest in the professional field.
Report prepared for the second session of the Joint Committee on the Public Service. given a general outline of the principal types of disciplinary systems operating In the public service throughout the world. 1dent1fiesthe problems involved and suggests some possible solutions.
SC IV 77 / 104 (E) SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ANXIETY AND SHIFT DIFFICULTY AS DETERMINANTS OF STATE ANXIETY IN AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS. By: Roger C. Smith and C.E. Melton. FAA. CivilAeromedical Institute. Oklahoma. USA. 1974. 3 p.-80 g. Article published in 路Journal of ATC' Nov./ Dec. 194 7. page 5 / 6 / 7. the authors arrived at the conclusion that there is a definite relationship between the judged difficulty of shifts and the amount of anxiety. Air traffic control even at its least demanding Is still somewhat anxiety-rousing.
SC IV 77 / 105 (E) CANDIDATES FOR ACCIDENTS. 1975. 1 p. - 80 g.
By: Jerome Lederer. USA.
Article in 路 Flight Magazine'. Brief description on the relationship between personal stress. disease or accident precipitating behaviour.
SC IV 77 /9 (F) ATCO CAREER IN FRANCE. By: Syndicat National des Controleurs du Traffic Aerien. France. 1974. 72 p. - 50 g. Le controleur: les droits. son statut. son avenir?
SC IV 77/123 (E) THE INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION, I.LO. By: Ted McCluskey. IFATCA SC VII. Legal Matters 1977. 3 p. 15 g. Article published in the IFATCA journal 'The Controller' vol. 1 6. no. 2, 1 977, pages 26-28. The author describes in short history, organisation and functioning of the ILO and gives emphasis on the impact the work done by the ILO might have on the profession of ATCO.
SC IV 77 / 136 (E) ATC SYSTEM ERROR AND APPRAISAL OF CONTROLLER PROFICIENCY. By: William F. O'Connor. Ph.D. and Richard G. Pearson Ph. D. FAA. Office of Aviation Medicine. Civil Aeromedical Institute. Oklahoma City. USA. Report no. AM-65-1 O July 1965. 10 p. Suggestions for the design of an ATC incident reporting system aimed at maximizing the amount of corrective feedback to the ATC system. The approach taken is systemorientated more then controller-orientated. Included is a discussion of a philosophy of corrective and punitive action relative to controller involvement in an incident. Recommendations and examples of format are included for the design of incidentreport forms and incident chronology and of a checklist to be used in periodic appraisal of controller performance.
SC IV 77/10 (F) SECURITE AERIENNE. By: S.N.C.T.A. France. 1965. 20 p. 60 g. La Secunte Aenenne. est-elle assuree? Translation 50 g.
SC IV 77 / 14 (E) EVALUATION PLAN FOR JOBS Canada. 83 p. - 525 g.
in English available: 19 p. -
SC IV 771144 (D) AANSPRAKELIJKHEID VAN OVERHEID EN VERKEERSLEIDERS BIJ AKTIES VAN VERKEERSLEIDERS. (Liability of the government and ATCO's in case of industrial actions by the ATCO's). By: D.E. v.d. Heuvel. Utrecht University. The Netherlands. Sep/Oct. 1976. 45 p. In this thesis the author discusses the liabiliy of the different parties involved in an industrial action (work to the books. go-slow. sick-out. strike) of ATC. Different examples from Canada. France. W. Germany and Holland have been mentioned: in particular the German and Dutch Cases.
SC IV 77 / 115 (E) ONE LANGUAGE, OR MORE IN AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL. By: G .J. de Boer. Past Editor of 'The Controller路. 197 7. 6 p. Article from IFATCAiournal 'The Controller' vol. 16. no. 1. Feb. 1977, page 21-26 Presentation of both supporters and opponents of bi/ multi/ unilingual. ATC makes it clear that a world consensus on this issue is not easy to obtain.
SC IV 77 / 116 (E) AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL Japan. 176. 5 p.
By: Norimoto Nahada.
General Information on ATCS In Japan In an article of IFATCA Journal 'The Controller' vol. 16. no. 1.Feb.1977. page 6-10.
