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In this Issue: Technical Panel of the 19th IFATCA Conference Development of Commercial Aviation In Argentina Effects of Automation in the Field of Air Traffic Control


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ATC centre.> in the old d~1 r•7 - 0I courst:> no1 - 1f !'!o a print in~ ufficc• in thl' 16th n ·ntury .

No reason.

Automated Air Traffic Control systems used to be something for big airports and resourceful administrations only. O nl y they had the knowledge a nd money to specify and buy them a nd the ski lled s taff to operate a~d keep them r~nning. Not so any m o re. In these days of soaring aircraft opera ting costs you will be surprised to find that prices of modern, reliab le ATC systems-probably the most effic ient tool for reducing flying times-are in fac~ go~ng down . And they are as easy to maintain as to opera te . Reason : sta ndard1zat1 on .

Introducing Datasaab's AIRWATCH Automated ATC systems • Datasaab's new series of A IR WATC H systems-based on ma ny yea rs' experience from tailor-made ce ntres- a re designed to su it a ll types of traffic anci environment. AIRWATCH standardi- zat io11 a lso mea ns modularization. a llow ing adapta tion to specific needs and ensuring sys tem expansion at low cost as traffic grows. All{\IVATC.l f ..,y, tt•m .., r.rngt• lrom ._1-.inglt· Pl'f ..,y..,t l·m h 1 1.H)!l' lt•ntn·.., Tht·y tt-.1 1urt• r._1w . ..,v nt hl·t1t lll' m ix t·J pn•......•n t.-illt'n o t l'SR .me.I SSI< ..,1~nJl-. trom nnl' n r .,l dl1on.., .inJ nu merou1;, u 1n1rolll•r l1l1l"• 1nc.ludin~ lull l.1h...·I..,


• A IR\t\IATL H 1000 1.., ~in .1u ton11 mt1u.;, , ltwv .n 1... 1 d 1..,rl.1y -.y ... h: m w ith J h u 1lt-1n m u. ro-pr,lt l""..,,r It 1-. dL•:-01g nl'd t or ... mall AT( l.l'ntn.·-, .md lt1n · trnl towt.·r -..

• Al l\ WATCH 2000 "d"" gm·d lor , m,111 Jnd nwdrnm--.itt•d n·ntn·.., Du,11t Pmpull·r.... opt.• 1ng in p.1rJllel . p rov idt.· v t.·ry high rd1ab d1t y. • All<WATU I 3000 I ' """ gm·d t"r medium to IMg<·· ..,,l (·d AT( u •nlrl'.., Sy"ill•m .1rth1h:t. lun• 1.., l·xtn•mt.•ly tlt.·x1blt.· Out-.IJndin>; opt·r.it1tmdl (~-----""------~J ll'.llun•-. 1m ludl' t r.uking ot JJI ............_~A-~ ty pt•.., ol t lighl ~ind mo ..,,ll( p rt·~t.·n IJl1trn l nlm mul! 1pll.' radar '.'.!Ollrn.•..,

........ ~

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For more information co ntact: Da ta~ab AB . In tera cti ve Data Syste ms. S-17586 Jarfa lla , Sweden . Tel. Int

+ 46 8 3628 00 • Telex 17892 datsaa b s







THE CONTROLLER Frankfurt am Main, December 1980

Volume 19 · No. 4

Publisher: International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers' Associations, P. 0. B . 196, CH-1215 Geneva 15 Airport, Switzerl and.


- .. ~,

Officers of IFATCA: H. H. Henschler, President, Dan iel O udin , Vice-Pre sident (Technical). A. Avgoustis. Vice-Presiden t (Professiona l). Pat O"Doherty, VicePresident (Administration) , H . Wenger, Treasurer, E. Bradshaw, Executive Sec retary.

"' ,..


Secretariat: 6 Langlands Park, Ayr KA7 4RJ Ayrshire, Scotland, United Kingdom Tel.: 0292 42114 Editor: A. Avgoustis 5 Athens Sir .. Ayios Dhometios Nicosia. Cyprus Tel.: (021) 48786 Managing Editor: Horst Gudd at POB 600 209 D-6000 FrankfurVMain-60 Te lefon (06 11) 21 08 86 22 Publlshlng Company, Production, Subscription Service and Advertis ing Sales Office: Verl ag W. Kramer & Co. , Bornheime r Landwehr 57 a, 6000 Frankfurt/Main 60, Phon e 434325 and 492169, BHF-Ban k No. 3-03333-9. Postscheckkonto Frankfu rt 1105-601, Rate Card Nr. 7. Prlnled by: W. Kramer & Co., Bornheimer Landwehr 57 a, 6000 Frankfurt/Main 60 (Federal Republic of Germany). Subscription Rate : OM 6.- per annum for members o f IFA TCA; OM 16,- per annum for non-memb ers (Postage will be charged extra).

Some o f the Aero lineas Arge nt inas Boeing 737s on the apron at Buenos A ires-National-Airport. The Tower in the background is the busiest in the country. Very often the number of movements at Aeroparque exceeds 70 per hou r. Argentina's commercial avi ation h istory is depi cted on page 19.

CO N TE NT S The Corporate M embers Technical Panel


Contributors ar e expressin g their personal points o f vi ew and opinion s, which may n ot necessaril y coin cide wi th those of the International Federat ion of Air Traffic Controllers' Associat ion s (IFATCA).

Monopulse SSR Stations for Airways Control .. . . .. . . . . . ..... . . .... . . . .


The Myth of Raw Video


Emulation and other Computer Applications


IFATCA does not assume responsibi lity for statements made and opinions expressed. it does onl y accept re sp onsibility for publ ishing these contributions.

Standardisation - An Alternate Approach to ATC Automation .. . .. .. . ... .


Basic Requirements for ATC - A Man System . ... . . . . . .... ... ... . ..... .


.. ... . . . .. ... .. .. .. . .. . . .......... ... . ... . . .. . . . . . .. .


Development of Commercial Aviation in Argentina .. . . . .. . ....... . . .. . ..


Cont ri butions are welcome as are comments and criticism. No payment can be made for manuscripts submitted f or publication In "The Controller". The Editor reserves the righ t to m ake any editorial changes in manuscri pts, which he bel ieves wil l improve the mater ial without altering the intended meaning.

Effect of Automation in the Field of ATC

Written permi ssi on by the Editor is necessary for repri nti ng any part of this Journal.

Maximizing the Capacity of a Single-Runway Airport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


How to learn from our mistakes

. ........ .. .... . .. .... . 28

.. . . . . . .. ...... . . .... ............. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ... ... . ... . .. . ..

News from Corporate Members ICAO Technical Assistance Projects

The Controller in Accident/Incident Investigation

Adverti sers: Datasaab (inside c over). Thomson- CSF (page 2), AEG-TEL EFUNKE N (page 4), IA L (p age 7), Ferranti Com puter Systems (p age 10). Phili ps ELA (page 13) . IFATCA 81 (page 17), Ph i lips i n Aviation (pages 24/ 25), Se leni a SA (back cover).

ATC Occupational Health Project Universal News

. . . . .. . . .. . .. · · · ·

... . ..• . . . ... .. ........ · · · · · · · · · · · · ·

. . . . . .. . .. . . . . . .. . . .. ...... . . ... . . . . . . . . . ... ... . ..

Spotlight on a new Corporate Member (Sanders) . . .. . . . . .. . . · · · · · · · · • · · Book Review


. . . . .. . .. . . . .. .... . .. .. . 36

Cartoons: He lmut Elsner. Photos: Arch ive. Aeroli neas Argent inas. Aeroposlale, CATCA . Egypt T ouri st Office, Datasaab . H. Guddat. McDonnel l -Dou gl as. Selenia.



. . . .. ........ . . . . . . . ......... . . ... .. . .. . . . .. . ..

Letters to the Editor .... . . . . . .. .... ...... ....... . · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·


41 42

44 47


far and wide THOMSON-CS F has demonst rated its ability to design, devise, supply and install consistent, effective, highperfo rmance air traffic control and air space surveillance systems.

CONSISTENT - because THOMSONCSF, leading European group in the field of professional electronics, develops and man ufactures almost all the components which make up the completed

Countries which use THOM SON-C>F air traffic control, navigational and landing aid equipment:

systems, including detection, transmission, communications and information processing units. EFFECTIVE - because the experience we have acquired over 20 years of profile design in the most varied contexts means that we can offer t ried and true solutions for your every need, however complex o r exacting. HIGH-PERFORMANCE - because THOMSON-CSF's research laboratories and tech nical experts are in t he forefront of all important research into aeronautical and defence networks. Our ac ti ve development policy ensures that THOMSON-CSF products set the pace in their respective fields.



40, rue Grange-Dame-Rose . BP 3 4 92 360 MEUDON -LA-FORET (F) TEL. (1) 630.23 .80

Instead of Editorial by A. Avgoustis With this issue, IFATCA"s quarterly journal, THE CONTROLLER closes an era and is soon to enter a new one it is now 19 years old, published for th e fi rst time in winter, 1961/62. The closing of the year marks another important event: its printing house is changed from "Kramers" in Frankfurt, Germany, to "Bund Verlag" in Bern, Switzerland. This latter fact compels me as Editor, to make a brief review of what has been achieved so far and perhaps ponder briefly into what I aim to achieve in the years to come. Historical necessity creates a personal obligation upon me that I pay tribute to those persons who kept the Journal's continued appearance (even though irregu larly at times) in their effort to enlighten worldwide, the air traffic controller and aviation officials of developments in both the technical and professional fields. I would first like to recall to the readers' memory THE CONTROLLER first issue which appeared in winter 1961 and its first Editor Walter H. Endlich of Germany. Apparently, this issue was in fact a combination of THE CONTROLLER - as it was indicated on its blue front cover and the DER FLUGLEITER, the Verband Deutscher Flugleiter Journal in yellow center pages. Walter's first Editorial speaks briefly of IFATCA's establishment a few months earlier and continues to outline th e objectives of THE CONTROLLER. "The Journal, " Walter says, "serves an important purpose. It is the voice of the majority of the European Air Traffic Control personnel. One day, if IFATCA continues progressing as it does presently, THE CONTROLLER may well represent the Jou rn al of the ATC Associations all over the world. " Walter continued to 0e the Journal 's Editor for one decade, until he announced in its special anniversary issue (December, 1972) that he was postponing publication. The new CONTROLLER appeared a few months later with a new front cover, fated to remain th e same until todate. Th e reconstru cted appearance brought also a new Editor, Ge J. de Boer of South Africa. Walter 's presence in Germany and proximity to th e pri nters was a luxury th at could no longer be afforded and Ge found it impracticable if not impossible to supervi?e the Journal 's layout and adverti sin g from his distant hom e. The altern ative solution was soon found in th e presence of Horst Guddat (form er Vic e-President Adm inistration) in Frankfurt who acted as Managi ng Editor until this present issue. Ge J. de Boer was succeed ed in 1977 by Brian C. Jones. Brian 's retirement from the Royal Air Force soon after, forced him to give up the editorshi p of THE CONTRO LLER fo r an edito rial po st with th e British Ci vil Avi ation Authority. Throughout these 19 years, which h ave seen IFATCA rising from a sm all European Organisati on of Controllers to a truly Intern ation al on e - countin g altog ether a total number of 60 Member-Associ ation s fro m an equal number of nation s, THE CONTROLLER could not but follow the histori cal advent of th e mother-Fed eration reaching readershi p distribut ion in 107 countri es. Th e quality of th e arti c les and its en tire app earance had to be wo rthy of its name . Its conti nued in c rease in readershi p m ust naturally be credited to th e effort s of the J ournal"s Edito rs; the layout and all out appearance of TH E CO NTROLLER go to t he Manag in g Ed itor and the Pri nters, W. Kramer & Co. To the Printers, I must indeed pay t ri bute to, for being most understanding to the demands of t he Journal"s not-so-profes-

Andreas Avgoustis

sional Editors. To Krame rs IFATCA o wes th e to lerable costs of printing THE CONTROLLER. Before concluding, I m ust permit mysel f a few lines in which briefly I outline what I aim to achieve, knowing full well that the task is difficult and burdensome, yet confident that t hese aims should and cou ld material ise with the co-operation and coll aboration of all concerned. The world of Controllers are enti tl ed to an up-to-d ate Journal that will re lay their problems and keep th em informed of developments in their fie lds of interest; the Corporate Members have a forum and a medi um by which they can publi cise their manufact ured equipment and transmit their technical knowl edge t o the readers and potential customers; and, finall y, the aviation authorities w i ll have an endless source o f technical information by which they can derive the necessary know led ge and experience to better their countries' aviati on safety standards. It is my ambition that the new issues of the Journal will bring you a sat isfactory layout and a CONT ROLLER highly valued by all. With this let me welcome you all to the next CONTROLLER th at will be in you r hands in March , 1981. â&#x20AC;˘

Dr. W. Kramer in the p r inting room of his publishing house in Frankfur t/Main


AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL - an important sector for communications and data systems.

Through the use of automated data processing AEG-TELEFUNKEN ATC systems assure optimum safety in air traffic.




ATC Systems made by AEG-TELEFUNKEN

The Corporate Members Technical Panel Toronto '80 The Corporate Members Technical Panel was incorporated as part of the bu siness sessions of th e 1980 Confere nce and due to the efforts of t he Organis ing Committee and the IFATCA Board of Office rs was extremely well attended by an audi ence of approximately 200 delegates. At a meeting held prior to the Panel the Co rporate Members present unanimously appointed Mr. Arno ld Field of Plessey Radar to act as Chairman of the Panel. The Techni cal Panel was divided into two parts - presentations o n spec ific topics followed by questions o n these presentations and related subj ects. Six presentations abb reviated to 5/6 minutes duration were delivered as follows : Monopulse S.S.R. for Airways Control The Myth of Raw Video Emulation and other Computer Applications Manual S.S.R. Systems Standardisation, an alternative approach to A.T.C. Automation It's a Man System

Nigel Ross


Peter Jorgensen Robe rt N. Harr ison


Frank Lewis Haka n Westermark


Frank W. Fischer


Tech nical Vice-President Daniel Oudi n i ntroduci ng the speakers sitting at the head table.

Followi ng t hese prese ntations there was a lively exchange between the Panel members and the audience and the following sub-heads indicate the main-flow of discussion.

(1) The learning process Th e need for ATCO 's to be trained adequately in new techniq ues and procedures assoc iated with the introduction of equipment particularly t hose associated with ,, Systems ".

(2) The use of Digitised Radar The need to further eliminate track jitter and the tendency for ATCO's to contin ue to favou r prim ary radar for the " Approach " function.

T his year a full house was honouring th e contributions made by the Corporate Members of the Federation.

(3) The communications gap between the ATCO and the manufacturer

The prese nters made a sk ilfull and entertaining task of telescop ing thei r subjects which was we ll appreciated by the audience.

The ATCO tends to feel himself isolated from the decision making machinery which exists between t he manufacturers of equ ipments and t he purchaser. This was considered to be more

Th e Technical Panel consisted o f (from L. to R.) Mr. Fischer. ANSA , Mr. Jorg ensen . Selenia, M r. Ross . Cossor. Mr. Field (chairman), Plessey, Mr. Harrison, Ferranti , Mr. Westermark. Datasaal and Mr. Lewis , Cardion .


the fault of the concerned national authority than the manufacturer although the latter could assist in closing the gap.

(4) The need for manufacturers to be more aware of operational requirements It was considered that as equipment and systems technology becomes more and more sophisticated there exists a greater need for manufacturers to be better informed in regard to the operational A.T.C. system towards which their equipment/systems are being applied.

(5) Man/Machine Interface The need for manufacturers to appreciate the role and limitations of the A.T.C.O. in the control function loop.

(6) The need to cater for the less sophisticated environments A plea was made that in large areas of the world the equipment in use are still very basic and in need of improvement and further that such improvements when made should be capable of step by step evolution towards sophistication. Finally, the organisers of the Technical Panel, the Corporate Members and the audience acknowledged that the morning sessions had been more instructive than those held at previous conferences. Following are the various presentations (full text) made at the Technical Panel by the representatives of the Corporate Members. Unfortunately, the text of the presentation on behalf of CARDION ELECTRONICS, by Frank Lewis, on Manual S.S.R. Systems has not been received in time for this issue and therefore it will appear in issue 1/81.

Monopulse SSR Stations for Airways Control by Nigel P. Ross Cossor Electronics Limited, England It has often been said that if there were only two aircraft flying in unlimited airspace, it is certain that they would wish to be in the same position, at the same height at the same time. Air Traff'ic Control exists to prevent this coincidence with sophisticated Air Traffic Systems developed over a number o~ years providing an efficient and safe monitoring and control service. A range of aids have also been developed to assist Air Traffic Control Officers and these aids have become increasingly complex to meet the stringent requirements that the continuing . . growth of Air Transport demands. Sixty years ago semaphore or lamp signals were suff1c1ent to indicate that it was safe for an aircraft to take-off or land at an aerodrome. Wireless and Radio Telegraphy were later introduced as aircraft speeds and densities became higher. Thirty years ago primary radar was installed at busy airports to control traffic in the terminal area. Airways, routed over navigation beacons linked the terminal areas. The introduction of Secondary Surveilance Radar gave controllers valuable assistance in maintaining aircraft identity on radar displays. This together with the ability of SSR to provide height monitoring allowed a higher utilisation of airspace. Identification turns and unnecessary avoidance action were greatly reduced. Today it is accepted practice for busy airports to have both primary and secondary radar installations. The limitations .of airport usage are now usually caused by lack of runway capacity and not by the ability of controllers to sequence aircraft in the terminal area. . There are today, however, restrictions on the free flow of ~ir traffic between terminal areas. Airways are having to cope wi~h higher peak traffic demands than were conceived when the airways system was introduced. . Procedural control offered an adequate service, but being dependant on height or time separation, severe restrictions on traffic flow may need to be imposed if separation standards, necessary for safety, are not to be jeopardised. Lateral separation standards for procedural control tend to be generous in order to allow for a margin of navigational error. ¡ a clear pie ¡ t ure of an Radar equipment provides a controller with airway so that separation standards can be greatly reduced whilst providing a much higher degree of safety through more positive means of control. Airway utilisation can therefore be greatly increased. . The advantages and indeed necessity for radar control of airways are widely known, with Air Traffic Control Administrations


gradually increasing the numbers of long range radar stations for en-route surveillance in order to provide a safe and expeditious service. Historically the tendency has been to install a primary radar with perhaps a secondary radar as well.

~econda~ radar is able to provide the same positional information as primary radar without confusing weather and ground clutter, but more importantly SSR provides continuous identity and height information, essential for efficient control. . Ther~ is. a growing awareness, that, for airways control SSA information 1s more valuable than primary radar information and it is thus logical to consider SSR as the major radar sensor with perhaps. the addition of primary radar if required. It has been argued m the past that because SSR depends on aircraft carrying transponders occassional transponder failures could cause a loss of efficiency. In practice it has been found that where transponder failures have occurred these situations are easily and safely accommodated by a controller. The new generation of monopulse SSR equipment developed by Cossor Electronics provides very accurate tracking with advanced features reducing the previous drawback of mutual interference and enabling continuous tracking in garble conditions. A significant advantage of SSR is its comparatively low cost. It is a fact of life that investment in Air Traffic Control is not as high as it might be and the provision of long range radar facilities for monitoring en-route air traffic is often regarded as a low priority. The capital cost of a combined primary and secondary long range radar station is approximately four times the cost of a terminal radar installation and this is often a deterrent to Air Traffic Control Authorities. However the cost of monopulse secondary surveillance radar stations for airways control is approximately the same as that for a terminal radar offering a dramatic cost saving for a long range radar installation. The ability of an SSR station to provide a highly cost effective service has been acknowledged by a number of administrations. These administrations already have existing combined primary and secondary radar stations and are thus able to witness at first hand the cost advantages of an SSR service. Paradoxically where nations have deferred the installation of en-route radars because of the cost, the advantages of an "SSRonly" installation have not been readily appreciated. With the availability of Cossor monopulse SSR with its in-built ability to be expanded for ADSEL operation, Air Traffic Control Authorities can proceed with confidence, in procuring accurate long range SSR stations for airways control at relatively low cost.

In the hills surrounding 13ath lies a fine 18th crntury manor It's almost hidden by the grern and blossom ofthe English summer l3ut at Bailbrook College the air is full of drama. IAL is puttin g an ATC student through his paces. . It's all happening on our digital air traffic control radar simulator. A choice o f % different aircraft can be displayed. Rang mg from the smallest fixed wing or rotary to the largest and fastest civil and military types, it can simulate any type o f radar mstallation in the world today. At Bailbrook the student learns to handle the unexpected w ith the same calculating precisio n as the everyday. Because one day many lives could be held in the balance of his judgem ent.

In the past21 years over 2.lXXl ATC sn1dents from 75 countries have graduated throug h IAL. Training courses include air traffic control services. electronic engineering and tck commun.ications. communications operations, meteo ro logy; science and mathematics, teaching techniques and English lan!?uage. These courses arc specially tailored to meet the 1nd1v1dual needs of overseas governments and o rganisations. At Bailbrook College, it's no acddc1~t we':_'L' built ,1 Fcputation for happy landings. Can you thmk 1.>t <l better place to devdop a skill'



AVIATION SYSTEMSAND SERVICES¡ COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS¡ COMPUTER SYSTEMS AND SERVICES WORLDWIDI Contact The Principal tll,L Boilbrook College London kbod West. Both. England. BAJ 7JD Telephone Both (0225) 858941 Telex 444122 IALG

The Myth of Raw Video by P.A. Jorgensen SELENIA S.p.A.

Display of Radar Data When designing an ATC system, an important decision to take is what type of video to present on the radar display. Many factors suggest the use of daylight displays, so the controller may work in a well illuminated environment. Technically it is easily possible to make such a display, using computer generated video, or other sophisticated means of presentation. A modern computerdriven graphic display with a P31 phosphor, and a refresh rate of 50 Hz (the number of times per second the radar picture is repeated) permit work with ambient light level at approximately 150 lux, bright working conditions. Then comes the question: How safe is computer generated video? In air traffic control, would it not be better to use "raw video" i.e. not let the "pure" radar signal pass through a computer? In En-route sectors, full synthetic presentation, using synthetic video from both the Primary and Secondary Surveillance radar has been accepted for many years, but in the terminal area, mos~ ATC people prefer a mixed presentation, i.e. raw video from the primary radar, and computer generated video from the SSA. Mixed presentation poses a difficult choice of a mixed phospnor. because the raw video requires long afterglow to be seen, but the synthetic video needs a fast phosphor not to cause smearing of the labels which include aircraft identity and mode C altitude. If it was possible to use fully synthetic displays also in terminal areas, the controller could work under better conditions, and money could be saved, both on the displays themselves, and also on the radar transmission system by changing from broadband to narrow-band radar data transmission i.e. from expensive radio-link systems or coaxial cables, to simple telephone lines. In order to analyse this problem, two questions must be asked How good is raw video really? How precise can synthetic video be made to-day?

A modern radar is an extremely sophisticated device. It must have a very high sensitivity in order to ensure the necessary range even on small aircraft. It must have a very complex MTI system to ensure cancellation of fixed echoes, and many other devices to be able to detect the aircraft in presence of ground clutter, rain, interference, angels, anomalous propagation, etc. Some numbers: The length of the pulse from the TMA radar is typically 1 microsecond, which corresponds to 150 metres, when considering that the pulse has to hit the aircraft and get back. The beamwidth of the antenna is typically 1.4°, which allows the aircraft to be hit by the radar about 16 times each time the antenna passes the aircraft, a requirement of the MTI circuits. A "raw" echo from a big aircraft nearby may show a returned pulse of 3-4 microseconds, and an angular size of even 2-2,5°. Where is the aircraft in this echo cluster? Once it was thought that the real position was simply somewhere within the echo, i.e. a Boeing 747, which is 60 x 50 m must be found inside the echo shape, which could cover an area of 2000 m x 500 m (a large echo 30 N.M. from the radar). A small echo would be assumed to be even more precise, say 3 hits occupying 150 m in range. When you carefully analyse the radar signals and the delays and distortions even a simple radar receiver causes on the raw video you realize that the aircraft may not even be inside the radar blip, and that the position depends on the strength of the returned echo. Conclusions from these considerations for raw video must b . "Raw" video, as the purist understands it, no longer exist ~· it really ever did. s, if Any raw video is presented with a margin of error bigger tha normally thought. n

New Extraction Methods The Nature of Raw Video Raw video to-day is really a myth. Raw video would be a nonprocessed video, which faithfully reports the position and maybe even the size of the aircraft. Let us try to analyse what that would mean.


however, have shown that if the extract or ·1s . Recent studies, . incorporated m the radar, a very high degree of precision m b achieved. ay e



Now let us turn to the second question: how precise . 'd b can synt h et 1c v1 eo e made to-day? Synthetic video used to b e produced by processing the raw video signal in a so-called d"191·t·1zer, . or extract~r, outside the radar, followed by transmission of the plot .data mto a computea:. This method was not better th ~p~ sentmg raw video, because the extractor only processed th "d . h II . e raw v1 . eo wit a its errors, without any possibility of correction , an d m most cases adding other errors. This explains the natural rel~ctance to use computer driven video in areas with intense traffic and reduced separation minima.

