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In this Issue: What You Don't Know, Can Hurt You Proficiency checking for ATCO 's East Africa School of Aviation


2nd QUARTER 19 8 1

2 / 81 VOLUME 20

SFrs 5

All things considered, is it so remarkable that Ireland also runs a rather enjoyable airline?

AerLingus 6



Bern, Switzerland, June 1981

No. 2

Publisher: l n1erna11onal Federation of Air Traffic Controllers' Assoc1a t1ons. P.O . B. 196. CH- 1 215 Geneva 1 5 Airport. Switzerland. Officers of IFATCA: H. H. Henschler. President. Daniel Oud1n. V1ce-Pres1den1 (Technical). A. Avgous11s. V1cePres1den1 (Professional). Pat O' Doheny. V1ce-Pres1den1 (Admin1strat1on). H. Wenger. Treasurer. E. Bradshaw. Executive Secretary.


Secretariat: 6 Long lands Park. Ayr KA 7 4 RJ Ayrshire. Scotland. United Kingdom Tel · 0292 42 1 14

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The ATC Tower at Jomo Kenya11a Airport (Kenya) In the foreground the VIP lounge

Subscription Rate SFrs 8 - per annum for m embers of IFATCA: SFrs 20 - per annum for non-members (Postage will be charged extra) Co ntribu tors are expressing their personal points of view and opinions. which may not necessarily coincide with those of the International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers Associations (IFATCA) IFATCA does not assume responsibility for statements made and opinions expressed. 11 does only accept respons1b1hty for publishing these con tributions Contributions are welcome as are com ments and criticism No payment can be made for manuscripts sub· m111ed for publication 1n 'The Controller' The Eduor reserves the righ t to make any ed11orial changes 1n manu· scripts. which he behaves will improve the material without altering the intended meaning Wn1ten permission by the Editor is necessary for reprin ting any part of this Journal

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CONTENTS Annua l Report of the Executive Board Simultaneous Parallel !LS Approaches Increased Eye-Power For Tower Controllers What You Don 't Know Can Hurt You The Prof1c1ency Chee.king of Air Traffl e Controllers Simulated Target Generation for ATC Systems Testing Refresher Training for Air Traffic Controllers ROCATCA - First Annual Conference Nava1ds in Norway East African School of Av1at1 on Pilot /Controller Co-opera tion 1n the Automated Era IFALPA ' 81

3 6

9 12

20 26


32 38 41 44 45

advanced digital ate display The DDS-80 Dig ital A TC Display is one of the. most advanced display ever designed._ Th e display is v~ry fast, a ~d 1s able to give a flickerfree presentation of .b oth symhet1c ana raw radar video. Each d isp lay is eq uipped with ~ he Seleni a NDC-160 ~ 6- bit mini computer and 3 m icro-p ro.cess~rs . in o rder to obtain maximum f lexibility and best interface poss1b1l1t1es. The bu ilt- in com puter will take over a number of tedious tasks formerly performed by the controller usin g key-board s and track-ball.






Annual Report of the Executive Board to the Cairo Conference

It is not my ambition to be perfectly correct wi th my ann ual prediction of continued problems in the interna tional air traffic control environment in the board's report to the an nu al confe rence. As a ma tter of fact. I would much prefer for once. to be proven w rong. Howeve r, based on t he display of intransigence of various employers and their ignorance - which after conclusions of the meeting of experts on air traffic control at the International Labour Office can only be termed ' deliberate路 - predictions of future problems in our profession are ridiculously easy to make with a guarantee of being right. The past twelve months have seen government employers dismiss contro llers who were fight ing in the name of t heir national controllers' organization. for the profession and their fellow co ntrollers. They have seen controllers 路mobilized'. i.e. put under military Jurisdiction and law. and military controllers being introduced into a normally civilian system as either replacement or threat of that poss1b1 hty. This federatio n unreservedly condemns such gestures of government in11m idat1on of air traffic controllers. they serve no purpose ot her tha n to decrease av1at1on safety. Controllers forced to work operational ly under such add1t1onal conditions of stress. ca nnot possibly perform their duties with the degree of safety our profes-

sion demands. It is interesting, in a morbid way. to speculate what the findi ngs of an impartial cou rt of law would be should an aviation accident attributable to human error occur under such circumsta nces. We are convinced that blame. or at least a maJOr portion of it. wou ld have to be laid at the feet of the employer. t he government. as the deliberate creator of this additional stress. What makes us sad. on top of the aforementioned degradation of aviation safety, the stress and aggravation to our members. 1s the fact that those who wi ll suffe r almost exclusively from these government-created and perpetrated situations of confrontation over inadequate air traffic control equipment. working conditions. and rela tionship. are the a1rl1nes and general aviation - our customers - and th e passe ngers and users - their customers. The. government employers. wilfully disregard the conclusions of the ILO meeting of experts. agreed upon by both government and con troller representatives. and the solutions contained therein . These governments are 1eopardizing untold sums of money in national income and the prof its of their national. and. in many cases. of international air carriers. Governmen ts must be aware. one hopes. of the money invested in training air traffic controllers. There are two reasons

The Exec utive Board (left to right) . H.H. Hensc hler. H. W enger. D Oudin. A Avgoust1 s and E Bradshaw. (P. o 路ooherty not present)

one can imagine for governments' 1rrat1onal behaviour: 1. They realize the vast economic impact of our professio n but they are not willing to accept the ensuing consequences as recognized by the ILO meeting of experts. and 2. They do not. directly. suffer the economic consequences of lost income. For both of these reasons. they wish to affirm their use of the civil service stra1t1acket. The impact of our profession. of our membership. on 1nternat1onal economics can not be overestimated. Just 1mag1ne. 1f you can. what even a 24 hour period in the life of th is planet without c1v1I av1at1on would mean. I cannot even guess at the amount of lost income to all facets of all economic endeavours - there are few. 1f any. groups of people who could have such impact. To be fair. there are government employers who have acted on the ILO conclusions. where the professio n receives proper recognition. These. together with the airlines who tangibly support the efforts of the federation. deserve our recognition and appreciation . It 1s our hope that the federat1on may be able to also. tangibly. show our recognition .

ADMINISTRATION General The Executive Board has continued the policy of reduced involvement. except for cases of benefit to IFATCA. with outside agencies and organ1za t1ons. Rather. the board put the emphasis on attending regional meetings. meeting of member associations. and of standing committees. To carry out this ob1ect1ve. we again had the assistance of the national authorities. rel uctant 1n some cases. of Canada. Cyprus. France and Ireland. We also had the assistance of a number of airlines to whom we wish to express our appreciation. Last year finally saw the ma1or amendment to our const1tut1on and bye laws completed and inc luded 1n the manual The technica l and professional policy statements and papers were in corporated 1n the manual in a new format It 1s hoped that the new layout will enable all member assoc1a11ons to make greater use of the 1nformat1on and guidance material available. The board received many req uests for assistance, not all of which could be at tended to 1n th e way the boa rd would have wished L1m1ts of time and money unfortunately lay boundaries to the act1v1t1es of t he Executive Board A number of short notice v1s1ts were made but as always travel cost presents a problem Many member associations are successf ul w hen requesting assistance from the ir governments for the provision of travel facil1t1es to the Executive Board Many others are regrettab ly hampered by the attitudes of the airlines. Executive Board' Due to the relatively late dates of IFATCA 路so. the Executive Board dec ided to forego the normal June Board M eeting rather than sched ule 1t for July or August inasmuch as such dates would have been 1mposs1ble. or at least very difficult. owing to the summer holiday period 1n the nor



them hemisphere. The Autumn Board Meeting. scheduled for early November. had been agreed upon at IFATCA ·so with the Egypt ATCA to be· held in Cairo to. inspect conference facilities and preparations for IFATCA '81. Only very few days before commencement of this meeting. the Egyptian ATCA advised the board that our presence was not desirable in Cairo at the time. and the meeting was re-scheduled. at very short notice. to be held in London. England. Member associations should ·consider all requirements before inviting a bo~rd meeting - the various aspects. such as time off. travel. etc .. of re-scheduling at very short notice the venue and dates are forbidding. The February. 1981. Board Meeting was held. on inv1tat1on of the Venezuela ATCA. near Caracas at the site of that member associat1on 's annual convention in September. 1981.

Member associations must remember that this is their federation - its output can only be as good as their input. In addition to meetings with member associations of countries where executive board meetings and regional meetings were held, members of the board met with: Canada President USA President Belgium Vice-President Administration ROCATCA (Taipei) President. Executive Secretary United Kingdom Vice-President Administration Greece Vice-President Professional Mexico President Hong Kong Executive Secretary

Regions and Regional Meetings: It is gratifying to see that almo~t all IFATCA regions have become very active. I~ last year's report. I mentioned that there existed grey areas with regard to the latitudes of Regional Vice-Presidents - I regret to report that these problems persist. It is our hope that during the meeting of the Executive Council prior to IFATCA '81. these problems may be solved. . . Regrettably. Regional Vice-Presidents in two of our regions did not complete the f.ull term of office and the board acted in the interests of the federation in both cases. The board continued its policy of attending. whenever possible. regional meetings. It was represented at the following regional meetings:

Members of the Board attended the following Standing Committee Meetings: SC. I. meeting: Vice-President Technical SC. II one meeting: Treasurer SC. Ill two meetings: Treasurer SC. IV two meetings: Vice-President Professional. Vice-President Administration sc.v no formal meeting SC. VI one meeting: President SC. VII no formal meetings

President Vice-President Technical. Treasurer Africa East/West: Vice-President Administration. Vice-President Professional. Vice-President Technical. Treasurer. and Executive Secretary. North and Central America/ South America: President

Pac1f1c: Western Europe:

At one of these meetings cnt1c1sm in principle was aimed at the Executive Board. The board. as an elected body 1s open to cnt1c1sm by the electorate but we would prefer such cnt1c1sm to occur at Annual Conference where the Directors are assembled and where all members of the board attend and are thus able to answer all detailed questions. There were no regional meetings in Central Europe. Middle East. Far East. Caribbean Regions. Members of the board met with the Regional V1ce-Pres1dents of Pac1f1c. North and Central America and South America 1n add1t1on to attending regional meetings

Member Associations: As always. the Executive Board assisted member assoc1at1ons as requested. The long-standing problem of lack of communication where questionnaires. requests for 1nformat1on. etc . are concerned. remains. 4

Standing Committees:

. The cost/effectiveness of standing committees and their inherent limitations are a matter of study by the Executive Board.

The Secretariat: The efficiency of the secretariat. to wh1c.h all member associations can attest. continues to be a great asset to the Federation. The Executive Board has commenced a gradual program of modernizing the equipment in the secretariat.

'The Controller' With issue 1/81. the printing of the Journal has been moved to Bern. Switzerland. The arrangement was put on sound contractual footing by the signing of an in1t1al three-year agreement with the printing house. The move also eliminates the requirement to have a managing editor in Frankfurt. Horst Guddat. who held the office. is in the final stages of handing over all responsib11it1es and material to the editor. The federation owes Mr. Guddat a debt of appreciation for his long-term involvement in the production of 'The Controller'.

Finances: With the continued affiliation of new member assoc1at1ons and an increase in the number of corporate members. as well as the Executive Board's ongoing policy of spending restraints. the financial situation is approaching a more sound footing. We are. however. still a long way away from the 'Manual Budget' which incorporated all our financial obligations. and which was submitted to conference previously. The 'Manual Budget' 1s. of course. related to the ongoing question of a subscription increase. Due to long-term financial commitments. such as the contract with the printing house. and the secretariat. the Execu-

tive Board decided to increase the amount held in the reserve funds.

Annual Conferences: As many may have surmised. the road to IFATCA '81 was not without rocks ~nd curves. Complete absence of information from the organizing committee on conference details such as registration. travel. hotels. etc.. left the Executive Board unable to answer the increasing number of requests fo~ s~ch information. An inordinate amount 0 time was spent by members of the ~oa~d ~t­ tempting to open lines of commurnca~i.on Y cables. letters. telephone calls and ma.11 y, . vain . m . one case. travel to establish an d in usable information in person. bi This procedure is not an accepta 8 one, the board does not have the time ~nd manpower resources to collect all required co~­ ference information; all this is the responsibility of the host association. Corporate Members: As the time of writing and since theb last een conference. the following have accepted as corporate members: (USA) Sanders Associates Inc. (Swiss) Schmid Telecommunication The board was please d t o be able to · I ne wsletters .to send out a number of spec1a corporate members with regard to. equip. ment requirements of various c ountries b based on information provided by mem er associations. . e The board wishes to express its appr • · . to the corporate mem bers co-ordmac1at1on . tor. Mr. Peter Jorgensen. for taking on. · most efficiently. the duties o f this · sometimes thankless. office.

Nonmember Associations: Contacts continue wit· h nonmember has. sociations in an attempt to brin.g abo~t t ~ir affiliation. It must be recognized. t. atj m some countries. affiliation is most difficu t or impossible. Other organizations. howeve~j could affiliate and with them. conta~ts ~ 1 be reduced or discontinued. An organization which could affiliate will not receive our services. information. and advice free - the price is affiliation. Relations with International Organizations: As indicated previously. contacts with outside organizations have been sele?tively reduced with regard to their cost/efficienc~. Nevertheless. contacts with certain organizations were maintained and enhanced. namely: - International Transport Workers· Federation (ITF). (Civil Aviation Conference) - International Aerospace Conference - International Labour Organization (IL.0) . - International Federation of Airlines Pilots Associations (IFALPA) . - Western European Assoc1at1on of Aviation Psychology (WEAAP) . . - International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO} - European Civil Aviation Conference . . - International Civil Airports Assoc1at1on (ICAA} International Council of Aircraft Owner and Pilot Associations (IAOPA}

TECHNICAL Activity in the technical area has continued at a high level. The work programme of the technical standing committee has been completed. In addition. speeches and papers for the benefit of IFATCA delegates to conferences and meetings were prepared. Under the supervision of the Vice-President. technical. input was made to various ICAO groups. The main areas of attention were: The RTF (radio telephony study group). EARC (elimination of ambiguity in RTF call signs). EANPG-BORG (basic operational requirements). The federation's attitudes to automated conflict alert. VFR operations. beacon collision avoidance systems and helicopter operations were examined and will be reported on to conference. Active participation continues in the IFALPA/ ATS study group. The IFACTA liaison officer to ICAO. under the direction of the Vice-President. technical. has made a review of the federation's input to ICAO and he represented IFATCA in the surface movement guidance control systems study group (SMGCS). In its concern to maintain the technical involvements of the federation and to enhance the professional skills of the air traffic controller. the Executive Board has agreed to participate in the following meetings. the VPO panel (SC. I): the aerodrome. air routes and ground aids divisional meeting (AGA divisional); the aeronautical speech circuit switching and signalling study group (ASCSS). In Europe flow control continues to attract attention and the problem has been divided by ICAO into flow control west (FLOW) and flow control east (FLOE). IFATCA has been represented by the regional Vice-President EUR at FLOW and by the Austrian association at FLOE. IFATCA has also participated in the Radar applications specialist panel (RASP) of Eurocontrol. The subject of air traffic flow management is expected to continue as a matter for continued input both by standing committee I and by the Vice-President technical. The views of the federation were presented by the V1ce-Pres1dent. technical. at the 25th anniversary of the European Civil Av1at1on Conference (ECAC). The workload has continued to increase in the technical area. and the Executive Board hereby expresses its apprec1at1on to those ind1v1duals and member associations who make our input to various 1nternat1onal organisations possible. With such input. the professional image of the federation and of air traffic controllers 1s in safe hands.

ferent countries with extensive experience in labour relations. On the legal aspects of t~e profession very little is foreseen to be achieved but activity is being maintained. both through the ICAO legal commission and .the. ILO. to establish some definite protection in favour of the controller. Standing Committee IV conti~ues to be concerned with human and environmental factors. but this concern does not seem to be shared by those member associa.t1ons who fail to make adequate input to the information handbook.

CONCLUSION The Executive Board is reasonably satisfied with developments within the federation. The continued increase in the number of member associations testifies to the respect in which IFATCA is being held and to our organization's viability. However. the federation must not be complacent. The member associations must ensure that they are fully representative and fulfil their obligations. New initiatives and ideas will be submitted by the board to this conference. Input on changes. policies. the growth of the federation is expected from others as well. We are satisfied that such submissions are a healthy indicator of the changes that a fast-growing international body such as ours must undergo in order to remain viable. There is no question. either. that the international aviation community has accepted IFATCA as the only voice of the air traffic controller. This acceptance places the responsibility of countinued and increased involvement in most aspects of international av1at1on on the federation. Although we are satisfied with internal developments the outlook for developments in national air traffic control systems is not at all encouraging. Member assoc1at1ons are working hard to achieve proper national recognition of the profession m accordance with the conclusions of the I LO meeting of experts. The previous conferences have recognized the degradation of av1at1on safety under certain circumstances and decided on reactions by IFATCA and its members to these s1tuat1ons. The coming year may well be a very turbulent one. This conference in Cairo. our first 1n this part of the world. again brings together representatives from all branches of the av1at1on industry. Let us take this opportunity to further 1dent1fy IFATCA's concerns and aims. to strive for greater understanding of each other's problems and to communicate to the world our requirements.

PROFESSIONAL In the professional field status recognition remained top on the list of the problems of a number of member associations and non-member assoc1at1ons. The ILO resolutions had to be pushed forward to the various admin1strat1ons. in particular. in countries where controllers do not enioy even fundamental nghts. To further this aim the Executive Board decided on the appointment of an ad hoe committee whose members come from d1f-

SC IV Library Members are reminded that SC IV Library which is run by the Netherlands Guild is established for their use and may bollow literature upon request.

Safety Information (US NTSB) On January 10. 1980. N3839M. a Piper Arrow aircraft. crashed into a mountain after departing the Kalispell City Airport. Kalispell. Montana. All three persons aboard were killed. The Safety Board's investigation disclosed that the pilot. who was employed at the Kalispell City Airport as an instrument flight instructor. had been issued. before take-off. an I FR clearance to the Calgary Airport via direct to the Kalispell VOA. direct to the Calgary VOA. The clearance. issued by the Salt Lake City Air Route Traffic Control Center. included a climb to 14.000 feet and a transponder code. After acknowledging the clearance. the pilot asked. ·Are we going to get vectors northbound?' The controller replied. 'I could vector you to the Canadian border: after that I'm not sure if Canada can'. The pilot answered. 'We'll be receiving Lethbridge by that point'. As the aircraft reached the Kalispell VOA. the controller said 'radar contact' and requested the aircraft's altitude. After the pilot reported leaving 'five point five'. the controller made the following transm1ss1on: 'Three niner mike roger Lethbridge {unintelligible) bearing (unintelligible) five report reaching one four thousand.· About 1 minute later. the pilot asked the canter · ... to let us know coming up on some high terrain 1f you would.· The controller replied. · .... are you in the clouds now?' The pilot said that they were. There were no more transmissions from N3839M. The Kahspell Airport has no published instrument approach procedures and thus. no published I FR departure procedures. An approach by visual reference to the terrain 1s the only means of access to this airport. However. there are no procedures which prohibit a pilot from filing an IFR flight plan and receiving an IFR clearance for departure from this airport or other airports not having published instrument departure procedures. Normally. a pilot files a route that may include a published Minimum En Route Altitude (MEA). a Standard Instrument Departure (SID). a Standard Arrival Route {STAR). a published IFR Departure Procedure for small airports. or a published Instrument Approach Procedure. all of which provide sufficient altitude obstruction clearance. However. a departure clearance from an airport. such as the Kahspell Municipal. does not provide obstruction clearance In fact. paragraph (5) (c). Instrument Departures. Obstruction Clearance During Departure. of the Airman's Information Manual. states: .. At airports where instrument approach procedures have not been published. hence no published departure procedure. determine what action will be necessary and take such action that will assure a safe departure·. Thus in IFR cond1t1ons. such departures involve a hazard because the pilot does not have available any published procedures for instrument flight Furthermore. he cannot Contmued on page 36

Simultaneous Parallel I LS Approaches (Study presented at /FA TCA Cairo Conference)

Introduction The use of parallel ILS approaches is now common practice at many of the ma1or airports in the world. Many of the procedures used for parallel approaches in different locations are surprisingly similar. However. it would be desirable to standardize the Air Traffic Control procedures which govern the use of Simultaneous Parallel ILS Approaches. In order to make any recommendations on this subject. it is necessary to make an in-depth study of many factors. It will be necessary to deal with these matters rather briefly in this paper. Some of the main points to be considered are. defining protected areas and developing procedures. an analysis of the reactions of both controller and pilot. 1dent1fying airborne and wound equipment requirements. weather limits and guidelines for missed approaches. and 1dent1fying the communications requirements. The background material for this paper was drawn from several sources. The majority of the information 1s taken from a study authorized by the Canadian Government in 1 9 7 4. The procedures in use at Los Angeles and Chicago were used as a guideline. A radar survey conducted at the Canadian airports of Toronto and Winnipeg was studied Information was also taken from a 1 9 7 2 study conducted for the FAA by Resalab. Incorporated of Dallas. Texas. The experience gained 1n the use of these procedures for the last year at Toronto I nternat1onal Airport has also been incorporated.

