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In t his issue: Cairo Conference Techn ical Panel The USA Issue


4th QUARTER 198 1


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THE CONTROLLER Bern, Switzerland, December 1981

Volume 20 · No. 4

Publisher: lnterna11onal Federation of Air Traffic Controllers' Associations. P 0 B 196. CH-1215 Geneva 15 Airport. Sw11zerland Officers of IFATCA: H. H. Henschler. President. Lex Hendriks. Vice· President (Technical). A. Avgoust1s. Vice· President (Professional). Pat O 'Doherty, Vice-President (Adm1n1strat1on). H. Wenger. Treasurer. E. Bradshaw. Executive Secretary. Secretariat: 6 Longlands Park. Ayr KA 7 4RJ Ayrshire. Scotland. United Kingdom Tel 0292 4 21 14 Editor: A Avgous11s 5 Athens Str Ay1os Ohome11os Nicosia. Cyprus Tel (021)48786 Publishing Company and Productio n Service: ·Der Bu'1rl' Verlag und Druckere1 AG. 3001 Bern. Etf1ngerstrasse 1, Switzerland Telepho,.,e (03 1) 25 66 55 Printed by: ·Der Bund', Verlag und Druckere1 AG Bern Switzerland . . Adve"ising Sales Office: THE CONTROLLER 5 Athens st . Ay1os Dhomet1os. Nicosia. Cypru; Telephone (021) 48 78 6 THE CONTROLLER. 'Der Sund'. Verlag und Druckere1 AG (Address as for Publishing Co ) Subscripti ons and Adve"i sing Payments to: Account No PK 72 892- g . Swiss Credit Bank. Balexert Agency. av Louis Casa1 2 7. CH- 121 l Geneva 28. Swotzerland

IB IS Hotel - Amsterdam Venue ot the special conterence to consider the PATCO issue

Subscription Rate SFrs B - per annum tor members ot IFATCA. SFrs 20 - per annum tor non-members (Postage will be charged extra) Contributors are expressing their personal points ot view and opinions. whic h may not necessarily coincide w11h those ot the l nterna11onal Federation ot Air Tralf1c Controllers· Associations (IFATCA) IFATCA does not assume respons1b1ilty lor statements made and opinions expressed. II does only accept respons1b11ity tor publishing these contributions Contnbut1ons are wel come as are commenis and cnt•· c1sm No payment can be made tor manuscripts subm11ted for publicauon 1n 'The Controller' The Editor reserves the right 10 make any editorial changes in manuscnp1s. which he believes wdl improve the materi al with out altering the intended meaning

Written permission by the Editor is necessary for reprint· ing any part ot thi s Jo urnal

Cartoons: Martin Germans Photos: Archwes & AA Advertizers: KLM. Pactf1c Western. /AL. Datasaab. Ferranti. Thomson CSF. Selema. Philips. Corporate Members list. /FA TCA 82. Membership Benefits

CONTENTS Editorial PATCO v FAA Cairo Technical Panel CATCA Convention A System Approach to ATC Data Communications w1th1n the ANS System Modern1z1ng the Egyptian ATC System H1iacking-C anad1an Leg1slat1on Handling of Aeronautical Jnformat1on Data A Professional V1s1t to Malta Training in Procedural Control in Autom ated ATC Sys te m Letter to th e Editor Transport Australi a Packet Switching Network Un considered Aspects of the Controllers Stri ke Early Retirement tor CATCA

3 4 11 13 15


19 26 29

30 33 34 36 44 46


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ATC Systems of Today by Richard C.W. Weston¡

The integrity of any air traffic control system is dependent upon two main factors - the controllers and their equipment. I believe that controllers should have state-of-the-art technology which works well and is appropriate to the task in hand; adequate communications. good primary and secondary and so on. For too long. the massive investment in improved technology on the flight-deck has not been matched by comparable improvements to ground facilities. In many cases enroute and terminal environments. the ground organization still relies on the practices and procedures of the DC-3 era to establish and maintain radar identification .. Simply because certain ways of doing things have stood the test of time does not mean that they are acceptable today. As the demands upon the ATC system have changed. so must the ATC system adapt to new requirements. Let us be clear that failure to do so puts at risk not only expedition but ultimately. safety itself. Safety of the multi-million dollar jets which congest the skies is no greater than: the safety of the environment in which they fly. The constant improvement and updating of air traffic control facilities demands a high degree of strategic planning and the constant review of such plans. The decisions taken in h_aste in the aftermath of an incident or accident seldom provide the best solution. The equipment must be right for the JOb, which implies specialist input by controllers at all stages of the specification and procurement processes. If this sounds patently obvious. then my justification for ~aying it is simply the number of cases where national admin1st~~tions have purchased equipment on the grounds of availability. cost. political expediency or whatever. without due reg~~d to its suitability for the job or for the provision of the requ1s1te training for the controllers required to operate it. or tor the conditions required to maintain it. The provision of more and better equipment for air traffic control can be an expensive business. and one not particularly to the politician. Certainly, it will not pull in many extra votes in these days of pressure on public expenditure. Such expenditure has to be kept in perspective and viewed against the general level of investment in the air transport industry. I will not bore you with the ICAO estimates. other than to say that they lend staunch support to the contention that for too long. air traffic control has been the Cinderella of the industry. Just looking at the figures. incidentally. reminds me of the late senator Everett Dickson. who said: ¡A billion dollars here. a billion dollars there. and before you know it you are talking about a lot of money.

However. whether financed directly or indirectly by the air transport industry. the provision of a safe and efficient air traffic control system demands its fair allocation of the industry's resources. Without that investment. which ever way you look at it. the users will be the losers. And any amount of investment in highly trained ATC manpower will not compensate. This leads logically to the question of manpower. Staff shortage is a common enough cry from the controllers worldwide. even if such claims are sometimes disputed by national administrations. So. what constitutes adequate staffing? Clearly. any ATC system must be manned to cope with traffic peaks both daily and seasonal. Thus it is inevitable that at other times. there will be some slack in the system. This simple fact sometimes seems lost on administrators. for unless flow control restrictions are to flatten peaks. then air traffic control staffing requires the availability of sufficient personnel to meet worst-case situations. The tragic effects of failure to do so have been readily apparent in the past. To many observers both inside and outside the air transport business. it seems strange that in this most regulated of industries. there are no legally enforcible criteria governing controller's hours of duty. fatigue reliefs an so on. Naturally. such factors affect fundamentally the calculation of staffing levels. I am aware that many eminent medical men have studied the physiological and psychological demands of the controller's job. and are agreed in general terms on such matters as regular fatigue breaks. adequate rest periods between shifts and so on. However. there is still evidence. in some countries of controllers working inordinately long hours or manning a busy radar position for four hours without a break. practices which cannot be defended. In the United Kingdom. airline pilots. truck drivers and others enjoy such protection. which suggests that concerted international pressure is required. Now that the International Labour Organization has given the lead. it is to be hoped that their conclusions may stimulate action on a broad front. Proposed limitations to a controller's hours of work. fatigue reliefs and so on are. of course. important to the preservation of his physical and mental wellbeing; and the adequacy of current practices can perhaps be 1udged against medical records. But let it not be forgotten. important though health considerations are. the safety of the ATC system 1s at stake. A tired controller may not suffer any long-term 111 effects. but his mental faculties at such a time will be impaired and with them. his power of Judgement. his alertness. his ability to react to the unexpected situation. or the demands of peak traffic. In short. his ability to maintain the integrity and safety of the air traffic control system. Controllers cannot be trained overnight neither can you buy experience. Thus. manpower planning in air traffic control must be a long-term strategy for short-term expediency is seldom practicable. and never desirable. The standards required of trainee controllers must remain high and cannot be relaxed to overcome recruitement shortfall or training difficulties. In formulating a manpower plan. due allowance must be made for failure during training. retirement due to ill health. the development of the ATC system. long-term changes 1n social conditions and employment. and so on. Matching the staff to the demands is a difficult task. given the inevitable constraints of orderly shift patterns and uncontrollable outs de influences. But 1t is an equation which must be balanced - certainly. to err is human. but 1n air traffic control. the golden rule must always be to err on the side of safety

• Richard Weston. eminent British sohc1tor and av1a11on consultant This editorial covers exiracts from a speech he gave at the 1981 CATCA Conventmn




FAA by Andreas Avgoustis

This article is not meant to be an attempt to seek the truth in the dispute between the US air traffic controllers and their administration: 1t will not be an attempt to put the blame on any party nor w1/l 1t seek to examine the dispute in depth and which side has the nght in its favour: 1t will. however. give an account of !FA TCA ·s concern to the whole issue in particular to the actions of its officers - resulting from the Federatt0n ·s constttut1onal prov1s1ons and bnefly report on the special conference which convened in A msterdam (2 2 I 2 3 A ugust) to resolve on future action. The penod that has ensued between the ttme that US controllers struck and the Reagan admin1stra t1on·s reaction unttl to date will naturally evolve in the article_ The stnke of colleagues in the US took place when ·The Controller-. issue 3 I 8 1. was already gone to press and could not therefore report on the developed situation. Publicity had indeed been extensive and the numerous press releases issued throughout covered the problem and developments thoroughly and m all perspectives_ It was hoped at the ttme that favourable developments dunng the first few weeks could have made this article unneccessary_ Unfortunately_ developments proved beyond expectaltons and the s1tualton that has been created as a result of the stnke is still maintained_ Considering the vanous statements made by the two sides on the dispute during these past weeks show that their views are d1ametncally on the opposing sides and little hope of a settlement is foreseen. I do not intend therefore to examine the pol1t1cal 1mpl1cat1ons or situation as created particularly 1n relation to the pos1t1on taken by President Reagan or his national economic strategy or the financial health of the airlines whether these are domestic or 1nternat1onal: public op1n1on should not be our concern nor should we touch upon the public 's feelings on their conveniences and inconveniences and above all we should not be concerned as to the legality of the strike 4



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O(J,000 Applicants Air Cnntrolkrs ~mke Frida~ when 11 suspended ~ervice indefinitely. Golden Gate. which !>erved Lo~ t\ngeles and Ill other We3tem cit1e~. had been losing money before the stnl..c. The resulting reduction m passenger traffic increa3ed loss~ to $40.000 a da'r and forced it to close. compan)' officiah said. adding that they hoped the lme could resume serv1ce in the future. Industry ,,bserver). however. predicted that would be difficult Airline Hard.<ihips


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The question that all of us should be concerned with is safety - the most fundamental objective that IFATCA thrives upon. The Federation is a professional organisation made up of dedicated controllers· associations which may or may not be trade unions. These are facts: public opinion was against t he controllers· right from the beginning and revelled in Reagan's show of strength; airlines most certainly have been hit and some. I am sure. could not sustain the losses and had to close down. The world of controllers is aware of the fact that when controllers work long sh1hs they cannot maintain their alertness and most certainly strain is increased; controllers know that employed supervisors not currently rated and military personnel not trained to handle c1v1I traffic enjoyed perhaps the novel opportunity of being put on the watch roster. But they know and so does the adm1n1stration that this can not be continued indefinitely without serious repercussions for both themselves and the system they are asked to operate. Released figures show a dramatic increase in the number of system errors and near-m1dair collisions. This increase came despite the substantial decrease - 1n excess of 50 percent - in air traffic movements. According to the FAA's Facility Management and Operation Handbook. system errors are ·ope rat ion errors involving aircraft being provided an air traffic service resulting in less than the applicable separation minima between two or more aircraft or between aircraft and terrain or obstacles. A near-m1da1r collision (nea r miss) 1s an instance when a report is received by air traffi c personnel from an aincrew member sta t ing that a collision haza rd existed between two or more aircraft.·

Background The US controllers are employed under a con tract system which 1s renewed every three years after negot1at1ons between PATCO and the Administration. This contract expired on the 5th March. 1 981. and negotiations were ongoing for several months. Controllers· claims varied from sala ry increases. improved working conditions. second career plan. early retirement and reduction of working hours per week. Negot1at1ons on a new contract have in ta ct broken ott1c1ally by th e end of April. though future meetings were held at later dates only to make the two sides more determined to stick to their Imes. During the course of the negot1at1ons PATCO had been endeavouring


through the House of Representatives introduce a Bill on Air Traffic Controllers (HR 1576) by which they were confident that the air t ra ffic controllers' problems would finally be resolved . Appearances before the House subcommittee on Compensa tion and Employee Benefits were made by both Robert E. Poli. PATCO president. and Drew Lewis. secretary of transportat ion . Poli addressing the subcommittee said that 'for years the primary focus has been directed to the system's mechanical and technical aspects. Despite the attention devoted to those elements the air traffic control system is founded on the decision-making capability of a human being - the air traffic controller. It 1s long past time that the controller workforce receives the attention 1t so desperately deserves.· The Administration ·s position with rega rd to the proposed HR 15 76 was negative from the outset . In a letter to the Subcommittee's chairwoman. Hon. Mary Rose Oakar. from the Executive Office of the Presiden t of the US. E. L. Harper. deputy director. said that ' the adm1nistrat1on opposes HR 1576 as a matter of principle. Rather than singling out one group for preferred treatment. the generic issues raised in H R 15 7 6 should be considered as a part of the comprehensive review of the federal compensation system proposed by the Adm1nistrat1on in HR 3140 currently before this committee. US controllers began their strike on the 3rd August. 1 3 OOO out of the 15 OOO mem bres of PATCO have gone on strike in support of their claims. In the US there are about 35 OOO' profess ional air traffic controllers. working 1n hundreds of towers. approach cont ro l offices. area control centres. radar units. etc . throughout the vastness of the United States

PATCO executive vice-president. Robert Meyer (in shirt). next to Edward Bradshaw. !FA TCA executive secretary. briefing the Executive Board of PATCO 's position.

IFATCA's involvement PATCO is a fu ll member of IFATCA and naturally its members· problems are also the concern of the mother Federation. IFATCA could not turn its back to the problem. The Executive Board had to act spontaneously and always in accordance with the mandates deriving from the Federation's consti tut ion. The Federation's president. H. Harri Henschler. called upon the member-associations to take action as laid down in Resolution A5/73 and as am ended at subsequent annual conferences by the direc tors. Positive action has been taken by a number of assoc iat ions. Such action had been. however. misconstrued by a number of administrations which exercised pressure on their controllers to cease any furt her action . The Board at their emergency meeting held in Amsterdam on the 1 3th and 14th August decided that a new or renewed mandate was essential and as a resul t called for a Special Conference which took place 1n the Ibis Hotel. Amsterdam. on the 22123 August. 1981 .

The Special Conference Despite the short notice given to member-associa ti ons (some members could not rece ive the ca ll on time to · This figure cannot be verified It is. however mention· ed m the 'Journal the Lawyers and Pilots Bar Assoc1a t•on (Spong 1981 •ssue)

make t he necessary arrangements) attendance was satisfactory as it met the required quorum. 32 out of a total of 61 member-associations attended th e meeting with all th e Europea n associations being present. PATCO was represented by th e executive vice-presiden t. Robert Meyer. who spent some considerable tim e to explai n what the controllers in his country were aiming at and how negotiations with the Administrat io n failed to bring about an employment agreement. Observers from internati onal trade unions and national trade unions were also present . This was found to be necessary because of the fact that their respective controllers' organisations could not commit their members to industrial action which was beyond the powers vested by th eir constitutions. The Conference attracted the worldwide attention of the press and television media with more than 1 00 rep orters and correspondents moving about fish ing information. In the course of the Conference Bob Meyer released reports on near-misses that have taken place during the first ten days of the strike and also released internal letters (documents) of th e Ai rlin e Pilots' Associa tion of the US (ALPA) which revealed grave concern over the continued unsa fe situat ion that exists in the US airspace as a result of the strike . These letters. which were written by ALPA"s members or the associa tion路s sa fety officers came 1n contradiction to the association路 s president J. J . O 'Oonnel public statements that the system was 路safe' . A letter by Tom Sheppard. chairman of ALPA's ATC commi tt ee to his president O'Donnel stated: 'Since the beginning of the PATCO strike on August 3. 1981. th e ATC Communica tions Centre has received a large number of reports. The continuous review of th ese by members of my committee and oth er pilots in the Communications Centre lead me to conclude tha t at least three definite trends are arising which indicate a decreasing level of safety in the present mod1f1ed ATC system . These are:

1 . Fatigue and improper qualifications are d1m1n1shing the quality of performance of the present controllers. 2 . Military and general av1at1on VFR flying below FL 1 80 has increased above normal levels of activity. 3 . Some airports with levels of act1v1ty which normally require towers are opera ting w ith the towers closed; however. there 1s no attendant reduction in act1v1ty level. 路 With regard to the training that an air traffi c controller has to undergo. 1n response to FAA's present wish to cut down th e duration of the training. ALPA reports. in comparison to that of th e air-



Direc tors from different member-associations 7

line pilot. that the controller starts with a 1 7 -week course at the Oklahoma Centre and then sent to a low activity fac ility for on the job training. ·It literally takes years for a controller to work up to and qualify for a control position at a fac ility.· The report further states that FAA has coped with the situation due to the generally good weather. less traffic flow and excellent pilot / FAA co-operation. ·However'. it continues. 'these minimally trained controllers are faced with fatigue and the upcoming winter season weather ... ·. The deliberations of the special conference were meant to be held in close session and extremely confidential and therefore this article cannot reveal t he actual decisions taken other than perhaps some of the views expressed by t he d irectors of the different associat ions present at the conference. Views as to how to react or act in support were split with some very militant views and others with moderate ideas. The provisions. however. of the co nstitution were always to be considered 1f a decision was to be taken and adopted by the Federation as a policy. The f irst item of cou rse was to confirm the policy of IFATCA in cases w here the safety of air traffic was jeopardized as a result of the replacement of controllers by unqualified personnel. 1.e. military and medically unfit persons . The Conference then we nt on to hear the views of th e d irectors one by one who were also invited to brief the rest of the directors as to t he action taken by their nationa l associat ion in conformity to the President's call. Directors were reminded of the ILO conclusions on problems concerning the air t raffic controllers. To this. the conference refe rred to 1n the final resolution and drew the attention of the FAA to Conclusion No. 8 which ha s been accepted by the 1 4 participating government representatives at the m eeting . Conclu sion 8 of the ILO reads · · The settlement of disputes should be sought as may be appropnate to national cond1(lons. through negotiation between che pames or through independent and 1mpart1al machinery. such as mediation. conc1!tat1on and arb1trat1on. established in such a manner as to ensure the confidence of the parties involved. Where ATCO's are employed by the Government. their civil servant statuts should not preclude them from hav-

US concern of special conference. H Kennon of the US Consulate Economics affairs (on the nght) having a char with IFATCA president H H Henschler 8

ing access to the following procedures: in particular. the settlement of disputes arising in connection with the determination of terms and conditions of employment should be sought through negotiation between the parties, or through independent and impartial machinery. such as mediation. conciliation and voluntary arbitration. with a view to making it unnecessary for the organisat10ns representing A TCO's to have recourse to industrial action. ·


Deliberations continued late the first day of the special Conference and were carried on the whole of the second day with proposals as to future action . Safety of air traffic was at stake in the US. the Conference resolved. and early return to normal air traffic control system should be the ultimate aim . In fact. the sooner the better.