SC IV 77 / 119 (E) AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS ASSOCIATION MOROCCO IN IFATCA. By: Morocco Association des Controleurs de la Navigation Aerienne. 1977. 2 p. General 1nformat1on on ATCS In Morocco in an article in IFATCA Journal 'The Controller路 vol 16. no. 1. Feb. 1977. page 52-53.
SC IV 77 / 120 (E) AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT INQUIRY IN THE NETHERLANDS, A COMPARATIVE STUDY. By Aart A. Van Wijk. Dr. in Law. Deventer. The Netherlands. 1974. 419 p. - 750 g. A successfully defended doctoral thesis. Av1at1onaccident investigation procedures should be free of discipline roots. Recommends a system of voluntary incident reporting without fear of sanctions be introduced in ATC. Introduction of special criminal court for aviation with aeronautical specialists as members of the procecuting and Judicial authorities Right of appeal on the d1sc1plinary sanctions.
SC IV 77/121 (E) AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS AND THE LAW. RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS IN AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS. By: Australian Civil Air Operators Officers Association. 1974. 5 p. Published In the CAOOAA Newsletter. vol 6. no 1 Oct 1974. pages 1 and 8-11 Presents In short the rights and duties
New Additions Early Retirement and Pension SC IV 81 /2 (E) OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AMONG CANADIAN AIR TRANSPORTATION ADMINISTRATION EMPLOYEES: ONTARIO REGION. By: A. Mac Bride. J. Cochrane. A. Sheldon. W. Lancee and S.J.J. Freeman. Social and Community Psychiatry Section. Clarke Institute of Psychiatry. Canada. March 1981. 97 p. - 485 g. Objectives. samples. results (overall findings - subgroups differences by sex. JOb category. JOb location - comparison of present findings with those from earlier studies), discussion and conclusions.
SC IV 81 /6 (E) EARLY RETIREMENT. By: CATCA. Inc. Ottawa. Canada. 10 Dec. 81. 28 p. - 130 g.
A.a. a series of questions and answers prepared by CATCA.
Medical, Physiological and Psychological SC IV 81 / 1 (F) RECUEIL D'ETUDES MEDICALES. By: APCA. Aix en Provence. France. 7 Aug. 1980. 135 p. - 700 g. This study is meant to be for air traffic controllers. It is an extended summary of existing studies with which It should be possible to answer certain medical questions. esp. related to ATC. Well known French doctors put in their contributions. e.g. Delahaye, Grandjean, Rutenfranz, Rohmert. Perdriel.
SC IV 81 /3 (E) MEASURING THE ABILITY TO HANDLE INFORMATION OVERLOAD. By: Dr. J. Ridgway and Mrs. S. Fuller. University of Lancaster. Dep. of Psychology. U.K. 14 p. - 70 g. The title is undoubtedly self-explanatory Some keywords in this study. Scheduling ability, hierar:hy, process complexity. speed. power. dynamic tasks. simplex.
SC IV 81 /4 (E) LEVELS OF ABSTRACTION IN LOGIC AND HUMAN ACTION. By: Elliot Jaques. R.O. Gibson. D.J. Isaac and B.M. O'Connor. Heineman. London. U.K. 6 p. - 30 g. A theory of discontinuity in the structure of mathematical logic. psychological behaviour and social organIzatIon. Separation of two adult populations identified with two levels of psychological development.
SC IV 81/5 (E) CURRENT RESEARCH PROJECTS 1981. By: Institute of Occupational Health. Helsinki. Finland. 1981. 1 34 p. - 480 g. The primary objectives of the research actIvItIes of the Institute of Occupational Health is to study the interactions of work and health The realization of this objective involves research on the following topics: occupational diseases and other work induced illnesses; occupational accidents and their preventions. problems of industrial hygiene. tox1cology. ergonomics and industrial safety. other research in the field of labour protection and occupational health care
from page 4 7
from page 18
from page 40
traffic control systems is but a shadow of its former self, over ten-thousand controllers are lost to the profession at this time. The Federation has gone through what can only be termed a period of deep soul searching, a period which will result in a more unified and coherent group of controllers' organizations. The executive board has been in the forefront of the turmoil. decisions by the board were not always universally accepted, but it must be appreciated that these were for the common good of members. It must be repeated. however, that a number of these decisions, judged at the time to be in the best interests of the Federation, were based on information which could not at the time be made available to members for a variety of reasons. The Federation has shown that it can survice turbulence and remain a viable entity. The differences of opinion which each situation generates help us to consolidate the collective will and serve to make the Federation even more prepared to continue to pursue our objectives of safe and efficient air traffic control with all the implications. The fact that again a good number of controllers· associations are applying for membership in IFATCA shows us. and the world. that the Federation is the one organization which can represent the world's controllers. and we pledge that it will continue to do so.