Discussion The concept of parallel ILS approaches 1s similar to that applied at Heathrow and several US airports at which simultaneous approaches are authorized Aircraft approach the airport in two streams separated by the normal radar or vertical separation. Each stream is directed to a separate final approach course on which a 'Glide Path Intercept' (GPI) fix 1s established Each stream of aircraft remains vert1c:ally separated until successive aircraft are established on their respective final 6

approach courses and reach the glide slope. One or two controllers monitor on a discrete radar display the final approach area between the 'GPI' fixes and the airport to ensure safe lateral separation. This system allows independent aircraft operations to parallel runways. A 'Normal Operating Zone' (NOZ) is established to contain normal lateral deviations of aircraft from centreline. between the GPI fix and each runway threshold. The airspace between the two NOZ's is called the 'No Transgression Zone' (NTZ). and must be sufficiently large to allow for corrective action should one aircraft leave the NOZ. No longitudinal separation is assumed between aircraft on adjacent approaches. Normal in-trail separation as appropriate to type of radar. wake turbulence requirements. etc .. is maintained between aircraft in the same stream. Track Monitor The safe conduct of parallel approaches is dependent on a number of inter-related factors such as Normal Operating Zone. No Transgression Zone. flight equipment and procedures. radar monitoring system. communications. publications and charting. and control procedures. The paper deals only with a parallel approach system using I LS front or back courses. The dimensions of the NOZ depend on the various parameters of the system and allow for normal detection. delay and correction of an aircraft to maintain a required miss distance. In order to determine dimensions of this zone. several factors were considered. Navigation accuracy involves deviations due to instruments. pilotage and wind. Track monitoring capability depends on radar accuracy and location. update interval. display size. communications and controller attentiveness and experience. Vectoring technique and its impact were considered. The intuitive 1mpress1on that aircraft deviations would be greatest during turn on were borne out by three surveys. A brief summary of the results is important. The 197 2 FAA study indicated that an NOZ that would incorporate 95% of the aircraft dev1at1ons would be just under 11 00 feet each side of centreline. within

5 n.m. of touchdown. This included CAT II ILS front course. CAT I front course and back course I LS approaches. A survey conduct at Toronto showed a maximum lateral deviation of 900 feet. The mean for all approaches combined at 9 n.m. from the threshold was 214 feet off centreline. Most aircraft were still closing on centreline during turn-on. thus accounting for the large deviation values. From the point of interception in. all aircraft remained within 200 feet of centreline. Two Concepts Similar re-suits were obtained in a study conducted at Winnipeg. The largest deviation recorded was 1 600 feet. during turn-on. After initial interception the maximum recorded deviation was 500 feet. This points out two important concepts. Aircraft using simultaneous approaches should be vectored to intercept the localizer at least 2 n. m. (3 km) prior to glide path interception so that altitude separation is maintained while the aircraft are in the area of greatest lateral deviation. Aircraft using these procedures should not leave their last assigned altitude before intercepting the glide slope. The NOZ width is a function of the equipment used and the NOZ length. For practical purposes. the NOZ width should be linear. It must extend to at least the outer glide path intercept point and therefore its width to some degree depends on the height of the aircraft at the intercept point. The NOZ dimensions were determined after consideration of the cumulative effects of all the variables. It is recommended that the NOZ should be set at 450 metres from localizer centreline. Experience has shown this to be conservative. A controller should be required to monitor each aircraft from the point of initial descent to at least 2 km from the threshold. Within 2 km. non-radar separation exists between the protected airspace for the two approaches. Following establishment of the NOZ. 1t is necessary to consider the lateral airspace required to accommodate an aircraft which leaves the NOZ. The No Transgression Zone (NTZ) must be wide enough to allow sufficient time for the controller to issue instructions to bnng the aircraft back into the NOZ or at least parallel to the track of the aircraft on the adjacent approach path. Should the deviating aircraft not respond. instructions may be necessary to turn the adjacent aircraft. Time factors must be considered for recognition of NTZ entry. communication. pilot reaction and aircraft response. It 1s also necessary to allow for possible azimuth or range errors of the radar system. Factors considered in analyzing aircraft dev1at1ons

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or 'blunders' include departure angle (up to 50 degrees). radar range accuracy. radar azimuth accuracy. radar update delay. aircraft velocities. aircraft bank angles. pilot/aircraft reaction times and communication times. A 2000 foot value has been used by the UK. the US. and Canada and has proven adequate. A metric equivalent of 600 metres should be acceptable. Navigation equipment requirements should be limited to that required to make an approach and. if necessary. carry out the missed approach procedure. The major equipment requirements should relate to ATC radar monitoring and communications. Only one frequency need be used by the aircraft at any given point during approach/ missed approach. provided a suitable ATC equipment system is used. The essential requirement relating to simultaneous parallel approaches is the capability for the monitor controller to intervene 1mmed1ately and effectively whenever an aircraft appears about to enter the No Transgression Zone. This necessitates DCPC by the monitor controller. This may be best accomplished by different methods at different locations as long as the above criteria are met. In addition the monitor controller should have direct communication with the other concerned controllers. 1.e. the arrival. departure and tower controllers. Radar Map For the purpose of monitoring simultaneous approaches. airport surveillance radar 1s a basic requirement. A discrete radar display must be available for use by the monitor controller. The display must include a radar map showing glide path intercept fixes and the normal operating zone each side of each parallel runway extended centreline (localizer course). The size of the radar display is a governing factor in the controller's ability to detect deviations. A PPI indicator or nonconverted display 1s considered the most suitable for ¡monitoring purposes. Displayed range should be a maximum of 25 km or 1 5 n. m. offset to provide maximum expansion. Larger scan converted displays could be used. but are less desirable because of factors such as trail time accumulation. 'blooming' of targets and focus capabilities. These procedures provide adequate separation under IFR cond1t1ons. During in1t1at1on of new procedures at an airport. 1t 1s desirable to l1m1t their use to VFR weather for a trial period. Missed approach procedures should be developed to provide a divergence of 30 degrees between their respective nominal missed approach tracks. This 1s to be a minimum and may be greater 8

when required by a country's regulations. Pilot notification would be necessary to inform individual pilots whenever parallel ILS approaches were in progress. Several procedures on existing approach charts are not applicable to parallel ILS approaches. These include procedure turns. non-radar transitions. circling procedures and use of ADF for azimuth guidance. Existing charts can be modified by addition of information concerning GPI location. altitude and navaids on which the GPl's are based. Notes should include direction to pilots not to descend from the last assigned altitude prior to glide path interception. They should also contain any special equipment requirements and to notify ATC should the pilot not have minimum equipment or not desire a parallel ILS approach. An ideal means of informing individual pilots that simultaneous parallel ILS approaches are in progress is by an addition on an ATIS message. Conclusions

1 . It is concluded that it is possible to make recommendations concerning the safe use of parallel ILS approaches. 2. It is concluded that the normal operating zone should be set at 450 metres from localizer centreline. 3. It is concluded that the dimensions of the No Transgression Zone should specify a minimum width of 600 metres. 4. It is concluded that certain basic equipment requirements are necessary to safely conduct parallel ILS approaches. These include ILS front or back course approaches. and airborne equipment to fly both the approach and the specified missed approach. ATC equipment would include a monitor position. giving the monitor controller the capability to intervene immediately and effectively whenever required. The position must consist of a discrete radar display for use by the monitor controller. communications permitting immediate controller pilot communication and direct communication with other involved control sectors. 5. It is concluded that the minimum runway spacing should be 1500 metres. centreline to centreline. This incorporates two normal operating zones of 450 metres each and a no transgression zone of 600 metres. These zones together with the extended runway centreline should be displayed on the monitor controller's radar display. 6. It is concluded that it is necessary to make pilots aware when parallel ILS approaches are in use. Information must be provided on approach plates showing glide path intercept fixes. and

equipment required to carry out the ILS approach and published missed approach. Direction should be included to advise pilots to maintain the last assigned altitude until intercepting the glide path. 7. It is concluded that ATC procedures for the use of parallel ILS approaches should include specific instructions on vectoring technique. This should include the requirement to intercept the localizer at least two miles prior to glide path interception. and to maintain altitude separation until the aircraft intercept the glide path. An intercept angle of 30 degrees or less should be specified. Missed approach procedures should provide a divergence of 30 degrees between the missed approach tracks.

Sperry Univac Awarded FAA Contract Sperry Univac Defense Systems has been awarded a $ 43 million contract by the Federal Aviation Administration to upgrade existing ARTS-Ill (Automated Radar Terminal System) air traffic control systems to enhanced ARTS-I I IA configurations at 3 2 US airports. The contract also calls for Sperry Univac to deliver additional computer equipment to 30 US airports which previously had installed ARTS-I I IA systems. The contract calls for installation to be completed by July. 1983. bringing to 62 the number of domestic commercial airports to have installed enhanced air traffic control systems. ARTS-lllA product enhancement will be built by Sperry Univac operations in St. Paul and Clearwater. Fla. The original computer-based ARTS-Ill system. first introduced by Sperry Univac in 1971. provides a continuous alphanumeric display of aircraft identity. altitude and speed. which relieves air traffic controllers from repetitive and time-consuming tasks and results in reduced air holding time during arrivals at large airports. improved airspace use and increased air safety in the terminal area. The ARTS-lllA system 1s an enhancement to the basic ARTS-I I I system made necessary by increased air traffic in airport terminal airspace. Stemming from extensive research and development efforts between the FAA and Sperry Univac in the mid to late 1970s. ARTS-lllA offers primary radar tracking of aircraft not equipped with onboard transponders. mult1process1ng. continuous data recording and ed1t1ng. capacity for additional radar displays. automatic overload sensing and protection. and automatic failure detection. reconf1gurat1on and recovery in the event of a component failure. Under earlier contracts from the FAA. Sperry Univac began upgrading the highest traffic density ARTS-I II sites to ARTS-I IIA installations in 19 7 6 The latest contract will complete installation of air traffic control system enhancements at all ARTS-I II equipped airports in the United States.


J.J. Murphy Director of Programmes Radar, /FF/ SSR, Displays

H. B. Bergman Manager Display Systems

I Increased Eye-Povver For T ovver Controllers* With BRANDS Bright Radar Alpha Numeric Display System Throughout the world, the US National Airspace System is recog nized as the best solution for the problems associated with expanding airport capacity and controlling air t raffic in a safe and efficient manner. The ultimate airspace system must be able t o make air transporta tion competitive with surface modes and still respond to the demands of the system user and the general public . Over the past three decades. the air traffi c control system has met th ese challenges with stea dily increasing degrees of .automation and new genera tions of air terminal equipment. To increase the quantity and quality of informat ion presented to th e air traffic controller. Card ion Electronics. a unit of General Signal Corporation. has developed the BRAND S, Bright Radar Alpha Numeric D isplay System . BRANDS. which w as designed and developed under the sponsorship and guidance of the US Naval Electronic Systems Command, combi nes primary and secondary radar information. alpha numerics. and map data on a high contrast telev1s1on-type display for viewi ng in daylight cond ition s. The BRANDS

• lnformatJOn furnished by CARD/ON Electromcs. Woodbury. N. Y. (USA)

Clear, unambiguous, dependable d isp lay of traffic provides the controller more time fo r decisions and enhances his ability to control and sequence traffic.




-11 - - - -
























I _J

Figure 7. Early BRITE system contamed PP/ umt and TV camera to convert radar video data for tower display.




Figure 2 . BRA NDS solid state design mcorporates all functions m one rack unit. Display is a high-brightness. high contrast television display with simple mountmg bracket.

equipment consists of three US Navynomenclatured units (Fig . 2) - Sig nal Da ta Processor. Control Data Processors. and Video Indicato rs.

the television camera was unreliable. had poor stability. and lacked control over the decay or persistence of the radar data . Daily maintenance was required because of the non-solid-state analog nature of the circuitry. and the low reliability of this type of hardware. Whi le it was still more useful than a PPI . the BRITE tower display still tended to wash out in the high ambient light cond1t1ons.

Early BRITE System

BRITE Upgraded

Since the early beginnings of air traffic contro l. the tower controller has always been responsible for handling arriving. departing. and tax11ng traffic 1n a timely and orderly manner. Originally he had to rely entirely on his own eyes. aided by binoculars. Later. an electronic aid called the BRITE (Bright Radar Indicator Tower Equipment) system (Fig 1) was introduced to provide the tower controller with a display of the primary radar situation in the terminal area Using a PPI display and TV camera to provide a display that could be viewed in the tower w ithout a hood. the radar video data was converted to television format The BRITE system was adequate until traffic density increased to the point where tower controllers needed more 1nformat1on to ma ke the vital decisions necessary for aircraft guidance The system displayed only primary radar. with no c apability to display aircraft identity and altitude data . Add1t1onally.

The next step 1n upgrading the tower display was an evolu tionary add-on approach . This approach is often dictated by economic considerations alth ough it frequently results in adding many new problems while solving some old ones. To expand the capability of displaying beacon target symbols. 1dent1ty. and altitude data on the tower display. a second TV camera was added. together with an alpha numeric generator and display (Fig. 3). The outputs of the two cameras were combined to generate the BRITE picture. This combined system provided the tower BR ITE display with aircraft beacon pos1t1on. 1dent1ty. and altitude data 1n alpha numeric format superimposed on the primary rada r paints. But the other disadvantages of the BRITE system. which included low reliabil ity. frequent maintenance. and lack of a h1ghcontrast display. were compounded with the add1t1on of a second set of equipment. Also. 1t was difficu lt t o ob-

tain accurate registrat ion between the primary rada r target paint and its corresponding beacon target symbol. The two TV cameras and two analog CRT displays had . to be perfectly aligned. and this al ignment had to be maintained in orde r to keep the requ ired reg istration. Without perfec t registration. the system creat ed amb1gu1ties th at t he controller had to resolve.

BRANDS Improvements


BRANDS solves these problems by providing a rel iable. low-maintenance system for the tower controller to have all the informat ion required to make effective air traffic contro l decisions. The conversion of input radar and beacon data into a television forma t 1s made in a completely solid-state d1g1ta l equipment th at provides essentially perfect registration while requiring no adiustments. Instead of a cathode-ray tube (CRT) and TV camera. t he BRANDS employs an 1ntegrated-c1rcu 1t d1g1tal memory for high reliability. All functions are performed in a 1 ÂĽ.-cubic-foo t box. replacing two ful l racks of equipment in previous BRITE systems. The newly developed BRANDS display. IS a h1ghbrightness. high-cont rast telev1s1on display. Based on CRT phosphor and optical filtering technology orig inally developed by Card1on for cockpit displays. 1t delivers effective v1ew1ng in a bnght lyl1ghted control tower with no w ashout . The BRANDS displays the primary radar data combined with ta rget sym-

bols. identity codes. and altitudes for all aircraft responding to beacon interrogations. In installations that have an existing map generator. a map is electronically overlaid with the other data and range rings are provided. The format for beacon target symbols. identities. and altitudes is the familiar AN/TPX-42 format (Fig. 4). Other formats can be furnished. Microprocessor control makes it easy to customize the BRANDS for specific applications.


lr----------- - -1









I C~RA ,______ II TPX-42 "A" BOX (MODIFIED)













I ~~0~1~_J




-- --


Figure 3. Upgraded BRITE system contains additional TV camera. alpha numeric generator and display.



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Controller options The controller has many options to modify the data through the flexibility of the control functions. He can select display range and off-cantering. range mark spacing. persistence of primary radar video. size of symbols. display of all targets. only selected targets. or only those within a selected altitude band. He can change the position of formats with respect to target symbols. Also. he can independently set the intensity of the primary radar picture. the alpha numerics and symbols. and the map . He can select trail symbols for both primary radar and beacon data. and he can set the range of transition from MTI to normal video. A low-altitude alerting feature (LAAS). customized for each site. provides a visual and audible warning when a mode C altitude report indicates that the aircraft is below the minimum altitude established for that location. Civilian and military emergend cies. communications failure. an hijack warnings are also included. Because the BRANDS is so versatile. its applications and expansion capabilities are virtually unlimited . Some additional BRANDS applications currently being studied include: •

•.· . /

8 1200

/// ~






/ • ••''''












Figure 4. BRANDS display format combmes radar data with target symbols. 1dent1ty codes. and altitudes.

Remoting of primary radar and/ or beacon data from high-density airports to satellite airfields. relieving them of the acquis1t1on and maintenance of their own radar equrpment Presentation of Prec1s1on Approach Radar (PAR) on the BRANDS telev1sron drsplay to centralize operatrons rn the tower. especially at offpeak perrods; Addition of a target generator to use the BRANDS for controller trarnrng; Mult1-color display.

BRANDS 1s now being tested and evaluated by the US Navy at Patuxent River. Maryland. and Moffatt Freid. Calrforn1a. and shows srgns of enthusrastrc acceptance by part1crpating tower controllers 11

What You Don't Know, Can Hurt You! It can hurt naturally, operationally, technically, organizationally and economically depending on what your position is in the air transportation system.

by Frank W Fischer air navigation services consultant Advisory Group - Air Navigation Services Inc. (ANSA) An /FA TCA Corporate Member

These are the considerations of an air traffic controller. who now serves his 2 5th year in air traffic control and was 'hurt' many times by accidents. operatio nal incidents. system malfunctions and legal aspects 1n actual operations. 1n syste m evaluation and planning. I hope that the rea ders of this article will be air navigation services personne l. engaged in actual operations. facility and operations management personnel as well as system pla nners. airspace user management personnel and aircrews. manufactu rers and a lot of passengers. Perhaps. you are a passen ger and blindly believe that everything is be ing done for you r safe and o rderly flight with the fee and tax that you pay; perhaps. yo u are a p ilo t and lost fa ith 1n that good old ATC-System. because your cont ro ller cousin already retired at 43. medica lly unfit. and you cannot look upward. downward and backward. wh ile you fly forwa rd with 482 knots true and 1n IMC; perhaps. you are a controller an d tired of praying that 'nothing¡ happens. while 'you' are o n duty; perhaps. you are an ATC system plan ner and fear that the manufacturers offer you something. which sound s good technically. you don" t understand fu lly. and w hich will possibly no t fu lfil a real ope rational requirement. but cost double in the long ru n; perhaps. you are an airline manager and want to be assured t hat the user charges. which yo u pay are really used to make your operations sa fe r. more eff1c 1ent and more economic. perhaps. you are a tota l layman in air nav1ga t1on and 1ust can not believe all these stones. w hich you read 1n INTERAVIA; perhaps. you are an ATC supervisor and doubt that you ca n rest assu red forever that all the blame o n a system malfunction will be put o nt o the co ntrol ler at the w o rking pos1t1on. again and again; but perh ap s. you are not one of all of these and th ink you do know about the sho rtcomings and requirements of the air nav1gat1on system and 1ust don ' t dare to admit that you are of the sa me opin ion. then take the o portun1ty of this JOurn al to express your feeling. fear. op1n1on and idea fo r d1sc uss1on w ith ot hers operating and / or using th is tran sportat ion system


It. tor instance. wi ll hurt 'you' naturally. when you hit anothe r airplane. because conflict sol ution did not work. for w hatever reason of air navigatio n services system malfunction; will hurt 'you' operationally. w hen you experience too many infringemen ts of separatio n minima resulting in near-miss reports. for whea tever reason of operational ai r navigation services system shortcomings; will hurt 'you' technically, when you experience system degradations caused by eq uipment malfunctions due to low numbers of M TBF and insufficient subsystem configurat ion precluding recovery; will hurt 'you' organizat1onally. when you experie nce social actions of the controllers. because authority does not match respons1b11ity delegated to them. or 1f you have to face air traffic services personnel' s disinterest. resulting in loss of proficiency; will hurt 'you' economically. when you experience flow control restrictions enroute resu lting 1n holding. delay and additiona I fuel consumption. because airspace sector capacity does not ma tch wi th the t raffic demand. and so on. 0

System Safety For the reasons explained in t his article I wi sh my readers to understand that old operationa l req uirements. modern tools and co rrespond ing new air nav1ga t1on services system functions. their necessity and operational value must be 'known¡ to avoid that their possible 1mplementat1on results in loss of safety. capability. ca pacity and efficiency. w hich would 'hurt' naturally. economically. ope ratio nally. tech nically and orga nizationally. Now. what 1s my ObJect1vel I wan t to tell you. that the reason for some of the air nav1gat1on services system shortcoming s stem from inadequate safety and opera tional system philosophy; that the present conf1gurat1on of air nav1ga11on services systems is not very eff1 c1ent and economic 1n respect to data handling; that not all of th e prese ntly available 'modern tools' in ATC fulfil an operational req uirement. and th at only a few new operational system funct io ns rea lly do se rve to inc rease safety.

capability. capacity. efficiency and economy. Since the presen t syst em configuration is not efficien t enough the con tro ller should know the shortcomings to avoid bei ng hurt or to be made responsible. To declare a t ranspo rtation system operation as safe or unsa fe. we norm ally com pare the number of accidents against the num ber of passenger/ki lometers flown. For the determination of a sa fe or unsafe operation of an ai r navigation services system this compar ison 1s senseless. We should ra th er compa re the num ber of 'incidents' against the number of ' flights'. To make this compa ri so n meaningful we should define 'incident' as 'all accidents and every abnorma l case of operation. which results in infringement of separat ion m inima. proced ural and/or radar. all air (near) m iss cases and m alfunc tions of the air nav1ga11on services system or Its components. parts. units. etc.¡. This would allow much more realistic determination of required overall system safety. resu lting 1n M TBF and M TIR figures as we ll as air tra ff ic services personnel proficiency requirem ents. The system wou ld become m o re transparent and 11 would impose changes for increase of safety standards. somet hing which 1s not yet guarant eed . Organiza t ions often cla im to increase safety. despite the fact that the req uired level of sa fety 1n any system has not been reached yet This m ust be of interest to the airspace users. operators as well as passengers. So. what do we w ant? Separation Assurance Since we have to adapt to changing airspace user requirem ents resulting in different types or higher amounts of traffic. we do have to in crease system capacity to cope with increased t raff ic. we do have to maintain or increase the present leve l of safety. 1.e. count the number of 'in cidents ' com pared to flight movements. since some 1nc1dents are in fac t 'system ki lls'. which only God avoid ed In doing so. we would be able to find out more ca uses of system malfunctio ns and shortcomings. Did yo u know that procedura lly applied la teral separation alo ng parall el routes served by navigational aids 1s no longer assured. when your radar goes oft. unless the routes



... concerned are laterally spaced by 1 8 NM distance? If not. read ICAO annex 1 1. which explains why. Interestingly. flight technical error and so-ca lled pilot error are included 1n col lision risk calculations. but not ground system error or the so-ca lled controller erro rl Did yo u know that some organ1zat1ons apply 5 NM m inimum separation between analog and/or synthetic radar target symbols and others 6. 8 and 10. but using the same type of radars? Even national orga niza tions of ICAO member states apply different radar separauon assurance ca lculations. Air traffic control is applied worldwide. but how? I wi ll believe you . when you say ' In my country one meter measures gg cent1meters'. Isn 't 1t ridiculous that the 1nternat1onal flight. even through ICAO member-states often faces as many diffe rences in ru les. regu1a11ons. procedures and separation m1n1ma as he overflies countries? But already now host-to-host 1nterfac1ng of neighbouring systems 1n different coun tries began. M any professionals in today's air navigation services system organizations do 'know' about these problems and controversial pol1c1es. but fear to speak up. because 1t would then become clea r that the causes of many system short comings are not of a tech nical nature. but ones of wrong operational ph ilosophy. based on admin1strat1ve non -professional attitudes and mental ity of 'ATC opera tions laym en ' in managerial pos111ons without responsibility of corresponding con sequences. 1e where the authority is. but not the respons1bil1ty. A way out of this problem could be the 1mplementat1on of regu lar operational eva-

luat1ons in the air naviga tion services system and education and delegation of au thority to practising operati ons personn el 1n the plann ing. design and spec1f1ca t1on of systems. subsystems. com ponents. parts and procedures. Such regular opera tional evalua tions wnh th eir results made publ ic seem to be a requ ireme nt for air navigation services facil1t1es worldwide. On ly a very few organ1zat1ons do perform such evaluat ions to th e required extent. except for the checking of nav1ga t1onal aids. The airspace users. however. do have a requirement and the right to 'know¡ how save and eff1c1ent the system is. and how proficient its perso nnel. Such a procedure would also influence public op1n1on on controll er ¡industrial' actions. as well as airline complaints. Nowadays only a few comments relate to the real causes. resulting in such reactions. This 1s why air nav1gat1on services personnel is hurt. especially ai r traffic con tro llers. despite the fact that all personnel of the ground system is involved . The trend certain ly seems to be that pilots get paid for everything and controllers get blamed for anything. If this trend is not stopped the consequences will certainly hurt in one way or another. The Objective of the System To begin wi th 1t seems to be appropriate to emphasize what the air navigation services system 1s supposed to do I understand that any c1v1I or military air navigation services system sha ll produce 1nform at1on. advise. clearances and '1n st ruct1ons' to airspace users before and during flight fo r a safe.

Air Nav1gat1on Services System operatt0nal subsystem conf1gurat1on diagram Subsystem versus Operational Tasks (Diagram 2) orderly and exped1t1ous conduct of their operations. be they commercial or non com m erc1al. scheduled or non-scheduled. civil or military The system must therefore perform prediction. detection and solution of traffic conflicts. 1.e. produce separation between flights and obstructions. whereas the subsystems support this task. The whole air nav1gat1on services system exists to 'serve' the airspace users. All air nav1gat1on services subsystems of the overall system exist to 'support' the personnel subsystem 1n the prov1s1on of 'air traffic services' to the airspace users. All other facil1t1es. perso nnel and services exist to 'assist' the airspace user directly or the air traffic services personnel. Depending on air nav1gat1on services system generation. traffic demand and complexity. normally the following subsystem s are available to fulfil airspace user requirements PER (personnel. tra ining and s1mulat1on) COM (voice and data communication) NAV (navigation) NOTAM (notices to airmen) FPP (fligh t plan and progress data) RADAR (primary and seco ndary radar data) D/ F (d1rect1on finder) M ET (me teorologica l dat a and severe w eather) SM C (system monitoring and contro l) LOG (log1st1cs)


Normally missing is the: - AID (aeronautical information data) subsystem. All air navigation services subsystems in performing support functions must cooperate. From this it follows that their operations should become more efficient and economic than they are. But this overall efficiency and economy also depends largely on the type and operation of the subsystems and their configuration (see diagram 2).

Why Change? Fulfilment of new requirements calls for new tools. functions and procedures in the system. Such new requirements are for instance the increase of ANS/ ATS system capacity. increase of the present level of system safety. improvement of environmental and working conditions. optimum use of the available airspace and adaptation to new user requirements. You might ask. 'why can't we continue to operate our ANS-Systems as they are?' Everything changes and so do the requirements of the commercial. private and military airspace users resulting from their types of aircraft and operations. the defense concept. feasibility considerations and the traffic demand. These requirements face general political constraints resulting from safety matters. international commitments and the defense requirements of a country. What do these requirements stand for? The increase of system capacity stands for better d1stnbut1on of traffic and its regulation respectively de-regulation. in other words ¡air traffic management and flow control'. the reduction of control load. improved techniques and the change of organizational and procedural processes. The increase of the present level of system safety stands for a more efficient prov1s1on of air traffic services. especially flight 1nformat1on service. and maintenance of separation between flights. 1n other words fulfilment of OFIS* requirements and conflict prediction. detection (alert) and solution. 1.e. improved prediction and detection. reduction of technical outages and the control of add1t1onal flights. which presently cannot be served. The improvement of environmental and working conditions stands for implementation of better data presentation and displays. anthropotechnical working position layouts. improved information monitors. processing and presentation and easier controller to system 1nteract1ons. in other words more durable and high resolution monitors. part1c1pat1on of operations personnel in equipment and layout evaluation. and takeover of routine operational functions by automatic data processing machinery. The optimum use of available airspace stands for the performance of airspace management. air traffic flow control and long term traffic planning and coordination. 1n other words for 'active' air traffic flow control and eff1c1ent civil/military coordination for common use of the available airspace These operational requirements must be transformed into technical spec1f1cat1ons. ¡ Operational Flight Information Service


because many organizations and manufacturers just put black boxes together and then call them a 'system'. It is important to know. which rules must be observed in order to do that.