The directors resolved that both sides should be brought together once again and start afresh. Controllers had to man their watches once again and flights should be ensured the safest service. This could only be achieved if the trained controllers were returned to their jobs. Their replacement could not under any circumsta nces replace the standard of safety offered then . The Conference authorised the Executive Board to offer the Federation 's good offices to mediate in the dispute and take adva ntage of the offer by the secretary of transportation. Drew Lewis. to visit the FAA and d iscuss matters of sa fety that are of concern to the Federation . The Conference. however. were determined to seek a solu t ion of the problem the soonest and were conscious

Directors from Belgwm. Greece and Ireland.



that blackmailing and threats of industrial action could perhaps deteriorate the issue and limit the chances of getting the two sides on the negotiating table. Directors were confident that the FAA administration would take the opportunity offered by IFATCA to restart negotiations with PATCO and that its offer for mediation will be respected. Alternative action was also being considered but could not be revealed to the world. despite the fact that the press were at the time anxiously waiting for headlines.

Follow up The Executive Board directed its efforts. immediately after the special conference. towards Washington. A meeting was set up between the Executive Board of IFATCA and the FAA administration officials on the Bth and 9th September, to discuss the 'impact of the US air traffic controllers' strike on aviation safety in the country'. The meeting was attended on behalf of IFATCA by the president. H. Harri Henschler. vice-presidents Pat O'Doherty and Lex ·Hendriks. with former CATCA president Jim Livingston as advisor and on behalf of the FAA by administrator Lynn Helms. In a press statement made by the IFATCA delegation at the conclusion of the talks it was revealed that Mr. Helms was warned that 'the only way to restore the United States ATC systems to a safer operation is the immediate return of all of the striking controllers as quickly as possible. Failing such action on their part. IFATCA executive officers must report to their 6 1 member-countries that the US airspace continues to be unsafe'. The Executive Board met also with the secretary for transportation. Mr. Drew Lewis. on the 1Oth September and discussed with him the situation alon~ the same lines. Regrettably. as this issue goes to press. nothing tangible could be foreseen in the near future as a result of these contacts. Punitive action continued to be taken by the Administration against the controllers with more than 100 criminal suits brought before the courts against individual controllers and a greater number of lawsuits against the organisation's officers.

F>i~',- 13lG E:MOUGH Tttt




US •• ,

(Editor's note: See also article on page 44.)


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we've used our experience both of ATC and air defence. If the data is not available, we can S}'Ilthesize display information from flight plans and position reports. . We can also do the other kind of simulation - for trainin~. validation. and evaluation - something we have been d9ing for many years. If you are in the air traffic management business Ferranti can help. And the people who pay your

route charges will alffiost certainly I appreciate your using us. Ask yourself, are you using the data available to the best advantage? __ Contact: Ferranti Computer Systems Limited, BraJ:lq:ielJ Division, Western Road, Bracknell, Berkshire RG1 2 1RA Telephone: 0344 3232


Computer Systems CS02123 10 3 1


The Cairo Conference Technical Panel

From left: Mr. Walter Vonk (PT!). Mr. Peter Jorgensen (Selema). Mr. Dame! Oudtn (vice-president techmcal !FA TCA) and Mr Roger Kahane. techmcal panel1sts.

by Andreas Avgoustis It has been the practice so far to publish the proceedings of th e IFATCA Annual Conference Technical Panel in th~ last quarter issue of 'The Controller . Thi s practice is maintained also in this issue and readers will find on other pages (as indicated later) the presentations given by th e various speakers. As anticipated. Cairo's Technical Panel attracted a larger number of air traffic controllers. corporate members representatives. ICAO experts and observer_s from national and international org an isations. . Th e Technical Panel was chaired. ex off1c10. by th e outgoing IFATCA vicepres1dent technical. Mr. Daniel Oudin with panelists Mr. Walter Vonk. of Phi: lips Telecommun1cat1e Industries BV Mr. Frank Fischer. of ANSA Advisor~ Group Air Nav1gat1on Services Inc .. Mr. Roger Kahane. of THOMSON-CSF and Mr. Peter Jorgensen. corporate members coordinator. of SELENIA Other corporate members representa ~ tives who participated in th e Panel as technical experts to answer questions were: M essrs Nigel Ross. of Cossor Electronics. James Rudd. of Card1on Electronics. Haakan Westermark. of Datasaab. John Sherwin with Robert

ments of a common aeronautical 1nformat1on data handling system aiming at the fulfilmen t of the operational requirements of general user groups. ·some countries. · Mr. Fischer said. ' have already started similar developments. like. Canada with OIDS. Lockheed with JETPLAN. the US FAA with MAPS and AWANS. etc. ·. b (Mr. F1scher"s presentation will e Panel Presentations found on page 2 9 of this issue .) Next was Walter Vonk·s of Philips Panel speakers were permitted a toTelecommunicat1e Industries BV. prestal of six minutes each to elaborate on entat ion of ·Efficient Communications v their subiect and the remaining time of Uncontrolled Automation ·. the two-hour session was devoted to M r. Vonk began with a descri pti on questions and answers. o f the various types of existing data First Panel speaker was Frank Fischer. communicat ion networks used 1n civil of ANSA Advisory Group Air Navigation av1at1on act1v1tes and continued by Services Inc .. who spoke on ·Aerona utih1gh l1ghting some of the essential diffcal Information Data Subsystems· erences that exist between a modern (AIDS). integrated communication system and Th e principle that lies behind the the piecemea l approach of other sysconcept of Al OS is the c reation of 1nfortems. M r. Vonk con cluded by discussmat1on data banks by which users. 1. e. ing how such a system could be updatairspace users. air nav1gat1on services ed to present day standards and other aviation users. will be able to Wi th rega rd to present day commuretrieve necessa ry information 1mmed1nication systems. Mr Vonk gave deta ils ate ly and reliably to achieve their obiecon th e SITA network and how the syst1ves. viz . safety. efficiency and regulartem functions and entered into compa ity of air nav1gat1on . nson of traffi c earned by the world s air Mr. Fischer drew the attention of navigation commun1cat1on networks his aud ience to th e present day requireHarrison. of Ferranti. David Butler. of Goodwood Data Systems. Noel Howes. of International Aeradio Ltd .. David Zenzen. of Lockheed Aircraft Services. William Thomson. of RACAL Thermionics. Lawrence Gulhane. of Mme Corporation and Yoram Avni. of Elta Electronics Industries.

l 1

wh ich. apparently. is much less than that ca rried by the SITA network. (Mr. Vonk 's presentation will be fo und on page 1 7 of this issue.) THOMSON-CSF huge contractproject of modernization of the Egyptian Air Traffic Services fac ilities and services was the subject-matter o f Roger Kahane·s pre sentation . The contract. wort h 300 m ill ion francs. won by TH OMSON-CSF is ant ic ipat ed to be completed by mid- 1 983 and covers several fields of o peration s such as: 1. the creation of t he Cairo Air Navigation Centre (CANC). w hich w il l cover a but!t-up area of about 7000 sq. m. intended to house equipment for the operation of the Cairo Flight Information Region (FIR}. an automatic message switching system of the AFTN. the electrical system and maintenance workshops; 2 . the Cairo A ir Traffic Control Centre: supply and install en-route station (LP 2 3 K Klystron Radar with on site automatic tracking) together with TA 10 K Approach Radar operated on an A/RCA T 500 computerized system: 3 . m odermzing of the aeronauttcal communications network by supplying seven integrated multifrequency VHF and UHF transmit-receive statt0ns. i.e in all. 4 0 VHF transmitters 25 UHF transmttters with an eq ual number of receivers together with antennas and power supply;

Technical panel audience. Front row. from left: M r. Dirk Fn;Jing (Philips Telecommunica t1e lndustne). M r. Vasilis Hak1am1s and M r. Stavros Mouzalas of the Greek A TCA.


4. navigatton aids: the whole navigation aids network will cover the supply by Thomson-CSF of 12 VORs at vanous sites 9 of which will be coupled up with DME 721 R. (Mr. Kahane 's presentation will be found on page 19 of this issue.) Final speaker pane/1st was Peter Jorgensen. /FA TCA ·s Corporate Members · Coordinator. of Selenia. who spoke on ·A System Approach to ATC' .

Mr. Frank Fischer (ANSA) making his presentation to the technical panel.

Mr. Jorgensen·s elaborate prese ntation conce ntrated on the complexities tha t an ATC system may in herit . He said that 'any ATC system . whether big or sm all. presen ts a number of very complex choices to b e made. The selection of the optimum soluti on to a single problem is often complicat ed by

the fact that several distinctly different disciplines must collaborate.· (Mr. Jorgensen's presentation will be found on page 15 of this issue.) Question and Answer

The one hour or more made available for the question and answer part of the Technical Panel session was taken mainly by the issue of 'the use of D/F in Radar' and its usefulness in non radar-covered countries. It was determined that. despite the fact that the controller's requirements is always the guiding factor as to what is best for his functions. the D/F is the best back-up system in radar. Mr. Dave Olsen. IATA Africa Representative. said that in Africa where facilities are unsatisfactory. the D/F. where available. bears very well. Mr. Olsen stressed the need for communications facilities in the Africa region and reminded his audience that ICAO estimated a cost of$ 300 million to cover satisfactorily the continent with communication facilities. Another question generally directed to the manufacturers was the lack of skilled personnel to maintain equipment where this was available and also the supply of spare parts. Bidding

Speaking on behalf of the manufacturers. Mr. Peter Jorgensen said that this was not the problem of a certain area alone. 'Civil Aviation authorities·. Mr. Jorgensen said. 'are asked to include in the tenders sufficient spares for the maintenance of the equipment to be purchased. Unfortunately bidding for aviation equipment 1s done in the same way as in building constructions'. Regarding the training of personnel. Mr. Jorgensen suggested that trained personnel, when they return home. they seek employment abroad where there is better pay. Solution of this problem should be the responsibility of ICAO and IATA to impress upon the governments the requirements of aviation. Considerable discussion also ensued on the question of information data to be available to the controller and how such information should be retrieved and displayed. The panel discussion ended with the feeling that air traffic controllers assoc1at1ons should pursue their views to the governments when there is a need for change in their system facility.

The CATCA Convention May 1981 by P. O'Doherty. IFATCA vice-president

The Convention was opened by the Convention director. who welcomed all participants. There were over 150 people present at this and all other open sessions. For the benefit of those who haven't been to CATCA Convention there were almost 1 00 voting delegates. the Executive Board and the regional directors as the main participants. Observers included PATCO and Australia as well as president Henschler and myself from IFATCA. Various Canadian agencies in the aviation area were also represented. The normal opening remarks were made and then the auditors were appointed and their remuneration set for the coming year. The Convention was then placed in the capable hands of Jim Livingston. who was the Convention chairman for the remainder of the meeting. Eric Staples. the secretary/treasurer. then read the roll call of delegates JUSt less than 100 in all. Last year's minutes were adopted and the meeting then received the various reports from the Executive Board and the regional directors. Legal Counsel also submitted a report. as did the managing director. CATCA president. Bill Robertson. presented a very comprehensive report covering items as diverse as the CATCA Journal. Dental Plan. IFATCA 80 and the Commission of Inquiry into av1at1on safety. Full-time vice-president Jack Butt reported on his act1v1t1es since taking office in December ·ao. This covered grievances. ad1ud1cat1ons and appeals. national JOint committees and public relations. He had dealt with 1 20 grievances in the 5 months - a lot for such a relatively enltghtened country in the av1at1on sphere.

Local Problems

Part-time vice-president Bram T1lroe reported on his IFATCA duties (SC VI and L1a1son). CATCA/CALPA L1a1son. National Safety Committee. PATCO L1a1son and numerous other committee act1v1t1es. Jim Livingston (past president) made his parting report to the Convention and assured the delegates of his continued interest rn the ac· t1v1t1es of CATCA. The regional directors. 10 all told. made 1nd1v1dual reports on their regions with emphasis on the local problems. Some such problems were repeated again and again across the country particularly where equipment. new and old. was concerned Staffing and salary problems were also high on the pnonty hst. Legal counsel. John Nelligan. reported on 23 separate items. not 1nclud1ng the current large scale problems in the Montreal area Not all the news conveyed was bad of course. and one item from the IFATCA view

point stood out in that the director ATS. on foot of the ILO report approached CATCA in order to-form a Joint Technical Committee. I would think that this has not happened elsewhere to our knowledge. Saturday saw further business sessions. mainly dealing with resolutions on Byelaws. The discussion was most 1nterest1ng to me 1n VP administration rn that it gave me an insight into the CATCA procedures and operations. and clarified for me a lot of the CATCA input into IFATCA. One surprising factor was the very large proportion of the delegates who spoke to the items - a much higher percentage than we are used to. However. as in IFATCA. there are a number of people who speak to more sub1ects than usual and their extra input 1s. of course. a very valued part of the debate. 'Representative Voting· was a ma1or topic of discussion and a system was eventually arrived at after approximately six hours of actual debate and numerous adiournments and lobbying. Not being fully aware of the Byelaws being amended. the debate was sometimes not easy to follow but my understanding of the outcome was that each branch (at least 1 5 members) will have one delegate for each 30. or part of 30 members and each delegate will have 1 vote for each 8 members. or part of 8 members. It seems very complicated and I look forward to seeing 1t operate. Representative voting after all 1s a sub1ect which is always JUSt under the surface of IFATCA conferences. Financial matters also took up some time but there was no adverse reaction to the recent increase 1n IFATCA subscriptions The CATCA dues were discussed in closed session. I gather that the dues are now a fixed percentage of salary but there 1s an actual increase in the dollar value of the income to the association. The budget this year exceeds the Can $ 1 OOO OOO mark for the first time. Salaries and expenses for the Executive Board were increased. substantially with very little acrimony On the final day IFATCA president H H Henschler made a brief. for him. speech He praised CATCA's contnbut1on to the IFATCA effort and exhorted CATCA delegates to keep up the good work - they are a model for all others to follow. DC B Stuart. Australia. spoke also - he was a fraternal delegate. At the farewell the guest speaker was Richard Weston. He emphasised a number of items very dear to the hearts of controllers everywhere Bob Meyer. PATCO. spoke at the dinner Delivery of his speech was. in my view deliberately. low key. but its con tent left no one in any doubt as to the commitment of PATCO 1n their current negot1at1ons. The speech was excellent and received a well deserved standing ovation from the delegates 13

Detail Of m1crominiaturtzed RF indu~r deposited on alumina using etch-sputtering. (Electron microscope)

Centerphot;: Output poweramplifier module, used in SIR SSR

solid-state ssr The SIR-SELENIA SOLID-STATE Secondary Surveillance Radar is now in operation in a number of countries. The radar is fully solid state, including the output stages, and includ es a number of innovations aimed to reduce problems of reflections and fruit. The equipment has built-in test equipment and an extre mely high MTBF.

~~~ ~


CIVIL RADAR AND SYSTEMS DIVISION Via T1burtona Km 12.400. 00131 RO ME. ITALY Telex 613690 SELAOM 1. Phone 06-43601



terms of flicker-free presentation and high display brightness. but also the collaboration between system designers. and controller has brought us some very encouraging results in cost-effectiveness. Selenia has taken a very active part in the human engineering aspect of the system. especially with regard to the man-machine interface. The fact that each display now includes its own minicomputer has given a very high degree of flexibility to the design engineer. allowing the introduction of new. very effective software package. not only for solving problems relating directly to the control of aircraft. but also with regards to fast. automatic system reconfiguration in case of failure. making 'Computer outage· a problem of the past. It is obvious that the workload. on a central processing system. using an essentially general purpose computer to make all the calculations for a system creates bottlenecks. which easily result in computer system failures. socalled computer outage. Furthermore. the amount of computer power available has opened new possibilities for flight data programs. When we presented some of our new operations software some years ago. it was pointed out that it may now become too easy for the controller to perform his task. and a risk of a 'boredom factor' may well have to be foreseen under light workloads. with the result of absentmindedness. A constant workload might be desirable. On the other hand. to complicate the work of the controller just for the sake of complications seems not to be the nght way to go.

A System Approach To ATC by Peter A. Jorgensen

The concept of Distributed Processing has now been in use for some years. and it may be appropriate to reflect. and see if distributed intelligence really did fulfill the expectations we had when we decided to apply that system philosophy. Distributed processing was selected as the most cost effective way to produce complex ATC systems. while maintaining a high degree of modularity and system overview. The advent of new powerful microprocessors has allowed a still higher degree of modularity than originally expected. and may even lead to an industry standard for electrical interface between products from different manufacturers. Any ATC system. whether big or small. presents a number of very complex choices to be made. The selection of the optimum solution to a single problem is often complicated by the fact that several distinctly different disciplines must collaborate. Different points of view may be expressed by controllers and pilots. by controllers and engineers. etc. These are wellknown facts. But also between engineers of different discipline we have problems of language to overcome. For example. radar engineers tend to speak 1n terms of statistics. or probabilities. whereas computer engineers expect precise. deterministic functions. It takes admittedly years of experience to overcome these problems and find all the small pieces which put together. complete the huge puzzle which constitutes an efficient Air Traffic Control System. A main advantage. not immediately apparent. with distributed processing is that you are forced to very clearly define and allocate the various functions to be performed due to the spatial distribution and the need for clear-cut interfaces. The problems of 'language'. mentioned above. therefore come into the searchlight at a very early stage of the system design phase. You will thus

solve problems where and when they originate and do not have to live with disturbances which. in previous systems. may have been thought of as necessary evils. A very good example is radar data extraction. plot tracking. and data transmission. A modern radar to-day has built-in data extractors which make full use of all available radar information. including the status of the radar; and in some cases even plot tracking with automatic initialization may be performed by the radar itself. or at least at the radar site. The result of this is that the data transmission lines are no longer loaded with a high amount of false alarms. and that the system computers are not burdened with data tracking and false echoes. Experience has shown that in many cases a central computer at the operations site may even not be required in smaller systems. in which the power of the built-in display computers 1s exploited fully. Another example is the development which has taken place in the display system. Not only has the quality of the display improved considerably in

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viding better service to the customer. the aircraft. To do any serious work w ith these problems. however. a very close collaboration between airlines. pilots. air traffic controllers. ATC officials. and system designers whet her from industry or govern menta l organizations is req uired. A possible wa y is to develop a larger amount of Standard Arrivals th an usual. and use STARs instead of vectoring. These STARs w ill be st ored in t he computing system. and a program wi ll then continuously check w hich STA R is available at any given t ime for the single aircraft for his opt imum speed and descent characteristics. while maintaining standard separation and thus minimum conflict possibilities. This may give the controller means of issu ing clea rances. especially vert ica l clearances. more suitable to modern aircraft. e.g. a clearance from cruising level to ILS interception. The pilot c ould then select an airc raft trim fo r a continouns descent . It is obvious t hat the controller w ill continue to pe rform his task of separating aircraft. but the need for his intervention would be reduced. The probability of success need therefore not to be 1 00% or more. as required by air safety programs. Already 80% probability of success. by wh ich I mean the number of times an aircraft may perform its approach by own navigation without further interve ntion by the controller for separat ion. would mean an enormous saving in fuel. and a

Contmues on page 2 3

Display with bwf t-in minicomputer. At the same time. the cost of fuel has risen to the sky (no pun intended). Furthermore. you hea r more and more often about pilots complaini ng about awkward clea rances. especially during the descent and approach phases. making the effect ive ness of m odern aircraft flight management systems an illusion . The obvious way to improve on these problems 1s to use the computing power available. The built-in computer 1n the display. being t otally dedicated to a single sector. may solve som e of the tactical problems presented to the controller. This 1s especia lly true 1n th e T. M .A part of the fl ight. Until today we have dedicated ourselves to the safety aspect of A T.C.. separating aircraft: and tactical programs available are generally 1n the form of safety nets. such as confli ct alerts and height warnings. though also automatic sequencing 1s coming up . But other problems. hereto so lved instinctively by the contro ller may more effectively be handled by the computer. at the same time pro16










t -.

Data Communications within the Air Navigation Services System by: W J. A. Vonk Philip ¡s Telecommunicatie lndustrie Corporate Member of lfatca

For reasons of organisation. economy and above all safety of Civil Aviation an enormou s amount of inform ation is exchanged every day over various data communication networks. I will describe two of th ose networks. to highlight some of the essential differences between a modern integrated communication system and t he deficiencies of another and finally explain why. and how. the latter should be upgraded to present day standards. Figure 1 is a graphical representation of the SITA (Societe lnternationale des Telecommunications Aeronautique) communications network. SITA is used and owned by 240 airlines throughout the world for excha nging information about passenger and cargo handling . The size of th is network is impressive; fo r instance. it consists of 1 2 OOO stations in 800 c1t1es in 1 52 countries which in total use 1 6 OOO teleprinters and 5000 V DU 's. 1 700 people are employed to operate the system which costs annually $ 100 million. The system uses land-lines. radio links and sa telli tes for communications Figure 1 The SITA Network


which can vary in speed from one to 1 50 words per second. 1 980 saw 450 million messages as well as 2500 m illion request/replies sent over the network. The data switched by the network normally comprised the followi ng: passenger facilities cargo facilities seat and cargo reservations passenger lists lost luggage information Despite its extreme complexity. the average re ply time to a request. regardless of origin or destination. is 3 seconds. But then. SITA w as the world fi rst packet switc hing network for which Philips Tel ecommunications was the main supplier of hardware and know- how. Let us now have a look at the network. that supports the Air Navigat ion Services System. Compared to the SITA network the AFTN (Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication Netw ork) 1s not so advanced. It 1s considerably slower. 1s not suited for request/ reply traffic and does not support the d1stnbut1on of large portions of information. Due to these def1c1enc1es 1t only carries a small part of the total amount of 1nfor-






Spam llaly

Middle Eas1

E Eu1ope

\ mat1on exchange within the ANS system. This can be illustrated by considering the enormous variety of data types handled within the system . We found about 17 5 different data types distributed over six Aeronaut ical Information Data categories (see fig . 2). Many of these data types are exchanged by mail . telephone or. 1f speed 1s required. dedicated lines . In fact only 35 of t hese data types are distributed through AFTN . We feel tha t this system is hardly able to meet today"s requirements. Apart fro m growing air-tra ffic. meaning growing information flow. and faster aircraft asking for faster communications. there are other important reasons to upgrade the AFTN . There 1s an increasing demand within the ANS system for more efficient methods of access to Aeronautical Info rmation data. Modern display and data-communication technology can w ithou t any doubt meet this demand. as long as the requested data 1s available w1th1n the ANS data processing system . Today this would mean tha t. say. Notam Class II 1nformat1on. as received by mail. wou ld have to be brought into the system manually. while Notam Class I 1nformat1on can be put in automatically through direct connection of the data processing system with AFTN An upgraded AFTN could 1n add1t1on easily take care of d1stnbut1on of Class II Notams and even A IP updates. An upgraded network would also be suited for request / reply traffic . This would mean that requested 1nformat1on. which is not available locally 1n the data processing system can be automatically accessed at another system via request / reply traffic over the network It is obvious that all ANS units would benefit from facil1t 1es of this kind. Also current developments in the field of ATC. like automatic coord1nat1on of flight progress between ACC s and air / 17

ground datalinks will heavily depend on fast and reliable data-communication facilities. Definition and realisation of an upgraded AFTN is not so much a problem of investment - spending on ATC equipment is over $ 1 OOO million yearly - as well of a) getting autonomous civil aviation authorities to talk the same language. both technically and administratively. and b) the lac ..· of universally accepted user specifications. Since 1967 there has been an ICAO panel working on the definition of a better ANS communications system. codenamed CIDIN. Common ICAO Data Interchange Network. In fig. 3 we can see a projected implementation plan. In the first years of its existence this panel made considerable progress. Unfortunately. in our view. time has been wasted more recently by concentrating on unimportant side issues such as the fine tuning of link protocols. Obviously further delays in the definition of CIDIN are in nobody's interest. An efficient way to speed up the process is to exert. as end users of such an advanced network. continual pressure on the panel. this could be done constructively by putting forward the user demands for information access (as airline pilots via IFAPLA have already done) and the consequent data-communication requirements. We. along with another corporate member. ANSA. presented during the IFATCA conference in Cairo a working paper which contains proposals concerning this vital area of user-specifica-

!Tunis I

Figure 3 18

Figure 2

Notam information Class I Snowtam Airac

ANS system internal information Emergency procedures Letters of agreement Hi-jack procedures Fuel jettison areas

AFTN messages Distress message Accident message Flight plan Departure message

Meteorological messages Metar Sigmet Current air pressure (QNH/QFE)

Al P information Regulations Routes Reporting points Zones Areas

Technical Status message Nav-aid status data

Aeronautical data type categories

tions. It was decided that these will be discussed by Standing Committee 1 during this year's sessions. At that time we also gave an impression of the Aeronautical data-pro-


Typical example of AFTN development m the Eighties (CIDIN)


cessing system. That we are currently developing. A colour-graphic terminal to access stored Aeronautical Information was demonstrated and especially its use for ATC/FIS purposes. Through operation of carefully selected funct1onkeys all necessary information such as: NOTAMS Airport Data Airspace and route data Status data Local regulations Flow control data Weather data were presented fast and accurately with the assistance of colour and graphic displays. Although a system like this could be implemented using only AFTN communications. it will be clear that upgrading AFTN to Cl.DIN will increase its efficiency and possibilities enormously. The speedy realisation of CIDIN is mandatory to meet the Air Navigation System's demand for more efficient data-communications. As explained. this demand is not merely a consequence of the growth of current AFTN traffic. but above all stemming from the need for fast and efficient access· to aeronautical information datatypes which are today hardly accessible or only via elaborate and time-consuming means.


Mock-up of the Calfo air nav1gat1on centre.

Modernizing the Egyptian A.T.C. System by Roger Kahane

1. Introduction . Over . the past few years the Egyptian Civil Aviatio n Orga nization has been studying a project t o modern ize the national air traffic con trol operation. This proiect calls for the progressive implementation of a number of systems and services through successive phases. The first phase was launched a few months ago with the placing of a contract. the salient technical and operational aspects which will now be outlined. The improvements to be implemented within the frame of this contract will directly benefit all the parties involved in air transportation: consumers. earners and passengers and those who make it work. air t raffic controllers and pilots. These improvements affect the air traffic control system at several levels : Modern1zat1on of the radar detection network

contract the largest of which will be Cairo Air Navigation (CANC) located at Heliopolis Airport. 2 . Improved Radar Det ection Network

This improvement involves the 1nstallat1on of two radar stations and a VHF/ OF station. Modernization of the rada r data proThe first radar station. intended for cessing and displ ay en-route surveillance. incorporates a Modernization of the flig ht plan pro- high power Klystron-driven primary radar with a range 1n excess of 200 naucessing and display tical miles. coupled with an SSR . Ra Modern1zat1on of the communica- dars1gnals are output 1n two formats: tion networks: Analog video and synthetic data obtained by extra ction (primary radar and Air ground SSA) and re-comb1nat1on of the primary - Domestic point to point and secondary plots. - International point to point This station 1s to be installed at the These networks include the teleCANC building. that 1s to say close to phony and telegraphy links _ HF. VHF the new Airport control tower and UHF radio commun1cat1ons and The second station. which also uses microwaves links. a Klystron radar but of lower power. has Extension of the navigation aids a range of 60 nautical miles. This staModern1zat1on of the means used for tion is also fitted with SSR. and meets training controllers. the requirements of Cairo TMA control Its location 1s close to a runway. and These equipments must be installed about 1 5 km from the CANC at various locations throughout the Furthermore. reinforcement of the country in buildings which either exist detection network also involves the 1malready or are to be erected. In all. five of a VHF -OF installed 1n a plementat1on building complexes have to be conshelter close to the approach radar structed w1th1n the scope of the phase I 19

3. Improved Radar Data Processing and Display 3. 1 After ground clutter suppression. plot extraction and plot recombination by equipment located with the radars. the radar data processing functions are: Multi-radar tracking. based initially on the information provided by the two new radars. but capable of taking in information from 6 different radars in the future. SSA code-to-callsign correllation. through dialogue with the flight plan computers. Determination of track speed. Establishment of the air traffic situation picture. in generalized system coordinates. including production of the Video map. Execution of orders received from keyboards at the control positions. System surveillance. with automatic switchover to the standby computer in the event of a malfunction. 3. 2 The radar data are required to be displayed at 3 specific locations: In the CANC at 7 ops room consoles (2 TMA consoles; 4 en-route consoles; 1 standby console). as well as on a technical monitor display. In the IFR room at the new control tower. at 3 consoles (departures; intermediate approach. final approach). In the tower cab. on two TV bright displays (scan-converted radar picture) as well as on a TV display used as a technical monitor in the equipment room. The CANC and IFR room displays are all the same type: autonomous viewing units with 21-inch diameter CRT's on which can be displayed the raw radar picture from either of the two radars. together with the bnght. synthetic multi-radar picture. Each controller has a selection keyboard. al'\ alphanumeric keyboard. a function keyboard an a rolling ball des1gnat1on unit at his disposal.

4 ¡ lm?roved Flight Plan Processing and Display

The local terminals consist of insertion and sending positions. manual message correction positions. supervision or monitoring positions. and special positions. The heart of this message switching system is a dual-computer complex with 48 k.words of memory capacity. Auxiliary bulk storage is provided by 8 Megabit disks. The main transmission speeds used are 50-. 75-. 100 and 200 bauds. 4.2 Flight plan processing Automatic flight plan processing is provided by means of dual Solar 1665 computers. each equiped with 128 k. words of memory. These computers are thus identical to those employed for radar data processing. The processing functions are: AFTN message reception Manual correction of these messages. where necessary. Manual input or modifications of flight plans by the controllers or by the flight plan section operators. Automatic flight plan activation 1 5 minutes prior to reaching the entry reporting point. Code to callsign correlation Flight plan updating according to radar data Feeding of display data to the consoles Automatic strip printing Management and storage of repetitive flight plans Flight plan recording for legal and statistical requirements. 5.3 F/Jght plan display The flight plans are displayed: a) On the strip printers and digitatrons used by the controllers: In the CANC ops room: 2 TMA positions 4 en-route positions 1 standby positions In the new tower's IFR room: departure position intermediate approach position In the new tower cab: 2 control positions b) On the vou¡s_ provided for the five flight plan section operators.

The improvements in this area are the following:

5. Improved Communications Network

4. 1 AFTN message switchmg An automatic message switching center installed in the CANC 1s linked to about 40 subscriber centers located in Cairo a~d at Egyptian airports. and it distributes the AFTN messages to 1 3 local terminals. It 1s also connected to the flight plan processing computer center It is designed to handle 550 messages per peak hours.

The CANC operations depend on communications: With aircraft in flight Within the CANC With Airport services: departments With offices in town (airlines. etc ..... ) - With domestic airports - With neighbouring A.T. C. organisms.


Depending on the parties. these communications transit via telephone or telegraph lines by HF-VHF or UHF radio. and by microwaves links. 5. 1 Air ground comms This service is provided by HF. VHF or UHF radio. HF comms use the K17 transmission center (three 6-kW ISB transmitters) and receivers located at the K 1 5 center. These two centers are connected to the CANC through microwaves links. A microwave link between K 1 5 and K1 7 centers closes the triangle. - The VHF and UHF comms. facilities are located at several places around Cairo. and at four provincial centers in Asiyut. Marsa Matruh. Alexandria and Luxor. In the vicinity of Cairo. the principal transmission-reception center is in Abu Rawash. which is linked to the CANC through microwaves links. A secondary back-up station is installed at the CANC. Furthermore. the new control tower has its own separate back-up equipment.

With respect to air/ground communications from or to the CANC. the routing of the modulation signals from the controller is as follows: At the control position: a selection panel enables selection of the HF. VHF or UHF channel. level control. and connections to the foot-presser microphone. head-set. loudspeaker. etc. The central equipment: performs the allocation to each telephone line arriving from a control position of a limited number of frequency channels. In the first phase this modular equipment allows allocation of 14 VHF or UHF channels to 21 control positions. and 1 2 HF channels to the 4 HF control positions. The modulation signals are routed by microwaves links to from: Abu Rawash station. for VHF UHF communications. K 1 7 HF transmission station K15 HF reception station.

then and and and

The VHF transmitters are crystalcontrolled 50 watt units. while the UHF transmitters. also crystal-controlled. are 100 watt units. Transmitters operating in the same frequency band are grouped together to operate into a common antenna by means through multicouplers; some of the antennas already in place in Egypt are reutihzed. In case of a failure of the main electrical power. the equipment is powered independently by generating sets and batteries.

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aircat The safety and the economics of ai r transportation requ ire that the air traffic contro l system keep pace with current aircraft capabi lities and traffic volumes.

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Over the last twenty years THOMSON-CSF has designed, built and installed more than 100 ATC systems to meet th e most va ried needs, from an indivi dual airport to a complete nationwide network. Building on this experience, A IRCAT is a family of modular systems integrating th e detection, transmission, processing and display eq uipment and software developped in-house.

There is an AI RCAT system for every requiremen t: from purely manual operation of a single radar in a daylight environment to coverage of a vast area usi ng several radars, with automatic mu lti-radar tracking ,

flight plan processing, co nf lic.t .detection, computer-aided dec1s1onmaking, software management of communication links, etc.

The SIMCAT digital air traffic simulators, which derive directly from the AIRCAT systems, are powerful tools for training air traffic controllers and for study ing new flight and control procedures.


ntOMSON¡CSF DIVISION DRS.TVT 40, rue Grange-Dame- Rose - BP 34 92360 M EUDON- LA- FORt T - (F)- TtL (1) 630.23.80

In all. 40 VHF transmitters. 25 UHF transmitters and the same numbers of receivers are insta lled in 7 separate centers.

5 .2 Links with the national airports Apart from the links with some national airports which will later on be provided through microwave links. the links covered by this contract are through HF radio communications. In Cairo K 1 7 transmission center and K 1 5 rece ption center. two 6-kW ISB HF transmitters and two antennae. one of the log-periodic type and the other of the broadband dipole type. together with their associated receivers. allow communications with the 1 2 nat ional airports. Two 1-kW HF transmitters and associated receivers are installed in each of these airports. The antennae types. depending on the distance of the stat ion from Cairo are: Either broadband dipole antennae for the short range links (stations in Port Said . Alexandria. St. Catherine. El Dabaa. Qarum and Marsa Matruh ). Or log-periodic antennae for the long range links (Abu Simbel. Ghar-

dakka. Aswan. luxor. Asyut and New Valley) .

5 .3 International links These links. emanating from Cairo (K 1 5 and K 1 7 stations) use 6 kw ISB HF transmitters. Seven circuits will be installed or modernized and taking account of reutilization of existing equipment and antennae. the equipment to be supplied is a total of 6 .transmitters. 14 receivers and 2transmission antennae. 5 .4 Microwave links The purpose of the microwave links is to interconnect the CANC through telephony and telegraphy circuits to a number of locations. Some of these locations being not far away are connected directly to the CANC by a single hop link. This is the case for: Abu Rawa sh VHF-UHF transmission-reception center. where a VHF link carries 21 telephone channels. Kl 5 and Kl 7 HF transmission and reception centers. which are interlinked and linked to the CANC by means of a triangular network in which the capacities of each leg of

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On the other hand. Asyut. luxor and Aswan airports w ill be linked to the CANC in two stages. For the first stage. corresponding to the first phase of implementation of the Egyptian ATC system . these airports are connected to th e post offices of their corresponding town s by VHF links. single-hop for Aswan and luxor. two hops at Asyut. Later on. each of these post offices will be linked to the CANC through a high capacity connection using either microwave links or cable. During the first phase the airport-to-post office links will carry only a relatively small number of telephone channels (10.3 and 8 channels respectively for Asyut. Luxor and Aswan) .

5 .5 Telephone links A dedicated security telephone network specific to the CANC provides access for 6 5 telephone sets to 3 5 external lines.

6. Met. Information Display 6 . 1 A closed circuit television (CCTV) system is planed for the CANC . to display information of a genernl nature. and met . information 1n particular . The pictures may be produced by camera. or by 4 data input units provided for the technical supervisor. the ATC room supervisor. the met . offi_ce supervisor and the flight information office supervisor. These pictures are dispatched to 1 8 pos1t1ons fitted with monitors and picture selection keyboards. These posi tions comprise the 7 control consoles of the CANC ops room. the 3 HF a1rground comms. positions. 1 pos1t1on 1n the IFR room. two positions in the cab of the new control tower. I Volmet position and 4 positions available as backup or for technical supervision . Each operator or controller may select any picture among 8 available. and each picture contains up to 24 lines with up to 64 chara cters per line. 6. 2 Volmet information 1s also broadcast from K 1 7 transmission centre by two 6-kW transmitters. This broadcast 1s monitored at K 1 5 reception cen tre. and also at Marsa Matruh and Asyut centres .


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the triangle are different ( 1 6 to 38 telephone channels plus 1 1 telegraphy channels).



7 . Extension of Navigation Aids In this re spect. 1 2 VOR 's and 6 DME ' s will be installed. the DME 's being co-located with some of the VOR 's. At present. the precise location of these nava1ds has not been established although the general areas are decided.

8. Modernized Controller Training Aids Practical training of controllers will be provided by an ATC simulator with three pilot units. each unit being capable of handling 8 aircraft. The heart of the simulator is a solar 16-65 computer. identical to the four computers used for radar data and flight plan processing. The configuration of the peripherals is very similar. However. this computer is not duplicated. The student controller positions are in fact operational control positions which are employed during low traffic periods. A language laboratory is also included.

9. Civil Works A large part of the phase 1 contract is devoted to erecting and converting buildings. Practically all the equipment to be installed outside the Cairo region will be located in existing buildings except for two buildings to be erected in Marsa Matruh and Asyut. On the other hand. the building works around Cairo are considerable: apart from two small buildings to be constructed in Abu Rawash and Heliopolis (approach radar station). the major construction project is the CANC. This project which is currently under way is located on a 5.5 hectare site within the precincts of Heliopolis Airport. about 800 metres from the new control tower. It includes 6 main buildings. parking facilities and a shelter to house the VHF and UHF comms. equipment. The major buildings are: 1. A 3-level central block containing At basement level: an airconditionmg substation. and an emergency back-up ops room. At ground floor level. a technical room for the radar data processing and the flight plan processing equipment. On the top floor. an ops room. 2. A maintenance wing building. where the en-route radars (primary and secondary) as well as the plot _e~trac­ tors are installed. with the spec1f1c airconditioning plant. and various maintenance rooms. workshops. and offices for the maintenance staff. 3. A 30 metre high radar antenna tower capped by a radome. This tower carries the en-route primary and secondary radar antenna. as well as the microwave antenna for the links to K 1 5 and K 1 7 centres and Abu Rawash centre.

4. An 'Operation wing' building. housing the flight plan section. the AFTN message switching centre. the operational services offices. and the language laboratory. 5. A 'Recreation· area.

6. An Annex building. housing: The electrical power house (transformer sub-station. standby generating sets. no-break power supplies for the computers. etc.. ... ). The main air-conditioning plant. A garage. The earthworks have been fully subcontracted to Egyptian contractors. A model of the CANC building complex is exhibited in the technical exhibition. 10. Implementation Schedule The contract came into force at the end of the first semester of 1980. As of May 1st 1981. while manufacture of the electronic and electrical equipment is under way in our factories. the site works have been started and the first stone ceremony will take place May 12th. The total building works programme should be completed during the first quarter of 1983. and all systems will be installed. commissioned and ready for operational service and handover to the customer during the second quarter of 1983.

11 . Participants Under the authority of the Egyptian Civil Aviation Organization the main contractor is the DRS/T-VT division of the Thomson CSF company. This division in addition to the management of the whole project. will provide also the supply of radars. radar and flight data processing systems. displays and Navigation Aids. Other division of the group Thomson CSF provide the following equipment. systems or services: DFH division: microwave links - OTC division: HF. VHF and VHF communication equipment TEX division: power supply. no break power supply and energy distribution equipments. ATC telephone system. VHF I UHF channels distribution system. closed circuit television system. recorders and consoles. Outside the Thomson CSF group. SESA company provides the Automatic messages switching center. SAGEM the associated teletypes and Rhode & Schwarz the VHF Direction Finder. The civil work has been sub-contracted to the French company SADC (Soc1ete Armoricame Ducassou et C1e) and to the Egyptian company El Nasr.

Cont. from page 16 better utilization of the airspace and airport facilities. These thoughts go a step further than traditional ATC service. in so far as the economy of the aircraft becomes a factor of relevance to the controller. The implications are that the controller and the system must have a much deeper knowledge of aircraft performance and flight profiles than common to-day. Using a system like this. the controller would be aware. with a much higher degree of accuracy. of all aircraft intentions within his airspace. and could thus be able to transmit relevant flight information such as trackmiles to go and speed brackets. within which the aircraft should keep its velocity. A suitable form for presentation on the PPI could easily be devised. It should here be noted that an aircraft flying level. with a velocity below vclean present a fuel consumption (fuel flow) many times the consumption of the same aircraft above vciean. trimmed to an even descent with power setting on idle. A preprogrammed clearance from cruising level to I LS. with known track-miles. would allow the full use of modern flight procedures and flight management systems. The modern ATC system with distributed intelligence. and may be even with multiprocessors. has adequate growth capability to handle such a system concept. but the reelaborat1on of the T.M.A .. and of the TMA strategies becomes naturally a ma1or task. We have during the last three years been working on a set of off-line computer programs for CNR. the Italian National Research Council. The scope has been to create a software package. which 1s able to simulate completely a given airspace under different traffic cond1t1ons. The programs consist of a large number of data files ·concerning the geography of the airspace. air routes. reporting points. navigation aids. radar coverage. types of aircraft. traffic load. weather. etc.. as a very complex data base. together with programs to create these files from raw data; and then a number of programs designed to opt1m1ze an airspace structure and the infrastructure required. These programs will be a valuable tool in designing new systems. especially with the suggested techniques in mind. Therefore. taking into account not only the experience gamed until now. but also future poss1b1ht1es. we must conclude that the concept of distributed processing has completely fulfilled our expectation. It has proven to be not only the most cost effective way from a general system point of view. but 1t has also opened poss1biht1es for new methods which may be even more important in the future 23

When itk a matter ofprojects, Philips has all that matters Take-off, approach, landing and positioning; enroute communications and navigation; passenger handling and terminal security are closely related elements within a complex system of airport facilities that cannot be considered in isolation. Which is why Paraguay's airport authority chose Philips to modernise and extend the Presidente Stroessner International Airport at Asuncion - a turnkey project involving many disciplines. We supplied two LAR-2 long-range radar sys-


terns, to provide complete radar coverage of the Paraguay flight information region as well as the approach to Ascuncion. Navigational-aids supplied included a VOR/ DME, anNDB, a VHF/ DF, an ILS and a T-VASIS visual approach system. Access to the AFTN and public networks is provided by a Philips AEROPP data communication system which can easily be expanded to switch meteorolgical messages as well as flight plans and all other aeronautical information at any time in the

future. Upgrading of ground-to-air and ground-toground communications is by means of our solidstate HF and VHF radio equipment, remotely controlled via UHF links. Communications are continuously { recorded on a duplicated multi-channel voice logging system. Terminal equipment includes Dynafluor handbaggage inspection; Dynascreen metal detection gateways; hand-held explosives detectors and a 15 camera CCTV surveillance system. We were also



responsible for operational and technical staff training as well as six months operational back-up. Why Philips? Firstly, we are a multi-technology company specialising in many branches of the aviation industry. Secondly, we are ab le to integrate these technologies with in-house professional consultancy services to provide a single, co-ordinating authority for any type or size of project in aviation. Here are some more examples of our project capability.

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Austria Vienna's international airpo1t Schwechal, has installed a T-VASIS visuai a pproach slope indica tor syste m, using Philips PS43 T-VASIS uni ts, a t both ends of the main rnnway. T-VAS IS consists of ten high-intensity light units al each side of t he runway; four a t a right-angle so that th ey form a wingbar. Slope devia tion is indicated by the numbe r of ligh ts visible in the leg of a "T" a1rnngeme n t, the wingbar being continually visible. An uprig ht "T " ind ica ting fly-up and an inverted "T" indicating fly-down. Thus, wit h the exception of gross undershoot, indicated by a n all-red uprig ht "T ", T-VASIS guida nce relies on the arra ngeme nt of clear high-intem;ity light un its rather than colour differe ntial as used on the conventional VAS I syste m. The information provided by a T-VAS I system is therefore less effected by reduced visibili ty conditions. Philips Airport Lig hting Project Group can also advise on, and impleme nt, specialised lighting equipment for a pproach. runway, taxi-way a nd apron flood lighting, as well as decora tive a nd general illumination fo r airport terminals.

United States. The Federal Aviation Adm inistration has selected a Philips aeronautical data commllnicalion system fo r t he new Na tional Airspace Data Inte rcha nge Net work (NAD I ). Initially. the network will comprise two main swi tching nodes in Atla nta and Salt La ke City and twenty-{)ne seconda ry concent ration nodes a t a ll major air tra ffic eontrol centres t hroughout the U.S./\. If you want to know more. the book 'Philips in Aviation' is yours for t he asking. Jus t send your bus iness card or name and address to: Philips Industries C.M.S.D .. Market ing Communicat ions. VOp. Room 22, Eindhoven, Holland.

Sa udi Arabia. A Philips closed ci rcuit television !iVSLem. comprising 5G cameras and 37 mo~i tors. i used for security swTeillance in and around the ne\\' customs complex at Riyadh International A.irp01t. The strategically-sited cam_eras are linked to a master control desk m the central secu rity room. from where each camera can be panned. tilted. zoomed and monitored remotely. An alarm system. together wit h approp riate signalli ng, has also beC'n intC'grated into the master control desk. The projecl was supplit>d by Philip, Direct Export Di\'isi~rn and ~n­ stalled by the Philips agent m Saudi Arabia: Messrs. Rajab and Silsilah.

Philips working in Aviation

Hijacking Canadian Legislation (Measures to regulate aspects of air transport)

Hon. Mark MacGU1gan (Secretary of State for External Affairs) moved that Bill S- 7. to provide for the proh1bit1on ¡of certain international air services. be read the second time and. by unanimous consent. referred to a Committee of the Whole. He said: Madam Speaker. the ob1ect1ve of the bill before us is to implement in a concrete and practical way the government's commitment to combat aerial hi1ack1ng. a particularly prevalent form of international terrorism. The bill 1s the result of the Declaration on H11acking made at the Bonn summit 1n July 1978. The Prime Minister (Mr. Trudeau) was personally instrumental in the final formulation of the text of that important declaration. which was jointly issued by the seven heads of state and government of the Federal Republic of Germany. France. Italy. Japan. the United Kingdom. the United States and Canada. The text 1s not long. but to save time I will not read 1t. The obligation to extradite or prosecute h11ackers has a firm basis in international law It is. for example. an essential operative provision in the 19 70 Hague Convention for the Suppression of the Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft. to which Canada and over 100 other states are parties However. the d1ff1culty the 1nternat1onal community faces in combatting hijacking. and indeed various other forms of terrorism. 1s not the absence of 1nternat1onal agreements defining offences and setting out appropriate penalties. The difficulty is. rather. the reluctance of governments to face up to their obligations when 1t comes to taking appropriate legal action against alleged offenders Indeed. as recent events bear witness. some governments. for pol1t1cal reasons even condone. 1f not openly support. the act1v1t1es of the wrongdoers. It is this kind of culpability or attitude on the part of governments that the declaration is directed against The severing of air links with the offending state. or defaulting state. 26

to use the language of the bill. is intended to act as a kind of sanction to induce compliance with international obligations. In add1t1on. the severing of air links can be seen. in appropriate circumstances. as a gesture whereby Canada dissociates itself from governments which are not prepared to take all necessary steps to deal with terrorists. Clause 3 of the bill provides for determination of default by the Secretary of State for External Affairs. Such determination would be the result of close consultation with the other six governments which would each be monitoring and assessing the follow-up to any given h11acking incident. This act1v1ty would be undertaken primarily by the embassies of the seven governments in the country or countries involved in the hi1acking. Based on the advice of the Secretary of State for External Affairs and the Minister of Transport. the governor in council would then be in a pos1t1on to determine what proh1b1t1ve action. if any. 1s appropriate in the circumstances. Hon. members will see in Clause 3 ( 1) of the bill the range of poss1b1lit1es that are open in this regard. In exceptionally serious cases 1t is conceivable that all six proh1b1t1ons would be invoked. The bill also provides for amendment or repeal of an order of proh1b1t1on as well as for penalties for air earners which fail to comply with the order. The government considers 1t desirable to enact spec1f1c leg1slat1on for 1mplementat1on of the Bonn declaration even though ex1st1ng powers would permit some measures of the kind of action required by the declaration Because of the often fast-moving and unpredictable nature of hijacking incidents. the government should have available a procedure that is clearly established in advance and can be implemented on short notice. As hon. members will see. the bill 1s brief and uncomplicated It provides for drastic

measures. but we believe that in situations which often involve loss of life and the taking of innocent hostages. all the measures are called for. The essential element to be considered here is the obligation to extradite or prosecute hijackers. We are convinced that unless governments act resolutely to deal with hijackers. such incidents of terrorism will increase. We also believe that terrorists would largely be ineffective were it not for the support or acquiescence of some governments. achieved by intimidation. The Bonn declaration has put the world on notice that the Government of Canada. and the six other governments involved. will not stand idly by while international law is flouted and terrorism condoned and encouraged. Passage of this bill will ensure that Canada is in a position to comply fully with the terms of the Bonn declaration. The forthcoming Ottawa summit will again provide an opportunity for the seven governments to reaffirm their commitment to combatting terrorism. It is noteworthy, I believe. that the previous government in effect confirmed a decision already taken by the former Liberal government that special legislation should be enacted to implement the declaration. This is therefore not a partisan issue. The efforts of Canada alone are not enough to resolve this problem. but if all governments were to act in the same spirit. the situation would be greatly improved. Hon. Flora MacDonald (Kingston and the Islands): Mr. Speaker. I am pleased to have this op.portunity to .lend my party's support to the 1mplementat1on of Bill S-7. It is a bill that adresses only one part of a greater. over-all evil that has left no nation in the world untouched. The evil to which I refer is that of international terrorism. The philosophy of violence that is a trademark of terrorists and their organizations has been. and continues to be. repugnant to any nation which adheres to a civilized. democratic and law-abiding way of hfe and equally towards peaceful co-existence Terrorism. however. is not new phenome~ non to any country. There are many types and examples of terrorism that one could cite from history. but they pale into insignificance w.hen compared to the nature or style of today s international terrorism. It 1s a phenomenon that knows no borders. respects no laws - be they domestic or international - and 1s marked by indiscriminate targetting. the senseless loss of lives and a total lack of morality. Perhaps. Mr. Speaker. terrorism 1s a sign of our times. for we live in a world riddled with strife and violence. caused in part by political. cultural. economic and religious d1v1s1on. Because of these facts. 1t 1s vital to world security that the international community resists terrorism in a unified and effective approach The subject matter of 8111 S- 7 deals with the unlawful seizure of an aircraft and 1ts passengers. a criminal act more commonly known as 'hijacking¡ H11acking acts have been committed by a variety of terrorist groups or ind1v1duals. No member 1n this House needs reminding that 1f such h1iackings violence is always used and. tragically