ation indicating that membership ot some associations was threatened. Despite lengthy discussions. the meeting failed to reach a definite conclusion and motioned the issue to be raised again at the IFATCA '82 Conference. The chairman of the meeting made it known that he is retiring from his -post as Regional Vice-President as from the Amsterdam conference. The meeting was attended by observers from IPCS. the British Civil Servants Union, three Italian controllers unions. two independent Spanish controllers· associations and the Malta Association. This report. we feel. cannot be complete if we fail to make mention of the hospitality offered by the Italian Association, ANACNA. to which our congratulations and thanks are given.
In this regard I believe a case can be made to modify the noise abatement criteria acknowledging the quieter new generation engines in line with the new F.A.R. 36 requirements. In calm conditions a takeoff to the west (for noise abatement requirements) imposes a fuel penalty of over 280 kg ($ 100) if the aircraft destination lies to the north. Is this a realistic requirement for an airport like Auckland with a low volume of traffic? The impact of the ATC system on fuel conservation is greater than any other single factor. Clearance priorities for the more fuel demanding aircraft is an area which sometimes brings ATC and pilots into conflict. Pilots cannot see the full ATC picture and are sometimes too ready to criticise without full knowledge of the situation. By the same token the pilots of these aircraft have become very fuel conscious and are more aware of the enormous cost of airborne delays. The goal therefore is to reduce delays after start up. uninterrupted direct climbs to optimum altitude, optimum Mach number cruise on more direct routings and optimised descents to a runway unlikely to be changed after descent has commenced. That. I know. is asking a lot of the ATC system. It is however. in my opinion. a goal which is attainable in the majority of situations. If the level of co-operation between ATC and the airlines is sustained in future. I am confident most of these problems can be overcome. It is. after all. not only in the national interest. but has a direct relationship to the job security of all of us in the aviation industry.
Hijackings Erupt Again in Europe, Asia Indian Airlines. JAT of Yugoslavia. Lot Polish Airlines were victims of new hijackings. Dagger-wielding Sikh extremists forced Indian 737 to land in Lahore (Pakistan). where they demanded ransom. release of leader from Indian jail. Pakistani soldiers. garbed as cleaners. overpowered hijackers after 20-hour duress for 44 hostages. including six crew. A JAT 727 was forced to put down in Athens en route to Tel Aviv by German-speaking hijackers. Aircraft carrying 101 people was taken over while on Dubrovnik-Belgrade domestic flight. Twelve Polish students. including three women. were seized in Berlin after they hijacked LOT turboprop with 28 passengers. crew of four. Intruders threatened passengers with knives. broken bottles on flight diverted to Templehof Air Base where they sought asylum. US authorities turned them over to West Berlin officials after denying request by Polish military mission for hijackers· return. No casualities were reported in any of the incidents.
North Sea Helicopters from page 28
now fly their tracks IFR. Radar advisory services are provided by Aberdeen and Sumburgh as well as Highland and Shetland Radar. They also provide aircraft. within their areas. with a flight information and alerting service when they are not within radar cover. These units' main limitation is VHF R/T coverage. Much of the time the helicopter· s only radio communication continues to be with their companies on HF Extended VHF coverage using tropospheric scatter and transmitter/ receivers on off-shore installations has been tried but only with limited success. The Helicopter Flight Information Service in the East Shetland Basin is provided by an ATC unit actually based on installations within the HFISA. Any off-shore installation with an helideck within the UK sector has an associated aerodrome traffic zone and several of the permanent ones now have their own ATC personnel. such are the traffic levels controllers based off-shore now handle in excess of 25 OOO movements per month. The two original helicopter operators in the British sector. Bristow and British Airways. have been joined by North Scottish and British Caledonian. All four continue to add to their fleets and predict big increases in traffic.