What Should We 'Know'?

Do in

Order to

Once we have decided to implement a new system. subsystem. component. unit. part. element. procedure and the like. we should determine subject. matter. problem. intention respectively objective. constraints and technical as well as operational requirements. For an air navigation services system the determination of the operational matter normally means the type. amount. mixture and complexity of air traffic. the operational problem means the number of traffic conflicts. the intention means the reduction and solution of traffic conflict problems. the constraints are weather. geography, topography. technology (machine. present technological limits in the field of technical hardware and software possibilities). capacity (man and machine. machine capacity and capability limitations. where the high amount of data and calculations to be handled result in an unsatisfactory speed of the system/throughout times). capability (man and machine). knowledge proficiency and motivation (man). The operational requirements involve the determination of resulting limits of automation to be applied in the system. the determination of necessary levels of automation to be applied. the capacity of subsystems. the number and location of equipment. the establishment of units and facilities. the type of services to be provided. the system configuration and the specification of rules. laws and regulations (operationally and technically). Once we have established such steps we should basically apply them in planning for every subordinate function. procedure. subsystem. component. unit. facility. equipment and so on. If these steps would always have been taken into consideration. many mishaps. misinterpretations. problems and system shortcomings could have been avoided. Experience shows that many incidents start here.

Hardware, Software, Liveware We should realize that the air navigation services system like any other 'system¡ consists of hardware. software and liveware. where hardware stands for metalware or articles and any mechanical. electrical or electronic computer equipment. software stands for the program and programming support necessary to put a computer through its assigned tasks. as d1stingu1shed from the actual machine respectively any aspect of an apparatus not specifically connected with its hardware. and liveware stands for people and procedures directly engaged in the operation of a system. where they instruct and control the system by overriding or making decisions. which the system either has not made or are unsatisfactory.

From this it follows that we must always consider hardware. software and liveware aspects. when we design or modify. extend respectively upgrade a system. Hardware. software and liveware capacities and capabilities must match. Many times they do not. because software is made to fit hardware. and liveware cannot be made to fit hardware and software. It must be the other way around. But it will take some time until this ideal will be recognized by authorities as well as industry. Many firms produce only parts of systems and often call these a 'system'. Meanwhile. air navigation services personnel has to fill the gaps in daily operations. The application of 'system validation' techniques could help to solve this problem and probably save you a million dollars. The relationship of savings and losses due to non-application is about one to ten. Instead of spending one million on system validation some organizations lost ten million for cumbersome. and time consuming debugging of operational specifications. Many organizations pretend to have limited budgets not allowing application of such procedure. Due to the fact that they have to pay for the inefficient result anyhow. this seems to be nonsense. because of the a.m. relation. Above that damage often cannot be avoided and repaired afterwards. The system then will have to live with whatever shortcomings resulted. It therefore seems to be advisable to make man and machine capacities and capabilities match during conceptual design. specification and construction. where man stands for liveware. data for software and machine for hardware. as foll<?ws: -

laws. rules and regulations should match with technological possibilities. man functions with machine functions. operational tasks with system functions. air navigation services system methods and procedures with technical methods and procedures. . standards and recommended practices to be followed by man with those to be performed by machines. air navigation and air traffic services. to be provided with supporting machine subsystems. types of air traffic services to be provided with air traffic services units to be established. types of man's work with types of the machine's routines. man's working position duties with working position characteristics. job descriptions of air traffic services personnel with job descriptions of machines and subsystem operators. man's work performance with the machine's work performance and - fulfilment of operational tasks with the performance of machine (system) functions.

Otherwise. it could 'hurt' youl The product of such a system 1s information. advise. clearances and instructions of command and control nature. resulting in separation between flights by conflict prediction. detection and solution. It can be stated that a system cannot produce the required results. 1f the consequences of these steps are not considered.

The better you are at collecting, processing and displaying data,. the clearer the ATC picture. You need the capability of Ferranti. We are not in the data acquisition business but we will take data from whoever has it - from civil or military or from the conntry next door ii need be. Data doesn't have to be on the spot. It can be extracted and fed over large distances and then co-ordinated with the data from your own sensors. In designing equipment for processing and displaying the data

we've used our experience both of ATC and air defence. If the data is not available, we can S)'Ilthesize display information from flight plans and position reports. . We can also do the other kind of simulation - for trainin~,. validation. and evaluation - something we have been doing for many years. If you are in the air traffic management business Ferranti can help. And the people who pay your

route charges will almost certainly appreciate your using us. . th Ask yourself, are you usmg e data available to the best advantage? Contact: __ Ferranti Computer Systems Limited, Bracknell Division, Western Road, Bracknell, Berkshire RG121RA Telephone: D.344 32:n


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Do's and Don'ts in System Development Any new system development or present system extension must be user oriented (airspace user as well as air traffic services personnel}. The system must have evolutionary potential. Generalized multiprocessing. modular software and failsoft routines will take care of this potential. Changes must be accomplished in small steps and in cooperation with air navigation services personnel. We should not increase controller workload to learn how to use new functions and provide ample training periods prior to deployment. Simultaneous system operation must be provided (change-over). This requires checkout of new systems releases in the field and changeover during sufficient period of time to fall back to the old system. Controller workload must be reduced: automate accounting activities in RDP and FDP introduce simple man/machine interfaces introduce new functions. which save work (conflict prediction. active air traffic flow control. flight plan probe) implement new equipment capabilities (increase radar scope capacity. PDV with MC) (implement VDUs for flight progress data presentation) (implement AID subsystem) lnstill controller confidence: accuracy of data timeliness of data system reliability system availability system maintainability manual override Who Manages this System? For the air transportation system 1t seems to become necessary to define who 1s manager. the pilot or the controller? In my opinion many shortcomings in the operation of present air navigation services systems stem from the wrong conclusion

that an air navigation services system only provides services. and that therefore all air traffic services personnel. but especially air traffic controllers. are subordinate servants. with the pilots managing in the system and the controllers trying to support them and to fulfil whatever requests these have made and requirements they have set. This cannot be true. when you look at the system's products. which are 'clearances' and 'instructions'. Especially the instructions. which must be followed. make clear that the air navigation services system is similar to a command control system. The operator. who produces these commands in the form of instructions. is the air traffic controller. He therefore becomes the system¡ s manager! Managing in air traffic control can be put as a command. control and coordination function. Now. what does the controller manage? He manages 'time'. the activity of himself and other people in the system wit.hin the available time budgets. 'material'. the data available to him and 'people'. the personnel around him forming his or neighbouring teams. Except in cases of emergency the pilot becomes the executive of the controller in following his instructions on routes. speeds, altitudes. courses and so on. Due to the fact that in today's air navigation services systems all available information. data. instructions and clearances have to be exchanged between pilots and controllers by voice. the air traffic services personnel needs information in a reliable. fast and conclusive way. In considering the controller to be the system manager. we must put him in the centre of the system. because all information and data must be made available to him in an efficient and economic way. This puts the voice and data communication subsystem around him to interface with all the other supporting subsystems. Some Conclusions The air traffic controller is the heart of the system. he is no typist and no computer operator. but the system's manager!


The task of the controller with the highest priority is to command. control and separate aircraft. He. therefore. must have authority. be motivated and have clearly defined objectives and a very definite job description. Split responsibilities are unsafe and cost money. They also increase legal problems. Control responsibility must be equal to authority. The controller's interest must be maintained and underutilization of controller skills causes non-recovery from system failures. Air traffic control is a command and control system. The organization must help the controller to enable him to manage the system. And remember. ifs a 'man' system. If not. what? Many shortcomings and inadequacies in the system. worldwide. stem from ignorance of these facts. Human Factors This headline relates to an often used expression. which normally includes professional and social problems. But besides pay rises and social aspects. human factors play an important role in the daily work environment and at the working position. Human factors. which must be considered in extending or automating air navigation services systems are job satisfaction and motivation. the man/machine interface and failure mode operation. Under job satisfaction and motivation the following aspects have individual importance and consequences. These are. achievement and work alignment. recognition. responsibility, control authority. utiliz.ation of perceived skills. challenge and discretionary flexibility and interest. Disregard of these facts normally results in dissatisfaction of the personnel and pave the way to more trouble. Many countries spend a lot of money for their national airline fleets. but forget the poor guy on the ground running this system: the controller. If recognition of their profession would already be an achievement. what can we expect of such administrations for the consideration of these factors? Under man/machine interface the following aspects again have their own importance and resulting consequences. These are vigilance. stress. intricacy. restrictiveness. rigidity and decision making. Under failure mode operation the aspects of failure recognition. recovery and operations have to be considered when determining the required operational and technical system safety. Operational Requirements The tasks and responsibil1t1es of air traffic services personnel require certain steps to be followed 1n system planning. design and specif1cat1on. What are the maior operational requirements in air traffic control to be fulfilled in system upgrading and extension. which could increase system safety. capability and capacity. and at the same time make system operation more economic~

any point


,.... Fix Calculatton Block (Diagram 3) 16

Let us have a brief look at some of these requirements from an operational point of view. It is not the objective of this article to elaborate on all operational aspects of modern tools in ATC. but to mention a few typical ones, which have an effect on the future operation of the system. All these tools. however. must be differentiated by system functions. equipment and supporting tools and should be valued according to their effect and importance to the controller. to the technical environment and to the organization (see diagram 4).

Acceleration of the Coordination Process The present process of coordination in most of the systems is too slow. since it is determined by the speed and decision of the operators. who exchange progress and control data and changes thereto by voice from man to man. working position to working position. unit to unit and sy~tem to ~ys­ tem. This slow process of updating requires a lot effort and it is time consuming. It also does not allow air traffic services units to predict fast enough with ac.c~rate d~ta. In order to solve this problem 1t is required to bypass the operator and sen? revisions i.n parallel to all units concerned in future. This again requires to interfa?e the radar data processing subsystem with the fhght plan and progress data processing. subs~stem for automatic updating of relatively incorrect current flight plan (CPL) track data by sufficiently accurate radar data. Most benefit would be derived by air traffic flow control units. which then would have sufficiently accurate data available for prediction of traffic congestions.

Active Air Traffic Flow Control The present method of performing air traffic flow control must be called 'passive'. since flow control units are not permitted to exercise ·control' over flights. Also. their flow ·control' measures are mostly ~ased on the fact that there 'was' a congestion problem and not that there 'will be' one. since updates do not reach the flow control. units early enough to permit accurate pred1ct1on of future traffic s1tuat1ons along routes. at strategic crossing points and at airports for arrivals. How long will it take to implement such function? How can we cope with the existing problems? The automatic updating of current flight plan data by radar track data would also permit flow control units to make predictions on the basis of correct data. 'Active· flow control with overriding authority over area control centres for traffic. which will come under their 1urisd1ct1on then seems to become possible. Delays hurt you operationally and economically. The faith in flow control is lost. 1f this problem remains unsolved.

Introduction of a Flexible Route System The key word to this requirement 1s area nav1gat1on (RNAV). which has two aspects. an air nav1gat1on services system aspect and an airspace user aspect.

The air navigation services system presently has to provide navigational aids serving air traffic services routes. whereas organizations want to save money for these aids and would prefer an application of area navigation for a more flexible establishment of predetermined routes in determining RNAV waypoints instead of installing navigational aids at required route turning points. The airspace users prefer to be allowed to fly off-route direct from any present position along predetermined ATS - Routes 'direct' to a next waypoint to save time and fuel. They would also like to be cleared to bypass congested routes on parallel RNAV tracks for the same reason. Both are valid requirements. but are of controversial nature. Present accuracy of area navigation systems. especially INS with radio updates and similar systems. seems to be sufficient to fulfil the air navigation services system requirement. but the system cannot safely operate without predetermined routes. Therefore. this would involve only savings on the number of navigational aids required (radio updates). Despite sufficient accuracy of RNAV systems. fulfilment of the airspace user requirement still poses a problem in respect to other traffic on parallel routes. because insufficient numbers of data have been collected on RNAV track keeping accuracy yet. Even in a radar environment at present such parallel tracks would still have to be laterally spaced on VOR accuracy criteria between 8 and 18 NM depending on the distance between the navigational aids. In most cases there is not enough airspace available to do this. All the ongoing discussions reflect that no international (ICAO) procedure has been established yet. RNAV equipped aircraft fly 1n a conservative ANS-System with one not exactly. knowing what the other is doing and expecting from him. It is high time that authorities establish standards for area navigation in order to use airspace more efficiently. Otherwise it might happen that we navigate by INS in a Concorde over countries transmitting instructions by smoke signals.

Functional Units of Planning and Executive Control In an eff1c1ent system planning and executive controllers must man an airspace sector functional working position unit together. Physical separation of these functions is not efficient. costs time and money and can infringe safety. No functional unit should be manned by only one controller for safety reasons {incapac1tat1on or death) at any time. The manning of a functional unit with two controllers for sector planning and executive control increases airspace sector capacity. because functional unit working pos1t1on duties can be shared. Units. where this theory 1s not accepted. may run into operational problems in prat1cal operations It seems that separation of these functions 1s a great 'theoretical' idea of people having authority. but no respons1b1hty. Operations personnel will experience very quickly. where this split respons1b1hty leads to. It leads into legal ATC no-man's-

land and will immediately hurt. when something goes wrong.

Obeyance of the Unity of Control Principle All controlled flights within a given block of airspace should be controlled by only one functional unit of a single air traffic control unit at any given time. Disobeyance of this required principle results in infringements of safety due to a parallel and often uncoordinated operation of two or more traffic control units within one given block of airspace {civil/military coordination). Today's air traffic control world 1s full of incidents. which are caused by disregard of this fundamental principle. Clear distinction between responsibilities 1n a commonly used block of airspace is required for traffic control units. It otherwise will hurt in the form of coll1s1ons or near-collisions.

Automatic Conflict Prediction What does it mean? To the controller 1t sounds like a dream to become true. Outsiders might get the impression that controllers have become 'monitors'. once this function 1s implemented. But. what 1s really involved in conflict prediction? Conflict prediction should be performed automatically on the basis of predicting future current flight plan track conflict points to assist controllers. decrease workload and increase safety. An effective performance of this function requires CPL - track updating by radar data This will not be inexpensive. but enhance safety and increase system capacity. Both. the acceleration of the coordination process and the performance of automatic conflict prediction will require 1mplementat1on of visual display units at the planning control and coordination working position. The question on monochrome versus color data presentation will automatically be raised. It seems that limited use of color on VDUs for this purpose 1s unavoidable. Contrary to the radar traffic s1tuat1on display (POV). where the use of an add1t1onal color seems only meaningful. when VDUs and PDVs are interfaced for add1t1onal operational system functions.

Automatic Conflict Alert Automatic conflict alert. another dream or only a premature promise:> Well. many things are possible with today's technology. but how can conflict alert assist you:> Conflict alert can be performed automatically on the basis of radar data 1n presenting the radar controller a warning on the POV. whenever two tracks come closer to one another than the predetermined m1n1mum. e.g. 5 NM Conflict alert 1s also a controversial matter. due to the many possible false alarms and interference into the controlle( s domain of authority and respons1b1hty Conflict .alert 1s not a real operational requirement. because proficient radar controllers in a properly laid-out system do not require this function It must be considered as an add1t1onal means of warning 1n case someone's attention got lost Also then. the


warning must be recognized. To becom e meaningful. the conflict alert para met er should be set higher than t he radar separation minimum of 5 NM . e.g. up to 8 NM. Controllers. however. are urged to apply 5 NM whenever possible. aiming for the minimum continuously!

Take-over of Routine Operational Functions by ADP Machinery There are a lot of routine functions. like the process of revising and forwarding of flight progress data revisions. w hich co uld be taken over by autom atic data processing machinery. One of the foremost functions. with a great potential of savings is the automatic combinat ion. correlation. distribution and presentation of information data in the system. Ideally. the data commu nication subsystem(s) could become the ¡comm unication motor' of the whole system. serving al l other subsystems (see diagram 2). All these operational requirem ents are su pposed to reduce controller workload. improve working condit ions and increase safety. resulting 1n greater system capacity. capabi lity and eff1c1ency. This could lead to better m otivation of system personnel as well as to a reduction of poss1bil1t1es to get hurt by too many routine funct ions. As stated before. such takeover must be perfo rmed in a proper way.

Fix Calculation Blocks Present flight plan processing systems are normally route and point. but not area oriented . Th is philosophy produ ces problems for flights. which either do not p roceed along these routes or do not touch these predetermined points. In cases of radar data and flight pla n and progress data p rocessing subsystems for correlation of tracks the problem of dev1at1o n from intended tra cks becomes eviden t. In orde r to allow also flights from any off. route point to any oth er off-ro ute point 1n the area the 1mplemen tat1on of fix calcula tion blocks cou ld be a solu tion for radar and flight plan track co rrelat ion and calculation of estimated times of predetermined rou te crossing or passing 1n the v1c1n1ty of other conflict points. Conflic t points (CP) are norm ally crea ted by route crossings. To facilitate accurate nav1gat1on route crossing points are generally served by nav1gat1onal aids (VOR/ NDB) . M a1or crossing points are c alled strategic conflict points (SCP) . Fo r these points flight progress strips are being prepared . In th e control of air traffic by prov1s1on of separation between fligh ts over these points controllers in applying separat ion minima have to take into account nav1gat1onal inaccurac ies (e.g VOR +- 5 ° . NDB +- 8 °) . These 1naccurac1es as are relevant from ground aids and airborne nav1gat1on system s are to be added The combined inaccu racy areas are then called strategic confli ct point areas (SCPA). 1f applied 1n th e horizontal plane on ly When neighbouring SCPAs are being extend ed to touch each other. the resulting areas. when also extended 1n the vertica l p lane. are called 'fix calculation blocks ' (FCB) (see diagram 3)


.... Their bo undaries are determ ined by geographical coordinates. which system internally for flight progress data and ra dar processing must also be defined in system X and Y coordi nates. It is a requirement of operatio ns person nel to be able to present these boundaries o n visual d isplay units and radar displays (PDV). since t hey are not norm ally displayed. FCB constitutes a new tool in air traffic control and wi ll form the ba sis for rada r data and flight progress data correlation. flight progress strip replacement by VDUs and the closing of the air traff ic control functional loop. FCB boundaries m ust also be known to air defen se units. in case where air defense and air navigation services organizations perform uncoordinated air opera tions withi n the sam e airspace. The size of an individual FCB is determined by the inaccuracy areas of conflict point s w1 th1n 1t. Its form depends on the cha racteristics of the rou te segments. their courses and length. An ai rspace sector 1s formed by at least one and by a maximum of four such FCBs. The radar and flig ht plan and progress data subsystems must have all FCB boundary coordinates stored. Filed flight plan tracks traversing these boundaries produce boundary crossi ng points. which have to be made known to fligh t progress data processing elements. are required for calculation of estimated times over report ing points and conflict prediction logics. Such an airspace sector 1s normally control led by one air traffic services functional uni t team. compri sed of an executive air traffi c (radar) contro ller. a coordinator and a flight data assistant The functional unit comprising these three working pos1t1ons constitutes an area control centre sector. It 1s equipped wit h a flight progress boa rd (or visual di splay unit). a radar and an 1nformat1on data d isplay.

Minimum Safe Altitude W arning Why do we need suc h a warning? It seems th at accidents caused 1mplementat1on of this add1t1onal fu nction. This opera-

Operational requirements (Diagram 4)

tional fun ction has lega l conseque nces. si nce it allows to shift responsibi lity from the pilot to the contro ller. Th is tool being based on seco ndary su rvei llance radar mode C ret urns to the radar subsystem shifts responsib ility from the pilot to the controll er. The pilot is responsible for terrain avoidance. Therefore ground proxim ity wa rning systems (GPWS) are to be favoured before MSAW. Also MSAW would in terfere with GPWS. if da ta link systems would allow to climb an aircraft automatically. when 1t reaches minimum obstacle clearance altitudes or minimum IFR cru ising levels. M SAW 1s installed in the United Sta tes of America and was implemented followi ng a fatal accident. where p ilots ran an airliner into the ground d uring approach to an airfield . M 1l1tary systems do favour GPWS for obvious reasons.

Viewdata V1ewdata application for presen tation of aeronautical informa tion data of airspace user and air nav1gat1on services facilities 1s being considered by a number of civil av1at1on authorities and operato rs. Despite many attractive feat ures of v1ewdata. such as existing telephone network. cheap telev1s1o n displays allowing dual use and existing commerc ial television systems. only restricted use will probably be made of v1ewdata beca use of prese nt telev1s1o n screen limitation s. Wherever operational appl1cat1on 1s required at airspace user and air navi gation services fac1h t1es. rea l benefit can no rmally be derived only by at least a prese ntation of alpha-numeri cs and g raphi cs 1n monochrome . Additional benefits 1n respect to safety can be added by limited use of co lor. For appl1cat1qn at airspac e use r fac1l1t1es in w hich time 1s not such a stringent req uirement and w here preflight planning and fligh t preparation do not require consultance to a great variety of data and graphi cs in a very large geographical area. a v1ewdata

application might prove to be sufficient. This application will therefore relate mainly to private flying activities of aero-clubs and individual private aircraft owners. operating at random non-scheduled and non-commercial. If small landing site operations will fall under the same possible category of application seems to be doubtful and must be checked carefully. Certain types of general and specific preflight information. such as notices to airmen and weather messages surely can be handled through viewdata systems in sufficient speed and quality. It must. however. be considered that even for such an application an aeronautical information data subsystem data base must exist. Since most of the air navigation services systems of the world do not operate such an AID-Subsystem yet. this problem should be given a higher priority to begin with. Among the countries. who consider viewdata application for the presentation of information data are for instance the FRG. the UK. the USA. France and Switzerland. System Configuration

You certainly know that improper technical air navigation services system co~figu~a­ tion results in operational inadequacies. inefficient performance of system functions and unnecessary expense of money. Did you know that many organizations still do not consider the controller as a manager and as the heart of the system. at least from a point of system philosophy? Since the controller still is the only part of the system to either make or override command and control decisions. and to communicate these to the pilot. all subsystems must assist him in an efficient way. This. however. is often not the case today. Diagram (2) shows a typical configuration of present air navigation services systems with the only difference of the communication subsystem in a future role as communication motor of the whole system. In order to fulfil the operational requirements subsystems must be interfaced in future to combine and/or correlate operational data. The diagram resembles all the required subsystems such as PER Personnel (Training and Simulation) COM Voice and Data Communication NAV Navigation NOTAM Notices to Airmen AID Aeronautical Information Data FPP Flight Plan and Progress Data RADAR Primary and Secondary Radar DI F Direction Finding MET Weather SMC System Monitoring and Control LOG Logistics with the personnel subsystem fulfilling the operational tasks of alerting. informing. adv1s1ng. controlling and coordinating. The weather. notices to airmen. aeronautical information data and flight plan and progress data subsystems also fulfil operational tasks 1n serving airspace users before flight for preflight briefing and flight planning purposes. Whenever one of the subsystems produces data in support of fulfilment of these

tasks a dot indicates which task is concerned. It seems to be advisable to continue future discussion on an effective and therefore economic role of the communication subsystem and overall system configuration along these lines.

My Request Please do not forget that disobeyance of a majority of these requirements and the principles involved in them will not only 'hurt'. but possibly 'kill' you one day! We do not 'know' all the required answers. but suggest that everyone ¡concerned' gets together and discusses possible answers. before hardware is specified and produced. and money is spent on something. which later on turns out to be redundant or insufficient. hurting us naturally. operationally. technically. organizationally and economically. Therefore. discuss. simulate. evaluate and correct more. before you implement and before we run out of tax payer's money! And finally. employers and suppliers. please come and talk to the operations people. who can help you both in determining. what is really needed and what not! You can save money in doing so. IFATCA might be the right tool to do JUSt that.

Increased ICAO Activity in the Next Three Years Delegates from the 1 46 Contracting States of the International Civil Aviation Organization met in Montreal. 1 6 September-7 October. for the 2 3 rd session of the ICAO Assembly. They adopted the work programme of the Organization and budget for 1 981 /82/83 and elected States to be represented on an enlarged 33-member Council. The following member states were elected for three years: Australia. Brazil. Canada. Federal Republic of Germany. France. Italy. Japan. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. United Kingdom and United States of America. Argentina. China. Denmark. Egypt. India. Lebanon. Mexico. Netherlands. Nigeria. Spain. Venezuela. Algeria. Colombia. Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. El Salvador. Indonesia. Iraq. Jamaica. Madegascar. Pakistan. Senegal. Uganda. United Republic of Cameroon. The Assembly endorsed various recommendations of the Second Air Transport Conference. held earlier this year. calling for a multilateral approach to international fares and freight rates problems and to the regulation of air service capacity. The future availability of aviation fuel and the need for more efficient use of fuel was another ma1or item for cons1derat1on. following publ1cat1on of an ICAO report requested by the last session of the Assembly.