has often resulted in the taking of innocent lives. As the Secretary of State for External Affairs (Mr. Mac Guigan) has said Bill S-7 owes its existence to the declaration on hijacking stopped at the Bonn summit. On January 1 7. 1 9 7 8 the ten nations participating in that Bonn summit issued a declaration which became known as the 'Bonn Declaration on Hijacking'. That Bonn declaration was reaffirmed at the Tokyo economic summit in June. 1979. This declaration highlighted a problem that has confronted nations who are attempting to combat terrorism in all its forms. The problem is that certain nations which have been designated by hijackers as their final destination have in the past failed or refused to prosecute or extradite the hijackers and. in some cases. have welcomed them as heroes. With this rather distressing conduct of certain nations the ensuing problem has been that those countries committed to combatting terrorism have been consistently frustrated and hamstrung by the action of these nations in their refusal to cooperate. refusing to abide by the principles of international law or any civilized domestic code of law. These actions do not offer much hope for some form of peaceful global co-existence. These actions only cultivate frustration. mistrust and a sense of futility. How can law-abiding nations hope to combat terrorism effectively when the offenders know full well that they will not face prosecution or extradition by certain states7 It is imperative that these criminals be given notice that they will find no safe haven through-out the world and will ultimately face full and 1ust punishment for their criminal act1v1t1es. There 1s a serious respons1b1llty placed on the nations which believe in this goal of deterring terrorism not only to support international declarations such as the ones adopted at The Hague. Montreal and Bonn. but in addition to bolster them with domestic leg1slat1on having a specific aim toward pressuring other nations into punishing terrorists who unlawfully seize aircraft. threaten innocent crew members and passengers and sometimes murder them. Bill S-7 will serve. hopefully. as a notice to those who support terrorism that Canada intends to honour its international commitments. As stated before. the campaign against terrorism by all law-abiding nations must be founded on both a collective and individual desire to attain that goal. I believe quite sincerely. Mr. Speaker. that the debate on this piece of leg1slat1on should transcend partisan politics because passage of this b!ll 1s crucial to Canada's international reputation. Adoption of specific legislation such as 8111 S- 7 will undoubtedly give clear authority to the government and. of course. greater certainty when dealing with hijacking incidents. In the case where a h1iacking occurs and Canada finds a state in default of the leg1slat1on. Bill S-7 will enable the government to respond and act with greater speed. Needless to say. sir. action and. to a lesser degree. speed are two important elements required to give this commitment cred1b1hty and effectiveness. I would like to say that the passage of such legislation 1s long overdue Admittedly.

the frequency or rate of hijackings has decreased somewhat. but now is not the time for nations to become apathetic or lethargic in their efforts toward deterring terrorism or. in this case. hijacking. Terrorism. unfortunately. will continue to be practised by a number of misguided individuals. organizations and states. It is our duty and responsibility now to stand up and be counted among those in the world who are opposed to such evil practices. It must be made clear to terrorists that no state will entertain any demands. that terrorists's acts will be universally condemned. and in the end offenders will be brought to justice. This legislation is a move in that direction. Some hon. Members: Hear. hear! Hon. Stanley Knowles (Wmmpeg North Centre): Mr. Speaker. I am happy on this occasion to join with the Secretary of State for External Affairs (Mr. MacGuigan) and the hon. member for Kingston and the Islands (Miss Mac Donald) in making this a piece of legislation which we are dealing with on a non-partisan basis and which we all support. The spokesmen for my party who deal with external affairs and with air transport in particular have studied the bill very carefully. We have dealt with 1t in the New Democratic Party caucus and I am authorized on behalf of my party to say that we are quite prepared today to give this bill its second reading and to deal with it in committee of the whole. and also give 1t third reading.

commitment. and I want to say to the Secretary of State for External Affairs that I welcome the suggestion that we should have appropriate legislation on the books so that if any action is necessary there will be legislative authority for the appropriate order in council which might have to be issued. We welcome the introduction of this legislation by this government. the same legislation the last government was ready to introduce. and I think I can say that the House is prepared to pass it through all stages before we rise for lunch. Mr. Deputy Speaker: Is the House ready for the question7 Some hon. Members: Question. Mr. Deputy Speaker: Is 1t the pleasure of the House to adopt the motion? Some hon. Members: Agreed.

Motion agreed to. bill read the second time and the House went into committee thereon. Mr. Francis in the Chair. Clauses 2. 3 and 4 agreed to. On Clause 5 - Offence. Mr. Knowles: Mr. Chairman. before Clause 5 carries I should like to invite the minister to make a comment on 1t. It 1s the clause which provides for a penalty of $ 25 OOO. It does not say whether that 1s a total penalty. or $ 25 OOO per day. or what have you Some of my colleagues who have studied this bill felt at one point that 1t would be desirable to raise the amount of that fine. They had discussions with the Secretary of State for External Affairs. I wonder 1f the minister could give the reason. in the case of such a serious offence. the penalty is so low.

We support the statements which have been made by the minister and by the previous speaker regarding the concern we feel and must feel about terrorism. about inMr. MacGU1gan. Mr. Chairman. the matcreasing violence in the world. We are glad ter which 1s now nsed by the hon. member that the seven nations that meet in summit was discussed 1n the other place and there. conferences reached the agreement set out with our concurrence. the fine was raised 1n the Bonn communique. and we are glad from $ 1O OOO to $ 25 OOO. It is our interwe now have before us a piece of legislation pretation that this applies to each day on that w1ll 1mplement that communique. each offence; that. as I said in my address. Since what the three of us are saying 1s in exceptionally serious cases 1t 1s conceivthat we are prepared to support this bill. able that all six prohib1t1ons could be invokthere really 1s no need to spin out the deed¡ and that there could be a number of offbate. But 1t did occur to me that since all of en~es committed simultaneously. each of us have been referring to the Bonn commuwhich for each day would trigger a fine of nique of July 17. 1978. and since 1t 1s rath$ 25 OOO er short. 1t might be useful to have its actual The reason for not going above that figwords in the pages of Hansard. As I say. 1t 1s ure 1s not to spare the perpetrators of any the one issued by the seven nations at the acts under this leg1slat1on. but to keep 1t at summit conference in Bonn on July 1 7. the level of an offence punishable on sum1978. and it is as follows: mary conv1ct1on 1n order to simplify the The Heads of State and Government. procedures. I had mentioned that we do concerned about terronsm and the takmg of have some leg1slat1ve measures already in hostages. declare that thelf Governments effect which could enable us to bring such will mtenslfy thelf ;omt efforts to combat maction. but they are more cumbersome. and ternat1onal terronsm. To this end. m cases one of the principal purposes of this leg1slawhere a country refuses extrad1t1on or proset1on. as I said m my address. 1s that the govcution of those who have hijacked an alfernment must have a procedure which can craft andI or do not return such a/fcraft. the be implemented on short notice The exHeads of State and Government are 1omtly ped1t1ous procedures here are able to be resolved that their Governments shall take taken in part because we do not go above 1mmed1ate action to cease all fltghts to that s 25 OOO. which would involve us in an 1ncountry. At the same time. their Governd1ctable offence and more complicated ments will m1ttate action to halt all mcommg procedures. f/Jghts from that country or from any country by the a1rlmes of the country concerned. Clause 5 agreed to I like the last sentence: Clause 6 agreed to They urge other governments to 1om them Clause 1 agreed to m this commitment. 8111 reported. read the third time and pass¡ What we have before us now 1s a bill to provide Canada¡ s 1mplementat1on of that ed


Martin German's Corner


How To soLvf A



Handling of Aeronautical Information Data by Frank W. Fischer {Advisory Group -Air Navigation Services, Inc.)

There are a lot of information data available in the air navigation services system. Aeronautical information data are required by airspace users before and during flight as well as by aeronautical information service and air traffic services personnel in providing AIS and ATS to airspace users. Airspace user requirements have been formulated as operational flight information service requirements (OFIS). put forward by IFALPA and IATA and were accepted by ICAO during the 9th ANC. Such policy on requirements of AIS and ATS personnel does not exist as yet. IFATCA should therefore begin to formulate its policy for discussion with ICAO and for consolidation with OFIS requirements. Philips' Telecommunicatie lndustrie has therefore produced a technical working paper in cooperati_on ~ith ANSA on this subject for d1scuss1on and acceptance of this ?onference. aiming at assisting IFATCA m formulating its policy. ICAO 9th ANC report item 8 (OFIS) requirements and recommendations are attached to our working paper. . It is now time for conceptual design of a common aeronautical information data handling system aiming at fulfilment of the operational requirements of both general user groups. Our paper shall assist you in this process. ~o~e countries have already started s1m1lar developments. like Canada with OIDS, Lockheed with JETPLAN. the US FAA with MAPS and AWANS and other AFTN users. In order to demonstrate to you the possibilities for realization._ P~ ILi PS has set-up an AIS preflight bn~f~ng and flight plan compilation . an~ filing module. which can be seen in simulated operation in the exhibition area of the corporate members. . . The objectives of the air na~1gat1on services system to provide services_ for safe. orderly and expeditious flight meet general political constraints in the form of safety matters. internat10.nal commitments and defense requirements as well as commercial. private and military user requirements. These constraints and requirements mainly result in the necessity to adapt to changing user requirements. In respect to the handling of aeronautical information data among the various operational requirements for air navigation services system extension and upgrading we

must ask for take-over of routine functions by automatic data processing machinery to reduce controller workload improve controller working conditions increase safety resulting in greater system capacity greater system capability greater system efficiency Aeronautical Information Data (AID) are required by all of us. the airspace users for flight planning before flight and for operation in flight. by the AIS and ATS personnel in order to be able to provide their services to the users of our system. Al D are therefore required system internally and system externally. To the types of data. which are required before flight belong: notices to airmen air traffic services route data airport data airspace organization data navigational warnings special use airspace data weather reports and forecasts air traffic flow control restrictions fuel prices These data are required by internal and external users. civil and military operators. scheduled and non-scheduled operators. commercial and noncommercial operators. In general all of these users can be categorized into three groups: airspace user personnel and facilities air navigation services personnel and facilities other aviation personnel and facilities Among the air navigation services personnel requiring information data we find: aeronautical telecommunication operators aeronautical information service briefing personnel aeronautical technical maintenance and nav1gat1on service personnel flight information service operators flight service (AIS and FIS) operators air traffic controllers

air traffic assistant controllers flight data assistants incident and accident investigators air navigation services system planners and evaluators air navigation services instructor personnel aeronautical radio operators At present. information data. which originate from notam offices. AIS briefing offices. aerodrome operators. flow control units. weather offices and so on are still not handled in an efficient way to arrive at AIS and ATS personnel working positions in a quick. current and conclusive way. Especially the type of presentation is inefficient and insufficient. if existing at all. Data required by AIS and ATS personnel can be categorized as: Static Data aerodrome data ATS route data including departure and arrival routes standard instrument approach and departure procedures Semi-dynamic Data notices to airmen via AFTN status of navigational aids via AFTN or remote sensoring flow control messages via AFTN Dynamic Data emergency direction finder data - radar plot and track data current flight plan data including updates The subsystem to handle these data and to forward them to aircraft in flight 1s the personnel (training and simulation) subsystem. which constitutes the weakest part. but the most important part in the whole system. since all information data are exchanged between pilot and controller by voice radio. Today most of the data are handled by individual subsystem data communication units. of which the aeronautical telecommunication network fixed (AFTN) 1s not part of. This 1s inefficient and the AFTN. however. could be put to much better use than 1s made of today. A data communication subsystem should handle all the information data and the AFTN itself should form part of 1t. This allows 1mplementat1on of data banks for more efficient collection. sorting. comb111ation. correlation and distribution for presentation of data. Also the operational realization of DABS/ ADSEL will require implementation of such data bases on the ground in the form of data bank as a common source of required information data to DABS Aircraft in the system. DABS foresees to exchange about 20 types of data now. but there exist about 1 6 7 types out of 7 categories.

Contmues on page 45 29

A Professional Visit to Malta by Andrea Luise路 Background

ANACNA (Associaz1one Naz1onale Ass1stent1 e Control/on Nav1gaz1one Aerea) has embarked. early 7980. on an mtens1ve pro;ect to improve its pub/Jc relations. The objectives of the public relations officer's (PRO) efforts was to mcrease contacts with the airline operators. the airports and the cwil aviation authon(les and to improve the profess10nal knowledge of personnel for the mutual benefit. Dozens of visits. both formal and mformal. conducted during the months that ensued helped to promote what is now a well established network of mformat1on and cooperat10n beneflttmg both ANACNA members and foreign air/mes and representatwes of other av1at10n fields. What ANACNA offers by way of knowledge is m the techmcal and professional fields its coopera(lon and expemse which. admittedly. is appreC1ated by all. Furthermore ANACNA makes available space for articles and free advemsmg m its journal. 'Assistenza al Volo 路. In return ANACNA seeks the cooperallon of the a1rlmes to discover their problems and make the controller's views on safety adopted by all airspace users and related services. In assisting m the updatmg of the knowledge of the controller the air/mes are asked to provide free or reduced air travel to ANACNA 路s members to conduct professional tnps. This very last requirement was recognised by Air Malta and made our visit to ATS fac1ht1es and civil aviation auth-

ority in Malta possible through free transportation facilities granted to AN AC NA. The Visit It was at the close of January. 1981 when a three-man delegation of the ANACNA public relat io ns office had the opportunity - thanks to Air Malta to visit the Island's air traffic services facil1t1es. the management of the civil aviation authority. to the Air Malta HQ and naturally meet and talk with fellow air traffic controllers. It was meant to be a two-day trip packed with visi ts and meetings starting with Air Malta PRO. Mr. Ph . Borg. w ho talked to us about his company. act1vit1es and plans for the future. Mr. Borg showed extreme interest to ANACNA's activities and to the world controllers problems. The delegation were introduced to Air Malta's traffic services manager. Mr. A. Bonnici. and Mr. A. Costa. manager operations staff. With these officials the delegation had the opportunity to exchance technical and professional views 1n particular with the compa ny's operational aspects. Ai r Malta being extremely involved 1n operations th rough and . into lta_l1an airspace - the Malta FIR being contiguous to the Roma FIR - it was indeed an excellent opportunity for both sides _to examine some of the problems fac 1_ng each service. Particularly. the parties were concern ed of allowing the use of certain airways to be used by Ai r Malta during the summer months. Air Malta was established as an interna tional airline in 1973 after its independence from British rule and presently runs regular flights to Pans. London. Frankfurt. Tripoli. Roma. etc. Its fleet includes five B-7208 plus three B737-200 . The airline employs a total of 1. 21 9 people (88 abroad) - perhaps the largest employing agency other than the civil service. In 1 980 the airline has earned a total of 385.277 passengers on its scheduled flights and more than 263.000 on chartered flights. add1t1onal to its cargo activ1t1es. Air Malta 1s a 98% government owned and plans to expand its services further to the Middle East and other European capitals. Contacts

"AncitPd '-"'-'",_,the ANACNA IFATCA ha1son officer and h11'1 路nt!'l11,111onv1 rolc111ons o fflce1


Following the deliberations and v1s1ts with the Air Malta off1c1als. the ANACNA delegation met with off1c1als of the Maltese Civil Aviation Authority.

namely. Mr. Sultana and Mr. Gatt. of the operations department. The two officers explained the functions of their department and showed interest in the Italian system of air traffic control and its presen t day status. They were impressed 1n particular with the cooperation that has developed between Air Malta and the Italian ATC Associat ion. We had the opportunity to meet also wi th M r. P. Attard. the director genera l of the civil av1at1on authority. who was glad to offer his good offices for furthering cooperation between the air traffic services of the two countries.

The possibilities were discussed of gran ting the M altese controllers sim ilar faci lities and opportunities for familiarization flights to Ita lian air traffic control facilities. We were given the impression that the first of such visits will be effected by Maltese controllers to Rome / Ch1ampino ATC with future possibilities of attending air traffic control courses at the Italian academy. Thi s was encouraged by our delegation and we promised to th e officials that ANACNA will do all possible to see such v1s1ts in th e future regularly. It was made clear of course that our 1ntent1on could not be

to substitute the Italian c1v1I av1at1on administration but only to use our experience and knowledge for the aviation world to achieve safer air navigation . As professional controllers 1t was most natural to meet wi th our Maltese coun terparts and exchange views and experiences. We v1s1ted t he control tower at Luqa Interna tional Airport and the area control centre also located on the airport. We had an excellent opportunity to disc uss with the controllers technica l and professional prob lems that are inherent in th e system. M alta FIR. as I said earlier. 1s ad1acent to the

Malta ACC and approach radar

Roma FIR with a few hundred miles of a common boundary Communications between the two units seem to be the most important shortcoming in the system . On the professional aspect. the peculiar situation of opposite results as to the status of the air traffic controller have taken place during the years of 19 79 / 1980. The Ita lian air traffic controller has evolved from the military status to civilian following years of pursuat1on of the Italian au thorities The con31

trary change is being experienced in Malta. where air traffic control personnel were militarised to be given ra nks and uniform. In the past. as is well known and when Maltese controllers were c ivilians they were affiliated to IFATCA. The system as established now an operational controller reaches the rank of the captain and the ch ief of the ATC is a major. Despite the fact that t hese controllers come under military discipline yet they only do ATC duties wi th duty rosters split over a five-day week. Radar is available only for approach control w hile area control is procedural. Their peak period traffic is ma inly during the summer months when the tourist season 1s at its peak. 6 OOO movements out of the annual 18 54 1 were conducte d during the months of June. July and August. Overflying traffic (1980 figures were 23 774) has an abrupt increase during the Moslem Haj seasons. Fortunately. for the Maltese colleagues. air t raffic is not homogenous with a lot of VF R flights 1n addition to the scheduled I FR (including chartered) flights arriving and bringing tourists to the Island's famous holiday resorts. Maltese cont rollers were indeed happy to see us in their country and their places of work. It. is really a beginning that should be followed by other controllers whether Italians or Greeks whether IFATCA members o r not. Th is will be the best avenue to expand our Federation's (IFATCA) representation throughout the world. Needless to say that our professional contact wnh our neig hbours was concluded with the return flight home


on Air Malta 's 8-720 cockpit - headset o n. Thank you. Air Malta.

Malta. Luqa control tower


controllers to conduct si milar professional visits. It is my Association's hope that professional visits to colleagues in other parts of the world wi ll be continued and increased and in the meant ime encourage similar visits from these colleagues to our establishment. In conclusion. I must admit that this kind of cooperation creates a feeling that I am. ANACNA is part (a vital part) of the air transport world.

The ANACNA public relation office has reached throu gh this professional trip. in addi tion to the various contacts established in Rome with various airline representatives. its two-fold goal: improve the knowledge of the foreign user of the Italian ai rspace and its peculiarities and introduce and promote the aims and ob1ect1ves of ANACNA and IFATCA. Obviously to have the opportunity to v1s1t foreign air traffic services establish ments so far the better. Th e Air Malta management sure showed the way to othe r airli nes which have in fact offered s1 m1lar facilities to Italian

From left: Mr. Buccardo (ANACNA). M r. LU1se (ANACNA). Mr. Attard (d"ector CAA). Mr. Sultana (CAA). Maltese controller m uniform. and Mr. Gatt (CAA)

Training in Procedural Control in Automated ATC Systems by Adnan Enright

In those ATC systems which have turned or are turning towards automation and synthetic radar displays many young controllers have not experienced non-radar or procedural methods of control. There appears to exist a growing concern that in the event of a system fail. today's new breed of controller would be unable to revert to the procedural control of aircraft. This article sets out to review the situation and asks the following questions: (i) is it necessary for controllers today to undergo training in procedural control? and (ii) is it not more essen tial that controllers should receive adequate training and practice 1n 'system fail' procedures? It 1s possible to classify the ATC environment or 路system路 into four groups

ods of control we must find answers to the following questions: (i) What is the ATC environment (as defined above)? (ii) How often are procedural methods of control used? (ii i) If the radar fails. what 1s the publ ished procedure? (1v) Are these radar failure procedures regularly practised? (v) Does the controller working in a total radar environment really requi re skill 1n proc edural control 1f he 1s never going to use 1(1 (vi) Can the airspace stru cture support procedural methods of control? (v1i)Of what use 1s any method of control 1f 1t 1s not regul arly pra ctised?



(1) procedural = aerodrome and nonradar approach or area con tro l. (1i) procedural radar = raw or unprocessed radar used to expedi te the flow of air traffic. Non-radar controller is responsible for the sector and plans traffic flow on procedural separation standards. . (can revert to non-radar control fairly easily) (111) radar + procedural = processed rada r. Non-radar controller exerc1ces a planning function and regulates the flow of traffic . Coordination rs generally non-radar but by agreement some radar handovers may take place. (lim ited possibility to revert to nonradar control) (1v) radar = all separations based on radar. Synthetic data displays. automa tic corre lation of aircraft and data blocks . (no poss1bil1ty of revertin g t o non-radar con trol) Before going further and deciding whether or not all cont rol lers shou ld undertake train ing 1n procedural meth-


Obviously 1f the controller 1s using or going to use procedural me thods of control then 1t is essential that he possesses the appropriate knowledge and skills . But 1f he 1s not going to use such methods of control we may feel th at 1t 1s desirable for him to kn ow and be skil led 1n such methods but is 1t essential? To be skilled. probably not as he will never use these skills. however. to have some knowledge and understanding. then perhaps . It 1s argued but not proved. t hat tra1n1ng and experience 1n procedural control exerc ises the mind 1n th e aspect of spa tial onentat1on. provides a sou nd logical basis for all control work and produces the 路best' cont ro ller. However. skills 1n procedural con trol are only profitable 1f employed 1n the correct environment and are these skills really req uired by today路s con tro ller working in a modern ATC radar environment? For such an environment new skills must be learnt w hic h are equally out of place at a less sophisticated non radar unit. We come back to t he question what happens when the radar fail s/

Whe re a single rada r provides data to the ATC unit. in the event of failure. control of air traffic reverts to the procedural controller and separatio n of aircraft 1s achieved by non-radar methods . Wh ere more than one rada r antenna 1s being used 1t m ay be possible t o continue controlling ai rcra ft by util izing the other rada r(s) or revert to procedu ral control. The s1tuat1on becomes more cnt1ca l where th e ATC syst em relies on radar (and hence radar separation standards) and t he procedural con troller becomes. in reality. a planning control ler wh o monitors the flow of t raffic w 1th1n a sector and ensures t hat the radar controller 1s kept informed of all coordinat1ons made with adiacent units. The rada r controller virtu ally has respons1bil 1ty fo r the sector. Shou ld the radar fail 1t becomes very difficult. 1f not 1mposs1ble . to control aircraft using procedu ral separat ions because of (1) the amount of traffic. (1i) the ai rspace structure and (111) the complexity of t he traffic s1tuat1on Such a radar failure will have repercussions over a vast area since the affected unit must drastically reduce th e flow of traffic and adiacent units attempt to cope with a greater work load . The situation will be compounded 1f the controllers are either not trained 1n procedu ra I con trol or are not familiar w ith the requ1s1te back-up procedures The ATC unit wh ich relies almost exclusively on the use of rada r or radardenved information must have established em ergency procedures to cope with fail ure and more important. the controllers must be familiar wi th these procedures. Suc h a unit. and one considers here the modern semi-automated ATC units. will receive 1nformat1on from a number of rada r sites so that th e loss of one radar will not be considered crit ica l and may not even be noticed by the controller 33

Thus. the critical factor here is not radar but computer system failure. The power supplies for the computers are usually protected by battery and diesel generator standby which provide an uninterrupted power supply in the event of a primary power failure. Should one of the computers fail back-up facilities exist to provide a continuous supply of information to the controller. For a variety of reasons though. systems can and do experience failure. The controller will not only lose his ·radar' display but most. if not all his flight plan data. Most systems. however. are designed to cope with such situations and provide alternative. but limited. information to the controller. The situation still exists in North and Western Europe whereby we have virtually a total radar environment with almost all ATC units having some form of automation and yet. although the technical capability exists. the transfer of aircraft from one ATC unit to another is largely based on non-radar separation standards. Can procedural training be neglected whilst some forms of control are still based on non-radar separations;> It is essential that all controllers who use any form of non-radar separation between aircraft receive proper and adequate training in procedural methods of control. Depending upon the type of ATC environment (as outlined above) a backup system and procedures must be clearly defined in case of the event of radar (or radio commun1cat1on) failure. All controllers must be trained in such procedures and should regularly practise them.

PATCO & 'Solidarity' The following are two verses from a poem by Paul McKenna of the Bay District Jornt Council of Service Employees '.n San Francisco. The poem is entitled: Public Workers. Stand Together'. When the workers struck m Poland The papers thought that 1t was gre~t And they praised the workers. courage For takmg on the tyrant state But when we stnke m Callfor~1a ll!tno1s or Tennessee · It's a cnme agamst ihe people And agamst democracy. Workers m the pnvate sector we·re no different from you.· We work hard to feed our famtlies Pay our rent. and taxes. too. · It doesn·t matter who we work for We· re all workers ;ust the same · But the nghts you take for gran~ed. We re sttll ftghtmg to obtam 34

Letter to the Editor Flow Management (or: how bureaucrats solve problems) The (very) Wrong Solution As a regular reader of articles in our journal, 'The Controller'. I sometimes wonder if the majority of us are forgetting the very main objective of our profession: 'To prevent collisions and to expedite and maintain an orderly flow of air traffic'!

The article 'When demand exceeds capacity' in issue 1 /81 by B.W. Heinz. for instance. worries me extremely. Also in the article 'What you don't know. can hurt you· in issue 2/81. although the greater part of it is quite after my heart. Mr. F.W. Fischer tends to that bureaucratic involvement which I so strongly reject. Flow management .... one can already predict what 1s going to happen: Capacity assessment! But by whom7 Certainly not by the air traffic controller. I can assure you. Once the assessment has been made. we are lost: I expect slot-times for aircraft to be met for start-up. take-off. eta's en-route, holding-patterns and landing-times !or any ATC-facility in the western hemisphere within no time. There will be no one in the world who 1s going to change that system again once 1t has been established ... neither the controller nor even the airlines themselves. Victims of all this will of course be the controllers. the airlines and. above all. the passengers. . The airlines are already paying a considerable amount of money for ATCserv1ces and that amount will. no doubt. nse the same way some taxes do (sky high!). Flow management really means: putting the cart before the hors_e. We. the controllers. have to put things in the right order again. For starters; ~he airlines themselves could do a lot to improve ATC-capacity. An airline always seems to plan its entire fleet to dep~rt at the same time. It also expects its fleet to arrive at home-base at the same time. No problems for the controllers in some countries sofar. Problems do arise in countries with poor unreliable equipment. poor working conditions. etc. If the airlines together (their tool might be IATA) could come to the conclusion that a widely spread departureschedule (and this not only for ATC-reasons: their ground personnel would be able to work the whole shift. instead of hectic departure- and arrival peaks; efficiency. Gentlemen!) will be in their own interest. quite a lot would be gained. If only the authorities would listen to our requests: please recognize our profes-

sion and just give us what we want! And that is not just more money: give us the tools. reliable ones. please. and airspace. Make the Military obligatory to give away airspace (the balance is still on their side). at least on a temporary basis. when they stop flying. We desperately need that extra airspace in order to make good use of modern navigation technology. i.e. INS. Omega. etc. (a good example might be the civilmilitary coordination procedures and cooperation in The Netherlands. which is unique!). I do think that with these t~o items only. and with the cooperation of the airlines on the revised departure-schedule. it will be possible to acchieve the following: double (to say the least) ATC-capacity and a possible drop in fuel costs for the airlines due to shorter routes and optimum climb- and descend-profiles with almost no holding en-route as well as in holding-patterns near airports. With just these requirements it will not be necessary to add another money-consuming office in air traffic control. Why not make good use of our own Federation. IFATCA. the only international organization which can put up more experts (and most dedicated ones. I can assure you) on air traffic control problems than any single government in the world (did you check the recommendations and policies lately)? This. however. means that every controller ~u~t do his utmost to help his federation in achieving its. and consequently also his. ultimate goal: a safe and orderly flow of air traffic. Let us also make good use of the staff-bureaus. they are there for your convemence (and not. as so many are implied to think nowadays. the other way round)! . I do realize that I am not being very d1plomat1c; remember though that in air traffic control there is no room for diplomats: the lives of thousands of people are at stake and they just have the very right to demand the best they can get!

Helmut de Groot Amsterdam ACC The Netherlands


Provisional Time Schedule Saturday 1 Mai 1982 1400-1 600 Registration desk open 1n hotel Sunday 2 Mai 1982 Reg1stra t1on desk open in hotel Press-conference 1n hotel 'Meet the delegates· in hote l

0830-1 600 1600-1 700 2000-2200

Monday 3 Mai 1982 Regist ration desk open in hotel Opening Ceremony Opening Technical Exh1b111on Lunch Working sessions Departure to 'Stedel1Jk M useum · Reception by M unicipal A ut horities of Amsterdam

0800-0930 1 OOO 1 200 1 300-1 430 1 500-1 700 181 5 191 5

Tuesday 4 Mai 1982 Working sessions Lunch Working sessions Evening at leisure

0900- 1 200 1230-1 400 14 1 5- 1 700

Wednesday 5 Mai 1982 Working sessions Lunch Working sessions Technical Panel Corporate Members Corpora te Members Evening

0900-1 200 1215-1345 1400-1 600 1 600-1800 2000-.

....:__..·~ ""\,_,. . ...\.

...· ,.· _,.





Thursday 6 Mai 1982 0900-1 21 5 Working sessions 1 230- 1400 Lunch 141 5- 1 700 Working sessions Evening at leisure Friday 7 Mai 1982 Working sessions Lunch Closing Ceremony Farewell Par1y

0900-1 OOO 121 5-1 345 1500-1 700 1goo-


Transport Australia Packet Svvitching Netvvork by W.T Maloney·

The Commonwealth Department of Transport 1s currently involved in the development of a modern packet switching network for interchange of aeronautical data . The project has involved considerable hardware and software design. in addition to the usual station design. An overview of the design philosophy is presented and the hardware and software approach to implement the network is described. The importance of 1nternat1onal standards and their application in the national environment 1s discussed . Keywords and phrases: Communication standards. computer network. packet switching. CR Categories: 3 .29.3 .5 7.3 .81 1. Introduction Transport Australia operates an extensive message sw1tch1ng network as part of the world -wide Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication Network (AFTN) . The system cames operat ional data associated with aircraft movements. and some 10 m1ll1on messages are currently delivered annually to domestic and international addresses. Ten categori es of message may be transmitted over the AFTN including: • Flight movement and control messages (flight plans. departure advice. etc.). • Notams (Notices to Airmen) . • Meteorological message (t erminal forecasts. route forecasts. etc .). The ex1st1ng network has been largely based on low speed telegraph techniques with manual procedures for superv1s1on . To maintain a reliable service and m1n1m1se trunk requirements the Australian AFTN has involved a number of switching centres located 1n ma1or areas. Over the past 10 years an extensive automation program has been implemented to replace manual tape relay centres with computer or firmware based switching systems. and now 70 per cent of all channels are connected to automated centres. There are 400 connections serving some 5 0 departmentally staffed stations and a similar number staffed by other agencies (RAAF. Met. etc.). D1stribut1on is extensive at location such as ma1or airports. where over 30 terminals may be required .

2 · User Facilities Although automation of AFTN facilities world-wide has significantly improved the operation of the AFTN. it has been clear in recent years that a ma1or change in network performance would be required to meet future requirements for data interchange by the aeronautical community The integrity and response time of the low speed network has be en f ound inadequate to support w1 d espread appl1cat1on of data processing Air Traffic Service applica tions. Vanous studies of the 1mplementat1on of a1rground data links have indicated that. other than in spe-


c1alised applications. widespread development depends very much on the availability of a high integrity network to access the required data. It was also recognised that the fundamental role of AFTN as a 'store and forward' message switching network would rema in im portant. in addition to those new facil1tes and capabi lites a modern data network may offer. In considering t he development of data networks a broad division may be made between data interchange 'transport ' fu nctions. and application funct ions wh ich use the data network as a carrier. Some of th e important communication type user facilities at present available include: • Group Address: - a single add ress identifying a number of addresses. • Multiple Address: - multiple individual addresses. • Message Priority Where the communication function 1s provided as a front end to a host computer. a number of applications of importance to civil aviation may be considered. such as: • AIC Computers - data exchange between processors. • Flight Information System : - loca l and remote access to aeronautical fi les. • Flight Briefing Service: - vanous types of processing accessing FIS system files . • Flight Plan Systems: - storage and calculations associated with f light plans . • SAR Systems: - calculations assoc iated with Search and Rescue. • Technical Management Systems: - cen tralised fault sta tistics. fau lt reporting. etc. 3 . Standardisation The Internat ional Civil Aviation Organisa ti on (ICAO) 1s respc-ns1ble for the development and uniform application by Contract ing States of international standards pertaining to civil av1at1on. National regulations or practices applied within a State may. of course. diffe r from the internationa l case. but there are strong reasons for maintaining uniformity 1n the appl1cat1on of standards. The body entrusted by ICAO to develop technical standa rds for international aeronautica l da ta interchange is the Automated Data Interc hange Systems Panel (ADISP) 1n which Austra li a has ma1nta1ned an active part1c1pat1on . Over recen t years th e ADISP has been developing data communication tra nsport standards for a Common

·The author is w11h th e Planning. Research and Development of Transport Australia

a Reprinted by authority o f the author First published nal. Vol 13. No 2. May 1981


The A ustralian Computer Jour.

ICAO Data Interchange Network (CIDIN) to serve the aeronautical community. These standards are based on packet switching techniques. which are a logical extension of the 'store and forward' principle on which the existing AFTN is based. Advantages of packet switching in a private network may be summarised as: • Economic use of network by dynamic resource allocation. • High availabilty with efficient alternate routing and minimal transit delay. • Ability to handle multiple users and different codes and formats. The ADISP has been progressing its task at the same time as the standards work currently underway in bodies such as the ISO and CCITT. This has enabled close alignment of the ADISP standards with the approaches of other international organisations. with ICAO specific requirements and options being defined as necessary. The Panel has been concentrating on the definition of 'data transport service· type functions and has adopted the layered structure now emerging as the reference architecture for data systems. Of the seven levels in this structure the first four have been considered. These are: • Level 1 - Physical Interconnection. • Level 2 - HDLC Link Protocol. • Level 3 - Network Control Procedures. • Level 4 - Transport Procedures. In Level 4. ICAO requirements for facilities such as Multiple Dissemination. User Acknowledge and Priority are specified. These functions are provided over and above any capability existing in the Network layer (Level 3). It should be noted that CCITT standards X. 2 5 and X. 7 5 relate to the interface specification between user equipment and packet switching networks or between packet switching networks. The work of the Panel is concerned with formats and procedures to be used within a packet switching network. as well as the capability to interface to other private networks and public data networks. 4. Domestic Data Interchange Plan Transport Australia has been planning new AFTN facilities for some time. with the objective of satisfying a number of pressing technical and operational requirements .. Consequently a five-year plan has been prepared to provide data type facilities at all stations. An important aspect of the plan 1s the method of evolving existing domestic procedures to achieve essential compatibility with the new ICAO standards. Fundamental hardware and software constraints limit the extent to which existing computer installations may be upgraded. In essence. the plan provides for packet switching facilities at 3 7 locations and data facilities using upgraded character link procedures at 1 9 locations. The first appl1cat1on of the packet switching network involves a major upgrading of the Western Australian AFTN. using a system known as Oataflash. developed within the Planning, Research and Development Branch of the Department. Installation of this system 1s scheduled for the latter half of 1 981 and follows delivery of equipment and associated development over the past two years. The Western Australian pro1ect involves installation of equipment at 1 2 locations including a network control centre at Perth airport. The network will support 55 terminals in various operational areas. A diagram of the proposed packet network is shown in Figure 1. Remaining low speed channels are not shown. As with other areas of the network. stations are interconnected by either Departmental or leased bearers. The aim is to provide a high degree of connect1v1ty using physically alternate paths. and this feature will be enhanced as the network 1s developed over the plan period.

Western Australia

to Ceduna A TC





Perth Ootoflosh Centre

Automallc Terminal Controller



O Rx

Log Printer

U"lless otherwise stated system operating speed is 2400 bps.

Figure 1. Proposed WA Dataflash net

5. Network Topology In determining the design philosophy and 1mplementat1on approach for the network a number of interrelated factors were considered. the pnnc1pal being: • Development at a time of rapidly changing technology. • High reliability and availability requirement. • Provision and supervision of new fac1ht1es. • Interface to existing network procedures. • Applicability of future public packet sw1tch1ng service. • Cost effectiveness. It was concluded that an approach that combined commercially available hardware with specially developed modules. along with in-house software development of the new procedures. was most appropriate. Due to the time lag between the emergence of standards and the manufacturer's response in providing suitable equipment. special interfacing arrangements are to be expected. The comprehensive facilities and rel1ab1lity required throughout the network suggested a distributed processing approach. while the requirement to interface vastly different


procedures was ideally suited to a supervisory centre based on a multi-processor organisation. The Network Control Centre (NCC) design adopted is based on tightly coupled multiprocessors for the communication function. with provision for a loosely coupled data base facility. This offers a flexible and powerful processing capability to accommodate virtually any application task likely to arise on the domestic network. The multiprocessor approach enables functionally similar tasks to be handled in individual processors. with a central processor handling common routines and AFTN application tasks. This is attractive when integrating new procedures into an existing network. An integral part of the concept is the provision of automatic terminal controllers at each node of the network. These provide the function of remote data terminal interface and packet exchange. Terminal controllers have considerable autonomous processing capability and satisfy the design aim of providing similar facilities at remote stations to those provided at the centre. Terminal controllers are accredited to a designated supervisory centre. As the network is expanded additional terminal controllers may be accredited to another NCC. When selecting equipment on which the network would be based, particular attention was paid to ensuring a high degree of sohware and hardware compatibility. 6. Network Control Centre Hardware A block diagram of the Network Control Centre is shown at Figure 2. The system is based on the Texas Instruments' 99011 0 mini-computer, and features in the architecture of








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this computer are an essential facet of the implementation. The 990 series provide dual input/output systems. The Communications Register Unit (CRU) is a serial input/output port which offers a simplified method of inputing/ outputing data at moderate speed for communications or control applications. The Ti-line is the high speed asynchronous OMA bus and has a transfer capability of 50 Mb/s. The Ti-line offers an ideal method of interconnecting multi-processing systems. For the data interchange function three processors are provided. each processor handling communication links requiring similar formats and procedures. These line processors are each equipped with 3 2 K words of error-correcting memory. The central processor communicates with the line processors over the Ti-line. to a standard transfer procedure as described later. The central processor contains 96K memory and the operating system extends over all processors. This system can therefore be considered tightly coupled. A 25 M byte disc drive is connected to the central processor. which controls disc handling. The database is connected over a further Ti-line coupler to the central proc~ss?r; h?wever. this may be considered solely as a communication hnk. All access requests to the database will be via the data transport system. The TIY interface is provided for diagnostic work on each processor when the system is off-line and comprehensive facilities are provided for technical supervision. On the c?mmunication link side of the system. it is necessary to provide an efficient means of interfacing large numbers of channels. This has been achieved by designing interface modules that support up to eight duplex channels for








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both HDLC links and data circuits. These t hen interface through the CRU t o the line processor. Line terminating eq uipment. not shown on Figure 2. provides th e external line con nection and this equipment contain s the input paralleling and outpu t cha ngeover facility for the duplicated system . The main Dataflash equipmen t occupies five cabinets. Two cabinets are required for each processing suite (main and standby). with a further cabinet for line 1nterfac1ng and test equipment . Some of th e in-house designed computer modules are housed in the 990/ 1O processors themselves. w hile add1t 1onal modules are housed in separa te chassis in the line interfacing cabinet. Separate prov1s1on is made for housing modems used on leased trunks. and for a maintenance facility which contains basic interfacing. line processing and central processing tes t bed . Disc drives are console m . unted . 7. Automatic Terminal Controller Hardware The terminal con troller 1s based on the Texas Instruments' 990/4 micro-compu ter. The 990/ 4 uses the TI 9900 microprocessor whi ch operates at a clock speed of 3 MHz. It is upward compa tible with the 990 / 10 machine which has add 1t1onal features such as memory mappi ng and extra interrupt s. The unit 1s housed 1n standard six slot chassis with 1 2K word parity memory and power supply. Terminal controllers use the same in-hou se designed interface and control m odules as used fo r the centre. Prov1s1on has been made fo r dupl1cat1on of the facility. using a manual changeove r Dataset and changeover modules are housed 1n a separat e chassis

F igure 4. Eight line C RU interface (asynchronous)


8. Special Modules A number of special modules. not commercially available. have been designed to enable the Dataflash concept to be implemented. The modules either mount in the processor chassis or in a separate interface chassis. Modules generally accommodate eight channels on a standard size card. Details are as summarised below and the UART module is briefly described: •

Eight Line CRU Interface (asynchronous): - Provides eight data interfaces to data/telegraph circuits and up to 1 2 digital 1 /0 functions for console presentation. Eight Line CRU Interface (synchronous): - Provides eight data link control interfaces for HDLC trunk circuits operating at up to 9600 bps. Line Telegraph Adaptor: - Provides eight Rx/Tx interfaces for telegraph lines operation to 300 bps. Dataset Module: - Provides standard interface control signals for eight channels in the local airport environment. Line Switching Relay: - Switches eight output lines on Dataflash/ ATC for changeover. Control Module: - Provides watch-dog timers to monitor operation of the dual installation and miscellaneous functions.

The asynchronous data module 1s based on a 9900 microprocessor. The card is interrupt driven and contains a RAM buffer through which a 1 6 bit transfer word is passed to or from the line processor. The card can support eight channels and 1 2 function controls. Each channel interfaces via a UART chip (TMS 9902) to the V. 24 signals. Incoming data is assembled into a character within the chip. and an interrupt signal generated to the on-card 9900 microprocessor. After any higher priority interrupts have been processed the 9900 reads the character from the appropriate chip and stores it in RAM. This eight bit character will then be assembled into the 1 6 bit Transfer Word referenced earlier with additional address information and loaded in the Output Buffer RAM. The card then generates an interrupt to the line processor which transfers the word with a 'Store CRU' instruction. Alarm conditions are handled in a similar process using the transfer word. The reverse process occurs for data and control output signals. At system initialisation each UART may be set for its correct data rate. character length and parity as determined by program held in PROM. The operation of the HDLC interface module follows that of the asynchronous module. The principal difference 1s the use of the synchronous TMS 9903 chip which provides flag generation .. ·o· bit insertion and frame check sequence functions. This chip requires two add1t1onal interface lines (receive and transmit clock). The maximum data rate for the interface cards is determined by the on-card software. of which there are several different versions for the different types of lines (AFTN. Telex. etc.). The program occupies approximately 1 K byte (PROM) and tests indicate the card can support up to eight channels operating at 9 600 bps.

9. Data Interchange Procedures The Dataflash network procedures follow the standards work as closely as possible. The physical interface uses the industry-accepted V. 24 standard. equipment configured for the more recent d1g1tal interface standard X. 21 not being readily available. At the link level the balanced link access protocol (LAP 8) is being used. This is a particular case of the generalised High Level Data Link Control (HDLC) procedure


specified by ICAO for use on aeronautical data links. and enables link level compatibility for future X.25 interfacing to the public data network. Network connectivity is based on use of Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs). A virtual circuit is an association of socalled logical channels on physical circuits in a network for a period of time. In the initial implementation these will be configured between all nodes in the network and the Perth Centre. To maintain an adaptive and flexible routing structure tables are configured to enable up to three pre-determined alternate paths ~PVCs) bet~een any two locations. Only one PVC. may be active at one time for the transfer of operational traffic. Network formats and procedures are similar to those of the CCITI interface standard X.25. but operate in a symmetric mode compared to the asymmetric nature of the interface between a DTE and DCE. A PVC may be either active. available or unavailable. and may only be activated by the NCC. However. any node may cause the PVC to become unavailable (e.g.. due to link failure) or restore PVC a.vailability (following link restoration). The state to be entered 1s determined by the diagnostic code included in a 'Reset Request' packet. A simple flow control procedure may also be applied on the network. In addition to the non- selective mechanism existing at the link level. selective flow control on a per PVC basis is applied. This limits the number of outstanding packets between adjacent nodes to the win~ow si~e and appli~s end to end when delivery confirmation 1~ required. The window is based on the packet send and receive numbers contained in the packet header.




Tee· s STORE

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Figure 5. Dataflash software structure


In the case of the Australian AFTN it has been decided not to implement Transport Layer (Level 4) functions at this stage. This implies various user specific functions are handled as application tasks by processing in the NCC. Delivery confirmation is being implemented using the · D-bit' capability of Level 3. The centralised supervision and control functions in the NCC have a twofold purpose - supervision of the several different procedures interfaced at Perth. and handling of application tasks associated with message flow over the AFTN. The NCC presents the status of all terminals/links connected to the network. The more important functions of the centre are: • Gateway packet exchange. • Interface to low speed AFTN network/auto Telex. • Interface to character procedures (existing net). • Database access. • Network statuts/ diversion control. • Pre-format entry/modification. • Group address/multi-address process. • Message retrieval (AFTN regulatory requirement). In the initial implementation the use of PVCs limits interactive operation to transactions between terminals on the network and Perth. This satisfies the primary objective of message preparation assistance to remote traffic entry. and pre-format access. The next stage of the project will introduce Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs). providing conversational mode operation between terminals and the ability to establish X. 2 5 connections. The initial use of FVCs simplifies processing as the 'Call Establishment' and 'Clear· phases are not required. An important application of the network is the access to aeronautical information. and provision has been made for an integrated database in the system configuration. Aeronautical databases consist of a number of subsystem files (e.g .. weather. NOTAM) accessible by various keys (location. area. flight. route. etc.). The provision of t.h~se facilities replace existing manual methods. enabltn~ effic1e~t data collection and dissemination of aeronautical information. Standards have not yet been set by IC.AO f?.r database ac.cess formats and procedures. which are 1dent1f1ed with the higher layers of the reference model archit.ecture. Work is. proceeding on the Australian implementation .. although t.h1s facility will not be available when the network 1s comm1ss1oned.

10. Control Centre Software In the Dataflash centre there is a fundamental difference between the message handling procedures and the procedures for handling transit packets associated with interactive transactions. Handling of message traffic 1s more complex. requiring add1t1onal processing and entry into applications software. Figure 5 shows the main program modules of the system. In the Dataflash system non-interactive message traffic 1s required to be available for retrieval at the first switching centre (Perth) in the network. The concept adopted has been to queue message references (Transmit Control Blocks) in the output line processors and handle single message transfers to disc (rather than groups of messages). This has enabled eff1c1ent throughput to be achieved using standard moving head disc technology. Figure 5 shows the data flow associated with an AFTN broadcast type message or an interactive transaction with the local or a remote database. A fundamental data flow aspect is the data interchange maintained between the various 990/ 10 mini-computers in the system Two separate memory areas in each line processor are reserved for Cyclic Control Queues. These provide the means of passing high

priority control information in each direction between the line processor and central processor. Each control queue is initialised to all zeros (empty state). Two pointers are initialised to point to the same word. These are the Load Pointer. indicating the next word to be written. and the Action Pointer. indicating the next word to be read. When a new queue entry is added. the Load Pointer is incremented. and the alternate processor is interrupted. The queue is then read from the location indicated by the Action Pointer. Each word is cleared after it has been analysed and transferred to an appropriate system task queue. Reading continues until a zero entry is encountered. The queue sizes are scaled to avoid over-run (a catastrophic malfunction) under worst case conditions. Software on the Dataflash has been written in the 9 90 assembly language. and developed on the development system that will remain in Transport Australia's central office for further design and expansion of network facilities. The central processor uses a commercial operating system known as DX10. which has been developed for the 990/ 10 computers to control concurrent execution of multiple tasks in a real time environment. DX 1 0 permits eff1c1ent task scheduling. interrupt handling. 1 /0 processing and management of files on disc. The line processors themselves schedule their communication functions and international resource allocation under control of a small commercially available operating system. known as TX990. This runs completely independently of the central operating system. At initialisation a portion of the memory of each line processor is mapped as part of the memory of the central processor. running under DX 10. The 1nitialisat1on program also downloads the line processor memory. and each line processor then relocates its own memory. The requirement 1s for the central processor to have access to the Cyclic Control Queues and free chain areas of each line processor. The line processors do not have access to similar areas in the central processor. which acts as a master m the configuration. In the packet mode. packet transit through the centre may or may not involve data interchange with the central processor. in which case a standard transaction type 1s 1dent1fred. The simplified diagram of Figure 5 does not show the many supervisory fac1l1t1es associated wrth traffic flow. After in1t1al format check in the input routine. message data rs examined at address process time and has to pass various checks. If this input check fails a re1ect1on code 1s returned to the traffic entry point. Certain other cond1t1ons result rn an entry to a Job Q routine. for supervisory action. Successful traffic entry results in a header and system number being returned. The address stripping method 1s used in the network. whereby user addresses are removed (stripped) rf further relay responsib1l1ty does not exist. Supervisory routines are provided for address table entry/mod1f1cat1on. 1nclud1ng group address. The Dataflash software 1s being structured to enable fully automatic recovery after dual suite failure After total failure. a hardware-triggered bootstrap firstly dumps memory to disc (crash record) for later analysis. The main program rs then reloaded from disc. and the line processors downloaded. Return to normal operation rs by means of a background JOurnal recovery program. which references a secure 'window· of non-complete transactions in the system. enabling retransm1ss1on from the MCBs stored on disc

11. Terminal Controller Software In the case of the terminal controllers. a small dedicated operating system has been written for maximum eff1c1ency and minimum memory requirements DX 10 has been used for program development. and programming has been at assembly level wrth the aid of the cond1t1onal macro assembler facrlttres The operating system designed for the terminal 41

controllers is a file-oriented system and occupies approximately 2.5K words. Macros are used exclusively to interface the user to the system. The principle system macro is the file handler called SYSFIL. The general macro library contains an assortment of routines such as nested loops. linear and binary queue handlers. bit maps for logical channel assignments. interrupt driven delays. etc. The macro-approach simplifies writing of source programs and tends to standardise program format. The terminal controller has similar link and network procedures and device service routines (DSRs) to those at the centre. The custom designed operating system has enabled functions that at the centre are implemented over several processors to be efficiently handled in one device. Associated with the operating system is a debug package that may be loaded as necessary. The major software modules and their interaction with the operating system are shown in Figure 6.



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12. Training and Maintenance As with other major projects in Transport Australia. the continued satisfactory performance of field installations is of paramount importance. The Dataflash network has a broad range of maintenance requirements. with hardware and software considerations in an operational environment. It can be appreciated that the quantity of equipment involved represents a major increase of programmed systems in the field. The Western Australian network alone has approximately 100 TI 9900 microprocessors. After a review of maintenance philosophy two senior technical staff attended the Austin training facility of TI to undertake formal hardware and software training courses. On their return they were responsible for dissemination of product information and planning and preparation of training material. A comprehensive training syllabus has been prepared covering all aspects of system hardware and software. The first course will be conducted during 1981. 1 3. Conclusion Emerging data interchange standards are now having a ma1or impact on aeronautical network design. In civil aviation ma1or advances are under way in provisioning of packet switching on the AFTN. For the first time other networks may be readily interfaced and an integrated approach to aeronautical data interchange will ensure significant improvement in the availability and value of aeronautical information. Greater application of data processing in the Air Traffic Service will be evident in the future. Australia is in the forefront of states reaping the benefits to be gained from the new technology.



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14. Acknowledgements The author wishes to thank his colleagues on the Dataflash pro1ect team for their helpful comments on the preparation ff: this article.




Figure 6. Terminal controller software modules 42


Biographical Note


W. T. Maloney was educated at Melbourne University, completing BSc (Hons.) in Electrical Engineering in 19 60. He Joined the then Department of C1v1I Av1at1on in 1 9 6 1 as an Airways Engineer. initially in the VHF Communication and then the HF Commun1cat1on Sub-Section. In 197 3 he was promoted to Pnnc1pal Engineer in charge of message switching systems. He was elected Chairman of the ICAO Automated Data Interchange Systems Panel in 197 7 Mr Maloney is a member of the Institution of Engineers (Aust.) and senior member of the lnst1tut1on of Radio and Electronic Engineers.



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Unconsidered Aspects of the Controllers' Strike by Jon R. Sharpe

President Reagan, on the advice of the Federal Aviation Administration and w ith the concurrence of major airlines, fired striking air traffic controllers. He and the controllers gave the FAA and the airlines the opportunity t o slip out from under some restrictive legislation. The FAA, created in 1958 'for the . .. promotion of civil aviation ... to best foster its development and safety and to provide for the safe and efficient use of airspace .. .', was able to shift to a restrictive course. The airlines cut required but ;.ineconomic service. 'The Golden Age of Aviation' was officially over. A review of events with in the past ten years might indicate that the FAA deliberately moved toward this policy change. There were major problems which were difficult t o solve . Encouraging a controller revolt at every opport unity might have been considered the simplest solution . When controllers approached the FM with maior problems the FAA sent them to Congress. sayin.g their hands ':Jv~e tied by budgetary restrictions . en controllers went to Congress as directed. the FAA consistently test 1f1ed against them. Instead of gains control1ers · saw abolition of special retirement and retra b inmg enef1ts. There were no Pos1t1ve strok S th e FAA h bes. ome observers feel as een striking against contr II o ers for years. FAA p for a strike was exte ns1ve rareparation t sive s · ngmg rom developing excesed by upervisory and staff pos1t1ons till5trike ex-controllers able to leap into a -ca used b h plan ma d re ac to a contingency precoord~n!~ing selective cuts 1n flights acknowled ed with users. Unwilling to trailers ~e problems raised by conseek so. luatn thus refusing to creatively ions the FAA inevitab ility of · enhanced th e controller strike. S u bt Ie but atan bi suited from th f gi e losses have rethe capac1t o~ irings. Constraints on System hady I the National Airspace a ways been related directly to mec hanic al or physical cond1t1ons airport accept ance rates. weather. c omputer c apacity. or separation re q uirement s Now th e human element has entered the picture. becoming th e 4<l

most cri tical capaci ty lim iter. This is graphica lly indica ted by the fact that since the strike virt uall y all aircraft entering th e air traffic con trol system h av~ experienced delays. normally w hen pilots are ready to depa rt. Delay is a sure sign that system capacity has been exceeded . Through ma ndatory Flow Co ntrol and assigned overtime the FAA has operated the air traffic contro l system at contin uous maximum capacity. wh ich appears laudable until t he complex nature of air traffic control is considered . Controller capaci ty was neve r reached 1n the past because a cushion was needed to hand le unexpected system overloads caused by emergencies and equipment fai lures. Now t here is no cushion; controllers still working report steady busy work levels continue through shifts running up t o ten hours long w ith few 1f any short re lief breaks away from operating pos1t1ons. away from the steady pressure . The FAA does not see th is as unusual treat ment. for they have charac terized con trollers as no more stressed than bus drivers. Being responsible for up to 24 Boeing 7 4 7 aircraft simultaneo usly is stress of a different order That represents about 5.000 lives and s 1.5 billion in property!

Not only has years of professiona l skil l development been lost because of the fmngs. but also th e potential t o build th e syste m back to prestrike levels. Flow Control rest rictions have eliminated peak traffic situ at ions which demanded th e utmost in controller skills. Gone are continuous operation at mini-

Editor's Note: In issue 7I 8 7 of THE CONTROLLER. Jon R. Sharpe authored an article entitled · The EA RTS Radar System Today and Tomorrow' m which he paraboltcally cnt1c1sed the Anchorage A RTCC by paralleling it with ·Sourdough A ir/mes and their D C- 70. · a f1ct1t1ous air/me company. Apparently, Jon's article had created a ' ripple ' on the bureaucratic pond in Washington. In his letter accompanying this article. Jon reflects: ·The Con trollers · stoke m the United Sta tes and its aftermath has disrupted my life as well as the lives of almost 72.000 other controllers. My situation is a bit different from most. m tha t I resigned from the FAA before bemg fired. I thought'. Jon continues. ·it would be worthless to seek to return to work for the same people who chose to show no respect for my profession. · As a short biographical note. Jon R. Sharpe served his country as an air traffic controller for over 1 7 years. 1mt1ally wi th Air France at Nielson Air Force Base. Alaska and later with the FAA at Chicago and Anchorage Air Route Traffic Control Centres (ARTCCs) He resigned from the FAA 1n August m protest against government hand/mg of the controllers· stnke.

mum separation . Gone are many of the complex traffic situations that demanded team efforts involving continuous dec1son-mak1ng . People now hired by the FAA will never experience these s1tuat1ons which pushed con t rollers to 1mpress1ve accomplishments . The controller made the system work efficien tly. A quiet change in FAA philosophy will also affect the new generation . Th e Air Traff1c Control Procedures Handbook used to describe the controller 's main purpose as providing ·sa fe and exped1t1ous service A recent rev1s1on

reads: 'Give first priority to separation of aircraft as required in this handbook and to the issuance of safety advisories.路 路Expeditious service路 is no longer of primary importance; 'by-the-book路 operation is. even though in the recent past the FAA got tough with controllers who did just that. Committing the total available staff to control duties has left no one available to train future controllers or implement necessary procedural or technical changes. Controllers will have to be redirected from control duties to adequately train new people. causing further reduction of control capability. Contrary to optimistic FAA reports, it will take a minimum of two years before people hired today will become effective assets to the system. Thanks to the government hiring freeze. few trainees were already in the training process. System users will have to accept more delays. more service reductions for years to come. The present controller staff will have to be content with few vacation days and six-day workweeks for years to come. A special feeling of being needed in a crisis may be operative in controller minds now. but that will wear thin. Little high moral purpose keeps most of them working. Fear is probably the real motivation; fear of not being able to market highly specialized skills elsewhere. fear of losing a retirement income. fear of not making oppressive credit payments. or fear of potential marital strife. What had controllers wanted that was so repulsive to the government? A reduced workweek had been possible for years through careful reallocation of the workforce. Technology was available to improve system weaknesses. Changes in basic management policies could have improved employer/employee relationships. but sound management concepts had only been given lip service. Effective part1c1pat1on in decision-making affecting the system was not often possible for controllers. To desire anything different from standard government workforce treatment was regarded as wrong by the FAA and various political administrations. Requests for pay commensurate with growing responsib1l1ties went unheeded. Although FAA figures indicate a 51 % rise in controller product1v1ty in the last ten years. controller pay (including seniority benefits) increased about 1 20%. Meanwhile. inflation pushed the price of a can of beans. with no increase 1n product1v1ty. up 157%. Pilots were able to increase their pay by up to 245%. claiming increased productivity and respons1bil1ty as larger aircraft were introduced. Controllers shared the respons1bil1ty but were not compensated for 1t. To keep

pace with inflation would require a $ 6.000 raise. To be compensated for increased productivity would require $ 16.500. To match what pilots have gained would require $ 50.000. This controllers asked for summer $ 10.000. The government offered them$ 500. The heart of the air traffic control system has been discarded in support of a federal anti-strike law which rests on shaky constitutional and historical ground. Also finding support by this action was admittedly bad management in the FAA. A principle of bureaucracy - that those on top can survive anything - has again been proved. Artificial restraints on air traffic have relieved the FAA from having to solve many nagging system problems. But the relief is temporary. Unsolved problems will return to haunt future administrations. How long will it take the new generation of controllers to reach the same frustration level as the present one. and take a more devastating action against the government. having learned from history made in 19817 Suggestions to develop a public air traffic control corporation. assessing costs fully on users. falling on deaf ears in the past. should be reconsidered. To keep air traffic control dependent on political and economic conditions is folly. Before his accession to power. President Reagan acknowledged the deplorable state of the air traffic control system. His action guarantees that this deplorable state will deepen and continue to deteriorate in the forseeable future. Sorry. pilots. Sorry. controllers. Sorry. passengers. Sorry. country.

Cont. from page 29

A study on Aeronautical Information Data performed by ANSA contains: operational reasons of users for Al D types of users of Al D integration of an AID subsystem into the overall ANS system description of all types of AID classification of Al D airspace user personnel requirements for Al D ANS personnel requirements for Al D other aviation personnel requirements for Al D For further information please contact the Advisory Group - Air Nav1gat1on Services. Inc. (ANSA) Kleine Wiese 6 D 8752 Westerngrund I HU Federal Republic of Germany

Italy Plans ATC Improvements Selenia and Face Standard have formed an air traffic control (ATC) consortium called Cima to investigate ATC improvements being planned by the Italian Government. Selen1a. as radar expert. 1s joining forces with Face Standard. an ITT subsidiary involved with ILS and navaids. to provide integrated research into new secondary radars and simulator research into revising procedures and general organ1sat1on. A basic plan has been drawn up by the non-profit-making Ugo Bordoni Foundation. and the Government formed an ATC agency called Anav earlier this year. This replaces military organisation Safety 1s the pnme consideration. but Selenia is also studying a national ATC data-base to improve flow control. Selenia is supplying components for eight Italian Air Force ground-controlled approach systems. Selen1a makes the primary and secondary radars. extractors and displays. while FIAR contributes the precision approach radar (PAR). telecommun1cat1ons and installations Selenia 1s discussing with the Air Force the supply of similar systems for c1v1I ATC without PAR. Another current Selenia proiect is national microwave links to transmit local radar information to Rome.

Italy Demilitarises its ATC After years of protest by Italian air traffic controllers about their military statuts in an essentially c1v1lian iob. the Italian Parliament has created an independent ATC Board called Anav. The organisation will be managed by a president. chairman and board. New Socialist Transport Minister Balzamo had made Board nominations. but they met unexpected last-minute oppos1t1on from the Parliamentary Committee The law creating Anav makes the organisation independent and self-controlling in both finance and management matters: this 1s a most unusual departure from Italian Governmental procedure Over the next three or four years. Anav will assume responsibility for ATC information services (taking gradual control from the military organisation). and emergency not1f1cat1on and control; staff levels will reach about 3500 in this period. Finally. the Air Force will hand over air traffic telecommunications. and most c1v1I ATC officers will have transferred from the Service Parliament 1s considering a plan to create an independent c1v1I aviation board. which will be called the AAC This would be similar to the UK C1v1I Av1at1on Authority or the US Federal Av1at1on Admin1strat1on which would take over Government respons1b1lites

An IFATCA Corporate Member


Early Retirement for Canadian Controllers

. . · rovisions of early retirement for Canadian controllers has finall_y The awaited Ball C-65 p t h e Canadian Parliament and will become an Act as soon as at gonelong through its second andwh1?h third cont~ms readmgs th~ be ore

throug~ t~e S~n~~:~lved

receives the Royal Asse.nt in tripartite consultations with the Treasury Board and the At present, the Canad1a~ Assodcaatf•?n asf the regulations pursuant to the legislation. Department of Transport m the ra tang o

Hon. Donald J. Johnston (President of the Treasury Board) speaking before the Canadian Parliament said: Mr. Speaker. 1t 1s my pleasure today to propose that the Public Service Superannuation Act be amended to establish special pension arrangements for air traffic controllers. These proposals will introduce. for the first time. pension arrangements which are particular to employees m a specific occupation. The problems of the optimum career pattern for air traffic controllers. their early retirement. and alternative career opportunities have been. as hon. members know. s1gnif1cant issues for many years. The new pension arrangements will facilitate the management of the controller work force and ensure fair treatment tor controllers who must be removed from operational service or who have spent many years as operational controllers. Although controllers· wages and other working cond1t1ons already recognize the unique nature of their duties. experience has shown that many operational controllers cannot cope with the demands of operational air traffic control up to the time of normal retirement. Much like professional athletes. air traffic controllers must be in top physical and mental cond1t1on. Anything less would compromise air safety and would be clearly unacceptable. At least once a year. air traffic controllers are required to pass complete medical examinations and demonstrate technical prof146

c1ency in order to continue to operate as controllers. ---------------Controllers certainly have shorter careers than other civil servants. A number of countries. including SeiQIU m • France and Switzerland. . .alreadyt offer their controllers special retiremen schemes. The Americans introduced in 1 9 7 2 a complete early retirement plan which we have used as a model. The proposals submitted today are part of a program put together by the Department of Transport with the ass1sta~ce of the controllers' union. the. Canadian Air Traffic Control Assoc1at1on. Their purpose is to help. through an integrated scheme. air traffic controllers to prepare for a second career through retram1 ng Or to seek a new pos1t1on. allowing them to collect the whole or any part of the pension benefits to which they are entitled by way of compensation for their loss of income. The Department of Transport now provides capability assessment services vocational guidance and retraining cou.rses to controllers who are retired automatically after at least 10 years of operational service. The retraining program has only been available recently. Its effectiveness. therefore. cannot be assessed as yet. but my colleague the Minister of Transport and the controllers themselves appear to be quite satisfied with the early results.

The pension part of th~ program is contained in Bill C-65. which prov1d~s for early retirement for air _traffic controllers and. under special circumstances. for the payment of partial pensions while continuing work. The proposed pension arrangements will provide a means whereby controllers can be removed from air traffic control - or can voluntarily remove themselves without severe economic penalty when the state of their health or technical proficiency might affect their performance and compromise the safe and efficient movement of air traffic. Because the government agreed to the pension proposals in the early part of 1976. the new benefits will be available to any eligible controller who left operational service on or after April 1. 1976. In return for these special pension features. controllers are to make an extra two per-cent contribution to the pension plan. to be matched by the government as employer. . The proposals m 8111 C-6 5 were included as part of the pension leg1slat1on introduced m the House on October 26. 1978. However. as hon. members know. that leg1slat1on was only at report stage when Parliament was dissolved on March 26. 1979. The air traffic controller prov1s1ons had received general approval at that time. with the exception of deferred indexing of the special benefits and the requirement in certain circumstances for the extra 2 percent contribution.

r Dictaphone Introduces New Communications System


-Dictaphone Corporation has introduced a new voice communicauons recording system designed to provide automatic recording of up to 40 ind1v1dual telephone or radio messages simultaneously It is one of the first communications recorders controlled by a microprocessor The new system. called Ventrac. 1s tailo red to organizations such as air traffic control law enforcement. public safety. transportation and banking, which require mul11-c hannel recording of messages to preserve. locate and replay the time and content of the request A 11me/d ate encoding system with light em1mng diodes automatically records the precise ume and date of the response on the tape Multiplex engineering eliminates the need for a dedicated ume/ date track. Several formats of ume/ date display are available. including standard 12-hour or 24hour m1l11ary ume. both w ith minutes. and seconds included. and month/ day. or Julian consecutive dating The Veritrac recording system employs two magnetic tape decks. each wi th a maximum of 25 hours of recording capacity. providing a full 50 hours of unauended service All channel Safe-Scan is a monitoring funcuon that instantly detects any recording failure . Auto-Transfer permits the automatic switching of recording to the second deck on a pre-set schedule o r 1n the event of malfunction Visual and aud ible alarms inform the operator of recording 1nterrupt1ons. 'This advanced recording system p rovides high channel capac11y and lengthy recording capability for those applications where a verifiable voice record 1s essential for the p rotec tion of life and p roperty '. said Rudolph Grua. president of Dictaphone Products and Systems Ventrac has soltd state electronic construct1 on. and all circuits are modular to provide quick service Other featu res include an advanced braking system that gives smooth and stable perfo rmance and a simple tapethread1ng operation The new Veritrac system also offers an op11onal full remote control capability that permits complete system control including automatic search of recorded material from a remote location Venirac 1s available 1n 4 . 8 . 10 . 20. 30 or 4 0 channel models Price of the Veritrac single deck togging system starts at S 4480 Price of the dual deck system starts at s 6525 The op11onal 11me/date encoding system is s 29g5 The remo te control system starts at

s 1ogo

Add1t1onal 1nformat1on is avatlable from Dictaphone

Corporation . 10 580

120 Old Post Road. Rye. New York

Ve rit rac . D ic t aphon e ¡s new voice communica t ions rec ording system with t ime/date genera to r. a utomat ic all y rec o rds an d plays back up to 40 radio a nd telephone tran s mi ss ion s s imult an eou sl y.

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List of Hotels granting discounts to IFATCA members upon production of their valid membership card AUSTRIA Parkhotel. Graz Hotel Maria Theresia. Innsbruck Hotel Europa. Innsbruck Hotel Tyrol and Touringhaus. Innsbruck Holiday Inn. Innsbruck Hotel Tourotel. Linz Hotel Sportklause Niederau-Wildschonau. Tirol CYPRUS Amathus Beach Hotel. Limassol Appolonia Hotel. Limassol Paphos Beach Hotel. Paphos D1onyssos Hotel. Paphos



LUXEMBOURG Holiday Inn. Luxembourg Hotel Empire. Luxembourg

CANADA Seaway Hotels: Montreal. Toronto. Ottawa. Halifax. Kingston Hyatt Regency: Montreal. Vancouver. Vancouver Airport Hilton Canada: The Queen Elizabeth Montreal. Airport Hilton Montreal. Toronto Airport. Harbour Castle Hilton Toronto. Quebec Hilton. Vancouver Hilton Hotel Loews La Cite. Montreal

MEXICO Hotel Las Hamacas. Acapulco Acapulco Imperial

DENMARK Hotel Mercur. Copenhagen Hotel Richmond. Copenhagen Hotel Du Nord Greena. Greena

NEW ZEALAND Hotel Chateaux Commodore. Christchurch Colonial Inn Motel. Christchurch Ambassador Travel Hotel. Wellington South Pacific Motor Inn. Lower Hutt The City Hotel. Dunedin Angus Inn Motor Hotel. Hastings Bungalow Tourist Hotel. Rotorua Travelodge Australia Ltd all Travelodges and Parkroyals throughout the South Pacific

ENGLAND The Churchill. London The London Ryan Hotel FIJI Fiii Mocambo Hotel. Nadi lnt'I Airport

FRANCE Holiday Inns: Pans Orly Airport. Ro1ssy Airport. Avignon. Lille Lesquin. Lille Macq en Baroeul. Lyon. Strasbourg HOLLAND Hotel Krasnapolsky Amsterdam Hotel Ibis A · · msterdam-Airport ICELAND Loftle1dir Hotel. Reyk1av1k IRELAND

~~er~at1onal Airport Hotel. Dublin

NETHERLANDS ANTILLES Holiday Beach Hotel. Curacao NEW CALEDONIA Hotel le Nouvata. Noumea Noumea Hotel. Noumea

PERU Hotel Crillon. Lima PORTUGAL Lisboa Penta Hotel. Lisboa Balaia Penta Hotel. Albufeira. Algarve SEYCHELLES Reff Hotel. Mahe SPAIN Penta Club. Ibiza Sun Club Bungalows. Playa del Ingles & Maspalomas

e resham Hotel. Dublin 81 ooms Hotel. Dublin ~~e ~1llarney Ryan Hotel T e imenck Ryan Hotel T~e ~alway Ryan Hotel Th: ~=ts Country Ryan Hotel stport Ryan Hotel

SRI LANKA Hotel Lanka. Oberoi. Colombo

KENYA Hotels & Lad - South C Qes of African Tours and Hotels Ltd. _ N oast Hotels Two Fishes & Trade Winds . . p~~~ Coast Hotels Mombasa Beach. Mnarani Hotel. Whispering

TUNISIA Hotel Les Orangers. Hammamet

SMaf an Lodges K1lagun1 Nguha Vo1 Meru Muhka. ounta1 L d · . · · M1 n ge. Marsab1t. Hunters Lodge i iman1 Hotel. Na1rob1 - Grosvenor Hotel. Na1rob1 Sunset Hotel. Lake Victoria Tea Hotel. Kencho Mt Elgon Lodge


SWITZERLAND Hotel d'Auteu1I. Geneva Holiday Inn. Zurich-Airport Holiday Inn. Zurich-Regensdorf

TOGO Hotel De la Paix. Lome USA International 6 Motel. Disneyland Anaheim Detailed information as to rates and hotel addresses are available at the IFATCA Secretariat and will be provided to interested members on request.

Corporate Members of IFATCA

AEG-Telefunken. Frankfurt a. M .. Germany AMECON Division. Litton Systems. College Park. USA ANSA. Advisory Group Air Navigation Services. Westerngrund. Germany CAE Electronics Ltd .. Montreal. Quebec. Canada Cardion Electronics. Woodbury. N.Y.. USA Computer Sciences Europe SA. Brussels. Belgium Cassar Radar and Electronics Ltd .. Harlow. England Datasaab AB. Jarfalla. Sweden Decca Software Sciences Limited. London. England Dictaphone Corporation. USA ELECMA Divisions Electronique de la SN ECMA, Suresnes. France E-Systems. Montek Division. USA Ferranti Limited. Bracknell. Berks .. England Goodwood Data Systems Ltd .. Ontario Canada Ground Aid Group. Esbjerg. Denmark International Aeradio Ltd .. Southall. England International Air Carrier Association. Geneva. Switzerland ITT Gilfillan. USA Jeppesen & Co. GmbH .. Frankfurt. Germany Lockheed Aircraft Service Company, Ontario. California 91 7 61. USA Lockheed Electronics Company. Inc .. Plainfield. N.J .. USA The Marconi Radar Systems Ltd .. Chelmsford. England M.B.L.E .. Brussels. Belgium The Mitre Corporation. Mclean. Virginia. USA N.V. Hollandse Signaalapparaten. Hengelo. Netherlands NV. Philips Division ELA. Eindhoven. Netherlands Philips Telecommunicatie lndustrie B.V .. Hilversum. Netherlands The Plessey Company Limited. Weybridge. Surrey. England Racal Recorders Limited, Southampton. England Raytheon Canada Ltd .. Canada Gustav A. Ring A/S. Oslo. Norway Sanders Associates. Inc .. Nashua. USA Schmid Telecommunication. Switzerland Selenia - lndustrie Elettroniche Associate S p.A .. Rome. Italy SEL- Standard Elektrik Lorenz. Stuttgart 70, Germany Societe Artistique Francaise. Paris. France Societe d'Etudes & d'Entreprises Electriques. lssy Les Moulineaux. France Sodern. Limeil Brevannes. France Sofreavia. Paris. France Software Sciences Ltd .. Farnborough. England Sperry Univac. Sulzbach/Ts .. Germany & St.Paul. Minnesota. USA TERMA Elektronik AS. Lystrup, Denmark Thomson - CSF. Paris. France Ulmer Aeronaut1que. Cllchy. France VWK - Ryborsch GmbH, Germany Westinghouse Electric Corporation. USA

The International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers· Associations would like to 1nv1te all corporations. organizations. and inst1tut1ons interested in and concerned with the maintenance and promotion of safety air traffic to ioin their organization as Corporate Members


Corporate Members support the aims of the Federation by supplying the Federation with technical 1nformat1on and by means of an annual subscnpt1on The Federat1on·s 1nternat1onal iournal 'The Controller· 1s offered as a platform for the discussion of technical and procedural developments 1n the field of air traffic control


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Automated Air Traffic Control systems used to be something for big airports and resourceful administratio ns only. Only they had the knowledge and money to specify a nd buy them a nd the skilled staff to ope rate a nd keep them running. Not so any more. In these days of soaring aircraf t opera ting costs you wi ll be surprised to find tha t prices of modern, relia ble ATC systems-probably the most efficient tool for reduci ng fl ying ti mes-a re in fact go ing down. And they are as easy to main tain as to opera te. Reason : sta ndardizatio n .

Introducing Datasaab's AIRWATCH Automated ATC systems • Oa tasaab's new series of AIRWATCH systems-based on many yea rs' experience from tailor-made centre~-ar~ designed to suit all types of traffic an(I en vironmen t. AIRWATCH sta ndardization also means modularization. a llowi ng adaptation to specific needs a nd ensuring sys tem expansion at low cos t as traffic grows. A ll{\.\'ATC..H ... Y"•ll' lll~ r.tnge lrnm a s ingle P l'l systl'rn to l ar~l' n •n tn·.... Thl'Y ll-al ure ra w , c;y nthetic or mix l'd pn.•..,t·nt ~1t 1 l 1n n t l'SR and SSR .. i~nill s lrom om~ or more· r.t1..lcir ...1at1L1n....rnd numerous contrullrr l acilit 1l'"' 1ndud1ng lull J,ibt+• . • A IJ{\N ATl.11 10 00 j , ~rn cHlhlOU nl\.lU C,, lmv-n>t;t rJd.1r y "Y"'ll'll'I ""'1lh a buil t -in mu. ro-pnU.:l'~­ ..,, lr It 1.;; <ll•..,1J,.;nl'lf hlr ~ m,111 AT C c c>ntre .. ~md u1n -

tr11l tt1v\1l ' P• . • All{WATC.. H 2000 i> J<·"~ned tor ,m.ill .ind med aum -.. ,1 1.ed Cl'nl rl' ..... IJual t omputcr" . t1pl•ra 1 in~ in r.irallc•I. rro v1dt Vt' ry hi~h rd iJbi lil y.. • All{WATC.. H 3000 ;, Jr"~neJ t or mrclium to lari:<'· ..., 1lcd ATC et•nln.•i;o _ Sy"'tl'm arrh1ll.'Clu:;.. re:.: • i:::.'.:.: "x:..:l~ rl'.:.:":..: lt'.:..: I Y:___ _ _ _ __.._ llt•xtble. O u" IJndin)\ <•rr r,1ti<•n•I [ I C'J lun·.. intludl· track ing ot all ..... -----.~A.Al:I. ty p rs t ll tl1~h t and mosai c prrsen~ ................ IJtH:m I rtlm multipll• r.1dar s ources. join tl y Pwned b y tlw SweJi, h


C<•vernnwnl ,md S.iab-Scan1a Al3

Fo r more info rmati on contact : Datasab AB, Interactive Data Systems, S-175 86 Jarfalla, Sweden. Tel. lnt

+ 46 8 362800 •Telex 17892 datsaab s

IFATCA The Controller - 4th Quarter 1981  
IFATCA The Controller - 4th Quarter 1981