. A w~ll studied system takes into account all the available information about the radar, including: the delays in signal processing, the specific signal processing used for each single echo, the total number of echoes processed in order to keep the number of false echoes (false alarms) very low and constant in the most convenient way, while always maintaining the maximum detectability of the radar. The built-in extractor performs pattern recognition reveals the aircraft, and controls the function of the radar from the antenna on through the radar by complex control loops in order to obtain the best possible overall result. The accuracy of the radar system is shown in the following table:









80 % 90%

0 0

0,135 T 0,132 't

0 0

0,072 0 0,069 0

Translated to a terminal area rad ar, this becomes, at 30 N.M. distance, and independent of the size of the aircraft:

whe re Pd is the probability of d etection (blip/ scan ratio), average is the average (constant) e rror, RMS (root m ean squa re) is the precision, T is the pulse length , is the antenna beam width.



Pd 80% 90 0/o

average 0 0

RMS 20 m 20 m



0 0

100 m 93 m


Fig. 2: Radar responses and extracted positions

Figure 2 shows as c rosses the plots produced by the new type of extractor in sy nthet ic video after the computer processing , superimposed on the raw video. As can be seen, t he pl ots are corrected, and indi cate th e true position of the airc raft, verifi ed by position reports and by land ings and take-offs. Figure 3 shows a photo of one of the c lass of radars on which this type of exact processing has been impl emented. These radars are also equipped with a Built-in-test Instrument which constantly checks the w hol e radar to mai ntai n the necessary reliability of the system. Th e digital Bite display wil l show a number if a radar failure is detected .

Conclusion To-day it is not only technic ally possi ble, but may even be better and safer to use a fully synthetic display even in termin al areas and in the approach sector. The advantages are: More precise radar position reports Full day light displays Narrow band transmission It is of co urse apprec iated that some period of fam ili arization may be required for this technique, but one should bear in mind that the step from " raw " video to full synthetic video is not so big , because all modern radars anyway make large use of digital processing to present the video and, in practice, the orig in al " raw video" no longer exists.

Fig. 3: ATCR-33 installed at Budapest

Malaysia National Airport Plan and Development of Airports at lpoh, Pulau Langkawi and Tawau British Airports International (BAI) has been awarded a cont ract to produce a national aviation system plan and master plans for several individual airports b y t he Economic Planning Unit of the Government of Malaysia, based in Kuala Lumpur. BA I is leading an international consul tancy team consisti ng of Si r William Halcrow and Partners ; Alan Stratford and Associates ; Halcrow Fox and Associates, together with Malaysian professional consu lt ing engineers based in Kuala Lumpur. The studies should be completed in early 1981 and w il l g ive the Malaysia n Government a lon g-term plan for aviation infrastructure in Malays ia an d preliminary designs fo r the first stage of development of the designated airports. BAI provides a full range of consultancy and management services for airport operations of any size or complexity. The experience of the company derives from a unique involvem ent with B rita in's prof itable aviation sector, and from carrying out nat ional airport planning in many parts of the world. BAI is owned jointly by the Britsh Airports Authority and IAL, the international aviation and c o mmunications systems and services company.


_ We can also do the other kind of simulation-for . ~his .means collecting, processing and training, validation and evaluation-something we have been displaying 1t. doing for many years. We are not in the data acquisition business but we will If you are in the air traffic management business take data from whoever has it- from civil for mil itary, from Ferranti can help. And the people who pay your route charges military for civil and from the country next doorwhe~e radar will almost certainly appreciate your using us. coverage overlaps an FIR boundary. Data doesn't have to be on Ask yourself, are you using the data available to the the spot. It can be extracted and fed over large distances and best advantage? then co-ordinated with the data from your own sensors. Contact Ferranti Computer Systems Limited, . If ~he data is not available, we can synthesize display Bracknell Division, Western.Road, Bracknell, information from flight plans and position reports. Berkshire RG12 1RA Telephone: 0344 3232


--c:;o 2 oa




Emulation and other Computer Applications by R. N. Harrison FERRANTI Computer Systems

In some papers presented at this conference, Corporate Members have been asked to reconcile basic requirements for ATC with the considerable technical possibilities now open to the industrial nations. When this theme was decided upon we were due to meet in South America in an area where development has been limited. The fact that we are now in North America perhaps serves to highlight the problem. How, in countries which are still developing, can air traffic control requirements be met using less sophisticated equipment? And how should we go about designing such equipment so that eventually we can build it up into a complete and comprehensive system?

What sort of advantage is there in such a process, and how accurate are the results likely to be? Because it depends on extrapolation - that is to say the projecting of an event forward - there is obviously room for error. In radar, which also depends on successive data returns - the interval between the inputs of information to the system, perhaps ten seconds, is small enough to preclude significant error. In an emulation system where the interval between data inputs is the interval between two reporting points - say twenty minutes - the opportunity for significant error is much greater, and the error might be compounded by an inaccuracy in the positional report in the first place.

The phrase "lesn sophisticated equipment" comes from the address of the Vice President Technical. To my mind this does not exclude the use of computers though it may well mean that they operate in an environment where there is only the minimum of radar, or perhaps none at all. The computer stays in because of its capability in handling data, and its ability to arrange and present information so that it is easily assimilable by the controller.

As far as positional accuracy is concerned we are in a situation where standards are steadily rising. The crews of most aircraft flying in controlled airspace can be expected to know their position to within a mile in most circumstances. If they do not either because of deficiencies in airborne equipment or ground facilities, and these deficiencies can be logged in any computer system. In an emulator an increase in the area of uncertainty for a particular aircraft is simply a matter of record - a record incidently which is referred to every time the computer is dealing with that aircraft. We can therefore start with the premise that position reports can be treated as accurate unless we have been warned to the contrary, and that the overall accuracy of our emulation will depend on how precisely we calculate the position change along track and in the vertical plane.

The developments in data handling have been largely a response to the needs of the big radar data processing systems. Because of this association, people in situations which handle less traffic tend to look at computers warily. They fear they may be saddled with something that is complex to operate, difficult to maintain and expensive to man. In fact computers have been operating throughout the seventies in an ATC role which frightened nobody. As the basic element in simulators in many parts of the world they have provided a means of training, validation and evaluation. In countless numbers of exercises they have demonstrated their ability to handle the same sort of ATC data as is handled in real life. My Company has recently been looking at a situation - indeed is currently continuing to do so - where an Air Traffic Control Centre is responsible for an area approximately 500nm by 600nm, handles six hundred movements a day, and has only one radar. A lot of the movements are on overflying routes, but arrivals and departures form a significant part of the traffic. There are some nasty airways crossings, and the traffic peaks badly at certain times of the day. This is a situation where under procedural control the controller finds it difficult to keep a clear traffic picture in his mind. The country concerned has suggested its own solution to the problem. Why not use normal reporting procedures and simulation techniques to generate a CRT picture? Reporting, which at this stage would be by RT in the normal way, would be supported by the aircraft's flight plan which would be one of the data entries into the simulator processor. Other entries would be the performance data for different aircraft types and loads, environmental data such as airways, reporting points, airport facilities, and of course weather data, particularly wind. This is exactly the same sort of information as is fed into a simulator for exercises, but because what is being discussed here is not a simulated situation but is in fact quite real it is useful to define it in some other way. We have called it an emulator. The Consise Oxford Dictionary defines "emulate" as "try to equal or excel; rival; imitate zealously". The concept of emulation is not at all new, it is in fact one of the oldest mechanical processes in the form of water clocks, and before that people burned marked candles. As a clockwork or quartz crystal device there is an emulation machine on everyone's wrist. Now we are considering extending emulation from the movement of the earth around the sun to the movement of aeroplanes around the earth.

At this point it is woab.looking at the sort of accuracy we are seeking in an emulation device, and as this is something which depends on the purpose of our emulation we ask how we are going to use the information. The primary concern here is with separation standards. One aircraft in a piece of sky is safe, two aircraft in the same sky are potentially dangerous. With radar control we can establish that two aircraft are not in the same volume of sky because their relative speed is insufficient to allow them to infringe separation standards in the time between sucessive sweeps of the aerial. With emulation we do not aim so high. We are looking for potential conflict and a means of prompting the controller to ask the right questions at the right place. For instance in a situation where two aircraft are arriving simultaneously at an airway crossing but are well separated vertically, the controller needs to know either when he may expect a report or when he should ask for one. If he is able to watch the tracks of the aircraft and see when they are going to cross and know when they actually cross, he can plan his strategy comfortably. But because he does not assign a new flight level until he has had position reports he is asking for no more accuracy out of the system than he would normaly ask for in a procedural system without emulation. In other circumstances the demands on the emulation system might be greater than with a straight procedural system. Take the case of two aircraft in trail proceeding along the same track with a time separation between them. In such a situation the blanket instruction to the controller might be to maintain a separation of twenty minutes. Such a separation - possibly 180nm - takes up a considerable stretch of airspace which imposes constraints on other aircraft in terms of climbing to requested levels. speed, fuel consumption, delays in departure. Suppose however that the fa~­ tors affecting the maintenance of separation between those aircraft could be presented to the controller in a self-evident manner so that he was alerted either to a lessening in separation when it occurred, or to a potential reduction. It is likely that his control authority would allow him to reduce separation to, say, ten minutes knowing that he would be alerted long before the occurence 11

of risk of conflict. We have a situation here which fits in with current thinking on control, that it should conform to the control-byexception concept. It is poor management to attempt to control things which are going well. Control should be limited to the situations which demand it. If we accept this and the fact that effective control demands adequate presentation of information, our next step must be a decision on the form the presentation should take. This is not really new ground because we are really asking whether the forms of presentation currently used with radar data processing are the best for the job. On the basis that we want to present a "synthetic" picture consisting of symbols, labels, trail dots, video map and perhaps Met data, the answer must be that they are, otherwise something different would have been developed. And since this sort of display is commonly fed from a simulator we know there will be no difficulty about using it in an emulation system. Looking at the other major aspect of emulation, we have to have input positions for feeding into the processor the changes in and up-dates of flight data as they occur. In conditions of light traffic it would be possible for the controller to do this, but for ordinary operation it is envisaged that there would be two people manning each console, one being the executive controller actually handling the aircraft, the other being the support controller providing the input and output links with the computer. For the executive controller the console hardware would consist of a near-vertical display, a small- keyboard and rolling ball for picture control and marking, and a minimum number of analogue controls in the form of knobs and switches. There would also be a communications control panel. The support controller would have a larger keyboard with a full set of alphanumeric and function keys. Above this would be a VDU (visual display unit) showing brief details of all aircraft in the sector like callsign, reported level, assigned level, last reported position and time, ETA for next reporting point. Below the "all aircraft in sector" field would be two lines for more details of a particular aircraft, then "amend", "input" and "readout" lines. The support controller would also have a communications panel but in the ordinary way his headset would be slaved to that of the executive controller so that he would hear all messages either way on RT. The method of operating would be as follows: Aircraft: Reports overhead RP and time. Also present level and level to which climbing. Exec C: Acknowledges. Asks ETA for next RP. Support C: Enters data. Aircraft: Gives ETA for next RP. Exec C: Acknowledges. Support C: Enters data. Notes any discrepancy between ETA given by aircraft and ETA calculated by his computer. In emulation the wind will constitute the major variable in calculating leg times. It is likely that there will be variations between forecast and actual winds, and this may vary with height, so that some met winds will be very good and others inaccurate. Controllers will be able to see the trend of the variation between ETAs and ATAs and to make their own assessment of whether aircraft are likely to be early or late. This is exactly what happens without a computer in the loop. In an emulation system, the fact that the computer also has the same data will allow it to make its own assessment assuming that its program makes provision for this. We then have a situation of competition between controller and computer in which the controller will probably win at first, but in which increasing situation information will allow the processor to estimate the rate of change in the light of forecast trends. Hopefully, and this is quite unproven, it will be possible for the system to determine actual winds for different areas at different levels, and by feeding data back to the forecaster to improve the quality of the service he can give. Other variables affecting aircraft performance are weight, temperature. and Company operating instructions. It may also be necessary to take into account the variations within a single air12

craft type - for instance same airframe, different engines in compiling the aircraft data which the emulator has to keep in store. Accuracy in the emulator depends on a lot of small things being right and adding up to produce the correct final answer. However, assuming that the concept goes ahead, the emulator will start being useful long before it reaches its maximum accuracy. The fact that it allows the controller to see his traffic is a great step forward, and the advantage of this is enhanced by the fact that he can now put a question to an aircraft at a time when the answer is most useful. The airway crossing point has already been used as an example of this. Obviously too frequent requests for position up-date are not going to be welcome, but crews quickly pick up a feeling that they are being looked after well by ATC and are willing to co-operate. The ideal up-date, of course, is one that is as frequent as radar and is transmitted automatically from the aircraft management computer to the ATC computer over an air-to-ground data link. This sort of system, technically possible today, will probably not be in general use until the year 2000, but the emulator can reasonably be considered a forerunner of it. One of the questions we have been asked is whether it will be possible to combine radar with the emulator. In other words, could radar data be used while the aircraft is flying in radar cover giving a flying start to the emulation process as the edge of the cover was reached. This is the sort of question that it is perhaps as well to leave for the moment. The difficulty is that every additional facility introduced into a computer system increases the complexity and the cost of the software. This is particularly true when a concept is new. We have therefore suggested the use of radar display repeaters. At the side of each executive controller position where an emulation sector adjoins a radar sector there will be a radar display which is slaved to the radar sector controller's own display. The executive controller will be able to watch his traffic coming up to the hand-off point and equally to see his departing traffic coming into radar cover. It will probably be possible to arrange for inter-console marking between the two systems, but anything more than this will be out as far as the initial scheme is concerned. For many people here the sort of situation that has been described is more complex than their own. It is easy for them to feel that their system falls outside the area where any sort of computer system would be worthwhile let alone justify the cost of Providing it. If this is your position I would ask you to ignore for the moment the question of cost, and where the money is coming from, and ask whether there is anything a computer could do for you. The sort of thing I have in mind is the throwaway remark in one of the papers presented to this conference. It says: "Fortunately we had estimated approach times from the computer". Wouldn't it be easier if everyone worked in the sort of system where this sort of calculation was provided - and all the other simple calculation too. The reason the girl at the checkout in a supermarket is given a till which does everything including calculating change is the need to ensure accuracy. Should not the controller have commensurate facilities to ensure both accuracy and safety?

What are your plans for May 1981? Join us from 4-8 May for the 20th Annual IFATCA Conference in the Cairo Hilton Hotel, Egyptl


AVIATION HAS PROGRESSEDSINCE THEN AND NOW THERE ·s A FOURTH GENERATION PHILIPS VOICE LOGGING SYSTEM 1954: Flying was still an adventure. Pilots had to look at stars and constellations to navigate across continents and oceans, s ome times with a little help from non-directional beacons - or none at all. But at least we had ears a nd voices in the skies. And, of course, on the ground we had Philips' first generation Voice Logging System - that very first multi-channel recorder for added security in air traffic control. Nowadays astro-navigation is fast becoming a thing of the past. And air traffic control has d eveloped into an ongoing, complex operation with planes arriving, manoeuvring and taking off


from distant terminals and runways. We've even got eyes in the skies. And air traffic control communications are still being clearly recorded by Philips' Voice Logging Systems at over 120 airports all over the world. Now we're introducing our fourth generation VLS. Because technology has kept on advancing. And wasn't it Philips who started progress in voice logging in aviation? For further information write to: Philips Industries Electro-Acoustics Division Prof. Ree . Dept. HBS-2 Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

OF PROGRESS Voice Logging Systems


STANDARDISATION An Alternative Approach to ATC Automation

by Hakan Westermark, Datasaab


Why invent the wheel - again?

The use of automated ATC systems with a varying degree of sophistication is becoming increasingly common. Buying and producing these systems still tends to be a very long and involved process, based on the customer's often very detailed technical and operational requirements.

Maybe the controllers at West Drayton would be happy for that system which is totally unsuited for Paramaribo, and maybe the CAA in UK would. Maybe, but most certainly not even if the level of sophistication is right. London is probably one area for which an ATC system will have to be "tailored" to meet precise demands. The CAA would certainly have the competence to specify the operational and technical requirements for such a system, and to evaluate bids for it. It actually requires as much knowledge and experience to purchase an ATC system as it takes to operate and maintain it. This is a serious dilemma to many administrations, and not only those in developing countries. The solution is, as I see it, standardisation. Long (and successful) experience from designing and producing "tailor-made" ATC systems has led Datasaab to the conclusion that despite differences between centres - by size, type of traffic flow and operational procedures - there is a common thread running through the requirements, and that a standardisation is possible, and indeed desirable. The use of automated ATC systems is becoming increasingly common throughout the world. Buying and producing them still tends to be a very long and involved process, based on the customer's often very detailed technical and operational (often less so) specification. In fact, the wheel has been invented many times in this field, and numerous mistakes are being made. In theory, precise tailoring should result in a system which exactly matches the operational requirements of the centre and maximises its performance. In practice, it frequently fails in its objective of producing an optimal system to meet the operational needs - which finally is the sole reason for implementing the system.

Long experience from designing and producing "tailor-made" A TC systems has led Datasaab to the conclusion that despite differences between centres - by size, type of traffic flow and operational procedures - there is a common thread running through the requirements, and that a standardisation is possible, and indeed desirable. This conclusion is, of course, especially valid for ATC centres in developing countries, but probably also for the great majority of centres in other countries. This paper primarily deals with the philosophy behind Datasaab's basic ATC system, the recently introduced AIRWATCH 1000 and how flexibility and modularity - necessary to match standardisation - are applied in the design of this system. The AIRWATCH 1000 is designed for small ATC centres and control towers.

"Basic Requirements" means different things The theme for the Technical Panel of this year's IFATCA Annual Conference is "The Basic Requirements for ATC to Meet Technical Progress". This title is less than clear unless one has some background to it. As we all know, this conference was until just a few weeks ago intended to be held in a developing country, and the theme was suggested and adopted with this in mind. I would propose the following interpretation of the theme: "Adequate means and methods for Air Traffic Control to keep pace with the rapidly growing air traffic, the revolution in airborne equipment and the increased demands for efficiency by aircraft operators caused by soaring fuel prices". "Means" can be interpreted to mean many things: Training, skill, equipment. The word "adequate" puts universality to it; it implies that ATC in developing countries often does not have the same requirements for these things as in industrial countries, and that "basics" in ATC means one thing in London and something quite different in Paramaribo, to take one example. The theme is then indeed a universal one, and well worth a discussion at this conference. ATC in Canada or the UK as well as that in Surinam or the Sudan has its "basic requirements", but it certainly does not mean the same thing, whatever meaning you apply to it. For obvious reasons, this paper deals with equipment for ATC and ATC training. It will concentrate on equipment suitable for developing countries, which was the original purpose of the theme. For many reasons, the requirements for radar processing and display equipment vary between countries as well as it varies between ATC facilities within a country. I am sure that the controllers at Paramaribo agree that they would not require a multi-radar, multi-computer, double back-up radar processing and display system with fully integrated and automated flight plan processing and a capacity to handle 1000 flights at any one time - just because they do not need it. And their administration would be totally unhappy about such a system because it would require a very skilled staff to operate and maintain it, and these people are simply not available. In this case, the "basic requirements" for equipment is something much less advanced; it means equipment sophisticated enough to provide the capacity for controlling the actual amount and type of traffic in an efficient and safe way. It also means that the maintenance requirements must not exceed possibilities and that the system can be easily expended to meet future growth of traffic.


It is against this background that Datasaab designed the AIRWATCH series of ATC systems. These systems are sufficiently modular in size and facilities to meet operational requirements of a very wide range of ATC environments without tailoring. Local variation of demands can usually be met with standardised addon hardware and software. In short, standardised ATC systems and, as we believe, in particular the AIRWATCH series of systems, offer the following advantages compared to custom-built systems: • • • • • • •

Lower price. High development costs can be spread out over a number of identical systems Simplified procurement process Shorter delivery time and installation Well-proven operational facilities Very high reliability from first minute of operation Simplified maintenance Well-defined expansion possibilities.

The AIRWATCH series of automated ATC systems The remaining parts of this paper deal with Datasaab's recently introduced series of automated ATC systems. In particular, the basic system, the AIRWATCH 1000 is described in some detail. This system, which is designed for small A TC centres and control towers, clearly illustrates the leading principles in the design of all AIRWATCH systems. The AIRWATCH systems have been designed to suit all types of traffic and environment. AIRWATCH system architecture meets requirements ranging from a single PPI system used in an APP/ ACC or TWR application to large centres. Modular design also allows adaptation to individual needs within wide frames and ensures system expansion at low cost as traffic grows. All systems are truly controller-oriented, with numerous useful operational facilities and simple man-machine interaction.

Three different ATC systems are available today: AIRWATCH 1OOO, 2000, and 3000. A Radar Simulator is cu rrently being developed along the same guide-lines. For local training, software packages have been developed which allow the ordinary computer system and working positions of any AIRWATCH system to be used as a "Training Module ". This low-cost addition to the system can be used for training controllers on the new equipment and for refresher training. With AIRWATCH 2000 and 3000 which have duplicated co mputer systems, training may be carried out on the back-up computer without interference with actual operations.

The AIRWATCH 1000 A standardised ATC system must be flexible enough to meet varying requirements for envi ronment and performance and it must be modular to allow for system expansion. At places whe re skilled labour is scarce, the administration is likely to put simp le installation, operation and maintenance and, most certainly, economy high on the "wanted " list. Th e AIRWATCH 1000 is designed to meet all requi rements. The AIRWATCH 1000 is a member of Datasaab's well-proven Display System 8500 family which is also used in air defence and marine applications. The special software package developed for ATC provides the AIRWATCH 1000 with a surprisingly comprehens ive range of co ntroller's functions. An AIRWATCH 1000 operator console is a fully autonomous unit, which means that no central processor is required. Instead, all processing is carried out independent ly by a sophisticated micro-processor built in to each conso le. In addition to the PPI and micro-processor, each conso le includes a keyboard and a rolling ball for controller-processor communication. Two or more s uch AIRWATCH 1000 consoles can be combined to create a multi-console system. In the basic system configuration, the AIRWATCH 1000 console (or consoles) will accept ext racted (digitised) signals fro m o ne primary and o ne secondary radar station. Radar returns are displayed as plot symbols showing the type of retu rn ; primary, secondary o r combi ned. Since plot trails ("history plots " ) are displayed, it is possible to wo rk o n a fully synthetic PPI picture, i.e. w ithout the conventional raw v id eo and afterglow. However, introd ucing a low-cost sweep compression device into the processor, raw video ca n be displayed together with syntheti c plot information, maps and vectors in a mixed mode. Additional building sto nes may be added to make the system accept s ignals from up to three PSR/SSR stations and one direction finder. OF data is presented on the PPI as a vector starting at the geographical position of the stat ion and extending into the direction of the transmitting ai rcraft. Numerical QDR/ QDM values are instantly calc ul ated and d isplayed. A label showing callsig n, mode C level and attitude (climb/ descent indication) is displayed for all airc raft carrying a working 4096-code transponder, provided that the code-callsign relation has been entered by t he controller. In a multicon so le system an add itional bui lding stone may be added to provide for input and distribution of code-call sig n pairs to all co nsoles from

Fig. 1: AIRWATCH 1000 Console Front plate removed

High-precision digital maps and runway extension lines. With low cost, short delivery time, simpl e installation, operation and maintenan ce the A IRWAT CH 1000 is expected to be a realist ic alternative for many administrations - resourceful or not - to meet demands for more effic ious and safer contro l of air traffic at small ATC centres and control towers.

Vino.ring: Umt

one central data term in al. Operatio nal


other than those



include : • • • •

Uniqu e symbols for PPI, garbling and distress codes Active and passive decoding PPI list with entered code-callsign pairs and character-bycharacter tellback of current inputs Hold fun ct ion , i.e. label contents are transferred to the PPI li st w hil e aircraft flies in holding pattern or other high-density area Vector function , controlled by the roll in g ball, for displaying a line between two arb itrary points on the PPI and measuring the bearing and distan ce

Fig. 2: AIRWATCH 1000 Full system confi gurati on . An ar bitrary number o f c ons oles m ay be used .


The Basic Requirements for A.T.C. to Meet Technical Progress - A Man System Basic Components of a System An Air Navigation Services System like any other system consists of HARDWARE SOFTWARE LIVEWARE Liveware is defined as people and procedures directly engaged in the operation of a system. They instruct and control the system by overriding or making decisions, which the system either has not made or are unsatisfactory. Now, what is a system? A system in the commonly accepted understanding is defined as a composite of equipments, skills and techniques capable of performing or supporting an operational role or both. A complete system therefore includes all equipment, related facilities, material, software, services and personnel required for its operation and support to the degree that it can be considered a self-sufficient unit in its intended operational environment.

The Air Navigation Services System Such a system consists of machine and man. It should be the major task of this yet incomplete machine (i.e. the different equipments in their proper configuration) to expedite the flow of data in the system. In order to fulfil! his system function and operational tasks man needs information and data. More traffic means more data. Equipment is manufactured to accept much more data than man can handle himself. Therefore these data must be presented to him in a suitable way to enable him to act as a human interface, besides his major role of COMMANDING and CONTROLLING, i.e. MANAGING the system. Every system concept proposal should therefore contain an operational part and a technical part. Essential subsystems of the total system should be able to automatically detect and indicate malfunctions as soon as they occur to allow corrective direct human intervention.

The Air Navigation Services Subsystems When planning an extension or upgrading of an air navigation services system one should consider a few basic facts and rules. Put the Man in the Centre of the System. Make yourself a complete Picture. Do not look at new Subsystem Functions in Isolation. Consider that the Man in the System is the Heart of the System. Consider that all vital Information on Pilot and Controller Intentions and Decisions is being negotiated by Voice Communication (R/T or Landline). For economic System Operation the Air Navigation Services System must form an Entity like Pieces of a Puzzle make a Picture in putting the Subsystems together. In order to give a Guideline in this Direction, the basic Pieces of the Air Navigation Services Puzzle should be put together as follows: PER I TRG I SIM SMC and LOG RADAR and FPP AID MET and D/F and NAV and NOTAM Voice & Data COM.


by Frank W. Fischer Advisory Group Air Navigation Services Inc. (ANSA)

Our Objectives and Operational Requirements Our Objectives are to maintain the present level of safety to increase capacity to adapt to changing user requirements to make optimum use of the available airspace to improve civil and military coordination to improve environmental and working conditions In fulfilment of these objectives the following constraints must be observed: airspace user types of aircraft defense concept feasibility traffic demand resulting in commercial, private and military user requirements; safety matters - international commitments - defense requirements resulting in political constraints.

Modern Tools in Air Traffic Control These tools must be differentiated by system functions equipment supporting toots and should be valued according to their effect and importance; to the controller to the technical environment to the organization. MODERN TOOLS IN AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL Air Traffic Controller FCB RNAV COLOR DISPLAYS CURT CONFLICT PREDICTION CONFLICT ALERT


Technical Environment


Organization FCB RNAV






CAI RO '81 The 20th Annual Conference of IFATCA provides the unique opportunity to experience the flair of the ancient world while receiving an update on latest aviation technology.

IFATCA '81 4-8 May 1981 at the Cairo Hilton and 9th May for an optional tour to Luxor

Make the Cairo Conference your Rendezvous for 1981 The Cairo Hilton from ac ro ss the Nile.



Rigidity Decision Making FAILURE MODE OPERATION Failure Recognition Failure Recovery Failure Operations.





Human Factors JOB SATISFACTION AND MOTIVATION Achievement - Work Alignment Recognition Responsibility Control Authority Utilization of perceived Skills Challenge - Discretionary Flexibility Interest MAN / MACHINE INTERFACE Vigilance Stress Intricacy Restrictiveness


IFATCA at the 33rd Congress of the ITF

Standing Committee (SC) IV, Human and Environmental Factors met in Amsterdam for 3 days (1 to 3 September) to study the Committee's Work Programme as it was resolved by the 19th Annual Conference at Toronto, in May this year. Main items of SCIV Programme for the year until the Cairo Conference in April, next year are: Continuance of updating the Committee's questionnaire in relation to the IFATCA Handbook (IHB); operation of SCIV Library; evaluation of the answers on the SCIV Questionnaire regarding the results of the ILO Meeting of Experts on ATC; medical research on ocular diseases; working conditions in ATC from the medical point of view; contacts with national and/or international Institutes, Administrations or Organisations regarding the identification of profession-related diseases and their promulgation.

(International Transport Workers' Federation) Miami, USA, 17-25 July 1980. This Congress, the first since 1977 when the 32nd Congress was held in Dublin, Ireland, was attended on behalf of IFATCA by President, Harri Henschler, for a two-day period, 18 and 19 July. The President of PATCO, R. E. Poli, attended throughout. Approximately 1400 delegates, representing a large number of transportation employees' organizations from 64 countries, were registered. This group is made up of members of many facets of transportation and its specialties, from marine, road, rail, through air. Also in attendance were a large number of observers from international organizations, agencies, and governments. Portions of the first two days and all of the last four days were dedicated to Plenary Sessions. During the ITF Congress the various sections, such as Seafarers, Road Transport, Railwaymen, etc, hold their own Section Conference. The Civil Aviation Section took place on 19 July 1980. Concerns discussed, and Policy Statements and Resolutions voted on, were wide-ranging during the Civil Aviation Section Conference and covered such topics as "Use of Microelectronics in Civil Aviation", "Deregulation of Air Services (airlines)", "Cabin Crew Licence", "Flight Crew Complement", "Flight Data and Cockpit Voice Recorders", "Flight and Duty Time Limitations on Safety Grounds", "Air Transport of Hazardous Materials", to name only a number. No items of imminent concern to air traffic controllers were discussed during the Civil Aviation Section Conference. However, reports on ITF involvement in the ILO Tripartite Meeting and the ILO Meeting of Experts on Air Traffic Controllers were tabled, as well as a report on a follow-up meeting of the ITF on the latter ILO Meeting, held in Geneva on 10 and 11 June 1980. The ITF appears to be developping a greater interest in air traffic control. It has established a representative at ICAO. Of interest is an ITF Policy which would see international industrial action against countries harbouring aircraft Hi-jackers.

Following discussions on the Work Programme it was agreed that members of SCIV should make a study of the New Zealand's Tribunal decision to compare the salaries of the Controller with that of the New Zealand Airlines captain. Furthermore, the Committee will consider as a future agenda item the effects on the eyesight of the Visual Display Units (VDUs) and also the hearing effects of the modern headsets being used. The Executive Board were represented by the Vice-President Professional, Mr. Andreas Avgoustis.



Member-Associations are reminded that SCIV Library functions and Associations may borrow books and other literature available for their members' benefit.


The Development of Commercial Aviation in Argentina The Way to Aerolineas Argentinas, Argentine's World ~Airline by Horst Guddat

Argentina - a young and demanding country Loo king at a map it does n't need very much imag ination to fig ure out that this country with 3.761.274 km 2 of continental, island and Antarctic territories is req uiring an efficient com munication and transportation system. Apart from Greater Buenos Ai res, where over 12 million people live, the 28 million total inhabitants of Argentina are wide ly spread. Among the few other commercial centres are Cordoba and Mendoza. The cou ntry could eas ily afford 500 million people, but this is still in the stars and a long way to go. Argentina has n't exceeded the youth age as yet and offers a wide spectru m of possibilit ies. It is st ill developing and you wou ld be surp rised to see some of the promisi ng talents and prospects c urrently in the process of materializing. The beau tifully presented Aerolineas Argentinas Fl ight Magazine VOLANDO ARGENTINA is a fine introduction to the co untry, its artists, attractio ns and achievemen ts. A cou ntry that has always had a certain " faible" for aviation and, of course, a vita l interest in and need for this means of transportation. surface travel, as everywhe re else in South A merica, was and will always be a very d ifficult, costly and time co nsum ing venture. Hence the natu ral interest in aviatio n, wh ich was first docum ented in 1809 when the Argentine government received a proposal of a watchmaker from the Provin ce of Mendoza to build a dirigible. Detailed plans for this project are preserved in the Nati onal Archives as are docum ents about the first successful balloon flights of an Argentine citizen from 1842 to 1844. Balloon flights became very popul ar at t he turn of the century and on 13th January 1908 its pioneers founded the Aeroclub Argentina which in Decembe r 1910 affil iated with the Internat ional Aeronautical Federation (FA I), seated in France, thus documenting the start of impressive aeronautical act ivi ties that brought forward many officially recognized record fligh ts and remarkable aviat ion firsts.

Du ring 1910 already ten intern at ional pilots licences " Brevets" were issued according to FA I regulati on s to Belg ian, French, Italian and also Argent ine pilots .

The first airplane In 1909 the first airplane was imported to Argentina by th e " Si ndi cato Aerea Argentina " for exposition in Bu enos Aires. One year later, on occasion of the " Centena ri o Patria", the Century of Indepe ndence, the Italian Ricardo Ponzelli made the first flight in a Fren ch Voisin airplane, but unfortunately crashed during landing. One week later, on 6 Feb ru ary 1910, the first successful flight according to FAI regulations by the French man Henri Bregui was recorded. This was the beginning of a remarkable developme nt where initially known and unknown pilots of the European cou nt ries became involved but w here later on many sons and daughters of the cou ntry cli mbed up into the sky of the famed flyers to become the ido ls of an enthu siastic air minded nation.

The first air transport company the first flying school

Florenc io Parrav ic in i. the first Arg enti ne pilot, i n his fl ying machi ne on 17 June 1910 in Buenos Aires.

the first airport -

As th e " Sindicato" grew bigg er the " Compania Aeres Argentin a " was established, whi ch built up an ow n aerodrome at " El Palomar" and opened an own flying schoo l, the first in Argentin a, on 20 July 1910. Some French pilots were hired for flying and inst ructing , th e first passenger f lights conducted and the first night f li ghts performed over distances up to 4 kilometers.

Across the national boundaries and the start of commercial aviation The same year saw flights to the ne igbo uring cou ntr ies. Steps were initiated to build up t he nat io nal airpl ane industry, and one year later, in 1911, th e fi rst A rgentine buil t ai rpl ane, a Casta ibert, was ex po rted to Uru guay, starting w ith it the histo ry of military aviat io n of that neigbo uring cou ntry. Al so in 1911 the f irst airmail was carried . Com mercial aviati on was born. A rapid development was to fo ll ow. Al ready on 16 J anuary 1913, the first FA I recognized world record flight with passengers was noted for the Germ an pilot Lube fo r his return f lig ht to Montevideo on that ve ry date. Worth to note also the f irst pilots lincence issued to an Argentine wo man. Amalia Fig eredo got her " Brevet" o n 1 Octo ber 1914, but she was not destined for a g reat flying career, possibly because kitchen wo rk and raising children st ill were the prim e tasks of women in t hose days. As of 191 7 regular air mail se rvices between A rgen tina and Uruguay began and in the interior of the cou ntry seve ral pilots started aero taxi enterprises between various po ints of co mm erc ial interest. 19

The invasion of foreign aviators After the end of World War I several delegations of pilots came to Argentina on friendly missions, bringing their aircraft with the idea of establishing airline services with regular passenger and cargo flights. The war in Europe had produced a great number of pilots and flying machines now waiting for peaceful commercial use. First to arrive were the Italians with 32 airplanes and 7 seaplanes. They started ind ividual sporadic services in March 1919. Next in the line were the British. The De Havilland Company sent Major Kingsley with a fleet of 16 airplanes in June 1919. Supported by some Argentine aviation pioneers, among them the first pilot of the country, Aaron de Anchorena. Major Kingsley founded the " River Plate Company" in August 1919 and managed to establish quite regular services on various routes throughout Argentina. In the first year this, what you may call the first functioning commercial air transport enterprise f lew 8.175 km without accident, carrying a total of 12.224 passengers. In September 1919, a French group under Lt. Col. Maurice Precardin arrived with 20 airplanes, 4 seaplanes and 4 gliders. Among the 32 officers, pilots, technicians and staff was a young Argentine fellow who later on should become famous in the Argentine aviation business, Vicente A lmandos Almonacid. Already in October 1919 the newly formed "Compania Franco Argentina de Aviaci6n" started operating scheduled flights, and in December 1919 international scheduled flights were inaugurated to Montevideo. Services to Mendoza followed in January 1920. For the 1.100 km about 12 hours were needed, using the Breguet to la Carlota and from there the Farman 50 to Mendoza. Service stations with hangars and other facilities established in Pergamino, Rio, Cuarto, Villa Mercedes and la Carlota. This was an absolute necessity for the rapidly progressing air tran sport system. Over 80 airplanes were operating in Argent ina in 1920. They required servicing, maintenance and shelter from often adverse weather. The two functioning companies of English and French origi n soon found that worki ng together was much better than sense less, hindering compet itio n. They were meant to serve the same purpose, hence it was wise to agree on a merger. In September 1921 " River Plate " and " Franco Argentina" formed the " Compania Riopl atense de Aviaci6n" with a capital of a million Pesos and some 40 aircraft. General Manager was Shirley Kingsley. In the Executive we re managers and stockhol ders of great Argentine enterprises. A clever approach to promote aviation in the country. More people had to be convinced that aviation was the key to the development of national economy. In June 1924, the German Junkers group arrived in Argentina, introduci ng the best aircraft of the tim e, the modern an d economic allmetal single 185HP engined F-13L ai rplane w ith four seats plus 2 crew, and the A-20 L with a 235HP engine, both convertible into seaplanes. Later on the 3-engi ned G-24 w ith a capacity

of 12 passengers and the A-50 " Cadete Argentino" followed. Regular, three times a week services to Montevideo were started on 1 March 1926. Until October 1927 a total of 436 flights were carried out, 1.420 passengers, 6.153 kg baggage and 3.512 kg of air mail flown over 93.740 km. The regu larity achieved was outstanding, 97,3 %, a figure that even today would give pride to many an airline company.

The beginning of "La Linea" In those days the French Airline operator Pierre Latecoere started thinking about extending his enterprise across the Atlantic beyond the most southern point in Africa he already served, Dakar. He sent Captain Roig to Buenos Aires to study t he extension from the north of Brazil down to Argentina. Roig got in touch with the meanwhile well- known captain Almonacid, who had already quite some experience in airline operations and who got famous because of his night flights over the Andes. Often referred to as "El Condor de la Roija" Almonacid was also mentioned in the famous Argentine aviation book " l a ligne" by J. G. Fleury. Without him it hardly would have been possible to establish in 1926 regu lar services to the north of Brazil, from there to continue by ship to Africa and from there "lineas latecoere" took over again by air to Europe. Quite a long way to go, but it worked and cut the former travel time by ship considerably. In the beginning, however, this new connect ion was mainly used to carry air mail. In September 1927, lineas latecoer was bought by Mr. Bouilloux-Lafont, a powerful businessman who owned some industry and enterp rises in Brazil and Argenti na. Under the new name "Compagnie Generale Aeropostale" operations were continued and expanded. Almonacid became General Manager of the Argentine subsidiary "Aeroposta Argentina ", and also took part in the foundation of " Aeroposta Uruguaya" in the neighbour country. His efficient leadersh ip was reflected in the inauguration of a number of new connections and the modernization of some airfields. Pacheco airfield, for instance, was equipped with the best facilities available such as radio communication and lighting. Aeroposta Argent in'a made quick progress. On 1 March 1928, the complete air link was established between Buenos Aires and France. On 1 January 1929, regular mail and passeng er services were established between Buenos Aires and Asunci6n del Paraguay, with stops at Monte Caseros and Posadas. On 15 July the route Buenos Aires-Mendoza-Santiago de Chile followed. On 1 November the line Bahia Blanca- Rivadavia followed with stops at San Antonion, Oeste and Tre low. 1929 was a successfu l and importan t year for the Company, in fact the first year of normal operation. producing a considerable profit, without any loss of man and equipment. Unfortunately during 1928 some tragic accidents had occured, wherein a lot of brave Fren ch pilots lost their lives trying to conquer the ocean, the desert, mountain, endless forests and jungle. Their small Breguets, Lates 25/26 and Potez 25 simply were not fit for the adverse conditions that arose during their often lonely flights, as impressively described by a famo us pilot of those years: Antoine de Saint-Exupery. (Author of The little Prince, Night Flight).

More input, more professionalism, more safety



A 4-seated LATE-25 of Aeropostal on front of the hangar at Buenos Aire s


Another sign ificant input from a foreign country came f rom North America, starting in June 1929, when Mr. Ralph O 'Neil introduced his "Trimotor Safety Airways Co. Inc." to Argentina . He founded a subsidiary company cal led " N ew York-Rio- Buenos Aires (NYRBA) " to open the line Buenos Aires-Montevideo-RioBelem- Puerto Rico-Miami. Du ring 1930 he extended his se rvice to Mendoza and Santiago de Chile. NYRBA was operating a total of 22 mostly modern ai rc raft ; 10 seaplanes, one Sikorsky monoplane, 6 Ford t rimotor, 2 Lockheed Fleetstar and 3 Continenta l biplanes.

The tri- m otor J un ker Ju-52 "Pampa" of the l ate thirties.

Next to arrive was PANAGRA, a subsidiary of Pan American Grace Airways. In October 1929, their first flight from Santiago de Chile landed in Buenos Aires. They were t o open some "diagonal lines" to the North West territo ry, and to Bolivia and Peru . Initially all flights of PANAGRA to the USA followed the W est Coast , having Santiago de Chile as the most southern centre and collecting point. To the Argentine aviation personnel PA NAGRA brought some valuable assistance. Operations control, flight dispatch, ae ron autical meteorology, operations manuals and procedures were int rod uced or perfectionized by PANAGRA experts. A lot was done to make the equipment more reliable, the perso nnel more effic ient and skillful , in short, flying safer. Jn September 1930, PANAGRA took over the defunct NYRBA, which could not get an extension of their concession by the US government becau se of financial problems. All flight equipment and services were taken over by PANAGRA.

Difficulties to overcome Fin ancial problems were also experienced by the Compagnie G enerale Aeropostale which still operated as parent organisation to Aeroposta Argentina. After April 1931 Aeroposta Argentina gradually had to suspend so me of its services. However, the airline survived. Jn May 1932, the company recovered again , supported by the Arg entine Gove rnment and a few individuals. In the same year services were reinstated, and in September even flights to Rio Grande o n the island of Tierra del Fuego were i naugurated, using the a-passe nger L ate 28. This airc raft stayed in service until February 1937, when three 14-seated Jun ke rs JU-52 trimotors (Patagonia, Tierra del Fu ego, Pampa) too k over. Th e thirties saw a lot of activity o n the Argentine aviation scene originating b oth in foreign and domestic sources. PANAM, th roug h PANAGRA and PANAIR, extended services into Argentina. The German Sindicato Condor co nnected Argentina and G ermany through a line via Brazil and M ontevideo. Domest ic enterprises tried to get a share on the regional market , there were "Valles Calchaquies" (Salta Province), "STA-Sociedad de Transportes Aereos" (Tucu man Province), " T ransportes Aereos Ranqueles" (Cordoba Provin ce), "SANA-Sociedad de Navegac io n Ae rea" (Rio de la Plata), to name but a few. Also the Argentin e A rmy tried to get into the co mme rcial air transport business. Starting the expe riment with h ome built ai rc raft in February 1934 (SETA) , continuing w ith remarkable success into the mid-forties. In 1940 the Army established LASO, which in 1944 merged with the LAN E co mpany set up in 1943. The co mbined " Lin eas Aereas del Estado - LA DE " operated a total of 1.440 flights, ca rrying 20.905 passengers, 17.432 kg of mail and 13.072 kg cargo.

Again t he areas of activity and prefere nce were distributed among existing companies, and new names of conso lidations appeared. The south ern part of Argentina was assig ned to "Sociedad Mixta Aeroposta Argentina" , the north and northeast to "Sociedad Mixta Aviacio n del Lito ral Fluvial Argentina - A LFA", the northwest and west to "Sociedad Mixta Z o nes Oeste y Norte de Aerolineas Argentina - ZONDA" and the international services to "Sociedad Mix ta Fl ota Aerea Mercante Argentina FAMA" . The latter company is con sidered to be th e immed iate predecessor of the inte rnat io nal Argentine carrier of today, "Aerol ineas Argentinas". FAMA soo n gained international experi ence and a good reputation . For the first President of FAMA, Miguel M i randa, it was not at all easy to get things started. New aircraft had to be acquired, because regular services necessitated modern and reliable equipment. Some Douglas T-1 69, late r a few DC-3s, Sa nd r ingham Flying Boats and the DC-4 carried the company flag on expansion course to va ri ous countries. Here the highlights. On 22 March 1946, a T-169 took off at 3:30 in the morning from the base of Palomar on its inaugu ral flight to Santiago de Chile. With the raising sun in th e back pilot- in-command Jose F. Sad in and his crew saw the fabulous spectacle of the gradually developing cumulunimbus climbing over the mountain peaks of th e Cordilleres de los Andes. As the flight was supposed to be carried out in visual meteoro logical cond itio ns to allow for visual navigation, it became more and more difficult to find a way clear of clouds t hrough t he montainous region with peaks up to 5.000 meters. Only the high skill , discipli ne and knowledge of the pilots made it possi ble to finally reach the destination, where the c rew and passengers received an enthu siastic welcome by the Preside nt and people of Chile. On 11 May 1946, t he fi rst flight to Rio de Janeiro was carried out with the Flyin g Boat " Brasil " , and on 4 June of the same


AmilSA MIDltCAN'TS AfllGllN'T1NA F. A. M . A .

Reorganisation of commercial aviation On 27 April 1945 an av iation law became effective that regulated and protected commerc ial flights of Argentine enterprises both on domestic and international routes.

The 22-seated Vickers Vi ki ng of FAMA of the fi ftie s


The first FAMA York to land in Dakar was under the command of Capt. Kmentt, wit h 27 years not only the youngest pilot of the company in those days, but also one of the most experienced (3.800 flying hours at that t ime). His co-pilot was the then 36 year old Edgard o Nanini, who had already over 6.000 fly ing hours in his log book. According to Kment! approach and landing at Dakar in !hose days was always exciting and at times even dangerous. Poor ground facilities, frequent fog, sandstorms and other adverse conditions left air crews in a rather awkward position. Arriving over Dakar with minimum fuel, there often was no other chance than to attempt even a dangerous land ing - they had to land, be it within the airfield boundaries or on the beach. The next airport was too far away. Once Kment! himself was faced with such a critical situation. It must have been in late 1947, he recalls,

The AVRO York of FAMA in the mid-forties.

yea r - the day when General Peron took over the Presidency of the country - another event produced headlines in the local and international press.

FAMA goes intercontinental It was the inauguration flight to London, which attracted the public interest. The Sunderland Flying Boat LV-AAQ "lnglaterra" took off from Puerto Nuevo with Capt. Charles MacDonald in the left hand seat of the cockpit. Among the passengers were two young pilots who later on should get quite some reputation, Luis C. Kmentt and Edgardo P. Nan in i. The flight via Rio, Natal, Bathurst Lisboa, Biscarosse and Poole took over 36 hours and was quite an adventure, as Luis Kmentt remembers. Operational handling was poor and air traffic se rvices along the route practically nonexistent. And this is how the journey looked like: Buenos AiresRio, 8 hours, night stop; Rio-Natal, 9 hours, night stop; NatalBathurst, 13 hours, night stop; 2 hours to Lisboa and from there 5 hours to Poole, sout h of the British capital from where a short bus trip closed t he link to London . A few month s later services were inaugurated to Paris, Madrid and Rome. The fourengined Avro York and Tudor, later the DC-4 were used on the routes to Europe reducing the f ly ing time Buenos Aires - London to 32 hours. In the first year of operation al ready over 1.700 passengers and 5.000 kg of freight were carried over a distance of 5 million flying kilometers. After 8 November 1946 all regular flights to and from Europe went via Dakar, a strategically important airport promoted by the French Airlines of those days. It became an equal ly important hub for FAMA.

The DC-6 was i ntro du ced on the routes to Eu rope in Summer 1953 to replace the DC-4.


Capt. Luis Kment! in front of a DC-6 parked on the apron of F rankfu rt Airport

that he ar rived over Dakar, almost no visibil ity, preceed ing aircraft, in an attempt to land, had crashed on the landing strip and caught fire, ai rfield c losed. Kmentt didn 't have enough fuel to make it to another airfield. Circling over Dakar, where meanwhile a few other aircraft got trapped in the same way, Kmentt prepared the passengers and crew for the worse - the emergency landing on the beach. The ground staff was rotating too. One of the fellows, however, kept quite calm and produced a real br ight idea. He managed to convince his f~l l ows to pos ition o il barrels along both sides of anothe r landing strip, which were lighted to disperse some of the fog. With the indication of his f uel gauges vib rating near "empty", Lu is came in as number one. No radar in those days, no Instrument Landing System, just a squeeking intermittendly operating radio range and a lot of background noise. Kmentt remembe rs that uneasy fee lin g w hen he was diving down into uncerta inty, the eyes concentrated on the instruments and at the same t ime scanning the area dead ahead through the small windshield w indows to find the helping light of the o il torches . Lower and lower the York sank , the sound of the engines still normal , precious fuel was stil l running th ro ugh t heir ve in es, seconds extended to breathless minutes, than the first two flik-

kering li ÂŁ;hts, th e powerf ul engines roared up trem endou sly w hi le Luis furiously applied so m e last minute course correctio ns to bring the ex-battleshi p into the best possible position for a safe landing, and down s he was - p erhaps so mewhat rougher th an usual, but circumstances also were som ewhat unusual. They had m ade it, and that is what counted. Under no rmal circumstances a flight instructor would probably have inh aled the air through his teeth alo ud and produced a sigh o f relief w hen the bumping ai rcraft h ad quietened h erse lf into a s low land ing roll. But there was n obody to count the days o f the week and a roaring app lau s fro m everybody on board the plane burst o ut instead. Well done, captain! "Ey the way all other ai rc raft ca me down safely as well and 1jid not h=:ve to share the ill-fate of the fatal cras h th at had caused the who'.e dilemma, Kment! added, as if he wa nted to say th a t th is keen approach was nothing special as everybody else had made it too. Eve nts l ike this one naturally added to the good reputation of FAMA, which also i:; reflected in the rapidly increasing passenger numbers . In th e first year of ope ration (6 mo nths during 1946) the company carried about 1.700 passengers and 5.000 kg cargo over roughly one million flying kilometers. During 1947 alread y over 10.000 passengers an d 27.000 kg of cargo were recorded o n routes cove ring 5 millio n kilometers. FAMA then had a fleet of 12 Doug las DC-4s, 3 Avro Yorks, 5 Vickers Vikings and 2 Lancastrians. Late r 6 m ore m ode rn DC-6s for intercontinental flights to New York and San Fransisco (since 21 O ctober 1949) and Europe, and 5 Convair 240s, for region al servic es, we re added to th e fleet.

The AVRO 748 of Aerolineas served on domestic routes fo r a number of years during t he sixties.

lished on 7 December 1950. Eq ui pment and most of the personn el was taken ove r from th e the n existing companies. After some reorganisation had been ap plied, services continued with practically n o interruption. International routes were even extended g radually despite grow ing competition, inc reasing costs and some stagnation in ai r travel. Tourist travel in t hose days was sti ll a sleeping market. Until the mid-fifties the company struggled along as good as possible. Then evolu tionary developments in Europe were recognised and immed iately acted upon . After the introduction of the fi rst civil jet transport aircraft, the legendary DeHavi lland Comet by Britsh Overseas Airways (BOAC), the purchase of one Comet 4 was decided b y the company and steps initiated to train sufficient crew and staff for the entry into the Jet Age. Beginning of 1959 Capt. L es lie Amos was the first Aerolineas pilot to fly the Comet. He and all the others flying the " Beauty" enjoyed very much th at new feeling of higher speed and altitude. New dimensions were conquered both in terms of t ime and fly ing comfort. On 6 March 1959, the fi rst Aerolineas jet LV-AHN was baptised in Buenos Aires as " Las Tres Marias" and immediately started an extensive demonstration tour to Europe under the command of Capt. Guillermo Riis.

Aerolineas Argentinas DC-3 at Buenos Aires Ezeiza Air port.

International cooperation The late forties also saw activity with reg ard to international cooperation. Programmes of mutual support and assistance were found to be of inc reas ing importance in the ai r transport world. Hen ce cooperati on contracts were concluded w ith a number of foreign international airlines. In add ition the n eed for an international body to coord in ate all c ivil aviat ion matters inte rnation ally was recognized, and the idea materialized in the foundation of IATA, th e International Air Transport Association. FAMA became o ne of th e first members, whereas at about the same time the air minded Argentin e government became one of the first contractors of the then establishing International Civi l Aviation Organizat ion (ICAO). Argentin a thus became an enthusiastic supporter fo r the application of standard rules and procedures in all fields of civil aviat ion, and ever since has taken an active part in the international coordinatio n of aviation matters.

As a young controller in Frankfurt Approach Control , the author remembers the appearance of th e Aerol ineas Comet in Frankfu rt and t he tremendous effort o n t he side of ATC to accommodate the high performance aircraft. Special approach and depa rture procedu res were composed w hich, after some time, w ere abolished again as th e co ntrollers fo und out that there was nothing special about the jets. Th is policy has survived into the

The foundation of Aerolineas Argentinas In following the substance of another civil aviation law. which called for the uniting of all Argentine air transport companies, Aerolineas Argentinas, Empresa del Estado , was estab-

The De Havill and Comet IV was the first passenger jet on the South Atlantrc route. Aerolineas intro duced this beautiful 87-seat jet plan e rn 1959 Thrs was the begin ning o f the j et a ge in com mercial transport What a gloriou s start fo r LV- AHS .


Keq>ing track ofATC technology Keeping track of present and future requirements in air traffic control technology is a specialist task. And Signaal, Philips' specialist company in air traffic control, has been doing just that. The result? A comprehensive programme of high-technology radar equipment which can be integrated to form a variety of customer-defined system configurations, and extended or upgraded as circumstances dictate. The advanced LAR-II L-band radar, for example, incorporates a synthesizer-controlled coherent trans-


mitter with a travelling wave tube final amplifier to provide a high mean power for long-range (over 200 NM) surveillance. In addition, LAR-II features multipulse operation to achieve a very short minimum range performance of less than 0.5 NM, making it suitable for terminal area sites also. Pulse compression in the receiver ensures excellent range discrimination. Secondary surveillance radar for positive and instantaneous aircraft identification, acquisition of altitude information, etc, can also be supplied and


integrated. Processing the vast amount of incoming data and presenting it to the air traffic controller in the most suitable form is another Signaal speciality. Software-based video extractors, for example. The primary extractor is capable of reducing thousands of plots (caused mostly by "angel" activity) to aircmft tracks only, while the secondary extractor achieves garble-free detection of two interleaved pulse train responses. If required, the system can be configured for moving target detection by replacing the primary

extractor with an MTD sub-system. And to visualize this data, there's a range of radar and electronic data displays extending from analog through mixed analog/ digital, fully synthetic and fully bright synthetic to synthetic 4-colour. Signaal's radar equipment has already been chosen to form the nucleus of air traffic control networks e.g. in Holland, Paraguay, Singapore and the United Kingdom. But Philips' total capability in aviation goes very much further, as the following examples illustrate.

Four-colou r dis play reduces misinter. lntci.,rn1tcd telecommuni cations. prptalions. Comparati\"l! tesL->. catTied nut AERO PP. a data s \\'itching and data handin crn1pl•ration with tht' Netherlands Instj _ ling system for aeronautical 01wration. pPr· tute for Pcrct•ption. pn>\"t•d that mis inmits h'Ta<lual. t'conomi<: )..'Towth: from a tPrprl' lations \\"C'l't' considpralJ ly rPduced small installation routing low \'olunws or when using S i)..rnaal's nC'w 2:l inch multi· AVfN traflit: to a JH>\\"l•rful multi-ust'r chromatic (gree n. n•d. yl'llow. orange) centre pro,·iding a compk•ll' rang<· 111' aProbright display. Even under normal light nautirnl telecom munications st·n ·kt's. condition s, colour presentation redu ced induding a link lo Llw rtighl-p lan Jll'Ol't'S· the tim e taken to scan the sl'reen fo r sing system. 'rill' s.v stcm is hast•d 1111 llw specific information, and less e ffort was Philips DS-714 hanlwan'. wdl prm•pn in nC'cdC'd to dislinh'Ltish different elements switching eenlrcs of public. privalt'. on display./\. multi-station system, each melcoroloJ...rical and at•ronautical l'Otrnnunistation equipped with a 4-colour dis play, a cation s networks thl' world o\"l'l'. minicomputer and a touch input device. has a lready hPC'n onlC'rcd by Austria. l f\"jnJ \\'anl t1)know rni1n·. lh;. hook ' l' hiliJis in A\'ialion· is yours for llh' asking. .Jus t SC'nd _\'our busim•ss ,·anl 11r namr· and addr~ss to: Phili11s lrnluslri<'s C.M.8.ll .. ~lark<'ling ( ·ummuni· 1·ation A\', \/Op, Room 22. Eindhm·pn, llolland.

Total capability fro m the ground up. By combining the know-how of our s pecialist companies we can offer a clos<•ly intei.,11·atcd pro)..11-amme of rquipml' nt. systems and sff\·ices lo tht• Aviation Authority. T he programml' in4·ludt»<: speeialised lighting systC'ms for taxiinJ;. take-0ff. apron positioning and runway approach. as well as indoor and outdoor te rmina l lighting: navigational a ids such as !LS. DM E and VOR: II F / VIIFI UHF and microwave radio t'ommunications: computer-hasC'd radar fo r a ir traffic l'Ontrol and ai11)ort surfact' movement (ASDE ): terminal sonorisation and seeu· tity systems. and a range of services extending from advance' study and evaluat ion of airport. requirements to airport construction and commissioning. From equipment design. supply and installat ion to t he supen·ision and training of ope rational and technical staff.

Philips working in Aviation


路 路 路 and w hat a Pit ie fu l e nd after 10 years of service. Hard facts of life, even fo r a m achi ne.

present days w here things have even turned the other way round - a Piston engine aircraft like the veteran DC-3 or any of t he 4-engined Douglas planes have to get the special treatment as they don 't fit any longer into the almost total jet scenarium. Aerol ineas was th e first airline to use jets on the South Atlantic scheduled services , thus cutting travel times between Argentina and Europe by almost 40 % , another pioneer effort that was underl ined by a total of 240 officially recognized records established for the v arious routes of the company. This naturally was encouragement for the introduction of more jets. Over the years the Boeing 707, 737, 747 and 727 as well as the Fokker F-28 were added to the fleet. The 6 Comets operated by A erolineas were gradually phased out in the mid-si xties to give way to the more efficient Boeing 707, which could carry more passengers at higher speed over longer distances. Some of the Comets were sold to Danair of Britain , w here two of them still fly regular charter services. The Fo kker 28, Boeing 737 and the 727, which was purchased only recent ly (1 978179), serve domestic and regional routes. Since t he beginn ing of 1978 again new dimensions were opened up w ith t he acquisition of the first B-747 for intercontinental f lights.

A great effort - training and maintenance At t he t ime the second 747 was due to arrive in Argentina there st il l was a lack of pilots. Training and resources couldn 't keep pace w ith the urgent requ irement fo r 747 pilots. At one time in 1978/79 only 13 captains were available when there was a requirement for 25. A heavy burde n on the crews at that time and a g reat effort to have the shortage reduced in relatively short a time. Main resource for the 747 was the 707 pilot contingent, w hich in turn had to be filled up by new recruits. The Nat ional Flight Training Center in Buenos Aires was filled to capaci ty at times (abo ut 50 stude nts at a time) . This modern tr aining f ac illity has a long history too. Originall y located at Mo ron (the first i nternati o nal airport of Argentin a, situated so me 12 km away from Buenos Aires, it was founded at t he initiat ive of PANAGRA in the late thirti es , and was al ready used by ALFA , Z ONDA and FAMA. Many famous pioneers gave a helpin g hand to its successfu l operation . Among them Jea n Mermoz , an ex-A ir France pilot , who was the fi rst to cross th e South At lant ic w est bo und non-sto p in 1930 w ith a single-engined LATE 28. Flyin g for Aeropostale Mermoz also used the Junkers Ju-52 and the Latecoere 300 Fly ing Boat "C roix du Sud" w ith which he un fort unately c ras hed into t he South Atlantic at the age of 38. Ali ke his friend Anto in e d e Saint- Exupery he died too early. In 1949, th e fly in g schoo l moved to Bu enos Aires to be reo rganised under t he auspi ces of Aero lineas Argentinas. Not only flyi ng pe rso nnel b ut also ground o pe ration s and maintenance perso nnel were tra in ed there. Since 1958 the schoo l is located at Ezeiza Airport. to w h ich in 1968 a mode rn training center with 26

simulators and training facilites was added. Simulators are available now for the Boeing 707, 727,737 and 747. Intensive training is still under way to recruit pilots for the steadily increasing fleet of Aerolineas which currently consists of: 1 Boeing 747SP (extremely long range), 4 B-747, 8 B-707, 12 B-737, 4 B-727 and 3 F-28. Since 1977 an all jet fleet. At the flying school also pilots for a number of foreign airlines are trained , among them Avianca and Lan Chile. The maintenance center operated at Ezeiza Airport is the most modern in South America. Since 1965 US-FAA certified, it carries out repair and maintenance for a number of airlines and employs around 1.850 specialists, deploys of 3 big hangars and a turbine test building. On a side note it may be interesting to have a quick look at the development of air traffic control in Argentina. First introduced by Aeropostale in the late thirties, it was extended by路 PANAGRA, which established the first control centres, meteorological stations and navigational services including maintenance. As the need for efficient ground services grew with the increasing air traffic the government took action and in 1949 established the National Air Traffic Services System, to be operated" as a government service since that time. An own air traffic services school is operated at Ezeiza Airport, which the author had the opportunity to visit some two years ago. This is a high-capacity institute with modern training facilities for area control, approach and tower control, telecommunication and technical staff, including navigational aids maintenance. Also a flight simulator for PPL and CPL training is available as well as a language laboratory, which is of vital importance because the Argentine ATS personnel is generally in need of better knowledge of the English language. The schoor currently recruits all needed ATS personnel for Argentina and for a number of other Latin American countries.

The Anniversary Year and who is to be congratulated The 7 December 1980 marked the 30th Anniversary of what Argentine insiders proudly refer to as the continuation of "La Linea ". Aerolineas in their recently introduced new livery that is weir received by spectators and users is to be congratulated for their pioneer work in civil air transport, which was highlighted again this year with the inauguraton of regular services over the South Pole Route to the Far East. In command of the first flight was Capt. Horacio Segura, a senior pilot with over 20.000 flying hours. On 7 June, he took off from Buenos Aires, headed his Jumbo south towards Rio Gallegos, then the Argentine Antarctic Station Marambio, the South Pole, then north to Auckland, where he mad e an intermediate stop after 12 hours flying. Continuing to Hong Kong, he landed there after a total flying time of 24 hours and 1O minutes. The normal route would have required 32 hours.

One of the fou r Aero lineas Boeing 747s that presently connect Con tinents.

With that successful ventu re Buenos Aires now is at the threshold of an interesting development which may well result in an important role as a hub for the South Pole Routes. Distanc es are no c riteria anymore, especially after the recent introduction of the Boeing 747 SP, an economic long range versio n of the Boeing Jumbo. Fl ight ti mes are due for reduction again and it is indeed amazing to compare, for instance, the times of the first South Atlantic services to Europe in 1946 with a total travel time of 72 hours, requiring 3 night stops on th e way, with a less than 11 hours nonstop trip of today. Many of yo u readers have witnessed this phantastic progress. You will appreciate the efforts and achievements of those involved and especially of those who contributed to the pioneer work. Of the Aerolineas staff I unfortunately cannot mention all who were involved, although they all merit mentioning. L et me begin with chief pilot Carlos Gho, who logs over 24.000 flying hours, gathered on DC-3, 4, 6, Electra, Comet-4, 8-707, 8-747. Carlos spe nt many years in the United States, an experience his company very much cou ld profit from. Flying across th e -South Atl antic with the first 747 of Aerolineas the author was impressed by the skill and calm determination of the chief pilot who handled all situations with the prompt and co rrect reaction required by the situation. The author also was invited to watch an automatic approach and landing. Quite impressive to see the big ship descending towards Madrid Airport without anyon e of the cockpit ¡crew touching the controls. Rate of descent, speed, flaps, throttle, etc. everything actioned by invisible hands, the runway coming closer and closer, gear down, more flaps, less power, nose up, wheels gently touching down, with the nose wheel running just about 2 meters left of the centerline down the runway. At this time Carlos took over the contro ls again to slow down the aircraft for 1urn off at a su itable taxiway.

, ---- Z:_





In the upper l ounge of a B-747 the auth or had the privi l ege of meet ing Capt. Luis Kmentt and to listen to some exciting stories of his exceptional aviation career. He is still the same d ed icated, enthusiastic. yet discreet pilot. Speaki ng about his pion eer wor k and merits makes him shy and uncertain if this is really worth mentioning . Aerolineas c an b e proud of having such an experi enced and motivated Senior Pilot.

Congratulating an airline for its achievements at the same time means recognising the service of many in div iduals that make the system work. Currently Aerolineas employs a total of 10.000, including 500 pilots. The company is rep resented in 88 cit ies. and has regu lar flights to 62 towns in 15 countries. In the 20th Anniversary Year 934.1 23 passengers , 9.542.629 kg freight and 1.580.530 kg mail were ca rried on routes equalling 33.290.000 flying kilometers . These figures are expected to have doubled in the 30th year of operation. A promising development which is hoped to continue. Acknowledgement The author is very much indebted to Terencio Emil io Oscar Spaini . Auditoria General. Aerolineas Argentinas. Buenos Aires, who provided a wealth of material, a n d to Oscar Jose Donelli . who translated Spaini 's excellent c ollect ion of historic events into English. Terencio Spai ni is the holder of the Air Traffic Contro l Certificate No. 1 for Tower Operators in Argent ina , issued in Buenos Aires on the 14 Mar ch 1947. He worked many years as a con troller and still feels very much connected to the ATC profession . Definitely his h ear t beats for avi ation , it is touching to h ear him talk about the old days. In appreciation of the most valuable cooper ation the author furth er wishes to thank various Aerolineas crews. w h o s o readily contribu ted w i th their personal experience and knowledge. and the Frankfurt represen:ation of the airline for their update informati on .

Capt. Carlos Gho i n the left hand seat o f the Boeing 747 cockpi t.

Captains Carlos Pacheco, Anto nio Torroella and Guillermo Riis already retired after many years of service. Capt. Riis, for instance, started flying when he was 17 years old, spent 42 years w ith various airlines, nea rly 30 w ith Aerolineas, invest ing over 22.000 flying hours alone w ith th at company. Valuab le co ntributions also stemm ed from the two instructor pilots Re naldo Daintree an d Fel iciano Palermo. Specia l tribute , however, has to be paid to Capt. Luis Kmentt. Already Number One pilot with FAMA, the predecessor of Aerolineas Arg entinas, he also became Number One of t he latter. Since 1 J anu ary 1946 he has been flyin g commercial aircraft. Starting flyi ng with 16 yea rs, he co llec ted over 26.000 flying hours in his logs, more than 13.000 of them on jets. He pi loted al l types of aircraft of FAMA and Aerolineas and thus forms an active part in the histo ry of the airline. A l iving example of ded ication to the professio n and of progress in av iation. Not many airl ines can boast of havi ng m otivated staff members like him and th e ones mentioned above.

The CIPE Aviation T raining Center at B ue n os Aires Eze iza Airp ort


The Effect of Automation in the Field of Air Traffic Control Introduction IFATCA has been grappling with various aspects of Automation since 1969. Until now, Conferences have considered no less than 15 working Papers on the subject. The end result has been that IFATCA has a lot of Guidance and Information material but little worthwhile policy. The 1979 IFATCA Conference consequently directed SCI to seek to wind up the subject by reviewing all on-going work, taking into account all previous Working Papers and putting the whole subject into perspective by preparing a very generalised paper. This would enable IFATCA to establish some useful broadbrush policy and, at the same time, remove the subject from the active SCI Work Study Programme - until such time as a positive requirement emerged for the development of detailed policy on any particular aspect. This general paper, together with the Eurocontr~I paper ~ub­ mitted separately on the specific subject of Conflict Detection, seeks to achieve these objectives. The discussion section presents, in outline, an appreciation of the implications of the application of automation to ~xisting ATC systems, highlighting these areas which are particularly sensitive when computers are used for this purpose. It further considers the implications of future developments in the more extended automation of Controller functions, particularly in respect of "total traffic management". This part uses as a basis _the paper presented by the Eurocontrol Association on the subject to the 1979 Conference (WP 90/79).

Discussion General Assuming the need exists, the justification for automation Is Improved efficiency. In the field of air traffic control, this covers Improved reliability and service, increased safety, and Increases In capacity and overall cost effectiveness. When automated facilities are required their application to air traffic control may be divided into three stages. The first stage is that which does not directly affect the controller or his task, although there may be resultant benefits in the reliability of service offered. This area includes such devices as communication switching systems, the decoding of SSR transponder signals, and simple strip printing systems. For the purpose of this paper this stage will be called "Background Automation". The second stage is the automation of some of the tasks required to control aircraft and the provision of automated services which require the controller to have an active interface with the computer. This stage will be called ,.Foreground Automation". The third stage is the introduction of automation on a much wider scale with computers directly involved in the task of strategic and tactical traffic management. This stage which may also include active digital air-ground air communication, will be called "Total Traffic Management". The following paragraphs discuss these 3 stages in the automation of ATC functions in more detail.

The First Stage - Background Automation The main objectives of this stage are to improve reliability, reduce maintenance and limit manpower cost. Automation in this field has effected some improvements for air traffic control: improved communications facilities provide a more reliable and efficient service with a consequent reduction in the frustration caused by inadequate facilities; decoded SSA readouts provide


improved identification and surveillance of aircraft. Few of these facilities require an active controller-machine interface, although the controller is able to use the results of the automated process to his benefit. New procedures are few and therefore there is no great change in the process of controlling. Because the field of air traffic control, as a part of aviation in general, is governed by stringent safety requirements, new ATC facilities are not often brought into operational use until a significant period of development and proving has taken place. New devices are implemented only when the useful life of the old equipment has expired or overriding benefits result from the provision of new equipment. This is particularly true in the next stage of automation, in which computers are used to provide more than just improved background tasks assistance.

The Second Stage - Foreground Automation Computer development had progressed a long way before automation was successfully applied to air traffic control operations. One of the reasons for this is that air traffic control is a most complex and interactive field. Although the final outcome of control results in a positive, safe instruction, the processes to arrive at that decision are based on a large quantity of data. Much of this data is constantly changing - both as regards its content and operational importance. Part of this data is derived logically over a period of time from a variety of sources, some of which may be considered individually as unreliable or irrelevant to the prescribed task. Although consistent reliable data (the food for all computers) is available it cannot often be separated from all the other types of information required to perform the service. When automation is applied to air traffic control to take an active part in controllers' tasks, it is necessary to define all the computer's operations in detail and to ensure the computer can provide a result for each possible set of circumstances that it is capable of finding. An in depth understanding of the air traffic control system to be automated and an appreciation of the areas which can successfully be automated therefore is a prerequisite for those people involved in specifying required computer functions. So far, automation has not significantly altered the style of the air traffic services being provided. During the process of studying the system in detail, some changes will undoubtedly be seen to be beneficial in order to take advantage of the speed, accuracy and data handling capabilities of the computer. This is one area which is most critical when implementing new systems. Any such changes made should however be easily assimulated by all staff and be of positive advantage. Improved reliability or overall costeffectiveness may be the advantage gained rather than a direct improvement for the controller. In this case, changes should in no way make the controller's task more difficult, or be implemented in such a way that the changes result in any distraction or frustration for the controller. Controller training to accommodate changes is most important. The objectives of such training may be stated as: (a) to establish confidence in and to ensure acceptance of the modified system being provided, and (b) to ensure that controllers are aware of the implications of the proposed changes and are fully competent in operating the system. The need for full training cannot be over emphasised. Controllers rely greatly on experience gained with the system through constant exposure to live traffic. If the system operated changes significantly, or the parameters on which the experience is based

are changed, then a period of retraining is necessary in order to re-establish confidence and experience. This is particularly relevant nowadays since manufacturers are changing from the role of suppliers of individual pieces of equipment to that of suppliers of complete systems.

Third Stage - Total Traffic Management Automation Until this stage automation in the field of air traffic control has concentrated on providing assistance for existing ATC tasks. To go further with the automation of the ATC system and provide greater scope for computers will require a revised outlook on the relationships between people and machines - in the air just as much as on the ground. If computers can eventually be relied upon to use their speed of operation to safely and efficiently compensate for the almost initiative logic of the controller, then the role of the human being may change significantly within the total system - though there will remain some functions which still can only be undertaken by the controller (or pilot) himself. At this time it is possible only to speculate what the new relationships or tasks might be. More research, co-ordinated effort and development is still required before any such major reorganisation becomes a real possibility. Until then it is appropriate that effort be applied to maintaining an evolutionary progression in air traffic control, rather than a series of sudden and far reaching changes. Because the problems of air traffic congestion are unlikely to be solved quickly by the further development of active tactical air traffic control procedures and facilities, a greater emphasis on strategic air traffic management may supply a relatively speedy and progressive solution. The provision of a suitable proposed traffic management flow plan in a given area is an obvious task for the computer. The computer cannot only provide a strategic flow pattern, but also alternatives, on request, so that the effect of revised parameters may be evaluated before acceptance by ATC. Such a system should cover as large an area as possible in order to gain maximum benefit. However communications would need to be the best possible, because they could be the limiting factor on the effectiveness of such an automated system. The size of area covered may in fact be determined primarily by the communication facilities available. Communication facilities for the transfer and updating of flight data on scheduled and nonscheduled flights will also dictate the frequency of production and updating of the strategic plan - which could be from once a month, to once a week or even daily. Interrogation of the plan and notification of changes require adequate communications, preferably on-line computer to computer. This naturally requires a common computer interface policy over as much of the region as is possible. An obvious further development would be to monitor the strategic plan's progress continually and to provide information on anticipated over or under utilisation of available capacity and the effects of possible remedial actions. It is suggested that only with an automated strategic planning service will the best use be made of available airspace by today's tactical air traffic control systems and agencies. Such a service would have the advantage of co-ordinating departure times, preferred routes and arrival times in advance, thus limiting the increasing number of unplanned delays and last minute changes of route. In cases where demand exceeds capacity, it must be anticipated that prenotified delays or changes of route may be experienced by a wider range of flights, in order to reduce the severe delays that would be experienced by the few to a minimum. It is envisaged that the current tactical air traffic control services would operate much as they do now, while benefiting from this additional air traffic management service. IFATCA has had definitive policy on strategic planning since 1974 (Flow Control in the Western European Area and Flow Control-General Policy Statement), and automation is the most suitable means of achieving it.

Conclusions Background Automation This comprises facilities designed to reduce the workload of ATC staff in the processing and dissemination of flight plan data, to improve the quality of the flight plan and radar data displayed to controllers and to enhance their communications systems. Their introduction is generally beneficial to ATC and should not adversely affect controller workload or result in any computer input commitments for the controller himself. No special policy is needed in this area.

Foreground Automation This comprises facilities designed to take over, or assist in, some of the controller's less complex decision making tasks without significantly changing the present day ATC System or the controller's tasks and responsibilities. The Eurocontrol paper on "Automation and Conflict Detection" includes a detailed examination of one such application - the automatic Conflict Alert facility. At this stage of automation, providing that all implementation safeguards are maintained, the basic methods of air traffic control remain unchanged. The fact that some of the ATC processes may be automated does not affect established general I FATCA policy. The design and implementation of automation can be critical but each system, because of its complexity, needs to be considered separately. The following basic policy statements should be adopted concerning the application of automation to existing ATC Systems: a) Automation of current ATC Systems should not significantly change ATC procedures or the tasks and responsibilities of controllers or related established IFATCA policy. b) The principles applied in implementing the automation of ATC systems should be in accordance with those specified in the guidance and information material adopted by IFATCA.

Total Traffic Management Automation This comprises facilities designed to take over, or assist in, more complex strategic and tactical decision making tasks of controllers. The Eurocontrol paper again includes a detailed examination of one possible application of such facilities for Strategic Conflict Detection and Resolution. Extension of the application of Automation in this area will undoubtedly necessitate changes, some fundamental, to ATC procedures and the role of the controller in the total ATC system. A number of the inferences of such changes have been dealt with in the Eurocontrol paper, which also proposes the adoption of certain related IFATCA policy. These need not be dealt with in this paper. In respect of the wider aspects of the extended use of automation in a total air traffic management role the following additional policy should, it is suggested, be adopted: a) Although it is recognised that the application of computer facilities designed to improve overall ATC system efficiency will, in the long term, require new and different tasks to be introduced for controllers. it is essential that any such changes be evolutionary and that drastic changes be avoided at all costs. b) In order to achieve this objective emphasis should be given in the first instance to the development of automated support for strategic traffic planning, followed by the development of more sophisticated computer based support for the tactical A TC function. c) All automated system development for total ATC traffic management functions requires special consideration first to be given to the overriding need for adequate inter-unit and interstate computer communications, which may well prove to be the main limiting factor in the effectiveness of such systems. E 29

Maximizing the Capacity of a Single-Runway Airport Airport runways are the most expensive and critical timeshared components of the air traffic control system. In many regions. terrain problems or urban encroachment have made it difficult, if not impossible, to construct any more runways. Thus, in searching for ways to increase system capacity, it is important to consider methods of getting the most capacity out of the existing facilities. In civil operations, only one aircraft at a time is allowed to use a runway. As a result, the traffic capacity of a runway is inversely proportional to the average time interval between successive aircraft operations (takeoffs and landings). Thus, the key to increased runway capacity is to find ways of reducing the average interval. In the daily stream of runway operations, four types of inter-

by Tirey K. Vickers

The runway occupancy time of these departures can be further reduced by using a wide enough fillet to enable aircraft to taxi on to the runway and continue with a rolling takeoff if desired. Dead-end runways present a problem for departures similar to those previously discussed for arrivals. If landing aircraft consistently overshoot the last runway exit and have to turn


vals can occur:

e • •


takeoff followed by takeoff (T-T); takeoff followed by landing (T-L); landing followed by takeoff (L-T); landing followed by landing (L-L).

Theoretically, each type of interval has an equal probability of occurrence. In actual practice, the number of T-L and L-T intervals are equal; but the number of L-L intervals usually exceeds the number of T-T intervals by a few percentage points, simply because landing aircraft are given the right of way over other traffic operations. Generally, however, the percentages of all four types of intervals are so close together that a change in the average time of one type changes the overall average about one quarter as much. For example, if a future type of approach computer reduces the average L-L interval by eight seconds, this will reduce the overall average of all intervals by about a quarter as much, or approximately two seconds. If the previous runway capacity was 44 operations per hour, the two-second decrease in the average interval would raise the capacity to 45 operations per hour. The point here is that it is just as important (and sometimes more rewarding) to look for methods of decreasing the T-T, T-L, and L-T intervals as well. The following discussion deals primarily with possible modifications to the airport layout, to increase airport capacity by reducing the various types of runway intervals.

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Entries and Exits One of the most important way's of reducing T-T and L-T intervals is to eliminate the type of situation shown in Fig 1, in which aircraft have to use the active runway as a taxiway, to get into takeoff position.


The long runway-occupancy time, together with the uncertainty as to how soon the next arrival can safely start its approach, generates a high workload for air traffic controllers, and greatly restricts the capacity of the airport. Some improvement can be made by providing a short taxiway loop as shown in Fig 2. Thi's reduces runway occupancy time somewhat and gives the departing aircraft a place to hold clear of the runway near the takeoff threshold while an arriving aircraft is completing its approach. However, the departing aircraft still blocks the runway for other operations while it is taxiing out to the loop. This problem can be cured by the installation of a full-length parallel taxiway as shown in Fig 3. In this case, departures never have to use the active runway as a taxiway, but can enter the runway at the takeoff thre·shold when ready for takeoff.


Fig 1 The need to backtrack to the threshold causes delays. Fig 2 Addition of a taxiway loop reduces runway occupancy time, although departing alrc~aft must still enter the runway to reach the holding point. Fig 3 A parallel taxiway segregates taxiing departures from the runway. F!g 4 ~he need to hold clear of the ILS glideslope leads to delay when the aircraft 1s cleared to line up for takeoff. Fig 5 Repositioning of the glideslope eliminates the delay.

around on the runway and taxi back to the exit in order to leave the runway, L-T and L-L intervals will be large, because of the excessive runway occupancy time of the landing aircraft. This runway occupancy time can be reduced by installing a full-length parallel runway with an exit at each end. The installation of high-speed exits at strategic locations along the runway will allow aircraft to leave the runway with a gentle turn, at a somewhat higher speed {and thus sooner) than would be possible in using a conventional right-angle exit. High-speed exits are particularly useful in shortening the average L-T interval. Obviously, high-speed exifs cannot improve traffic flow if pilots elect not to use them. For this reason, the exit taxiway beyond any high-speed exit must provide enough roll-out distance to let the pilot continue deceleration to a low speed, well before he has to make any sharp turns. In addition, all exits must be adequately marked and lighted.

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be so desigried that the flow of arriving traffic does not interrupt or block the flow of departure traffic - and vice versa - regardless of the runway in use.

ILS Interference When instrument approaches are in progress, taxiing or parked aircraft must not shadow, or interfere with, the ILS glideslope signals. At some airports this requires that departures be held a long distance away from the runway entry point, as shown in Fig 4. If it then takes longer for the departure to taxi from the holding point to the takeoff position than it takes for the landing aircraft to decelerate and vacate the active runway, then the L-T intervals will be excessively large, and capacity will be limited accordingly. This problem can often be solved by installing the ILS glideslope antenna on the opposite side of the runway, away from the taxiway used by departing aircraft. As shown in Fig 5, a departure can safely hold much closer to the runway entry point. As soon as the landing aircraft passes this point, the departure can taxi into position and be ready for takeoff by the time the landing aircraft is off the runway.

Bypasses One way to prevent interruptions in the departure stream is to provide a bypass on the taxiway, as shown in Fig 6, wide enough for one aircraft to taxi around another. This will prevent delay in a case where the first aircraft in line is not ready for takeoff by the time the ·second aircraft is ready to go. For best results, this bypass should be as close to the takeoff threshold as is practicable.

Runway Crossings A runway crossing blocks the runway during the time required to taxi the entire distance shown in Fig 7. If 20 aircraft or vehicles per hour have to cross the active runway, and if the average crossing takes 45 seconds, then the runway can be blocked up to 20 X 45 = 900 seconds during the hour. As there are 60 X 60 = 3600 seconds in an hour, the crossings would reduce the theoretical runway capacity up to 900/3600, or 25 per cent. One way to reduce such losses is to move the crossing point closer to the takeoff end of the runway. As shown in Fig 8, the cros·sing can begin as soon as the takeoff or landing aircraft has passed the crossing point; the crossing operation continues while the runway is still being used by the takeoff or landing aircraft. This recltJces the amount of time that the runway is being blocked exclusively :Jy the crossing operation. To minimise the effects of runway crossings on airport capacity, it is necessary to design the crossover itself to minimise the time required to cross. For example, any crossover which looks like Fig 9 should be redesigned to look more like Fig 10. Further reductions in runway occupancy time can be made. if necessary, by increasing the number of crossing lanes so that more than one aircraft or vehicle can cross at the same time.

Conclusion Fig 6 A bypass allows an aircraft not ready for takeoff to pull out of the way. Fig 7 A runway crossing blocks the runway during the time taken to taxi the distance shown. If 20 aircraft or vehicles cross per hour, capacity may be reduced by 25 per cent. Fig 8 A crossing near the threshold enables aircraft or vehicles to cross while the takeoff or landing is still in progress. Fig 9 A staggered crossing should if possible be reconfigured as shown in Fig 10.

To achieve efficient utilisation of the runway, an efficient taxiway layout is necessary. Sometimes relatively simple lowcost changes to the airport layout, based on the concepts of (a) reducing the average runway interval, (b) minimising runwayoccupancy time, and (c) separating the arrival and departure taxi routes, can increase runway capacity and reduce air traffic delays. Side benefits will include a reduction in air traffic control workload per aircraft, with a re·sulting increase in safety. •

Arrival and Departure Streams High capacity requires the capability to sustain an uninterrupted flow of arrivals and departures. The taxiway layout ·should

Reprinted with the kind permission of the Journal of ATC. The article first appeared in AIRPORTS INTERNATIONAL.


How can we learn from our mistakes if we never admit we make any? Background The purpose of this paper is to identify and briefly discuss some common obstacles to the orderly growth and development of a complex, high technology system. It is based on personal observations during the past 22 years in human factors and invo~­ vement with several major aviation systems. Several ATC transitions took place during this period: we went from RBDE-5 radar displays and shrimp boats to NAS Model 3 in the centers, from ASR-3s to ARTS in the IFR Rooms, and from Tel-autographs t~ FDEP and BRITE radar displays in the tower cabs. In retrospect, it was a period of growth and progress, yet the movement was n?t always smooth, the direction not always forward. While a certai~ number of glitches and discontinuities are the normal accompaniment of major changes, there appeared to be certain re~urring patterns that suggested some growing pains might be avo1dabl~. "Learning from mistakes" is one of the great cliches. Yet it is the hallmark of intelligent life, from flatworms to philosophers. Professional football coaches and players spend weeks reviewing game films looking for places to improve. In contrast, bureaucracies, the great institutions of corporate endeavor, seem unable to recognize - let alone analyze - mistakes. Of course, football scores become an instantaneous part of the public record and the games are watched by tens or hundreds of thousands of "expert" analysts. To pursue the analogy a moment more, it is my plan to replay a few key games from the past in hope we .can sharpen our skills for the future. A colleague expressed the idea this way, "Good judgment comes from experience; experience comes from bad judgment". Before I go to some examples, I would like to give you my definition of "mistake" in this context of system development. A mistake is a significant expenditure of resources (money, personnel, time) in such a manner that not only failed to benefit the system in terms of improved safety, efficiency, or lowered cost, but because it did not conform to good practices, had a very low probability of success.

Examples My first example is also the first FAA project I worked on, an evaluation of an interlocking system of runway and taxiway crossing signs. Operated by controllers in the tower cab, it was intended to prevent the recurrence recently taken place in Boston. The first step in this exercise was the installation of paired red and green lights at strategic runway-taxiway intersections at Washington National Airport. Shortly after the installation, "· · · it was found that the lights were undistinguishable at night from other field lights." The system was then changed to rotating "hold" and "go" signs and, following an extensive delay due to runway construction projects, the new signs were tested. The controllers overwhelmingly rejected the signs as requiring extra work and attention with no significant safety advantage. About half the pilots thought they caused extra work and provided additional safety, but less than a third would have been willing to accept the clearance by sign in lieu of clearance by voice. I use this as an example because it is a case of a concept (railway and highway traffic signals) being literally translated to an aviation environment, and dropped full-blown into one of the nation's busiest and most sensitive airports. There was no adequate study of the problem to anticipate some of the difficulties, or attempt to perform some experiments in a more forgiving environment. While the concept of visual ground control was certainly worth considering, installation and test at one of the


Lee E. Paul DOT/FAA/NAFEC Atlantic City, New Jersey 08405

nation's busiest airports had little chance of leading to a safer system. Unless the system worked perfectly under the worst conditions, it would almost certainly be rejected. The venture seems a calculated risk without calculations. My second example also had its roots in tragedy, this time a fearful mid-air collision over New York City. At the time, a system for displaying aircraft identity and beacon altitude was approaching final shake down tests in the Indianapolis Air Route Traffic Control Center. Called SPAN, for stored program alphanumerics, this NAS precursor was just beginning to become a reliable control tool when the New York collision occurred. In months, the equipment was pulled out of Indianapolis, renamed NYCBAN, and shoehorned into the pressure cooker, New York Center at lslip. Without dwelling on the details, the result was a human factors nightmare, with important controls and data entry devices located in the aisle, behind the controllers. As a result, there was little chance for significant improvement and virtually no chance for confident acceptance by the controllers. Within a year or so the system was quietly removed and some of the hardware shipped to Atlanta to support the successful ARTS-1 operation going on at the time. My final example concerns the establishment of the New York Common IFR Room, and I had a more direct involvement with this project. A good deal of testing of this combined metroplex tracon was done at NAFEC and significant portions of the proposed facility had been mockeg-up and exercised with extensive air traffic control simulation. The problem was that a decision had been made in the upper reaches of management to use large screen radar displays to be shared by several controllers at a number of positions. Unfortunately, the best available equipment at the time was designed and used for theater presentation of limited distribution televised events. The projection system was large, complicated, expensive and in the context of air traffic control usage, unreliable. On~ hundred percent redundancy was required for continuous operation. But even more cogent problems were raised on the operational side. Although the viewing screens were 8 by 10 feet, the required viewing distances made them effectively smaller than the standard 19 inch display at the usual 20 inch viewing distance. Then.' because several controllers were sharing a display, only a fraction of the screen area was of primary concern to each of them. In addition, they had to compromise on brightness and contrast settings and to shift their focus back and forth between close and distant points. To make matters worse, the alphanumeric characters on the display imposed more clutter than would have ~een the case with individual displays; large amounts of space in the IFR Room were required by the projectors, mirrors, and screens; and severe constraints were imposed on the console layouts. Offsetting these limitations were NO DEMONSTRATED HUMAN FACTORS OR OPERATIONAL ADVANTAGES. It is my understanding that the system did not become operational until every co~troller had a standard CRT display, although the large screen displays were kept in place and operational for a while for "coordination purposes."

Orderly Growth Let me shift our attention back to the original question: Why it is so difficult to bring about the orderly growth and development of complex technological systems? Why, when we have demonstrated our ability to carry out the most complex projects, do we seem to get more than our share of false starts, blind alleys, and diversions? We do well, but why don't we do better?

The basics of system design have been known for decades. Clifford T. Morgan, a human factors pioneer, summed up the subject in one column-inch: System design is, or should be, an organized procedure. Though it inevitably involves a certain amount of traditional "cut and try," it can be a rational, orderly process of analyzing a system, more or less quantitatively, before it exists, then designing it, and, later, evaluating the system in its prototype or preproduction form.* These are the "good practices" I referred to in the definition of mistakes. I believe that we have, on occasion, strayed from this simple rational path for one relentless reason: Any significant technological change requires a minimum of 5 to 8 years of lead time. This time is necessary because, if we follow the rational approach, we become committed to a number of essential steps, only some of which may be done concurrently: 1. Definition of problem. 2. Establishment of the boundaries within which a solution will be sought and a development program. 3. One or more iterations of the usual R & D cycle of design, build, test, and evaluate. 4. Coordination of the proposed solution. 5. Budgetary processes required for funding. 6. Procurement and contract processes. 7. Physical installation (of equipment) at facilities and its integration with existing equipment. 8. Hardware and software debugging, check out of procedures, and acceptance testing. 9. Training The number of years required by an orderly development process results in irresistible pressures to by-pass this system. In our zeal to find quick and cheaper solutions to real problems, we look for short cuts. We grasp at new technology and quick fixes which are neither quicker nor cheaper - and often not even¡-solutions. As one observes this phenomenon over a period of time, patterns begin to emerge and some generalizations are possible. A time-proven technique for lopping years off the development cycle is DESIGN BY FIAT. Webster defines fiat as, " ... an order issued by legal authority, usually beginning with 'fiat' (let it be done): a decree." The classic case of design by fiat occurs when someone in high authority decides on a course of action and skips the first four steps of the development process, leaping directly to the budgetary and procurement stages. With luck, the vendor can do enough of the R & D to get things moving, while the remainder is completed in the "debugging" phase. Without the luck, delivery dates continue to slip and shake down never leads to a commissioned system. After an appropriate period of testing, the equipment is finally removed. In a related variation, DESIGN BY DISASTER, the fiat is preceded by a catastrophe. A well publicized accident makes funds available in a fraction of the time normal planning and programming cycles take. But unless the development cycle has already led to a solid understanding of the problem and the solution, there will not be time to spend the money wisely. Then, untested equipment is placed in an operational environment and development and operations take place side-by-side. The illusion is created that substantive action has occurred, but the benefits are often questionable. Another method of by-passing the development process leads to TECHNOLOGY BY ACCRETION. The most common form occurs when a facility responds to a problem by "buying a package" from a vendor. The equipment is then installed and tested. If the users are satisfied, it is pronounced a success; a decision usually made by the same people who ordered the equipment. With technology by accretion it sometimes becomes difficult to tell whether the problem or the solution came first. Operators * Morgan, C. T., Cook, J. s .. Chapanis. A .â&#x20AC;˘ and Lund, M. W.. Human Engineering Guide to Equipment Design, McGraw-Hill, N. Y., 1963, page 1.

work for years with a piece of equipment and a vendor comes along with a new device that will do the job faster or more reliaby or more cheaply - but usually not all three together - and, having seen a solution, there is a sudden awareness that there has been a problem. Although I have never heard it stated explicitly, I suppose the rationale for these end runs is that we simply cannot wait to go through the entire process. I contend that the time saved when system improvements result from fiat, disaster, or accretion, is illusory. These methods do get things moving faster, it is true, but the hidden costs go unreckoned. These efforts are invariably rush jobs and given top priority. The resources and personnel are diverted from the routine and more systematic programs and may well be a significant factor in the previously mentioned 5- to 8-year lead time. They tend to keep the system from ever settling down to a steady state that can be carefully analyzed and evaluated. If the facilities are continually debugging new equipment and training personnel to use it, it is hard to state with certainty what "normal" operations are, and therefore, what normal problems are. When field personnel are inundated with half-designed, halftested equipment, they are likely to become cynical about our ability to provide something really worthwhile. This is important. because the attitude of the users is a significant factor in any field trial. We tend to keep score differently when we judge these quick fixes. While we may properly start the clock with the budget and procurement processes - which can be immensely accelerated under certain conditions - we stop it with installation of hardware. I suspect that if the clock kept running until the system delivered the potential that was expected, the short cut wouldn't look quite so short. When the development process is moved prematurely from the sterile but controlled environment of the laboratory to an operational facility, quantitative evaluation is virtually impossible. While field personnel are dedicated and enthusiastic, they rarely have the training and experience to approach the design problem systematically or to evaluate a system rigorously. With new technology, the operational shake down may be taking place during the time the technicians are learning how to maintain the equipment. At the same time the workload, the demands on the system, are constantly changing: daily changes with the weather, seasonal changes, changes due to modifications in other parts of the system, and the effect of long term user trends. For this, and other reasons, the real impact of a system change in an operational setting becomes an educated guess. Even the "Hawthorne Effect," that performance may improve with any change and with a return to the status quo as well, can confound field evaluations. The biggest problem with this piecemeal approach is the one that can only be seen over the longest time perspective. You simply cannot take a complex high technology system and change it weak link by weak link. The separate fixes do not, in the aggregate, add up to a modern efficient system, but to a patchwork quilt. Where technology by accretion rules, the attempt to automate frequently leads to the "automation of manual tasks." This may be the quick route to user acceptance but it leads to a cumbersome system whose costs and complexity far outweigh its benefits. It is only in retrospect that one discovers the gap between the promises of automation and the results. This analysis is really no more than the beginnings of an idea. It is neither comprehensive nor especially rigorous, yet it is my hope that it may prove sufficiently provocative to create concern. I believe the problem are serious.

Recommendations To leave you on this note may, however, be unnecessarily pessimistic. The explosive growth of technology and the rapidly diminishing costs of performing complex functions opens avenues undreamed of less than 10 years ago. The challenge will be to


incorporate these opportunities into an integrated system. There are some factors that might be considered. There is no substitution for an in-house R & D capability. People who cannot do R & D - who are not doing R & D - will not know what R & D to buy, how to monitor what they do buy, or how to evaluate what they get. There must be continuing R & D that is independent of specific system buys, and it must be protected from the impact of "crash" programs. Priorities tend to track contract dollars. But when dollars become available for a major buy, there is usually not enough time left for system definition. R & D must be targeted for what may be needed in 5 years, not what will be bought next year.

The conduct of a professional R & D program produces the important side effect of having able people who are knowledgeable on current technology. These people should be consulted before any change is made in the system - especially when there does not seem to be time for the entire development process. Finally, I will have to say that we tend to overestimate the importance and the value of hardware. In any high technology system, the hardware is like the one-seventh of the iceberg that projects above the water. Most of the system is people, language, procedures, and organization. As we automate, we reduce the role of the operator, but the interfaces between the man and the machine become ever more crucial to success. m (Reprinted from the proceedings of the 1979 ATCA fall Conference.)

News from Corporate Members ANSA ANSA, the Advisory Group - Air Navigation Services, Inc. had its annual meeting at Frankfurt/Main in August this year. ANSA now has 20 members in 8 countries and is prepared to expand into other geographical areas as well as in manpower. They are now represented in Europe, North America, the Mediterranean and in Africa. Activities in 1979/80 concentrated on the production of an operational study on "Aeronautical Information Data", as required by airspace users and air navigation services personnel. ANSA's considerations on AIDS found positive response worldwide. Discussion on this subject will, therefore, be extended. Activities planned for the coming 12 months include the production of an "Air Navigation Services Data Dictionary" to include information on types of data, their sources, operational priorities, form of presentation, message size, formats, users, availability, update requirements, etc. For IFATCA 1981 in Cairo presentations are planned on "Air Navigation Services Systems Configuration" and on "Efficient Provision and Use of Aeronautical Information Data". All IFATCA member associations and corporate members may contact ANSA for any exchange of information, especially on operational subjects.

COSSOR Cossor and NATO IFF At the request of the Ministry of Defence, Cessor Electronics Limited has formed a Programme Office to co-ordinate the United Kingdom's industrial activities in the new NATO Identification System Programme which is being undertaken to improve the effectiveness of the NATO defences on land, sea and air. For military purposes, the new system will ultimately replace the current IFF Mark 10 and 12 systems which in various forms have been used to distinguish between friends and foes since 1951. Crosser Electronics has already had discussions on collaborative arrangements with Siemens, who have been working on the German CAPRIS-NIS identification programme since 1973. This has resulted in the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding between the two companies on an agreed work programme and an exchange of data.

Goodwood Data Systems The Lektromedia Division of Goodwood Data Systems Ltd., of Carleton Place, Ontario, has been awarded a $ 300.000 Contract by Air Canada to modify the airline's "AVCAT" system. "AVCAT", manufactured by Lektromedia, is a Computer Aided Learning System, installed at Flight Operations Training Centres 34

in Montreal and Toronto, and is used to upgrade airline pilots from one aircraft type to another. A complete ground school curriculum utilizing "AVCAT" is maintained by Air Canada.

International Aeradio Ltd. IAL awarded contract in Malaysia against tough International Competition IAL, the London-based international aviation services and equipment supply organisation, has been awarded a contract to provide air traffic services to the Directorate of Civil Aviation Federation of Malaysia. ' Under the three year contract, signed on the 6th May, IAL will work with the Directorate in the establishment and operation of the control areas within the Malaysian Flight Information Region. In addition the Company will assist with the operation of recently installed radar and communications equipment and on the job training of Malaysian Air Traffic Control Officers. Malaysia already has a very sophisticated ATC system operating to ICAO standards but requires more staff in order to cater for the traffic increases resultant upon the expanding economy. A total of 30 qualified IAL Air Traffic Control Officers Will be based in Kuala Lumpur and Kata Kinabalu. Two staff will assist with Head Quarters planning. Announcing the award of the contract Mr R B Rofe, IAL's Aviation Director, said "This contract, which we won against tough international competition, is a significant re-introduction to a geographical area long known to IAL's aviation group. We look forward to working for the Malaysian Civil Aviation Authority in contributing to the development of civil aviation in this rapidly developing country."

Philips Swedish AFTN centre to be equipped with AEROPP switching system The Civil Aviation Authority of Sweden has ordered a Philips A~ROPP II data communications system for the Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication Networt (AFTN) centre at Arlanda lnternatio~~I Airport near Stockholm. The AEROPP II system replaces ~ Philips _ES-3 electro-mechanical message switch which has been in o~erat1on at the centre since 1965. The contract, valued at approximately Hfl. 4 million, calls for a number of communications facilities to be implemented immediately upon installation of the system in late 1981, and leaves optional several additional facilities which the Swedish CA Authority anticipates ordering within the next five years.

In its initial configuration, the AEROPP system wi ll provide fully automatic rout in g of AFTN messages - items such as aircraft position and arrival reports, flight plans, Notices to Airmen (NOTAM's) and othe r data vital to ai r traffic safety. Operational Meteorological (OPMET) messages (primari ly special weather reports a nd forecasts of interest to aviation) also w ill be switch ed via the centre 's connect ions to the AFTN and over circuits linking Arlanda w ith the global telecommunications network of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). 1r, :iddition, the AEROPP system wi ll be configured to interface automatically with the public telex network, enabling the centre to efficiently serve low -t raffi c subscribe rs, w hil e at the same time providing it w ith netwo rk tailback facilities. To support its immed iate switching requ ireme nts, th e centre will be eq uipped with 64 lowspeed lin es operating at 50 to 600 bauds, and 4 telex connections. Th e modular ha rdware/ software structure of the AEROPP system will permit the Civil Aviation Authority to impl ement a further range o f sop histicated data handling and switching func tions at its option. The five-year pl an of the authority entails establishing fil es for OPMET and Aeronautical Information; interfacing AEROPP to the Nordic Public Data Network; and enhancing the system for ope ration as a switching node in the Commo n ICAO Data Inte rchange Netwo rk - the International Civil Aviation Organization's plan ned medium to high speed networ k for the exch ange of aeronautical data. The co ntract a l so covers the projected installat ion of A EROPP 20 switching sub-centres in Malmo, Goteborg and Sun dsvall , to suppleme nt Sweden's existing national network facilit ies. Each s ub-centre w ill co ll ect and distribute A FTN and OPMET messages for the Flight Information Region in which it is located. The A EROPP 20 switch es are designed to operate under remote cont ro l of the AEROPP II system and will be linked to Arlanda by med iumspeed connections.

Thomson- CSF Avionics Projection CRT THOMSON-CSF's Electron Tube Divisicn announces the introduction of a new, rugged projec ti on CRT, th e TH 8423, for avionics in strumentation systems. This tube, which has a useful screen diam eter of 25 mm, is supp lied potted with its deflection yokes in an electomagnetic- interfercnce sh ield ; ove rall dimensio ns are only 51 mm di am eter and 150 mm long. Its high-brightness 25 ftm spot and very low geometri cal distortion, w hi ch are maintained in t he aggressive environment of modern high- performance combat airc raft, make this tube ideal for flying spot, fil m reco rding and map marking systems. •

IFATCA's New Corporate Members' Co-ordinator

Pete r All an JORGENSEN is IFATCA's new Corporate Members ' Co- ordinator to s ucceed Anton Weijts. Pete r was born at Aa rhus, Den mark, in 1939; he had served in the Royal Danish Ai r Force (R OA F) as rad ar technician from 1956 to 1959 a nd in 1965 he graduated the Aarhus Teknikum as an Electron ic s Eng inee r wi th specia li sat ion in microwaves and radar. Peter se rves w ith SE LE NI A as ATC Manager Civil Radar and Systems Division s ince 1972. 41 -year-o ld Peter is already a well kn ow n person ality among the Controllers o f the world for his very active partic ipation in ai r traffic control affa irs particula rly in his field of actvity and for h is nu merous stud ies and contributions, in techn ical articles to T HE CO NT ROLLER. I am confid ent that IFATCA has gained a val uable supporte r t hat wi ll be an asset to its members througho ut.

Important Notice to Subscribers A ll s ubsc ripti o ns w ill have to be re new ed w ith th e new printing house. If you h ave n 't done so as yet th rou gh th e Managing Edit or, fi ll t he below form i mmediate ly and mail it to the Subscription Service, Bund Ver lag, Effingerstr. 1, CH-3001 Bern, Switzerland. Please send me THE CONTROLLER for one year by surface m ail I airmail (please indicate). Rates are SFr. 8,- for members of IFATCA, SFr. 20,- for no n-m embers. Postage will be charg ed ex tra ac co rding to the tariff in use. Subsc riptions not c ance ll ed three month s prio r to termination of a c alendar y ea r, will autom ati ca ll y be extended for ano t her year.

Name Complete Mailing Address . .... ... . .... . . .. . . . . . . . .... .. ........ . .. . . . . . .. . .. . . ...... .. . ... .... ... . . . . .... .. . . . . .


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On the ICAO Scene:

ICAO Technical Assistance projects represent a)otal investment exceeding US-Dollar175 million since1972 ':Excluding a dip in 1977, this programme of aid to developing countries has experienced rapid growth over the past eight years and annual funding is expected to more than double by 1984 - ..

by Jack Vivian, Director ICAO Technical Assistance Bureau (Montreal)

This article is devoted entirely to a review of the T echnical Assistance as it is being provided throughout the world today by ICAO and an estimate of the extent of such aid in t he near future. ICAO Technical Assistance (TA) activities have expanded rapidly between 1972 and 1979 - in fi nancial terms, fro m US $ 6 million in 1972 to an anticipated$ 51 million this year. The number of experts in the field at any o ne time has increased from about 150 in 1972 to the current ave rage of 360. Fellowships have significantly increased and in 1979 the available funds for fellowship trai ning alone is over $ 7 million. Equipment pu rchases for both operational and training needs have perhaps shown the most dramatic increase, from just over $ 1 million in 1972 to over$ 14 million in 1978 and a similar figure applying for this year. The number of countries in w hich !CAO has resident missions increased from 47 in 1972 to 70 today ; and, many more countri es are aided through the use of short-term specialists, th ro ugh the provision of fellowships, or the operation by !CAO of TA trust funds. The different sources of fu nds for the !CAO TA programme are shown in Figure 2. It will be seen t hat about 68 per cent of total funding now comes through the United Nations Development Programme (UN DP) . Funds from this source may double over the next few years, if a recent projection by UNDP proves to be accurate. This means that by 1984-1985 we could expect US $ 65- 70 million for ICAO TA from UNDP sources alone, based on the assumption that the aviation "share" of these fu nd s re main s at its current level only. Funds from other sources are becoming increasing ly available as more organizations develop a growing interest in aviation projects. These inc lude the World Bank the European Development Fund, regional development banks A'rab funds, and the larg e development programmes agreed up~n between contries on a bi lateral basis. ICAO is already active as an executing agency on a limited scale for some of these organizations and looks forward to part icipating o n an increased level with all of them in the planni ng and imple mentation of future TA aviation projects. Projects involving T rust Funds (TF) and t he ICAO Civil Aviation Purchas ing Service (CAPS) have increased dramatically in recent years . represent ing so me $ 16 million annually in 1979 and servi ng 21 co untries. These funds are usually prov ided by a government for assistance to itself-through t he provision of experts, equipment, etc. T here are. however , several projects executed by ICAO whe re trust funds have been made available by one cou ntry for assistance to be given to another. The opportunities for further developing such arrange ments are considerable.

• Reprod uced with the kind pesmission of the ICAO Bulletin.


The facility being provided to Stat_es through CAPS (which is simply another va riant of trust funds) ~s proving of va lu e to some 20 civil aviation agencies in 17 c_ountnes. As more States become aware of the benefits to be derived _from use of this service and the excellent world-wide contacts with . manufacturers establ ish e d by ICAO, it is reasonable to expect increases in equipment purchases through this source. If developing States take full advantage of all of these sourc . es of funds, it is not unreasona bi e to estimate that, within the next five years, at least 40 per cent of t he assistance provided through ICAO will be from resources othe r than those of the UNDP Th · . · IS IS a healthy possibility. our projections indicate that by the 1984-1985 time f rame the total value of TA activities executed by ICAO could expand to about $ 115 million annually. This ass umption includes increas in assistance given through CAPS. g

TA critical to development The increase in funds made avai lable for civil aviation projects is a reflection of the growing awareness among both donors and recipient countries of the tru e role of c ivil aviation in the economic and social development of States, and of the need to provide adequate equipment and staff to ensure a sou nd and safe infrastructu re. However, this view is not as yet accepted by all States. Misconceptions still remain among some authorities, who rega rd aviation more as a luxury for the few instead of the powerful catalyst for development that in fact it is, or who have not yet been convinced of the need for the associated infrastructu re development. The requirement to assist in the development of some islan d and landlocked States is now more widely recognized among both donors and recipients of aviation assista nce. Also, the va lue of civi l aviation as an effective means of essential transport in those countries , which currently lack a sat isfactory su rface transport network, is increasingly becoming recognized. The cost, and time-span involved , in build ing a modest but effective airport, the purchase of aircraft for passe nger and cargo carrying, the provisions of essential ground-support equipment

are relatively minor compared with the cost of building a railroad or constructing a road network. Domestic air transport, therefore, can play a pioneering role in helping achieve self-reliance whilst surface transport is being developed. For island States, there is in fact no viable alternative to civil aviation, if external trade and commerce are to be well astablished and competitive. To obtain the best long-term results through the use of civil aviation as one of the vital components of the transportation sector, it is necessary to identify in a very clear and specific manner the realistic civil aviation needs: the requirement for airports of a certain size, however modest; the essential navigational aids and communications facilities for safe and efficient operation; essential manpower needs and training requirements; assessment of additional capital costs which may be involved and the identification of funding sources. Each ot these requirements reacts on the others; thus, they have to be studied individually and then evaluated as a whole. For this reason, an increasing number of countries are requesting assistance in the preparation of national development plans for civil aviation covering some future period (around 10-20 years). A number of recent studies of this type have required a specialist team consisting of an air transport economist, an airport engineer, a manpower and training specialist, and a team leader widely experienced in the development of civil aviation infrastructure. The cost of these studies is relatively small; and yet, the consequences for governments can be far reaching. If recommendations made through such studies are accepted by governments, the final reports can be utilized by those governments for obtaining necessary development capital from external sources.

Training needs are widespread In the field of training, the experience of European and North American countries shows that requirements tend .to increase from one year to another as aviation develops, due to the constant needs in this high technology activity to upgrade staff in new equipment and in new operating procedures plus the need for an increasing number of skilled and well trained supervisory personnel. Indeed, self-reliance in aviation goes hand in hand with national self-reliance. And, one of the most fundamental aspects of self-reliance is the development of appropriate skills and knowledge in this highly specialized industry. For this reason the training of nationals has long been a dominant portion of total ICAO TA activities. During recent years, over 25 training establishments - regional or national in character - have been created or expanded through assistance provided from the UNDP or trust funds. Some 60 training institutes for civil aviation now exist in developing countries and more are required. A number of the existing national and regional facilities will have to be further expanded to meet the demand for well-trained nationals in the civil aviation sector. As skills develop, there will be increased opportunities for socalled technical co-operation amongst developing countries, or TCDC. Initial areas for TCDC in aviation could include the production and marketing of some types of electronics and groundsupport equipment by groups of developing countries, joint procurement of some types of equipment by airlines and by airport authorities, pooling of spares and inventories by groups of countries or of institutions, interchange of experts from developing countries, and the exchange of information between countries in the uses made of aviation to assist or accelerate the national economic development.

Identifying need preceeds funding It is often (though incorrectly) thought that TA activities are largely confined to implementation. Whilst the latter is naturally

of the greatest importance in respect of identified approved projects, such activities can only be undertaken as a third step. Identifying real and necessary requirements, best suited to the needs of each country, and to be provided on a scale which can be most profitably utilized and geared to a country's overall development process, is the first and most significant step. Once this has been done, obtaining adequate funding is the next step - consideration being given to all possible sources. In fact, these two steps constitute some of the more significant work of the Technical Assistance Bureau and its associated staff in the field and in Regional Offices. Implementation, although extremely important in itself, thus represents the third step, followed by regular monitoring of progress and achievement of project objectives. Experience shows that it is often not realized how many years are required to meet fully the stated objectives of development in a given sector, even in a given project. One must appreciate the time taken by developed States to produce the type of aviation infrastructure which they now enjoy. What has taken Europe or North America many years to produce should not therefore be expected from developing countries in a significantly less period of time.



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20 .,.,,"















Figure 1. ICAO Technical Assistance programme: Total annual expenditures and funding by source. 1972-1984. Full achievement of clearly defined major project objectives, such as the creation of a large national or regional training facility covering a number of disciplines, should be foreseen as requiring up to possibly ten years, taking into account the time required to produce highly competent national instructors capable of meeting the standards required as well as the time necessary for the provision of accommodation and the general development of an institute's management and administrative infrastructure. The creation of a sound training institute is perhaps one of the more straightforward examples. Considerably greater time may be required in the full implementation of a national civil aviation development plan, embracing airport construction or expansion, provision of additional vital technical facilities, as well as the full attainment of all required manpower and the associated training, including extensive practical experience. The last element is of particular importance in respect of the managerial cadre within civil aviation, including as it does the development of sound management and administrative practices which are so essential for efficient and economic operation in today's society and economic structure.

Development of civil aviation in any country will depend Directorate of Airworthiness so as to ensure duly approved primarily on the initiative and dedication of those involved in these certification of civil aircraft of Argentina registration and provide activities. Such attributes will be reflected in their desire to see appropriate fellowships. The UNDP will provide US$656,295 while improvements effected, their determination in searching for funds the Government's contribution is equivalent to US$1,389,600. for civil aviation development and their tenacity in achieving set objectives. Brazil: Increasing funds will become available from various sources Brazilian Airworthiness Compliance Certification for development purposes in the next few years. The extent to This is a revision of an on-going project which will provide which these will be allocated to civil aviation assistance will depend entirely on the combined efforts of all concerned. national authorities full competence and self-sufficiency for compliance certification of national aeronautical products. The The ICAO Technical Assistance programme, and its staff, are additional UNDP input is US$808,345 and the Government's dedicated to assisting governments in clearly defining their future contribution is equivalent to US$7,258,400. requirements in the whole field of civil aviation, in assisting them to obtain the necessary funding from diverse sources and in implementing to the highest standard possible those projects Brazil: which are entrusted to ICAO execution. Centre for Aeronautical Improvement and Training The United Nations Development Programme has been of the This revision of an on-going project will assist the Governgreatest assistance to civil aviation development during the past ment in improving, modernizing and expanding air navigation few years. The civil aviation sector has enjoyed the confidence and communication facilities, air traffic and meteorological of UNDP at both country and regional level. services. The UNDP will provide an additional US$1,818,382 The co-operation and understanding of the aspirations of civil while the Government's contribution is equivalent to US$2,865,300. aviation departments by the UNDP will surely continue in the coming years. Civil aviation departments and ICAO should, however, collectively complement this by making greater efforts to Chile: secure much needed funding from other available sources to the Provision of Air Navigation Services and Facilities maximum extent possible. This large-scale project will assist the Government in providIt will indeed be a healthy position if, after a further period of ing air navigation services and facilities in accordance with the time, the assistance provided world wide to the civil aviation secAir Navigation Plan specifically navigational aids and communicator is funded up to 50 per cent from financing sources other than tion·s; expert advice and assistance to install and maintain the those in the UNDP. equipment and training for national technicians. The UNDP will It is my personal hope, and even expectation, that technical provide US$1,697,662 while the Government's contribution is assistance for civil aviation, executed through ICAO, will achieve equivalent to US$431,500. about US$450 million during the period 1981 to 1985. This is the target which has been set within the Technical Assistance Bureau, for the benefit of developing States. Jordan: It is attainable, and with dedicated efforts can even be exceeded. II Civil Aviation Development This is a revision of a large-scale project whose objective is to improve and expand the country's civil aviation ground infrastructure through the reorganization of the civil aviation administration; planning and supervision of the construction of airport . . t 11 • s, ms a at1on of telecommunications and navigational aids. and regulation and control of flying operations. The newly ap~roved fun~·s total US$550,298 and the Government's contribution is New Large-Scale Assistance Projects equivalent to US$688,000.

From ICAO Sources:

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP} has approved large-scale projects for execution by ICAO in Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Jordan, Uruguay and Zaire, and one large-scale regional project in Asia and the Pacific for a total contribution of more than US$10 million. Two large-scale Trust Fund projects for execution by ICAO have been approved in Iraq and Saudi Arabia, and one large-scale regional project has been approved in Trinidad and Tobago: The projects are as follows:

Algeria: Creation of the National School for the Application of Civil Aviation Techniques (ENATAC) This revision of an existing project will strengthen the selfreliance of national civil aviation personnel through the establishment of a training school for pilot training, ATC, Operations and Radio Maintenance. The UNDP will provide an additional US$818,800 while the Government's contribution is equivalent to US$68,215,000.

Argentina: Strenghtenlng of the National Directorate of Airworthiness This project will assist the Government in its efforts to increase the technical and operational capacity of the National 38

Uruguay: Civil Aviation . This cost-sharing project is designed to strengthen the Directorate of Civil Aviation and Aeronautical Infrastructure through an air transport study, climatological and soil stud·1 of potential sites for the new international airport, engineeri ~: plans .for the new airport and associated structure, review of th ~rganization of the Directorate of Civil Aviation, and moderniza~ t~on of t~~ administration, rules and procedures of the Civil Aviatlo~ Trarnmg Centre. The net UNDP contribution is US$390 ,508 while the Government's contribution is equivalent to US$1 4 o,ooo.

Zai're: Assistance to the Development of a Training Centre . This i~ .a cost-sharing revision of a large project to establish a fll.ght t.~am1~9 centre under the direction of the national airline, Air Za1r~, rn ~hich instruction will be offered to national and Afr.•can flight personnel. An essential element of this uridertakmg .will be the acqui'sition, by the Government and UNDP, of ~ Boe'.ng-737 flight simulator. The UNDP budgetary provision (mcludrng Government's cost-sharing contribution) comes to US$3,933,065 and the Government'is contribution is equivalent to US$1,793,700.

Provision of Civil Aviation Equipment for Least Developed Countries This new two-year US$1 million regional project became operational in January 1980. Its objective is to provide urgently required spare parts to reactivate civil aviation equipment in some least developed countries including Bangladesh, Bhutan, Laos, Maldives and Nepal. In certain cases where critical deficiencies are identifi ed, complete units of equipment will be provided. This will contribute directly to the safety, regularity and economy of flight in the Asia and Pacific Region. The total UNDP cost is US$1 million.

The large-scale trust fund projects are as follows: Iraq: Airport Development This is a revision of a Trust Fund project to advise and assist in the improvement of Bag hdad International Airport, in the design and planning of other airports, in the supervision of ai rport construction work and in the development of an aerodrome engineering infrastructure. The purpose of this revision, which became effective in January 1980, is to add 23 experts to the 12 already engaged and to introduce an equipment component of US$500,000. The new Government Trust Fund contribution will be US$6,251,349.

Saudi Arabia: Civil Aviation Th is is an extension of a Trust Fund project which started in 1972. Its o bjectives are to develop the country's civil aviation capabi lities by the creation or expansion of airports, air traffic se rvices, air navigational aids systems and train ing centres ; the development of an air transportation system consisting of safety standards for aircraft, flight crews and operat ions including aircraft certification, pilot certification a nd accident investi gati on; and the establi.shm ent of an Aviation Regu latory Agency, with infrastructure and personne l capable of administering and assisting the development and modernization of the nati o nal civil aviation industry. The Government will provide an additional US$8,107,390 for 80 experts.

Trinidad and Tobago : Caribbean Aviation Training Institute The European Fund fo r Development has approved a th reeyear programme, effective in January 1980, to assist the regional Civil Aviation Training Institute for t he Caribbean in Trinidad and Tobago. This programme d irectly follows the regional project previously financed by UNDP. The objective is to assist the participating States through experts, t raining equipment and fellowships for co unterpart instructors. The Gove rnments' Trust Fund contribution wi ll come to US$3,200,000. ICAO is providing the ex pert component of this project, at a cost of US$2,095,000.

Let's make better use of the controller in aircraft accident/incident investigations by Robin A. Soar• Regiona l Vice-President - Pacific Region, International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers Associations (New Zealand) With the rapid development of civil aviation over the past three decades, the role o f the air traffic contr oller has changed, his responsibilities have increased; this source of accident-prevention information can be invaluable . •• Th e changing responsibilities of air traffic controllers around the world in creasingly are bei ng reflected in the apportion ment of responsibility fo llow ing ai rcraft accidents in controlled airspace. It foll ows, then, that th e air traffic contro ll er can be expected to pl ay an eve r in c reasing role in post accident/incid ent investigation. Air traffic co ntrol since its inception over 30 yea rs ago, like all other aviatio n-related fields and indeed most other fields of human e ndeavou r, has gone through a period of continuous

• Mr. Soar currently is an air traffic controller at Auckland Internati onal Airport, New Zealand. This article was drawn in part from a paper presented by the author on behalf of IFATCA before the ICAO Regional Accident Prevention Seminar, Bangkok.

evolutionary change and development. Many technical advances have been combi ned to enhance today's ATC system. Some were origina lly of a military nature, such as radar and IFF ; othe rs were derived specifical ly to meet the desire to trans port people and ca rgo at higher speed's or in h igher numbers or tonnage - with greate r safety and regularity. The first major techn ical enhancement to the ATC system came about in t he 1950s when survei llance radar was made available to civil AT C facilities. Before the introduction of radar and indeed still today in large areas of the world where there is no radar coverage, air traffic w as and is moved in accordance with rigid procedural separation standards. A few years after the introduction of radar into the ATC system, the first comme rcial jet transport came onto the market. This major advance more than doubled the speed of some aircraft in civi l use, but piston-engine airc raft co ntinued to be used an d new turbo-prop designs continued to appear. The mix of aircraft of varying speeds added a new dimensio n to the control lers' tasks. Al though the introduction of widebody jets caused a slowdown in the rate of increase of commercial jet airli ners in service. the problem is a continuing o ne because at the other end of the scale there has been a greater increase in business or executive-type aircraft and of those aircraft servi ng third-level passenger operations. In the middle of the 1960s the con cept o f a g round-based computeri zed ATC system became a reality These modern systems rely primarily o n radar-derived information which is 39

digitized and displayed on a screen together with a computergenerated "data block." This data block, in addition to providing the aircraft identification, type and computed speed, may indicate the aircraft's "real altitude" - derived by converting secondary radar pulses. which are carrying information from the aircraft altimeter, into digital form. The process allows the controller to keep a check on the real pressure altitude of the aircraft, rather than relying solely on pilot reports. As a result, thrs method of automatically transferring information from aircraft to ground will be extended in the future and should lead to a significant reduction in the radiotelephcne load currently experienced.

Judgements rendered frequently apportion blame, in varying degrees, to the air traffic controllers involved, even when they are on the periphery of the circle of involvement. Since the controllers are involved, it becomes obvious that they must participate in the investigation of the cause of accidents and incidents. Pilots have traditionally "enjoyed" the right to such participation but, with their increasing involvement, controllers too must take part if all factors are to be considered in establistaing a cause - and later finding a remedy to avoid recurrence.