This report analyzes the future fuel situation for civil aviation to the year 2000 against the background of soaring oil prices. the overall demand for energy. the growth of air transport and the measures taken. and likely to be taken. to achieve greater efficiency in the use of aircraft fuel. In the technical field of air navigation. ICAO's Air Navigation Commission will continue its consideration of proposed amendments to existing Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) and Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS) which provide the basis for the standardization of equipment and practices essential to the safe. regular and efficient conduct of international air transport. In the legal field. the Assembly was asked to approve a draft amendment to the Chicago Convention concerning lease. charter and interchange of aircraft in international operations. The Assembly also examined the question of unlawful interference with international civil aviation. A ma1or area of growth in ICAO's work programme which came before the Assembly is Technical Assistance. The implemented programme totalled $ 41.5 million in 1979 and 1s expected to reach $ 51 million in 1980 with funds made available to ICAO from the United Nations Development Programme {UNDP). Trust Funds (under which ind1v1dual governments finance in whole or in part the cost). Cost-Sharing (a combination of UNDP and government funding) and the Civil Av1at1on Purchasing Service {a facility provided to developing countries for the purchase of ma1or equipment). Since the last report to the Assembly, 50 large-scale pro1ects have been either started or extended. each repre¡ sent1ng a financial input of at least $ 500.000 excluding the rec1p1ent State's contribution. New national training centres have been established 1n Jordan. Mozambique. Pakistan. Zaire and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen and many training centres. including those serving regional needs. have been expanded. Assistance to improve civil av1at1on fac1lites. including airports. was provided to some 1 5 countries while several other developing countries received help to strengthen their c1v1I av1at1on admin1strat1ons. Even so. considering world-wide needs. the Assembly again drew attention to the important role c1v1I av1at1on plays in overall economic development and to the need for c1v1I av1at1on projects to be given a higher pnonty by the planning authorities of National Admrn1strat1ons. the UNDP as well as by other financing agencies and prospective donor countries 19

The Proficiency Checking of Air Traffic Controllers The following article is based on a working paper presented at the 20th annual Conference of /FA TCA by standing Committee V (SCV) which is responsible for studies dealing with the training of the controller. Methods of checking the proficiency of an air traffic controller are desirable today. The sophistication of modern equipment. the complexity of air traffic and airspace structure and the volume of air traffic demand that a controller exercise his skills to the highest standards at all times if safety is to be preserved. At the time of check-out a controller has demonstrated his proficiency to carry out his tasks at that time. He quickly gains in confidence and experience. But. it is also possible that. almost unnoticed. a casual manner of working. a 'slick' use of procedures and slang phraseology become the hallmark of the 'ace' controller. An ATC unit may be able to absorb one or two of these 'aces' through the professionalism of the other controllers but if on the other hand these 'ace' controllers are regarded as the trend-setters and have much influence over the trainees then a casual manner of working becomes the norm for that unit. Proficiency checks should be designed to detect and correct (through suitable training) work styles and even procedures which could lead to unsafe s1tuat1ons developing. Human Aspects of Control Systems The introduction of a system of proficiency checks will not be without its problems. Such a system could basically be categorised as a control system since. as was previously mentioned. 1t 1s introduced in order to maintain the defined standards of the ATC unit and the md1v1dual controller. It 1s important to realise that 1t 1s people and their performances who will become the subject of a control system and this human element invariably produces problems. These problems will be an emotional response by those being controlled to the control system. Very often management's approach to the 1mplementat1on of control sys-


terns is based on the following assumptions about people: (I) the average person dislikes work and will avoid it where possible. (II) because of this dislike for work people have to be threatened in order to achieve any productivity. (Ill) the average person wishes to avoid responsibility. has little ambition and just wants job security. Perhaps an oversimplification or too much of a generalisation but it requires only a few people who are not motivated for management to regard the remainder in a negative aspect. As a result many control systems have. to a great extent. been structured or administered in a negative sense. Either consciously or unconsciously they have exerted pressure on people as a basis for discipline and as a measure for forcing compliance with externally imposed standards. Depending on the extent and degree that the above situation exists the people will display some or all of the following reactions: (I) widespread antagonism to the control system and to those who administer it. (II) resistance and non-compliance (which can occur at all levels) and (II I) unreliable performance information which will invalidate the control system. Such negative results are not necessarily the inevitable results of introducing a control system. The key to a successful system lies in HOW it is administered. If people feel. for whatever reason. that the control system represents a threat to their overall security. they will adopt a pattern of behaviour which in their estimation will cause some damage or even defeat . the system thus reducing or eliminating the perceived threat. Such preceived threat is prevalent where: _ punishment 1s emphasized instead of giving help and support. . - trust is lacking in the relat1onsh1ps involved and - feedback adversely affects the individual in terms of his job relationship and career expectations. The emphasis of a control system should be on the objectives to be achieved rather than proportioning blame to 1nd1v1duals.

There are four important guidelines to consider if a control system is to be administered effectively. Communication management must discuss and gain the highest possible degree of commitment among the staff to their objectives (e.g. safety of aircraft). People who are thus motivat.ed have a high level job performance and are more likely to self-direct and control their own performance. Education - management must ensure that everyone understands the reasons and fuctioning of a control system. It must be made clear that the purpose of a control system is not to find out who has made mistakes and who should be punished but that it is a tool to help the individual controller and the ATC unit to perform at maximum proficiency. Support - a climate of help and support must be established. Here. action not words is required. as no amount of talking will convince people about management's concern. Review - people involvement. The control system needs to be continually reviewed with the individual. the total work group and management. looking particularly at the progress and status of achievement toward the objectives. This means getting the ideas of the staff as to the problems and difficulties being encountered. taking note of alternative courses of action suggested and jointly developing plans for action. To help make a control system work requires that the people affected understand the purpose of the control system. that they work in a climate of help and support and that they receive continual constructive feedback. Strong Objections Regular and formal checks on the proficiency of qualified air traffic controllers is not at present a widely accepted practice. Professional associations have quite strong objections to such checks. Many. though. have taken the opposite point of view and feel that proficiency checks are desirable in the profession of air traffic control. What would appear to be a basis for dispute is the form that such checks would take and above all a guaranteed confidentiality of the results of these checks. A questionnaire issued by IFATCA (SCV) to all MAs to determine (I) whether any countries already had a system of proficiency checks. (11) what forms these checks took and (II I) were they acceptable. Twenty four replies were received. Various terms are used to describe the system whereby the standard of a qualified controller's work 1s checked at regular intervals throughout his opera-


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The safety and th e economics of air tran sportation req uire that the air traffic control system keep pace with c urrent aircraft capabilities and traffic volum es.





flight plan processing, conflic.t .detectio n, computer-aided dec1s1onmaking, software management of communication links, etc.



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Over th e last twenty years THOM SO N-CSF has designed, built and installed more than 100 ATC systems to meet th e most varied needs, from an individual airpo rt to a complete nationwide netwo rk. Building on thi s experi ence, AIRCAT is a family of modular systems integrating the detection, tran smission, processing and display equipment and software developped in-house.

There is an AIRCAT system for every req uirement : from purely manual operatio n of a sing le radar in a daylight environment to coverage of a vast area using several radars, wit h automati c multi- radar tracking,

The S IMCAT digital air traffic simulators which derive directly from the A IRCAT systems, are powerfu l tool s for training air traffic controllers and for studying new flight and control procedures.


1110MSON¡CSF DIVISION ORS.TVT 40. rue G range-Dame-Rose - BP 34 92360MEUO ON - LA- FOR~T -(F)¡ T ~L (1)630.23.80

tional career. (e.g. proficiency checks. competency checks. performance development program. etc.). Where such systems are in use the air traffic controllers¡ associations have. in general. agreed with their management on certain procedures to be followed. Result of Questionnaire: Is any form of proficiency checking carried out? YES: 8. Do you consider such checks desirable? YES: 12; NO: 3 (1 no comment). One of the associations which replied NO stated that their supervisors are continually checking the controllers and that this system works very well. Why do we need such a system of checks?to maintain the standards of (I) the controller (II) the ATC unit (Ill) the ATC system as a whole and to provide each individual controller with guidance and information as to his professional performance. Arguments against checks: fear of loss of JOb abuse by management dangerous to social security why change from present system? There are no doubt more reasons why controllers come out against proficiency checks. Having qualified as a controller it is easy to get into a familiar working pattern and sometimes drift into 'bad' habits. The controller's experience usually covers up procedures which may not be entirely safe. A system of regular checks should work for the controller and not against him and protect him from unsafe procedures and habits. The ob1ectives of proficiency checks may be stated as: (I) to preserve safety in the ATC system by monitoring a controller's performance to confirm that he can adequately perform his duties. (II) to 1dent1fy and examine any areas of controller performance that should be 1mprbved and make recommendations which will assist in preparing a developmental programme. (DoT Canada) Such ob1ectives must be supported by a set of ground rules to be observed by both controllers and management. Since these checks so directly affect the controller 1t 1s mandatory that there should be a high degree of controller involvement in the evaluation and 1mplementat1on stages. The employer must provide assurances regarding career aspects especially 'second career' prospects for the older controller. Some assoc1at1ons felt that 1t was sufficient that the supervisor checked his staff. It cannot be denied that this 1s one of the tasks of a supervisor and where a small number of staff are involved 1t probably works reasonably 22

well. However. the larger the staff. the more remote becomes the supervisor from close contact with his controllers when at their working positions and consequently the requirement for a specialist. (Hereafter referred to as a proficiency check officer. PCO.)

The Proficiency Check Officer A person selected for this task of PCO must be currently rated on at least the sector or sectors on which the check is to be conducted. It is not necessary that a controller is checked on every sector he works but that the sector chosen represents a fair cross-section of the traffic complexity and number of aircraft expected to be normally handled by the controller. The PCO will not necessarily be the man considered to be the 'best' controller nor should he be expected to handle high traffic peaks. It has to be remembered that although the PCO holds a valid rating because of his job of checking others he cannot be expected to put in as many operational hours controlling aircraft as the other controllers. It can be anticipated that the PCO devotes a minimum of five working days per month to the maintenance of his own proficiency. As a general rule the level of competency required by PCO's should compare with the average controller in the following way: - knowledge, coordination. procedures - the PCO should have the advantage. - general proficiency, estimating accuracy. use of equipment - the PCO should be on a par. - skill - because of infrequent practice the PCO may be slightly slower. He will probably control more cautiously. Ideally the conducting of proficiency checks and the implementation of further training. where necessary, would be the sole task of a PCO. neither would he be included in the ¡operations' establishment of controllers required to staff a unit. Training must be provided to those controllers selected as PCOs so as to achieve a common standard. Relationship with the supervisor the day-to-day operation of the unit and the monitoring of controller functions will still be the responsibility of the supervisor. By attending deb_riefing sessions 1n an observer capacity supervisors could be kept informed of controller capabilities. Supervisors would still be responsible for completing annual appraisals. Everyday performance would still be the basis for these assessments and not the proficiency check. PCOs would have to closely coordinate their act1v1t1es with the

supervisor as shift management is the supervisor's responsibility.

The Proficiency Check Confidentiality is the key word. Only in the most drastic cases e.g. criminal negligence. should reports be passed on to higher authorities. The report on a proficiency check remains confidential to the PCO and the individual concerned. Such reports would not be available for the preparation of a controller's annual assessment. The controller is advised well in advance when his check is to take place. There should be no question of catching people out with spot-checks. The check itself should put emphasis on the practical abilities of the controller rather than on knowledge rarely used e.g. management of equipment. application of procedures. phraseology. coordination. etc. It must also be relevant to the job normally performed by a particular controller. After the check there should be a full debrief and exchange of views. The supervisor may act as observer during the debrief and/or evaluation. It is important that the controller is fully aware of the report which will be made and in fact he should countersign it. The check could take the form of an on-the-job evaluation (twice yearly). monitoring of the RTF tape (annually). a knowledge test (annually) and simulation exercise (annual). It would not be necessary to take all the tests at the same period. The checks would be an on-going process throughout the year.

Follow-up Action Part of the job of the PCO will be to arrange for further recurrent training and assess the competency of the individual after retraining. When. after such recurrent training and reassessment. it is determined by the PCO that a controller is unable to qualify to the unit standard. the PCO may recommend to the chief of the ATC unit that the controller be removed from further active control duties in that unit. Should the controller wish to appeal against this decision. he alone may authorise the opening of his file to his representatives and the appropriate aviation/employer authorities.

Evaluation and Implementation of Proficiency Checks Controller participation in conducting sector or position task analysis. developing check lists. compiling material for open book examinations and assisting in the development of simulated exercises will greatly help toward con-

troller acceptance. The standards which are to be achieved must be clearly defined so that all personnel are aware of the performance that they are expected to attain. The standard thus defined for a sector or position will be the qualification standard and the minimum level for checked-out personnel. A number of controllers will be selected to conduct a task analysis of the control positions and determine the level of proficiency required for each task. A check list of tasks to be assessed during on-the-job evaluation will be prepared. Practice evaluations using the staff who assisted in the task analysis followed by discussions will revise and verify the system so that an agreed valid check list can be produced. The position standard and check list will be published so that all personnel are aware of the performance level required and of those items that will be ·assessed during the proficiency check. . . On-the-job evaluations and briefings must be carried out objectively and fairly and the results considered as confidential. Conclusions (a) A system of proficiency checks carried out objectively and fairly and above all treated confidentially is seen as being desirable by many Member Associations. (b) Proficiency checks would pr~­ serve safety in the ATC system by monitoring a controller's performance an.d 1dent1fy and examine any areas of his performance that should be improved. (c) Controllers selected for the t.ask of Proficiency Check Officer (PCO) will: (I) have to be currently rated. . . (11) have to undergo special training. (Ill) not be considered as part of the operational personnel for staffing purposes. (IV) be responsible for the organisation of retraining as required. (d) The check could take the form of: (I) OJT evaluation (II) tape monitoring (Ill) knowledge verification (IV) simulated exercises and be carried out twice a year. (e) The standards to be achieved and the check list of items to be evaluated will be made available to all controllers. (f) Full debriefing and exchange of views will follow each evaluation. Supervisors may attend as observers. (g) Full controller part1c1pat1on is necessary at all stages 1n the evaluation and 1mplementat1on of a system of proficiency checks. (h) The results of prof1c1ency checks must be considered as conf1dent1al information between the PCO and the controller.

Top Earnings for McDonnell McDonnell Douglas Corporation earned $ 144.6 million or $ 3.65 per share fully diluted on sales of$ 6,066.3 million in 1980.

The previous year McDonnell Douglas earned $ 199.1 million or$ 5.06 per share on sales of$ 5.278.5 million. The 1980 earnings included $ 4.3 million or 11 cents per share from a sale of securities in the fourth quarter and $ 15.5 million or 39 cents per share from a previously reported real estate transaction. The year's sales included 41 per cent commercial and 59 per cent government business. The corporation's earnings for the fourth quarter of 1980 were $ 45.8 million or $ 1. 15 per share on sales of $ 1.503.3 million. In the comparable period of 1979 earnings were $ 51 . 7 million or $ 1 . 3 1 per share on sales of$ 1.330.1 million. Firm backlog on December 31. 1980 was $ 8.815.5 million. compared with· $ 6.981. 7 million at the end of 1979. This backlog. made up of 34 per cent commercial and 6 6 per cent government business. excludes order.snot yet funded to the corporation. orders being negotiated as continuations of authorized programmes. and commercial orders subject to contingencies. Total backlog. including these additional amounts but excluding options. was approximately $ 13. 777 .8 million on December 31. 1980 and included 27 per cent commercail and 73 per cent government business. A year earlier the total backlog was approximately$ 10.877.9 million. Employment at the end of 1980 was 82.550 compared with 82. 736 a year earlier.

1980 Lower Sales for 1980 were higher in all ma1or lines of business but increased most in the commercial and military aircraft areas. The primary sources of backlog growth were now orders for military aircraft. notably the selection of the F-1 SA Hornet by Canada at the conclusion of the first foreign competition in which the aircraft was entered. Earnings for 1980 were lower in all product Imes. but the primary factor in the overall decline was a pre-tax loss on commercial aircraft of $ 1 44 million. compared with 1979's commercial aircraft loss of $ 56 million. The corporation's commercial aircraft loss increased substantially in 1980 because development and production costs associated with introduction of the new DC-9 Super 80 were much higher than ant1c1pated. During 19 80 we achieved good cost performance in connection with DC-1 0 production and made good progress in the amort1zat1on of DC-1 0 deferred production costs. The 40 DC-1 Os delivered in 1980 absorbed $ 31 2 m1ll1on of deferred tooling and production costs. The firm orders now on hand are considered adequate to absorb the programme·s remaining deferred costs New orders for DC-9s and DC- 1Os were received at a comparatively slow rate

throughout 1 980 as general economic conditions worsened and the airline industry incurred substantial losses. Because of this. deliveries of the DC- 10 will occur at a lower rate in 1 981 than in the year JUSt ended. Some DC-9 deliveries orginally planned for 1980 were delayed beyond the end of the year: DC-9 deliveries are expected to occur at a higher rate throughout much of 1981 as the delayed aircraft are readied for service and we complete the manufacture of aircraft ordered before the 1980 recession. A slowing of DC-9 deliveries in 1982 now appears likely. Military aircraft sales increased substantially in 1980 as work accelerated on the F18A Hornet and AV-8B programmes. Military aircraft earnings declined because these programmes. both still in early stages. have lower margins than the mature programmes that dominated the corporation's military aircraft work in recent years. Earnings were adversely affected also be further increases in estimated total costs of developing and producing the six DC-10 extender tanker-cargo aircraft ordered by the US Air Force. The total military aircraft backlog was $ 8.943. 7 million on December 31. 1980. Approximately 55 per cent of 1t involved aircraft in development of early stages of production. An additional cause of 1980's earnings decline was the fact that the corporation had substantially decreased interest income and increased interest expense in 1980 compared with 1979. As of December 31. 1980. McDonnell Douglas had firm orders for 364 DC-10 airliners and cond1t1onal orders and options for 25 orthers. bringing the overall total to 389 aircraft of which 339 had been delivered. At year-end the corporation had firm orders for 1 .061 DC-9s and cond1t1onal orders and options for 23 others. bringing the overall total to 1.084 aircraft of which 955 had been delivered.

GOODWOOD DATA SYSTEMS LTD .. announced the award of a contract for an AFTN Switching System by the Federal Air Traffic Control Authority of Yugoslavia. This contract 1s valued at nearly $ 2 m1ll1on and provides a 1 28channel capacity system for the routing and processing of Aeronautical Telecommunications data. This system 1s part of the overall series of Flight Information System offered by Goodwood on the internat1ona I market The maiority of the technology being offered was first developed for Canada by use in its own Civil Av1at1on System. 23

AEROPP. En-route to an integrated telecommunications â&#x20AC;˘ servtce.

AEROPP, Philips data switching and data handling system for aeronautical operation, permits gradual, economic growth: from a small installation, routing low volumes of AFl'N traffic, to a powerful multi-facility centre providing a complete range of aeronautical telecommunications services. For example, an AEROPP system may be initially configured to switch AFfN message traffic, then extended in steps to perlorm collection, sorting and


distribution of METEO, flight plan, NOTAM, flight safety and ATA/ IATA messages. AEROPP equipped AFrN centres can serve their lowtraffic subscribers by interlacing the system to telex or public data networks - connections which also provide for network fallback. Aeronautical information files, also, may be maintained on AEROPP to allow Aeronautical lnformation Service briefing offices, Flight Information

j 1


Centres, Airline Operations Centres and Air Traffic Control units, rapid and convenient access to this data. In addition, Flight Information Centres and Aeronautical Radio Stations may utilize the system for efficient distribution of info11nation such as VOLMET's, AIREP's, position reports and air-filed flight plans. ·AERO PP, moreover, can be enhanced to provide switching for the Common ICAO Data Interchange Network. In short, AEROPP is capable of

Airport Surface Detection Equipment, ASDE, from Signaal utilizes a Ku-ba nd system (with an a ntenna t urning speed of 60 r.p.m. for enhanced reliability) housed in a 5.Smt r high ra dom, to detect a 3m2 moving target wit hin a range of l Okm. Even in adve rse weathe r - a 15mm / hr rainfall for example - detection range is 5km. Range discrimination is approx. 7mtr with an angular discrimination of 0. 25°. Digita l scan converters, DISCO's, are used to supply synthe tic video information for bright display purposes: each DISCO accommodating up to six display consoles. A di splay luminance of 35cd/ m2 enables viewing under high a mbient light conditions.

forming the backbone and connections for flight plan, radar, and information processing subsystems - an integrated telecommunications service. AEROPP is just one example of the high stateof-the-art of Philips equipment, systems and services for aviation. Here are some more.

·voice logging. Fra nkfurt Intern ationa l Airport is one of t he many airports in West Geiman~' using Philips· multi -drnnnel cornmunications recorders to provide continuous logging of all AT C rnie0 m mmunications. Available with 11. 22. 33 a nd 44 track recording facilities. their exceptionally high quality is reflected in th e fact that they have so far been installed in no less t han 120 maj or airports the world o\·cr. If you want to know more. the book ·Philips in Adation· is yours for the asking. Just send your business card or name and address to: Philips Industries C.M.S.D.. Marketing Communil'ation Av. VOp. Room 22. Eindhoven, Holland.

Total capability from the ground up. By combining the know-how of our specialist companies we can offer a closely integrated programme of equipment. systems and se rvices to the Airport Aut hority. The programme includes: specialised lighting systems fo r taxiing, take-off, apron positioning and runway approach, as well as indoor and ou tdoor terminal lighting; navigational aids such as ILS, DME and VOR: HF / VHF / UHF and microwave radio communicati ons: computer-based rada r for air traffic control and airpo1t surface movement (ASDE): termin al sonorisation and security systems, and a range of services extending from advance study and evaluation of airp ort requirements to airport constru ction an d commission ing. From equipment design, supply and installation to the supervision and training of operational and tedrnical staff.


Philips working in Aviation

Simulated Target Generation for ATC Systems Testing by W M. Schmidt (Sperry Umvac. Defense Systems Division A TC Systems Engineering)


Sperry Univac has over 1 7 years of experience in simulating detected aircraft during testing of automated air traffic control systems. The US Federal Av1at1on Adm inistration (FAA) has benefited tremendously from Sperry Univac¡s extensive use of target generator programs to simulate aircraft detected by the primary radar and secondary surveillance radar subsystems. The current enhanced target generator (ETG) has evolved from a simple program that was used to merely generate prestored reports. The ETG is used for program debugging. acceptance testing. and FAA personnel training. It provides the controller trainer. trainee . or the system test engineer with an efficient means of supplying the system with a wide ra nge of user-defined simulated targets. These simulated target inputs are considered by the system to be live. and except for training targ ets. which


are sent to only training mode displays. are processed exactly as if they were real targets. Yet none of the complexities. uncertainties. or frustrations of using live 'targets of opportunity' are introduced. Control is the primary advantage of the ETG . By manipulating target data. a simulated aircraft can be made to perform flight patterns that would be impractical. if not actually dangerous. for live aircraft. For training purposes one or more display consoles can be designated as controller trainee pos1t1ons. while other display positions are de_signated as pi lot positions that fly the simulated aircraft in response to trainee controller commands. At the same time. the display positions not designated for training may be used to control live aircraft operations.

Radar Terminal System (ARTS) at Atlanta. Georg ia. the system testing was accomplished by using the fo llowing different testing techniques: 1 . Test procedure scri pt. using uncontrolled targets of opportunity at t he site . 2. FAA test aircraft flying prearra nged flight patterns. 3. Prestored target data to test special functions such as eme rgency beacon codes. In a subsequent project for final approach spacing for ARTS (FASA). it was recognized that none of the three t echniques would provide adequate test data for the complex approach-spacing function. A contro lla ble target generation program was needed. and a simple target generator. that could be controlled by an operator making keyboard entries was designed. The parameters that could be changed were beacon code. heading. speed. and altitude . All entered parameters were attained at a fixed rate of change. A total of 1 2 target reports (simulated aircraft) could be generated. For Common IFR Room (C IFRR) project at New York. system acceptance testing was performed using a target generator that was essentially the same as th at used for the FASA project. Later Sperry Univac was contracted to expand the capability of the target generator into a target t raining simulator (TIS) for controller training at the CIFRR. For the TIS project the fo ll owing new ca pabilities which are discussed in detail below.


In the 1n1t1al air traffic control (ATC) proiect with th e FAA the Automated

Controllers system.





• • • • • • • • •

Automatic glideslope intercept Navigation fix maneuvering H aiding pattern Wind Freeze mode Sensor definition Training display assignment Scenario generation and control Increased target capacity (to 32).

When Sperry Univac was awarded the ARTS 111 contract for the installation of automated ATC systems at 62 major airports in the US systems testing required a more sophisticated target generator. Since target detection was done by the software instead of digitizer hardware. the target generator was changed to generate target replies rather than target reports. Target replie s were generated on a sweep-bysweep (radar interrogation) basis; a hit or miss could be specified for each sweep (up to 45 sweeps). With thi s approach the target generator could be used to test the target detection software as well as the tracking functions. Another enhancement was that the rates of cha nge to parameters could be specified (e.g .. turn rate. rate of climb/ descent. and rate of veloci ty change). Al so. the mode C alt itude validity and mode 3 1A beacon code validity could be specified. This version of the target generator could simulate up to six targets. For ARTS 111 the target generator program had to be recoded for a different processor. The next FAA project was for a M inimum Safe Al titude Warning System (MSAW) for all ARTS Ill-equipped airports. MSAW provides warning signals to air traffic con troll ers when con trolled aircraft are threatened with becoming

'controlled flight into terrain '. Testing MSAW required extensive simulation because of the need for a carefully controlled environment and the impracticality of using targets of opportunity or test aircraft to create low altitude situations. The use of scenarios was important because the situation could be replayed identically each time with no need for operator keyboard entries. Adjustments of system parameters and input data could be made until optimum test conditions were obtained. The automatic glideslope intercept function was also used extensively to test approach path monitoring warnings. For demonstration of metering and spacing for the ARTS Ill system. the target generator program was further expanded to provide several functions. including the following : • • • • •

Fix navigation Metering and spacing controller ILS capture Fast time Command feedback Error simulation.

The first three functions will be described later; however. command feedback and error simulation are unique to metering and spacing. Command feedback provides a means of associating target generator commands with metering and spacing commands so th at the simulated aircra ft can be controlled withou t operator 1ntervent1on. Error simulation creates a more realistic testing environment by allowing for the failure of targets to report a certa in percentage of the time on a scan-to-scan basis. called blip-scan error and to allow targets to simulate performance

errors. which live aircraft may make when performing maneuvers. The Conflict Alert project provides for controllers to be alerted of predictions of aircraft potentially coming too close to other controlled aircraft . For the Conflict Alert system acceptance testing. the scenario generation and control capability was used extensively because of the difficulty in using live aircraft to create conflict situations. No additional functions had to be added to the target generator program for this test . In 1976 Sperry Univac began work on an ATC systems project to implement the following: •

CDR - Addition of a continuous data-recording capability at all ARTS-Ill-equipped airports • EARTS - An enroute system at Anchorage. Honolulu. Neliis AFB. and San Juan • ARTS II IA - Installation of enhanced version's of the ARTS Ill system at 2 9 airports • New York TRACON - Replacement for. and expansion of. the Common I FR Room for controlling traffic at JFK. La Guardia. Newark. lsl1p and Westchester airports. The target generator and scenario generator software were used 1n essentially th eir current evolved state of enhancement. combining the functions developed for many of the previous proiects. The scenario generator was modified to include all operational keyboard commands rather than JUSt target generator-re lated commands as origi nally designed. The New York TRACON ATC system required the most extensive target s1m ulat1on . In add1t1on to its use during a very complex and lengthy acceptance test. the target generator 1s an integral part of t he operational software. It 1s used for cont roller trai ning purposes and for subsequent software baseline testing as the operational functions are expanded . The capacity test for the New York TRACON system presented a unique problem . Because the system receives input from four rada rs. and the required capacit y for each sensor was 300 tracks. the large volume of data could not be generated 1n rea l-time or stored in the available memory. A special version of the target generator was developed to generate the data off-line and to store 11 on a disc pack. then to read the data from the disc during the ca pacity test For a military ATC system the target generator was once again extensively


modified. It was recoded to operate in a different processor. and the capability to simulate a precision-approach radar. as well as the air surveillance radar. was added. Elaboration Each of the functions in the current target generator software is described below.

Keyboard Entry Commands Target Initiation - Creates a target upon receipt of an entry defining the 1n1t1al target position . Position may be spec ified by slewing to a point on the display with the trackball or by entering a range and azimuth at the keyboard. Target Term ination - Stops generat io n of data for a specified target. Heading - Changes the target head~ 1ng . Turn will be to the left or right as specified 1n the entry. or if not specified. the shortest turn is taken . A turn rate in degrees per second may be entered . If no rate 1s entered. a turn rate dependent upon current target velocity is used. If a new target is initiated without a heading specified. the target will be headed toward the center of the display. Transponder Code - Enters or changes the ta rget's transponder code to the four d1g1t octal code entered. A transponder code validity value and a special pulse indic ator (1dent1ficat1on) may also be ent ered . Altitude - Cont rols t he targ et modeC respo nse. includ ing validity and change rate. The 1nit1al or new altitude is entered in hundreds of feet . Validity and rate entries are optional : 1f va lidity 1s not entered . th e highest val1d1ty valve is used. If rate of climb or descent 1s not entered. a rate of 7 50 feet per minute is assumed . An instantaneous altitude change may also be entered. Veloci ty - Assigns a speed and acceleration to the target. An acc eleration or instantaneous speed change 1s optional. If no 1n1 t1al speed 1s entered a gro d un speed of zero 1s assumed . If ¡no acceleration is entered w hen t he speed is changed. a value of 4 5 knot s per min ute 1s used . Sensor Control - In a mult1sensor system t his ent ry selects th e primary radar I secondary rad ar system t hat is to be simulated Sensor Selection - Spec1f1es th e type of report t o be generated for each target. i.e . prim ary radar only, secondary radar only. or prim ary and secondary radar Duplicate Targets - Duplicates a specified target up to seven times. The ra nge of each target is decremented by two nauti c al miles. otherwise. the targets are 1dent1cal. Th e duplicated targets are not ind1v1dually controllable.


Realistic air traffic situations can be presented to the controller trainee.

Ring - Creates a ring of 2 n targ ets (n = 1 to 5) equally spaced in azimuth over 3 60 degrees. For example. with n = 5. 32 targets are created 11.25 degrees apart in azimuth . Ring targets are controllable after initintion. Duplicate and ring targets are used for capacity testing. . . Target Inhibit - lnh1b1ts target report generation on a selected target for a spec1f1ed number of scans. Primary radar reports. secondary radar reports. or both primary and secondary reports may be 1nh1b1ted. This function i_s used primarily during test1~g to verify the operat ional program s response to missing reports. Pos1t1onal Deviation - Allows noise to be added to the target 's positions in range and azimuth. The amount of deviation may be speci fied in hundredths of nautical miles in range and in hundredths of a degree in azimuth. If not spec ified. standard deviations of 0 . 10 nautical miles and 0 .3 3 degrees are applied. . .. Blip / scan Ratio - Defines and 1n1t1ates a seconda ry and a primary radar blip / scan ratio. For example. an entry of 7 5 for secondary radar reports and 50 fo r primary reports requests all secondary radar targets to be reported 7 5% of th e time and primary radar targets 50% of the time. Automatic Glidescope Intercept Aut omatically generates the necessary flight pa tt ern to land the simulated aircraft at a speci fi ed runwa y. Nav1gat1on Fix Maneuvering - Automatically directs the simulated aircraft to the spec1f1ed one of severa l predefin ed geographical nav1gat1onal fixes .

Hold - Flies the simulated aircraft in a prestored holding pattern with a specified turn rate and direction. No Gyro Turn - Places the simul ated aircraft in a turn until directed to stop. The direction of turn and the turn rat e are optional. Wind - Defines the wind velocities and headings at specified al titud es. Wind al titu de entri es. in thousands of feet. represent wind factors 500 feet above and below the specified alti tude. Wind data for a given altit ude may be deleted by entering the altitude with a velocity of zero. Wind effects are incorporated into all target generator target's course of flight at all altitudes. Freeze Mode - When the display freeze entry is made. all data for all simulated aircraft remain displayed at their last updated positions until the freeze is deactivated. The function is for training displays only: it has no effect on th e 'live' displays. Fast Time Mode - Enables the target generator to operate in a faster th an real-time mode. with simulated target only. The command specifies the ratio between normal and fast time . Training Display Assignment - Prior to act1vat1ng a training display. all active tracks assigned to a display controller must be dropped or reassigned to 'live' positions. Then. on an individual basis. any display can be designated as a training display . A similar command return s the display to live statu s. Scenario Generation and Control Scenario Generator - Th e sce nario genera tor program was developed for








16 161<























test situations that required a large volume of air traffic or involved flying intricate or dangerous flight patterns. such as low altitude. conflict status crossovers. metering and spacing, and capacity test. Some of the advantages of scenarios are: • • • •

command. Each subsequent scenario command is executed sequentially. The entire scenario can be repeated at any time. or a different scenario can be initiated. In addition to the target generatorrelated commands. scenarios may also contain operational keyboard commands. In this manner a scenario can simulate an entire air traffic control situation. including flight plan input and inter-facility messages.

Exact repeatability each time test 1s run. Eliminates operator error. More precise control of input data. especially timing. Faster than manual keyboard entries.

The scenario generator 1s an off-line program whose purpose 1s to record a sequence of operator commands on magnetic tape or disc from punched cards. These commands are later read from tape or disc during testing or training excerc1ses. The scenario commands are essentially the same as commands made by operator keyboard en-

try. One difference is that range and azimuth are specified in the command to the nearest hundredth nautical mile or degree rather than by a slew entry at the display. Also. each scenario command contains the time at which 1t 1s to be executed to the nearest second. Therefore. a much higher degree of accuracy and more precise timing can be obtained with scenarios than can be obtained by operator entries. Up to 100 scenario files can be recorded per tape. and 255 can be recoded per disc. Each file contains one compJete scenario excercise. Scenario Control - Scenarios are controlled by keyboard entries. which are made to input scenario files from magnetic tape or disc. The command causes the specified scenario to be read and stored in computer memory for program execution. Other keyboard commands initiate the execution of the scenario starting at the first scenario

The target generator has been used extensively by Sperry Univac in acceptance testing of ATC systems. It has been modified and expanded throughout the past 1 4 years to suit various computers and for different ATC system applications. Its use has considerably lowered the cost of testing by eliminating the need for flying test aircraft. and by speeding up the test activities. Moreover. software 1s more reliable because test conditions have been induced that are more difficult than the live situation. Most test procedures were written so they could be run with targets of opportunity or with simulated aircraft. Since most tests are conducted during periods of minimum air traffic. it was difficult to find the desired mix of targets to follow the procedures. Accordingly. the target generator's use increased until 1t was almost always used during the test activities. Special functions such as MSAW. capacity tests. conflict alert. tracking evaluation. emergency transponder codes. and metering and spacing made the use of the target generator a necessity. The scenario generation capability 1s invaluable for automated testing. In those cases where a test must be repeated several times. as in baseline testing. or where the same ATC system 1s to be implemented at several airports. considerable time and manpower can be saved by using test procedures that have been recorded on magnetic tape or disc as scenarios. Manual and scenario commands can be mixed and time delays inserted between scenario commands to allow for operator intervention. The FAA 1s continually upgrading the operational program tor the ARTS 111 system. and each update must be thoroughly tested against a baseline before being used operationally. Automated testing has been estimated to cut their testing time by 70% to 80%. In add1t1on to speeding up the test entries. chances for erroneous entries are eliminated. which further reduces the time required to conduct each test 29

Refresher Training for Air Traffic Controllers by Adrian Enright

Introduction It is established IFATCA policy that air traffic controllers should undergo periodic refresher training (Lyon 1976). A few administrations do provide some form of refresher training for their staff but there appears to be a requirement to re-emphasize this need for refresher training and once more bring it to the attention of ATC administrations. This paper puts forward a model outlining the format and content upon which a refresher training course for operational air traffic controllers could be based.

Discussion The far sighted administration or organization will have implemented a staff training scheme for its employees. Staff will naturally have to be trained for the tasks for which they were recruited and other staff will have to receive further. specialist training to enable them to continue their careers m the organ1sat1on. An organisation can only survive and profit 1f 1t adopts a forward looking policy with the interests of its employees at heart. It is people who make organisations - any organisation. An organisation with well motivated and well trained staff who are encouraged to take an active interest in their work will profit. Thus there 1s a third area of training to be considered and which should concern the ma1onty of staff - refresher training. (In the context of this paper the term ·refresher training' refers to a re-acquaintance with previously learned facts. a re-assessment of skills and an awareness of current specialist developments). In air traffic control today spectacular advances are being made both in the 'tools of the trade' and in the associated procedures which must keep up with the crowded airspaces. We can identify three types of controller depending on the environment: (I) the one brought up on the procedural system of controlling and who must now adapt to a radar and later a semiautomated system. (II) the one trained 1n procedural and radar but who 1s now faced with the introduction of automation and (Ill) the 'new generation' who has been directly introduced to automation with little or no other experience


are devoted to a revision of basic theory and procedures. Course participants are encouraged to do their own research (reference materials provided) and the instructor guides the discussions going into detail when and where required in order to clarify misunderstanding and to show a relationship between theory and practice. Practical exercises. following a classroom briefing. will give the participants the opporThe question of how to maintain a tunity to practise their operational techhigh standard of operational efficiency niques under set conditions. Exercises among controllers at ATC units has can be precisely designed so that basic long been of concern to many adminisskills and more complex situations can trations. Another aspect of this problem equally well be practised. Classroom is that an operational controller may debriefings and exercise analysis will perform his tasks satisfactorily for many follow each period in the simulator. years without ever being faced with an During the second week. whilst the emergency situation and thus not be practical exercises concentrate more fully· aware of the correct procedures to on the unusual occurrences. the classapply quickly should such a situation room presentations focus on specific develop. Controllers need also ·to be subjects of topical interest given by exaware of the limited service that can be perts. provided by a modern computor-generThe refresher course is not designed ated synthetic radar display when such so much as .a teaching course but more a system is degraded through technical as a platform for discussion. It is imporfailure. Or. in less sophisticated systant that an exchange of ideas and airtems. what action does the controller ing of points of view be allowed to take take m the event of a radar failure? place so as to clarify misconceptions The following is an example of how a and areas of ambiguity which often exrefresher course might be planned. Obist between interpretation of the rules 1ect1ves. which could be more suitably and pr.actical application. Controllers. detailed. should reflect the aim of the skilled in their day-to-day tasks. should refresher training and be clearly underb~ kept informed of new developments stood by all those attending the cour~e. within ATC and aviation and have an Define the controller background 1.e. awareness of the hidden dangers inhernon-radar. radar or automated. . ent in a casual manner of working and Course population: controllers with the use of non-standard RTF phraseolabout five years· experience. The nu~­ ogy. The course should not be used bers will depend on the simulator facilito test the proficiency of the controller. The practical exercises ties available. Course ob1ect1ves: . should be designed so that the controller again becomes familiar with. for (I) to revise the standard procedures example. primary radar progressing associated with the ATC unit an.d in through unprocessed secondary radar particular to clanfy any areas. of misunto synthetic radar displays with data derstanding. differences with ICAO blocks. He practises his skills in unusual Standards and Recommendations. etc. (Checking knowledge and understands1tuat1ons e.g. radio communication failure. radar failure. aircraft emergening) cies. etc. Tape recording of RTF during (11) to control a specified num~er .of exercises and then discussing the playaircraft simultaneously whilst maintainback can be very useful. ing the correct separation standards between them. some of which will be The role of the. instructor 1s to help involved in unusual occurrences. the controller to identify his problem (Checking skills. Use of suitable simulaareas. clarify 'grey' areas and to encourage the controller to take a new intor) terest in his JOb. (Ill) apply correct RTF phraseology (IV) apply correct procedures to the It is important that controllers who attend refresher courses are aware of practical exercises in (II) (V) have a better understanding the course ob1ectives and course conof ... (the specific subjects requested tent if the maximum benefit is to be obby the controller e.g. Air Traffic Flow tained. Pre-conceived ideas which do Management. Incident lnvest1gat1on. not relate to reality are likely to be a aircraft emergency procedures. pilot cause of de-motivation among those atproblems m crowded airspace. automatending the course. tion in ATC. etc. A regular programme of refresher Course duration: Two weeks training should be introduced for all ( 10 working days) controllers on the basis. for example. of Course structure: The first few days a two week course (along the lines as

proposed above) every five years and a one week or three day course every two years which would concentrate on new developments in aviation. An example of a course programme is seen below.

4. Controllers need to be fully aware of and able to apply quickly the correct procedures to be used in emergency and unusual situations. 5. The refresher course should be designed as a platform for discussion and exchanges of ideas encouraged in order to clarify ambiguity. 6. Practical exercises should be based on the controllers· own area. 7. Course objectives need to be carefully stated and understood by all before the course starts. 8. Subjects relating to ATC and aviation developments need to be included in the refresher course in order to increase the contrdllers' knowledge and understanding of the environment in which they work. 9. Refresher courses are not designed to test the proficiency of the controller.

Conclusions 1 . Refresher training should be regularly undertaken by all operational air traffic controllers. 2. It is to the benefit of any organisation or administration to maintain the necessary level of knowledge and skill among its staff. 3. Refresher training. in the context of this paper. refers to a re-acquaintance of previously learnt facts. a re-assessment of every-day skills and an awareness of current specialist developments.


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An Open Letter to Mr. Lee E. Paul Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration NAFEC Atlantic City/ N.J. 08405 USA via the IFATCA Journal Editor

Subject: Your Article How can we learn from our mistakes If we never admit we make any? Dear Mr. Paul. telling the truth must not necessarily mean to receive congratulations because they are many. who either do not welcome truth or don't want to admit mistake. Civil av1at1on authorities are among them. and rather seem to be willing to waste more millions than to admit. But money 1s becoming rare nowadays. Being with air traffic control for a quarter century now and a system. equipment and procedures evaluator and a tax payer myself. I can only thank you for your comments. The question. however. 1s 'Which way out/'. Among insiders there are apparent answers to that. One answer for instance 1s provided by the avatlab1l1ty of ADP program structured 'system validation· methods for the validation of technical system spec1f1cat1ons. For an answer to system operational concept and spec1f1cat1on val1dat1on you have made some suggestions 1n your paper. but this problem 1s the most d1ff1cult one to solve. Even when authorities are willing to have operational personnel actively part1c1pate in the conceptual design and planning of systems. subsystems and procedures another problem remains unsolved. That 1s the lack of training and education. which air traffic services personnel should receive beforehand to be able to fulfil such task. Here 1s an answer on how to solve that probleml Authorities must spend money on education for their personnel to learn new techniques and technologies other systems operations new hardware available new functions (technical and operational) - neighbouring countries/ systems cons1derat1ons and approaches to the same problems


in order to become capable to cope with such tasks and to part1c1pate accordingly This seems to be the cheaper way. sometimes cheaper by millions. With my congratulations to you for telling 1t and sincerely yours.

Frank W. Fisher Advisory Group Air Navigation Services. Inc 31

ROCATCA First Annual Conference (Taipei, Taiwan - 14th to 17th January, 1981) by R. Soar

When ROCATCA joined IFATCA at the Toronto Conference in 1980, their delegates promised that their association would be active in international affairs. True to their promise they have been at the forefront of their Regional activities and attended the Pacific Regional Meeting as observers. When ROCATCA planned to hold their First Annual Conference and to invite overseas guests none of us anticipated such overwhelming hospitality, superb organisation and the degree of cooperation from both government and airlines.

Travel. the nightmare of any association organising a conference. was made possible by the airlines serving Ta1pe1. primarily China Airlines but with assistance from Singapore Airlines. Cathey Pacific and SSA. Ch ina Airlines¡ service impressed even our most jaded travellers and set a new level for comparison. By the evening of the 14th January the maiority of the international vi sito rs had assembled at the Ta ipei Regency. a tastefully impressive hotel. The IFATCA representation was the la rgest and consisted of the President. the Executive Secretary. and the Regional Vice-Pres1-

Chiang Ka1-Shek lntema(lonal Airport


dent Pacific. Other guests included representatives of CATCA. the UK Guild. PATCO the South African Association. and APCA. The tota l group of sixteen were on this f irst evening treated to a dinner hosted by th e President of ROCATCA. Harley Liu . This evening had the air of a family reu nion as colleagues met again and renewed friendships spawned at earlier conferences. In t he 'family atmosphere' of t his first officia l dinner the international guests were introduced t o t he delights of the Fukien cuisine and had a chance to hone their skills w ith chopsticks. By the end of the week all were experts

and had developed a palate evermore appreciative of the delectable dishes presented to us. The conference itself was a one day fixture and was held in the ideal venue of the International Conference Room of the CAA Building at t he Sungshan Airport. Taipei . The international guests attended the morning session. the afternoon session concerned domestic topics and was to take the form of open discussion . The conference was form ally opened by the President of ROCATCA and was then addressed by the Deputy Minister of Communications w ho was deputising for the Min-


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ister w ho unfortunately was delayed by matters of State w hich prevented him attendi ng as had been planned. During his speech the Deputy Minister referred to th e aims of his administration to make the controllers of Ta iwa n models. of skill and efficiency and looked to ROCATCA to inspire its members to ac hieve t his aim . In refere nce to IFATCA. the Deputy Min ister paid tribute to the federations integrity and impartial ity in persuing its aims of th e development of the highest standards in international aviation . Speaking on behalf of IFATCA and the in ternational guests. the President of iFATCA. Mr. H. Harri Henschler. thanked ROCATCA for th eir hospitality and also tha nked the CAA and Chi na Airlines for th eir assistance in making the attendance of the visi tors possible . The I FATCA President spoke of the problems facing IFATCA. not only 1n respect of technical problems but also in the area of salaries and working conditions. Progress in this area was essential to the development of a safe and efficient ATC system. The provisions of the Report of th e Meeting of Experts on ATC produced by the I LO had provided a yardstick and IFATCA was proud of its connection w ith the setti ng up of this meet ing . Lt . General Mao. the m uch respected Direc tor General of the CCAA. spoke of the con t rollers part in the programme to set up an efficient c1v 1I aviation organ1sat1on . He reminded the delegates t hat progress 1s unending and that he hoped the controllers would continue to set the highest of st andards. General Mao said how much they appreciated the attendance of the 1nternat1onal v1s1tors and hoped tha t ROCATCA w ould always be one of th e strongest members of IFATCA.

The second half of th e mornings work was a presentation describing progress with CCAA's 'Air Traffic Control System Ten Year Master Plan'. Devided into four stag es. stage four is due fo r completion in 1 991 . Although it was said that plan is slightly behind schedule at the moment the assurance was given th at the plan wou ld be completed on time. Such was the efficiency shown both at this stage and during later visits. t he internat iona I visitors had little doubt that this promise would be kept. Observers who listened t o the description of this 'Ten Year Plan· were not only impressed by t he determ ination to have the best of equipment but also with the enlightened view taken by the CCAA in anticipating demand. All too often ATC 'planning' reacts to a need which has become evident in the system rather than anticipating that need. How refreshing it was to see the idea l of ATC Planning. During the afternoon of the 1 5 Ja nuary the guests were shown the fac ilities of the CAA Bui lding to w hich controllers had access. A modern gymnasium. sauna. medical fac ilities and social lounge were contained in the basement which would make a member of a ·country club ' jealous never mind the average controller. A visit to the National Palace Museum where th e wonders of Chinese art held the guests spell-bound. served to remind most of us 1ust how ancient 1s Chinese culture and how advanced it was when Western cultures w ere a distant dream . The whole of the 16 th w as taken up with a v1s1t to the scenic Taroko Gorge . The tour by bus started from Hual1en on the East coast. A brief flight enable the

visitors to ma ke the journey from Ta ipei to Hualien in the shortest t ime and 1n comfort. Lunc h w as taken at the head of th e gorge at the village of TienHsiang. The Taroko Gorge is a very narrow passage cut th rough limestone roc k by a fast flowing river. By herculean effort and ingen ious engineering the road has been threaded through the gorge. At times clinging to the cliff fa ce and elsewhere w hen even that tenuous foot hold is too small burrowing into t he precipice to fo rm t unnels. the road spectacularly wi nds it s way through the mountains. The final day of the visit to Taipei by the international delegation w as taken up wi th a visit to the Taipei ACC and Chiang Kai Shek Internationa l Airport where both terminal and ATC facilities were vi ew ed . The ATC facilities reflected the forward planning typified by th e Ten Year ATC Plan. There can be few fears that the techn ical equipment used by the members of ROCATCA is t he best qua lity. For t hose of us wh o are used to the 'make do' and 'wait and see· attitude so often encountered both in equipping ATC and 1n providing fa cilities at airports. the CKS I nternat1ona l Airport is an example w hich can have few parallels an ywh ere in the W orld . Planning 1s aga in th e most 1mpress1ve aspect . Cent ral ised control of the airport facil1t1es ena bles the cont rolli ng authority to manage all systems from security to power supplies. The centralised control was not o nly 1n the adm 1n1strat1ve sense bu t also physically. One central control room acts as nerve cent re for the whole ai rport fac il1t1es.

The opening ceremony at the lnternatJOnal Conference Room - CAA Building 33

The busy days of v1s1ting facilities were a delig ht w hich were compl_emented by an equally delightful social programme in the evenings. Each evening a special dinner was organised and our hosts were H. M. Yang. Director of Air Navigation. CCAA and China Airlines. However. the highlight must have been the dinner which concluded the day of the A nnual Conference. At this dinner the ·o utstanding Controller of the Year Awards· were made by t he CCAA. Made in t he presence of General Mao these awards showed that effo rt in promoting efficiency in t he ATC system does not go unrewarded and unrecognised: at lea st not in Taipei. Thi s 1nnovat1ve system of recog nition has great potential for encouragin g iunior controllers to perfect their professionalism . Leaving Taipei was. for all of us. a sad time. Inevitably one wished to dally and savour the new experiences and friendsh ips. All of us were impressed by th e effici ency with w hich modern civil aviation plan has been implemented and although there are problems to be overcome particula rly in relation to working cond it ions fo r con tro llers. it is hoped that ROCATCA' s affiliation with IFATCA will bear frui t for them and help them overcome any difficulties. In th e words of General Mao. ·Prog ress. however. 1s unending .. . ·. Such truths have t he corollary: there will always be work to be done by associations like ROCATCA and th eir international federation IFATCA.

Inspecting Taipei ACC

compliments. and the expre ssion of my hope that I m ay have other occa sions in th e future to enjoy the service . Ladies and Gentlemen. it is slightly less than a year since ROCATCA was elected to full professional membership in IFATCA. w hich now has 58 member assoc1at1ons and well over 40 corporate members from the equipment manufactu ring sector. In this period of time RO CATCA has shown that it is a w ell orga nised and determined organ-

H. Harri Henschler's speech to ROCATCA's 1 st Annual Meeting Mr. Deputy Minister. the Honourable Mr Chu. Director General. General Mao. ROCATCA President Liu. Friends. Ladies and Gentlemen: On behalf of the I nternat1onal Federation of Air Traffic Controllers· Assoc1at1ons may I first express my appreciation. and I am sure I can speak for all the overseas v1s1tors by our Member Assoc1at1on. t he ROCATCA to attend this. t heir first annual conference . 1 wi sh to also express sincere appreci at ion for the support and assistance provided by the authont1es in making our attendance easily possible and the help and effort shown by China Airlines in prov1d1ng transport ation . Speaking personally . may I say that 1f the service provided to me by all t he staff of the A1 rl1n e. and 1n particular th e staff at San Fra ncisco. 1s an 1nd1c at1on of China A irlines· effic iency. and I have no doubt that 1t is. t hen your Airline 1s one of t he most co m pete nt ly ru n and most pleasant to travel on I have encountered anywhere in the world Please accept my


Mr. Ham Henschler

isation. I have no doubt that ROCATCA will play a very viable role in the federation and encourage their parti cipation in aspects of IFATCA's affairs. We have previously heard very kind words wi th regard to IFATCA's standing in the international aviation community. These words are much appreciated. they address a subject we are very proud of. IFATCA' s achieve ments in all matters relating t o air traffic control. As you know. the federation 1s deeply involved in th e technical questions facing our profession. We are in constant contact wi th international bodies such as ICAO. we are const antly submitting our solutions to air traffic control problems and. I am glad to say. our sol utions are accepted th ereby se tting standards which air traffic controllers worldwide are using to perform th eir duties safely and efficiently Air traffic control. of course. 1s a system w hich incorporates many components. One m aior component 1s the availability of equipment adequate fo r the type and density of air traffi c in a given area . I am happy to say that. based on the informat ion provided by our colleagues of the RO CATCA the air traffic control equipment they are working with. the radars and commun icat ion fa cilities. 1s adeq uate and more advanced than equipment found in many areas of the world . I congratul ate the Civil Aeronautics Administration on th eir long ra nge equipment planning and acqu1s1t1on . The other. and more importa nt. component of any air traffic control system 1s th e 1nd1v1dual controller It 1s he or she who ma kes any system work. In

this context I would like to quote from a lers did not enter the profession in or- scheme and employer-sposored second position paper of the International Air der to be civil servants: they are civil career programme. Tran sport Association (IATA) to the The tra ining aspect is a very imporservants because it is the only avenue Science and Technology Committee of to be an air traffic controller. tant one and I am happy to say t hat. the Council of Europe w hich stated: We have heard that General Mao ba sed on information from ROCATCA. has devoted himself to upgrading the this requ irement is being fu lly sa t isfied . · .. . it is essential that we should controllers· salaries and benefits. His The ongoing programme of familia risarecognize the critical part played by the people involved in air safety ... the air efforts must be supported to the great- tion flights and visits to Honolulu ATC traffic controllers. No system. with or est extent. To train a controller properly facili ties 1s most valuable and. we hope. is an expensive undertaking and to en- will be continued. without automation in the present state Since under several legal systems of the art. can operate satisfactorily sure that this investment is not lost. proper remuneration will contribute t o the ATCO 's civil liability may be invoked without a competent interface with t he the con trol ler continuing in the profes- separately and independently from the related human facto rs. It is clearly a vicarious civil liability of his employer. sion rather than use his or her training fundamenta l pre-requisite to any ATC to find a better paying career outside of t he ATCO may be sued on both crim inal system that there m ust be a sufficient and c1vtl grounds independently from air traffic control. The conclusion of the number of well trained and experienced ILO on the subject was that 'to ensure his employer. Air traffic controllers have controllers at all the necessary centres gone to 1a1I for making a w rong decithat the ATCO 's remuneration is comand that their working environment mensurate with their responsibil ities. it sion and we agree with the ILO conclushould be such as t o enable them to should be noted that one of the profes- sion th at: ' Governm ents should pass function efficiently.· sions in which the responsibilities as- leg1slat1on to abolish such independent And agai n from IATA in an address civil liabilities of ATCOs and provide sumed closely resemble that of the to t he M idd le East Civil Aviation Con ference: ATCO is that of the professional pilot. In them with adequate legal protection fact. in at least one country. the conand counsel in those areas where this ·... Air t raffic controllers need to troller's remuneration has been com- does not exist at present .' have high professional skills and bear a pared and linked to tha t of the airline Our direct counterpart. the Internaheavy burden of responsibility for hucaptain '. tional Federation of A ir Line Pilots Assoman life. All traffi c controllers are paid ciations. with whom we closely co-ordiProper working conditions such as on a clerical salary scale which in some nate our technical efforts. said the folcases borders on the poverty line. In my hours of work. which the federation lowing in an editorial 1n their monthly feel s should be no more than 30 hours view. governments need to recognize News Bulletin : this central problem and create new per week. ensure that the controller is ·Airline pilots· contra ct s vary considat his best at all times. Further. both categories of salaries and other conIFATCA and the ILO Mee ting agree t hat erably from one airline to another. but ditions for the civil aviation arm of their provisions must be made for control1s probable that there are even greater public service. We not only need to lers. 1n a profession which has c onsistvariations 1n terms and cond1t1ons availtrain more people but we must keep ently been ca lled a young man's world. able to air traffic controllers. In some them in our industry through attractive to retire at an earlier age in recognition career prospects.· countries. control lers work in good conof its peculiarity and in the interest of d1t1ons. use modern equipment and are The se quotes from IATA. an organair sa fety. There is further agreement able to negotiate their contracts like 1sat1on which IFATCA does not always on the requ irement of an employerother groups of workers. In other counsee eye-to-eye with. indicate very consponsored loss-of-licence insurance trie s the controllers are employed by cisely some of the problems which ca used us to seek to hold. at the International Labour Office (ILO) at Geneva . Switzerland. a meeting of experts on problems concern ing air traffic controllers 1n May 1979 . At this meeting experts from both the governments and working controller levels Jointly agreed on fifty-two conclusions wtth regard to working cond1ttons These conclusions range from the right to establish representational organisations. industrial relations. social and labour aspects. hours of work. remuneration. retirement. occupational sa fety and health. legal liab1l1t1es. manpower and career planning. training and re-tra1n1ng. to employment security. The report of this meeting and the conclusions are highly recommended reading to all agencies. priva te or governm ent. who employ ai r traffic controllers. and here I must say that private agency employers seem to better be able to appreciate. and compensate. the operational respons1b11ity of the air tra ffic controller; they do not have to worry about the c1vtl servi ce st ra1ght- · Tommy' Tomkins of South Afnca A TCA presents a gift to ROCA TCA s President 1acket of comparability. Most control- H Liu. To the ten J. Wang.


the State and are not able to withdraw their labour. Even worse is the lot of the controller in those countries which use the expedient of using a military ATC system which presumably has the "advantage'· of enabling a controller to be court-martialled (and shot?) if he is found in breach of regulations or is absent from duty. or complains about duty hours or salary. 'One of the most remarkable items to be learned from a long experience of IFALPA is that there are more similarities between the living standards of airline pilots around the world than there are dissimilarities. and if an apparently great difference exists between the conditions enjoyed by the pilots of countries A and B there is frequently some other compensatory factor elsewhere in the contract. Another interesting point is that an examination of the relative pay of captains. co-pilots and flight engineers reveals another· extraordinary similarity in the different countries. Where the Captain is on scale 100. the senior co-pilot may be on 75 - 70 and the senior flight engineer may be on approximately 6 5. 'This leads to the perhaps harmless speculation that in the year 2 OOO the air traffic controllers may have achieved their own appropriate relativity to the flight crews. It 1s to be hoped that this relat1v1ty will be found before the civil air transport industry suffers the inevitable reaction of the frustrated passengers who decide to stay at home rather than endure the JOYS of spending 20% of their annual holiday waiting for a much delayed aircraft to depart.· The foregoing clearly recognizes the immense impact air traffic controllers have on the. economy of any country. This federation will not accept the deadline of the year 2000. which IFALPA. not seriously. talks about. We will bnng about the required changes well before that. It certainly appears. I am pleased to say. that here our colleagues of ROCATCA are well on the way of achieving proper recognition of the profession in the very near future. Any assistance the federation can provide them in this endeavour will be forthcoming. Ladies and Gentlemen. It IS a pleasure to see the excellent attendance from all parts of the aviation industry at this opening session. We are pleased to be here. We offer our expertise. and I offer our very best wishes to our IFATCA Member Assoc1at1on. the ROCATCA on the occasion of their first annual conference. I am confident that this will be only the first one of many such very successful occasions. May 1 thank you for your attention and interest and express my confidence that our profession will be properly re36

Continued from page 5 get radar vectors until the aircraft climbs to the minimum vectoring altitude (MVA). The ATC issuance of an IFR clearance for the portion of a flight before it reaches 'protected airspace' or airspace that insures terrain avoidance. gives the pilot implied permission to fly under actual IFR conditions via the IFR flight plan in an area where the flight can only be accomplished safely under VFR. The Safety Board believes that. in order to assure terrain clearance. a departure of this nature must be conducted visually and that the controller-issued IFR clearance should begin only at a point that provides separation from the terrain. During its investigation. the Safety Board interviewed pilots who said that they expect the controller to be able to issue radar vectors after saying 'radar contact'. The ATC handbook prohibits vectoring aircraft below the MVA. Pilots have no access to MVA information because it is contained in documents in individual ATC facilities. These are not given general distribution. During the investigation. the controller stated that the MVA for the flight was 1 2.500 feet. that radar contact was established as the aircraft left 5.500 feet. that the target was non-mode C and that the bearing to Lethbridge was an 'information only' item. The Safety Board believes that. in this accident. based on the controller's transmission. the pilot expected radar vectors and was not aware that the controller had no terrain information and therefore was unable to issue vectors until the aircraft was above the MVA. Because this misconception apparently 1s shared by many pilots. we believe a change in procedure 1s warranted. Therefore. the National Transportation Safety Board recommends that the Federal Av1at1on Administration: ·Amend Air Traffic Control Handbook 7 1 1O. 6 5 B so that the term .. radar contact'·. when used in commumcations with pilots. means that the target is identified and that the controller is able to vector the aircraft. and to require that. if there is an operational advantage to either the controller or pilot for the controller to state "radar contact'· when vectors cannot be provided. the pilot should be expressly informed that vectors cannot be provided. (Class II. Priority Action) (A-80-108). Amend Air Traffic Control Handbook 71-10.65B. paragraph 350 to require that when a pilot requests an IFR clearance from an airport with no published instrument departure procedures. the contr:lller-issued IFR clearance shall orginate only from some point in space that insures terrain separation and that the pilot shall be instructed to remain VFR reaching that point. (Class II. Pnonty Action) (A-80-109). ·

cogrnzed. in all aspects. before too long. As a clinical psychologist. who studied air traffic control in great depth. stated: 'The occupation of air traffic control is. in the true sense of the word. unique and there is no other occupation with which it can be reasonably compared.·

Visual Flight up for Review by R. Mathieu (/TA) Controllers and pilots will no longer be the only parties to question VFR operations, for /CAO experts are to review visual flight. To fly visually first of all means looking after your own safety and that of others on the basis of the 'see-and-avoid concept': it also means choosing your route more freely. but the difficult coexistence of VFR and IFR traffic in congested zones has in some cases affected this freedom. as some controlled airspace has become impervious to flights operated under VFR. A more serious development is that since 1 9 60 it has not always been possible to 'see and avoid'. even in regulation VFR meteorological conditions. Although the pilot's sight has avoided many dangerous situations. we cannot always rely entirely on it: the approach speed of two jet aircraft flying in opposite directions does not always give the pilot sufficient time to react. visibility conditions in fine weather may not be good for the pilot flying into the sun at the end of the day. etc. New rules (for example 'special' VFR) and control policies differing from those which were very simply defined - 'non-controlled VFR flights. only IFR flights controlled' - have been implemented in various regions. with the result that some VFR flights are controlled or banned in certain zones (pos1t1ve control). It has been to the advantage of safety. but equipment requirements have been imposed on flights which by defin1t1on should not have been sub1ected to them. Flying across Europe under VFR with many stops at many aerodromes 1s not a simple exercise for the average private pilot. The ICAO Secretariat. which has examined the need to review the basic pnnc1ples of VFR operation. has studied in particular the national regulations in this area. It concluded that 1t was in fact essential to conduct an ·extremely wide and complex' study involving a fundamental reappraisal of the principles. rules and procedures for VFR operation: 1t proposed that such a study should be earned out by a panel of experts from the Air Navigation Commission. After being informed of the work by the Secretariat. the ICAO Air Nav1gat1on Commission decided in Apnl 1 980 to set up this panel known as the Visual Flight Rules Operations Panel VFOP). The paners terms of reference will be to make any changes which might prove necessary to the standards and recommended practices. In particular 1ts JOb will be: - to define what constitutes a visual flight and what constitutes flight under visual flight rules; - to examine the val1d1ty of the 'see-andavo1d' concept as a means of avoiding collisions in the various environments

(aircraft characteristics and performance. flight phases. crew workload. type of airspace. and type of air traffic service provided. etc): - to examine the conditions under which this concept may be applied as the sole means of avoiding collision; - to examine the effectiveness of complementary manual and automated groundbased or airborne collision avoidance information and its application in the 'seeand-avoid' concept. The second and third tasks stated above raise the basic issues which the authorities have refused so far to tackle squarely. The answers given will have important effects on the organization of air traffic control. But before studying them thoroughly. the experts will have to try to determine the operational limits to visual flight.

Speed Are the present meteorology and distance-to-cloud standards still valid? Should they be adapted to the performance categories (speed. handling qualities. etc.) of the various aircraft types and to the types of airspace? There are already at least two types of airspace for which the standards differ: controlled airspace and non-controlled airspace. But at present there is also space in which speed is limited. As speed is an important parameter in implementing the 'seeand-avo1d' concept. could meteorological minima for visual flight be reduced in such space? The many combinations of factors concerning the environment in which flights of different types are operated by pilots with different training backgrounds will make the VFOP panel's 1ob a difficult one. Airborne equipment and pilot training problems are also included in its work programme. It 1s not known when the panel will file its conclusions. We should wish them all the best. for their 1ob 1s complex and important. Until the results are obtained. let us hope that nobody will lose sight of the fact that regulations are worthwhile only if they are observed. The more accessible they are. 1.e. the simpler and the more clearly presented they are. the more they will be respected. The panel's first task should be. as we see 1t. to define clear and coherent ob1ect1ves for the overhaul of visual flight rules. Have greater coll1s1on risks been observed? Can these risks be in fact reduced by reviewing visual flight rules? Has 1t been found that current visual flight rules were too big an obstacle to the freedom of air traffic and 1s it possible to ease up on them without increasing collision risks? Has 1t been found that current rules are not properly observed? If so. should the ob1ect1ve of the review be to adapt regulations to VFR piloting ability. or to increase penalties and define a training programme to improve this ability'? It 1s d1ff1cult to do everything at the same time

AACC 35th Meeting The 35th AACC meeting was held in Cairo on January 12, 1981, under the chairmanship of Mr. Thomas Raffety, Director of Aviation, San Antonio International Airport. It was hosted by Mr. Kamal Mohamady, Director General of Cairo Airport Authority.

Airport economics and operations. were the key issues discussed. The Council approved several position papers for presentation at the April 1 981 ICAO Aerodromes. Air Routes and Ground Aids (AGA) Divisional Meeting. These will focus on aerodrome reference code. short instrument runways. taxiway characteristics. runway end safety areas. declared distances. runway braking action. surface movement. guidance and control. and obstacle limitation surfaces. They will include proposed amendments to ICAO Annex 14 (Aerodromes) based on current operational experience. AACC will also present a wide range of position papers at the May 1 981 ICAO Conference on Airport and Route Facility Economics (CARFE). These will review the general economic situation of international airports and deal specifically with topics such as the financing of airport security and noise alleviation measures. principles relating to user payment at international airports. fuel throughout charges. passenger service charges. and the ICAO experimental. collection of airport financial statistics. Pointing to the current realities of airport economics and public policy. AACC will call upon ICAO to encourage States to adopt economic policies cantered on full cost recovery based upon an equitable allocation of costs.

ICAO Programms The Council heard reports on AACC participation in the 23rd Session of the ICAO Assembly and the ICAO Panel on regulation of air transported services. held last October and December. respectively. At the former forum AACC had expounded its views on the economic situation of airports. aircraft noise. regulation of capacity and aviation security. At the latter. it was successful in making the Panel recognize the need to match traffic with airport capacity. and to protect the environment from air and noise pollution. Numerous other topics connected with ICAO's current airport- related work programs were dealt with by AACC. which decided to part1c1pate in several forthcoming ICAO regional seminars and workshops dealing with aviation security and aviation forecasting and economic planning.

The Council expressed satisfaction with the constant intensification of relations between AACC and IATA as evidenced by the annual meetings of the AACC/IATA Contact Committee. designed to center on global policy matters. It also reviewed the recent act1v1ties of the various joint AACC/ IATA expert groups. dealing with traffic peaks at airports; curfews and operational restrictions at airports; aviation security; facilitation; and ground handling operations. The major activities of these groups included the drafting of guidelines for airport capacity demand and management. intended to improve airport capacity utilization; an attempt to formulate a JOint airport/airline approach to combat curfews; the study of various practical aviation security problems; the establishment of common facilitation practices 1n order to improve the facility of service to air transport users; and the development of programs to enhance ramp safety at airports.

The Aims of the AACC Finally. AACC reviewed its relations with a number of other international av1at1on organizations. such as IFALPA and IFATCA. and took several dec1s1ons regarding its representation and input in their annual general meetings. AACC was established in December 1970 by the Airport Operators Council International (AOCI). the International Civil Airports Assoc1at1on (ICAA) and the Western European Airports Assoc1at1on (WEAA). The aims of AACC are to further cooperation among its Constituent Assoc1at1ons. to develop pol1c1es approved by them. and to present these pol1c1es to ICAO and other International Organizations dealing with topics of mutual interest. AACC has Observer Status with ICAO and Consultative Status with the UN/ECOSOC. Currently. the AACC Constituent Associations¡ membership consists of over 330 airports. airport authorities and national airport assoc1at1ons in some 90 States. which serve approximately 80% of the 1nternat1onal air passengers and handle the same share of the world's air cargo.


are w1derspread in particular dealing with operations to a number of offshore installations.

mission over the newly-created public data line network to more than forty terminals.

Navigational facilities

Navaid suppliers

All trunk route airports are equipped with ILS's with 10 of the busiest airports being equipped with two cat. 1 ILS's conforming with ICAO requirements. STOL airports are equipped with ILS localizer and DME. except for two airports which rely genera lly on ND B's. A tota l of 23 VOA stations provide for complete ai rway coverage. Two of these VOA stations are of the Doppler type provided by Plessey. A large number of NDB's also serve air navigation both 1n the en-route and terminal areas. A total of 25 DME systems by FACE Standard are co-loca ted wi th ILS's for landing purposes and with VOR's for en-route. It is planned that in the coming years the number of ILS' s will in-. crease while the number of VOR's and DME's will be doubled to enable the authorities withdraw some of t he NDB's.

The manufacture of Norwegian ILS's started in 196 7 based on the development work conducted by the research establishment ELAB. Manufacturers NERA began deliveries first and continues development efforts. When finally NERA merged with Elektrik Bureau. the company Norsk Marconi continued to manufacture ILS making th e ILS exports of the coun try to cover all versions of glide slope and localizer antenna systems. including two-frequency systems. Special mention must here be made of the wide apperture glide slope antenna. for wh ich only about 50 meters of fla t terrain should suffice. Presently a two-frequency local izer antenna system with 24 antennas is under development. A newly constructed glide slope antenna mast of fibreglass reinforced by plastic will meet t he long sought requirement for a frangible construction. This mast is now in operation at Oslo Airport. Fornebu . Recent orders for deliveries of Norsk Marconi ILS to airports in the United Kingdom and Germany ha s lead to great opt1m 1sm for larger internationa l orders. The concept of logperiod1c localizer antennas. which were first introduced on Norwegian ILS. has now won genera l acceptance in the USA and United Kingdom. Another company. Delcom Elektra. has recently delivered the first equipment of its newly developed DM E to the Norwegian authorities. It is completely transistorized 1 kW outpu t power version - and is based on modern microprocessor technology for monitoring and control. Delcom Elektro has previously delivered its NOB-monitor rece iver DC-450 to several coun tries. 1nc lud1ng to UK NATS The latter delivery also comprised the Nava1d morse code IDENT monitor DC-455F . All Norwegian NDB 's are equ ipped with DC-450 for remote monitoring. Delcom 1s presently developing an automatic d1g 1tal measurement and con trol system for nava1ds. radars and commun1cat1on stations. Th is real tim e integrated monitor system will provide the technicians with comprehensive data for im proved ma intenance and operation of the various systems. Delcom Elekt ro. together wi th ELAB and the German Nava1d com pany Standard Elektri k Lorenz. are presently studying the application of th e Germa n DAS for off-shore opera tions (DAS = DM E based azimuth system. which 1s

Navaids in Norway by J. A. Stenstadvolden (chief engineer Aeronautical SeMces. Norway)

Av1at1on plays a most important role 1n Norwegian domestic and international communications. This may be due to the large distances over rugged terrain and extreme climatic conditions which are challenging the means of transport. A total of 46 airports th roughout Norway serve scheduled airline services of which 21 serve trunk routes with a runway length of 1 600 meters or more: the remaining are generally STOL airports with a runway length of 800 meters. The main airline operators are Scandinavian A1rltnes System (SAS) and Braathens SAFE on trunk routes. Wyder0e ¡s Flyveselskap 1s operating STOL services with Norv1ng and Nordsi0fly on commuter services. Helicopter services

Air traffic control In the field of air traffic control a large prog ramme has been adopted by which it will provide prim ary and seconda ry radar coverage throughout most of the country. A terminal radar at Stavanger 1s now nearing completion and rada r work at Bremen 1s expec ted to be completed soon. A completely new AFTN system. developed by Norsk Data and Siemens is expected to be installed 1n 1982 . This system 1s based o n a central computer data store with high-speed digital trans-



Fornebu Conventional VOR w ith special antenna with dome for snow protection. 38

The company Nortech is presently studying the application of remote monitoring for MLS.