Congressiona~ Focus Airport Spending
House Public Works and Transportation committee voted to hike airport aid spending from $ 450 million originally recommended to$ 600 million. Action runs counter to President Reagan· s urging of deeper Federal cuts. and Senate DoT appropriations committee position. which favors $ 450 million figure. House voted to amend Administration·s $ 11 .1 billion transportation appropriations bill to bar DoT from imposing Washington National Airport operations cutbacks In unrelated Washington item. Administrator J. Lynn Helms said FAA would resist community attempts to impose night flying curfews 1f they result in restraints of trade or interference with interstate commerce 47
SEE REVERSE SIDE
INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS ASSOCIATIONS
List of hotels granting discounts to IFATCA members upon production of their valid membership card
AUSTRIA Parkhotel. Graz Hotel Maria Theresia. Innsbruck Hotel Europa. Innsbruck Hotel Tyrol and Touringhaus. Innsbruck Holiday Inn. Innsbruck Hotel Tourotel. Linz Hotel Sportklause Niederau-Wildschonau.
MEMBERSHIP-CARD VALID UNTIL
JUNE1983 THE HOLDER OF THIS CARD IS AN INDIVIDUAL MEMBER OF IFATCA
CYPRUS Amathus Beach Hotel. Limassol Appolonia Hotel. Limassol Paphos Beach Hotel. Paphos Dionyssos Hotel. Paphos CANADA Seaway Hotels: Montreal. Toronto. Ottawa. Halifax. Kingston Hyatt Regency: Montreal. Vancouver. Vancouver Airport Hilton Canada: The Queen Elizabeth Montreal. Airport Hilton Montreal. Toronto Airport. Harbour Castle Hilton Toronto. Quebec Hilton. Vancouver Hilton Hotel Loews La Cite. Montreal DENMARK Hotel Mercur. Copenhagen Hotel Richmond. Copenhagen Hotel Du Nord Greena. Greena ENGLAND The Churchill. London The London Ryan Hotel FIJI Fiji Mocambo Hotel. Nadi lnt'I Airport FRANCE Holiday Inns: Paris Orly Airport. Roissy Airport. Avignon. Lille Lesquin. Lille Macq en Baroeul. Lyon. Strasbourg HOLLAND Hotel Krasnapolsky. Amsterdam Hotel Ibis. Amsterdam Airport ICELAND Loftleidir Hotel. Reykjavik IRELAND International Airport Hotel. Dublin The Gresham Hotel. Dublin Blooms Hotel. Dublin The Killarney Ryan Hotel The Limerick Ryan Hotel The Galway Ryan Hotel The Yeats Country Ryan Hotel The Westport Ryan Hotel KENYA Hotels & Lodges of African Tours and Hotels Ltd. South Coast Hotels Two Fishes & Trade Winds North Coast Hotels Mombasa Beach. Mnarani Hotel, Whispering Palms Safari Lodges Kilaguni. Ngulia. Voi. Meru Mulika, Mountain Lodge, Marsabit, Hunters Lodge Milimani Hotel. Nairobi Grosvenor Hotel. Nairobi Sunset Hotel, Lake Victoria Tea Hotel. Kericho Mt Elgon Lodge
LUXEMBOURG Holiday Inn. Luxembourg Hotel Empire. Luxembourg MEXICO Hotel Las Hamacas. Acapulco Acapulco Imperial NETHERLANDS ANTILLES Holiday Beach Hotel. Curacao NEW CALEDONIA Hotel le Nouvata. Noumea Noumea Hotel. Noumea NEW ZEALAND Hotel Chateaux Commodore, Christchurch Colonial Inn Motel. Christchurch Ambassador Travel Hotel. Wellington South Pacific Motor Inn. Lower Hutt The City Hotel. Dunedin Angus Inn Motor Hotel. Hastings Bungalow Tourist Hotel. Rotorua Travelodge Australia Ltd.: all Travelodges and Parkroyals throughout the South Pacific PERU Hotel Crillon. Lima PORTUGAL Lisboa Penta Hotel. Lisboa Balaia Penta Hotel. Albufeira, Algarve SEYCHELLES Reff Hotel. Mahe SPAIN Penta Club. Ibiza Sun Club Bungalows, Playa del Ingles & Maspalomas SRI LANKA Hotel Lanka, Oberoi. Colombo SWITZERLAND Hotel d' Auteuil. Geneva Holiday Inn. Zurich-Airport Holiday Inn. Zurich-Regensdorf TUNISIA Hotel Les Orangers, Hammamet TOGO Hotel De la -Paix, Lome USA International 6 Motel, Disneyland, Anaheim YUGOSLAVIA Hotel Lav. Split Detailed information as to rates and hotel addresses are available at the IFATCA Secretariat and will be provided to interested members on request.