Established investigation procedures

Let me outline some of the procedures for accident prevention where the controllers expertise is necessary. Pilot and controller roles altered In most countries, procedures already exist whereby accidents and incidents are investigated, in mo¡st cases in accordance with Thus, the introduction of computer techniques and the advent the guidelines laid down in ICAO Annex 13 - Aircraft Accident of the secondary surveillance radar (SSR) and its capabilities, Investigation. In any investigation which involves ATC, there will such as the automatic transmission of Mode-C height read-out be evidence in the form of flight-progress strips, flight plans, and aircraft identity, are presenting the controller with a signiweather information and transcripts of air-ground radio comficant change in the traditional responsibilities, where voice communications and telephone conversations made by the controllers munications with the cockpit has been the accepted methorl nf involved. In the case of more advanced computer-based 'systems, obtaining intelligence in regard to aircraft operation. there are facilities for magnetic-tape recordings of the data We now have the situation where the aircraft itself is elechandled. tronically interrogated and the required intelligence relayed to In both cases, these are the bare bones of what is a complex the ground without recourse to contact with the pilot. Since this and highly sophisticated system. To interpret and explain to noncapability will doubtless be further exploited, it becomes essential controllers the nuances of the system, the various stresses and to examine closely any change in responsiblities between the problems indicated by these unadorned factors requires an expert. pilot and controller. I believe that only the professional air traffic controllers, curThe introduction of wide-body jets created a new problem rently operationally engaged in his profession, is equipped to which in the restricted airspace about an airport, led to further make such an appraisal and to advi¡se others on this side of the operational difficulties. It is wellknown that these large jet airinvestigtion. Furthermore, the operational controller must be inliners produce a very dangerous turbulent wake. The prime factor volved from the start to the finish of the accident/incident in the severity of this problem is weight. investigation. The responsiblity for providing safe separation for aircraft It is accepted by most authorities that any investigation must following these heavy jets is placed on the controller. Whilst concentrate on finding out "what" and not "who" caused an specific m;nimum separations have been recommended, it should accident or incident. This philosophy is the only acceptable one be noted that the persistance of the turbulence is dependent on when considering what the prime long term aim of any investigamany factcrs, including actual aircraft weight, wind shear, crosstion must be - to prevent a repetition of the occurrence. wind, etc. Prevention comes from education. Systems can be modified Since the controller may be unaware of some of these factors, any necessary increase in separation is left to the controller's to eliminate known faults but, where human beings are involved judgement. Sound judgement, however, can only be assured a more subtle approach must be adopted. Circulation of the find~ when all relevant factors are availabe to the controller. ings of any investigation should be made to educate the people involved in the system. Furthermore, future problems can be anticipated. For example, the Anglo-French Concorde has now been in service over the For such findings to achieve their objective, they must be North Atlantic for some time and we have recently seen its credible. Credibility to the controller means that he is confident introduction in this region with services from Singapore to that in an investigation expert interpretation and advice were London. While debate over the commercial viability of this aircraft available and the policy of "what" not "who" was adhered to. continues, supersonic air transport operations for the controller Professional controller involvement is not a luxury; it is a are a fact and so are the problems associated with such flights. necessity, if accident prevention is to be most efficient in this Moreover, there can be little doubt that the commercial/operafield of formal investigation. tional problems present in this aircraft will be overcome in future designs and we will eventually see an increase in the The unrevealed error number of SSTs flying. Whilst the small numbers in service at present give rise to Thus far, I have only spoken of accident and incident few difficulties, it is clear that if the numbers increase, parinvestigations. This system of gaining information for education ticularly if a second-generation SST is introduced, then the and remedial action relies on one rather unpalatable but basic problems of ATC in dealing with a traffic mix of speeds rangfact: There must be an accident or an incident to trigger the proing from 180 knots to Mach 2 and beyond will be formidable. cess. Yet, for every accident or realized incident, there must be And, they could seriously affect the economic viability of such a proportionate number of "almost-accidents" and near or unaircraft unless the ATC system itself advances sufficiently to cater revealed incidents. for the techniques which will be required to provide a reliable It is, I think, reasonable to suggest that this proportion is and safe service. weigh.ted .heavily in favour of an error occurring but not actually The foregoing examples provide a view, albeit limited, of the resulting in. a full-fledged accident or incident. If this is the case, controller's changing responsibilities. Therefore, it should not be then the~e 1s an area where the rewards in accident prevention surprising that these changes are beginning to be reflected in the data gamed must be proportionally higher. The problem of apportionment of responsibility following aircraft accidents. Not course, is to tap this source. ' only is this reflected in accident investigation procedures, but Ideally, controllers should be conscientious enough to reveal it has become increasingly prevalent in subsequent civil legal s~ch ~rrors in the_ cause of flight safety and in a spirit of profesactions and, in some cases, even criminal actions. sronahsm, In reality, they are human beings and subject to the 40

frailties and susceptibilities present in us all. They fear, as we all do, retribution for failure. Whether the blame is his or that of some component of the system does not enter the argument at that stage; he is in isolation. To overcome his fear, he must be confident that to reveal the error will not be to seek self punishment. This confidence can only be nurtured by c lear evidence that investigation does not seek scapegoats. A system should exist to collate and analyze the information gained. Once studied, appropriate remedial action can be taken. Perhaps the ideal system of collection of such information is the anonymous report. Th is approach is employed by some military organizations, some airlines and at least one civil air

traffic control association. Anonymity of course, does have the advantage of complete ly removing the fear of retribution from the individual but, for obvious reasons, it prevents detailed examination. It does, however, highlight "areas" for closer examination. Conditions vary f rom one system to another and from one country to another and no doubt a system could be designed to suit those conditions. To tap this largely unexploited fund of information, a solution must be sought. Accident prevention can only be achieved with knowledge, gained id eally without the trauma of an aircraft accident or incident. Where air traffic control is concerned, a prime source is the controller himself. Let us fully exploit this valuable resource.

Air Traffic Control Occupational Health Project - ~ ..

by A. D. Tilroe, CATCA


A s a res ult of the recommendations of studies und ertaken by the C ivil Aviat ion Medical Unit and Medical Services Branch, Health and Welfare Canada, and previous studies concerni ng contro ller health (Lisson Report, ATC IT Recomm endati ons), Transport Canada and the Medical Services Branch recognized the need to establish a health maintenance and preventive medicine plan for air traffi c contro llers. The purposes of this Air Traffic Contro l Occupational Health (ATCOH) Program were to : establish a preventive medicine program for controllers; estab li sh a controller health maintenance program ; study group dynamics and interpersonal relationships in ai r traffic contro l ; assess the resu lts of the above-noted programs ; and develop a strategy for the national implementation of those features deemed appropriate. Basically the ATC OH Project was composed of three components: the On-Site Medical Service Program (Quebec and Ontario Region s) ; the Fitness Study (Ontario Region) ; and the Hea lth Education (being implemented nationally) . The ATCO H Project also funded two research stud ies. The first, A Com mentary on Air Traffic Control, by Dr. Harvey Silver, a psychologist with the Publi c Service Commission. was based on interviews with co ntro llers in the Ontario and Quebec Regions. The second , Psychosocial Stress Among Air Traffic Controll ers in

the Ontario, Q uebec and Western Regions , was by the Clarke Institute of Psych iatry of the University of Toronto. This was a mail survey, with questionnaires be ing sen t to all operational c ontrollers in the three regio ns on two separate occasions. AATA and senior officials of Health and Welfare and CAT CA we re b riefed on the results of this study on October 26, 1978.

On-site Medical Service In 1976, due to cond itions and ci rcumstances in the Montreal centre, a need was identified for medical support for the c ontrollers. Ini tially this support was provided b y Medical Servi c es Branch personnel. In Ju ly 1978 a co nt ract was let with the Family Care Unit of the Montreal General Hospital for a team of three doctors to perform the services of p roviding counsel ling sessions. medical advice, health education, involvement in t he refresher tra ining programs, and acting as an Alll.E fo r lic ensing exam i nations. The On-Site Physic ian is also responsible to aid and advise management in the health fi e ld . In Septe mber 1978 an On-Site Physician was contra cted fo r the Quebec City area and the north shore. In September 1977 ATCOH was req uested to provide a s imil ar servi ce in th e On ta rio Reg io n. T his was establ ished in sprin g 1978, with a doctor and nurse team approach bein g used.


An evaluation of these two regional programs was ca rried o ut by the Senior Medical Consultant, Medical Services Branch in 1979, and his repo rt recommended the implementat ion of a national On-S ite W.edical Service Program at each ACC. Work is underway at prese nt to follow through on these recommendations.

Fitness Study It has long been recognized by health autho riti es that regular exercise is conducive to both physical and mental health and also one of the keys to reducin g stress and tension which have been identified as pro blems for controlle rs. As the new cent re bu ilding in Toron to allowed space fo r provision of a physical fitness area and reso urces we re available fo r the program, it was decided to have a one year pilot physical fitness program usi ng the Toronto centre and tower staff. A fitness co nsulting firm conducted and moni tored the p rogram w hi ch commenced in Fe bruary 1978. Mr. Erik Little, a part-time Fitness Co-o rdinator, worked with the controllers to set up programs on both an indivi dua l and group basis.

compone nt, therefore, of the Occupational Health Program co ncerned itself w ith health education for controllers. A curricul a of ap propriate health related top ics was developed for the project by Medical Servic es Branch, Health und Welfare Canada. The presentation of these topics to controllers is based on a five yea r cycle, commencing in fiscal 1978/79 with one day of health education being in corporated in the air traffic control refreshe r t raining system. The identification of community resources able to support the special areas of expertise in these hea lth fields is the role of the Regional Health Educator, M ed ical Services Branch. The Air Traffic Services Branch is res ponsible for: choosing between reso urces available ; any contract administration ; and the funding (if required). Coordination of these activities has been effected b y the Regional Superintendents of Training in each regi on. Air Traffi c Services and M edical Se rvices Branch will c ollabo rate on a review of the efficacy of the health education program at the end of the second year's activities and a maj or evaluation of the program at the end of the fifth year. As an introduction to the subject for new controllers, a three day ed ucational health m od ule has been deve lo ped with the cooperation of Medical Services Branch for inc lu sion in ATS basic training at the new Transport Canada Training Inst itute facility at Cornwall. This three day module compri ses an ove rview of, and introduction to, the same subject areas covered by the annual controller program. II

Universal News Aviation Medicine: Seminars, new Study Group planned

Controllers Pat O 'Neill and J ohn Mason exercise a fte r workin g h ou rs in t he new Toronto ATC Ph ysical Fitness Faci l ity.

Approximately 75 % of the co ntrollers at t he T oronto ATS facility participated in the in it ial fitness assessment and si nce then more have joined. Controllers them selves have, through the election of represe ntatives to a fitness commi ttee , taken over th e d aily operation of the prog ram, with support from the Fitness Coordi nator. Response fro m both manage ment and contro ll ers to t he program has been ve ry positive and t he re is a clear evide nce of a ripple effect in t hat non-partici pants are being affected b y t he program and becoming more cognizant of their fitness levels and d iets. The program was eva luated at the end of the i ni tia l project phase (Fe bruary, 1979) an d the results confirmed the positive be nefits of t he program among controllers. Since that ti me the project has bee n kept on operating w hi le strategies are wo rked out for an ATCO H Lifesty le und Fit ness Program across Canada, based upon t he T oronto experience. Fitness Canada, of the Secretary of State, are assisting ATS in the development of this national p rog ram. In view of the program resu lts, the Director, ATS , in co rresponden c e to the RMATS also encouraged , where poss ibl e the preliminary p lanni n g of future fitness faci lit ies in new AT S structures.

Health Education The cornerstone of any health oriented program must be education. Thi s was recognized early in the p roject. The third


A regional semi nar was carried o ut by ICAO on the Afri can co ntinent late last year (November 5-10) in Nairobi, Kenya; me eting in the Kenyatta Conference Centre were 38 medical officers from 14 Contracting States. Dr. Silvio Finkelstei n, ICAO's Chief of the Aviation M ed icine Section, served as Seminar Directo r. It is hoped to convene one or two such regional seminars each year in the future. Th e next is scheduled tentatively to be held i n So uth America, towards the end of 1980. Additi o nal ly in the field of civil aviation medi cine, I CAO initiated in January the establishm ent of a new Study Group on Visua l Req uirements. Its purpose wi ll be to assi st th e Sec retariat in assessi ng the need for and/ or the feasibility of upd ating reg ulatory provisions and existing guidance material on vi sual requirements, inc luding colour perception. Visual and colo ur perception requirements are being continuously evalu ated in many Contracting States, particularl y in li g ht of contem p orary techniques avai lable for assess ment and in respon se to realistic operation al needs. Recently the Eu ropean Ci vil Aviatio n Commission gave priority to the subject of colourdeficiency applicants for avation duties. And , com ments to ICAO from a number of Contracting States have indicated the need fo r a further study of visual conditions. Th e l isting of suggestions provided by th ese States covers a wide variety of cond iti ons, including co lou r perception req uirements related to equ ipment design, co ntact lenses, monocularity refractive e rrors and v isual restric tions im posed by st rong lenses.


Accidents Record for 1979 The provisional accident reco rd for 1979 is as follows: in all, 45 accidents with about 1 600 fatali ties. The in c rease in f atalities f rom 1978 exceeded 30 % (about 1 250 dead in 1978), whil e the growth rate for ai r traffic as estimated b y ICAO for 1979 was around 10 %.

It was unqu estionably the accident of 25 May 1979 to a DC-10 on take-off from Chicago airport w hich had the biggest impact on air transport. The aircraft c rashed after losing a jet engine, and t he 272 passengers on board were killed. Until then no one accident had caused so many deaths in the United States. Then came in de creasing order of seriousness: the accident to another DC-10. On a tourist flight, the aircraft struck Mount Erebus in the Antarctic, which cost 237 tourists and 20 crew members their lives; the in-flight collisio n between Tu-134s at their cruising altitude over the Ukraine; the 137 persons on board were killed ; the accident to a B-707 shortly after take-off from J eddah airpo rt, res ulting in the death of the 156 occupants. Th ese four accidents accounted for over half the number of fataliti es in 1979. As a resu lt of the accident to the DC-10 at Chicago, the US admini stration took unprecedented economic action with th e suspension for 38 days (from 6 June to 13 July) of the airworthiness certificate for this aircraft type. The aircraft types involved in fatal accidents were: Jets: Boeing B-707 (5), B-727 (2) , B-737 (1) McDonnell Douglas DC-8 (1), DC-9 (1) , DC-10 (3) Fokker F.28 (2) Tupolev Tu-104 (1) , Tu- 134 (2) SNIAS Corvette (1)

Turboprop aircraft : Fokker Hawker S idd eley Lockheed Nord/Grumman Bandeirante Vickers lly ushin De Havill and Canada GAF

F.27 (3) HS-748 (3) Electra (1) Nord 262 (2), Mohawk (1) Emb-110 (1) Viscount (2) 11-18 (1) DHC-6 (5), DHC-5 (1) Nomad (1)

Piston aircraft: Douglas Britten Norman De Havilland

DC-3 (1 ), DC-4 (1 ), DC-7 (1) Islan der (1) Heron (1)

* The new KC-10 advanced tanker/cargo aircraft The McDonnell Dougl as U. S. Air Force KC-10 advanced tanker/ cargo aircraft made its first flight on 12 July and was airborne for 4 hours 16 minutes. A derivative of the DC-1 0 Series 30 CF, the KC-10 flew from Lo ng Beach Airport, over Santa Catalina, Point Mugu and Edwards AFB, to Yuma, A rizon a. where it landed at the McDonnell Do uglas Flight Deve lop ment facility. For the first flight, the KC-10 took off with a gross weight of 413,0001b (185 ,976 kg). The flight reached a maximum altitude of 30,000 feet (9144 m) and a max imum speed of 535 miles per hour (861 km/ h) and a mach number of .79. T asks acco mplished on the flight includ ed establishin g bas ic airworthiness of the aircraft, determining the handling characteristics, and checks of climb and cruise performance. Data from the KC-10 was telemete red to t he control ce nter at Douglas in Long Beach to allow s pecialists to monitor the performance as the tests were being conducted . In command of the first flight of the KC-10 was Walt Smith, KC-10 Project Pilot for the Douglas Aircraft Company Division of McDonnell Dougl as. Sharing co-pilot duties were George Jan se n, Di rector of Flight Operations for Douglas, and Lt. Col. Bru ce Hinds of the Air Force Flight Test Center.

Leo Hazell of Douglas and Master Sergeant L arry Sage of the Air Force shared flight engineer duties, and L auri e Johnston of Dougl as was T est Engin eer. Smith said after t he KC-10 's to uchdown in Yuma, " It handled beautifully. It has all the great flying qualiti es of the DC-10." Although the refu elin g boom o n the KC-10 was not deployed on first flight two boom operators, Guy Lowery of Douglas and Master Sergeant James Cornwell of t he Air Force, were in the operator 's station to open the air refueling sighting door, and perform other first flight function s. Deployme nt of the advanced aerial refueling boom is planned for late flights in the te~t programm. The h ose-end-drogue refueling system also w ill be deployed in later flights. During the test prog ram , the KC-10 wi ll refue l various Air Fo rce ai rcraft, in c luding the C-5, F-4, F-1 5 and A-10, using the boom. The hose-and-drogue syste m w ill be tested using Navy aircraft, including the S-3, F-4 and A-4. The KC-10 is called the " Extender" b y the A ir Fo rce becau:;c of its ability to "Extend" the range of U. S. Forces in overseas deployments.

The USAF McDonnel Doug las KC-10 .. Extender" advanced tanker/ cargo airc raft rolls across the Long Beach Municipal Airport to be readied for final ground testing and its first flight. The KC-10 i s a derivative of the commercial DC-10 Series 30CF (convertible fr eighter) and is designed to " extend " the mobility of U .S. forces in ov erseas deployments. The KC-10 i s painted white on the top and gray on the underside. A bri ght b lue stripe separates the two colors, and the KC-1 0 markings in clude insignia and banner of the Strategic Air Command. wh ich will operate the aircraft.

The primary missions of the KC-1 O are to refuel f ighters and simultaneously transport the fig hters' support equipment and perso nnel o n overseas deployments, refuel strateg ic airlifters (such as the USAF C-5 and C-141) during overseas deployment and resupp ly miss ions, an d to augment U . S. cargo-carry ing capab ility . The Air Force has so far ordered six KC- 10s and has said it plans to purchase additional KC-1 Os. The KC-10 f light marked the first takeoff of a new Air Force tanker in nearly a quarter cent ury. Th e KC-10 pre-delivery flight test programm will co nsist of about 300 flight ho urs, to be performed by a combi ned test team made up of pe rso nnel from McDonnell Douglas, The Federal Aviation Administration, The Air Force Flight Test Center at Edwards Air Force Base and the Air Force Test and Evalution Center at Kirtland Ai r Force Base, New Mexico. The Extender is powered by three General Electric CF6-50C? jet engines, each producing a thrust of 52,5001b (23,814 kg) at takeoff. It has a wingspan of 165 feet 4 inches (50.42 m), a len gth of 182 feet (55.4 m) and a ta il height of 58 feet 1 inch (17.7 m). Maximum takeoff gross weight is 590.00 lb (267,622 kg) . The KC-10s will be based with the Strategic Air Command 's Eight Air Force at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana. 4~


Spotlight on a New Corporate Member


F.,...,.,,.~~.l ASSOCIATES, INC. Sanders Associates, Inc., incorporated in 1951, is headquartered in Nashua, N. H. (USA). The company, which reported sales of approximately $ 270 millio n in fi scal year 1980, is eng aged in t he development and manufacture of advanced technology electronic systems in two principal industry areas: government systems and products and graphic syste ms and products. The largest segment of Sanders government syste ms is the Federal Systems G roup w h ich produces specialized systems for electronic and infra-red counter-measures, signal intelligence, ocean surveillance, ai r defense, trai ning and s imulation and automat ic test equipment. In the g rap hic system and products areas, Sanders produces intell ig ent computer graphic displays for ai r traffic control, computer-aided design and manufacturing, train ing and si mulation, command and contro l and othe r applications. The New Hampshire firm is the nation's largest manufacturer of stroke/ refresh graphic d isplay systems. And, through its California Computer Products G roup, San d ers is also the leading prod uce r of pen and ink graphic plotters and digitizers. CalCom p also produ ces electrostatic plotter/ printers and complete turnkey inte ractive graphic systems. T he co mpany's expe rtise in graphic di spl ays began with th e space age. Under a prime cont ract fro m t he N at ion al Aero nautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the 1960's Sande rs developed and p roduced more than 70 display co nsoles fo r the Saturn V o perational checkout system. Installed in vario us firing room s at Kenn edy Space Center and Marshall Space Fl ight C ente r, the

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displays provide pre-launch checko ut of the Saturn V vehicle usea in all manned lunar landings. Today Sanders continues its leade rship in graphic displ ay technology. The company is currently developing and producing automated four-color ai r traffic control (ATC) systems for the U.S. N avy's Fleet A rea Control and Surveillance Facilities at vari o u~ sites in the United States. T he installati on of a system at th~ Navy's Jacksonvi lle, Fla .. facility w ill mark the nation's first imple¡ mentation of four-color graphi c displ ays for ai r traffic control applications. The advanced ATC systems will depict commercial and military air traffic w ithin the Navy's operati onal areas, including data from FAA radars and sea vesse l info rmation from the Navy Tactical Data System. Sanders also produ ced the graphic display subsystems for Canada's nationwide air traffic control system. Under an exclusive teaming ag reeme nt with CAE Electronics Montreal, Sanders recentlly delivered approximately 150 of the graphic displ ays to Canada. Currently, Sanders is developing an El ectronic Tabular Disp lay Subsystem (ETA BS) and associated support for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) . The system w ill help imp rove the efficiency of air traffic controllers at en route centers by automating many of the routine tasks now performed manually. The ETABS system will be installed at the FAA Technical Center to evaluate the feas ibility of usin g s imil ar subsystems to repl ace present method s of ente ring and displaying non-radar flight data at Air Route Traffic Co ntrol Centers. The FAA has also ordered eight four-co lor g raphic displ ay systems w hich wil l be installed at the T echnical Cente r for use in the Air T rafic Control Digital Simulation Faci lity . The fo ur-color systems are also being used in Mitre Corporation's laboratories as part of a prog ram to develop display systems of the future. Other Sanders graphic display systems are installed at the U.S. Air Force Space and Missi le Test Center at Vandenberg AFB where they monitor and contro l aircraft in a 900- mile long offshore test area between the Mex ican border and the state of Oregon. The systems receive raw radar and other data from up to seven radar sites along the coast , process the information and di splay it in eas ily readable form on high reso lutio n screens. For the U.S. Customs Se rvice, Sa nders delivered a computerd riven graphic display that integrates and displays o n a sing le 21 inch screen, flight info rmation from FAA, North American Air Defense and other radars, to help Customs perso nnel d etect airc raft illegally entering the United States. T he new system w ill eventually be connected to other rad ars, not on ly to in c rease the effi c iency of Customs perso nnel, but also to provide g reater capabilities and cove rage than was previously possible. â&#x20AC;˘

More News in Brief Airport Facilities ..



Each Quarter of the year in THE CO NTROLLER you will find a range of departments to such diverse subjects as Technical, Scientific, Law, Conference Table News, Medical, etc., all focusing on Air Traffic Control.


On 21 February 1979, th e new Taipei airport was opened in Formosa. Known as Chiang Kai-shek Inte rnat ional and located near the town of Taoyuan , 40 km south-west of the capital, it covers an area of 1 200 hectares; it took four years and a half to build and cost NT $ 10 bil lion. It has a runway 3 660 m long with a capacity of 42 IFR movements an hour ; 22 airc raft can be parked around the air terminal which is des ign ed to take 5 million passengers in 1980 and 10 milli o n in 1990. On 28 December, the new Dacca airpo rt in Bang ladesh was o pened to traffi c; this airport, designed to take 3.5 million passenge rs a yea r and located 20 km no rth of t he capital . w ill have cost $ 70 million.

Other smaller airports were opened to air traffic in 1979: on 5 July at Figari, in south Corsica, between Porto Vecchio and Bonifacio, on 3 September at Unst, 66 km north-west of Lerwick, in the Shetland Islands; in November at Vitoria, in northern Spain, at Birkala, near Tampere in Finland; at Luogang, 400 km west of Shanghai in China. Airports were reopened to traffic following major modifications which almost transformed them into new airports. This was the case of Lagos airport in Nigeria, which was named Murtala Muhammed. It was opened to traffic on 15 March 1979 and is the biggest and most modern airport in Black Africa. It has an area of 15 OOO hectares and is equipped with two runways 2 700 and 3 900 m long; it has been designed to take 2.5 million passengers and 100 OOO freight tons up to 1985. Another airport was also reopened to traffic in Kenya, on 28 August, i. e. Mombasa airport whose runway, lengtened to 3 350 m, can now take B-747s bound for Europe. New air terminals were put in service: at the start of the year at Buenos Aires-Ezeiza airport for the specific needs of Aerolineas Argentinas; at Karachi; at Caracas-Maiquetia for international traffic; at Sharjah, on 21 April (annual capacity of 2.5 million passengers); at Bremen, in the Federal Republic of Germany, on 4 May (cost:$ 6.2 million); at Beauvais-Tille, in France, on 11 May; at Olbia-Costa Smeralda, in Sardinia, on 21 November; at Stockholm-Arlanda, for domestic traffic (cost: 45 million S.Kr.) in July; at Cartagena, in Colombia, in September; on 29 September at Baltimore/Washington International (cost: $ 70 million, annual capacity: 11 million passengers). The new terminal at Peking airport in China was presented to the press on 18 December; costing $ 32 million, the new facilities are designed to take 1 500 passengers an hour and the two satellites are each equipped with eight embarkation gates. In January 1979, a second runway 4 OOO m long was put in service at Cairo International airport. which should enable traffic to rise substantially, to 5 million passengers in 1980. In February. a second 4 OOO m runway was put in service at Rio de JaneiroGaleao airport. On 28 April, the runway at the Swiss'French Basel-Mulhouse airport. which had been lengthened to 3 900 m, was opened. Extensions to existing airports went into service, particularly at lv.arseille-Marignane, in France, on 12 November, where the area of terminal facilities was raised from 34 200 to 42 OOO m 2 through a new satellite. Works are being continued throughout the world on the construction of new facilities or the extension of existing facilities. As a result of a tidal wave which on 16 October seriously damaged several parts of the Riviera coast in France, the extension works on Nice airport. which were aimed at the construction of a second runway 3 200 m south of the existing runway on land reclaimed from the sea, had to be suspended and will not be resumed for several months. Projects were also drawn up. and there is again talk in the United Kingdom of Stansted as a third London airport. ITA Bulletin


New occupational directory will aid ICAO technical assistance recruitment A new listing of 62 civil aviation occupations has been compiled by ICAO to identify the nature of expertise available through its Technical Assistance (TA) Programme. The Directory of Occupational Classifications and Job Descriptions for ICAO Technical Assistance Field Personnel incorporates standard job descriptions for each occupation. defining terms of reference and the related prerequisites of training and or experience. A continuing task of ICAO is to identify precisely the various expertise required by TA projects to ensure the recruitment of the most suitably qualified experts for the achievement of specific project objectives. This identification requires clear definition of duties. responsibilities and the prerequisites of training

and experience in terms which recognize the specific and limited functions of various occupations and are commonly understood by the international civil aviation community. The Directory is designed to serve this purpose. It provides for expanded and updated definition of occupations to reflect the progressively wider and more sophisticated range of expertise required for the execution of projects. The continuing expansion of ICAO's TA Programme, the increasing demand for highly specialized personnel and the restricted time scales for the provision of expert services have required adjustment to recruitment methods. The definitions and criteria of the new Directory will provide the discriminatory bases for a planned computerized recruitment system that will permit storage of biodata and selective identification of candidates for TA assignments. Thus, the revised procedure is expected to accelerate the recruitment process. The Directory has been distributed to Resident Representatives of the United Nations Development Programme, ICAO Project Coordinators and Directors of Civil Aviation throughout the world. It is the Organization's expectation that this promulgation of the new document will greatly assist in the prompt staffing of TA projects by ensuring more precise definition of required expertise and, as a consequence, more effective identification of the most suitable candidates for each project.


55th Session of the Eurocontrol Permanent Commission The Permanent Commission of Ministers of EUROCONTROL, the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation, held its 55th Session in Brussels on 8 July 1980 under the chairmanship of Mr Joel LE THEULE, Minister of Transport of the French Republic. The Permanent Commission examined the problems connected with the continued application of the EUROCONTROL Convention which entered into force in 1963, for an initial period of 20 years. The Permanent Commission adopted as a basis for its future work the draft of a new legal instrument framed for the purpose by the Study Group of the Civil and Military Alternates to the Members of the Permanent Commission. as well as the proposals relating to the financing of the Organisation both during the transitional period up to the introduction of an amended Convention and its subsequent period of application. The matter of the admission of new Member States to the future Organisation was examined. The lines along which discussions might be held with States applying to accede to the EUROCONTROL Convention were examined. The Permanent Commission paid special heed to the future of the EUROCONTROL Maastricht Upper Area Control Centre. It approved the proposal tabled by Belgium. the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to entrust EUROcontrol with the conduct of a feasibility study into the centralisation at Maastricht UAC of all area control functions in respect of the airspace of the BENELUX States and the northern part of the Federal Republic of Germany. Should the Member States of the Organisation subsequently decide in favour of the implementation of the proposal, a possible consequence could well be a considerable extension of the Centre's operational responsibilities, hitherto restricted to control of the upper airspace over Belgium, Luxembourg and the northern part of the Federal Republic of Germany. In the context of the Organisation's more immediate concerns. the Permanent Commission approved a report from the Study Group of Alternates on the establishment of an international air traffic flow management system for the Member State's airspace The report advocates the implementation of a work programme comprising as a first phase the setting-up of a central data bank in line with ICAO recommendations and the constitution of a planning group responsible for defining an appropriate outline


operational plan. Jn the fi rst instance, Spain and Portug al wi ll be invited to take part i n th is wo rk. The Permanent Commission also sign ified its agreement to the conclusion of a Cooperation A greement between EUROCO NTROL and the Eu ropean Communities, desig ned essentially to further their relationship s. In pursuance of the Permanent Com mi ssio n's Ru les of Procedure, Mr N. TEBBIT, Parliamentary Under Sec retary of State, Departme nt of Trade, of the United Kingdom, wi ll assume the office of Pres ident of the Permanent Comm ission for th e period fro m 9th July 1980 to 30th J une 1981, the office of V ice-President over the same period being conferred on M r Josy BARTHEL, Mi niste r of Transport of the Gran d Du ch y of Lux embou rg.


Mechanical 8 Day Aircraft Chronographs

With Integral Revolving Bezel (Types B 17 and B 18) Fo llowing the requests of many pil ots and specifi cations of some air forces, THO MMEN has added a feature whi ch w as fam iliar to obsolete designs of European aircraft chronog raphs to its wide series of advanced chronographs acco rding to US M IL - Specifications.

where pushing the elapsed time kn ob o nce will cause the counter to start , a secon d push will stop it as usual : a thi rd pu sh howeve r will start the counter again etc . Only by a slight c lockwise rotation of the appropriately shaped elapsed time knob, the counter will fly back to zero. This operation is eve n possible w hill'! th e cou nter is runn ing. Co ntinuous sec ond display Yet an other fi rst wi th 8 day airc raft chronographs is introduc ed by THOMMEN with the continu ous se cond d ispl ay availabl e fo r all types of its airc raft chronog raphs. Until now, real profit of the accuracy of these chro nographs (Âą 15 s/ d ay) could not be made because at latest when the elapsed ti me fun ction was operated, a prec ise indication of the seco nds was not avail able any more. An al ternative for applications w here this cannot be tolerated is offe red by new THOMMEN movements havi ng a separate continu ous seco nd d isplay at the 3 o 'clock posi tion of the d ial. Its secon d hand c an be sto pped neither by the operatio n of the elapsed time func tion no r by changing the c lock setting (ch ange of time-zones). O n the other side, the c loc k ca n be compl etely stopped intentionally by p ull ing out the wi nding and setting k nob in a third p osition beyond the setting position. Thus th e continuous second display ca n be stopped when its hand is at th e "60" position and resta rted upon any time-synchronizing s ignal by pushing the setting knob in c ompletely. As well as for the Types B 17 and B 18 desc ribed here, the c ontinuous second d isplay is equally available fo r the THOMMEN CHRONOGRAPHS Types B 13 and B 15 with out revo lving bezel desc ribed in a separate doc umentation . Th e co mpl ete series of THOMMEN AIRCRAFT CH RON OGRA PH S comes with elapsed tim e ranges of 12 minutes, 60 minutes and 12 hours, wit h an d wi thout i nteg rate l ighting, and wi th d ifferen t dial finishes and c ase c onfigurati ons.


The Hannover Air Show - a historical review by Hans-J oachim L ange* A total number of 364 exhibito rs from 16 different nat ions have exhibited at the ILA '80 (T he lnternationale Luftfahrtausstellung) Th e International Aerospace Exhibition held at Hann over Airpo rt fro m the 24th Apri l to the 1st May, 1980. Th e event was organised jointly by the Federal German Aerospace In dustries Association (B OLi ), Bonn, and Deutsche Messe- und A usste llungs A G, Hanno-

THOMMEN Aircraft Chronograp h Type B 18 - 956 first presented at the Farnborough Air-Show 1980

Revolving bezel The revolvin g bezel , as it is called, is used as a second e lapsed time functio n of a sin gle ch ronog raph. It c onsists in. its initial form a ring-shaped bezel with engraved minute-graduations fi xed on the outside of _the clock case to be adjusted according to the position of the minute hand by a revo lvi ng motion of the fi ngers. In the adva nced THOMMEN design, this feature is completely integrated in the case and o perated from the outside by a separate k nob at the 4 o'clock position. The resulting advantage 1s not only a smoother adjustment, but especially this new design ca n also be used in chronographs with integral ligh ting which are gradually o utphasi ng unlit o nes. This in tegral revolving bezel can be fitted to all THOMMEN CHRONOGRAPHS Types B 13 and B 15 becoming Types B 17 and B 18 respectively. While Type B 17 has the standard 3-fu nction operatio n of the elapsed t im e knob . i. e start, stop and fly-back to zero in a fixed seq ue nce, the Type B 18 features a 2-function operation , 46

ve r. In 1908, five yea rs after the Wright Brothers lau nched th e first powered man-car ryin g heavier-than-ai r c raft at Kill Devi l Hill , Kitty Hawk, N. C. - Dr. Paul Gans, an early votary of aviatio n in Germany. proposed a wo rld exhibition to be held in Munich displaying the latest in flyi ng machines of the century. The mun icipal counc il of Mu nich was cool toward this idea, forc ing Dr. Gans to seek anoth er location fo r his air show. Frank furt . under the mayo rship of Dr. Ad ickes. was more receptive to the notion of a wo rld air show an d, between July and October 1909, crowds of c urious vis ito rs watched airship flights , balloo n flights, powered and unpowe red airc raft, including the latest aeronautical -endeavours by names such as Zeppeli n, Pa rseval and others. T he show was called the Frankfu rt Ai r Show, and is considered to be the predecesso r of the " Vereinigung der Deutschen Luftfahrtindustrie" , which developed i n the ensuing 20 years. 1928, pe rhaps the heyday of early German air shows, celebrated the inauguration of the " l nternationale Luftfahrt Schau" at the Messeha l le, Kaiserdamm , Berlin. Yet , while Wo rld War I may have sp urred the development of German Aviation , the aftermath of WW II brought it to a grinding stop. â&#x20AC;˘ Hans-J oachim Lang e is a retired ai r traffic con troller who worked in Hannover and B remen ATC Units : Hans was the commentator to the public during the 1978 and 1980 Hann over Air Shows.

The Allied Occupation of Germany in 1945 prohibited that <:ountry from any aeronautical pursuits. Is was not until 1955 that the strictures on the German aviation inustry were eased and, in the follo wing year, Dorn ier Corp. began the reincarnation of German industry with the manufacture of the famous Do 27. April 26 to May 6, 1958 witnessed the rebirth of the Deutsche Luftfahrt Schau - German Air Show with the first exhibition since WW II. Since 1958 the Hannover Air Show is held every second or every even year, alternating with the Paris - Le Bourget Air Show, and has always overlapped, at least for several days, the Hannover Messe - the Hannover Trade Fair. The ' lnternationale Luftfahrt Ausstellung (ILA)' at Hannover airport, as it is called since 1978, is today organized largely through the efforts of the Bundesverband der Deutschen Luft- und Raumfahrtindustrie (BOLi) and the Deutsche Messe- und AusstellungsAG Hannover. 150 general aviation aircraft were shown at ILA 80 - from April 24 to May 1, and 364 exhibitors from 16 different countries displayed their wares, ranging from French armaments und U. S. corporate jets, to missiles, bombs, and an assorted cornucopia of nearly every type of aeronautical hardware by nearly every manufacturer of the world. Every business jet and turboprop maker in the world, with the exception of the Soviets, had one or more mod els on display. Grumman American's Gulfstream Ill arrived after a non-stop flight from Savannah, Ga. at Hannover airport, and America's general aviation triumvirate - Cessna, Beech, and Piper - displayed their entire lines. The helicopter contingent of ILA 80 included some two dozen machines, like Pezetel Kania, Bell's 214 Super-Transport, SA 365 from Aerospatiale, and the appearance of the BK 117, the twin-turbine helicopter being developed jointly by MBB and Kawasaki Heavy Industries. Certification takes place by the end of the year, and first deliveries in early 1981 , the production until 1983 has been so ld entirely. Seminars and meeti ngs were held during the show, topics of interest to corporate flight personnel included : " The Supercritical Wing". .. Advance Technology on Fuel Conservation ". "Sh uttlet Spacelab" . " Pro blems of General Aviation". To make the ILA 80 an ai r show, more than 200.000 vis itors had the opportunity to watch some of the world's best flying teams : The Red Arrows from Great Britain with their new aircraft, the British Aerospace "Hawk"; The Patrouille de France, with Fouga Magister (next season most probably flying in Alpha Jet): and Karo-As from Austria, flying Saab 0 105. As in previous years, there was no rigid schedule for demonstration and sa le flights, and Hannover ATC toget her with the Flight Coordination Centre located at the Show Area, was ve ry flexible, so that companies wanting to demonstrate aircraft had a real advantage at Hannover. See you again 1982 at the "ILA 82" !


ICAO considers air-ground radio transmission improvements In an effort to reduce the potential for ambiguous and misund erstood pilot and ground rad io transmissions, ICAO is considering the f i rst in a series of comprehensive changes and additions to long-standing phraseologies used in aviation radiotelephony exchanges. Even though air travel is recognized as the safest and most widely used form of public international transport, it is subj ect to occasional hum an errors and air-ground communications breakdowns. Th ese can occur as a result of garbled messages and imprecise instructions being transmitted between pilots and air traffic controllers and other ground personnel. The extensive ICAO project was preceded by a more general proposal for the updating of some of the basic phraseologi es

used by air traffic services personnel and pilots. Th is proposal, which ultimately will requ i re an amendment to the pertinent technical Annexes to the Convention of International Civil Aviat ion (Annex 2 - Rules of the Ai r and Annex 11 - Air Traffic Services), already has been ci rcu lated for comment to ICAO Member States and selected international organizations. The more extens ive project, already well developed, wi ll require further amendment of Annexes 2 and 11, as well as other closely related ICAO documents. Envisioned as a series of sequential improvements, the allembracing effort is first focusing its attention on communications associated with surface movements on aerod romes, including aircraft towing , taxi ing and pre-take-off manoeuvres as wel l as those associated with t he take-off, land ing, and the approach to land. This segment of aircraft movement, as well as flight operations and air traffic information and control services, has long been recognized as the area wherein the vo lum e and intensity of radio message exchanges is highest. It also is the area where the quality, clarity and precision of such exchanges are most critical to aviation safety. Thus, the first stage of the ICAO project is targeted at the area where improvements are most likely to have a positive impact on aviation safety. The remaining segments of aviation activity will be addressed subsequently in the series of ICAO efforts to improve rad iotelephony phraseologies and procedures.

Book Review

ODYSSEY OF TERROR by Ed Blai r with Captain William R Haas. Price : $ 7.95, but is available to readers of THE CONTROLLE R and members of IFATCA throughout the world for$ 5.95 (ensuring correct exchange rates) per copy. For orders, please write to ODYSSEY, 4222 Rickenbacker Dr. NE. Atlanta, Georgia 30342. USA. The true story of the skyjacking of Southern Airways flight 49. is now being offered in hardback edition. The 316-page story relates minute-by-minute happenings of the event from the viewpoints of hostages as well as the flight crew Captain Haas (with whom author Blair wrote the book) piloted the Southern Airways DC9 during the 30-hour ordeal it was kept captive by three armed terrorists. Described as the most bizzare. death-defying and prolonged skyjacking in the aviation history of the USA, the fl ight en route from Memphis to Miami was taken over by three air pirates who demanded 8 10 million in ransom money from the city of Detroit. Du ring the hours of captivity the DC9 crissc rossed much of the eastern part of the USA, went to Canada and made an incredible take-off and landing without tyres. As the Odyssey ended at Havana. Cuba ended a long-standing practice of affording asylum to criminals who engaged in h1-1ackings Indeed a ca refully written account of a sky1acking 1nc1dent which took the author a full three years of research and interviews lifting a veil of AA secrecy but keeping security information sealed from the reader


Letters to the Editor

Further, in my ignorant way of thinking, I did believe that the ILO report would have been one of the main subjects at the IFATCA Conference in Canada.

Eurocontrol not closed to female controllers!

It must be possible, with some form of solidarity, for IFATCA - a world wide federation of controllers - with the 60 most, or partly most, traffic densed countries in the world as members, to help those who need help, or are we as weak as we seem to be?

Dear Sir, With reference to your article in the Controller of June 1980 I like to inform you that your information about female controllers with Eurocontrol is not quite correct. In the Maastricht UAC Eurocontrol employed four female controllers, two fully qualified and two trainees, who have left since for various reasons. So Eurocontrol is certainly not closed to female controllers and we hope to see a rectification in your magazine. Yours Faithfully,

J. A. van Eck

* The Meeting of Experts on Problems Concerning Air Traffic Controllers. A Milestone for Air Traffic Controllers or not? We - members of IFATCA - know that extreme different working conditions exist among ATCOs in various parts of the world. We also know that in some countries controllers have to work for 3 employers to keep their family alive. This is unbelieveable in 1980, but we know it is the truth. Strong medicine have to be used if all the "diseases" within ATS should disappear, but how can we achieve this? Pressing for, and getting, the Expert Meeting for Controllers at the ILO in Geneve was thought by many ATCOs to be a start, and "a stay in the doctor's waiting room". Getting out of the meeting (after one week of exchange of views with the employers' group) where the ATCOs "diseases" were unwrapped - the Meeting proposed 52 different "medicines" - later blessed by the ILO Governing Body - as a cure which, I do believe, will get the controllers and the system healthy if used in all countries. I was very optimistic after the result of the meeting was known, and I got the impression that this was also the case among the members of the IFATCA Executive Board participating in the meeting. They even called the result (52 Ree.) a mile~tone for the world's controllers. During the winter 1979/80, I believe the report from the meeting was discussed within the Ex. B., and the Vice President Professional did present a paper to 1980 l~ATCA. Annual Conference in Canada. This paper was a great disappointment to me.

I do hope that controllers within IFATCA have views on how the Federation shall work in the future for the benefit of all ATCOs. Do we need a change - or are we satisfied with our Federation as it is? John Kalvik, ATCO, Norway

The Editor's (Vice-President) reply (dated 25th August, 1980) to John's letter is as follows: "I am well aware of your opinion on the outcome of the ILO Meeting of Experts on ATC and with this I would like to inform you of what the Board are in fact endeavouring to achieve. You should by now be in a position to know the importance of the ILO recommendations that the Executive Board places upon and of course the efforts which it puts into in order to achieve the best out of this Meeting. "Since the Toronto Conference, I have, in my capacity as VicePresident Professional urged the Regional Vice-Presidents to find out in their areas the extent to which the ILO recommendations may be applicable and also to find out how these recommendations may be practically applied in the various countries. "The Executive Board have resolved to codify whatever had been done towards the ILO sphere for the guidance of Member-Associations. "At next week's meeting of SCIV, in Amsterdam, I intend to raise the question again and in collaboration with SCIV, the Board will pursue the implementation as far as possible of the Recommendations in all countries. Naturally you realise that as the Recommendations stand at this time the Board can do very little without the specific request or involvement of the Member Association concerned. "Regarding your reference on solidarity, I have with the consent of the Executive Board, through the INTIMIDATION Paper of SCVll at the Toronto Conference, attempted ~to introduce solidarity action by Member-Associations to further the aims of other Associations. Unfortunately, you may recall. the recommendations to the Paper were not accepted - Norway, If I am not mistaken also voted against these. "I believe, however, that we still have a long way to go until we reach the tolerable stage, if not the ideal, for good working conditions for all the Controllers in the world. I am sure this can be achieved with the assistance of all the Member-Associations and their individual members. I am sure that the Executive Board can rely on your personal support as well as your Association's." â&#x20AC;˘

The earlier talk about "a milestone" for the worlds' controllers was not reflected in the paper, rather the opposite. As .we know, ILO did an exellent job prior to the meeting, collecting and preparing a lot of material which made it possible for . th e mee t'mg to reach the 52 Recommendations (Ree.). I do believe ILO (and a lot of ATCOs) will be very disappointed if ~othing is done by IFATCA (us) to convince our employers that implen:ienta~ion of the 52 Ree. are the only way to reach some form of .sat1sfact1on for the worlds ATCOs, and thereby maintaining a high level of flight safety. The agenda of the 211th session of ILO Governing Body, who discuss~d the report from the Expert Meeting did state, among oth~r things that: ... these contain agreed recommendations for national and international action. Should it not be the responsibility of IFATCA to start this action on a world-wide basis? I was looking forward to the Executive Board's manner of treatment of the ILO report with great expectation, waiting for something like: The Executive Board's proposed action for implementation of the 52 ILO Ree. within the IFATCA member countries: as a headline on a paper from our leaders on this important matter.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This being the last issue printed in Frankfurt, the Editors want to thank Dr. Kramer and his staff for the excellent cooperation over the past years. It is hoped that the high level presentation of THE CON-

TROLLER will be continued with the new printing house DER BUND VERLAG, Effingerstr. 1, CH-3001 Bern, Switzerland.

Corporate Members of IFATCA AEG-Telefunken, Frankfurt a. M., Germany AMECON Division, Litton Systems, College Park, Maryland, USA ANSA, Advisory Group Air Navigation Services, Westerngrund, Germany Applied Research & Development, North Troy, USA Cable & Wireless Ltd., London, England CAE Electronics Ltd., Montreal, Quebec, Canada Cardion Electronics, Woodbury, N.Y., USA Computer Sciences Europe SA, Brussels, Belgium Cossor Radar and Electronics Ltd., Harlow, England Dansk lmpulsfysik A. S., Holte, Denmark Datasaab AB, Jarfalla, Sweden Decca Software Sciences Limited, London, England Dictaphone Corporation, Rye, N.Y., USA ELECMA Divisions Electronique de la SNECMA, Suresner, France ELTA Electronics Industries Ltd., Ashod, Israel E-Systems, Montek Division, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA Ferranti Limited, Bracknell, Berks., England Goodwood Data Systems Ltd., Ontario, Canada Ground Aid Group, Esbjerg, Denmark International Aeradio Ltd., Southall, England International Air Carrier Association, Geneva, Switzerland ITT Gilfillan, USA Jean de Backer SA, Zaventem, Belgium Jeppesen & Co. GmbH., Frankfurt, Germany Lockheed Electronics Company, Inc., Plainfield, N. J., U.S.A. The Marconi Radar Systems Ltd., Chelmsford, England M.B.L.E., Brussels, Belgium The Mitre Corporation, Mclean, Virginia, USA N. V. Hollandse Signaalapparaten, Hengelo, Netherlands N. V. Philips Division ELA, Eindhoven, Netherlands Philips Telecommunicatie lndustrie B.V., Hilversum, Netherlands The Plessey Company Limited, Weybridge, Surrey, England Racal Recorders Limited, Southampton, England Raytheon Canada Ltd., Canada Gustav A. Ring A/S, Oslo, Norway Sanders Associates, Inc., Nashua, N. H., USA Schmid, Fernmeldetechnik, Zurich, Switzerland Selenia - lndustrie Elettroniche Associate S. p. A., Rome, Italy SEL - Standard Elektrik Lorenz, Stuttgart 70, Germany Societe Artistique Fran9aise, Paris, France Societe d'Etudes & d'Entreprises Electriques, lssy Les Moulineaux, France Sodern, Limeil Brevannes, France Sofreavia, Paris, France Software Sciences Ltd., Farnborough, England Sperry Univac, Sulzbach/Ts., Germany & St. Paul, Minnesota, USA TERMA Elektronik AS, Lystrup, Denmark Thomson - CSF, Paris, France Ulmer Aeronautique, Clichy, France VWK - Ryborsch GmbH, Obertshausen 2, Germany Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Baltimore, Maryland, USA The International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers' Associations would like to invite all corporations, organizations, and institutions interested in and concerned with the maintenance and promotion of safety in air traffic to join their organization as Corporate Members. Corporate Members support the aims of the Federation by supplying the Federation with technical information and by means of an annual subscription. The Federation's international journal "The Controller" is offered as a platform for the discussion of technical and procedural developments in the field of air traffic control.

Detail of m1cromin1atunzed RF inductor deposited on alumina usmg etch-sp uttering. ( Electron microscope)

Center photo ATCR-22 at Sundsvall in Sweden

in-house technology In-house technology is essential to achieve the performance and rel iability required in the ATC environment. Over 130 Radar Systems in successful operation in 24 countries. The SOVIET UNION , SWEDEN, NIGERIA, MEXICO, PERU' , BULGARIA, HUNGARY and ITALY have recently c hosen new Selenia adaptive radars, which give advanced operational effectiveness through modern systems concept and technology. SELENIA supplies radars, air traffic control systems and complete electroni c I electrical I civi l-work turn-key systems.

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IFATCA The Controller - 4th Quarter 1980  
IFATCA The Controller - 4th Quarter 1980