~~ ---

T raining

A new VHF/ UHF OF at Oslo Airport. Fornebu.

developed according to an ICAO recommendation to supplemen t the ICAO MLS). DAS seems to offer several interesting features which can be adva ntageous to off-shore operations. Another Norwegian company. Nortech. is manufacturing portable DDMmeters for ILS ground check. as well as remote monitors for ILS and VORs. Remote monitor fo r DME is under development. Deliveries have been made to Denmark. Sweden. Faroes and Greenland . A programme to equip all Norwegian ILS and VOA installations wi th remote monitor system s 1s anticipated . The addition of remote monitors to the nava1ds w ill eventually reduce dependance on fligh t calibration. One other company. T1ostheim. antenna manufacturer specializing on HF and VHF immunization antennas. ILS and VOA monitor antennas. NOB transmitter and monitor receive antennas. The company. Norwegian Electronics. is manufacturing an ILS distortion meter and a combined ILS precision modulation meter and LF wave analyzer Thi s company has also supplied a noise monitoring system to Oslo Airport, Fornebu . The company Eikatronic 1s manufacturing frequency monitors for nava1ds . For a long time the most successful! Norwegian exporter in th e field of aviation has been the company NER ION. w hich supplies the GAREX control tower comm un1ca t1on 1ntegrat1on system. as well as Jotron VHF ra dio for ground-air commun1ca t1ons.

M LS activities Norway has up to now been active severa l aspects of MLS. In 1972 the research establishment ELAB played a in

major ro le in the NATO/ NIAG MLS evaluation programme. In 1976 the Directorate of Civil Aviation led a testing programme for various interim MLStypes. such as TALAR. Coscan and Sydac. In 1977 178 the two major ICAO MLS contenders were tested at Krist1 ansand airport on the challenging runway 22 . (This runway is now equipped with ILS.)

The Norwegia n Aeronautical Services established a training centre for maintenance engineers at Fornebu. provid ing training in the various systems and disciplines. Several training courses in theory and practical are available on: ILS. VOA. DME. NOB. VHF radio. control tower systems and voice recorder. In addition to the above. equipment related courses. that is. several courses of more general nature are available on : digital technics and antenna; instrument and measurement technics; soldering and repair. A course 1n microprocessor techniques 1s under preparation . Also available is an advanced ILS theory cou rse. which provides knowledge to ad1ust the most complicated systems. Instruction books are available for all courses. and a small number is also ava ilable 1n English. Training courses are also arranged upon request 1n Engl ish . Students from all our neighbouring c ountries including Faroes and Greenland are attending courses and training has also been arranged for students from other countries such as Greece. Libya and Vietnam .


New /LS Capture effect glide slope at Oslo Airport. Fornebu. The fibreglass reinforced mast 1s seen.




,, ..........

'- ..

p_) 21 s t ANNUAL CONFERENCE MAY 3 - 8


HOLLAND 1 9 82


East African School of Aviation Introduction The Directorate of Civil Aviation, a department of the M inistry of Transport & Communications of the Republic of Kenya was formed in 1946. It administers and organises the A ir Traffic SeNices. Aeronautical Communications and radio/ radar navigational aid networks in Kenya. It advises the Government of Kenya on the construction and development of aerodrom es and on the suitability of Air Routes. It licenses the crew of aircraft. carries out the investigation of aircraft accidents. including search and rescue for lost aeroplanes. and interpretes civil air navigation legislation . It also issues certificates of airworth iness to all aircraft reg istered in Kenya and arranges the technical examinations for aircrew and ground engineers. All this the Directorate does to keep aircraft in the air. and to ensure to the utmost of its ability the safety of the flying public . To accomplish this aim the Directorate recruits. train s and employs Air Traffic Contro l Officers. Telecommun ication Officers. Operations Officers. Radi o Eng in eers. Air Traffi c Control Assistant s. Briefing Officers and Licensing Officers. Basic trai ning is norm ally undertaken at the East African School of Av1at1on. W ilson Ae rod rome. Nairobi. and forma l period s at the School are interspersed by pha ses of on-the-job tra ining at variou s locat ions. The Schoo l 1s adequately equipped to conduc t courses in all aspects of Air Traffic Control and Telecommu nications Op-

Jomo Kenyatta Terminal Building



erations and Tels. Engineering. Some of the specialised courses required by the department are undertaken overseas.

The School The School of Aviation was established in 1954 to provide training in telegraphy and teleprinter operation both to recrui ts and to serving sta ff. It was located at Eastleigh Airport . The fi rst expansion took place between 1960 and 1962 with the addition of courses for Telecommunica tions Engineering Officers and Air Traffic Control Officers. The School was shifted to W ilson A irport in 1960. Further expansion of the School was accomplished in 1964 and 1965. with the addition of more tra ining facilities such as various technical laboratories. workshops. a new cinema room. and a modern language laboratory. During the period 1954 to 196 2 the School was wholly in the DCA hands and was know n as DCA Train ing School. In 1963 the operatio n of the School of Aviation was entrusted to the training mission of the Intern at ional Civil Aviation Organization of the UN . From the time ICAO team took over the School wa s known as EACSO School of Aviation . It had a UN Pro1ect Manager as the officer in charge and 3 experts one each for ATC. Radio Engineering and Com-Ops Sections. DCA handed over the management of the School into the hands of ICAO training mission in July 1963. In Apri l 196 7 an agreement w as signed between the UN and the former East African Community for UN to provide fund s and equipment and assistance in the trai ni ng of national staff un-

der Special Fund Programme of the United Nations Development Progra mme. The executing agency was still the International Civil Aviation Organization. This was to be for 5 Yi years from Apri l 196 7 to June 1972 . Under th is programme more UN expert inst ru ctors were sent to the School. By June 1969 ATC Section had 4 experts. Engineering Section had 3 and Com-Ops Section 1. One Visual Aids Designer and the Projet Manager. The United Nations expert staff came to 10 instead of the origi nal 4 . Under t he new arra ngement the name of t he School was changed from EACSO School of Aviation to East Afri can School of Av1at1on. Under this special fund programme the East African Commun ity had to appoint National counterparts to underst udy the UN experts and eventually take over. A pro1ect Co-Manager w as appointed 1n March 196 7 t o underst udy the Proiect Manager. As time went by 4 Afri c ans were recruited for Com-Ops Section one of whi ch w as to be Ch ief Instructor. 5 were appointed for Eng ineering Section and 3 for ATS Section . It was also found necessary to recru it a counterpart for the Visua l Aids Designer. and a lan guage instru ctor to replace the British VSO wh o had been recruited to undertake the Av1a t1on language teaching . A ll these appoi ntments took pl ace be tween M arch 19 6 7 and J anuary 1 9 7 1 . During the period of the Special Fund. the bul k of Administrative work rapid ly increased. and whereas the admin1strat1ve staff in January 1 9 6 7 consisted of only four people made up of an Execut ive Officer. a Telephonist / Copy typist. and two office messengers. the staff grew to 1 8 members by January 197 1 The Adm1nistrat1ve staff has a strengt h of 30 1n 1980 . W ith the increase 1n t he quant ity of training equipm ent. It was found necessary to have maint enance staff whose duty wou ld be to service the equipment and keep 1t in good running order for t he whole School. By January 1 9 7 1 . the Sc hool had two qualified laboratory techni cians fo r that 1ob As stated above t he main work of the ICAO te a m w a s to expedite the trainin g of Afric an Officers for the 1obs originally held by expatriates as well as to t rain counterpart teac hing staff w ho w ould eventually take over. after June 1972 . Part of the training of the c ounterparts was to be done 1n Overseas countrie s mainly USA and UK on UN Fe llowships Thi s wa s to give th e counterparts an opportunity to see how

Av1at1on is taught 1n those countries. to widen their Av1at1on knowledge. and also attend courses on the teac hing meth ods This programme went on very well. and by July 19 70. one Section. 41

the Com-Ops Section was all Africa.nised . On lst January 1971, the·proiect Co-Manager became the Principal and took over the Administration of the School from the Project Manager. On 30th June 197 7 the EA. Community collapsed. From 1 st July 1977 the Directorate of Civil Aviation and its School of Aviation came under the Ministry of Power and Communications .of the Republic of Kenya . The present site of the School was fou nd unsuitable for building a modern School and so a new site of 8 7 acres was selected near Joma Kenyatta International Airport where the new School is to be built . The building of the new School started on 15th March 1979 and it is to be compl eted by end of December 1 981 . It 1s hoped to move into the new School 1n January 1982 . In a period of 10 years from 1967 to 197 7 (a t the collapse of the E.A. Communi ty). the School of Aviation had already trained approximately 1. 500 officers of various special1t1es to work for the Civil Aviation Departments in Eastern and Central Africa . 1 . The Air T raffic Controller He forms the most vital cog in the wheel of Civil Aviation . Air Traffic Controllers are men who prevent chaos in the airways and terminal areas. now becoming crowded with increasing numbers of aircraft. They are in constant touch with pilots by radio-telephone. To keep air traffic separate and orderly, control 1s d1v1ded into three m ain sections. aerodrome con trol . approach/radar control and area/airways con trol. The aerodrome controller works 1n a Control Tower and has to achieve a safe. orderly and expeditious flow of ai r traffic on and 1n the v1c1n1t y of an aerodrome. The main ob1ect being to prevent any coll1s1on between aircraft fl ying around the aerodrome or maneuver1ng on the ground or w hen landing and taking off. He must also ensu re that aircraft do not come into collls1on with any vehicles or obst ructions o n the ground . The approach controller 1s responsible for the sa te control airc raft approach ing or departing from an aerodrome under Inst rument Flight Rules. His area of 1urisd1ct1on may extend outwards to about 100 miles from an aerodrome and its upper l1m1t may or may not be l1m1ted . The rada r controller works in con1unct1on w ith the approach controllers. He keeps track of the visual presentation of the exact geographic pos1t1ons of airc raft in flight. The radar equipment enables the radar controller to keep airc raft separated or direct them to an airport or along a desired track.


The area/ airways controller is responsible for maintaining separat ions between aircraft that are flying along air traffic services routes. Other posts in the Air Traffic Services Division include briefing officers and air traffic control assistants. All Air traffic controllers have to obtain licenses and ratings before they can carry out jobs without supervision .

2 . The Telecommunications Operat or His job is to pass and receive information to or from stations on the ground and aircraft in flight. This is done by means of morse code. teleprinter or radio-telephony. Morse code is used for communicating w ith the smaller aerodromes within the Republic where the amount of signal traffic is not large. The same system 1s used to communicate with foreign International Airports where other type of communications is not available. Good morse code operators can communicate with one another at a rate of 23 to 27 words a minute. Teleprinters are typewriters which can be electrically operated either along telephone wired or by means of specia l radio transmitters and receivers. The messages can be received ei ther in typed form or in a code of dots punched 1n paper tapes or both . Messages ca n also be prepared in tape form and th en transmitted at the speed of 55 words a minute . Communicators pass messages by voice to pilots when th ey are flying en route between aerodromes. They use HF radio telephones and must use a standardised procedure which is underst ood by al l pilots of International Airlines rega rdless of their language and nationa lity. 3 . The Radio T ech nician Th e fi eld of 'Electronics' has now grown so large th at 1t is not possible in this boo klet to describe all the different maintena nce iobs which are called for 1n Civil Aviation. They include the mainte nance of different types of radio beacons whi ch guide pilot s wh en they oannot see the ground and when thEjl~ are landing in poor vi sibility. They qfso include the maintenance of transmitters and receivers used for radio-tel ephony. teleprinters and morse code. New types of electronic equipment are constantly coming into use and the rad io maintenance technician ca n never claim that he knows it all. The School provides the basic knowledge required by the tec hni cian to st art in t he field of ra dio maintenance.

H.M. Openda. 1he Pri ncipal of the School of Av1at1on He 1s also the Assistant Director of C1v1I Av1a11on 1n charge of training affairs on the Directorate of C1v1I A viation H e fO ined the Oirec1ora1e of Civil Av1a11on al the beg1nn1ng of 1g57 as 1he School Pro1ec1 Co·M anager 10 the ICA O Pro1ec1 Manager He unders1ud1ed the ICAO Pro1ec1 Manager for 4 years and 10ok over the headship of the School ol Av1a11on 1n January 1g7 1 Prior to 101nong the Directora te of C1v1J Aviation M r Openda had worked as an Ass1s1an1 Secretary 1n the M 1n1stnes of N atural Resources and Agriculture and as a lecturer al Kenyatta College where he was 1he head of Biology D epanmeni When Mr Openda 101ned the managemen t of the School of Av1a11on. 1he Directorate of Civil Aviation d id no1 have qualified c11izens of East Africa 10 la ke over 1obs held by depanmg expatri ates He had 10 1nit1ate a crash programme of 1rammg Air 1rafflc con1rollers and eng1· neering 1echn1c1ans w ere required 1n large numbers and urgenlly In order 10 do 1h1s and al the same 11m e ma1n1a1n high 1n1erna11onal s1andards. he had 10 pay v1s11s 10 1he U n11ed Kingdom and th e U ni1ed S1a1es of America 10 learn selection methods and th e 1eachmg 1echniques used 1n those coun1ries This helped him 10 esiabhsh a very h igh professional s1andard of s1uden1 ou1pu1 and a1 lhe same 11me avoid was1age by failures He 1ns1s1ed on lhe 1ns1alla11on of 1he mos1 modern teaching equ1pmen1 at 1he School by the UN / Special Fund He made sure 1ha1 befo1e 1he UN experts depaned he had a h ighly quali fied and trained 1each1ng s1aff made of c111Zens of East Africa Having been a teacher himself. he keeps a close w atch on h is teaching s1aff 10 see 1ha1 the y keep a high s1andard of eff1c1ency Mr Openda •s a gradua1e of Ma kere re U n1vers11y. Oberlin College. Ohio. and 1he Univers11y o f Chicago. Illinois USA. where he graduated w11h Diploma on Educauon. B A . and M Sc degrees respec11vely Alter ob1a1nmg his MSc degree at 1he Un1vers11y of Chicago on Fulbright Scholarship he enrolled for Ph D program m e at 1he M ichigan S1a1e Univers11y East Lansing. but was recalled 10 Kenya by !he colonial governmeni before he comple1ed his Doc10ra1e

Apart from the courses given at the School. the Directorate of Civil Aviation also provides opportun 1tfes for t echnica l sta ff 1n oth er categories . 4. Operations Of fi cers Candidates for operations officers posts are normally selected from qu alified air traffic control officers who must be at least of Grade II st andard . Selected candidates will be g iven addit ional training in fl ight operations and government operatons including personnel licensing. The period of tra ining will depend on t he ability of the 1ndiv1dual officers but would normally be six months.

3 . Spec ial App roach Course No. 4 : 8 weeks from June 1980 to 9th August 1 980 4 . Radar Course No. 14: 10 weeks from 1st September 1 980 to 8th November 1 980 . 5 . Area/ Ai rways Course No . 1 5 : 8 weeks from 2nd February 1981 to 28th March 198 1. 6 . Radar Course No. 15: 10 weeks from 27th Apri l 1981 to 4th Ju ly 1 98 1 .

7 . Aviation Security Cou rse No. 5 : 3 weeks from 11 th August 1 980 to 30th August 1 980 8. Aviation Security Course No. 6 : 3 weeks from 2nd March 198 1 to 21 st March 19 81 .

L 2B


Candidats w ith experience as pilots or navigators may also be considered for appoin tmen t as operations officers. The type of further tra ining will depend on previous experience gained. A limited number of vacancies occur from time to time for science Universi ty graduates preferably with physics as one of their princ ipal subjects. Selected candid ates are recruit ed as pupil operations office rs and their training inc ludes pilot tra ining. air traffic control and course o n airworth iness. air transport economic s. etc . When the se posts occur. they will be advertised in the local papers. 5 . Airworthiness Surveyor A limited intake occurs from time to time for airwort hiness surveyor trainees. They are trained to the standa rd of aircraft engineers lice nce in category 'A' and 'C' . Candidates already possessing aircraft m aint enance enginers licence category ¡A' and ¡ C' or equ ivalent qua lif1cat 1ons may enter d irect ly. All ca ndidates selected are given further pra ctical training . Ae ronau tic al engineering graduates are also considered. 6 . Licen sing Officer The c andida te for this post possesses an Ea st Afri ca n Cert1f1cate of Educa ti on or its equiva lent with a credit in English language . Preference is given to those with some aviation experience. The initial tra ining is done on the 1ob. working alongside qualified st aff and undergoing periodica l written and oral exam 1nat1ons to determine his progress


Nairobi Approach next to A CC Special training 1n government operations and personnel licensing is done overseas. The duties of a licensing offi cer include attendance at the public counter. issue. renewa l and valdidation of air crew licences. aerodrome licences and issue of cert ificates of registration and of maintenance sched ules. The officer is also responsible for the sa le of avia tion documents. the production of qua rte rly Regi ster of Civil A ircraft. pilots. routine correspondence and invigila tion of technical examin ations.

Available courses A ir Traffic Services Section: 1. ATC Course No. 25 for foreign students only (a) Induction : 4 weeks from 8th O ctober to 3 rd November 197 9 (b) Short familiarisat ion OJT: 8 weeks from 5th November to 29th December 19 7 9 (c) Basic and Aerodrome: 2 3 w eeks; from 7th January 1980 to 14th June 1980 (d) Approach: 8 weeks; from 2 3rd June 1980 to 1 6th Augu st 1980 2 . ATC Course No. 26 (a) Induction: 4 weeks from 2nd February 1981 to 28th Febru ary 1981 (b) On the Job Training: 24 weeks from 2nd M arch 1981 to 1 5th August 1981 (c) Basic and Aerodrome: 23 weeks from 1 7th August 1 98 1 to 1 9th December 1 981 and from 28 th December 1981 to 30th January 1982 . (d) Approach: 8 weeks from 1st February 1982 to 27 th M arch 1982 .

Simulated Flight Section: 1 . Link Tra iner Instructors Course No. 2 16 weeks from 4th August 1 980 to 22nd November 1980. 2 . Link Trainer Instructo rs Course No. 3 : 16 weeks from 12th January 198 1 to 2nd May 1981 Radio Eng1neenng Sect/On: 1 . Radio Ma inte nance Course No. 15: Phase 4: 24 weeks from 5th J anuary 1981to19thJune 1981 2 Radi o Maintenance Course No. 16 : (a) Phase 2 : 42 weeks from 4th February 1980 to 6th December 1980 (b) Phase 3 : 4 2 weeks from 2 nd February 1 981 to 5th December 1981 3 Radio M ainte nance Course No. 17 : Phase 1: 42 weeks from 2nd February 198 1 to 5th December 1981 . Telecommunicat10ns Operat10ns Section: 1 . Aeronaut ical Fixed SeN1ces Phase 3 (Final Phase) : (AFS) Course No . A 1 7 : 1 2 weeks from 22nd September 1980 to 13th December 1980. 2 AFS Course No A 1 8 (a) Phase 1 12 weeks from 1 2th January 1 98 1 to 4th April 1 98 1 (b) Phase 2 12 weeks from 13 th Apri l 1981 to 4th July 1981 . (c) OJT: 1 2 weeks from 6th July 1981 to 2 6th September 1 981 (d) Phase 3 12 weeks from 28th September 1981 to 1 9th December 1981 3 Aeronautica l Mobile SeN1c e (AMS) Course No S 11 2 2 weeks from 2 nd March 1 98 1 to 1st August 1981


Pilot/ Controller Co-operation in the Automated Era (Presented by Captain H. E. Fugl-Svendson) (IA TA RTD SEAi PAC)

Introduction Safe and efficient air traffic control is undoubtedly enhanced when there is a good understanding and co-operation between the pilot in the air and the controller on the ground. To assist in this understanding the airlines continually offer familiarization flights to air traffic controllers so that they can get a better comprehension of the problems on the flight deck. Likewise pilots are encouraged to v1s1t the air traffic control centres whenever practicable so that they also may become aware of the problems facing the controllers. During the past decade automation has been making its appearance to an ever increasing degree not only on the flight decks of our airliners. but also on the consoles of the air traffic controllers. The years ahead will probably bnng an escalation in the use of even more automatic systems by both pilots and controllers. In this new environment an understanding of each others problems becomes even more essential 1f we are to maintain the sound pilot/ controller relat1onsh1p that 1s so necessary for a safe and efficient flight operation.

hout knowing their weak spots and the limits of their capabilities. Mistakes often occur. and will continue to occur. due to misunderstandings between the man and the machine. They are fully explainable human-engineering wise. but they should nevertheless not occur unless there is a breakdown of the normal routine. What is disturbing is that we tend to defend ourselves by blaming the system (which is only a contributing factor) and considering it legitimate to trust the technique and change our otherwise sacred instrument scanning routine. Another way to describe the problem is that we tend to fall out of the 'loop'. We have a problem of complacency and we as individuals may not be aware of 1t. The problem is not the person but more so our lack of understanding of the mechanism that creates the problem and also the lack of intelligent means to train people into the concept of integration with a competing machine. We are. of course. also aware of the fact that our installations. though at the top of the state-of-the .art. m~y not always be optimized in their function to serve the man.

Automatic Complacency

Combatting the Problem

In an environment that provides technology to do the work for us automatically but not always 1ntell1gently. and sometimes without qual1f1ed interface between the ind1v1dual systems. we have a problem. We are faced with a man-machine interface problem that we might call ¡automatic complacency'. To combat the problem. 1t must always be borne in mind that the machine. be it even the most complex computer. is but a tool. designed to aid the man in performing certain spec1f1c tasks. The machine cannot think for us. it cannot work outside its rigidly defined performance envelope - 1t cannot even be complacent. Consequently, there 1s every reason for the man not to let these tools work on their own and wit-

We do not know all the factors that create the problem and. consequently. we cannot give a recipe that totally eliminates the problem. we can. however. suggest some sound and concrete rules that. 1f followed. will keep us virtually out of the problem. But first there is a need to clarify what the machine. the black box in our case. is really supposed to do for the pilot and controller. We apparently make a big mistake if we believe that the machine has entered our environment for the sake of our convenience only.


These are the realities: 1 . The machine does not relieve the pilot or the controller of their responsib1lit1es.

2. The machine does not reduce the workload of the pilot or controller as regards their expected achievement. But

3. The machine increases the total capacity. 4. The added capacity serves to improve safety to balance the workload to improve accuracy to improve regularity to reduce costs. In this world of realities. the pilot's and controller's managing role in the man-machine teamwork can be condensed into this sequence of actions: plan - program - confirm - monitor correct - reject if necessary. And with these facts in mind you may agree that when you leave it to the automatic systems: - don't change your standard priorities; be aware of the system limitations; - be highly suspicious: - make clear beforehand what the system is supposed to do: - check what it's doing; - don't hesitate to reject the aid of an inferior system; - don't accept a system performance that you yourself under the circumstances could do safer or better: - don't make the use of an automatic system an end in itself. Utilization of resources Having learnt to master the many modern systems that have been put at the disposal of our pilots and controllers. we should also learn to utilize them to the maximum extent. Aircraft equiped with self contained navigation systems are capable of flying random routes with great accuracy. Controllers need to be aware of this capability and should route such aircraft on the most direct tracks thereby saving fuel and increasing the flexibility of the system. Computer systems on many aircraft now assist in determining the most economical climb and descent paths. Controllers need to know the most efficient climb and descent profiles for the various aircraft types 1f they are to assist in utilizing these resources. Auto-land systems on many aircraft are capable of landing the aircraft under fairly extreme weather conditions. These systems need compatible ground installations which are all too often not installed. or not in operation. These are JUSt a few of the areas where pilot/ controller co-operation is essentiel 1f we are to ensure a better util1zat1on of the available resources now and in the future

36th Annual Conference of IFALPA by D.A. Oudin and H. H. Henschler

The International Federation of Air Line Pilots Associations (I FALPA) held its 36th Annual Conference in the ICAO Headquarters. Montreal, Canada. 1924 March 1 981. The then-Vice-President. technical. Daniel Oudin. attended the conference on behalf of IFATCA. President Harri Henschler attended the last two days.

Opening Plenary The President of the Council of ICAO. Dr. A. Kotaite. opened the conference and gave a resume of ICAO's current and future activities. Excerpts of his address are quoted here as ICAO's programmes have a direct impact on the air traffic control profession worldwide. Dr. Kotaite said: It is great pleasure for me to have the opportunity to address this 36th Annual Conference of the International Federation of Air Line Pilots' Associations. I am. of course. particularly pleased that you have chosen the site of the ICAO headquarters for your conference. It speaks well for the long-standing spirit of cooperation between ICAO and IFALPA and of the mutuality of the common goals we share in the improvement of c1v1I av1at1on - particularly in flight safety matters. In declaring the conference open. I extend to all of you a most cordial welcome from ICAO. I hope that you will take the opportunity afforded by your meeting to become even better acquainted with our organization. Over the years. IFALPA has made many important contributions to the work of ICAO. A closer acquaintance and an even better understanding of the current ICAO organization should yield even greater cooperative achievements in the future With this thought 1n mind I would like to discuss briefly the nature of ICAO's current act1v1ty in the further development of international c1yil av1at1on.

The Convention on International Civil Aviation signed at Chicago in December 1944. which remains virtually unchanged after 36 years. contains 96 articles which establish a 'charter' of public international air law and also the constitutional provisions of ICAO. They provide for the adoption of international standards and recommended practices for regulating air navigation; they foresee the installation by States of air navigation facilities; they suggest the facilitation of air transport by the reduction of customs and immigration formalities. The convention also accepts the principle that every State has complete and exclusive sovereignty over the airspace above its territory and provides that no international air service may operate over or into the territory of a contracting State without its previous consent.

The Annexes A vital aspect of the convention 1s the provision for the adoption. by the council of ICAO. of standards and recommended practices. which. for convenience. are designated as annexes to the convention. The seventeen annexes which have been adopted over ICAO's lifespan contain the standards and recommended practices. commonly referred to as SARPs. which provide the standardization and unification necessary for the conduct of international c1v1I aviation operations. They are. of course. of primary interest to IFALPA members since they affect almost every aspect of your day-to-day flight operations. The convention on International C1v1I Aviation has stood the test of time. This. primarily. 1s due to the fact that 1t contains only the principles and elements of policy d1rect1on that are appropriate to a multilateral convention. At the same time. its more detailed annexes make 1t flexible enough to bend without breaking and to accommodate the dynamic changes which have marked the course of c1v1I av1at1on. Nevertheless. the maJor element in the success of international av1at1on 1s the willingness of States and interested parties. such as IFALPA. to contribute and cooperate in the formulation and 1mplementat1on of the spec1f1cat1ons contained in the several annexes

ICAO' s history has taught us that States are only willing to agree to SARPs for which a real need is understood to exist and about which they have had ample opportunity to consider and to comment upon. For this reason. deliberate and sometimes painstaking procedures are followed in the preparation and processing of SARPs. During the time since the Chicago Convention was drahed. aviation has undergone tremendous technological change. Aviation has progressed rapidly from the DC-3 to the SST; from manually flown low frequency range approaches to fully automatic ILS approaches and landings; from the bubble sextant celestial navigation to automatic laser gyro inertial reference systems; the danger of hijackings was not even contemplated in the drafting of the Chicago Convention; engine emission problems did not exist and if the noise problem existed at all 1t was a matter of occasionally upsetting a few chickens. The carriage of dangerous goods at the time of the Chicago Conference was considered only in terms of munitions or war and the need for strong tie-downs; air traffic was a mere trickle compared to the large streams of today. Although the consistent aim of ICAO throughout this era of rapid change has been to promote the safe. orderly and economic operation of air service. the rapid growth and advancing technology of av1at1on have caused a steady and somewhat subtle change to the character of ICAO's work. In the early years of the organization. emphasis was placed on getting SARPs 1n the annexes. Material was considered 'mature¡ for d1scuss1on within ICAO and for 1nclus1on in one of the annexes only 1f the handful of leading av1at1on States had already worked out most of the details and were using more or less the same type of equipment or following s1m1lar procedures. However. as the number of States engaged 1n international av1at1on grew and as traffic increased. the complexity and cost of ground and airborne systems. including aeroplanes. increased at an amazing rate. As a consequence. the role of ICAO changed. Costs and complex1t1es of modern air nav1gat1on systems and procedures are simply too great in most cases for ind1v1dual States or small groups of States to strike out 1n different directions. only later to be faced with the prospects of read1ustment to some new international standard which could require proh1b1t1vely expensive retrofits. Thus. ICAO increasingly 1s more involved 1n the formative stages of the development of systems and procedures which have international 1mplicat1ons.

Looking Ahead An increasing amount of ICAO's effort is now being devoted to looking ahead 1n an attempt to ant1c1pate and act appropriately on international av1at1on requirements and potential problems However. I must hasten to emphasize that a great deal of effort 1s devoted also to working out solutions to unforeseen or unavoidable problems which already have developed We also expend great effort seeking ways in which the organization can assist the large number of developing States 1n improving their ability 45

to comply with ICAO specifications which already are in the annexes. Examples of ongoing initiatives to meet future requirements or to avoid future problems can be seen in our effort concerning the microwave landing system. collision avoidance systems. the control of aircraft engine emissions and the development of standard criteria for the determination of operating minima. As many of you will be aware. the technical specifications on the MLS are well advanced and it is expected that initial use of the new system will begin during the latter part of this decade. The consideration of international requirements for collision avoidance systems are in the very early stages of discussion and it will be a topic on the agenda of the world-wide communications divisional meeting to be held here later this month. It is hoped that the divisional meeting will focus on the potential for international problems. if any. associated with the introduction of collision avoidance systems. We also hope that these discussions will be of assistance to the organization in determining the most effective role it can play in developing international applicability and use of the systems. ICAO's work in developing SARPs for the control of aircraft engine emissions falls into a different category. In a sense. it is a case of finding a solution to a problem before it occurs. Although aviation is an extremely small contributor to pollutants in the atmosphere. it was considered prudent several years ago. in keeping with the general concern for the environment and in light of the d1ff1culty already encountered in respect of aircraft noise. to take positive steps for the future. Accordingly. proposed SARPs have been developed which. 1f adopted. would specify upper limits for pollutant emissions both for certification and operation of all new turbine engine designs. These SARPs are in the final stages of review and it is expected council adoption will take place during 1981. Another area in which ICAO 1s working to forestall future problems is the development by the operations panel of definitive cntena for establishing operating minima. In cons1derat1on of the technological advances tn the last few years permitting the possibility of widespread categories II and Ill operations. concern has been expressed that the basis for operational approvals of such operations 1s Ill-defined or totally lacking. It is felt that the complexity of very low minima operations at busy maior international airports make 1t imperative that common standards be followed by all States in granting operational approvals concerning weather minima. It 1s hoped that when this work is completed. possibly early next year. the resultant cntena and associated guidance material will facilitate the acceptance by all States of an operator qualified for low minima operations in one State. As 1 mentioned earlier. ICAO devotes a considerable. amount of effort to solving problems which are either newly recognized or inadequately addressed in the existing annexes. A good example of this kind of act1v1ty has been the very difficult problem of dealing with aircraft noise. Had States and ICAO perceived the magnitude of this problem earlier. the solution would have been simpler and far less costly.


The lack of standard radiotelephony phraseology is another problem in this category which currently is under review. It is felt that this problem is not satisfactorily addressed in current ICAO documents. As you pilots can well appreciate. many difficulties may be attributable to unclear or ambiguous phrases used by both pilots and ground personnel.

Annex 18 A new annex is in the final stages of development. This annex. on the safe transport of dangerous goods by air. is designed to solve a problem which has been around for a long time. Because of a lack of standard and detailed regulations which all States were willing to adhere to. shipments of important materials often are being frustrated and in other instances are being handled and shipped in a manner which poses a threat to air safety. The development of the proposed new ICAO specifications ¡on dangerous goods has been very difficult. It would have been much easier if the work had started many years ago before there were a variety of different national and industry regulations. In any event. it is hoped that the new annex will be adopted this year and that. as a result the problems I have mentioned will be greatly reduced - if not eliminated. In my address to your 34th Annu~I Conference in Amsterdam in 1979. I said that the threat posed by criminal acts against international civil aviation had been the sub1ect of great attention by ICAO. The most recent occurence has confirmed that this problem continues to be. of grave c~ncern. Resolutions adopted by different sessions of the ICAO Assembly and. most recently. by the 23rd Session. with regard to The Hague and Montreal Conventions and closure of airports. as well as ICAO Council decisions. reflect the commitments of ICAO to the safeguarding of international civil aviation against acts of unlawful interference - ICAO will continue to monitor closely all aspects of air transport security. A third ma1or area of ICAO's work involves efforts to help developing aviation States to meet their obligations imposed by the convention and its associated annexes. This 1s a most difficult and complex problem with no easy or short-term solutions in sight. For many countries. there 1s a critical shortage of capital to meet the costs of establishing and operating an av1at1on infrastructure. Added to this. tn many regions of the world. 1s the shortage of skilled manpower and the inability to retain manpower once they are trained. The inability to retain trained manpower stems not only from a lack of funds but also from a lack of recognition of the fact that employment cond1t1ons must be elevated to be compatible with the high technology and soph1st1cat1on of modern aviation. The recently completed ICAO study of areonautical communications in Africa. which was commented on in your February IFALPA Monthly News Bulletin. 1s a basis for av1at1on infrastructure planning and investment in that region of the world. Other efforts ICAO has launched to aid developing countries include: the 1980

world-wide programme of PANS-OPS workshops for instrument procedure designers; the preparation of organizational and operational manuals for the guidance of national authorities; the encouragement of regional cooperation for the training of personnel; and the establishment of joint maintenance facilities. All of these are initiatives which ICAO has taken to help States improve their abilities to comply with minimum international aviation standards. The United Nations Development Programme. trust funds. and other funding sources are making a significant contribution - now totalling over 60 million dollars annually for technical assistance projects executed by ICAO. to help developing States with their aviation needs. It is expected that funding availability for this form of aviation assistance will significantly increase over the next few years. reaching 100 million dollars annually by the middle of this decade. I have presented a brief overview of what ICAO is and what it is doing on behalf of international civil aviation. May I again remind you of the importance we in ICAO attach to the support that IFALPA has provided to us over the years. Without the benefit of your federation's interest and the professional dedication of your many representatives. ICAO could not have done its work nearly as well. You have contributed greatly to the work of ICAO study groups. panels. committees. regional activities. world-wide air navigation meetings and our assembly sessions. Without your contribution to the deliberations of the Air Navigation Commission the organization would surely be in danger of losing its touch with current operational practices. We know that a keen understanding of operating practices and problems is essential for the satisfactory conduct of our work. Before closing. I wish to pay tribute to Captain Derry Pearce for his devotion and tireless efforts in serving as president of IFALPA during the last four years. Nobody knows better than I the kind of delicate and complex problems he has faced. I have always admired his well-balanced 1udgment. his personal integrity. and his courage. Both of us addressed the Special Political Committee of the 3 2 nd Session of the United Nations General Assembly in New York in October 1977 in very critical circumstances. We have worked in close cooperation in dealing with delicate matters related to the safety and security of c1v1l av1at1on. I wish to thank him most sincerely. We look forward to IFALPA's continuing support and cooperation as we venture forth together into the future. It remains for me now to wish you every success 1n your 36th Annual Conference.

IFATCA JOins Dr. Kota1te in the sentiments he expressed on out-going IFALPA President. Captain Derry Pearce. Dunng his term of office our federations have developped genuine good and close relationships on areas of mutual interest and common concern. relations we are certain will continue for the benefit of all.

Captain Pearce then gave his 'State of the Federation' address, outlining concerns, difficulties, achievements. and future projects. He concluded: 'IF-ALPA will continue to be under enormous pressure to sacrifice its arguments for safety in the face of forecasts of economic doom and ruin. This federation, in order to remain true to the profession. must always remain highly pragmatic yet resist any temptation to sacrifice safety for industrial purposes.¡

Council of ICAO. and Mr. Y. Lambert. Secretary General of ICAO, and the IFATCA President and Vice-President. technical. This was an occasion for the federation to elaborate on its aims. and to emphasize the importance of ensuring controller involvement in activities such as ICAO's, thus contributing to the development and improvement of all aspects of international civil aviation.

Committees As it is the major field of common interest for IFATCA and IFALPA (because of the good and ongoing relationship between IFATCA standing committee I and the IFALPA ATS study group), the Vice-President. technical. participated in the conference committee dealing with items such as minimum navigational performance specification (MNPS). composite separation, simultaneous operations of intersecting runways, cruise climb. Particular attention from IFATCA was devoted to such subjects as collision avoidance broadcasts. navigation. VFR operations. wind shear. standard instrument departure and arrival routes (SIDs and STARs). IFATCA did not participate in the work of the other four conference committees. however. it was noted that long discussions took place concerning the crew complement (2 or 3 crew members). the legal status of the aircraft commander. and the subject of hi1acked aircraft.

Decisions and Elections Amongst the many resolutions passed during conference. it was proposed and provisionally accepted that the next meetings of the ATS study group (in which IFATCA participates through SCI) would take place in Toronto. Canada (July. 1 981 ). Three new member associations were accepted: Cyprus. Malta. Suriname. The 37the IFALPA Conference will take place in Portugal in 1982. Captain Robert Tweedy (Ireland). previously an officer of the Europilot Organization. was elected as President. Our best wishes go to Captain Tweedy as he takes on this very challenging and often d1ff1cult office.

Meeting with ICAO Taking advantage of our presence in Montreal. a meeting had been arranged by our L1a1son Committee to ICAO between Dr. A. Kota1te. President of the

Election of the New IATA President Pierre Giraudet. Chairman of Air France. was elected President of IATA at the 36th Annual General Meeting of the Association which was held in Montreal from 2 7 to 30 October last. Mr. Giraudet took over from Mr. Claude Taylor. President and Chief Executive of Air Canada. The discussions at this Annual General Meeting mainly concerned some of the main questions with which airlines will be confronted in the coming decade. with particular reference to uncertainties concerning regulation, the need to rationalize - for financial reasons air traffic control and air routes in certain parts of the world. the supply and the price of fuel. and other financial problems. The AGM also noted a report prepared by a specialized committee responsible for determining the needs of airlines in developing countries. The report by this committee chaired by Brigadier General Enos Haimbe. Managing director of Zambia Airways. demanded new training plans and programmes. joint projects and an adjustment of IATA activities to meet their special needs. The AGM decided to implem~nt this programme which will be financed initially out of IATA's current budget pending the award of funds from other sources. The resolutions adopted by the AG M included the request to the Director General of IATA. Knut HammarskJbld. to stress to Governments and governmental groups the importance of drawing up international passenger and cargo tariffs on the basis of existing multilateral machinery. IATA also elected a new member to the Executive Committee: Felipe Cons Gostorola. President and Chief Executive of Iberia. The next AGM will be held in Cannes on 26 to 29 October 1981 at the inv1tat1on of Air France.

Philips Awarded with FAA NADIN Contract The Communications System division of the North American Philips Corporation (NAPC) has obtained an order from the American Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) worth 13.6 million dollars. The order involves the delivery and installation of a new network. the national Airspace Data Interchange Network (NADIN), for the interchange of data concerning national airspace. so NAPC's Communications System division informs us. The highly advanced equipment necessary for this network will be delivered by Philips' Telecommunicatie lndustrie B.V. in the Netherlands. The network will initially comprise two main switching nodes in Atlanta and Salt Lake City. and twenty-one secondary concentration nodes at all major Air Traffic Control centres in the United States. The latest generation of the OS-71 4 switching system will be one of the systems used for the project. It is not the first time that Philips' Telecommunicatie lndustrie supplies this type of equipment to the FAA. Earlier versions of the OS-71 4 were installed in the Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunications Network and the meteorological report switching centre in Kansas City. The system. which will integrate some thirteen different data services presently provided by the FAA. is expected to become operational in late 1982.

EUROCONTROL's Sth Member A Protocol amending the EUROCONTROL International Convention relating to Cooperation for the Safety of Air Nav1gat1on of 13 December 1960 was signed by the Plenipotent1anes of the EUROCONTROL Member States at a D1plomat1c Conference m Brussels on 12 February 1 981 . The Portuguese Republic was also a Signatory State to this Protocol and will. once the Protocol 1s rat1f1ed and enters into force m 1983. become the eighth Member State of the Organisation. At the same 01plomat1c Conference a new Multilateral Agreement relating to Route Charges was signed by the EUROCONTROL Member States plus Austria. Portugal. Spam and Switzerland The 1mpllcat1ons and principal effects of these new le,gal instruments are explained m a series of questions and answers which EUROCONTROL had published







List of Hotels granting discounts to IFATCA members upon production of their valid membership card AUSTRIA Parkhotel. Graz Hotel Mana Theresia. Innsbruck Hotel Europa. Innsbruck Hotel Tyrol and Touringhaus. Innsbruck Holiday Inn. Innsbruck Hotel Tourotel. Linz Hotel Sportklause Niederau-Wildschonau. Tirol CYPRUS Amathus Beach Hotel. Limassol Appolonia Hotel. Limassol Paphos Beach Hotel. Paphos D1onyssos Hotel. Paphos



LUXEMBOURG Holiday Inn. Luxembourg Hotel Empire. Luxembourg

CANADA Seaway Hotels: Montreal. Toronto. Ottawa. Halifax. Kingston Hyatt Regency: Montreal. Vancouver. Vancouver Airport Hilton Canada: The Queen Elizabeth Montreal. Airport Hilton Montreal. Toronto Airport. Harbour Castle Hilton Toronto. Quebec Hilton. Vancouver Hilton Hotel Loews La Cite. Montreal

MEXICO Hotel Las Hamacas. Acapulco Acapulco Imperial

DENMARK Hotel Mercur. Copenhagen Hotel Richmond. Copenhagen Hotel Du Nord Greena. Greena

NEW ZEALAND Hotel Chateaux Commodore. Christchurch Colonial Inn Motel. Christchurch Ambassador Travel Hotel. Wellington South Pacific Motor Inn. Lower Hutt The City Hotel. Dunedin Angus Inn Motor Hotel. Hastings Bungalow Tourist Hotel. Rotorua Travelodge Australia Ltd all Travelodges and Parkroyals throughout the South Pacific

ENGLAND The Churchill. London The London Ryan Hotel FIJI FIJi Mocambo Hotel. Nadi lnt'I Airport

FRANCE Holiday Inns: Pans Orly Airport. Roissy Airport. Avignon. Lille Lesquin. Lille Macq en Baroeul. Lyon. Strasbourg HOLLAND Hotel Krasnapolsky, Amsterdam Hotel Ibis. Amsterdam-Airport ICELAND Loftle1d1r Hotel. Reyk1avik IRELAND

~nternat1onal Airport Hotel. Dubltn B~e Gresham Hotel. Dublin Thoams Hotel. Dublin e K1llarney Ryan Hotel i~e Limerick Ryan Hotel T e Galway Ryan Hotel T~e YWeats Country Ryan Hotel e estport Ryan Hotel

KENYA Hotels & L0 d - South ges of African Tours and Hotels Ltd. _ N Coast Hotels Two Fishes & Trade Winds . p~~~ Coast Hotels Mombasa Beach. Mnarani Hotel. Whispering Safari Lod K k Mounta ges 1laguni. Nguha. Vo1. Meru Mull a. Milim inHLodge. Marsab1t. Hunters Lodge ani otel. Nairobi Grosvenor Hotel . Na1ro b1 Sunset Hotel Lake v· Tea Hotel. K~ncho ictona Mt Elgon Lodge

NETHERLANDS ANTILLES Holiday Beach Hotel. Curacao NEW CALEDONIA Hotel le Nouvata. Noumea Noumea Hotel. Noumea

PERU Hotel Crillon. Lima PORTUGAL Lisboa Penta Hotel. Lisboa Balaia Penta Hotel. Albufeira. Algarve SEYCHELLES Reff Hotel. Mahe SPAIN Penta Club. Ibiza Sun Club Bungalows. Playa del Ingles & Maspalomas SRI LANKA Hotel Lanka. Obero1. Colombo SWITZERLAND Hotel d'Auteu1I. Geneva Holiday Inn. Zurich-Airport Holiday Inn. Zurich-Regensdorf TUNISIA Hotel Les Orangers. Hammamet TOGO Hotel De la Pa1x. Loma USA International 6 Motel. Disneyland Anaheim Detailed information as to rates and hotel addresses are available at the IFATCA Secretariat and will be provided to interested members on request

Corporate Members of IFATCA AEG-Telefunken. Frankfurt a. M., Germany AMECON Division, Litton Systems. College Park. USA ANSA. Advisory Group Air Navigation Services. Westerngrund. Germany Cable & Wireless Ltd., London, England CAE Electronics Ltd., Montreal, Quebec. Canada Cardion Electronics. Woodbury. N.Y., USA Computer Sciences Europe SA. Brussels, Belgium Cessor Radar and Electronics Ltd., Harlow. England Dansk lmpulsfysik A.S., Holte, Denmark Datasaab AB. Jarfalla, Sweden Decca Software Sciences Limited, London. England Dictaphone Corporation, USA ELECMA Divisions Electronique de la SNECMA. Suresnes. France E-Systems, Montek Division, USA Ferranti Limited. Bracknell, Berks., England Goodwood Data Systems Ltd., Ontario Canada Ground Aid Group, Esbjerg, Denmark International Aeradio Ltd., Southall, England International Air Carrier Association, Geneva. Switzerland ITI Gilfillan, USA Jeppesen & Co. GmbH .. Frankfurt. Germany Lockheed Aircraft Service Company, Ontario, California 91 7 6 1. USA Lockheed Electronics Company, Inc., Plainfield, N.J., USA The Marconi Radar Systems Ltd .. Chelmsford. England M.B.L.E., Brussels. Belgium The Mitre Corporation. Mclean, Virginia. USA N.V. Hollandse Signaalapparaten. Hengelo, Netherlands N.V. Philips Division ELA. Eindhoven, Netherlands Philips Telecommunicatie lndustrie B.V., Hilversum, Netherlands The Plessey Company Limited, Weybridge, Surrey. England Racal Recorders Limited. Southampton, England Raytheon Canada Ltd., Canada Gustav A. Ring A/S, Oslo. Norway Sanders Associates. Inc .. Nashua. USA Schmid Telecommunication. Switzerland Selenia - lndustrie Elettroniche Associate S.p.A .. Rome, Italy SEL- Standard Elektrik Lorenz, Stuttgart 70. Germany Societe Artistique Franc;aise. Paris. France Societe d'Etudes & d'Entreprises Electriques. lssy Les Moulineaux. France Sodern. Limeil Brevannes. France Sofreavia, Paris. France Software Sciences Ltd., Farnborough. England Sperry Univac, Sulzbach/Ts .. Germany & St.Paul. Minnesota. USA TERMA Elektronik AS, Lystrup, Denmark Thomson - CSF. Paris, France Ulmer Aeronautique, Clichy, France VWK - Ryborsch GmbH, Germany Westinghouse Electric Corporation. USA

The International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers¡ Associations would like to invite all corporations. organizations. and institutions interested in and concerned with the maintenance and promotion of safety in air traffic to iom their organization as Corporate Members. Corporate Members support the aims of the Federation by supplying the Federation with technical 1nformat1on and by means of an annual subscription. The Federation's international 1ournal 'The Controller' 1s offered as a platform for the discussion of technical and procedural developments in the field of air traffic control.


Watch supervisor, trying to decipher recently arrived flight plan

Cuntrul (no ra<larJ

NOTAM, MET rc·rorh


flridi ng dc•• k wi th A ll' &NOTAM•

ATC centre in the old days7-0f course not - ifs a printini: office in the t6th century.

No reason.

Automated Air Traffic Control systems used to be something fo r big airports and resourcefu l administrations only. Only they had the knowledge and money to specify and buy them and the skilled staff to operate a nd keep them run ning. Not so any more. In these days of so a ring ai rcraft operating costs you wi ll be surprised to find that prices of modern, relia ble ATC systems- probably the most efficient tool for reducing flying times-are in fac t go ing down. And they a re as easy to ma intain as to operate. Reason: standardization .

Introducing Datasaab's AIRWATCH Automated ATC systems Datasaab 's new series of AIRWATCH systems-based o n many years' experience from ta ilor-made cent res-are designed to sui t all types of traffic and environment. A IRWATCH standardization a lso means modularization, a llowing adap tation to specific needs a nd e nsuring system expansion at low cost as traff ic grows. A lRWATCH systems range from a single l'Pl system tn l,u~t> centres. They fl"at u rl' raw. synt het ic or mix~d pre><•ntation of I'S!{ and SSR signals trom o ne o r m(lrc" raJJr !-.ta tions an<l numerous con I ro ller hicilit1c<. inc luding lull labels. • A Jl{ \NATCH 1000 i !:!o an au tonomous. low-cost radar displa y ~yst<.>m with a bu ilt- in m icro-proccso;or.


1s designed tor

small ATC cent res and con -

t rol towers.

• AIHWATCH 2000 is de•igm•d tor sma ll and me· tlium-sized centres. D ual compu ters. operci ting in

parallel. rrov itlc very high reliability. • AIHWATCH 3000 is designed for medi u m tu largcsiled ATC centres. System a rc hitec ture is extremely fle xible O uts tan uing lJperational [~----------~] fea ture• include t ra cking ol all ~~A~ types of fligh t and mosaic prcscn~·~ ta tion from multiple radar sources. .


- jo in tly own ed by t he Swcuis h Gover nmen t and Saab-Scania Al3

For more informat ion contact: Datasab AB , Interactive Data Systems, S-17586 Ja rfalla, Sweden. Tel. Int

+ 46 8 362800 •Telex17892 da tsaab s

IFATCA The Controller - 2nd Quarter 1981  
IFATCA The Controller - 2nd Quarter 1981