Corporate Members of IFATCA AEG-Telefunken, Frankfurt a. M., Germany AMECON Division, Litton Systems, College Park, USA ANSA, Advisory Group Air Navigation Services, Westerngrund, Germany CAE Electronics Ltd., Montreal, Quebec, Canada Cardion Electronics, Woodbury, N.Y., USA Computer Sciences Europe SA, Brussels, Belgium Cossor Radar and Electronics Ltd., Harlow, England Decca Software Sciences Limited, London, England Dictaphone Corporation, USA ELECMA Divisions Electronique de la SNECMA, Suresnes, France Ferranti Limited, Bracknell, Berks., England Goodwood Data, Systems Ltd., Ontario, Canada Ground Aid Group, Esbjerg, Denmark International Air Carrier Association, Geneya, Switzerland Jeppesen & Co. GmbH., Frankfurt, Germany Lockheed Aircraft Service Company, Ontario. California 91 761, USA The Marconi Radar Systems Ltd., Chelmsford, England M.B.L.E., Brussels, Belgium The Mitre Corporation, McLean, Virginia, USA N.V. Hollandse Signaalapparaten, Hengelo, Netherlands N.V. Philips Division ELA, Eindhoven, Netherlands Philips Telecommunicatie lndustrie B.V., Hilversum, Netherlands The Plessey Company Limited, Weybridge, Surrey, England Racal Recorders Limited, Southampton, England Raytheon Canada Ltd., Canada Sanders Associates, Inc., Nashua. USA Schmid Telecommunication, Switzerland Selenia- lndustrie Elettroniche Associate S.p.A .. Rome. Italy SEL- Standard Elektrik Lorenz. Stuttgart 70, Germany Societe Artistique Franc;:aise, Paris. France Societe d' Etudes & d' Entreprises Electriques. lssy Les Moulineaux. France Sofreavia, Paris, France Software Sciences Ltd., Farnborough, England Sperry Univac, Sulzbach/Ts., Germany & St. Paul. Minnesota. USA SRA Communications. Sweden TERMA ElektronikAS, Lystrup, Denmark Thomson-CSF. Paris, France Ulmer Aeronautique, Clichy, France VWK- Ryborsch GmbH / Aeronautical Maps & Charts Division. Germany Westinghouse Electric Corporation, USA
The International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers· Associations would like to invite all corporations. organizations. and institutions interested in and concerned with the maintenance anrj promotion of safety in air traffic to join their organization as Corporate Members. Corporate Members support the aims of the Federation by supplying the Federation with technical information and by means of an annual subscription. The Federation· s international journal 'The Controller· is offered as a platform for the discussion of technical and procedural developments 1nthe field of air traffic control.
Air Traffic Control Automated System (ATCAS) in operation at the Ciampino Airport (Rome, Italy)
selenia is experience and reliability The ATCAS system includes 7 4 consoles , 43 radar displays, 101 alpha numer ic d ispay s, and 35 touch-data d isplays . The system performs radar data presen tation , automatic strip printing, conflict an alysis, flow analysis and control , and reconfiguration. The processi ng co mple x consist s of 3 IBM 370/158 , 2 Selenia COG 3032 and 6 Selenia GP-16 computers . Ove r 150 Radar Systems are in successful operation in 25 countries. The SOVIET UNION , SWEDEN , NIGERIA, MEXICO, PERU, BULGA RIA , HUNGARY and ITALY have recently chosen new Selen ia adapti ve rada rs , w hich give ad vanced operational effect ive nes s through modern systems concept and technology.
INDUSTRIE ELETTRONICHE ASSOCIATE S.p.A. CIVIL RADAR AND SYSTEMS DIVISION Via Tiburtina Km 12.400 , 00 131 RO ME, lTALY Telex 613690 SELROM I. Phone 06 - 43601
SELENIA IS EXPERIENCE IN AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL