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IFATCA JOURNAL OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
THE CONTROLLER Bern, Swiuerland,
Volume 21 · No. 1
Publisher: International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers· Assoc,at,ons. P.O.B. 196. CH-1215 Geneva 1 5 Airport, Switzerland
Officers of IFATCA: HH. Henschler. President. Lex Hendriks. Vice-President (Technical). A. Avgoustis. V1cePres1dent (Profess,onal).· Pat O'Doherty. V,ce-Pres,dent (Adm,mstrat,on). H. Wenger. Treasurer. E. Bradshaw. Executive Secretary.
Secretariat: 6 Langlands Park. Ayr KA7 4RJ Ayrshire. Scotland. United Kingdom Tel. 0292 42114 Editor: A. Avgoust,s 5 Athens Str. Ay,os Dhomet,os N,cos,a. Cyprus Tel. (021) 4 B7 86 Publishing Company and Production Service: •Der Sund'. Verlag und Druckere, AG 300 1 Bern. Effingerstrasse 1 . Switzerland Telephone (031) 25 66 55 Printed by: · Der Sund'. Verlag und Druckere, AG, Bern Switzerland Advertising Sales Office: THE CONTROLLER 5 Athens st. Ay,os Dhomet,os. N,cos,a. Cyprus Telephone (02 1) 48 78 6 THE CONTROLLER. 'Der Bund·. Verlag und Druckere, AG (Address as for Pubhsh,ng Co.)
National Assoc,at,ons' Emblems.
Subscriptions and Advertising Payments to: Account No· PK 72 892-9. Sw,ss Credit Bank Balexert Agency, av. Louis Casa, 27 CH-1 211 Geneva 28, Switzerland Subscription Rate SFrs 8.- per annum for members of IFATCA: SFrs 20.- per annum for non-members (Postage w,11be charged extra) Contributors are expressing their personal points of view and opinions. which may not necessarily coincide with those of the International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers· Assoc,ation (IFATCA) IFATCA does not assume respons1b1htyfor statements made and op,n,ons expressed. It does only accept respons,b,hty for publishing these contributions Contributions are welcome as are comments and crit,c,sm. No payment can be made for manuscripts submitted for pubhcat,on in "The Controller' The Editor reserves the right to make any editorial changes in manuscripts. which he behaves will improve the material without altering the intended meaning. Written perm,ss,on by the Editor Is necessary for reprinting any part of this Journal
Cartoons: Martin Germans Photos: Archives & AA Advertizers: Ferranti, /AL, Phllips, Rad,o-Swsse, Selema
CONTENTS Editorials IFATCA's birth and childhood So IFATCA is 21 German's page Low Level Wind Shear Brazil ATC - Special Report IFATCA- 21 years of effective expression Captain Lindberg and his crew The Royal Jordanian Falcons 2 1 years after Amsterdam Woman 1n Aviation Integration of remote radars The Americas Regional Conference The Controller, Aviation Medicine and Air Safety Pilot/Controller Interface 5th Pac1f1cRegional Meeting
3 5 9 13 16
20 22 25 28 30 32 34
-"\ffiYETTO MEET AN ATCO WHO WAS BORN,NOTMADE. Or a com put er programmer O r an electronics engineer Or a meteoro logist They arrive at Bailbrook Co llege wit h little more than enthus iasm . T hey leave to start their careers, fully qualified to m eet the challenge . lAL Training Services runs courses covering most aviation related skills. Each co urse is fully recognised by aviation auth orities througho ut the world. Each student studies a syllabus entirely rnodu lcd to his training requirem ents. T he very latest teaching aids are used
For example, our ATC students are trained right up to validation standards on the most advanced air traffic control simulators. Refresher courses are also provid ed. Actual working conditions of any airport in the world can be recreated. Ninety-six different aircraft typ es can be displayed, from the smallest fixed wing and rotary to the fastest milit ary type. Whatever your students' requirements IAL Training Services has the answer j The day they graduate you'll almost think they were born to it. THE HIGH TECHNOLOGY TASK FORCE
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IFATCA H. H. Henschler As the Federation approaches the celebration of its twenty-first Annual Conference it is an opportune time for all to contemplate desired developments for I FATCA' s next twentyone years. Of course. since the make-up of IFATCA's Member Associations varies almost from organization to organization it is easily understood that the goals to be achieved by the Federation, as set by each Member Association. may vary widely with the national priorities and circumstances. Nevertheless, it is safe to say, that for at least the foreseeable future the priorities of the Federation will continue to be the improvement of air traffic control equipment, procedures, and working conditions. We must ensure, however, that these will not need to be the continued priorities for the next twenty-one years - if that were the case. the profession would have tailed. The crucial role of the air traffic controller in the aviation industry is becoming more and more understood and accepted, in as much as inefficiencies such as manpower shortages, sector closures , delays due to equipment-outages or non-availability. and conversely, direct routings, ideal profile descents and approaches, anything which controllers offer to save fuel, can directly be translated into operating costs. added or saved . The impact of these added or saved costs will compel air space users and aircraft operators to demand the most efficient possible air traffic control systems. Much of the money invested in state-of-the-art airborne systems is wasted as long as the ground-based systems cannot cope . Many areas of the world have no. or very substandard . air traffic control systems . The Federation will have to concentrate on finding ways to overcome these shortcomings, and thus ensure adequate aviation safety everywhere . The last few years have seen a significant increase in the number of Member Associations to over sixty now . The continued growth of the Federation depends not only on adding to the number of members. it also depends on our continued commitment to IFATCA's objectives of promoting safety. efficiency. and regularity in International Air Navigation ; assisting and advising in the development of sate and orderly systems of Air Traffic Control: promoting and upholding a high standard of knowledge and professional efficiency among air traffic controllers; protecting and safeguarding the interests of the Air Traffic Control profession ; among others. To achieve these objectives. formulated twenty-one years ago. world-wide, continues to be a worthy goal towards which the Federation's energies must be directed
This issue. being the 1st of the 21 st volume. of IFATCA ' s Journal, 'The Controller'. which also happens to coincide with the Federation ' s 21 st anniversary from the day of its inception. justifiably encouraged me to seek comments from its founders. ex-officers and persons who have been involved in its evolutionary process. IFATCA's present President. H. Harri Henschler talks in the first column of this Editorial page of the Federation's and its members路 goals, which were aimed at when it was esta blished. In consequence my task would be confined within the bounds of the journal and the objectives to be achieved. I prefer. however . firstly. to recall 'The Controller路 s路 firs t Editorial by the then Editor, Walter Endlich, in which the Journal 's objectives were boldly outlined and secondly to examine whether these have been achieved. 'This journal'. the editorial stresses . 路 is intended to be a platform for the discussion of technical and procedural developments in the field of air traffic control ' . Although it is admitted that Air Traffic Control is not a subject of general interest it aimed to satisfy a wide variety of readers from the avia tion community, as for example. in addition to the air traff ic controllers themselves. civil and military aviation authorit ies. national and international organisations. the aviation industry, pilots and other airline personnel. aviation managemen t, airport administrators. etc. It must be emphasised, right at this moment. that ' The Controller' in addition to being a platform for t he air tr aff ic controller. the aviation industry , the manufacturer of avia t io n equipment and the operator. has also proved its elf to be a most valuable instrument in promoting the controller ' s pro fessional status and served as a link between the av iation administrations , aviation organisations and operator s on t he one hand and the air traffic control on the other ; it helped 1n developing better relations between controllers and pilo ts b ut above all it helped in the progress of aviation safety . The journal now circulates to a total of 107 countries bu t its success can only be established when the re will be read ers in all countries throughout the world - this is not impos sible . It is pos sible through the endea vour s of all member s of IFATCA wherever they may be . Their aims c an onl y be fos te red through international understanding and coope rat io n . Th ei r Journal is the means - not the onl y bu t a very imp o rta nt o ne - through which controlle r problems and aim s ma y be d iscussed and professional st at us emerge to a sati sfactory leve l. 21 years is not a lo ng t ime to be properl y esta bli shed In inter national society yet 2 1 years co uld be ampl e tim e to submerge to sub -standards if the fede rat ion and in our c ase t he Journal were not properl y managed . It cannot be c laimed th at the ob1ect1veshave been reached but definitely we are on co urse 3
(October 20, 1961)
(the persons who founded IFATCA)
7 2 3 4
W G. van Blok/and (Neth.) N D. Ganas (Greece) Henning Thrane (Denmark) Maunce Cerf (France) L N Tekstra (Neth.) Mr van W,jk, Alderman of the city of Am sterdam Hans Thau (Germ) Walter Endlich (Germ.) Roger Sadet (Belg.) A. G. T Nielsen (Denmark) G. C Burch (UK.) A. Gravdal (No rw ) Len Vass (UK)
74 75 76 77 18
J Flement (France) G. M McCudden (Ireland) 0 Saeboe (Norw.) J Bruggeman (Neth.)
A Maziers (Belg.) J G. van Ginkel (Neth.)
20 21 22 23
24 25 26
27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 47
P Pitkanen (Finl.)
H Meyers (Neth) Capt C C Jackson (IFALPA) R M Soward (Eurocontrol) ? Heinz Arnim (Germ.) H E. Pujade (ICAO-EUR-office) J Engelbrecht (Neth. guild-Photographer) A. Feder! (Austna) Vaid/mar 0/afsson (Iceland) A. Klein (Lux.) J L Gilmore (IA TA) Jacob Wachtel (Israel) B. Barran/ (Switz) 0 Schubert (Austna) H Vorhauer (Neth.) B. Ruthy (Switz.) A. Th Thorgrimsson (Iceland) Mr Heineman (PR - city of Amsterdam) Herbert Prell (Germ.) A. F. Feltes (Lux) Frednk Lehto (Finland)
J L Evenhu1s(Neth)
IFATCA's Birth and Childhood 1959-1968 by L. N. Tekstra, first President of /FA TCA
In the afternoon of October 20th. 1 9 6 1 . the representatives of the twelve founder-member associations set their hands to the Convention of IFATCA during the Inaugural Meeting of the Constitutional Conference of the federation . It was not until the day before that the federation got its proper name . All founder members were European associations. which had intended to form a European federation as a first step towards the aim ' that Air Traffic Controllers of all nations be united in a worldwide professional Federation for the furtherance of safe and efficient air navigation and for the protection of their common professional interestsÂˇ . During the Constitutional Conference it became clear that confining the activities of the federation to one region would unduly hamper its development into a world-wide international organization . Many strokes of the pen in the original conference papers were necessary to effect the decision to change the intended name of EFATCA into IFATCAI This decision very soon proved to have been right: within 4 years time I FATCA had five member-associations outside Europe; liaison with the Headquarters of ICAO proved dependent on being a world-wide organization! Now what had preceded that memorable October -day in 1961 when IFATCA was born? Normally birth does not take place without conception. and our baby- federation was no exception to this rulel During the 1950 's a number of ATC-assoc iations were formed in Europe and elsewhere. A courtship between members of the Swiss and German associa tions led to a meeting of all known European associations on November 25/26. 1959. in Frankfurt. Germany Topic of the discussion : 'the problems relating to the eventual founding of an organization on a wider basis' (letter of invitation dated October 12th . 1959) Arriving in Frankfurt in the evening of November 24th the three members of the Netherlands' delegation were greeted in the hotel by a very lively party of controllers from all over Europe . who were happily sipping or gulping away large pint-glasses full of German
L. N. Tekstra
beer. It was a wonderful experience : knowing hardly anybody present. we nevertheless immediately felt at home and between friends . Our common pro fessional interests gave plenty of food for shop-talk and an immensely strong feeling of belonging . It must be remembered that this happening took place in Germany. (only!) 1 4 years after the end of Wor ld War II. with many of us still feeling a lively resentment against anybody and everything German . The fact that we hardly heard any German spoken was of course a great help . The German colleagues co uld only be recognized as such because they either spoke with a thick American accent or the King's English. depending on the occupationzone where they had worked and received their ATC-t raining After some time we were approached by Han s Thau of the German Association. who handed us a co mplete set of working papers . containing drafts of a convention and constitution and bylaws of a European Federation of ATCassociations . It was hardly the time to start scanning these proposals. but after offering us another glass of beer . he casually made the request to the chair man of the Netherlands Guild to be so kind as to chair the two day 1nternation-
al meeting. because everybody who had arrived before us had thought this an excellent idea in the circumstancesl I immediately regretted our late arrival. for I was that (one-year old) chairman of the (hardly two-year old) Dutch Guild . having but the bares t of experience in the chair and none at all in international meetings . This invitation had a very sobering effect and the beer suddenly had an awful taste. The Dutch delegation decided to think it over and retreated to their rooms to struggle with the working-papers unt il well after the small hours . I had very little sleep that night and when Hans Thau very confidently approached me at the breakfa st t able the next morning I felt terribly sick and refused to chair the meeting l It certainly pleads more for his than for my strength of mind that after all Han s succeeded in talking me into it . That memorable brea kfast shaped my life for the next ten years. binding me w ith hands and feet to the baby whose conception was to take place that same day . The courtship of the Sw iss and German associations ended in my fatherhood of the federation I Anyway . the meeting gave the German assoc iati on worth for thei r money ! All business was done within one half day. leaving them the problem of filling up the program for the next day . We had of course decided on the wel l known tactic of forming a work ing group . which was charged wi t h th e preparation of the final drafts of the Convention. Constitution and Bylaws of a European Professional Federation . It consisted of members of the Belgian . German and the Netherlands associations . The 14 associations were to state their approval or proposals for amendment within 4 months after the meeting . The working group was to take these into account when preparing the final drafts. to be ratified by t he associations at the constitutional meet ing . The report of the meeting contain s hardly any reference to the discussions . except the following sentence which is worth quoting : 'It was one of the principles of the meeting to ensure that a European Federation of control lers shou ld not in any way be a trade union but a purely professional organization Âˇ. This principle has then and later been attacked at numerous occasi o ns. I st ill strongly believe that this prin c ipl e is the fundamental key for the federation to attain its obie ctives . The w o rking group consisted of Hans Thau (Germa ny). Roger Sadet (Belg ium ) and myself . joined by Mauri ce Cerf (Fran ce) and Ken Pearson (UK). We met at least t hree t imes during the foll owing tw o years The inaugural 5
The chairman and the board of the "N::theriands Guild of Air Traffic Controllers", on bchaii of the Founder-Member-Associations of "EFATCA", request rhe pleJsurc of your company at the !NAUGLlRAL MEE"DNG pf the ''ECROPEAN FEDERATJO::--: OF ATR TRAFFIC CO>iTROLLERS ASSOCIATIONS",
with ensucin~ reception and cocktailparty. Friday the 20th of Ocrober 1961, at 15.00 hrs, .1t the ~C::ntr.ul Hotel", Leidsc Bosjc, Amsterdam, Conference
room open 14.30 hrs.
meeting was initially planned to take place in London early in 1 g 61 . but a referendum by the British Guild unfortunately made this impossible. Although the outcome was vastly in favour of joining EFATCA. the total number of replies was insufficient to carry the proposal! In July 1961. the decision was made to go ahead with the constitutiona I conference; Amsterdam was chosen as the place for the meeting. dates: 1 9 and 20 October. On October 18th. 1 961. nearly two years after the Frankfurt meeting. the delegates arrived in Amsterdam: a director and deputy representing each founder-association. from the following countries: Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany
Iceland Ireland Luxembourg The Netherland Norway Switzerland.
The Greece. Israel and UK assocIatIons had sent observers. as had the following international organizations: ICAO. IATA. IFALPA and Eurocontrol. In the evening. a closed meeting of the working group and the Directors decided on the final agenda and candidates for the election of the officers. On the 1 9th October. delegates and observers (some 45 in total!) met for the constitutional conference. The first board of officers was elected. consisting of: L. N. ('Tek") Tekstra (The Netherlands) president Hans Thau (Germany) secretary Maurice Cerf (France) first vice-president Roger Sadet (Belgium) second vicepresident Henning Thrane (Denmark) treasurer. 6
The excellent ATC-journal 'Der Flugleiter· became the common IFATCAjournal 'The Controller' and its editor. Walter Endlich. was elected as the Editor of the federation which post he was to hold for some ten years! A final check was made of the Constitution and Bylaws and some amendments were agreed. including the change of name referred to in the beginning of this article. Standing committees were formed. a.a. on Professional and Technical Problems in ATC. The first annual conference was to be held six months later in April 1962 in Paris. In the morning of October 20th. a press conference took place. attended by 3 2 correspondents from the international aviation press. the national press and radio; several interviews were broadcast on the international network of Hilversum radio. A special TV programme had been made before the conference. In the afternoon of that day the beautiful 'Vondelpark Pavilioen· formed the scene for the official Inaugural Meeting. High officials from the Netherlands, France. Switzerland and the U.S. Air
Why IFATCA? The question 'Why IFATCA?' from inside the profession should not be approached with the ·what IFATCA can do for us' attitude, but in the first place with an attitude of: ·what can we do for IFATCA?'
Force attended and a number of airlines was also represented. The Director General of Civil Aviation in the Netherlands. Mr. J. W. F. Backer. delivered the opening address. He welcomed the federation which started its life in the beginning of the · jet-age· when ATC was facing complicated problems. The IFATCA-secretary Hans Thau then called upon each of the delegates of the twelve founder associations to come forward and set their hands onto the convention of the federation. IFATCA was born at lastIn my inaugural address I tried to explain what had brought us together and how the federation was going to pursue its objectives. It was the first of many official speeches at IFATCA-conferences and when reading then now. it seems only yesterday that I prepared them! Many of the topics are still vividly alive today, as they were 21 years ago, which does not mean that nothing has changed in the meantime. It would. however, go too far to dwell on these achievements in this article. Some financial details of the Amsterdam Conference are interesting to note. The cost of the conference proper was< D.fl. 3000.-. divided into 1700/ 1300 between IFATCA and the hostassociation! The cost of bed and breakfast at the conference hotel (' Centraal hotel') amounted to D.fl. 11.25 p.p. The municipality of Amsterdam and two industries provided hospitality for 2 lunches and an evening buffet. the cost of which was estimated in the region of D.fl. 4500! This was the beginning of numbers of years of hard work for those who had accepted office in the federation in one form or the other. Thousands of hours must have been voluntarily devoted to the growth of this baby of ours and grow it certainly did. The reports of the first seven annual conferences offer interesting details. some of which I would like to mention. The 1st Annual Conference m Paris 1962 brought the British Guild and the Swedish Association to membership; all 14 Frankfurt-associations had now joined the federation. Israel was the first member from outside Europe. The first two corporation members. Marconi and Hollandse Signaal. were welcomed. The 2nd Annual Conference London 1963 brought Greece and Central Africa into the federation and decided to employ a part time executive secretary. In August followed the appointment of the legendary Mr. Geoffrey Monk in this post. Five new corporation members Joined. Official contacts were established with ICAO and ILO
The federation was invited to the 1963 !CAO RAC-OPS-meeting. which gave momentum to the technical policy-making machinery. The 3rd Annual Conference in Brussels 7964 saw Canada. Uruguay and Italy join us. bringing the total membership up to 19. since the Central African Association ' s membership was still · pending the completion of formalities · due to political unrest in that part of the world (see 1967). The 4th Annual Conference in Vienna 7965 was the first of a series in which the host-associations outdid themselves in setting the scene for ever more impressive conferences . The worldwide conception proved itself by the joining of New Zealand - and Venezuela - Associations and in another sense by the first member from Eastern Europe: Yugoslavia . The USA ATCA joined as corporation member . as a first step towards full membership (PATCO did not exist as yet) . bringing their total up to 15 . Hans Thau left the board to take up an appointment in the Air Navigation Commission of !CAO in Montreal. The 5 th Annual Conference in Rome 7966 marked a pause in membership gains. which halted at 22 and 15. Henning Thrane. our first treasurer left the board and was replaced by Bernhard Ruthy of Switzerland . A very memorable occasion wa s the Papal audience in St Peters. where Pope Paul VI addressed o.a. the IFATCA delegates and received a delegation of the board of officers . The 6th Annual Conference in Geneva 796 7 saw Iran and Rhode sia as new member associations. the latter as the successor of the Central African Association . The number of corporation member s went up to 18 . Again one of our fir st officers. Maurice Cerf. left the board and wa s succeeded by Dick Campbell (Canada) . The 7th Annual Conference 7968 saw t he Board of offi cers tow ering over the plenary meetings in the seats of the Presidium of the Bavarian Parliament! Turkey and Hongkong were welcomed as th e 25th and 26th member association s. Four new corporation members Joined up. bringing the total up to 2 2 . Again some of the first officers left the board : Roger Sadet and myself. after serving for seven years. not counting the 2 post-Frankfurt meeting years The presidenc y was confidentl y handed over to Maur ice Cerf. who return ed to th e board already after one year , bringing w ith him the experience as fir st vice-president in the first six years. It had ta ken us nine year s to travel from Frankfurt to Muni c h The Frankfurt me eting of 1959 gave the start-up clearance for th e fed erati o n, the Am -
Inaugural meeting: L. N. Tekstra addressing the meeting
., ....____ s~w. ~1r .z_ERL4ND Bernard Ruthy. on the right . and B. Barran/
The Netherlands · Oelegat,on. H. Vorhauer. J Evenhws
sterdam-meeting meant the take-off clearance. Here in Munich we found ourselves well established in the climb. In those n in e years. aviation had well entered the jet-age. ATC had initially been caught unprepared and shaking on its foundations all over the world. It was now gradually catching up . IFATCA had proven its 'raison d'etre· a .a. by a principal contribution to the development of the ICAO radar procedures. An effective federation machinery had been built up. which w as. ho weve r, continually dependant on a relatively small number of individuals for doing the spade wo rk . I fear that this has not changed very much in later years. since this is the case in most vol untary organizat ions. I would not like to end this review of IFATCA's concep tion and childhood
without a heart felt and friendly salute to all those members of the board of officers and committees who have made my life as president bearable and at times even pleasant! My sincere congratulations to the present board. May the coming of age of IFATCA mark the beginning of a new period of grown-up development. employing the cruiseclimb technique towards fulfilment of the ideals of its founders!
Mr J. Smit. the present Director of the Net herlands A TS talking with delegates over a dnnk.
Pope Paul meeting the Executive Board in Rome. in 7966. From the left. M. Cerf, L. N. Tekstra. G. Monk. W Endlich.
Liverpool ATS Go to IAL Merseyside County Council has appointed !AL. the London-based international aviation . computer and communications systems and services company. to provide technical services at Liverpool Airport from April 1st 1982 . The seven year contract requires !AL to undertake the provision of air traffic control services. navigation aids and aeronautical telecommunications maintenance at the airport. IAL won the contract in open competition with other tenderers . !Al 's involvement with Liverpool comes as the airport mo ves into its second halfcentury of operation and at a critical time in its development . In 1 982 the airport will change to single ruriway operation utilising the 2.280 m east/west runway which originally became operational in 1966. The runway and its associated parallel taxiway system will be the focal point of the airport 's development through the 1 980s. Plans for a new passenger terminal. control tower and fire station have reached an advanced stage. ' When these are complete and with IAL providing the technical services.· Airport Director Rod Rufus says · our operating costs will be reduced. We will be able to offer the aviation industry an operationally efficient layout and modern facilities that will be among the best that are available in the UK.
ALPA accepts two crew The US Air Line Pilots· Association Board has voted unanimously to accept the Presidential Task Force's crew complement report . Though the Task Force did not agree with ALPA 's contention that a three-man crew is demonstrably safer than a two-pilot team. the Association had previously agreed to accept the findings of a 'fair and impartial 1nvestigat1on. · Perhaps the only surprising aspect of the ALPA reaction is the unanimity of the 30man Board' s vote . The pilot union takes comfort in the fact that the inquiry's recommendations have a direct effect only on the DC-9 Super 80 at present. and this has been flying with two men anyway . Task Force advice that new airliners like the Boeing 757. 767 and the Airbus A310 should be safe In the hands of two pilots was tempered with the statement that certIficat1on will ultimately decide . So the union still has time to use its weight with airlines. manufacturers and the Federal Aviation Administration. ALPA believes its membership and inf luence will increase over the next few years. The aircrew union may well consider It has won a partial victory In some of the Task Force recommendations which were on the borderline. if not outside. its term s of reference. These were for new rules on cockpit mInImum equipment and allowable · no-go· items. simpler air traffic procedures. and improved FAA expertise on electronic equipment and soft ware . ALPA may feel that its arguments about the relat1onsh1p between work load and safety have been heeded .
So IFATCA is 21 (Reminiscences of an individual member) by E. McCluskey
We all know the big names in the Federation but IFATCA was built also by the small names and even by real unknowns. Twenty-one years is a long time to dedicate to an ideal but IFATCA is still going from strength to strength, established on all five continents and in membership one third of the size of the United Nations' Organisation itself. Who would have believed that twenty-one years ago? The small European family has grown to a large worldwide family and in the word ' family ' we have probably the answer. When a few European associations were trying to put some sort of European organisation together in Frankfurt. the author was a very junior ATCO who had succeeded in joining GATCO on a military licence . GATCO at that time was mainly implanted in London and it tended to be a club for rather senior controllers . Thi s was a bone of contention in othe r centres . where the international ideal s were slowly being formed by the very lack of proper communications to do the job .
At the time of the Amsterdam Conference. I had not heard the name s which were to become famous; Tekstra . Cerf. Sadet, Thrane. Thau and Endlich. All I knew was that I thought that GATCO should join EFATCA. That name quickly disappeared and it is my opinion that we owe a lot to the convincing ways of Paul Berger of the ICAO European Office for the decision to aim immediately world wide . Meanwhile , prof iting from the end of a cour se at Bournemouth. I went to London to the Guild AGM . I will not say that consternation reigned but it w as something akin to that when this junior ATCO from Scottish turned up with a plea to join IFATCA. Moreover he w as
listened to . thanks to the chairmanship of Arnold Field the then Master of the Guild since we had met before I became a controller . We were two voices in favour of IFATCA. myself and Norman Ward . now with Eurocontrol. but when it cam e to the disastrous vote even Norman had a pocketful of pro xy vote s against . I did not realise at that t ime the trade union undertones but Len Vas s did go to Amsterdam to argue for change which would let GATCO and the Swedish Association join . IFATCA was founded and GATCO became a member at Paris in 1 9 6 2 together wi t h Sweden and Israel. the last me nt io ned taking the Federation immed iatel y out of Europe . The conference came to the U K in 1963 and as luck would have it wor k did not permit me to see IFATCA at fi rst hand . Howe ver. as a result of the Paris Conference and the good offi ces of Len Vass. I had made contact wi th Gunnar Atterholm wh o wa s studying Eng lish when I was stud ying Sw edi sh and although our paths have diverged at various points since , I can safely say t hat Gunnar , a then unknown. becam e my first contact with IFATCA out side my own Guild .
7 7th Ann ual Conference. Dublin. 79 7 2 : Front ro w (from the left): Fischer. Just. Schenk. lnd eloff
Rhem Controllers Âˇ Orchestra ( 7965): W. Ried el, B. Scheuver , G. Ha in .
Br ussels Conference,
From the left : J. Starke , U Lehmann , G. Fischer,
79 7 9 .
Vienna ( 7965 ) A. Field , first left and B. Shipley. 2nd from the nght .
In 1964 I happened to be in Paris when the conference went to Brussels so I decided to go and have a look. IFATCA was already represented in Africa by the Central African Association which joined in London. In Brussels it spread to North and South America with the arrival of Canada and Uruguay. I duly arrived in Brussels to discover that the Conference had already started in the Hotel de Ville. I ran up there, put on my name tag and , being completely lost, tried to find others with 'UK' displayed. The London club system unfortunately played its part and I discovered myself on my own. Not quite; there was an observer from Venezuela who had been at Bournemouth and he invited me to a Spanish speaking party in the evening. In front of the Hotel de Ville I was bundled into a taxi with two ladies and three delegates. They certainly were not speaking Spanish but after my hesitant question it seemed that they were going to the same party. I had met Aage Mortensen from Denmark and the famous pair from Luxembourg with their wives. Klein and Feltes. Being the odd man out as an extra observer from the Guild I had the chance to move around the other delegations and several names come to mind; Des Eglington and Mick McCabe from Ireland. Jean Flament (who did not speak a word of Flemish) and Rene Chateaux from France. Bernhard Ruthy from Switzerland and Georges Lemaire from Belgium . Some still appear at conferences but with all firm friendships were set up and have carried on until today . More self assured. knowing that I would find friends in Vienna I went by car to the 1965 Conference. It was at this conference profiting from the knowledge of the city of Willy Katz that I had the pleasure of getting to know Willy and his fellow Israeli delegate Jacob Wachtel who for many years tried to set up an international ATC university. One man had made a very long trip . This was Keith Naisbitt who . with a colleague. had come all the way from New Zealand to put the IFATCA flag on yet another continent, the fifth . It was also at the Vienna Conference that I received my first Greek lessons from George Elias of the Greek Association . IFATCA also became implanted in Eastern Europe with the arrival of Yugo slavia. There were no new members at the Rome Conference in 1966 but again th e IFATCA family atmosphere played a big part Vienna had seen us leave the small hotels and start the system which remains with us today . Our hotel in Rome was right at the north of the city and the conference in the Palazzo dei Congressi w as on the other side so this meant a long bus trip across Rome in
A. Field. on the left and G. Monk (1965)
the morning and back again in the evening. The hotel was expensive and we would take a bus into the centre of Rome to eat. usually followed by a long walk back It was only on the last night that we found a little restaurant near the hotel and I wonder how many remember the surprise of an Italian couple who when their birthday cake arrived were greeted by 路 Happy Birthday to You路 sung in numerous accents from all over the world and they duly let us all sample the cake The highlight of the conference was the visit to St . Peter' s to hear the late Pope Paul VI give an oration on the subject of IFATCA. But the man of the conference was surely the Italian controller who refused to let the hotel put the prices above those quoted and who took responsibility for the rest despite the fact that the aid expected from the government was not forthcoming . 1 9 6 7 saw us in Geneva. This was my first conference where I had not put the conference venue as the focal point of a motoring holiday . It was a chance to see Berthus Boranni again for the first time since he was on the Swiss delegation in Brussels It was the conference where the Swiss recommended a restaurant but decided we could not suddenly turn up in hundreds so duly escorted by Swiss controllers the hundreds turned up in groups of about ten
or twelve . Geneva was the conference where IFATCA had its first serious alter ation with international organisations since we had to accept or not the new Rhodesian Association . Rhodesia was accepted and we had the pleasure of getting to know the late 'Tomm y路
Thomas. There was of course the unforgetable last night party with the Sw iss fondu and one or two who did not listen to the recommendation of the Swiss on what could be drunk afterwards. The bus to Euratom the next day had to be filled with Swiss controllers and t he ir wives to make up the numbers . In Geneva with the support only of Geofr ey Monk I launched the idea of a committee for legal matters . The idea went into cold storage. Munich 1968 saw me on my car travels again and after a very brief introduction to Committee A in Geneva I found myself plunged into Committee A work . Here in Munich I could sample the hospitality of Bernhard Schuler and his family and again cement international friendships . Munich was probabl y the conference which saw the start of really serious work programmes but the lighter side was still there . The late Bob Shipley. who always dran k the local brew standing on his head. was in Mu nich bedecked in ' lederhosen 路 and face to face with a 's tein '. IFATCA went to eastern Europe in 1969 and I found a differ ent Yugos lavia from my previous visit . The President. Maurice Cerf, was worried ab out the lack of participation of the francophone controllers so it was suggested that we should put a francophon e in the chair. A yo ung Swi ss delega te Jean Daniel Manin was selecte d and he accepted provided I would act as secre tary in Committee. That team lasted for a further three years One unforgetable evening , IFACTA descended on a restaurant whic h boasted good food but slow service . The controller s started to
197 7 N,cos,a Conference. President Monm gwmg a press conference 11
sing rivalled by the local population so And of course there was Guinness and much so that the following evening Bunratty and the fabulous show put on IFACTA seemed to have become the by Aer Lingus. Reykjavik gave me the chance to restar turn in the cabaret. Belgrade was the conference of Tom Karner. I new old friendships again not least with suppose. the hospitality of Larus Thorarinsson IFACTA 70 was the big step into and his family. The man of the conference must of course have been George the unknown. We were going outside Europe for the first time and thanks to Anthonio from the new member Ghana. Bravo Bravo and the German Air Force His speech was already that of a possible president of IFATCA. It would not we made it to Canada. This was the big be too long until we had African vice one. The welcome at Montreal compresidents at least. It was in Reykjavik plete with pipeband and J.D. Lyon bealso that SC VII started and with it a decked in his tartan jacket was the sign long period of hard work under the that this conference was putting IFATleadership of Andreas Avgoustis. CA into the big league. Among the new For Israelis. 1 3 is not unlucky and members who joined were Australia. IFATCA went to its third continent in South Africa and the USA; and that 197 4. This was the conference where surely put us in the big league. Hungary we started getting some legal order into also joined and IFACTA had crossed IFATCA affairs. It was also the end of the so-called iron curtain. Eric Voigt. 'Tommy· Tomkins. Bob Meyer. Ray the first year of Jean Daniel Monin's presidency and already he had lifted the Soden. Ray Alexander. unknown then Federation to the level of a truly recogwere to become well known in the nised international body. A visit to the Federation. There had been a new member also in Belgrade. namely Cy- Holy Land should be serious but who could restrain himself from laughing at prus but it was not until Montreal that I Daniel Gorin and Ray Soden in their got to know Andreas Papathomas locally acquired outfits. One must rewhose duties in IFATCA have been simember too John Beder coming by any milar to my own for many years and means possible from Uruguay and pracfrom the beginning we took very similar tically camping in order to be present at lines on many subjects. Montreal was the conference. How many years did he the big one and from here on in it becapersevere alone to keep IFATCA's flag me difficult to know everyone. Some flying in South America? Reykjavik had old friends were giving up IFATCA duties but all were still willing to give a seen the first rejection of Eurocontrol's application for membership. The Eurohand if a problem arose. Younger decontrol Guild had followed IFATCA's legates were taking their places and de. advice only to be rejected again. This legations were becoming larger. gave Roger Bartlett the chance to make Athens in 1 9 7 1 was again a holiday the speech which will surely remain in trip and for the first time there was very the annals of IFATCA. little relaxation at least for me. Being A round-the-world trip to take in secretary of a committee and not in the IFATCA ·75 in Australia gave an opporconference hotel nor in the hotel of my tunity to meet new friends in Fiji. old own delegation meant constant runfriends in both New Zealand and in Ausning around but not really meeting tralia. Here I stepped down from being anyone. True. there was the marvellous secretary of a committee leaving the open air dinner at Piraeus where the job to Andreas Papathomas. Surely no table just got longer and longer arid the conference before or since can rival sea trip to Hydra which gave a chance Australia for hospitality. I had the great to meet the Nigerian observers. Nigeria was one of the new MAs in pleasure of receiving the Eurocontrol Dublin. I had been proposed by Israel Charter of Affiliation from the president. As work on SC VI I developed I had for the presidency in 1970 but declined as I had supported Arnold Field in to have more contact with the Executive Board and it was always a great my own guild. Belgium had proposed pleasure to work with my original watch me for honorary secretary at Athens but I did not wish to stand against my old supervisor. Tom Harrison. The work of SC VII also gave the chance to do friend Horst Guddat and now South exchange visits with the other memAfrica had proposed me for second vice bers. I have already mentioned some president. A man is surely not a prophet in his own land but here I was at home but one who must not be forgotten is 1n Ireland and a candidate for the exec- that great behind the scenes worker. utive board. Fortunately for IFATCA Hans Heim from Switzerland and the Bob Meyer made 1t since he introduced great guy from Bahamas. Ivan Cleare. the North American know how which I who is always the life and soul of any party. certainly would have lacked. The Dublin Conference of course must be rememWorld events stopped us going to bered for the Burlington hotel which Cyprus in 1976 and we went to Lyon. IFATCA opened and practically built. This was the conference which proved 12
the dynamism of Daniel Gorin. For a long spell he was the Lyon conference. It was a pity that here again we were faced with local hotels trying to cash in on delegates and we did have secretariat problems possibly resulting from language difficulties. The following year we did go to Cyprus and again there was a one man dynamo called Andreas Avgoustis. We gained Fiji. the country furthest away from practically anywhere. But we had lost Australia apparently for a very long time. I had my first experience of using a proxy vote thanks to Eduardo Lopez of Costa Rica _and duly surprised my colleagues by voting for and against on the same subject. To name all the Cypriot controllers who made 1 9 7 7 a very happy conference would be impossible. The apparent man of the conference was T.D. St. John Murphy chairman of Committee D. which he claimed to have invented. Error - that honour goes to the ·Aussies·. 1978 saw us in cooler climes and with hotel strikes to boot. Nevertheless the Copenhagen conference showed again the IFATCA tradition of family effort to overcome difficulties. There I had a series of personal problems which our Danish colleagues arranged with apparently no effort. The return flight was surprising in that the cabin staff of SAS announced that they could not serve a full meal being in sympathy with the hotel staff. If that was a snack then the normal service must be something. I turned the complete circle when I went back to Brussels in 1979 and I had more or less decided to let some of · the younger members carry on. But Brussels · 7 9 was no longer Brussels '64. The Belgian Guild excelled itself and I noticed that many of the Belgian controllers from 1964 were still to the fore in IFATCA affairs so I still had the bug. The short notice of Toronto ·so nevertheless still produced an excellent conference and the USA returned to the fold where she had Joined in the first instance. in Canada. In fact there was a record number of new members. IFATCA was nearly at the 60 mark. Toronto was the conference which revealed how many people work behind the scenes for IFATCA and are hardly ever mentioned. Knowing Bill Robertson over the years there was still no way a one man dynamo could have staged IFATCA ·so and he will be the first to recognise that. IFATCA '81 was our first venture to Africa. It will be reported elsewhere. We have been on five continents and more than 60 strong we go back to the source. Good luck to the Netherlands with IFATCA ·s2 and the twenty first birthday.
Martin German's Page
JllJ121,• t1/111STRiCJi1 HEnVJ) Go
IJHEA:J>• .• • .
Controller Wald/mar Olafson Vestmauneayer Tower .
Vestmauneayer Terminal in the background.
Auckland (NZ) Control Tower.
Radar at last, Rhein ACC.
Modern automated system.
