(aircraft characteristics and performance. flight phases. crew workload. type of airspace. and type of air traffic service provided. etc): - to examine the conditions under which this concept may be applied as the sole means of avoiding collision; - to examine the effectiveness of complementary manual and automated groundbased or airborne collision avoidance information and its application in the 'seeand-avoid' concept. The second and third tasks stated above raise the basic issues which the authorities have refused so far to tackle squarely. The answers given will have important effects on the organization of air traffic control. But before studying them thoroughly. the experts will have to try to determine the operational limits to visual flight.
Speed Are the present meteorology and distance-to-cloud standards still valid? Should they be adapted to the performance categories (speed. handling qualities. etc.) of the various aircraft types and to the types of airspace? There are already at least two types of airspace for which the standards differ: controlled airspace and non-controlled airspace. But at present there is also space in which speed is limited. As speed is an important parameter in implementing the 'seeand-avo1d' concept. could meteorological minima for visual flight be reduced in such space? The many combinations of factors concerning the environment in which flights of different types are operated by pilots with different training backgrounds will make the VFOP panel's 1ob a difficult one. Airborne equipment and pilot training problems are also included in its work programme. It 1s not known when the panel will file its conclusions. We should wish them all the best. for their 1ob 1s complex and important. Until the results are obtained. let us hope that nobody will lose sight of the fact that regulations are worthwhile only if they are observed. The more accessible they are. 1.e. the simpler and the more clearly presented they are. the more they will be respected. The panel's first task should be. as we see 1t. to define clear and coherent ob1ect1ves for the overhaul of visual flight rules. Have greater coll1s1on risks been observed? Can these risks be in fact reduced by reviewing visual flight rules? Has 1t been found that current visual flight rules were too big an obstacle to the freedom of air traffic and 1s it possible to ease up on them without increasing collision risks? Has 1t been found that current rules are not properly observed? If so. should the ob1ect1ve of the review be to adapt regulations to VFR piloting ability. or to increase penalties and define a training programme to improve this ability'? It 1s d1ff1cult to do everything at the same time
AACC 35th Meeting The 35th AACC meeting was held in Cairo on January 12, 1981, under the chairmanship of Mr. Thomas Raffety, Director of Aviation, San Antonio International Airport. It was hosted by Mr. Kamal Mohamady, Director General of Cairo Airport Authority.
Airport economics and operations. were the key issues discussed. The Council approved several position papers for presentation at the April 1 981 ICAO Aerodromes. Air Routes and Ground Aids (AGA) Divisional Meeting. These will focus on aerodrome reference code. short instrument runways. taxiway characteristics. runway end safety areas. declared distances. runway braking action. surface movement. guidance and control. and obstacle limitation surfaces. They will include proposed amendments to ICAO Annex 14 (Aerodromes) based on current operational experience. AACC will also present a wide range of position papers at the May 1 981 ICAO Conference on Airport and Route Facility Economics (CARFE). These will review the general economic situation of international airports and deal specifically with topics such as the financing of airport security and noise alleviation measures. principles relating to user payment at international airports. fuel throughout charges. passenger service charges. and the ICAO experimental. collection of airport financial statistics. Pointing to the current realities of airport economics and public policy. AACC will call upon ICAO to encourage States to adopt economic policies cantered on full cost recovery based upon an equitable allocation of costs.
ICAO Programms The Council heard reports on AACC participation in the 23rd Session of the ICAO Assembly and the ICAO Panel on regulation of air transported services. held last October and December. respectively. At the former forum AACC had expounded its views on the economic situation of airports. aircraft noise. regulation of capacity and aviation security. At the latter. it was successful in making the Panel recognize the need to match traffic with airport capacity. and to protect the environment from air and noise pollution. Numerous other topics connected with ICAO's current airport- related work programs were dealt with by AACC. which decided to part1c1pate in several forthcoming ICAO regional seminars and workshops dealing with aviation security and aviation forecasting and economic planning.
The Council expressed satisfaction with the constant intensification of relations between AACC and IATA as evidenced by the annual meetings of the AACC/IATA Contact Committee. designed to center on global policy matters. It also reviewed the recent act1v1ties of the various joint AACC/ IATA expert groups. dealing with traffic peaks at airports; curfews and operational restrictions at airports; aviation security; facilitation; and ground handling operations. The major activities of these groups included the drafting of guidelines for airport capacity demand and management. intended to improve airport capacity utilization; an attempt to formulate a JOint airport/airline approach to combat curfews; the study of various practical aviation security problems; the establishment of common facilitation practices 1n order to improve the facility of service to air transport users; and the development of programs to enhance ramp safety at airports.
The Aims of the AACC Finally. AACC reviewed its relations with a number of other international av1at1on organizations. such as IFALPA and IFATCA. and took several dec1s1ons regarding its representation and input in their annual general meetings. AACC was established in December 1970 by the Airport Operators Council International (AOCI). the International Civil Airports Assoc1at1on (ICAA) and the Western European Airports Assoc1at1on (WEAA). The aims of AACC are to further cooperation among its Constituent Assoc1at1ons. to develop pol1c1es approved by them. and to present these pol1c1es to ICAO and other International Organizations dealing with topics of mutual interest. AACC has Observer Status with ICAO and Consultative Status with the UN/ECOSOC. Currently. the AACC Constituent AssociationsÂˇ membership consists of over 330 airports. airport authorities and national airport assoc1at1ons in some 90 States. which serve approximately 80% of the 1nternat1onal air passengers and handle the same share of the world's air cargo.