The characteristics and detection of low level wind shear in the critical phases of flight by Peter D. Simmons*
What is wind shear? A wind shear is a change in wind speed and/or wind direction per unit distance between two points in the atmosphere. It is a problem to aircraft because it can cause a change in air speed or other flight characteristic at a rate which. in the extreme case. may be completely uncorrectable by the pilot's maximum use of the controls and power avatfable to him. The severity of the problem to the aircraft is related to both the amount of wind shear between the two points specified and the speed of the aircraft between those same two points. Three scales are used. meteorologically, in defining the areas covered by wind shears-micro. mesa and synoptic. Micro Scale shears have widths of only tens of meters and cause only rapid turbulence which is not normally dangerous. Synoptic Scale shears cover hundreds of kilometers and are not dangerous because the change takes place so slowly. The Mesa Scale is the problem. covering distances of one to fifteen kilometers. Meteorologists have historically portrayed three different types of wind shear as potential hazards to aircraft flying at low levels. vertical wind shear. horizontal wind shear and shear of vertical wind. Much confusion has been caused. however. by the relatively recent introduction. by the aircraft industry. of a definition of wind shear along the flight path. This confusion has resulted 1na strong emphasis placed on vertical wind shear as a hazard when horizontal wind shear or a combination of horizontal and vertical shears are the real culprits. Further. shears of the vertical wind (particularly excursions into strong downdrafts) have recently been thought to be important. But down rushing winds quickly translate to horizontal at low levels where aircraft are vulnerable. Therefore. most in the sc1ent1f1c community now feel that of the three types of shear. horizontal shear 1sthe most important when viewed in aircraft coordinates.
two points vertically one above the other. In Figure 1 it can be seen that at Point A. 300 meters (900 feet). altitude there is a wind of 25 knots whereas at Point B. 100 meters (300 feet). the wind is only 5 knots. This is wind shear of 20 knots per 200 meters. This type of shear is not a problem for several reasons. The values of vertical shear are usually not very high (10 knots per thirty meters is an extreme value). Also. the descent rate of an aircraft on approach is normally quite low (typically 3 meters per second). Simple arithmetic shows that the result of this combination is that an aircraft has plenty of acceleration available to overcome the worst rate of air speed fall-off which can be caused by descent through vertical wind shear. Unfortunately it is easy to confuse vertical and horizontal wind shears. the result of which is that occasionally vertical wind shear is incorrectly referred to as the difficulty. This confusion is examined in greater detail later. Shear of vertical winds (See Fig. 2) This is a change of vertical (as opposed to horizontal. above) wind between two points. both of which are in the same horizontal plane. Downdrafts or up drafts are not in and of themselves wind shear but their presence surrounded by other air with different or zero vertical speed is a clear indication of shear of vertical wind. Figure 2 indicates an aircraft flying through a downdraft. At Point D 1t has an upward wind speed of 5 meters per second and at Point C a downward wind speed of 1 0 meters per
second. If these values occured over a distance of some few hundred meters horizon tal distance then some discomfort would be felt by the passengers. This type of wind shear is not a problem. basically because the existence of the surface of the earth prevents vertical wind shear existing at a low enough altitude to be of danger to an aircraft in the critical phases of flight. i.e .• takeoff and landing. Shear of vertical winds (or the downdrafts themselves) cannot in fact continue into the lower couple of hundred meters of altitude. since at extreme low level such shears must be converted to horizontal wind shears. Horizontal wind shear (See Fig. 3) This 1s a change in wind speed and/or wind direction per unit distance between two points. both of which are in the same horizontal plane. All sailboat enthusiasts have often suffered the frustration of being becalmed. with not a ripple. while watching other boats only 200 or 300 meters away. heeled over and tearing through the water. That is horizontal wind shear. It happens often and powerfully. In Figure 3 the two points E and F. are indicated at the same height (100 meters). It can be seen that an air downburst has caused. as it inevitably must. a complete change in wind direction between the two points. This direction change 1sfrom a headwind to a tailwind as far as the aircraft is concerned. whether on landing or takeoff. This type of wind shear ,s the true danger to aircraft operation. again for several reasons. Values of horizontal wind shear are. quite frequently. high and occasionally terrifyingly large (80 to 1 10 knots per mile NTSP Accident I nvest1gat1on). Also. aircraft obviously fly horizontally at high speed. typically 1 30 to 1 50 knots on approach. At these speeds an aircraft traverses one mile 1n approximately 20 seconds. Simple arithmetic based on the maximum acceleration of an aircraft and its stall speed shows that 1f any aircraft ever arrives at · decision height' in these conditions. it ,s doomed. Nothing whatsoever the pilot can do with the controls will prevent total destruction. · 1 crashed five times in six approaches. I d1dn·t believe a wind existed that could so overwhelm an aircraft.· (National Geographic interview of pilot after he had 'flown· a series of simulations of the Flight 66. J.F. Kenne-
Vertical wind shear (See Fig. 1) This 1s a change in wind speed and/or wind d1rect1on per unit distance between
• Mr. Simmons delivered this paper to the Middle East A1rports B 1 International Conference together with modern methods of detection of low levei wmd shear; this part will be published m next issue of · The Controller'.
, ...~'~:.:;';; .,t\.;'.__ :,-~~-~~ ..:$1~-!~;1,~~J-
Figure 2 dy Airport. 1975 . accident.) This basic scenario (together with its corollary on takeoff in one case) was the fundamental cause of six accidents which occurred in USA between 1973 and 1975. costing 200 lives and which were firmly attributed to wind shear. Horizontal wind shear frequently exists in combination with other shears. but it is always the largest and most dangerous. The only way to give a pilot the opportunity of deciding not to arrive at decision height in these conditions is to give him advance warning of the existence of the wind shear. Geographic frequency of thunderstorm activity (See Fig. 4) Figure 4 is a world map prepared by the World Meteorological Organization to indi-
cate the frequency of thunderstorm activity In some areas of low frequency. however. the severity of the storms which do occur is extreme . Cold fronts are active throughout the 30° to 60° latitude region and the wind shears resulting from the passage of cold fronts can be equally dangerous. ·Airmasses following strong cold fronts appear to rival thunderstorm outflows in terms of potential hazards to aviation· (AIAA Paper by R.C. Goff. 1981 ). Thus. if the aircraft industry is seriously to aim for 1 00% safety . a means of forewarning aircraft pilots of the existence of wind shear is needed at every airport in the world. The gust front (See Fig . 5) Possibly the most frequent cause of dangerous horizontal wind shears. in addition to
downbursts and cold fronts prev iousl y referred to. is the gust front which usuall y precedes the arrival of a thunderstorm . Th is phenomenon is similar to the famil iar Haboob of the Mid-East and Africa. The diagram. Figure 5. gives some indication of the exceptionally complex wind mo vements that take place in such a front . The fr ont w ill arrive at runway threshold with the tower wind direction indicated as shown (i.e .. right to left) . An aircraft following the resultan t appropriate approach path will therefore encounter a massive shift from head w ind to tailwind at a critical point in the approach . Both horizontal and vertical wind shears exist in combination but clearl y it is the hor izontal shear which is the problem . As in the diagram. the front is up to 1 5 kilome ters in front of the precipitation . but with the Haboob may be much farther. Radars in current operation can only detect prec1p1tation . which may be far behind the gust front hazards.
Errors and confusions in wind shear theory Vert ical w ind shear theory There persists a bel ief that 1t is vertic al wind shear which is causing the problem of wind shear accidents . In some ca ses. t he thinking is genuine. though incorre ct . In others. it is simply due to a m isunder stat1ng of the nature of w ind shear . Vertical wi nd shear is the simplest type to understand .
1.e.. w hen a stead y wind is tra velling across the earth 1t · drags · on the trees and buildings and the lowe r layers travel slower than the upper . Many people have no conception of any othe r type of win d shear. Confusion has been created by the aviator·s need to def ine 'wind shear per unit distance along the flight path '. Quite clearly this 1s a combi nation of both vertical and horizontal win d shea r. All this is further compou nded by the existe nce of aircraft and auto pilot specifications such as · ma x w ind shear of 6 knots per 100 feet (3 0 m) height' What is meant is 6 knots per 1 00 feet vertic ally and ½ mile horizontal d1stancel The 6 knots shear 1s 20 times more likely to be due to the horizontal d ista nce of ½ mile tha n to the 100 feet of height. but nevertheless the implication 1s to verti cal w ind shear. Even in tech nica l papers one co mes across expressions like. · 70 knots ta ilw ind at 300 meters sheared to 10 knots headwin d at the surf ace·. This implies a vertical wind shear of 80 knots m 300 meters height but (from t he actual evidence of the accident referred to) 1t was actually a horizontal shear of 80 knots in about two miles (3 km) Few observatio ns exist on detailed measurements of vert ical win d shea r ow ing to the extreme difficulty of measuring it. but the maximum 1s usua lly accepted as being around 3 meters per seco nd per 1 00 meters . Given a normal descent rate. simple arithmet ic shows t hat vert ic al w ind shear w ould have to reach around 30 meters per second per 10 0 meters befo re an aircraft wo uld have difficult y accelerating out of it. This 1s ten t im es higher than th e ma ximum ever actually observed I 'The Safety Board believed t hat the (vertica l) w ind shear conditions alone were not suff icient to cause an unmanageable problem· (NOAA Paper by J . Badner. 1979 ) · Howev er. stro ng vertical shea rs are flyable shears 1f the pilo t 1s informed of their prese nce· (FAA Paper by R.C. Goff. 1 980) The difficu lty of actually measuring vert ical w ind shea r at airpo rts 1s du e to th e requirement to have sensors in a ve ry hig h verti cal co lumn. very close to the airport . One European manufacturer has actually bu ilt such a system int o a broadcasting tower wh ich 1s abo ut 30 km from an airp ort . The 1mpract 1ca l1ty of building towers deliber ately. close enough to airp ort s to be effective. 1s selfev 1dent. espec ially since the disturbances wh ic h have to be measured are very loca!tzed. As an examp le! - · An airlin e captain waiting to take off on run w ay 2 7 L repo rted rain had deposited ½ inch of wate r on the runway and w inds we re driving foa m streaks on its surface - ,t appea red very dangerous and there was no way he was abo ut to take off . Meanwhile. A lleghen y Flight 1 2 1. on approach to parallel runway 27 R had t he run way 1n sight' (NASA Paper by F. Carace na. 1980) Downdraft (m 1croburst theo ry) It 1s here that the ma ximum amount of co ntent ion amo ng differi ng meteoro log ical views exists . The quest ion 1s simpl e. In a downd raft / horizo ntal w ind shear s1tuat1on (See Figur e 3). what 1s the relative co ntrib ution to the danger from t he downdraft 1tseif and from the horizontal wind shea r7 18
Annual N umber of Days with Thund erstorms. o
There is considerable difference of opinion about the maximum values r:;fdowndrafts . · An intense microburst could produce 1 50 mile per hour (240 km/h) horizontal winds. as well as 60 feet per second (18 m /s ec) downdrafts at the tree top level.· (Proceedings, 1 9th conference on Radar Meteorology 1 980. PP 94-101 . T Fuj ita) 'Vertical motion s (in particular downdrafts) of any consequence to pilots are vitually non-existent below about 100 meters· (AIAA Paper by R.C. Goff . 1981 ). FuJita·s values were never measured. only deduced, and wh ere high values of vertical down/lows are quoted they appear alw ays to be derived from estimates or calculation s based on other possibly suspec t assumption s. · It may be that the downdraft estimates here are overstated by up to 300%' (FAA Paper by R.C. Goff . 1 980) Only one study that we know of has actually exte nsively measured vertical winds. This study used a 450 meter high tower in Central Oklahoma . Oklahoma has some of the wo rst thunder storm and cyclone activity in the world . Around four million measurements were ta ken of vertical and horizontal wi nd sensors at seven different levels on the tower ove r a period of a year. The highest vertical speed measured at the 26 meter level was less than 5 meters per seco nd, at the 1 7 7 meter level less than 10 meters per second and only two reading s over ten meters per second were taken at the 444 meter level (AIAA Paper by R.C. Goff. 1981) What 1s certain. owing to the sclidity of the surface of the earth. is that such downdraft s have to end up converted to horizontal wtnds . ·Recent studie s . have shown
... Figure 4
that. as the vertical these meteorological ground , they become . .. · (NTSP Accident
winds embedded in events approach the horizontal in direction Investigation. 1979) .
Precipitation (ultra heavy rain) theory It has been suggested that the maior cause of accidents attributed to wind shear is in fact the effect of exceptionally heavy precipitation on the aerodynamic surfaces of the aircraft (AIAA Paper by J .K. Luers. 1981) This despite the fact that two of the six accidents in USA between 197 3 and 197 5 (the Denver and Tucson accidents) occurred when absolutely no precipitat ion was taking place . The circumstances of those accidents were virtually identical to the others and they we re firmly attributed to wind shear. Almost daily , in many parts of the world. aircraft fly through non -thunderstorm associated torrential rain without anything more than a moderate increase in sink rate . Obviously there is some decrease in the efficiency of aerodynamic surfa ces during intense precipitation but it is difficult to give credibility. from the above. to any serious suggestion that . in and of itself. it is a mai or contributor to wind shear accidents .
VERTIC A L SC A LE EXAGGE RATED RELATI VE 10 HOR IZO NTAL
WC 100 ar;C q-.,er
\ HIGH T URBULE N CE
DISi ,'\NCE Ff-lOM GU ST FRON T I_KM J
A SPECIAL REPORT
by Philippe Domagala
it does not seem possible for any one to buy anything. This is no exaggeration when one compares the cost of living of Sao Paolo . Brasilia and Rio. I mention these three towns because the air traff ic facilities available at these towns are the only ones in the country which employ civilian air traffic controllers. The cheapest accommodation cannot be rented for less than 30 OOO cruzeiros. a fact that forces all civilian controllers to seek housing in the countryside some considerable distance away from the towns . This however does not have any considerable favourable effect on the controller's pocket. because he has to pay the additional bus fare amounting in most cases to about 200 cruzeiros per day . Ph. Domagala
Early November saw us. Pat o 路ooherty. IFATCA' s Vice-President and myself. travelling to that beautiful and vast Latin -American country - Brazil. Everything in Brazil looks big with the first impression . the huge and inviting international airport of Rio . From its enormous piece of architectural construction - the terminal buildings - to beautiful sun-tanned airport hostesses to the sexy-voiced announcer calling upon the never-in-a-hurry passengers to make it to th eir respective flights to the most sophisticated lottery-type customs control where a beautiful female guard invite s you to press a button before you move through the exit doors; if by chance you hear a buzzer and a red light appears on the system then you are kindly asked to proceed through customs for baggage checks; if you only hear a friendl y 路 dong 路 you get an extra smile from the guard and you are on your way.
Comparison of salaries at Rio Airport (monthly) ( 1 US $ = 1 20 Cr as per November. 1981) Co-Pilot Lockheed Electra VARIG 200 OOO Cr Bank clerk Banco do Brazil 120 OOO Cr Finger operator platform 90 OOO Cr Lorry drivers (push-back) 65 OOO Cr Check-in girls VARIG 60 OOO Cr Military Air Traffic controller (Sergt) 50 OOO Cr Civil air traff ic controller 30 OOO Cr Cleaner 20 OOO Cr
Though the average hours per month is not comparatively high . there seems to be a tendency on behalf of the employer to increase this number because of the shortage of trained and qualified controllers . There has not been a fresh recruitment of controllers since 1979 . In Brasilia. the capital of Brazil. c ivili an controllers make up 50% of the total number (200) of air traffic controllers . the remainder are all air force personnel. Brasilia Air Traffic Services are in effect an Air Defense / Civil Service integrated system known as CINDACTA and perhaps can be described as the largest emplo yer of civilian controllers in the co untr y. Controller pay in Brasilia does not exceed the 35,000 cruzeiros mark. Such a salary cannot possibly feed any one single person let alone a famil y. It is therefore most natural for the controller to seek a second and in many cases a third Job which will eventuall y make the control lers quit for a better paid job . Inevit ab le t his leads to a service that cannot be properly manned by qualified personnel. or fatigued controllers which will contribute to the impairing of avIatIon safety.
Galzao - Rw lnternatwnal
Unfortunately . the dream ends here and a nightmare begins Our visit to Brazil was far from a sightseeing tour and sunbathing at the country"s magnificent beaches . It was meant to be a profes sional visit to Air Traffic Control facr路lItIes and an on the spot investigation of working conditions of colleague air traffic controllers. It was indeed a long -awa ited trip which had to be performed follo wing reports of inhuman working conditions for air traffic co ntrollers . We discovered that the best paid c1vil1an air traffic controller in Brazil earns a monthly salary of 3 2 OOO cruzeiros (gross). w hich Is approximately$ 250 (US) . With this money 19
Younger controllers on the other hand w ill devote the other part of their time to st udying fo r another career using air taffic control as a transit ional JOb until they event ually become lawyers. doctors . etc . It is awfull y painful to think of a controller be ing forced to spend almost two hours on tra velling from home to work. spend 10 hours as a controller . then move on to his sec ond Job and then perhaps to his third or to his studies . Aviation safety cannot benefit. even t hough. very trul y and honestly. they all love their air traffic control jobs th ey have t o earn the ir bread and butter .
Housing costs in Brasilia (apartments) Rent of a 6 5 m2 appartment (kitc hen . bathr oom. 2 rooms ) Elect ricity W ater Insurances . guard . etc .
26 OOOCr 1 OOOCr
Brazil has one of the highest rates of inflat ion. aft er Argentina. ;n the w orld : approxim ately 1 10 % per annum. yet the controller's pay increa se by the A ir Force w as only 50 % despite the fact that the country's civil laws demand a cost of l1v 1ng increase comparativ e to the rate of inflation . Cont rollers of course appealed to the civil co urts about su c h d 1scrim1nat1on. but the lawy ers w ill get 20 % of what the co nt ro llers w il l gain Bus dri vers. It is said. earn more than the air tra ffi c controller in Brazil. To their disgust. wh en th is w as ment ioned to their em ploy er. the repl y was : 'Why don 't you become bus dri vers? · An oth er fr ust rat ing illustrati o n of the wo rking condit ion s of the controllers . which In fact is from the c hief of Rio ATC. an air for ce mai or. Is t hat 1f a c o ntroller does not report o n dut y fo r no valid reason he w ill have to wo rk on a 1 2 -hou r Sunda y night shift If on the ot her hand he gives a valid reason. suc h as sic kness. then he wi ll have to cove r during another shift the hours that he m issed . This t he ma1or t hinks 'does not enco urage suc h pra ctices · (Ju st a brief per so nal not e the maior ·s salary Is 2 30 OOO cruzeIro s per month ) Furt hermor e. co nt roller s are not permit t ed any meal brea ks bec aus e ' t hey are sup pose d to eat before the y come to w or k· Should any one be found having lunch dur ing wo rking hours he w ill be fined fo ur da ys· salary. Sic k leave Is hardly pos sibl e . Sic k day s are not paid and any medi c ine purchased w ill be dedu cte d fro m t he empl oy ee·s sala ry. Onl y a militar y doctor Is el1g1ble to certify sick cert ifi c at es . in most c ase s again these are ve ry d1ff1c ult to obtain . A s lo ng as a contro ller ta lks th en he Is fit to wo rk. A s for their familie s. nat urall y the y can go t o the nation al health service w here the y c an get help 1f they are dyin g or 1f the y c an surv ive t he lo ng que ues . A privat e do cto r' s vIsIt w ill c ost them betwee n $ US 7- 15 . an am o un t of mo ney t hat few ca n aff o rd . On e c an go o n fo r lo ng befo re he can exha ust these Middl e-A ge work ing co nd1t 1o ns. bu t I be lieve I have give n yo u eno ugh fa cts to ena bl e yo u co nst ruct a m ost u np leasant pic t ure of how contro llers In Brazil are emp loyed . It Is therefo re very nat ura l fo r a co nt ro ller In that c ount ry to be mo re con 20
.... cerned with his problems than with his air traff ic control. Fatigue will naturally overcome his vigilance and as a result safety of air navigation in Brazil is not what it could be . In conclusion. it is my belief that IFATCA should embark on a campaign In which the aim should be to bring these controllers to a reasonable standard of living that will enable them conduct their day to day air traffic control duties without the worries of poverty. starvation for their families and living in slums. · They most certainl y deserve our support for their benefit. the airlines and of course the travelling public .
Brast!,a Twr .
P. O' Doherty about to board at Brast!ia
IFATCA: 21 years of effective exp ression of controller vievvpoints in vvorld aviation But the need for wider penetration is as great as ever by G.J. de Boer, Editor of ' The Controller ' from 19 7 3 to 19 7 7*
\/ · Ge de Boer started his career as an air traffic controller at Sch1phol Airport, Amster dam, m 7946 . After em1gratmg to New Zea land 1n 7955, he worked as a controller at Chnstchurch Airport until 1960 when he returned to Europe to 1am Luton Tower outside Londo n. In 7962 he left for Salisbury , then Rhodesia , on a controller assignment, but - having come under the spell of Afnca - decided to stay, and m 1964 Ge settled 1n Joh annesburg, South Afnca , where he 1sstill employed m A TC to thi s very day. As a dedicated advocate of controller mvolvement ,n mternat1onal av1at1on forums all his workmg Ide. he does not believe that the controllers · leg1t1mate asp1rat1ons will ever be realised unless more effort and resources are directed towards that end .
The ideal of the 1960's To achieve anything worthwhile takes time , sometimes a very long time . The air traffic controllers who founded !FA TCA m 796 7 ha d no illus1ons about what lay ahead Ahead was a long diffi cult haul of puttmg the newl y born mter nat1onal organisation on a firm footm g; of !1stmg pnont1es , of breakmg bamers and makmg the necessary contacts , most important , of gaining the confidence of fellow contro llers world -wide , and not less important , of gaining the attention and co -operation of mfluent1a! groups m mternat1onal aviation.
..... The wnter of this contnbut1on , together with other members of the !FA TCA Execuuve Board . at the 197 6 Lyon Conference (extreme nght ). Former President Manin 1s seated fourth from the nght.
From the very outset, the p ioneers of the 1 960 's rea lised that three funda mental issues stood out. and today . after 2 1 years. the same issues are as basi c as they ever we re . First . how to ac hieve proper 1nternat1o nal recogni t ion for the contro llers · profession : second . how best to pu t our message across t o those who matter : and third . 1t would be a waste of time to expect or 21
three major international companies such as Philips, Unilever and Shell Oil, a nation that can discover a good part of the eastern and western worlds and be instrumental in starting a great city like New York, and that their man would therefore show an unparalleled sense of economics , be industrious, inventive, farsighted and persevering. Be that what it may, it was IFALPA's Executive Secretary who, after attending one of IFATCA's earlier meetings remarked that only air traffic controllers could run an international organisation on a shoe- string and not only get away with it but make a real success of it into the bargain . So, the first 10 years of IFATCA's mission were devoted primarily to establishing a firm basis to operate from; to lay the foundation for world-wide contacts with civil- and military government agencies, aviation organizations and associations, aviation- and ATC industries: in short, providing a global plat form - through annual conferences to bring industries , governments and system-users closer together .
IFATCA JOU 路RNAL OF A I R TRAFFIC CONTROL
In this luve: TI,a Apollo ~,
The reality of the 1970's
ATCAutomationin G.rmon,: FRghtPio.. ond Flight Progtoe,..., Human Fodor in ATC
engage ot hers to put our case to the outs ide wor ld; in ot her wo rds, only co ntrollers t hemse ives wo uld get anywhere at all. The last lesson has been proved t ime and time again. but as for the first two issues, altho ugh headway has been made, we are st ill short of our ultimate ob1ect1ve and much more sti ll need s to be done . General ly speak ing. I do not think that those w ho founded I FATCA believed at the time that after 21 years the Federat io n wo uld sti ll on ly be halfway. and t hat mo re years wou ld then sti ll be needed . If they had know n w hat they were up against. perhaps they woul d not have gone ahead . or perhaps. spurred on by the cha llenge. the y wo uld have cast off all the more determined. It Is diff icu lt to say
It wasn't very long after IFATCA's birth w hen a co ntroller from Amsterdam路 s Schiphol Airport became President of the new Federation and went on to become a legend in IFATCA hist ory. It is perhaps unfair to single out specific people as there are many who over the years have unselfishly wo rked with total dedication to put the Federation on the wor ld aviation map and who have wo rked ceaselessly in that wonderful incre dible IFATCA spirit which amazes everyone w ho attends an IFATCA co nferen ce. but the first decade was most certainly marked by the electrif ying leadership of Tekstra . Maybe t hose aro und him believed that the y could not go wro ng by selecting a man from a nation that can drag a large section of its country out of th e sea, start
In 197 1, the Federation had come to a cross-road, a turning point, when a change in emphasis was clearly needed. And so the next 10 years became years of concentration upon promoting the interests of those who man the global system , but not forgetting those who use the system and those who supply the system . The organizational emphasi s progressed from concern for the systems and their users to concern for the controller work-force itself as the integral part of the system. And again
' An enormous task lies ahead of us. The first few years will have to be devoted to the formation of a sound internal administration, with due regard to the very limit ed finan cia l funds . It wo uld be very unrealistic to start tackling all problems at the same time . A good choice has to be made and prioritie s to be determined. The Constitutional Meeting has given the 'c leared to start engines路 . I sincerely hope , that within a reasonable time the 'c leared for take- off' will follow . Although an uninterrupted climb is expected, we all know that a lot can happen before the fl ight is really on its way 路 - L. N. TEKSTRA
IFATCA was fortunate in getting the right leadership at the right time. Financial problems. which had caused the suspension of IFATCA's prestige journal ·,The Controller· further helped to give the impression of a gloomy future. but not for long. The 1972 Dublin Conference was indeed a milestone. Charming but determined. President Manin had started to put his own stamp on the operation. and the Federation has not looked back since. Under his outstanding guidance and diplomacy. ably supported by his colleagues on the Board. the Federation proceeded to go from strength to strength. In 1 9 7 3. the Journal was put back in circulation and soon climbed out of the red into the black. The Board supported Member Associations in their industrial - and other disputes to the hilt; it called a spade a spade. and successes came its way. IFATCA became a group to be reckoned with. That IFATCA's new emphasis was the right one was amply demonstrated by the spectacular climb in membership and by the return to the fold of the few associations which had left earlier because of disenchantment. But uneasy lies the head that wears a crown. and uneasy are sometimes the officials who occupy the executive chairs of the Federation. In some instances. they did not see out their natural or expected terms of service and. possibly prematurely. disappeared from the IFATCA scene with the Federation as the loser. In life. it is not always possible to please everybody and steer clear of controversy. and always to operate within the IFATCA environment to the complete acclaim of employer and fellow controllers alike. Once selected to an IFATCA post. IFATCA comes first and the home environment second, in that order. A few sad chapters have been written in the Federation's annals of officials who for some reason or other fell out with their local set-up; I deplore this. as such occurences are detrimental to the interests of everybody. and I sincerely hope that employers and associations. if they cannot or do not always wish to support their local men in IFATCA in everything they do and say. at least will leave them alone to get on with the task for which they were appointed. The unique IFATCA environment can bring out attitudes and qualities in people which were not always evident in the first place. and which may take time to be understood or appreciated at home. In any case. human beings are not perfect; they are human but usually learn from their mistakes. and invariably they will go on to greater heights if given the opportunity
IFATCA's journal 'The Controller' In its long campaign to achieve global recognition for the controllers· profession. the Federation has made extensive use of its journal. During the first decade. in keeping with the Tekstra era of prestige- and bridge building. a very high technical standard was aimed at and achieved. while in the second decade. in keeping with the Manin approach. the journal vigorously highlighted the many imperfections in the controllers· working environment all over the world. and what the Federation was trying to do to put things right. Perhaps this is an opportune time to take a closer look at the demanding role of IFATCA's editor. his responsibilities and at times rocky paths he follows in the interests of his publication. It is the editor's duty to produce the best possible publication. irrespective of the adverse effects his policies might have on advertising and sales. Management should tend to the finances. the editor to the editorial side of the journal. It can be argued that if the journal is losing money. management cannot escape its share of responsibility. It is there. after all. to manage the journal and to see that losses. if there are losses. are kept within reasonable bounds. However. the editor. aware of his publication·s financial situation. is also duty-bound to keep a firm hand on editorial expenditure and a sharp eye on the effect of the Federation's policies on the journal's fortunes. However. if the acceptance of your publication is adversely affected by its tone. or because it has lost touch with its readers and its market. then it would be wrong for an editor to ignore the consequent loss of readership or revenue. The IFATCA Editor is not a free agent. to do with his journal what he likes; he has a responsibility to the Board and Directors not to jeopardise the journal's position. profitability or future. Nevertheless. in the nature of a production. an editor should have a free hand to comment on events without reference to his management. which has to have complete faith in him and his ability to reflect. in general. the kind of views acceptable to the Directors. An editor should therefore be appointed not only for his experience and expertise but also for his known outlook. You would never have your Federation appointing an editor who does not believe ,n IFATCA or In its mission. Besides acceptability or compatibility of vIewpoInt. there is an unwritten understanding between management and editor about the nature of the publication and the market it is addressing.
I would be very unhappy if I were not able to penetrate the market for which 'The Controller' was intended. And if I were at loggerheads with my management. I would regard my position as untenable. The management on the other hand might make a decision either to ask me to change my policy (which could pose problems. since presumably I could not do so if the request ran contrary to my principles or convictions). or dismiss me. But this is usually hypothetical and extreme. Editors and managements of IFATCA get on well together. because their aims are the same: to put out the best possible publication that will achieve the best possible share of the market in terms of circulation and sales. It is a combined effort that is required of management. editorial. advertising. circulation and printing house. and without it no publication. and the IFATCA journal is no exception. can hope to succeed. While it would be naive to pretend that a journal does not acquire some of the stamp of those who are temporarily charged with stewardship over it. the publication is greater than the men who serve it and it is a foolish person who occupies an editor's chair without proper humility. But editors tend to be blinkered at times. being imbued with a missionary zeal for the cause. not always able to anticipate the consequences. I have. with others. the satisfaction of having contributed to the creation of a climate of IFATCA reform which is now more acceptable than It would have been in the 1960's and early 1970's. The years of my editorship were the most satisfying years of my life. In my own way. I believe I made an impact. maybe not always constructive or balanced. on the thinking of many of my readers; I know that there were some who stopped reading the Journal because they thought I was too radical. too critical of stuck-in-the-mud establishments and outdated attitudes. and far too committed to fostering ordinary controller bread-and-butter interests. But 'The Controller' steadily increased its circle of readers. its sales figures. its advertising revenue until It became virtually self-supporting. And I am positive that the IFATCA Journal. in the next decade and In the next. will continue to forage beyond the frontlines In the search for Justice and proper recognition of the controllers· profession.
Forward into the 1980's Today. IFATCA Is an effective and respected voice in world avIatIon But a Continues on page 36
ofATCtechnology mitter with a travelling wave tube final amplifier to Keeping track of present and future requireprovide a high mean power for long-range ( over 200 ments in air traffic control technology is a specialist NM) surveillance. In addition, LAR-11features multitask. And Signaal, Philips' specialist company in air pulse operation to achieve a very short minimum traffic control, has been doing just that. The result? range performance of less than 0.5 NM, making it A comprehensive programme of high-technology suitable for terminal area sites also. Pulse compresradar equipment which can be integrated to form a sion in the receiver ensures excellent range discrimivariety of customer-defined system configurations, nation. Secondary surveillance radar for positive and and extended or upgraded as circumstances dictate. The advanced LAR-II L-band radar, for example, instantaneous aircraft identification, acquisition of incorporates a synthesizer-controlled coherent trans- altitude information, etc, can also be supplied and
integrated.Processing the vast amount of incoming data and presenting it to the air trafficcontrollerin the most suitable formis anotherSignaal speciality. Software-basedvideo extractors,for example. The primaryextractoris capableofreducing thousands of plots ( caused mostly by "angel"activity) to aircraft tracks only, while the secondaryextractorachieves garble-freedetection of twointerleaved pulse train responses. If required,the system can be configured for moving target detectionby replacingthe primary
Four-colour display reduc es misinterpr etat ions. Comparative tests, carried out in cooperation with the Neth erlands Institute for Perception, proved that misinterpretations were considerably reduced when using Signaal' s new 23 inch multichr omatic (green, red, yellow, orange) bright display. Even under normal light conditions, colour presentation reduced the time taken to scan the screen for specific information , an_d less effort was needed to distinguish different element s on display. A multi-stat ion system,_each station equipped with a 4-c?lour d1s~lay, a minicomputer and a touch mput d~v1ce, has already been ordered by Austna.
extractorwith an MTD sub-system.And to visualize this data, there's a range of radarand electronic data displays extending fromanalog through mixed analog/ digital, fully syntheticand fully bright synthetic to synthetic4-colour. Signaal's radarequipmenthas alreadybeen chosen to formthe nucleus of air trafficcontrolnetworks e.g. in Holland, Paraguay,Singaporeand the United Kingdom.But Philips'total capabilityin aviation goes verymuch further,as the followingexamples illustrate.
Integrated telecommunications. AERO PP, a data switching and dat a handling syst em for aeronauti cal operat ion, permit s grad ual, economic growth: from a sma ll insta llat ion routing low volumes of AFTN traffic to a powerful multi-user centr e prov iding a complete ran ge of aero nauti cal telecommuni cat ions services, including a link to th e flight-plan pr ocessing syste m. Th e system is based on the Philips DS-714 hard ware, well proven in switching centr es of public, private, meteoro logical and aernna utica l communications networks th e world over. If you wa nt to know more, th e book 'Phili ps in Aviat ion' is your s for the as kin g.J ust send your business card or nam e and address to: Philip s Indust ries C.M.S.D., Mark eting Comm uniÂˇ cat ion Av , VOp, Room 22, Eindhov en, Holland.
Total capability from the ground up. By combining th e know-how of our specialist companies we can offer a closely integrated programm e of equipment, syste ms and services to th e Aviation Authmity. Th e progr amme includes : specialised lighting systems for tax iing, take-off, apr on positioning and runw ay approach, as well as indoor and outdoor termina l lighting; navigat ional aids such as ILS, DME and VOR: HF / VHF / UHF and microwave radio communicat ions ; computer -based radar for air traffic control and airport surface movement (ASDE); ter minal sonorisat ion and security syste ms, and a range of services extending from advance study and eva luation of airport requ irements to airport constru ction and commissioning. From equipment design, supply and installation to the supervision and training of operational and technical staff.
Captain Lindberg and his crevv- IFATCA is 21 byJ.-D. Manin, IFATCA President 1972-1978
' Good evening ladies and gentlemen, Captain Charles Lindberg and his first officer Low s Blenot welcom e you on board our Boeing 7 XX7 Our flight across the No rth A tlanti c will last two hours and twent y-five minutes . Will you please refrain from smoking , fasten your seat belts and put your seat back in the fully uprigh t po sition ' A little old man. sitting in the back of th e cabin , called the cabin attendant and asked - ' Is 1t the famous Charles Lindberg of the " Spirit of St Louis'· w ho pilots thi s aircraft ?. - 'Yes ·, the girl said - ' because of th e pilot s· st rike, our wo rld presiden t called on every person w ho at one time or another w ere train ed to pilot airc raft ' - ' But ·. started the old man anxiously. - ' Yo u should not wo rry, co nt inue d the girl . 'o ur presi dent as w ell as t he air traffi c controllers w ho contro l all flights stated tha t flying w as even safer now w ith t he old c haps 26
than with the ordinary pilots '. The old man nodded, took his attache case and requested permission to disembark. But what about the other passengers? Indeed a number of them did not listen to the names of the pilots. Others, who had understood them thought of pure coincidence, but, above all, they were all confident. They trust that their world president and the airline knew best and that they had certainly made the wisest decision and, although precedent existed, they would not believe that their lives were put in jeopardy . At the time I was asked to write an article for 'The Controller ·. I was hesitant between recalling some memories from the six years I was president of the Federation or giving some thoughts on other aspects of the involvement of the president of IFATCA. Then, the strike of our friends in th e US start ed with all too w ell know n immediate results I read,
Larnaca Alfport , 197 7. J-0. Monm (3rd from the left) arnvmg for the Nicosia Annual Conference .
like everybody, declarations of the president of the Airline Pilot's Association , a man I had met under somewhat different circumstances , and others . I was now and then struck with sadness. This is how the above story came to my mind . What happened in 1 981. apart from the fact that it invol ved one of the greatest nations in the world , was not much different from situations the Federation was faced with in the past Let us remember the French strike in 1973. the German go slow that same year, to mention but Just the most important ones during the time of my presidency Each time it goes to the same conclu sion that real te chnical or factual reasoning are not heard but final decisions are purely political
Such decisions cannot normally be accepted by professionals because they are too often based on arguments different from those which are the basis of their profession and. particularly in the case of Air Traffic Controllers. they diverge from the motto ·safety first'. How may air traffic controllers. whose education was based upon ·safety in the air'. accept that politicians transfer their jobs to non qualified and retired people? A controller's basic education needs a minimum of three years. Then. these 'lucky' professionals are subjected to knowledge as well as medical testing yearly. In many countries disciplinary actions are being taken against controllers who are responsible for an airmiss. Further. controllers may be sentenced to prison for professional errors. Maybe some readers will recall the involvement of the Federation in the Zagreb case. How then may it be accepted that politicians may decide that ·safety' is no more the first objective but that politic and economy must have top priority? Who then takes care of the interests of the flying public? I was indeed often told that. when going on strike. controllers were themselves responsible for jeopardising safety in the air and that they should not be permitted to strike. Certainly one may argue on the subject. But experience always shows that strike actions may be prevented provided the parties involved are really willing to settle their common problems. Experience further shows that only when goodwill no more exists and parties involved refuse a dialogue. then a strike situation is likely to occur. Indeed no human being may even just think of the impact of a mid-air collision. although every-one remembers that it already happened when professional controllers were replaced by non qualified personnel. However. it must be considered that all those who pretend that an ATC system may be safe with unqualified personnel are misleading the airspace users and a_resomehow cheating the flying public. Those who sell tickets and transport people when they know that the reliability of the system is reduced do not respe~t the basic contract they offer to their passengers.
over what nowaday remains with man responsibility. To the contrary. I believe that controllers have the responsibility towards the definition of the future of their profession. Only they can indicate how far the machine may relieve men from routine duties and preserve their profession from being made physically and psychologically unbearable. hence the system unreliable again. I am indeed proud that I was able to serve the Federation and participate in its development. Although only those who have worked for IFATCA know about the strain put on them. I may say that these years 1972-78 were a wonderful time. I always felt that the first and invaluable thing the Federation had achieved was real friendship amongst controllers around the world. Upon that friendship
was built. throughout the years. a feeling of unity and solidarity. When I was elected in 197 2. my first thought was that IFATCA. as a grown up body. should at all times be together with those Member Associations experiencing difficulties. Maybe Paul Lacour from the Luxembourg Guild still remembers the chat we had the night before I was elected and where I suggested that the Executive Board could meet in Luxembourg in a first attempt to assist the Guild. I had not measured at the time what a constant involvement it would represent. particularly for an activity done on a purely honorary basis. It is. however. how it all started. And even in circumstances where the only help we could afford was to go and to meet our friends at the other end of the world. this was done. It represented long jourContinues on page 3 1
.. ' ''°• .f •..,•.,~-
} ,._+-=~ i; ;·V'#:i! ,<i'IJ.':_· ;,'
To me. the situation that has developed in this summer 1 981 is really alarming. There are voices who claim more investments to speed up the process of increased automation. In most of the articles read. there is no mention made of the well known man/machine relationship and authors seem to believe that the machine may easily take
ELEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE, DUBLIN, 1972
Corporate Members Dmner lnv1tat1on at the Dublm Conference.
The Royal Jordanian Falcons
' it :
Al ia The Royal Jordanian Airline . is the proud owner of one of the few full -time civilian aerobatic teams in t he wo rld . The Royal Falcon s are the only team of their kind in t he Middle East and the onl y team sponsored by an airlin e. Their purpo se is to represent Jordan at internat io nal aviation event s and demonstrate the abi lity of p lot s in t he Arab wo rld . Of equal importance is the Falco nsÂˇ ro le in promo t ing go od will and interest in their nat ive co untry : a co untry w hose c ulture and ant iqu itie s have been made ava ilab le to all t hrough air tra vel . 28
The Falcon pilots are graduates of the Royal Jordanian Air Academy in Amman and hold Commercial Pilot Licences with Instrument and Multi-engine ratings . They are all 24 years of age and recei ved their basic aerobatic training at the Air Academy in Scottis hbui lt Bulldog aircraft. Since 1978. the Royal Falcons have performed 1n seven countries for well over one million spectator s.
royal jordanian t~alcons ~)
Beginning their sequence with a¼ Clover Leaf , the Hoyal Falcons provide their audience with constant action. Their 15-minute display includes synchronized Hammerhead Turns, Loops , Barrel Rolls and Half Cubans , as well as individual maneuvers.
-f:En-~ --LOOPS IN SEQUENCE
Unlike jet teams, the Falcons must fly their aircraft at maximum power settings . It is therefore important that each pilot maintain proper positioning throughout the entire sequence as extra power is not available to cor rect mistakes in timing . This is especially critical in the Trail Barrel Roll, Individual Loops in Sequence and the Loop Split. Another maneuver in which split -second timing is essential is the thrilling Knife Edge Pass, where the aircraft flown by Lead and No. 3 approach each other head-on at a closure rate in excess of 300 MPH. Rolling 90 degrees to the horizon they pass, canopy to canopy, at croVlld center.
The S -2A is a strong, reliable aircraft and was designed specifically for aerobatics. PoV1tered by a 200-HP Lycoming engine, the S -2A has a cruise speed of 152 MPH, redline speed of 203 MPH, stall speed of 58 MP H and a rate of climb of 1900 feet per minute. The aircraft vveighs 1000 pounds and is stressed to + 6 and -4 ' G'. The tubular steel fuselage and wood wings are covered with dacron fabric.
HANI ZUM OT, Leader
The Falcons fly three Pitts S-2A high-performance biplanes in their formation display-two-seat models of the famous Pitts Special that has continually dominated aerobatic competition throughout the world.
aerobatic display team
AD NAN TAKR URI, No . 2
TRAIL BARRELL ROLL
¼ CLOVER LEAF
FORM AT ION LOOP
JALAL KATTAB, No. 3
,~~·~ - . _::.
Twenty-one Years after Amsterdam by Arnold Field (Ex President)
) .... The Editor asked me. as a Past President of IFATCA. if I would consider contributing an article for publication in 'The Controller· on the occasion of the 21 st anniversary of the founding of the Federation . In considering what form the article should take. the anecdotes of office come first to one's mind . such as. for example. that hilarious Dublin Conference where the hotel was still in the course of construction and where one delegate was overheard to ask. most politely, if he could have a window in his room - curtains there were. but wi ndow. no . I canno t recall whether or not he ever did get his window . but the characteristic sense of humour of the hard-pressed Irish Association and the good natured response of all delegates (particularly my good friends from the Marseilles and Bordeau x ACCs) ensur ed that both the business and social events of the Conference were success fully completed In fa ct so impressed w ere th e hotel management at the
manner in which the international delegation had accepted the circumstances that they gave the Conference a cocktail party as an expression of their appreciation . I admit that today the business to be conducted at conferences is such that similar circumstances could not be tolerated. but we did the work and it was fun and I'm glad I was around . (President. if my memory serves me correctly .) Still searching for a theme I then began wondering what else had changed I recalled that I was asked to write a paper for a Seminar entitled 'The history, aims and objects of !FA TCA and its approach to the future · and in re-reading the paper find. that in summing up the Constitutional Conference held in Amsterdam in October 1961 I wrote 'The spirit of this Constitutional Conference can be summed up by the First Article of the Convention which it ratified. it reads - ''The parties hereto bind themselves to promote, maintain and enhance the stature of the air traf -
From left: Walter Endlich. Gunnar Attenholm , Geoffrey Monk. Arnold Field (President Greek A TCAJ. Dick Campell, Horst Guddat
fie control profession and to develop and disseminate knowledge of the control of air traffic in all its phases and applications." · Today , 21 years later that statement may sound pompous and idealistic but readers should bear in mind that one of the prime objectives of those founder member associations was to create a 'profession· out of a 'job-ofwork' and to give them credit they very nearly made it . On reading further through the paper I realise I could jUSt as easily have summed up the spirit of the conference by looking at the 'Aims and Objectives· and selecting 'To protect and safeguard the interests of the Air Traffic Control Profession.· However, those who know me in IFATCA realise that I have a 'blind-spot'
in interpreting what is meant by this phrase - but when I hear Radio and TV commentators quoting IFATCA resolutions as justification. for doubtless wellintentioned support. by one Member Association for another. maybe I did get it wrong. maybe. But then. referring again to the · Aims and Objectives·. there is one that says: 'To promote. safety. efficiency and regularity in International Air Navigation.' In the light of recent events I wonder how this is intended to be interpreted? But before anyone rushes into print. I am astute enough to recognise that as 'Tweedledum· said to 'Tweedledee· - 'it is intended to mean what I intend it to mean·. However. change and the ability to be able to adapt to change is a requirement for survival and I think that looking back over the years those 'gentlemen of Amsterdam· can reasonably be proud that they created an international body that has not only survived but has become accepted as a force in international aviation affairs. How the power which goes with this international acceptance is to be used. depends much upon the collective commonsense. and maturity of those members of the Federation who hold the stewardship of office. Theirs is a difficult task. particularly when compounded by emotional partisan interests. The Federation can be justifiably proud that its present Officers demonstrably discharge their duties in a truly international manner and in keeping with the aspirations of Amsterdam.
Non-stop DC-8 Flight Gander to Ljubljana An lnex Adria Airways McDonnell Douglas · Super so· jetliner flew recently non-stop from Gander. Newfoundland. across the Atlantic Ocean to Ljubljana. Yugoslavia. a distance of 314 7 st mls (5064 km). The · Super 80' was delivered to lnex Adria at the Douglas Aircraft Company facility in Long Beach before flying to Gander. It is a 'Model 82', with higher-thrust engines and higher gross weight than the basic · Super 80'. The flight from Gander to Ljubljana took just over six hours. Takeoff weight was 128.046 lb (58.071 kg). Fuel burn ot,1 the flight was 35.059 lb (15,900 kg). and the 'Super so· landed with 5 51 2 lb (2 500 kg) of fuel remaining. The plane carried its crew. lnex Adria employees and employees of Douglas Aircraft. a total of 33 persons.
'Captain Lindberg and his crew' and other related systems may not continued from page 2 7
neys. hours flying, short rests. (It is from that time that for Ted Bradshaw and myself a · Brasilian rest' will always mean ten minutes sleep after about 26 hours flying). But it all was rewarding in return and there are many memories that may never be forgotten. Still. and even more today, the Federation has to struggle for the safeguard of the ATC profession. The US strike has again proved. if it was ever necessary, that controllers are lonely in their struggle for recognition. Politicians fear to agree with any special status amongst their civil servants and they almost always believe there is no alternative for controllers than being civil servants. Pilots. although the ATC profession. in many aspects. is complementary to theirs·. are reluctant to support the controllers· basic claims. The public. who suffer the inconveniences of controllers· social actions. have only little sympathy and. last but not least. airlines. whose primary objective is the economy of flights. only rarely accept to support controllers. The Federation and Member Associations· action towards changing IATA 200 is a good example. Because of this situation. controllers have to further strengthen the solidarity and unity within the Federation. Recently I heard controllers asking what IFATCA was doing to assist their US colleagues. They only had forgotten that they are /FA TCA and that the Federation may only be as strong as its affiliated Member Associations and individual members are prepared to be. Solidarity
I have at repeated intervals in the past mentioned that further development of the activities of the Federation would only be possible with a well settled permanent secretariat and full time staff. Voluntary efforts have their limits and again those who have not been involved with the activities of the Executive Board may not imagine the strain and burden put upon those individuals who have accepted the task and indeed upon their families. Solidarity and unity cannot be empty words and they should at all times be kept in mind by the Member Associations and their individual members. One of the main problems of the Federation is its finances. In today's world. there are only limited possibilities without the necessary financial back-up. So what? It is necessary that those controllers in the healthiest countries of the world realise that subscription sliding scales
work as long as. in some other countries the IFATCA subscription represents the need for the every day bread of the controllers· families. Would. for instance. individual members of the developed countries (about 25 OOO) be prepared to sponsor to the Federation twenty US dollars each? It would for them represent only a number of beers. bourbons or whiskies less but would permit the Federation to buy the necessary premises and establish a permanent secretariat. Would further these controllers be prepared to raise their subscriptions in order to cover the salaries of the permanent staff (about five US dollars each a year)? If it was possible. then the normal subscription rate would further cover the functioning of the Federation. Then. there would be a balance between developed and developing countries. No. I do not believe this is a dream. If the members of IFATCA started thinking about their real responsibilities towards each other; if they accepted that solidarity needs some efforts towards their underpriviledged colleagues and. above all. if they believed that IFATCA. after 2 1 years of existence. needs to be further developed; then I am certain that the real recognition we all aim at would soon be achieved.
U.S. Ordered to Pay For Unreliable Nav Aid United States District Judge James Battin of Montana. temporarily assigned to Oregon. has ordered the United States Government to pay $806.500 to the widow of one of six persons killed on January 15. 1978 in a plane crash in the mountainous area fifteen miles northwest of the Medford Airport in Oregon. A twin engine Piper Aztec crashed during an approach. and evidence showed that the Federal Aviation Administration knew. prior to the accident. that the NDB beacon was operating abnormally and the FAA failed to warn the pilot of the aircraft of the beacon· s lack of reliability prior to his making his descent from which the aircraft crashed. The Court found the pilot equally liable because he was operating the aircraft IFR without a working automatic pilot and without a second in command; had deviated from his air traffic control clearance without authority; and had changed the aircraft's heading and descended to a dangerously low altitude before the crash. 31
Women in Aviation by Carolynn Moore*
'Women 1n aviation are handicapped in three maior ways. To begin with, very few women are mechanically inclined and flying involve s more than a smattering of mechanical knowledge. and then there's physiqu e. Women are not built for heavy carrying, and flying, especially for a small company. can be more arduous than you could imagine. Wh ile these generalised reasons could be overcome. there is an intangible third reason - customer resistance. The old fallacy and fear of women drivers is still very strong. regardless of what they are driving, and airline companies are not prepared to risk frightening their passengers out of the plan.· Quote · New Zealand Herald ' 1969 . As little as twel ve years ago, the field of aviation was still believed to be one of masculine dom ination only , and yet a view historicall y shows that wom en played an important and significant role and are continui ng to broaden aviation horizons . Women have been flying since the dawn of aviation and have played an important role in its history from the day Mrs Thible of Franc e went up in an air balloon at Lyon in 1784 . In 1930 Amy Johnson previousl y unknown and unheralded became the first woman to fly from Britain to Darwin . America 's Amelia Earhart was the first woman to fly solo acr oss the Atlant ic leaving Newfoundland 1n May
1932 . In 1934 New Zealand born Jean Batten flew solo to Australia. then back to England the following year; she was t he first woman to achieve this . In 1935 she set a wor ld record for the historical flight in the Percival Gull monoplane from England to Brazil lowering t he prev iously set record by a whole day. In 19 3 6 she set another world record 1n her flight from Eng land to Auck-
· Carolynn works as a Tower Controller for mo re than a year at Ardm ore Tow er. serving as satellit e a,rf,eld of Au ckl an d.
land . This record was held for forty-four years only to be broken by British solo flier Judith Chisholm who broke the record by four days eleven hours and fifteen minutes in November of last year. Instructors In World War II women volunteers flew during the war as members of the Air Transport Au xiliary . They flew new and damaged aircraft from the factories to various squadron s. There were four New Zealanders among the group of 100 women pilots who flew from dawn to dusk each day . They flew anything from four engined bombers to seaplanes and Spitfires throughout Britain . However . women did not fly in combat roles during the war . Diversi ty is the key to post war aviation . Women have become involved in a variety of aviation fields . The first New Zealander to qualify for an instructors rating was Helen Fitton from Wanganui 1n 196 3 In 1966 she won the Australian Womens · gliding distance record . for a flight of 350 miles and of seven hours duration . She now comma nds a
Britten Norman Islander engaged in a mineral survey programme in Australia . Increasing numbers of women are gaining PPLs. CPLs and instructors ratings; flying helicopters. gliders and engaged in parachuting . In 1979. a Matamata woman. Audrey Jackman . became the first woman to begin a parachuting school. Both she and her daughter instruct, and Audrey has competed in several International parachute competitions. Pam Lock Collings of Christchurch is the New Zealand aerobatic champion and is the first to compete in flying Olympics in the Eastern Bloc and in the United States of America . Mrs Phyllis Harpin in 1959 became the worlds first topdressing pilot working in Taumaranui and Wellington districts for about two years . The driving force behind continued growth and diversification of feminine involvement in New Zealand aviation is undoubtedly due to the work of Rhona Fraser of Wellington in founding the New Zealand Airwoman·s Association . This organisation has as its patroness Jean Batten and is a body which fosters friend ship between women pilots and encourages them to extend their experience in a chosen aeronautical sport or profession . The growth of womens · interest in aviation is reflected in the association membership . When formed 18 years ago it had 24 member s. In 1981 it had 320 members To provide an incentive for members to sharpen their skills. the association holds an annual rally which include s competitions for flying , gliding and parachut ing . The contests cover all stages .of flying with sections for students who have yet to solo right through to professional commercial pilots . Female Assistants In the area of air traffic co ntrol . New Zealand's first female assistants began work in major aerodromes in 1959. but it w as not until 197 7 that New Zealand had its first woman co ntr oller . However. during the war Ruth Morns car-
month training as an adult entrant. She had succeeded in breaking the sexist barrier. paving the way for female applicants to be accepted in both cadet and adult entrant courses . The adult entrant course provides a 3 month training scheme for applicants with at least commercial pilot licence or similar previous aviation experience . The cadet entrant scheme, on the other hand , is now a two and a half year course for applicants with PPL or less flying experience. Cadets
Sarah Caldwell, Tower.
ried out assistant dut ies at Christ church airport both during World War II and in the post war period when New Zealand had a staffing shortage of air traffic co ntr ollers. She and male assistants we re permitted to carry out aerodrome co ntrol in the presence of a licenced contro ller Many of the male assistants eventually became controllers themselves, but Ruth . becau se of her sex was refused the opportunity to become a con troll er. and remained an assistant until 1976 . Victo ria Hyde. an ex-RAF con tr oller wi th five years experience applied in 1 9 7 6 and reached the pre-selection stage. competing for entry along with 1 9 ot hers for 10 position s. She was the only one with previous controlling exper ience among the appli ca nts. w ho we re mainl y ex-RNZAF pilots and navigators . She was unsucce ssful in her application due to the fact that the MOT / CAD had never previously co nside red accepting women The offi cia l reasons at the time we re that women were not allowed to work after certain hours at night. thus not being available for all shift s At some airports. e.g . Hami lton. th ere are no toilet facilities or rest room fac iliti es for wo men These reasons now seem rather weak excuses to exclud e the fair sex. Eventuall y after co rrespondi ng with the Ombudsman . Mrs Hyde was accepted and in 197 7 commenced her 3
In 1977 Robina Dobbie was the first woman to be accepted as a cadet . There are now five rated women co ntrollers in New Zealand and more currently being trained . Women are certainly holding the ir own in the Air Traffic Control environment . In 1978 Jan Everest was the first woman to fly for a commercial airline in New Zealand . She gained both her inst rument and multi-eng ine instrument ratings and was accepted as a pilot for Air Central, a third level airline with its operations based at Napier . She was also the first woman to be accepted into the ALPA organisation . which until then , was very much the male bastion of the flying profe ssion . In 1 9 7 9 two women broke barriers and triumphantly led the way for women pilots in Air New Zealand . Sue Truman probably one of the most highly academically qualified pilots in A ir New Zealand. has a doctorate in engineer ing. Jan Everest had previously applied four times and was successful due to her experience with Air Central. They were the fir st two women in a traine e group with eleven men . There are now three women flying for Air New Zealand as fir st officers on friendsh ip aircr aft. There is a final barrier in New Zealand aviat ion yet to be conquered by women . W ome n are as yet prohibited from flyi ng in a combat role in the RNZAF The poli cy is that wo men co uld not manage some of the physically arduous work involved in some types of milit ary flying . Wom en suppo sedly have a low employment retention rate . With a lot of hard work and determi nati on wome n have proved and are continu ing to prove th eir skill and pro fessionalism in the wor ld of aviation . They must often exhibit superior dexter ity and achievement to be considered equa l wi th their male co unterparts .
Acknowledgements . The Secretary of the NZA WA. Edith Robm son The library staff at MOTA T for their assistance m research for this paper .
Quiet DC-8 ' Series 71' Begins Flight Test Programme The first re-engined McDonn ell Douglas DC-8 ' Series 71 · is about to complete a six-month flight te st programme with a five-hour maid en flight on August 1 5 . Equipped with its quiet and fuel-efficient CFM-56 engines. the sleek. fourengine jetliner belonging to Un ited A irlines is the first of more than 135 DCSs earmarked for the re-engining programme directed by Cammac orp of El Segundo , California . McDonnell Douglas has responsib ility for engineering, engine installation. flight testing and certification of the ' Series 70 ' DC-Bs. Grumman Aerospace produces the engine nacelles and Garrett AiResearch is responsible for the environmental control systems. A 317-hour flight test programme leadin g to Federal Aviation Admin istra tion Certification of the 'Se ries 7 1 · for airline operations wil l be conducted at Dougla s Aircraft Company 's Yuma. Arizona flig ht test facility Cert ification flight testi ng ' Series 7 2 · and '7 3 · DC8s began at Yuma late last year following engine installation at the McDonnell Doug las plant in Oklahoma . The CFM-5 6 engines. produced by CFM International. a joint company of SNECMA of France and Genera l Electric , USA, have completed a series of initia l test flights A version of the CFM56 was successfull y tes1 flown on the McDonnell Douglas YC-1 5 STOL (Short Takeoff and Land ing) prototype cargo transport produced for the US Air Force. Based on these and other tests Cammacorp estimates the re-engined 'Ser ies 70 ' DC-Bs wi ll reduce the noise impact around airports by 70 per cent and will provide operators with an annual saving of 1 million to 1 .5 million gallons of fuel per aircraft . More than 5 50 DC-Bs were built and about 240 are cons idered candi dates for re-engining . These were initiall y delivered as the long bod y · Super 60s · car rying up to 259 passengers over ranges in excess of 5000 nautical miles . Initial test flight of the ' Series 7 1 · DC-8 was the first of the new CFM-5 6 engines on a production aircraft . Dougla s Test Pilot Phil Battaglia said the crew was able to complete its full test schedule, w hich included the airworthiness check and engine evaluations throughout the flight enve lope . ·we were pleased with the a1rc raff s performance and didn 't not ice anything unusual. We ' ll be studying the fligh t test data very carefull y. · Battaglia said .
Integration of remote Radars in the ATC Region Centre of Rome by B. Land/no·
This system went into operation on the 2 nd of December 1 9 7 7. The basic philosophy of the ATCAS was to introduce the automation of single functions at various levels after an adequate period of testing. with a gradual shift from the old to the new methods. and with the possibility of resorting. wholly or in part. to simpler configurations in case of failure (homogeneous back-up). The ATCAS went into operation ensuring ·zero Level' performances. among which the most important are: 2 radar heads integrated (Selenia ATCR-2 and Marconi 264. both installed in Fiumicino) Monoradar SSA tracking Mode-code to call-sign association Hand over Operational room reconfiguration Homogeneous back-up Data recording. The implementation of ATCAS and the solution of all these problems were
This paper describes the programme of integration of four remote radars in the original structure of ATCAS system (Air Traffic Control Automated System). As background of this system-description. it may be useful to outline the present architecture of the ATCAS system.
2. ATCAS System For control purposes. the Italian airspace is divided into three regions: the FIRs (Flight Information Regions) of Rome. Milan and Brindisi. To ensure a high level of safety and regularity in the Rome FIR. which is the most crowed Italian area. the ATCAS (Air Traffic Control Automated System) was designed and implemented. • 8 Landmo presented this paper at the West European !FA TCA Conference 12-14 November 198 1 ,n Rome
entrusted to a consortium the following companies: SELENIA (prime contractor) IBM lraly CGE/FIAR
In addition to being responsible for the system and for the handling of the project. SELENIA has designed and manufactured the data presentation subsystem. (both radar and alphanumeric). IBM has supplied the data processing centre and relative programs. CGE has provided the communications part. The general block diagram of ATCAS is shown in Fig. 1 . The system was dimensioned to integrate five radar heads (each a pair of primary-secondary radar) connected to the system via wideband radio links. The ATCAS system performed therefore all the signal processing (extraction. combination) preserving the poss1b1htyto display raw videos too.
r------------, I TLC ROOM I I
I coM~~:;~:~10Ns m::~·:~:~::oMM I I I L ___________ ...J RADIO
SYNTHETIC OAT A
I I I
INPUT FOR ATS MESSAGES
I TECHNICAL ROOM t.:; ____
I I I
r-----------, Figure I A TCAS General Block Diagram
I I I
--, ___,_........,__.___, I I DATA PROCESSING SYSTEM
L!:A2':.P~O~~S_!!'J~ ~~~ J
Figure 2 - Radar Coverage
The most significant equipments in Selenia radar presentation subsystem were: Consoles 74 PPI 43 Extractors 4 Synthetic central units 15 Video distribution units 11 GP16 minicomputers (64 Kbyte central memory) 8 CDG-3032 main frame computers (128 Kbyte central memory) 3
3. Remote Radars Integration Systeme The five radar heads to be integrated in ATCAS were. in the beginning of the programme: 1. Selenia ATCR-2 Fiumicino 2. Marconi long range radar Fiumicino 3. Selenia ATCR-3T Fiumicino 4. Selenia long range radar P. Lecceta 5. Selenia long range radar M. Stella to ensure radar coverage of Tirrenian area. with adequate overlap with radar coverage of Milan ACC.
Figure 3 - Remote Radars lntegratt0n
r----------:, _.- .......I: r-------, I :
DATA ANO MESSAGES
Due to legal difficulties in building radar sites. only the first two radar heads were integrated. via radio link. In 1977. (The third will be integrated in 1983). In the meantime the need for an added radar coverage over Sardinia and Sicily was defined in order to have a complete coverage of Rome FIR with an adequate overlap between the radar coverage of the various sites. As consequence. the necessity to integrate the two following radar heads was recognized (see Fig. 2): Selenia ATCR-2 M. Codi (East Sardinia) Selenia long range radar Island of Ustica (North Sicily). The long distance between radar heads and ATCAS pressed for narrow band integration. Therefore the Italian Air Force awarded Selenia a contract to study and implement a system to integrate the radar heads of P. Lecceta. M. Codi. M. Stella and Ustica in ATCAS. The system is already installed and the integration. as outlined in the contract. will be completed in the middle of 1982. with the exception of Ustica where the radar site will be completed in two to three years. After an adequate evaluation period. the system will go into operation.
4. System Structure In the radar heads (see Fig. 3) the operations of extraction. combination and filtering of radar data are performed by a fully duplicated system composed of extractors and minicomputers. The following data are transmitted on duplicated telephone lines at 2400 bits/ s: radar data - alphanumeric data The transm1ss1on protocol Is HOLE and Is implemented with microprocessors. Radar data are divided in primary. secondary, combined plots. and angular sector informations. Technical remote control is also foreseen. A dedicated interface in the minicomputer monitors the status as outlined In the radar and processing equipments control panels and transmits informations together with radar data. In the same telephone line to the ATCAS where they are displa1ed. on video terminal. for the technical supervisors This structure el1m1nates the need for a separate telecontrol transmIttIng system and related telephone lines. In the ATCAS system. data coming from four remote sites are fed In parallel to two interface units called UFE-70, one as spare to the other.
The units analize received messages. process and send them to the UCP units (Presentation Central Unit) that belongs to the basic ATCAS. Radar data. integrated in broadband. after extraction. also arrive to UCP.
5. Future To improve the utilization of available integrated radar coverage. a new
function of multiradar integration will be implemented. The basic principles will be: Tracking based on SSA data. Primary radar video utilized to improve precision. Multiradar tracking based on informations available from different radars. Display of radar tracks. Display of raw video for terminal area radar only.
'IFATCA: 21 years of effective expression' continued from page 23
wider penetration is still needed before we can claim that our mission has been realized throughout the world. And that wider penetration will be the most difficult to achieve. but achieve it we must. We still badly need to get through to the average man-in-the-street. and it is that man's support which is indispensable to us. The difficulty is that our numbers are too small to speak to the imagination of the public at large. but until we shed. once and for all. that mysterious back-room image. we shall remain the 'forgotten men of civil aviation It is therefore controller actions such as strikes. go-slowÂˇs. etc .. however Justified. which antagonize and alienate the air travelling public. will not help our cause one bit. What I mean was very clearly demonstrated not so long ago at the Lyon Conference when the Mayor of France's second largest city said that before IFATCA had come to Lyon. he did not know anything about ATC and those who had made it their profession. but that he had now started to realize what an important and demanding career it was. 'You must go out into the street. among the public.Âˇ was his advice. Apart from this ignorance. we are unfortunately also still troubled by a different form of indifference. namely: employer opposition. I ncred1bly. in this day and age. we still have the occupant of the highest civil aviation post In a modern western country proclaim in a press interview that Air Traffic Control is not a profession. and that therefore nothing much can be done for us. Such employer opposItIon. and it is nothing else - and there are other examples Is a degree of vIcIousness which I find unable to comprehend. but it illustrates another area where we still have to do home-work. What we now need. from all air traffic controllers the world over. is more support for IFATCA. not only materially but also through personal willingness
and ambition to come forward and volunteer for nomination to IFATCA posts. Controlling is a young man's profession and more young people are needed to replace older colleagues who have done their share for the Federation. Above all. we must keep our journal going. and continue to hold our conferences annually. These two platforms have in the past - and will continue to do in the future - done more than any other activities to bring home to those who matter. including our neighbours in our street and the people in the shop around the corner who still believe that we are airline employees who enjoy such perks as free air travel. that we must have justice. Justice. which. in 1982. is long overdue.
McDonald Douglas Wins Directed Verdict In Defective Cockpit Design Litigation McDonald Douglas won a direct verdict by a Federal Court Judge in the Northern District of California in a case arising out of a mid-air collision between a Hawker Siddeley Trident Three and a McDonald Douglas DC-9 that occurred at 33.000 feet above Zagreb. Yugoslavia on September 10. 1 9 7 6. Both aircraft. which were under positive control, collided without taking any evasive action. The plaintiffs theory was that the cockpit windshield posts In the DC-9 were oversized in violation of the Federal Aviation Regulations. and that the center windshield panel was too small. which constituted a design defect and which approximately caused the m1d-a1rcollision because It obscured the DC-9 crew's view of the Trident Three. This information was supplied by Edward W. Green of San Francisco. California. attorney for McDonald Douglas.
The Americas Regional Conference of IFATCA (Lima. 9-1 2 September 1 981)
Address of the ILO Observer 1 . As the official responsible for the activities of the International Labour Office in the field of air traffic control. I am honoured to address the Fourth IFATCA Regional Conference for North. Central and South America. On behalf of the Director-General of the ILO. I should like to thank the President of the Conference for having invited the ILO to be represented here. and wish the participants every success in their work. 2. The ILO's involvement in the conditions of work and employment of air traffic controllers started with the publication in 1963 of an article entitled Âˇconditions of Employment in Air Traffic Control ServicesÂˇ. This article was followed by the publication in 19 7 2 of a study on conditions of employment and service of air traffic controllers. in collaboration with ICAO on technical and operational matters and on the basis of information provided by twenty governments. EUROCONTROL. and several air traffic controller professional organisations including IFATCA. 3. A close relationship has developed between ILO and IFATCA over the years. and it has been of great value to the ILO. The most tangible and impressive expression of this relationship could be seen 1nthe ILO Meeting of Experts on Problems concerning Air Traffic Controllers. held in Geneva from 8 to 1 6 May 197 9. Prior to that meeting. IFATCA. its member associations and air traffic controllers and ATC authorities from about 40 countries had supplied the ILO with material on the working conditions prevailing in the various national and international ATC systems. 4. As you know. the meeting gathered about 80 participants representing governments. controllers and 1nternat1onal organisations from all over the world. It discussed a wide range of problems affecting air traffic controllers. and adopted a report. to which are
appended 52 conclusions embodying the experts' recommendations. For the benefit of those who have not the opportunity to familiarise themselves with the document. a short summary of the main points of the conclusions could be useful.
Industrial Relations 5. Regarding industrial relations. the experts emphasised the right of controllers to establish and join organisations of their own choosing without previous authorisation. urging governments to ratify and apply the relevant international labour conventions. Controllers should participate in the determination of their conditions of work and in the discussion of the technical aspects of the ATC system. 6. Regarding the social and labour aspects of ATC systems. the experts stated that a civil ATC system is preferable to a military one in areas where civil air traffic normally predominates or where civil airspace is clearly defined. and that controllers whould not be replaced by personnel who do not have the required national or international qualifications. 7. Concerning hours of work. the experts noted that long working hours and inadequate rest periods are potential threats to air safety, that limitations on hours of work and minimum rest periods established in consultation with the controllers should be preferably enforceable by law. They recommended what such limitations should be and stated that overtime should be avoided. 8. Regarding remuneration. age of retirement and pensions the experts recognised the unique character of the ATC profession. that remuneration should be commensurate with the professionÂˇ s respons1b11it1es and that its impact on staffing levels and turnover be taken into account when determining
its level. They concluded that an early age of retirement for controllers should be recognised for controllers without penalties on their pension benefits.
Occupational Safety 9. In occupational safety. health and welfare the experts called for comprehensive studies and research in which controllers should be involved from the start. especially regarding stress. its causes and its impact on controllers. They also called for a comprehensive medical examination system for controllers. 10. As to legal liabilities. the experts recommended that every country should consider establishing an incident reporting system which does not penalise or sanction the controller. except in cases of dereliction of duty. disregard for the law and gross negligence. Controllers should be entitled to representation from their representative organisations when involved in the investigation of incidents or accidents. They alsO" recommended that each country should pass legislation to abolish independent civil liabilities of controllers where these exist. or grant them adequate protection and counsel otherwise. 11. Manpower. staffing and career planning should take account of seasonal fluctuations and other technical and human factors affecting the staffing levels of ATC pos1t1ons. 12. Regarding training and retraining. the experts defined the desirable recruitment age. and the basic training programme consisting of three phases before licensing. They recommended familiarisation flights. refresher courses and retraining courses prior to introducing new equipment or procedures. as well as a system of regular proficiency checking for controllers. They also recommended that a spec1f1c instructor rating or qualif1cat1on level should be established as a d1st1nct category of controller to facilitate the proper selection of high quality instructors.
Employment Security 13. In employment security, the experts recommended employer sponsored loss of license insurance schemes and second career programmes. Last but not least the experts 1nv1tedthe I LO Governing Body to consider placing on the agenda of the lnternat1onal Labour Conference the question of cond1t1ons of work of controllers with a view to the adoption of an appropriate international instrument. 14 Since the meeting. the ILO has also received several queries and requests from one government and sev-
eral controllers· professional organisations. concerning the application of the conclusions. and the problems they have encountered in using them. In the light of this information. I believe it would be useful to give an explanation on the nature of ILO meetings of experts and the status of their conclusions. 15. ILO meetings of experts are ad hoe and their composition and purposes are always defined by the Governing Body in advance. The latter decided to convene a meeting of experts on problems concerning air traffic controllers in response to a unanimous recommendation of the Preparatory Meeting for Civil Av1at1on which took place in Geneva in October 1 9 7 4. 16. Persons appointed to serve as members of a meeting of experts or advisory panel by the Governing Body serve In their personal capacity as experts and act and speak in their expert capacity. not as representatives of any government. group. or other interest. This was also mentioned in the letter of InvItatIon to the experts to attend the Meeting of Experts on Problems concerning Air Traffic Controllers.
Members of Meetings 1 7. In appointing persons to serve as members of meetings of experts or advisory panels the Governing Body Is guided by the following three cntena which are of the highest importance for ensuring the authontat1ve character of the conclusions reached by them: a) securing the highest possible level of qual1f1cat1onsin the meeting of panel as a whole; b) securing a balanced representation of different parts of the world and different points of view In the composItIon of the meeting or panel; and c) securing the fullest and most appropriate use of the expert knowledge and experience available in employers· and workers· circles. 18. Nominations are submitted to the Governing Body by the D1rectorGeneral. Before seeking proposals or suggestions for such nominations. the Director-General consults the officers of the Governing Body as to the composItIon of the meeting of experts. In 1978. before the nominations procedure had started for the meeting of experts on problems concerning air traffic controllers. the sItuatIon in most countries was that ministries or other government bodies were in charge of all aspects of air traffic control. In a few countries public enterprises - airport authorities or telecommun1cat1on companies - held the concession for the operational and adm1nistrat1ve aspects
of air traffic control. while financial decisions were under government control. Only in Mexico and Switzerland air traffic control was in the hands of private companies. By the time the meeting of experts was convened. the Government of Mexico had dissolved the private company and transferred the controllers into the civil service.
Meetings of Experts 1 9. The Officers of the Governing Body therefore decided on a bipartite composition of 1 5 experts nominated on the proposal of governments after appropriate consultations. and 15 experts nominated after consultation with the Workers· group of the Governing Body. Moreover. the government of any country where air traffic control services were run by private bodies was asked to invite such bodies to no~inate the expert. · 20. The formal terms of reference of meetings of experts. as stated in the introduction of the ILO working document prepared for the meeting. are to advise the Director-General and the Governing Body of the ILO on a technical subject. The agenda of the Meeting of Experts on Problems concerning Air Traffic Controllers. as determined by the Governing Body. consisted of a single item: · Problems of Air Traffic Controllers: Identification and possible solutions·. 21 . The purpose of the meeting. as defined by the Governing Body, was thus to provide a forum for discussion at which. thanks to the best available expert advice. problem areas in the terms and condition of employment of air traffic controllers could be identified and possible means of solving these problems could be suggested. 2 2. The report adopted by the meeting of experts inter aha contains a summary record of the discussion. and a set of conclusions. Many of the conclusions are statements of fact. Others point out possible areas for further research to be carried out by the competent authorities. for example the governments or the international mganisatIons concerned. including the ILO. Yet others suggest possible solutions. or consultations aiming at defining solutions at the national level.
Effect of Conclusions 2 3. Such reports and the conclusions which they contain are not adopted by the Governing Body in the sense of making the conclusions its own; they are submitted to the Governing Body for information. In the particular case of the Report of the Meeting of Experts on
Problems concerning Air Traffic Controllers the Governing Body took note of it and authorised the Director-General to communicate 'these texts to the governments of members states. informing them that it had taken note thereof and requesting them to transmit them to the employers· and workers· organisations concerned'. The Director-General was also authorised to collaborate with international bodies in exploring and pursuing action to be taken on the conclusions adopted by the meeting and to take account of the meeting's reports and conclusions when considering future ILO action in this field. but the Governing Body did not and could not call on the Director-General to invite governments to act on or to give effect to the conclusions in question other than those specifically covered by International Labour Conventions. such as freedom of association and protect1o_nof the right to bargain collectively. This does not mean that the meeting's conclusions should be disregarded from the outset when conditions of work are determined for air traffic controllers. 24. The conclusions themselves do not constitute international labour standards or guidelines. but are essentially suggestions for further consideration and action at the national and international levels which should be looked at by all parties concerned.
Legal Obligations 25. Under the ILO Constitution the only form of standard which can result in binding legal obligations on governments - and then only upon ratification - is the international labour convention. International labour recommendations are also international labour standards adopted by the International Labour Conference pursuant to the ILO Constitution. but they do not have force of law and are not susceptible to ratification. although they do have certain legal consequences. Conclusions of expert meetings. however. have neither legal effect nor legal consequences. Such weight and significance as they have - and this of course may be considerable - derive from the scientific and moral authority of the participating experts. · 26. The ILO has collected information on the impact that these conclusions have at the national level from several IFATCA member associations and other sources such as the specialised press. This information is necessarily sketchy. and incomplete. as we have not been regularly informed on whether these conclusions were considered useful for governments and controllers for determining the controllers· condi-
tions of work and whether or how they were implemented. Nevertheless. I believe that it usefully illustrates the varying degrees of success with which the conclusions have been used in various countries as a guide in connection with ATC problems. It also shows that the impact and the use of the conclusions depend on the conditions of work in your particular countries. and the relevance attached to the conclusions in the light of your conditions. Indeed. a working paper evaluating the results of an IFATCA survey on the outcome of the ILO meeting submitted last year to the Nineteenth IFATCA Annual Conference in Toronto. shows that although in some countries the controllers enjoy conditions of work which go beyond the meeting's recommendations. in many others their implementation would lead to a real improvement in the air traffic controllers· conditions.
Australian Controllers 2 7. The Australian controllers reported that the I LO conclusions played a significant role in persuading the Public Service Board in December 1 9 7 9 to rule in favour of early retirement and improved pension benefits for controllers - something they had been unable to obtain for the preceding ten years. The ILO conclusions were also used for manpower planning and the government was reported to be proceeding with a complete review of staffing and overtime levels in Australia. and to be changing the staffing formula to a figure close to that submitted by controllers. The controllers also reported that the government would. negotiate an agreement on the lim1tat1on of hours of work for controllers. The conclusions were also used during the introduction of automation into ATC. to enable the controllers to obtain full consultation with the government in this respect. 28. In Canada. the government has set up a Joint technical committee for ATC early in 1980. whose terms of reference are specifically based on the relevant recommendations of the ILO meeting. It aims at a regular exchange of views and consultation between management and controllers on the technical requirements and problems of Canadian ATC. 2 9. The El Salvador Association has quoted the conclusions almost in full in its submission to the government for improved professional recognition. The ILO received no information on further developments. In Fiji. the report was used to redress certain grievances. It 1s not known to the ILO what these were. In India. the conclusions were used 1n pressing for separate professional recogn1t1on from other civil servants with
corresponding trade union rights. From Portugal it was reported that the management of ANA-EP and the controllers· associations have agreed on joint proposals based on the ILO report. which they intend to submit to the government.
30. The United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority has established a specific rating for ATC instructors. as recommended in conclusion no. 49 and the conclusions were used for obtaining other improvements. 31 . The office has also collected evidence that the report and conclusions were used by controllers in Argentina to gain increased professional recognition. and several other improvements. Controllers from Cyprus. Greece and Ghana said they would follow up the conclusions with their governments. Controllers in Denmark. Norway and Sweden are now planning to negotiate with their governments on the basis of the conclusions. From Spain it was reported that the report was considered to be useful for the government and controllers in determining the latters· conditions of work. In Sri Lanka. the conclusions were instrumental in elaborating better remuneration provisions for controllers. In Sudan. the conclusions were used to obtain improved pay. employer sponsored loss of licence insurance better conditions of work in other areas: and the implementation of a technical ATC equipment programme. From Switzerland there are indications that the conclusions will be used in the next bargaining round between controllers and Radio Suisse. their employer. Finally. the controllers association of EUROCONTROL. the European ATC organisation. was recognised as the bargaining agent for controllers. Foundation for the future 3 2. This is. then. the information the ILO has on the actual 1mplementat1on of the conclusions. The ILO attaches the greatest importance to being informed as regularly and comprehensively as possible of how the conclusions have been used and to what degree they have been considered useful for governments and controllers in determining the conditions of employment of air traffic controllers. I therefore urge IFATCA and its member assoc1at1ons to provide the ILO with all the pertinent data in this respect. 33. For the ILO. the report and conclusions constitute the foundation for future action in the field of air traffic control. The ILO Medium Term Plan for 1982-1987 includes many proposals
for activities of direct concern to you. especially in the area of occupational safety and health: for example. a study on the impact of fatigue and the effects of stress on the air traffic controllers. a meeting of experts on non-ionising radiations. and an international symposium on visual fatigue due to work on visual display terminals. Of course. the implementation of these proposals is subject to the ILO Governing Body's decision on the allocation of funds. which would be taken in the light of the financial resources available in the ILO for the 1984-1985 and 1986-1 987 biennia. 34. The ILO Meeting of Experts and its outcome are by no means an isolated occasion. or the final step in the activities of the I LO in the field of air traffic control. I would rather wish to view it as another step in a long term process. Such a process is necessarily long. That is why I encourage you in the meantime to make the most of the meeting's conclusions despite their limitations. 35. This is the first time that the ILO has been invited to be represented at an IFATCA Regional Conference. Significantly. this is also the first time that the ILO has been requested by a government to carry out a specific on the spot study on the conditions of employment and service of controllers in a national ATC system - that of Peru. Both events show that the ILO's role in air traffic control is far from over. and that. I hope. its relations with IFATCA and air traffic controllers will grow closer yet. I wish you all every success in your future endeavours.
In 1981 the total number of heliports increased to 3,985. up 16 percent over the 1977 total of 3.432. according to the Aerospace Industries Association. However. only about 350 of the nearly 4.000 facilities are open for public use. down from the 1 9 7 7 public-use total of 4 1 7. The AIA also reports that there will be 3.637 privateuse heliports by year end compared to 3.016 of such facilities in 1977. These figures reflect not only the greater ut1l1zation of helicopters. · but also the growing variety of business use and destinations.· AIA says that the need for more public heliports 1s ·critical'. Urban heliports. especially, serve as · point-to-point transportation for the growing fleet of business helicopters.· The 1 981 directory of heliports. published Jointly by the AIA and · Av1at1on Week & Space Technology·. 1savailable for $ 10 95 per copy from · AW&ST'. 1 2 2 1 Avenue of the Americas. New York. New York 10020. 39
New-generation Boeing Airliners designed to use existing Airports
International Day of the Controller
Boeing's new-generation airliners have been designed to fit right in at airports now handling standard-body and widebody jetliners. airport and airline officials were told at the Middle East Airports Âˇs 1 Conference in Dubai. United Arab Emirates. 23-26 November. Robert C. Ouderkirk. Boeing Commercial Airplane Company Manager of Airline Technical Assistance. said that unlike some new airliner types in the past. the fuel-efficient 7 5 7 and 767 wil l be able to use existing terminal facilities with no changes. Nor will airports need any ground support equipment beyond t hat used to service present-day airliners and servic ing procedures will be virtually the same. The trend in the air transportation industry is toward larger capacity aircraft with larger passenger loads. This will require airports to continue to improve passenger-handling and accommodat ion facilities . New technology in airport management systems will benefit this area. Other airport areas will be virtually unaffected by the introductio n of these new airliners. Ouderkirk said. The 7 5 7 and 7 6 7 are close in dimensions to the 7 2 7 and 707 respectively and will be able to use present ramp space and bridges employed at airports to board passengers directly from passenger lounges to 727s. 737s. 707s , and wide-body airliners. Hangars for the earlier type Boeing jetliners will also, in most cases. be usable for 757s and 767s with no ch anges . Runways with length. width and strength suitable for presentday jet line rs will be more than adequate for the new generation airliners . Ouderkirk said. Each of the new Boeing airliners will be able to carry approximately 30 percent more passengers than the airliners they w ill replace . Yet arriving at an airport. they will require no more time for off-loading passengers and baggage , servicing and refueling. and boarding passengers and baggage than the 7 2 7 . Studies indicate the 7 6 7 will require half the time for this turn around operation than that required today for 707s. Basic maintenance requirements for the 757 and 767 can be handled with equipment and facilities developed for present-day Jetliners. he stated. A signif icant technological advance in the new airliners is the use of digital electronics in place of the analog electronic devices in earlier commercial jetliners . This provides a number of advantages not the least being built-in self-testing capabi lity The new -tec hnology equipment will add to both reliab ilit y and maintainability . As for airplane noise at the airports the new Boeing airliners. producing sound-levels lower than any Jetliners the com pany has built to date . will be good airport neighbours which wi ll meet the late st government and industry regulations cove ring a1rplane noise . Ouderkirk said .
Due to lack of space in this issue. activities by MemberAssociations on the International Day of the Controller will be reported in the next issue . Member-Associations are kindly requested to forward any information on their activities to the Editor the soonest for inclusion in next issue.
The Robinson R22 coincidently was the target of separate NTSB and FAA actions that occurred at nearly the same time and co ncerned the same sub1ect : main-rotor blades . On September 3. the NTSB issued a recommendation calling for the estab lishment of a retirement life for R22 blades . The next day. t he FAA issued an emerge ncy AD requiring the immed iate removal of all R2 2 main-rotor blades with 300 hours or more time in serv ice and estab lished a 300-hour retirement life for them . The Board and FAA actions were the resu lt of a fata l crash of one of the piston engine heli cop ter s on September 1 . Prel1m1nary 1nvest1gat1on of the wreckage revea led a fat igu e fa ilure 1n a main -rotor blade component. The main-rotor blades of the downed helicopter had been in serv ice for about 690 hours .
From left to right : J. Power. P. Cooney (Minister for Transport). P. Doherty
From left.Âˇ 81/1Phillips and David Fon-Low
Thebetteryouareat collecting,processing anddisplayingdata,theclearertheATCpicture. You need the capability of Ferranti. We are not in the data acquisition business but we will take data from whoever has it- from civil or military or from the country next door if need be. Data doesn't have to be on the spot. It can be extracted and fed over large distances and then co-ordinated with the data from your own sensors. Âˇ In designing equipment for processing and displaying the data
we've used our experience both of ATC and air defence. . If the data is not available, we can synthesize display information from flight plans and position reports . , We can also do the other kind of simulation - for trainir\g,_validation . and evaluation - something we have been doing for many years. If you are in the air traffic management business Ferranti can help . And the people who pay your
route charges will almost certallil.ly appreciate your using us. / Ask yourse1f, are you usiE.g the data available to the best advantage ? Contact: ___ Ferranti Computer Sy stems 1.im.ited, Bra~kp.ellDivision, Western. Road, Brackncll , Berkshire RG12 1RA Telepho F1e : 0344 323i
ComputerSystems CS02i23i 0 31
The Controller, Aviation Medicine and Air-Safety by B.L. Watkin, Sqn. Ldr. rtd
Introduction When did you last visit a control tower? Although aviation medicine has researched many important facts on the pilot, his crew and passengers there is little information on the vital effects on air-safety from that direct relationship between aviation medicine, the pilot and the practising air traffic control officer. the controller. During my 42 years in international aviation as a military and civilian pilot and civilian controller I have seen how the controller is placing increasing reliance on aviation medicine in his concern for air-safety. Unfortunately there are some ex-controllers. now administrative air traffic officers, who released from that 'hot-seat' of controlling air traffic - in many cases some 30 years ago - over-regulate the air traffic and accept a' reasonable level of air-safety'. There ,s no 'reasonable' level of airsafety in a,r traffic control.
Air Traffic Control What 1sair traffic? The pilots present understand air traffic control. but to the others it begins from the moment the controller gives the pilot his 'Cleared to start engines·. During your flight you will have noticed the apparent vastness of the sky and as professional aviation medical experts you would have been thinking of the pilot and his problems and possibly that air traffic control must be simple co-ordination. Yet this apparent vast airspace can be so full of aircraft as to saturate human ability to co-ordinate a safe orderly flow of this traffic in the air as the air traffic control systems 1n use are neither fail-safe. nor foolproof. nor completely safe. But your aircraft has become an integral part of a vast man-machine system. so complex. so dynamic that no one 1s really sure how an action in one part of the system may affect another part. It appears to be deceptively simple to control air traffic because there are so many ways that parts of a problem can be isolated. defined and solved but the total problem almost defies def42
inition. Despite constantly changing parameters of aircraft flying higher and faster in ever increasing numbers and users of the airspace making conflicting demands - lightening the pilot's burden may overload a controller and vice versa - the controller must make instant decisions in these constantly changing multiple situations. The fact remains. the indivisible operational team of controller/pilot is still linked by an integrated patchwork of variable and changing navigation systems. sometimes questionable procedures with indifferent communications. antiquated equipment; no secondary, or possibly. no radar are not uncommon. the varying values of computerisation and the complications of nonstandardisation of the statistical recording of air traffic.
International Air Traffic Control All controllers aim for complete airsafety in air traffic control. so their obiects and problems are generally the same throughout the world. In 1961 a number of dedicated controllers formed the International Federation of Air T ratfie Controllers· Associations (IFATCA) to meet the need for an international organisation to formulate co-operation and the interchange of ideas and experiences to benefit air-safety. IFATCA is a non-profit, non-political professional federation now with 5 2 member associations representing controllers in every continent and 42 corporate members from the aviation industry. It maintains a close liason and continuing co-ordination with the other international aviation agencies. such as ICAO, IFALPA and IATA, which has meant success in achieving many goals covering air traffic procedures and standards resulting in increased air-safety in every country.
Aviation Insurance In an excellent paper presented at an international Aviation Insurance Conference in London last year two members of the Skandia Insurance
Company of Sweden detailed how a methodical collection of aviation statistics over the previous nine years gave an unique basis for risk analysis. They emphasised that aviation insurance companies must maintain a continuing viable market in all classes of aviation insurance. but by law the ultimate financial responsibility in aviation must remain with the insurer. To the undeniable air-safety link between the controller. aviation medicine and pilot must be added aviation insurance. But these parties were not represented at this conference. This vital association with air-safety is recognised partly by aviation insurance in the annual award by the Aviation Insurance Agency of America to a member of the Aerospace Medical Association for · ... outstanding research directed at the promotion of health and prevention of disease in professional airline pilots ... ·. Just as a medically-fit pilot is essential for safe flight, similarly research into the controller's health would improve air-safety with the associated reduction in insurance risk to the underwriter. I could quote many examples which I have witnessed or controlled personally, where the skill of a medically-fit controller and his colleagues has combined with the expertise of the pilot to prevent what appeared to be a certain mid-air collision or at least a serious air accident. Unfortunately the underwriters are totally unaware of these continuing considerable savings in insurance claims.
Air Disasters The tragedy of the air disasters of Paris. Teneriffe. Chicago and the Antarctic will remain with many for a long time. Is it possible to prevent any further tragedies or is air-safety being jeopardised by a climate of complacency? The universe is coldly unforgiving to mistakes in the air. Have the investigators considered the medical aspects affecting the duty controller? In New Zealand the government is responsible for safety. The law requires mutual co-operation and co-oordination between the officers of the Accident Compensation Commission and the Ministry of Transport, but unfortunately since the formation of the Commission in 197 4 the air accident rate has increased. A 1 980 official inquiry into a recent major air crash has uncovered disturbing evidence of questionable regulation by officials with little. if any, practical operational experience 1n modern aviation Closer liason between the Comm1ss1on·sair-safety officers and ministry officials and their co-ordination with both the Av1at1on Medical Society
of Australia and New Zealand and the controllers would improve air-safety in New Zealand skies.
The 'Third Man in the Cockpit'
The health of the 'man in the cockpit'. the pilot. is vital for the air-safety of his aircraft and passengers. However Non-Air Disasters the increase in air traffic. particularly at To witness and to experience the ef- •peak' periods. has forced the controller fect of the adrenalin 'punch' of a non- to accept increasing responsibility for air disaster on a controller can be very the air-safety of larger concentrations disturbing. This occurs when two or of aircraft with larger passenger carrying capacity. It is now accepted that more aircraft have been placed in jeopthere is a growing shift of responsibility ardy and the controller responsible is powerless to prevent this possible from the aircraft cockpit to the • man on the ground'. the controller. and this has 'flight path to disaster'. As he waits been recognised by naming the controlbreathlessly for those few incredibly long seconds to pass. suddenly he real- ler as the 'third man in the cockpit'. As this 'third man·. the controller inises that the critical moment has passvites the aviation medical profession to ed without incident. These happenings afford him similar recognition to that are not always reported and hopefully traditionally afforded to pilots. A pilot they are 'swept under the carpet' but must pass his annual · medical' to hold the adverse effect of the associated a licence to pilot aircraft; similarly a stress ·is sensed by other controllers controller must also pass his annual who can only think - · There but for the 'medical' to satisfy the A.M.E. that he grace of God. go /'. can meet the same or similar stringent The adrenalin flow slowly subsides medical standards laid down by ICAO but the trauma remains in this worldwide problem as the aircraft cannot re- for flight crew in order he too can hold a licence to control aircraft in flight and main motionless in space forcing the controller to continue to attempt to ex- on the ground. Some countries. as New Zealand. require controllers to hold a pipedite his air traffic without further jeopardising air-safety. T~e C!ues~ion lot's licence as well as his controller's licence. uppermost in the contro!ler s mind 1s'What is the effect of this stress on my Aviation Medical Research health to the detriment of air-safety?'
The Aviation Medical Examiner (A.M.E.) As every A.M.E. knows the controller's initial contact with aviation medicine is that first medical examination. and this annual event may be his only contact throughout his carear. As the controller ages. a hidden fear can develop where failure to pass this a~nual · medical' can mean an unpremeditated future varying from sudden unemployment to the ignominy of down-grading or to unwanted premature retirement all entailing considerable financial loss - causing an almost adversary type of situation to develop between some controllers and A.M.E.'s. This problem even exists in New Zealand. despite the unique position of only civilian controllers - there are no Air Force controllers - whose employment. training, salary, career and medical fitness is the sole responsibility of the Ministry of Transport. It is interesting to note that the Ministry's Principal Medical Officer in his circular - of 39 paragraphs - to all controllers. not only covered all the ICAO medical requirements but concluded by making each controller personally responsible · ... to attain. maintain and advise the P.M.O. of any variation in health which may affect the safe performance of his duties ... ·
. I hav_ebeen pleased to report to my air traffic control colleagues of the growing concern within the aviation medical profession for the controller's health. This was highlighted and is continuing as a result of the president of the Aerospace Medical Association in his recent message to members · . . . I _have asked the Aviation Safety Committee to examine. during the year. how 1t can enhance information flow between those concerned with the safety of flight operations and those concerned with the safety and efficiency of the air traffic control system. Our _ability to cope with the rapidly growing demands for air transportation depends on such dialogue. It is my hope that some of the issues can be addressed at our next scientific meeting at Anaheim. California in
1980 .. .'. I would not presume to direct this Congress to any research that might be undertaken to further the controller· s aim. However if a controller were requested to list some of the reported medical problems and questions he has experienced personally or observed in his colleagues it would include -
Stress, Hypertension, High Blood Pressure To what extent is air-safety jeopardised when a controller is under stress.
What type of person would be best suited to the profession of controller?
Tendency to Overtiredness What is the maximum. the minimum. the normal amount of air traffic that a controller. or a team. can be expected to control with compete airsafety. and for how long?
Tendency to Drugs and Alcohol The Law of· Bottle to Throttle' - The law of alcohol consumption by pilots varies between airlines and military from no alcohol 24 hours before piloting an aircraft. to 1 2 hours; to a ·gentleman· s· agreement of 'about 12 hours·. all without any kind of check. This assumes that it is officially accepted that it is not safe to pilot an aircraft with a ·hangover·. The Law of 'Grog to Log· - There is no law setting a time limit for the controller between alcohol consumption and signing on for duty in the air traffic control 'log·. Can it be assumed that air-safety is not jeopardised if the duty controller has a · hangover? Is this accepted officially? Should a limit be set and if so what law should be applicable to controllers? My personal experience and a. specific study of 9 8 of my colleagues for a previous paper indicated there should be no alcohol consumption for 24 hours before signing on duty in the 'log· to control aircraft. Is this sufficient or should it be greater? As all controllers work a shift system. should controllers be teetotal for each shift pattern. or possibly even complete teetotallers? Have the Russian Air Force overcome this problem with their medical check of pilots before flight. with limited alcohol consumption on off-duty days?
Insomnia Are there too many shifts in some rosters? Is it stress or fatigue?
High Occurance of Ulcers Why was the humble aspirin permanently removed from the control towers in New Zealand in 1970?
Ocular Diseases In 1970. my factual evidence questioning whether there was any danger to a controller's face and eyes after constant doses of raw radar over a long period at 1 2 to 1 8 inches distance was officially discounted. Yet in 1980. a New York eye specialist reported in the Journal of Medicine that radiation from Contmues on page 46
Provisional Time Schedule Saturday 1 Mai 1982 1400-1 600 Regist rat io n desk open 1n hotel Sunday 2 Mai 1982 0830-1600 Reg1strat1on desk ope n in hote l 1600-1 700 Press-conference 1n hotel 2000-2200 'Meet the de legates · 1n ho tel Monday 3 Mai 1982 Reg istrat ion desk open 1n hote l Opening Ceremo ny Opening Techn ica l Exh1b1t1on Lunch Working sessio ns Departur e to 'Stede l1Jk Museum· Recept ion by Municipal Autho ritie s of A m sterdam
0800-0930 1000 1200 1 300-1430 1500-1 700 181 5 1915
Tuesday 4 Mai 1982 0900- 1200 Working sessions 1230 -1400 Lunch 141 5-1 700 Working sessions Evening at leisure Wednesday 5 Mai 1982 0900 -1 200 Working sessions 12 15- 1345 Lunc h 1400-1600 Working sessio ns 1600-1800 Tech nica l Panel Corpora te Members 2000- . Corporate Members Evening Thursday 6 Mai 1982 0900- 12 1 5 Working sessions 1230-1400 Lunch 14 15-1 700 Working sessions Evening at leisure
, .... .. ..
21st ANNUAL MAY 3 - 8
Friday 7 Mai 1982
0900- 1OOO Work ing session s 1215- 1345 Lunch 1500-1 700 Closing Ceremony 1900- . Farewe ll Party
The Pilot/ Controller Interface by Graeme C. Wilson*
The pilot/controller interface. the thing that we have in common is the areoplane. a shiny. very expensive. often noisy vehicle used to transport people and goods from place to place. The aeroplane itself is the 'raison d'etre· without it virtually all of us here would be engaged in another field of endeavour. In the modern world for the_ aeroplane to be a reliable and safe means of transportation offering the avadab11ityand_service necessary to service a need a large number of diverse occupational groupings are required. engineers. chefs. ticket sellers and the area that I will review. pilots and air traffic controllers. As pilots we live in a world of change. our numerous manuals are amended approximately once a month. procedures change. often dramatically in short periods of time. Similarly changes between methods of control within New Zealand the radar environment around the major airports. manual control in Rotorua. no control in Kaitaia. surface movement control in Christchurch but not in Wellington. are adapted to by pilots. We are users of the system rather than the architects. Whilst some may beat their guns about the inadequacies of a particular situation there are generally a lot more considerations than that of concern to the pilot.
Pago Pago Control Likewise I believe that pilots have little trouble adapting to differing styles of control. If any of you have heard the tape of Oskosh that is fairly indicative of the way the Americans control. I fly into Faleolo in Western Samoa and upon entering Pago Pago TMA at 100 DME you call:
· Pago Pago This is NZ7 2· - and the reply comes back at about this speed: · Well Giday there You're cleared via SADOP Amber 92 Fate Mountain 330. Pilots· discretion to 8. OOO.Call me 730 passing 30 DME. Approach will be VOR 08. Present weather Fa/eolo 7 70106 35 km 312000 29 1014. Pago Pago QNH 29.92/ 1013'
which at the end leaves you with a smoking pencil.
• G C Wilson is the assistant technical director of the NZ ALPA and presented this paper at the NZ A TCA convention ,n October
2. Quite the converse is the Australian Radio Environment which tends to have speech to a minimum once identified using transponder you get a change approximately every 30-50 miles. Upon calling the change you are lucky to get no more than a few words 'This is Brisbane Control'. The message in all this is that pilots are the users of the system. and whilst we have ideas on the system they are not the be all and end all of an ATC system. In practical terms our ideas may be totally impractical and as I have already indicated pilots can and do adapt maybe after an initial bit of confusion to an altered or new system. The flying business is an expensive affair. try and take you and your family to Christchurch to visit Granny for the weekend. Just how expensive or what the actual costs are have been very difficult to define. The best we can get at 1s a direct operational cost of aircraft types which are itemised below: per hr 16,660 11,740 7,000 4.540 1.470 1.210 2,970 1,230 6,360
747 DC-10 DC-8 B737 F27-500 F27-100 AW222 B170 DC-8-54F
$ per min 277 195 11 6 75 24 20 49 20 106
. Thus for each extra minute of operation the total cost goes up from $ 20 to $ 277 depending on the type. Our company Is very cagey about the relationship to these figures of the required return per aircraft hour to keep the organisation's head above water. The best that we can get seems to be of the order of 1 50-200 per cent above the figures quoted above. Fuel. at present in the Air New Zealand system are about 30% of total costs. Fuel burn rates are as follows; approximate figures for cruise. the ac-
tual burn is a function of weight. altitude. temperature and speed. all of which vary during a flight:
B747 DC-10 DC-8 B737 F27-500 F27-100
kg per h 10,000 8.000 4,500 2,500 650 600
kg per min 166 133 75 40 11 10
3. Fuel costs approximately 70 c per kg in New Zealand. thus you can see that every extra minute of fuel burnt is a substantial expenditure. Also if delays are to be incurred it costs fuel to carry fuel. By this we mean that if a 1 .000 extra units are required. the extra weight gives a higher burnoff of fuel of the order of 4-6% per hour. I.e. if you load 1.000 kg of extra fuel on a three hour flight the effective amount of extra fuel is 850 kg assuming a 5% rate. thus to get the extra fuel of 1.000 kg you have in fact to load 1. 175 kg just to achieve the extra 1.000 at the other end. Fortunately we· now have computerised flight plans which can churn these types of calculations out extremely quickly. The other point about fuel Is that of sitting on the ground with engines idling. for the B737 it costs us 20 kg per min. some $ 14. and if you get caught sitting there waiting for 10-1 2 minutes a considerable amount of expenditure has occurred. The whole message of the above is that fuel is expensive. a significant proportion of the total cost. approximately ½ in fact. and the area that is probably the easiest for large savings to be made in expenditure by the deletion of those extra minutes with the engines running either in the air or on the ground.
'Whilst some of my colleagues may well fut 0D11to this category it is of concern to us that with the rapid 0611crease in IFR we have large numbers of people exploiting the rnies to theor owD11 advantage and to tlhle dletdment of acce11>ted operatioD11alpractices'. 45
Compromise I would now like to look at some areas of performance which affect you and the reasons why they are there. Modern day jet aircraft are a compromise between a low speed for takeoff and landing and high speed for cruise aircraft. All modern day jets have to start activating high lift devices such as slats. slots, or flaps at speeds generally in the range between 200-250 kts. Nature tells us that you don't get nothing for nothing and the extra lift required in this range of speeds also costs you drag, and drag costs you more power which is in fact more fuel. The extra fuel between clean flight and with the first extension of high lift devices is of the order of 4-5%. This is a reason that we as pilots like to keep to a certain speed until relatively close into the airport and are committed to manoeuvering which require high lift device extensions. An incident a while ago at Wellington where speed control was being applied demonstrated that the controller did not appreciate the capabilities of the Jet aircraft. Also in terms of increased fuel burn we much prefer linear holding, holding in a straight line to going around the race track. The critical speed in the 8737 for flaps 1, the first of the high life devices is 200 kts. Between linear holding at 21 0 kts and 1 90 kts in the holding pattern costs: 4% for flaps 1 extension 5% for manoeuvering in extra fuel just for the Joys of going around the track. I would like to ask a question of an ATC controller. An ILS localiser at 10 miles; what is the width of the beam as presented on the instruments in the cockpit? 5 / sth of a mile from side to side 60 degree intercepts on radar marshalling with own intercept gives you 7 50 metres from needle move to the centre line. In most Jets It cannot be done.
Rule Breakers Whilst some of my own colleagues may well fit into this category it is of concern to us that with the rapid increase in IFR we have large numbers of people exploiting the rules to their own advantage. and to the detriment of accepted operational practices. Just the other day In Christchurch CAVOK cond1t1onsWairarapa Air would not go visual and the sItuatIon ended up with three B 7 3 7 In the holding pattern. unfortunately the pilots in command were our flight manager line operations. our
flight manager overseas operations B737 and a very senior and vocal Christchurch captain. All of the above have made blistering reports on an action which if common sense had applied would not have occurred. I am sure all the people in Auckland know of a certain gent who has conflicts every morning, he departs IFR, goes VFR and arrives IFR, irrespective of the weather. Complaints have resulted in the legal point that he has not broken the rules. I would like at this point to open this topic up to the floor to discuss in particular your queries on operation of jet aircraft.
However, before we move on to that I would like to commend to the conference that you uplift the opportunity for flight deck famils on our aircraft. These are not to be regarded as joy rides, you would be assigned to a crew for a day, go with them and do their duty. It was more than a little bit of a battle with the company to get this facility and it would appear to be underutilised. Our company would provide the safety course required and in deference to our male orientated society you delightful lady controllers would be required to wear slacks on the flight deck.
IAL wins Middle East Training Contract
'The Controller, Aviation Medicine and Air-safety'
IAL, the UK-based international aviation, computer and communications systems and services company, announce today the signing of a new, longterm training contract with the Directorate General of Iraqi Civil Airports in Baghdad. The contract is worth nearly a third of a million pounds. The company has undertaken to provide a series of specialised training courses for Iraqi air traffic controllers. These courses, to be held at Bailbrook College. IAL's UK training centre in Bath. will incorporate aspects of air traffic control operations including aerodrome approach. area control and radar instruction on the College's own digital radar simulator. In order to provide in-depth. specialised training. the computer will be programmed to simulate Iraqi civil air space and airports. The college will structure three new courses specifically to meet additional training requirements as defined by the Iraqi civil aviation authorities. These will cover search and rescue training, radar validation training and validation examination procedures. Courses will be held in conjunction with Bailbrook's regular training programmes which involve students from all over the world. This contract serves to emphasise world-wide recognition of IAL's unique ability to meet the individual needs of the client and the recipient students.
Corrigendum In the short biographical note of Jon Sharpe on page 44 in issue 4/81. the 4th line should read: Air Force at Nelson Air Force Base and not 'Air France .
from page 43
radar would cause cataracts in the controller's eyes. Again in June 1981, physicists at Lawrence, Livermore Laboratory (Calif.), published findings that original estimates of radiation are seriously in error. Is air-safety and the controller's career in jeopardy? Environmental
What health hazards are inherent in the controller's profession and how can they be overcome or counteracted? The list is in no particular order nor is it allinclusive. While it could be argued that some problems maybe less of an aviation medical than sociological concern. still they figure prominently in the minds of controllers. Conclusion
Aviation medicine is vital to the controller in his aim for complete air-safety in air traffic control for the unsuspecting flying public. In their awareness of this need the controllers invite every member present to assist not only by direct contact in the control tower you will always be welcome - but also by concerted research into the medical problems encountered by one of the most crucial segments of the aviation industry; those dedicated men and women who occupy the 'hot-seat' of controlling air traffic throughout their entire professional careers; 'The ControllersÂˇ. As I have said in previous papers - Without the practising air traffic control officer. there is no air traffic control. Without air traffic control. there is no air traffic. To this factual couplet I ask - Where is aviation medicine?
The Fifth Pacific Regional Meeting by Robin Soar
It had long been the desire of New Zealand Association to host an Executive Board Meeting in New Zealand and when the First Biennial Conference of the NZA TCA was planned an ideal opportunity to bring the aspiration to fruitton presented itself In order to keep travel and organisation to a minimum and to support the NZA TCA project the Pacific Regional Meeting was also planned for New Zealand 1n1981 . By this combination of events. as many members as possible of the NZA TCA and the region were able to meet.
The meeting was held in the Aviation Country Club which is close to Auckland International Airport. The Organising Committee for ATC ·s 1. as the week of events was known. chose this venue and that for accomodation and the weekend events within a few minutes of the ATC facility at the airport. This was done so that controllers who had to work during the week would be able to participate as fully as possible before and after shift. It also meant that other interested groups such as pilots and technicians could attend in like manner . The Regional Meeting was opened in formal manner . The Member of Parliament for Mangere Mr . David Lange. in whose electorate Auckland Airport is sited kindly consented to open th e Meeting . Mr . Lange is also Deputy Leader of the Opposition Labour Party. Mr Lange ·s speech was highly amusing and despite the fact that the trien nial election was imminent only touched once on politics Mr Lange quoted wryly from President Reagan's pre-election letter to PATCO pref1x1ng the quote with 'This being election year I could say · The president of the NZATCA. Len Taylor. had welcomed the delegates to the Regional Meeting and had introduced Mr . Lange . Len Taylor took the opportunity to talk of the NZATCA dismay at constantly being left behind in the advances in aviation technology . He attributed this failing to the fact that civil av1at1on ground services in New Zealand came under the auspices of the Ministr y of Transport and said that the NZATCA bel ieved that the publi c service attitudes were a hindrance to
R. Soar. addressing the 5 th Pacific Regional Meetmg . To his left. Mr. D. Lange, Mr . H. H. Henschler and Mr . L. Taylor.
maintaining a modern ATC system . The NZATCA believed that Civil Aviation Ground Services should be part of an independent authority . Such authorities had proved successful in a number of other countries and the NZATCA would seek to have the idea investigated in New Zealand. In his opening address to the assemb led delegates and in reply to Mr . Lange. the Regional Vice President. Robin Soar. spoke of the pride he had in the achievements of the Pacific region and of the individual member association He spoke of the PATCO dispute and the attitude of the Pacif ic region to the events in the USA This Regional Meeting being some thing of a special occasion and all the Executive Board being present at the opening. the RVP asked the presiden t of IFATCA. Mr . H. Harri Henschler . to speak to the delegates and guests No rmally the Executive Board Member attending the Regional Meeting speaks to the delegates at the initial working session . The president spoke of the Board ' s long standing desire to hold a meeting in the Pacific region and in particular in New Zealand Such an ambi tion had been brought ~o fruiti on despite the great diff1cult1es involved in tra -
veiling which had been made much more difficult due to the situation in the USA The working sessions of the Regional Meeting lasted for a day and a half and covered matter s of regional interest particularl y those of a technical nature . Membersh ip difficulties were also discussed Under this agenda item the sit uation in the USA was a major item and the matter was discussed in closed session . The social events of the Regional Meeting were incorporat ed into the events planned for ATC' B 1 as a who le but it can be said that a thoroughly social t ime was had by alll Some minor problems were experienced with t he organisation of holding several meetings at once in that there were some clashes of comm itment. However. as a possibilit y for future events the idea was def1n1tely a suc cess . So long as contro llers assoc1at1ons experience travel problems and IFATCA has limited resources then the economies of holding J01nt meetings are advantageous . The Pac1f1c region can definitely recommend such practi ces and can say that as part of ATC'B 1. the Fifth Pac1f1cRegional Meeting wa s a success . 47
Hand-held Electronic Wind-speed Indicator A simple-to-operate anemometer (see photograph) for use by weathermen and by industries needing accurate wind-speed measurements. for safety or operational reasons. is available from R.W. Munro Ltd of London N11 2LY. Typical applications are in crop- sprayi ng by aircraft and helicopter operation; on tall or exposed bu ildings. bridges. motorway s. cranes and offshore platform s: or indeed anywhere where a quick and accurate check on wind speed can prevent an accident . The Type HA/ 6A / 1 5 1 anemometer is battery-powered. weighs only 275 g. and is 238 mm long . When held aloft in a free-air stream. the wind rotates th ree cups o n top of its cylindrical body . Wind speed 1sderived electronically from their speed of rotation . A push-button switches the instrument on and init iate s measurement. Wind speed is sampled for 1 0 seco nd s and the mean speed calculated and shown as a digital read-out on a back-lit liquid crystal display 1n the handle of the instrument. It switc hes off automatically after displaying the reading for 1 0 seco nds .
± 1% The anemometer can be calibrated in miles per hour. in knots or 1n metres per second . It is accurate to ± 1 unit of measurement over the range 0-99 units . Measurement starts at 1 unit of speed . The measuring cups rotate on a pair of stai nless steel bearings and are designed for wind speeds up to 1 00 miles per hou r. Two supporting legs protect the cups when the instrument is laid down . A spare cup 1ssupp lied and can be fitte d without tools. The body and cups are moulded in plastic and all metal fittings are of stainless steel. The handle is bright orange in colour. making 1t easier to spot and therefore less likely to be lost. As a further precaution. a ¼ inch deep cavity in the base is internally threaded to take the plug of a standard camera wrist-strap .
Publication of Air Transport - A Marketing Perspective by Stephen Shaw
Av iatio n is changing faster and more radica lly than ever before. and knowledge of the se changes is vital to anyone who is in a position of responsibility in the industry. or who is aiming at promotion to a senior post. Yet how to stay well -informed is a problem that everyone faces. given the lack of easily-available information and the pressures of dayto-day work.
A,r Transport-A Marketing Perspectwe. solves this problem . It covers a wide range of subjects relevant to the civil aviation industry. These include the structure of airline markets. airline objectives and corporate strategies. the nature or regulation and deregulation . airline product design. pricing and selling . In part . it is a descriptive book . allowing for a broadening of knowledge . Furthermore . it concentrates on the policy problems facing the industry. and the options for the future which are open to it. The last chapter is the mo st important of all. In looking at the fu ture. a series of highly conte ntious personal views are put forward . -
In strong contrast to th e present gloom prevalent in the industry . the book looks forward to a future of continued traffic growth . It takes a basically sympathetic - and very un-European - attitude towards the trends of deregulation which have taken place in the last few years. - With pricing. it is highly critical of past attempts by airlines to use crude discriminatory pricing practices. and is strong in its advocacy of a more disciplined cos t-based approach . - With selling . 1t notes with concern the strong market power wh ich 1s sometimes held by travel agents and air freight forwarders as marketing 1ntermed1aries. - Rising resource costs. the slowing of cost sav ing s from technological innovation . less regulation leading to m ore market entry. consumerist pressures for lower fare s. ever-reducing yields . th e list of areas where change s are co ming 1s almost endless . How can the air tran sport industry react to the se changes? The book is emphatic - only by understanding the prin ciple s of marketing and by applying them rigourously to the business on a day to-day basis. ·Air Transport - A Marketing Perspe ct ive·. 1s an ideal starting point for tho se who w ish to do JUSt that. • 1 am mo st impressed with the immense amount of valuab le detail which Mr . Shaw has assembled and th ere ca n be no doubt that his book w ill be an important add1t1on to the available data and assessments of some of the cr1t1ca l issues w hich concern and confront air transport today . Mr . Shaw w rit es espec ially for those who are studen.t s of air transport in the widest sense but his book w ill. cer tainl y. appeal to a much wider audience . I co ngratulate him on the monumental amount of research which has gone into 1t. · S,r Peter Masef,eld. Deputy Chairman of The Caledon,an Aviation Group Ltd Stephen Shaw 1s a Senior Lecturer in Air Tran sport at the City of London Polytechnic . He has brought his extensive experience 1n the preparation of a1rl1netraining courses to the book which 1s reflected 1na simp le. easy-to-read. Jargon-free style. (The book sells at£ 9 .95)
Corporate Members of IFATCA
AEG-Telefunken. Frankfurt a. M., Germany AMECON Division. Litton Systems. College Park. USA ANSA Advisory Group Air Navigation Services, Westerngrund. Germany CAE Electronics Ltd .. Montreal. Quebec. Canada Cardion Electronics. Woodbury. N.Y.. USA Computer Sciences Europe SA Brussels, Belgium Cossor Radar and Electronics Ltd .. Harlow, England Datasaab AB. Jarfalla, Sweden Decca Software Sciences Limited. London. England Dictaphone Corporation. USA ELECMA Divisions Electronique de la SNECMA Suresnes. France E-Systems. Montek Division, USA Ferranti Limited, Bracknell, Berks .. England Goodwood Data Systems Ltd .. Ontario Canada Ground Aid Group. Esbjerg, Denmark International Air Carrier Association. Geneva, Switzerland ITI Gilfillan, USA Jeppesen & Co. GmbH .. Frankfurt. Germany Lockheed Aircraft Service Company. Ontario. California 91 761. USA Lockheed Electronics Company. Inc .. Plainfield. N.J .. USA The Marconi Radar Systems Ltd .. Chelmsford. England M.B.L.E .. Brussels. Belgium The Mitre Corporation. McLean. Virginia. USA N.V. Hollandse Signaalapparaten. Hengelo. Netherlands N.V. Philips Division ELA Eindhoven. Netherlands Philips Telecommunicatie lndustrie B.V.. Hilversum. N'etherlands The Plessey Company Limited. Weybridge. Surrey. England Racal Recorders Limited. Southampton. England Raytheon Canada Ltd .. Canada Gustav A. Ring A/S. Oslo. Norway Sanders Associates. Inc .. Nashua. USA Schmid Telecommunication. Switzerland Selenia - lndustrie Elettroniche Associate S.p.A.. Rome. Italy SEL- Standard Elektrik Lorenz. Stuttgart 70. Germany Soc1ete Art1stique Francaise. Paris. France Societe d'Etudes & d'Entrepnses Electnques. lssy Les Moulineaux. France Sodern. Limeil Brevannes. France Sofreav1a. Paris. France Software Sciences Ltd .. Farnborough. England Sperry Univac. Sulzbach/Ts .. Germany & St Paul. Minnesota. USA TERMA Elektronik AS. Lystrup. Denmark Thomson - CSF. Pans. France Ulmer Aeronautique. Cl1chy. France VWK- Ryborsch GmbH. Obertshausen/Frankfurt-Main. Germany Westinghouse Electric Corporation. USA
The International Federation of Air Traffic ControllersÂˇ Associations would like to ,nv1te all corporations. organizations, and inst1tut1ons interested 1n and concerned with the maintenance and promotion of safety 1n air traffic to Join their organization as Corporate Members Corporate Members support the aims of the Federation by supplying the Federation with technical ,nformat1on and by means of an annual subscription The Federat1onÂˇs 1nternat1onal Journal 'The Controller' offered as a platform for the discussion of technical and procedural developments 1n the field of air traffic control
ATCR-33 S-band TMA radar installation
Internal view of ATCR-33 equipment shelter
adaptiveradars- a must for modernsystems The range of adaptive radars includes the ATCR-22 L-band long range radar and the ATCR-33 S-band and ATCR-44 L-band termi nal area radars. These radars have the capability of probing the environment, and adapt themselves so as to achieve the maximum possible performance. The radars are equipped with the most advanced Primary Video Extractors , which performs a pattern analysis to obtain center of gravity of targets, and avoid un-wanted target splitting. This c lass of radars is in full production and has been supplied to numerous cou ntries including Sweden , the So viet Union , Nigeria, Mexico, Peru , Bulgaria , Hungary and Italy
~-~ INOUSTRIE ELETTRONICHE ASSOCIATE S.p.A CIVIL RADAR AND SYSTEMS DIVISION Via T1burtma Km 12 400 , 00 131 ROME , ITALY Telex 613690 SELRO M I. Phone 06 -4 3601
SELENIA IS EXPERIENCE IN AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL