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I n this Issu e: 19th Ann ua l IFATC A Co nfe rence, To ro nto , Canad a Automation a n d Conflic t Detectio n Surface Movement Guidance and Contro l





QUA RTE R 1980




advanced digital ate display The DDS-80 Digital ATC Display is one of the most adva~ced d ~splay ever designed. The display is very fast. and is able to g1~e a fll ckerfree presentation of both synthetic and raw radar ~1 deo . Each display is equipped with the Selenia NDC- 160 16-bit m1rnco ~puter and 3 micro-pr0.cessors in order to obtain maximum flex1b1l1ty and best interface possibilities . The built-in computer will take over a number of tedious tasks formerly performed by the control ler using key-boards and track-ball.










THE CONTROLLER Frankfurt am Main, September 1980

Volume 19 ¡ No. 3

Publisher: International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers' Assoc iations, P. 0. B. 196, CH-1215 Geneva 15 Airport, Switzerland. Officers of IFATCA: H. H . Henschler. President . Daniel Oudin. Vice-Presiden t (Technical). A. Avgoustis. Vice-President (Professi o na l ). Pat o¡ooherty. Vi cePresident (Adm inistration). H. Wenger. Treasurer . E. Bradshaw. Executive Secretary . Secretariat: 6 Longlands Park. Ayr KA7 4RJ Ayrshire. Scotland. United Kingdom Tel.: 029242114 Editor: A. Avgoustis 5 Athens Str .. Ayios Dhometios Nicosia . Cyprus Tel. : (021) 48786 Managing Editor: Horst Guddat POB 600 209 D-6000 Frankfurt1Ma1n-60 Telefon (06 11) 21 08 86 22 Publishing Company, Production, Subscription Service and Adverll slng Sales Office: Verlag w. Kramer & Co .. Bornheimer Landwehr 57 a, 6000 Frankfurt/Main 60, Phone 434325 and 492169. BHF-Bank No . 3-03333-9. Postscheckkonto Frankfurt 1105-601, Rate Card N r. 7 . Printed by: W. Kramer & Co., Bornheimer Landwehr 57 a, 6000 Frankfurt/ M a in 60 {Fede ral Republ ic of German y).

Bill Robertson . President o f th e Canadian Associat ion . open ing the t9th Annual IFATCA Conference on Bth May 1980 in the Downtown Hol iday Inn Ho tel . Toronto. Canada . A fu ll repo rt of the Conferen ce 1s to be fou nd on p age 5 pp

Subscription Rate : DM 6.- per annu m fo r members of IFATCA: DM 16,- per an num for non-members (Postage will be charged extra). Contributors ar e expressing their personal points of view and opinions. which may not necessarily coincide with those of the Internation al Federation of Air Traffic Controllers' Associations (IFATCA). IFATCA does not assume responsibility for statements made and opin ions expressed, it does only accept responsibi lity for publishing the se contributions . Contribut ions are welcome as are commen ts and cri t ic i sm . No payment can be made for manuscripts submitted for publication in "The Contro ll er ". The Editor reserve s the right to make any editorial changes in manuscripts, which he believes will improve the ma ter ial w ithout altering the intended meaning. Written permission b y the Editor is necessary for re p rinting any part o f thi s Journal.

CO NTEN TS 19th Annu al IFATCA Conference, Toronto, Canada


Aviation Law, Part 3


10 Years Cargolux


Automation and Conflict Detection


Surface Movement and Guidance Control Systems


News from the Federation ...


News from Corporate Members


New Corporate M e mbers


Universa l News


Membership Card Benefits


Publications Review


Cartoons : Helm ut El sner Photos: Archive Avgoustin os Ca rgol ux Egypt Tourist Office H Guddat Jeppesen Siemen s Th ommen Adverti sers: Se len1a (inside co ver). Thomson- CSF (page 2) AE G- Telefunken (pag e 4) Ferra nti (page 9) tAL (page t t ) Ph1l1ps ELA (page t3) IFATCA 81 (page t6) Phil i ps AEROPP (pages 24 25) Oa tasaab (back co ver)

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IFATCA's Evolution

The 19th IFATCA Annual Conference that was held in Toronto last May cannot but remind us a ll. retrospectively from its inception. o f the Federatio n's evolution to its present form. size and statu s in in ternati onal soc ie ty . It is not witho ut awe that we look upon those pioneers in Europe w ho first conceived the idea of a European Air Traffic Controll e rs' Community which soon turned into an international entity, immediately after it was r ealised that the air traffic controller's profession could not. by it s nature. b e restricted within the limits o f one singl e contine n t - Europe. Air traffic opera ted throughout and to all fo ur co rners of the world . and demanded universal protection through the establishment. b y the I nternational C ivi l Aviation Organizatio n { ICAO). of standards and practices intend e d t o be adopt ed and impl em e nted by Member States. Though a n inte rnational organ isation by it s co nstituti o n , it w as by foresight and hard work that finally promoted IFATCA' s charac ter into an international body truly representative of al l con tinents. to reach a total of 60 M ember Associations from an e qual number of Sta tes ') at the c lose o f this year's Conferen c e , w he n seven ne w m embers affiliate d. This latter fac t compels o ur minds to register the logi cal probabi li ty of the na tural reactions o f nonI FA T CA controll e r s into an ea rly applica tion for a ffi l iatio n result ing in adde d respons ibil iti es on the should e rs of the Ex ec utive Board and the Federation itse lf as a body . Ind eed. IFATCA was founded out o f necessity e manating from the fact th at th e objectives. functions and problems o f th e air traffic control le rs we re o f s imilar nature irrespec tive o f th e ir diffe ring natio nal boundaries and th at these could o nly be mastered and solved by c ommon e ffort o f all national s through c lose int e rnatio nal co-operati on and continuo us e xchange o f ideas and expe rience . It was felt right from the ou tset th at, in order to e ns ure and sus tain a safe and e ffici e nt system o f air navi gation. the air traffi c co ntro lle r ought to b e given adequat e and necessary equipm e nt. the proper training . e nvironment and status and be ri d of any extrane ous fac to r s that may affect or act adversely upon him. whe n on duty. in order that air safety sho uld not be impa ired . As the yea rs went by . techn o logy achi eved great strides of adva nce me nt : airc ra ft indu stries d eve lo ped bigger and faster craft to serve the requi rement s of the opera tor : gove rnm ents invested astrono mical sum s o f money to bu ild larger a nd more ') Eurocon trol though not a State is recognised as an international entity

luxurious terminals to serve and cater for the ever increasing tourist trade: manufacturers evo lv ed with costly and sophisticated equipment tendered to governme nts wil ling to purchase . This fre nzied compet ition and unprecedente d activity had exc l uded i n most cases th e controll er. at least as far as adm ini stratio ns we re concerned , in abso lute disrega rd of his contri b ution to ai r safety. p erhaps fo r no other reason tha n that po litician s d o n ot believe i n e xpenditure which wil l not gain for them favourable votes o r throug h sheer igno ran ce. The re are. one must admit . proportio'"la te ly a sma ll number of administrations that h ave acce pted th e controller's fun ct ions as bei ng of utmost import ance in the promot io n of air sa fety and have established an enlighte ned approach towards the controller's problems. This. h owever. is not eno ugh. Wh at wa s, then . IFATCA's ro le in the drive for recognit ion of the s tatus of the con tro l ler and the solut ion of h is problems? The answer can not be sim ple. only because the problems have bee n complex and diverse. Briefly. the Federation aimed at two direction s. firstly. it was th e discovering of e x isti ng prob le m s a nd g e tti ng them to be r ecogn i sed and . secondly. pursuing the i r sol ution . Problem s c ould be classified as national . as well as internatio nal. Whe re national problems were involved and on c e th ese have been dete rmined. local adm1n1strat1ons were warned of th e dangers tha t may develop shou ld there be no favourable response t o the just claims of the contro llers. In some cases the administrati o n s respo nd ed favou rably, 1n some others . unfortun ate ly. response w as hosti le and even p uniti ve u pon the con trollers . The e fforts in the internationa l field were directed to internatio n al organ isatio ns and th e world at la rge. The Internationa l Labour Office (I LO) with its meeting of Experts was the id eal forum in the inte rnational field an d o ur input to the h eari ng s of th e European Parliam en t. basi cally for European problems. were the o ut come of these efforts The former dealt w ith the problems after an international study had been conducted by the ILO Secreta riat and based upon such study the experts conclud ed o n th e e xistence of the very many prob lems and mad e a n umber o f recommendat ions fo r th eir so lution Though the path 1s paved yet the distance to be covered is an ticipated to b e long and obstructed As the years go by and the Fe deration grows these problems may increase but their solution can on ly com e about through unity of all the w orld s controllers an d so lid ari ty throughout A Avqou ~ 1"


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IFATCA '80 - The 19th Annual Conference, Toronto, Canada, 8th-11th May, 1980 by A. Avgoustis

Is it distance, trad ition or the vastness of the country extending south from the north pole that make people travelling to Canada feel that early May temperatures are closer to freezi ng point and that flower buds hesitatingly dare to appear? Indeed, this was a feeling I sensed all the way since departure from home, in Cyprus, until final landing at Toronto International in mid-afternoon on the Sunday before the Conference was due to start. What a pleasant surprise! The sun shining, the ground unbelievably green with nothing to betray that spring was not fully matured and that summertime was not on its threshold. There was nothing to disappoint me at the time other than my raincoat I carried all the way and of which I made no use until my departure 14 days later. Had prospects and directions of the 18th Annual Conference at Brussels last year materialised. I would have found myself together with more than 300 other IFATCA members and observers from International Organisations at Paramaribo, Suriname, instead. It was nine weeks before the Conference was due to open that the Executive Board were forced into the unpleasant task of moving the Conference away from Paramari bo and search for a convenient venue and a Member Association willing to take up on itself the organisation of IFATCA's most important annual event - the 19th Annual Conference. The Canadian Association had accepted this challenge and as time was closing all fears were subsiding and replaced with everyone's admi ration for the organisers. Toronto, Canada, was to be the venue of the 19th Annual Conference of IFATCA, the Conference that had broken a record in new applications for professional members and the Conference that has set new changes in the fundam ental articles of the Federation's Constitution. It was courageous of CATCA and its President, Bill Robertson, to take up the responsibility wh ich, I am sure, will make all those who contributed to its success proud for the years to come - a mammoth task brought to success by very capable members. 1970 saw an IFATCA Conference in Canada for the first time with the Federation looking optimistically to its teens and with its 19th Annual Conference in the same country ten years later c losing its teens with optimism of success in its aims.

The 1980 Conference attracted a total of 8 applications from Associations for professional membership and ended up by accepting seven applications bringing up the number to 60 Member Associations. Toronto's Conference had determined a number of changes to the Federation's Constitution. Regional Councillors will as from now be entitled Regional Vice-Presidents and the Executive Council (established by this Confere nce) made up of the elected officers of the Executive Board and all the Regional Vice-Presidents constitute the supreme authority outside an annual or special conference. The Toronto Dow ntow n Holiday Inn, the hotel venue situated immediately next to the Toronto City Hall buildings, a unique architectural construction and despite the fact that there were two other conferences taking place at the time, offered superb facilities both to the delegates and the industry exhibitors, who had taken the opportunity of IFATCA's presence in North America to display even live traffic on their modern radar equipment. The technical exhibition was officially opened by the Director General of Civil Aeronautics, Mr. P. Azpin , after the close of the Opening Plenary.

The delegation from Venezuela.

The delegation from Israel.

Despite the change of the conference venue at short notice several hundred delegates and observers made their way to Toronto.


Exhibits were displayed by the following firms : A EG - T elefunken, Frankfurt a. M., Germany B&W Elektronik AS, Lystrup, Denmark Canadian Westinghouse Limited, Burlington, Canada Cardion Eectronics, Woodbury. N.Y., U.S.A. Cesso r Radar and Electronics Ltd., Harlow, Engl and Datasaab AB , Jarfall a, Sweden Defence and Civil Institute of Env ironmental Medicine (Canada) Department of National Defence (Canada) Eaton Corporation - AI L Division , Farm ingdale, N.Y., USA Ferranti Li mited, Bracknell, Berks., England Gilfilan Corp. ( ITT) Ottawa, Canada Goodwood Data Systems Ltd., Carleton Place, Canada Mitre Corp., Mclean, Virginia, USA Philips in Aviation N.V. Hollandse Signaalapparate n, Hengelo, Netherlands Philips Te lecommuni catie B.V., Hilversum, Netherlands Sod ern, Par is, France Phi lips Gloeilampenfabrieken Division E.L.A. Racal Recorders Limited, Southampton, England Raytheon Canada Limited, Waterloo, C anada Th e Marconi Radar Systems Ltd., Chelmsform, Engl and .

The Technical Pane l cha ired by Arnold Field, as Moderator, w ith the participation of a number of Corporate Members representati ves during th e Conference will be reported in issue 4/ 80.

OPENING CEREMONY As us ual the open ing cere mony was marked by speeches from the Preside nt of IFATCA, the President of the Host Association and the Government's official rep resentative. First to speak was Bill Robertson, CATCA's Pres ident, who welcomed delegates to T o ronto and officially d ec lared ope ned the 19th Annual Conference, briefly going into the history of his Association 's acceptance to host the Conference. Bill 's opening speech was fo llowed by the Canadian Gove rnment's Representative, the Honourab le Me mber of Parliam e nt for Winnipeg, Parliamentary Secretary, Mr. Robe rt Bockstael. Mr. Bockstael, we lcom ing delegates to the 19th Conference, said that Canada was privi leged " to host IFAT CA at Montreal and usher in the decade of the 70's. Ten years later we find o urselves once again privi leg ed to help launch the end eavours of IFATCA as the new decad e begins. " "Air Traffic Co ntrol," Mr . Bockstael continu ed later, "as a discipline, as a profession, as a se rvi ce is, comparatively speaking a ·new' entity . In Canada, 1939 ma rked its beginning. In te rms of its for m, its capabi lities , its level of se rv ice , the ai r t raffic

Among the many friends of IFATCA present at the occasion. we were pl eased to see (from L to R) . J . D. Lyon, ex-CATCA President, (who organised the 1970 IFATCA Conference in Montreal); Robert E. Meyer. Executive Vi ce-Presi dent PATCO . ex-IFATCA V-P Prof. ; and Ole J onson, past IFATCA V-P Technical


control system subjected to considerable transformation ; and this trend will continue. " Continuing further tv.r. Bockstael commented on the Canadian Air Traffic Control by saying : - " We recognize that our air traffi c control system has its problems. We recog nize that, as th e Gove rnment, as the employer, as managers we have several interests and not all of these are pointed in th e sa me direction. We recognize that we have a large country, in terms of distance, w hich places demands on our trans portation systems. We are awa re of the limits of our economy wh ich presc ri be the extent to which we can act. But I believe when all the facts are weighed the co llaboration we achieve with our aviation com munity, our controlle rs, our industry, is worth talking about." On the ILO Conc lusion s, Mr. Bockstael had to say this on behalf of his Gove rnm ent : " In 1979, Canada participated at the ILO Conference on ' problems concerning ai r traffic controll ers', On the basis of the seve ral recommendations, our Government has already acted upon; instituted mechanisms for processing others; and will consult on the timelines and appl icability of the remainder." On the Gove rnment/ CATCA relationship, he added : " A significant achievement of the Director, Air T raffic Services in the past year was the creation of the Joint T echnical Corn~ mittee made up of_ members from man age ment and the Canadian Air T raffic Control Association. The purpose of this Committee is to join tly analyse and adapt technology to meet the requ irements of the syste m. ~etween _m ~ g e~e~ and our con:-trollers :!!_e IJ.ave f~d that the pro~ess _s>f -regu1~ cons uT~tion at all leve~s working well. I.!_ is ~ e~ce l~nt~eh_~cle _!or ~ n ex: changeand und erstanding_of _l!lutu& prqblems." - Co;cluding, M r. Bockstae l remarked: "On behalf of the Admini strati ons around th e world, I ask you to be aware of the cost co nstraints with which we a re faced. We realize the limitation s t his places on our resources and. we see k yo ur cooperati on so that we may together face reali ty. I am optimistic th a sound systems approach, sound operational ana lyses, and ifa: may be permitted to use the phrase, a down-to-ea rth pragmar approach sho uld take us in to our destination in a safe, order:c and ex ped iti ous manner." Y Harri Henschle r, IFATCA's President, thanked the Pa rlia tary Secretary for accepti ng IFAT CA's invitation to addres;~~ Open ing Plenary and acknowledged th e remarks on the Air Traffic Control and the ILO made by Mr. Bockstael. Harri 's opening speech explained briefly the fact of h . c ang ing venue from Suriname to Canada and paid tribute to th C dian Associ ation for acce pting to host the Conference. e anaSpeaking on the p_rog~~~s that was achieved d uring th e a year th e Presi dent said: Sin ce IFATCA '79 we have P st . . moved an important degree c loser to internat iona l awareness of th . queness, of the res ponsibi liti es, of the lega l and m d" e uni . . e 1ca1 risk s which a re at present inherent in our profession. I am of referring to the repo rt of the International Labour Off' Mcourse ice eet ing of Ex perts Co ncerning Problems of the Air Traffic C ontro lle rs Th is meeting was convened because of IFATCA's d d. . · . e 1cat1on to have solutions to our unique problems formalised 'th' . . · . . WI In this body o f the United Nations and its in cu mbent upon th . . d . d t ·1 e Member Assoc 1at1ons to stu Y in e a1 and make use of th e R . . . epo rt and Conc lus ions co ntained therein. Not again in the f · oreseeable . . . future, wi ll Member Assoc 1at1 ons be able to say th t th . . a ey have nothing tang ib le to go on. The ILO Repo rt by expe rt f . ' s rom t he Governments and Controllers gives you all th e re · d . . quire documentation. It 1s up to yo u, as representatives of yo . ur membership, to make up the best use of this material Th B . · e oard 1s mo re than wi lling, as always, to elaborate and exp an d o n any relevant q uest ions yo u might have." Conc luding, Harri stresse d : " I ask yo u to go into the days of hard work on behalf of ~he world 's contro ll ers wit h these th oughts: look only at what 1s most benefi cial to all me mbers of the profession , wo rthwhi le though your natio nal goals may appear to be. Find ways to strenghten the rol e of the Fede ration and to j ustify, in a positive way, its aims."


TvtlTR I.

The Canadian Government's Representative, Director General of Civil Aeronautics, Mr. P. Azpin, opening the Technical Exhibition. Corporate Member representatives had a chance to briefly introduce their stands and explain their areas of activity. 7



Following a short break after the Opening Ceremony, the First Plenary Session commenced with the Executive Secretary's roll call of Directors. This first call showed the following Member Associations present: Argentina, Austria, Bahamas, Belgium, Canada, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Denmark, Egypt, Eurocontrol, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Ghana, Greece, Iceland, Israel, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sudan . Suriname, Sweden, Switzer land, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Venezuela and Zimbabwe. New Zealand had proxies for Fiji, Hong Kong and Sri Lanka and Sweden for Fin land. As the Confe rence progressed Italy and Nigeria showed up. Plenary then proceeded with the approval of the previous year's Conference Report then fo llowed by the Executive Board's Report for the year read by the President. Suriname's Director, John Veira, upon his A ssociation's request, read a statement by his Gove rnment on the Executive Board's decision to shift the Conference venue from Suriname.

The Committee's agenda indicated at the beginning of its sessions a total of 66 items which produced to final plenary some 50 recommendations that will become resolutions when ratified by the Member Associations. First of the 12 parts of the Agenda was generally devoted to the reports of the different Officers of the Federation such as the Executive Board - in this particular instance the Executive Board submits a common report rather than one per individual member - the Editor of THE CONTROLLER, the liaison Officers to International Organisations such as the ILO and ICAO, the Regional Councill ors or Officers who have attended International Co nferences in an official capacity. The Board's report and the MECACON, which was attended by the V-P. Professional, were covered in previous issues of _THE CO.NTROLLER. This first part of the deliberations of Committee A, included also the applic _ tions for affiliation by Associations w ishing to become profe:sional members of IFATCA. As stated above the Final Plen · t· d · ary admitted 7 new Member A ssoc1a ions, es~1te the fact that when the Committee commenced had three applications in their hands namely, Peru, Honduras and that ~f the Turkish Cypriots. Thi~ latter application was defeated a~ 1t was not moved. Peru and Honduras were unanimously admitted as full . professional members. The Editor's report, accepted as information material covered a period of a little more than a year, that is from th • date the former editor re~ign~d, shortly bef~re the 1979 Brusse1: Conference. The Editor an his repo rt e~plaaned the .reasons for the changing of Printing Houses .~nd his ~fforts to improve the "Comments from readers . the Editor stressed, "indicat J ou rn a.1 b h. d e that a great improvement has een ac i~ve . 1nc~eased p rint ing and paper costs necessitated the small increase an subscription o SFrs tor members and Corpo rate Members" , the f rom 6 OM t 8 Editor continued.

Reports of the Officers Committee " A " busy as usua l with admini strative and constitu tio na l ma tte rs.

Before we look into th e most important items of the agend a, t he election of the Committee Officers who had laboured through the four long days of de liberations and after-session administrative w ork to meet up with the deadline on Sunday afternoon, calls for o ur atte nti o n. Procedural ly, nomin ations for chairmen and secretaries for the three working co mmittees, that is A {Administration), B (Techni cal) and C {Profession al), are put forward by Membe r A ssociation s at the end of the previous c onference. Should the re be no no minations at that time, the Executive Board then call s u pon Associati ons to nominate these Office rs. There always see ms to be some re luctancy for nominees due to the fact t hat hard w o rk is required of t he m during and after sessions. Sho uld there, however, be more than one nomination fo r each post then these office rs are e lected at the opening p lenary sess ion by the Di rectors themselves. The re we re no confli ct ing no minations at this year's confe rence and therefo re the following we re e lected as chai rmen: Jim Livingston (Canad a) , John Saker (United King do m) and Zvi Frank (I srael) of Co mmittees A, respective ly. For t he same Committees the fo llowing B and were elected as sec retaries: G. McAul ey (Ire la nd), T. A. Cauty (Canada), and T. Deega n {Ireland) . Afte r Committees meet in sessio n their first b usiness is the election of the Committee ViceCha irmen whose main f unctio ns a re t o assist the chairman in the conduct of bus iness a nd re lieve t he chairm en when c irc umstances ca ll for it. I. Pascual (Spa in), C. Rundbe rg (Sweden) and E. ltzkovitch (Israel), were elected to act as Vice-Chairmen for A. B and C. respect ively.



The Report of t he Li ais~n Officer to the ILO, fo rmer IFATCA ·dent J 0 Manin basically referred to the ILO Me t· Pres1 . · • . h A. e ing Of rning t e 1r Traffic Controlle . Exp erts on Probl ems Conce · a · G · r Which took place at the Offi ce s H an eneva, an May last Year the . work and conclusions/ recommen d at ions of the Meeting 1 h . I · · o Experts was covered compre ens1ve y in previous issues f CONTROLLER. It e ncourages MA's to take full adva to THE . . Ott· n age ot these recommendations. T he Lia1so n icer made av ·1 b a1 a le at the Conference to those intereste d • the Spani sh and Fre h • . nc texts of the ILO recomme ndations.

The Regional Councillor Though the report of the Regional Counc illor for th . . h e lv.1ddle East Region Moncef Ben Y ah ia, on t e 19th sess·1 on f ' o ACAC General Assem bly, was accepted by Committee A as inf . . . ormat1on material. It is worth mentioning here some brief ref e ren ces to some items of the ag enda that are related to the ai r t ff. ra 1c controller in the d ifferent Arab states. ACAC (Arab Civil Aviation Council) held its 19th . . . sessi on in Damascus, Sy ria, late 1n 1979 and tackled pro blems of . c oncern generally to A rab countries. Among these were·· Ai r nav1.gat1.on . . planning in the Arab reg ion ; improve ment of air traffic s . .f. . e rv1ces . d th in the Arab countri es an e uni 1cat1on of airspace. A study was made on the lack of navigat ion ai ds 1 · n th e region . of Arab countries and was resolved that there was an urgency to establis h imm edi ately commun ication fac ilities for the sake of for the improvement of th e air . safety · IATA introd uced .a plan . ro utes and the whole nav1gat1onal pl an in the area. A study p resented by the Secretary-General of t he Coun ci l emphasised the air traffic contro ller's responsi bi liti es and th~ need to re-evaluate his status within the Arab world. Reference

We can also do the other kind of simulation-for training, va lidation and evaluation-something we have been doing for many years. . . . If you are in the air traffic management business Ferranti can help. And the people who pay your route charges will almost certainly appreciate your using us. Ask yourself, are you using the data available to the best advantage? Contact Ferranti Computer Systems Limited , Bracknell Division, Western.Road , Bracknell; Berkshire RG121 RA Telephone: 0344 3232

. .. .. .• ~

. ~his _means collecting, processing and d1splay1ng 1t. We are not in the data acquisition business but we will take data from whoever has it-from civil for military, from military for civil and from the country next door where radar coverage overlaps on FIR boundary. Data doesn't have to be on the spot. It can be extracted and fed over large distances and then co-ordinated with the data from your own sensors. . If t_he data is _not available, we can synthesize display 1nformat1on fr9m flight plans and position reports.



__ Synon mous with ATC C~02 IO!! l 119

[ill} 9

was made, by the Regional Councillor, of the problems the controller faced in the Arab world, particularly with regard to training, selection, salaries, working conditions, equipment and stressed the recommendations provided for in the ILO Conclusions of Experts. There was some discussion on the suggested increase in salary of the air traffic controller in the region, which did not meet with the concurrence of the participants simply because any such agreement could be taken, it was alleged, as interference in the national affairs of other countries. The Council resolved for the air traffic controllers as follows: a) evaluate the level of responsibility of air traffic control units in the Arab states in the same manner as in the foreign countries and to regularise the situation of the Arab air traffic controllers in regard to this evaluation; b) reconsider the salaries and allowances of their air traffic controllers and to increase them gradually; c) provide the Arab air traffic controllers with specialisation allowances compatible to their specialised diplomas, experiences and volume of responsibility, to be included in their basic salary. This will be a right of the Arab air traffic controller; d) provide the necessary functional conditions for the Arab air traffic controllers to fulfill their duties in the best possible manner and to determine the maximum number of working hours; e) provide the opportunity for the air traffic controllers to attend Arab and international conferences in relation with their profession; f) encourage specialised studies and researches within the field of air traffic control in the·.Atab world and to consider this as very important for the safety of the Arab and the international civil aviation; g) issue licences and give qualifications to the air traffic controllers in the Arab states as specified in ICAO Annex 1; h) insure the air traffic controller's licence against loss due to physical unfitness as specified in ICAO Annex 1; and i) approach the specialised sector in the Arab countries in order to recognise the air traffic controllers' diplomas as equivalent to any diploma obtained after secondary studies.

Standing Committee II, Chairman's Report This committee which is responsible for Public Relations and publications is ch~ired by Claude Bouzier, France. The Chairman's report states that the committee's main aim was to develop the Federation's presence in international affairs. The report discussed the probabilities of an official stamp to be accepted by states, in accordance with IFATCA '79 resolution. Mr. Sinclair (Channel Islands), a philatelist, has been proposed by the Committee to promote the idea through the International Postal Union. The report further refers to the Committee members participation at various meetings and events, such as the FllG (reported in issue 1/80 of THE CONTROLLER), the Congress of the International CiVil Airports Association and the Le Bourget Air Show.

International Day of the Controller Due to the fact that the profession of the air traffic controller has historically suffered from the "ignorance" of non-controllers as to the responsibilities of the profession, risks and role in aviation, the Executive Board have presented the Conference with a Working Paper by which controllers are urged to campaign for the public's enlightenment. Member Associations are called upon to "inform their national media and authorities" that a "Day for the Controller" has been fixed when the profession's responsibilities will be underlined. This Day was resolved by the Directors to be the 20th October, 1982 to coincide with the 21st anniversary of the establishment of IFATCA. At that date, Member Associations. it was resolved, will arrange for briefings, inter10

views and visits to ATC units, establish contacts with national politicians in order to increase their understanding and awareness of the importance of the air traffic controller in the national economic framework. Member Associations will further undertake to outline the objectives of IFATCA and by the means of handouts, information booths, etc., enlighten the public of the profession.

Amendments to the Constitution A study that has been undertaken by Standing Committee VI (Canada) that lasted more than three years to revise or brin the Constitution of the Federation more up-to-date, has finall~ reached Committee A. Changes were being introduced to th most fundamental parts of the Constitution such as membersh·Ip, e . where a new class of mem b ers h 1p has been created, that of th "Associate Professional Members". By this innovation, Stand· e Committee VI remedies the difficulty where, in the past , .tn d~n~ IVldual controllers could not become Members of IFATCA bee . ause they could not qualify through a Member Association. S h members of course do not enjoy all privileges that profe . uc . . ss1ona1 members do as for example voting rights. The status of A ' ~o~ iate Professional Member may be conferred upon or re k from any individual by the Executive Board without refere vo ed . nee to Conference. Howev~r, revocation may _be effected without the Executive Board bemg compelled to give reasons for su h . . c re. ht t vocation. Such members h ave ng s o part1c1pate in the aff . · d c f of the Federation and atten on erences as observers. A airs . · P f . PPhcations for Associate ro ess1ona I M em b ers h'1p should be d'1rected to the Executive Secretary. With the new changes another innovation is introduced. P haps not an innovation but a change. in the title of the Regi erCouncillor to that of the "Regional Vice-President". Furtherrnonat Executive Authority is being vested on the "Executive Coun~i~:· an authority that can only be usurped by the Directors at C ' nee The Executive Council comprises the elected Off Onfer;he Executive Board and all Regional Vice-Presidents T~cers Of be the Executive secretary of the Federation and the. Im ere _Wilt Past President (where this is applicable) as ex officio mmediate but with no voting powers. The Executive Council shall embers least once a year at each special or regular Conferenc meet at also meet at the call of the President or when six or m e. It may "tt ore mem bers of the Council make a wn en request to the President · The appointment of the Editor rests no longer With rectors, as was the case so far, but with the Execur the Di. t . . ive Board and comes under the d irec superv1s1on of the Vic P . e- reside t Administration and the President. n Another important change or addition to the ex· t' · d f" • is mg con stitutional provisions is the e mmg of "area of repr . · esentat1on .. t within which only one represen at1ve Association m · I M b · ay be Per mitted to be a Profess1ona ~m er As~oc1ation. By this .tion there will no longer be a nsk that within such an add1than one Association could legally apply for profession ~rea more ship. Standing Committee VII (legal), proposed to dmembering Committee VI suggested change in order to make nth' S~and­ of representation" to conform to the United Nations 0 e. a~ea rgamsat1on . . principles of a legal state. Th is motion, however f -1 . .. • a1 ed to go through and the defm1t1on as proposed by Standing C . . "A omm1ttee VI stays. This reads as follows. ~ea of Representation - an area defined for IFATCA representation purposes which may be an ICAO state, a non-ICAO state, a territory or the area of . . . · t ernat'1onal organisation ... 1unsd1c·t ut e d m tion of a duly cons t 1 Unforseen Circumstances, is the title of a new Arti 1 . . t 'd C e X Of the Constitution. Th 1s 1s. o prov1 e for alternative courses where d a vacancy in the Executive Board is created before its d "d . th ue ate. . The Article prov1 es m e case of the Presidency becoming . vacant: If "there is less than six months remaining in the term of office at the time it becomes vacant, the Vice-President Administration shall take over as acting-President until the next Conference;"


In the hills surrounding Bath lies a fine 18th century m anor It's almost hidden by the green and blossom ofthe English summer But at Bailbrook College the air is foll of drama. IAL is putting an ATC student through his paces. It's all happening on our digital air traffic control radar simulator A choice of96 different aircraft can be displayed. Ranging from the smallest fixed wing or rotary to the largest and fastest civil and military types, it can simulate any type of radar installation in the world today. At Bailbrook the student learns to handle the unexpected with the same calculating precision as the everyday. Because one day many lives could be held in the balance of his judgement.

In the past 21 years over 2.000 ATC students from 73 countries have graduated through IAL Training courses include air traffic control services, electronic engineering and telecommunications. communications operations, meteorology. soencc and mathematics, teaching techniques and English lan~t~agc. T hese courses arc specially tailored to meet the 111d1v1du;il needs ofoverseas governments and organisations. At Bailbrook College, it's no accident we've built a reputation for happy landings. Can you think of:i better

place to develop a skill'



AVIATION SYSTEMS AND SERVICES· COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS · COMPUTER SYSTEMS AND SERVICES· WORLDWIDr Contact: The Principol .IAL. Bailbrook College. London !bad West. Both. England. BAl 7JD. Telephone Bath (0225) 858941 Telex 444122 IALG


"there is six months or more remaining in the term of office at the time it becomes vacant, the Executive Council shall elect, from among the remaining elective Officers of the Executive Board a replacement. "

Where the vacancy is created for anothe r elective post, the Artic le provides: If " there is less than s ix months remaining in the term of office at the time it becomes vacant, it shall be left vacant;" If "there is s ix months or more remain ing in the term of office at the ti me it becomes vacant, the Executive Counci l shall elect a replacement from among its numbers. "

OTHER WORK The Future of the Council of IFATCA in the Affairs of the Federation This was a Working Paper presented by th e Regional Councillor for the Pacific Region, Robin Soar. Apparently, his anxieties as to the future activities of the Counci l may no longer be founded as a result of the new constitutional provisions that have been introduced. His request fo r reg ular meetings of the Council under t he new provis ions is now called the Executive Council is somewhat satisfied and in addition the Exec utive Counci l has been vested with wide powers of authority that never existed before. Howeve r, it is worth mentio ning here part of the paper's conclusions: "As the Federation ex pands to beco me a t ruly world-wide o rg anisation, regiona lisation continues and the Federation faces signs of what is possib ly organised o pposition to its aims and objectives, we must review the solidarity of the organisation w hich has to co pe w ith these challenges. I believe that the Constitution is a so und f oundation but that we must act to ensure that its provisions are imp lemented. In this way the Federation w ill have the required flexibility to act both de mo-

l ions othe r than suggestions as to the better ru nning of the regional affairs.

Treasurer's Report and his Accounts . As always is the case, th is is the most controve rs ial Paper and raises lengthy discussions. Debtor Associations are brought forwa rd if they fail to pay at the commencement of the Conference. This item also may be related to t he agenda ite m of "m embership difficulties". Details of accounts and financial or other diffic ulties of Member Associations is beyond the scope of this article and therefore no further reference will be made here.

Elections Before . we go into t he new applications for professional membe rship that ~eached the chair as sessions prog ressed and enter the conclud ing phase of Committee A's work the election of the various officers calls for o ur attention. Ele~ted Officers. whether these be Reg ional Vice-Presidents or members of the Ex~cutive. Board ~re elected to serve for a period of two years. This . years elections resulted in the following Regional VicePres1dents ; Carlos Olmos M., North and Central America; R. Salaza_r,_ South America; Richard Greene, Caribbean ; R. Soar, ~ac1f1c; and B. Nilssen, Western Europe. Being there no nomination for the Far East Region, R. Soar agreed to act as liaison for that Reg ion. Following t he Reg ional Vice- Presidents' elections the elections for the three vacant posts on the Board maintained in office the same officers of the two preced ing years, viz. H . Harri Hensch ler, President, Andreas Avgoustis, Vice-President Profess ion al and Hans Wenger, T reasurer.

c ratically and rapidly." Originating from the Regional Councill o r of the Pacific Reg ion came the suggestion of the form al adoption of the "defaced " IFATCA Emblem, already being used by Regional Councillors, host Associations of Annual Co nfe rences, etc. The idea was approved, despite some opposing comments from few Associations. The IFATCA emblem, under this reso lution, may be used by Member Associations or Regiona l Vice-Presidents, but variations s hould on ly be made at the bottom part of the circ le below the " IFATCA". However , its use can on ly be made after approval by the Exec utive Board .

Solidarity plan to a Member Association involved in an industrial action A Paper presented to Committee by the Eurocontrol and French Associations j oin t ly, that has raised the antic ipated hot and lengthy discussions. The spo nsors of the Pape r admitted that although a pol i cy was defined in the Manual as to action to be taken by the Executive Board they conside red it as inadequate and t hat it required st reamlining. The Paper gives the right of the Member Association i nvolved in a dispute to indi cate, if it so wishes, poss ible action to be followed by other Member Associations. The plan suggested by the Eurocontrol and French Associations is divided into fou r stages of action in support. The first three stages indi cate the action to be taken, w hile the fourth stage makes a provision by which, if t he first th ree fail to bring about a satisfactory resu lt , then there will be an emerg ency meeting of the Region 's Member Associations, which will decide on the future action . Despite the a rgument raised that there may be possibilit ies of interference in Member Associations' internal affairs the policy and plan introduced in the Paper we re app roved .

Reports of the Regional Councillors These repo rts usually speak of the Counci ll ors ' activities du ring the year under review . They co ntain no bind ing recommenda-



The New Regional Vice-President for South America (SAM) Rafael is known to controllers all over the world for his keen inte rest in IFATCA affairs and his concern in South American Aviation problems. He has attended many IFAT CA Con ferences as a director of his Association, since 1963 when he attended for the first time the Brussels Conference. His career as an air traffic controller started 29 years ago, he now se rves as a supervisor in Caracas En-route Ai r Traffic Contro l Center. Rafael is a founder member of his Association known as ANTTA, short fo r Asoc iacion Nac ional Tecni cos Transito Aereo of Venezuela. Presently he acts as liaison of the Technical Com'.11ittee of ANTTA with the Aeron autical Au thorities of his country in charge of the development and plann ing for the Air Traffic Services in Venezuela. Rafael, assuming his new office, is d etermin ed to see all his South American colleagues in IFATCA and aims at the improvemen t or his colleagues working conditions . THE CONTROL LER wi shes Rafael every success in his effo rts.


' I . 11 .-~- 115·:.~ \l t~


...!llPll!IJI! 1


AVIATION HAS PROGRESSEDSllCE THEN AID NOW THERE ·s A FOURTH GENERATION PHILIPS VOICE LOGGING SYSTEM 1954: The Super Constellation ruled the skies. Undoubtedly no plane performed like Super Connie. It could carry a whole symphony orchestra across the Atlantic in comfort. And it had all the latest control and communication aids aboard. On the ground there was Philip' first voice logger - at that time the ultimate in recording air traffic control c ommunications.

For further information write to: Philips Industries


Now we c an recall Sup e r Connie as just one of those milestones in aviation. We've got jet engines on jumbo planes. We're flying 747, DC 10 and Concorde as if it had always been that way. And we've already installed well over 120 Voice Logging Systems at airports all over the world. Now, b a cked up by over 25 years of te c hnological progress, we're introd ucing our fourth generation VLS. It's still the ultimate.

Electro-Acoustics Division Prof. Ree. Dept. HBS-2 Eindhoven, The Netherlands.



Voice Logging Systems


Impressions of the 19th Annual Conference

• Thank You

CATCA for a Memorable Event

• Al l photos on IFATCA '80 are available at OM 2,- a copy. Orders (indicate number of page or mark photocopy of the relevant page) and advance pay to the Managing Editor (c ash or cheque, within Europe Postscheck-Konto Franktu rt/M , Nr. 1508 88-606). Add OM

2 .- for postage.


CAI RO '81 Modern, ancient, cosmopolitan. Surrounded by an ancient world of wonders with kings seated in majestic dignity.

IFATCA '81 4- 8 April 1981 at the Cai ro Hilton and 9th April for an optional tour to Luxor

Make the Cairo Conference your Rendezvous for 1981


No Quiz from the Sphynx

Applications for Professional Membership Four Associations came in as sessions in Committee A progressed. The four Associations that applied and have been permitted for affiliation are: PATCO, USA ; ROCATCA, Taiwan; Guyana ATCA and Nicaragua ATCA.

Future Conference Venues Under Constitutional provisions the venues of the two succeeding Conferences to the present have to be considered and voted for. The next immediate, in this case Cairo, is confirmed and the 1982 will be hosted by the Netherlands Guild, in Amsterdam. A vote was taken in favour of the South African Association to host the 1983 Conference in South Africa. Of course the normal procedure will have to be followed until final confirmation is obtained at future conferences. The 1981 Annual Conference will take place at the Cairo Nile Hilton on the 4-8 April and registration fee will cover a trip to Luxor after the termination of the Conference, on the 9th April.

fer of its provisions to (mainly) Annexes 2 and 11. The task being further complicated by the fact that a number of subtle wo rding changes have also been introduced which had to be carefully looked at. This fact, of course, gives IFATCA an opportunity to make its policy accepted on a number of ICAO provisions. The Chairman, drew the attention of the delegates to the Committee's forthcoming participation at th e ICAO Special EUR RAN Meeting, whose agenda includes a number of items of concern to the Federation, particularly in the aid traffic control management area. The ICAO Liaison Committee's report covered activities at ICAO HQ and spoke highly of cooperation with SC I. The Liaison Committee's chairman, T. A. Cauty, informed delegates that his Committee was involved during the year in the Radio Telephony (RTF) Study Group and the 4th Meeting on Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (SMGCS) Study Group. The Chairman indicated his Committee's commitments to the RTF, SMGCS and VFR Panel Study Groups for the coming year.

COMMITTEE B This is the one Conference Committee which may be identified as a 99 O/o affair of Standing Committee I (SC I}. This Committee deals generally with technical matters which in effect are the work and studies carried out during the year that had elapsed. The Committee was chaired by the same person who chairs SC I, John Saker, of the U.K. Guild of ATCOs. Committee B indicated on its agenda, after the election of the Committee's Vice-Chairman , a total of 36 items which ended up with 17 Recommendations to the final plenary.

Partaking in ICAO Activities The various officers' reports were as always first on the agenda with that of the Chairman of SC I attracting the greatest attention. It enume rated the work done by his Committee during the past year and described briefly the Committee 's participation, on behalf of IFATCA, at the various functions of ICAO Technical study groups as well as the Federation's " monitoring" role in other ICAO st udy groups, such as ICAO's Vertical Movement Panel (VMP} and Aerosat Communications. The VMP's projected purpose is to take a first look at what might be done to introduce some new form of vertical measurement to replace feet and meters. Th e study will in c lude all aspects of measurements in the vertical plane - height, altitude, elevation, ve rti cal speed , etc. as well as cruising level and vertical separation, with the IFALPA proposed ICA system as a prime co ntender. ICAO's rep resentative, Mr. B. Gaustad , updated the Meeting on the progress of th e Panel. The Aerosat (an international committee which studies the future applicability of satellites to air/ground and ground/air communications}, established about four years ago had nothing sig nificant to offer during the year. Three out of the four ICAO study group meeting s were atte nded by SC I members. That on the Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems (SMGCS) by IFATCA's liai son to ICAO, Mr. T. A. Cauty. The other study groups were attended by Mr. E. G. H. Green (RTF} ; Elimination of Ambiguity in RTF Callsigns , by D. Beech and by Mr. L. Curry, the Basic Operational Requirements Group, (BORG}. SC I, its cha irman reports, had given a number of replies, through the Vice-President Technical or the Executive Secretary, to ICAO State Letters requesting IFAT CA's comments on a variety of technical subjects, such as "System for Collision Avoidance", " Operation of free Balloons" and "Co-ordination concerning activities which constitute a potential hazard to flights of aircraft". A major task on which SC I has been engaged for some time is that of preparing comments requested by ICAO on their detailed proposals for the abolition of PANS-RAC and the !ran s-

Committee B attracti ng again the AT S ex perts from all over the worl d .

On the RTF Study Group, a comprehensive report was submitted to the Meeting by E. G. H. Green (UK} , member of SC I. The RTF Study Group was established to undertake a review of radiotelephony procedures with a view to eliminating existing ambiguity and developing standard phraseology for use by both pilots and ground personnel. Priority was to be given to taxying, take-off, approach and landing phases. T he f irst meet ing of the Study Group, which was held at ICAO HQ in May 1979, endeavoured to identify the problem areas and deficiencies in RTF procedures and phraseologies and to estab lish a t imetable for subseq uent meetings. The meeting further discussed in detail the present use of phraseologies at the Tower and other Ground Stations. Radical changes had been suggested particularly on the word " CLEAR " and made an attempt to eliminate th is word in ground operations exce pt in the context of the landing and takeoff phases of the flight. Due to lack of consensus at this meeting the words to be used for a missed approach could not be determined and was postponed for the second meeting. The 2nd meeting which took place. again at ICAO HQ. in December the same year dealt generally with the Approach and Approach Radar Control phraseologies. Despite this, the Committeee spent considerable time review ing previous work and correct ing anomali es, finally to reach agree ment (possib le UK difference} on missed approach phraseology to read "GO AROUND ". Considerable time was also spent reviewing Aeronautical Communications Chapter 5 of Annex 10, Vo lume 11. with emphasis on emergency and read-back procedures. The outco me is expected to be finalised at the 3rd Study Group Meeti ng. D. Beech, member of SC I, reported next on his participation at the Elimination of Ambiguity in Radiotelephony Ca llsigns (EARC) Study Group. The Air Navigation Commission selected the following countries organisations which will make up th e Study Group: France, J apan. Netherlands. USSR, U.K .. IATA . IFALPA and IFATCA. 17

IFATCA and IFALPA 1. Finlay and E. G. H. Green, both members of SC I reported to Committee B of their attendance, on behalf of IFATCA, at IFALPA's ATS STUDY GROUP and meeting of sub-committeestudy groups on Air Traffic Control System D~sign, R/T Phraseologies and Air Traffic Control System Design. The following are some brief items studied by the Group: Navigation and Separation: Work continued on the proposed ICA system for vertical measurement. It is envisaged that IFALPA and IFATCA will liaise on this important issue and for greater impact the two Federations will make separate presentations to ICAO. Systems for collision avoidance: it is reported that very little progress has been made on this subject. Turbulent Wake: IFALPA, it is reported, is seeking worldwide standardisation on this very important item. Other items included, Secondary Surveillance Radar, ATC System Design, Air Traffic Flow Management, RTF Procedures and Phraseologies, RT Callsigns, ATC Clearances and Instructions, Simultaneous Operations on Intersecting Runways, Separation between Parallel Instrument Runways, Review of VFR Operations, Collision Avoidance Broadcasts, Principles of the ATC Contingency Plan. on this very last item, IFALPA believes that there should be an established Contingency Plan in areas of war and civil strife outbreaks for the purpose of possible continuation of commercial air services within such areas. At the moment the proposals are only in their infancy with more debate and consideration to follow.

IFATCA Technical Policy Reviewing IFATCA's Technical Policy programme, Committee B had resolved that no further studies on Transition Altitude, Turbulent Wake and Digitized Radar are necessary to be continued by SC I and therefore they should be taken out of the Committee's standing agenda as these are fully covered in relevant ICAO Documents. On Digitized Radar, Committee B resolved to cancel IFATCA policy except where IFATCA differs from ICAO, in para 2.7.7. which reads: a) the closest edges of the radar position symbols, or b) the closest edge of a radar position symbol and the centre of a primary radar blip or the closest edge of an SSR response.

The Subject of Automation Following two Working Papers on Technical Material Presentation and the list on Technical Policy Statements, Committee B proceeded on to study two Papers on Automation: One by SC I on 'The Effect of Automation in the Field of Air Traffic Control' and the other by Eurocontrol on "Automation and Conflict Detection'. (This latter Paper is reproduced elsewhere in this issue of THE CONTROLLER). Both Papers attracted considerable attention and discussion on the different aspects and produced a number of recommendations before the Conference final plenary. The Paper on the Effect of Automation in the Field of ATC represents rather a consolidation of previous Working Papers. It deals generally with the different phases of application of automation when it is determined that automation is necessary at a particular unit. The first phase (Background Automation) is that which does not directly affect the controller or his task, although it is admitted there may be resultant benefits in the reliability of service offered. This area includes such devices as communication switching systems, the decoding of SSR transponder signals and simple strip printing systems. The second phase (Foreground Automation) concerns some of the tasks required to control aircraft and the provision of automated services which require the controller to have an active interface with the computer.


The third phase (Total Traffic Management Automation) is the introduction of automation in a much wider scale with computers directly involved in the task of strategic and tactical management. Committee B resolved that although it is recognised that the application of computer facilities designed to improve overall ATC system efficiency will require that controllers perform new and different tasks, it is essential that the introduction of such tasks be gradual and that changes in the system be evolutionary and not involve major changes at once. On the Paper of Automation and Conflict Detection, submitted by Eurocontrol, the Committee considered the implementation of such techniques in relation with the following points: that the existing ATC responsibilities for separation purposes should not be altered; that the controller's workload should not be increased; that the conflict information output should not be ambiguous and easily interpreted; that the false alerts should be reduced to an operationally accepted level; that the alerts should be timely to enable the controller resolve the conflict; and that standard operating procedures should be developed in order to make efficient use of such techniques. The Committee resolved that whilst IFATCA supports such developments, it must be recognised that the operational acceptance of such techniques will require considerable development work, perhaps involving operational controllers, in order that they can gain the confidence of controllers and be integrated successfully into ATC systems in the future.

Wake Turbulence This was once again a hot agenda item, in particular to this year's Paper, presented by the Danish ATCA, which consolidated detailed historical and other study material on the whole issue. Committee B noted its concern to the continued existence of different national systems of assessing aircraft weight categories and associated separation standards when applying separation The Committee expressed the wish that ICAO. should develo~ simple standards for wake turbulence se~arat1on minima and aircraft weight categories based on the guidance material contained in ICAO Doc. 4444, Attachment L.

Beacon Collision Avoidance System (BCAS) It is believed that the original _idea ~f s~ch a system was introduced as a result of the 7th Air Nav1g~t1on Conference (1972) where it was recommended that t¡: States in a hposition to develop such a system, engage in .or con mue. researc and development of airborne collision avoidance devices capable of univers I application and, to this end, exchange relevant information an~ iews". ICAO had recently requested the views of national a d vinternational bodies on Co 11¡. A "d n isi~n voi ~nee Systems. Though IFATCA does not intend to be involved m any research, it has expressed the wish to comment upon such system as far as its relationship and effect that such a system may have upon ATC Before any comments a~e ~iven, l~ATCA is awaiting the finai system definition, including mformat1on on the interface, if any with ground ATC radar processing systems. ' Following is some guidance material relating to design features and operational characteristics of Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS) and Airborne Proximity Warning Indicators (APWI): AIRBORNE COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEMS (ACAS)

1. Airborne collision avoidance systems must be fully compatible with ground ATC systems. and may need to provide for the automatic alerting of ATC units to any manoeuvres performed by aircraft as a result of ACAS operation. 2. The design and construction of equipments comprising an ACAS must be such that the system is capable of economic and practicable fitment. in all relevant classes of aircraft. Systems involving the use of different levels of performance characteristics to suit aircraft of different categories must be capable of compatible operation. 3. Avoidance manoeuvre indications given to pilots by ACAS equipment must at all times be compatible with individual aircraft performance







capabilities in all relevant flight phases, and must be presented in real time. The avoidance manoeuvre computation and selection processes inherent in the system must be capable of originating appropriate avoidance manoeuvre indications at least in the vertical plane. It is desirable that the avoidance manoeuvre indication capability also comprises the horizontal plane to increase system flexibility. Manoeuvres in itiated as a result of ACAS indications must not result in unsafe reduction of separation between affected aircraft and other, " non-conflicting " aircraft operating in the same air traffic environment. ACAS advice and manoeuvre indicat ions should be continuously related to the assumed flight path of the identified conflicting airc raft. The system logic should not be based on the assumption that a cooperating airc raft identified as a potential collision conflict will necessarily take complementary avoidance action. The system logic must be capable of reso lving multi-aircraft confl icts. Airborne collision avoidance systems should be so designed as to ensure that emissio ns do not cause interference with the operation of other avio nics systems. Airborne collision avoidance systems must be capable of accommodating large numbers of aircraft within communi cations range or each other. The design must be such as to obviate saturation of the operating rrequency(ies). Airborne collision avoidance systems must be capable of full operation in all meteorolog ical conditions.



AIRBORNE PROXIMITY WARNING INDICATORS (APWI) 1. An airborne proximity warning indicator, being essentially a system intended to assist the pi lot in visually locatin g other aircraft and avoiding a potential coll ision, must be capable of satisfacto ry operation in meteorological conditions perm itting aircraft to rely on such visual detection for collision avoidance. 2. An APWI providing only a warning that other aircraft are in the vicin ity is of little practical value. The system should, therefore, provide additional information con~erning the re~at ive posi~ion or other aircraft in terms such as altitude and bearing, of which the latter appears to be the most valuable in assisting visual detection of th e conflicting ai rcraft. 3. An APWI must be compatib le with ACAS whenever RF radiation in the ACAS freq uency band is used ror performance of the APWI functions. It would be desirable that an APWI be designed to permit improvement in its performance characteristics up to that of ACAS by the use of additional mod ules. 4. Whenever APWI systems are based upon or in any way utilize other radio freq uency systems, e. g. SSA, their operation shall not cause any significant reduction in the capacity or eff iciency of the primary function.

Area Navigation Routings The continuing inc rease in air traffic c oupl ed with the fact that ene rgy is b ecoming scarce and expensive, the No rwegian ATCA has prese nted a P aper on "Area Navigation Routings", by w hi ch it attempts to introduce n ew routin gs for conservation of fuel and the provis ion of a more efficient, economic and airspacecongesti o n-f ree flow of air traffic . The Paper sug gests that some of the problems wi ll be so lved, even partially if not totally, by the introdu ction of appropriate radio navigation aids, in that ATC would be able to d efine tracks, which will provid e fo r : I. dual/ multi tracks for omn i-d irectional traffic flow, II. more economica l ali gnm en t of routes, Ill. du al/ mu lti tracks to allow segregat ion of traffic accord ing to performance characte ristics, IV. opt imum arrival and d eparture routes, and V. opti mum locati on of ho lding patterns in relation to app roach proced ures and sepa r ated from outbound and transit routes within TMAs. The Committee reco mm end ations on this Paper t hat Final Plen ary reso lve d, requires the Federation to accept the int roduction of RNAV routes o n a limited basis subject to these condition s: a. si mulato r trials s hall be carried out prior to the introdu ction of any s uch route or routes, b. the total route stru cture shall not b ecome u nduly compl icated, c. radar monitoring of t he traffi c concerned should b e possible, and d . procedures for use in the eve nt of rada r and/ or comp uter fa ilu re m u st b e p racticab le.



I •

New friends from the Caribbean Area. Nice to have them with us. It is encouraging to see more Latin American countries represented in IFATCA.

Helicopter Operations - ATC Aspects Th e fact that there has been ove r recent years a very s ignifi cant increase in helicopter operations worldwide and the fact that no s pecia l documen tation is provided for such operations by ICAO, th e UK Guild saw the requirement fo r the deve lo p ment of se parate and special provis ions, hence the presentati on of the Paper. Th e Guild sees a requirement for such provisions for: Term inal airports used excl usively by helicopters, or by both helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft an d en-route control. Upon the discussion of the Paper, the Committee recommended tha t the study be und ertaken by SC I and that IFATCA should concentrate its pol icy development in the followi ng areas : a. separati o n aspects and ATC procedures ; b. RTF phraseologies (if required); c. RTF coverage req ui rements ; d . rad ar/ navigation aid coverage requirements ; e. pressure setti ngs/use of rad io alt imeters ; f. weathe r aspects ; and g. SMGCS aspects.

Visual Flight Rules (VFR) This s ubject keeps cropping up during recen t years partic ularly because of the fact that the minima e stab lished by ICA O An nex 2 have been formulated a long time ago. at a time w hen flights cou ld barely excee d the 250 knots. The c on cept of " see and be seen" may strictly be considered as an out-o f-date luxury as a means of c oll is ion avoida nc e. As it is e xp lain ed , by SC I, the purpose of the Paper w as to ask Conferen ce to : a. confirm or modify, if ne cessary, t he I FATCA pol ic y statemen t, b. estab lish a wider b ased i nterim p olicy statement on VFR, an d c . direct SC I to initi ate a study of t he s ubject wi th a view to the e arly develo p ment of a more detail ed IFATCA pol icy.


The Paper itself carried five attachments as back-up information. On the same issue there was an analysis by the UK Guild of the Report of the 1st Meeting of the European Air Navigation Planning Group (EANPG), VFR Group, which was established to enquire into the application, in Europe, on the rules pertaining to VFR. The VFR Group had investigated all problems related to such operations paying particular attention to Meteorological conditions, rules of procedures related to VFR, relationship between VFR flights annd types of airspace, types of air traffic services provided to VFR flights, etc. For each particular item of study the VFR Group had made a number of suggestions that may eventually be adopted. However, as these are lengthy and beyond the scope of this article they shall not be made reference to.

Taxi Clearance Limit A final Working Paper submitted to the Committee by the Netherlands Guild dealt with the "Taxi Clearance Limit". The Paper contends that in documentation the Taxi Clearance Limit is ambiguous particularly where runways are to be crossed before the aircraft is taxied to its final point before take-off. The Paper concludes with a number of recommendations that may be adopted as the procedure and meaning of the relevant phraseology.

SC I Work Programme Finally, Committee B dispensed with its agenda for the 1980 Conference by accepting the SC I work programme for the year ahead until the Cairo Conference. Eight items come under the general title of "Work Studies", six items under "!CAO Monitoring", three under "IFATCA Technical Policy/Manual" and three under "Other Items".

COMMITTEE C As always, this Committee attracted the participation of a number of controller delegates and international organisations that deal with labour aspects, such as the ILO, because it is involved in studies that have a direct effect on the status, welfare and training of the controller. There are three Standing Committees which investigate, study and report to this Committee. These SCs are: IV, V and VII dealing respectively, with Environmental and Human Factors, Recruitment and Training of Air Traffic Controllers and Legal Matters in ATC.

IFATCA and the ILO Of particular importance was the Vice-President's (Professional) report of the ILO Meeting of Experts on Problems Concerning Air Traffic Controllers (Committee A dealt with the same, that is the Report of the Liaison to the ILO, purely on the administration point of view). For a number of years IFATCA had been striving to achieve a satisfactory working environment and recognition of the controller's professional status nationally as well as internationally. The Federation's efforts have finally reached the ILO's forum where the controllers problems have been studied and concluded upon by this ILO Meeting of Experts. THE CONTROLLER reported on the developments during all the phases of the discussions in past issues and, therefore, it will be superfluous and unnecessary to repeat the same details in this article, other than what the Committee proposed to Final Plenary as recommendations. The ILO representative Mr. A. Gil said that the Report could be considered as recommendations of the Meeting of Experts on Air Traffic Control. Mr. P. Dawson, Director of Employee Relations, Transport Canada, who was the Chairman of the ILO Meeting of Experts said that the Meeting was a great example of international co-operation.


The Committee's recommendations call upon

1. the Executive Board to follow up progress of the ILO Conclusions in relation to employee/employer relations; 2. the Member Associations to make use of the ILO Conclusions in their contract negotiations with their employers, where these may be suitable; 3. the Executive Board - in the interests of safety - to use any means, within the Constitution and By-laws of the Federation to assist Member Associations in such contract negotiations to get acceptance from their authorities of the ILO Conclusions; and 4. the Executive Board to use any lawful means to achieve through and by the ILO, an international instrument, based on the above conclusions or improved ones, by which aviation authorities would be encouraged to become signatories.

SC IV Activities A combined report of the SC IV, "Environmental and Human Factors in ATC" - presented by the different sub-committees which make up the Committee - covered all activities the Committee was involved. The Medical Sub-committee which is made up of members from the Swiss and the French ATCA's reported briefly on the progress of Medical Researches on Ocular Diseases and has undertaken to investigate on studies, such as "Working Conditions in ATC from the Medical Point of View", etc. SC IV's study on the "Reorganisation of ATC Agencies to Combine the Interests of Civil and Military Necessities" has come to a complete stalemate due to the fact that there could be no definite policy that could profitably be adopted by IFATCA on an international basis because of conflicting views and the fact that opposing systems have proved acceptable in some instances while in others they were not. The Paper concludes that although it was recognised that a civil/military integrated system was for the benefit of air safet and efficiency yet there could be found no acceptable policy t Y be promoted by the C~mmittee, because conditions fundamentallo differed and no guidelines could even be drawn. Y SC IV repeated IFATCA's policy that it "condemns all attem t . t' b k d p s, where effective ATC orgamsa ions are ac e up or substitut by military ATC appointments for reasons to discipline air tr controllers" and finally asked that this item be deleted fro,: .•c "' Its work programme. Professional Problems related to Man Machine lntert . ace· Though Automation was extensively covered under Committ • f . I ee B , in its technical nature, the pro ess1ona sphere was also t 'f' t' d . o be considered as to its ram1 ica ions. a; environmental or other pro. fessional problems-.The. st(udy ca~)ne ou~ by tlhe. Com~ittee calls for the necessity to maintain manua proce ura air traffic control II . . t t a eging that no matter how eff 1c1en an au omated system might . th t 1• seem to be, the conventional one 1s e mos re 1able and should be us as a back-up "Very often", the Paper states, "it is required t fedl . I o aI back on procedural or convent1ona control practices". SC IV suggests that the computer must be constructed to serve the air traffic controlle.r and not the other way around. The special relationship that exists between the pilot and the con. trailer must never be lost. The committee's recommendations, which were strongly maintained, call for support on all endeavours to enable the controller to achieve his objectives and that the decision making proce must however, remain with the controller for the foreseeab~s d . e future. Committee C recommen at1on before Final Plenary sug. gests that "IFATCA in general supports all endeavours to facilitate the air traffic controller's demanding objective. It is considered that automation to some extent may be one tool to achieve this aim. However, for reasons of air safety, IFATCA believes that the decision making process must remain with the controller for the foreseeable future." SC IV Work programme provides for no additional item, with the updating of the IFATCA Handbook (IHB) remaining as its major project.


SC V Studies SC V, specialising in the Recruitment and Training of the Air Traffic Controller has produced some very useful information as a res ult of th e conducted studies. This Committee has produced, in addition to the Committee's report by its chairman, three Working Papers which have aroused interest and some constructive discussion. By its first Paper, Study of the ICAO Training Manual Part D-2, Air Traffic Controller, the Committee had been able to review ICAO's Trai ning Manual and suggests that this Manual should be studied in conjunction with Part A-1, General Considerations, and Part A-3, Composite Ground Subject Curriculum, w hich have their origi n in ICAO Annex 1, Personnel Li censing, presently being revised by ICAO. Whatever syllab us, the Paper suggests, for training is proposed , the instructor must take into account the basic ed ucational stand ard and/or previous experience of the stud ents and adj ust co urse content accordingly. Based on a questionn aire on the "study of Selection Procedures for Air Traffic Controllers", SC V had produced its second Working Paper with the same title. The Paper states that there was uniformity in the answers given though differences were expected on such issues as "the composition of Selection Boards". IFATCA has already an established policy conce rning the se lection of air traffic cont rollers. From the replies to the questionnaire, SC V says that it appears there is a somewhat different procedure in some countries than that adopted by IFATCA. SC v suggests to Committee C that the selection procedures could be improved if some of the following points were to be cons idered: I. the Selection Board to include an operational controller and a psychologist/psychiatrist familiar with air traffic cont rol; II. all members of the Selection Board to have received suitable t rain ing in selection and assessment techniques; Ill. the criteria sought by the Selection Board should be we ll defined; IV. more information about the job should be made avai lable t o candidates before the selection interview; V. continued research and eva luati on to determine the most suitab le psychological and aptitude tests for ATC ; VI. feedback during the initial training period between training officers and the Selection Board so as to further improve the system and thus reduce the drop-out rate. T he Paper concludes by suggest ing that in order to maintain high standards in an ATC System a lot depends on the quality of the instruction given during training - "even the best craftsmen cann ot produce a masterpiece from poor materials". The Paper says that if the se lect ion procedure is un able to consistently produce can didates w ho possess the abi lity and aptitude to become good air traffic controllers then it is the ATC system and ultimately air safety which is compromised. Regard ing the Psychological testi ng, the Paper believes that it is still in its infancy. Much work rem ains to be done before anything concrete is produced. Proficiency Checking of Air Traffic Controllers: This Pape r was also the resu lt of a questionnaire issued by SC V, wh ich revealed that there exist various terms to describe the system whereby the standard of qualified controller's work is checked at in tervals during his operational career (Profi ciency, Competency Checks, etc.). Th is procedure does not seem to be widely practiced and a number of Member Associations have strong objections to such checks, though others take an opposite point of view feeling that profi ciency checks are desirable to sustain high standards of competency. The following arguments are given in favour of proficiency checks: to maintain high standards of

(I) the controller, (II) the ATC Unit, (Ill) the ATC System as a who le.

Committee "C " always con cerned about the status of the controJler. StiJI striving for better recognition of the profession.

- and to provide each individual co ntroller with guidance and information as to his p rofessiona l performance. The following are the points raised against such checks: fear of loss of licence, abuse by management, dangerous to social sec urity, why change from present system? However, the objectives of proficiency checks are accepted to be: I. to preserve safety in t he Air Traffic Control system by monitoring a controller's performance to confirm that he can adequately perform his duties, and 11. to identify and examine any areas of controller performance that shou ld be improved and make recommendations which w ill assist in preparing a deve lopme ntal programme. Such objectives must be supported by a set of ground ru les to be observed by both controllers and management. Since these checks so directly affect the controller it is mandatory that there sho uld be a high deg ree of controller involvement in the evaluation and impl ementation stages. The employer must provide assurances regarding career aspects particularly "second career" prospects. SC V was unable to draw at th is stage any firm pol icy for IFATCA o n proficiency checks, yet it gives its conclusions based on the replies to the questionnaire. "Profic iency checks '', the Pape r says, "would preserve safety in the ATC System by monitoring a controller's performance and identify and examine any areas of his performance that should be improved."

Legal Matters This is the sphere of activity of Standing Committee VII (SC VII ), and covers Legal Developments in Aviation , the Legal Li abili ties of the Air Traffic Controller, the Study of the Different Leg al Systems of Member Associations, Intim idation of the Air Traffic Controll er and Accidents and Incidents Investigation. Since its inception the Committee was chai red by a member of the Cyprus Association , now - as from the Toronto Conference - cha ired by Nadim Ryad of Egypt. In addition to the work presented at this Conference, SC VI I had involved itself at different stages with the legal position of the Executi ve Board and was responsible for the drafting of IFATCA's po li cy on " Hi-Jacki ng " . Thi s year's Paper on "Intimidation of the Controller" covered the Fren ch, Greek, Italian and German cases, where contro llers were vindictively treated and were considered by SC VII as instances of overt intimidation. The Greek Assoc iation's Committee were criminally indi cted for " applying delaying tactics to air traffi c control " - a charge which was later withdrawn . Some Italian controllers were being court martialled for their partic ipat ion at the "en-masse " resignation threat of controllers and the French c ontrollers s uspensions by the Government for the controllers ' alleged



Special mention shou ld, howeve r, be made here of the p roceed ings of accepting the report of Comm ittee A . The Report was read page by page and voting was taken on the items which requ ired simple majority. The other items that required, under the Federation's Constitution , a two/ third majority of the Directors prese nt and their proxies, such as the election of the members of the Exec utive Board, Constitutional changes and members hip applications, were voted sepa rately item by item. Despite thi s, all recommendations that were made to Plenary by Co mmittee A were accepted, either by the required majority vote or unanimously. The election of the three members of the Exec utive Board, i. e. President, Vice-President Professional and Treasure r has retained the same Officers as those of the previo us term , viz. H. Harri Hensch ler, Andreas Avgoustis and Hans Wenger. res pectively.

The founder members of the " Fraterni ty of ex-Board Members of IFATCA" . The ¡ veter ans" through this or ganisat ion want to keep in touch w ith IFATCA and assist the membership to further the aims of the Federation. From left to right are: Dick Campbell (Canada), Arno ld Field (UK) , Jean-Daniel Monin and Jean Gubelmann (Switzerland), Horst Guddat (Germ any), Ole Jonsson (Iceland), and Bob Meyer (USA).

"sl ow down " action. SC VII , in conclusion, suggests more active support to such Member Associations, though it is apprehensive of the restrictions that may ex ist in some countries. Two Pape rs were produced o n the " Legal Systems and Differences" with an update o n the list of existing differences of neighbouring Flight Information Regions. With Regard to " Legal D eve lopments in Aviation ", SC VII reported the developments followi ng the ILO Meeting of Experts and t he European Parliament's Public Hearing on the Air T raffic Controller. Committee C had concl uded its 30 agenda items with a total of 30 recommendations which together w ith the other Comm ittees' recommendations were presented for approval to the Final Plenary.

FINAL PLENARY To some people Sun day means the begi nning of the week while to others the end of the week; bu t there may be the remaining few to whom Sunday means both the begin ning and the end of the week. Some of these re mainin g few were t hose controllers who found t heir way to T oronto to attend the 19th Annual Co nference of IFATCA, whe n finally on Sun day afternoon , the 11th May, 1980, t hey sat tired and weary in the " Salle de bal, Commonwealth Ba llroom " of t he Toronto Downtown Holiday Inn to conclude the business t hey have started four days before. To these delegates it was the end of their confe rence week and to these same people it meant the beginning of a long trip back home. To the Conference Organising Committee it meant the end of a marathon exercise, of anxieties and of responsibilities. The smiling face of Jim Ki lburn , the chairman of the Organisin g Committee. as he sat at the head table, next to his Association's Pres ident, B ill Robertson, reflected his rel ief and bet rayed his fee lings. se nsing the beginning of his much deserved rel axation. He was happy because all we nt well. With on ly a few minutes delay, the Final Plena ry sess ion was opened by the President and business started as usual wit h the Executive Secretary starting with his roll call of Directors. The President then asked the Chairman of Committe C to present his re port to Plenary followed by Commi ttee B Chai rman and his report. Simple majority votes are necessary for these two Committees ' reports as they do not co ntain any constitutional changes, hence the reason for the two reports to be taken first. T he reports, unless there is an objection. are voted in toto. No further details on the co ntents of these two reports are necessary here as they have been comprehensively covered under Committees work .


Seven new Member Associations - one expelled The cl imax was reached when voting started on the applications for members hip. There were seven out of eight (a record number of applications) Associations applying for members hip which were recommended by Committee A, after studying their individual Constitution s, th at they be ad mitted fo r affiliation. These Associations were: Guyana, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Peru, Taiwan ROCATCA and USA PATCO. As each Associatio n was voted in and the name plate was added to the lin e of the other Member Associations, the chief delegate of these Associations received an ovationary welcome into the Federation, as he was handed his Association 's Charter of affi liation and Constitution. Accepting the Charter of PATCO's President, said:






" On beh alf of all of the Controllers of the Un ited States who are members of our Organisation we appreciate the recommendations for our acceptance. We are anxious to get back into IFATCA; we feel that we have been gone too long; we are ve ry happy that our membership application was again req uested and app roved in Canada when we first became membe rs of IFATCA. Thank yo u again for your support of our Organisation, we assure you that we will get involved in your Organisatio n and do everything we can to help the Officers and all the Membe r Nations. Thank you again very much." Taiwan 's Director, Mr. Harley Liu, accepting his Association's Charter said : " Our delegates and o n behalf of our Association , I sincerely express my thanks and appreciation and look forwa rd for close cooperation through IFATCA and its Constitution. We are very proud to be members of IFAT CA. Also sincerely th ank the host country, Canada, for the hospitality. Than k yo u very much. " Dennis Daniel of Guyana said : " On behalf of the Guyana Associati on I thank you for supporting o ur assignment admitting our mem be rship into IFATCA . . . I must say I am happy to be here and for my Association to be elected at thi s meeti ng into membership of IFATCA. Thank you." Jorge Sanchez of Ni caragua said : " Thanks to all delegations of thi s International Organisation. would like to say o n the admission of the Association of Nicaragua to this Organisation that we are ready to satisfy all requirements that this Organisation requests. Th ank yo u." The Director from J amaica, accepting the Charter on behalf of his Association said : " I like to extend the app reciation to the members for being elected here today as members of the International Federation. We have always been in to uch with yo ur regional co-ordinato r Mr. Richard Green and we have always been pushed to come into your sphere also so as to part ic ipate in you r deliberations. I would like at this time to present a token to the President of our Federation on behalf of the controllers of Jamaica. Thank you very much." Once this ovationary celebration was over. the expulsion of Sierra Leone was passed through.

Nine new Corporate Members joining A record numbe r of Corporate W.embers gained approval to the ranks of the Federation and the Charters of their affiliation were handed by the President to those of the representatives who were present. The new Corporate W.embers are: AMECOM DIVISION LITTON SYSTEMS INC., U.S.A., COW.PUTER SCIENCES EUROPE S.A., Belgium, DICTAPHONE CORPORATION, U.S.A., E-SYSTEMS INC., U.S.A., ITI GILFILLAN, U.S.A., PHILIPS' TELECOW.MUNICATIE INDUSTRIE B.V., Netherlands, RAYTHEON CANADA LIMITED, Canada, VWK - RYBORSCH GmbH, Fed. Rep. of Germany, WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC CORPORATION, U.S.A.

IFATCA goes on "The King is dead; long live the King." So goes tradition and life continues. The 19th Annual Conference ends and a new one is about to commence. The Host Association of the 20th Annual Conference, Egypt, makes a start here in Canada. Amin Abo Elmagd, President of the Egyptian Association speaking at Plenary said: "On behalf of the Egyptian ATCA, it is for me a great honour to invite you to the 20th IFATCA Conference, which is going to be held in Cairo from the 4th to 9th April, 1981 . We hope that the Conference will be a very successful one too and I promise that we shall do all the best and as far as we can to make you enjoy every minute and every second you are going to spend with us in Cairo. Ladies and Gentlemen, looking forward to see you in Cairo."

Final Addresses The President's final speech called upon members to increase their involvement in the Federation and to "spread the word around to the non-members, " and asked them to help the Executive Board for the Members' own benefit. " IFATCA 1980", the President said, "is almost history. We will take home fond memories of gracious hospitality, an excellent organisation, for which our sincere thanks go to all involved, of a Conference which achieved much and whose impact will continue to be felt." Talking of the new Executive Board, the President said: "Although membe rs have been re-elected, it is a new beginning as it is every year when elections are held. The make-up of the Board is your choice, as in every democratic system the election is the one great opportunity to ensure that the ablest people are moved into office. This, however, does not mean that between annual conferences there is no way for the Member A ssociations to make their requirements, feelings and wishes known to those you have elected. The Executive Board demand s and thrives on input. It is much more productive to communicate with the Board as M ember Associations rather than hold back your disagreement with their actions and hope that the next Board might do more - that is a chance not worth taking. " Greeting new W.ember Associations into IFATCA, the President said that the Federation is on the right track and that the Federation's ideals are being accepted. " Only when all the world's controllers," he stressed, "are united in this Federation or at least have the choice and opportunity to join, wi ll this portion of our work be done," and exp ressed the feeling that this is getting closer all the time. Closing the Conference and after his usual brief administration announcements, the Host Association 's President, Bill Robertson said: "With that we made it through. I think at times we had some doubts as to where we were going to, but despite that and thanks to Jim Kilburn and his Committee we have conc lud ed the Conference and although we've started 20 minutes late we may finish a few minutes early."

In the e xhibition area the stand o f the Host Association for IFATCA '81 attracted a lot of prospective travel ler s to Cairo, Egypt. We wish t he members of the organising committee shown here all the best and much success for their rewarding work.

Speaking of CATCA 's role in IFATCA, Bill said: " I ta lked at the opening how we see the Canadian ro le in IFATCA and how we see our participation being a long term investment in the future of Air Traffic Control around the world and I think that it's come home to roost d uring the last four days. I certainly welcome all the W.ember Associations who have joined but three of them are particul arly important to me for various reasons. As you know I was Regional Councillor for North and Central America of IFATCA back from 1977 - 1979 until I was elected President of CATCA. In 1978 I made an extensive tri p through Central America for the Federation, visiting each of the countries between here and Panama and at that time it was ourselves, Mexico and Costa Rica who were Members. Today we have the pleasure and pride to have joining Nicaragua and the Honduras, and certainly I feel very touch ed and very impressed with that becau se we are sol idifying and adding more members all the time. Central America is one of the areas where a lot of work is needed. " On PATCO 's re-entry, Bill said: "I can't say enough about that. We have p robably the unique situation in the world where we have about 4-5000 miles of common border and a tremendous amount of traffic that crosses that borde r dai ly and we work togeth er as though it didn't exist. We've always c lose relations with PATCO and I am proud to see them back in the Federat ion 's world. It's certainly been an honour to host the Conference. I think from the comments I've heard you have enjoyed yourselves and that's our pleasure. We have one more bit of hospitality to go, starting at 18:30 with reception and banquet. so I hope you' ll enjoy yourselves this evening , because I plan to. Now I officia lly declare the Conference c losed." The report, however, wi ll not be comp lete without mention being made to those members of the Ca nadian Association who saw the conference t hrough and spared no effort to make their guests stay a memorab le one. Th ough many are the people who have assisted anonymously, we should , however, remind ourselves of those that we met and ta lked to and through them ask them to convey our app reciation to the anonymous ones. Bill Robertson , J. Kilburn , D. Redden, S. Bai ley, R. Kucey, E. Gauthier, T . D. Moores, R. Ives, W. Barry, H. J. Brennen , G. M. Dodds, K. M. Ralph. Last but not least to the ladies who looked afte r the delegate's ladies and their programme : Mrs B. Kucey and Mrs L. Kilburn . T hank you all ! •

Clearance Limit 1981:

CA I R 0, Egypt 23

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Total capab ili ty fro m the ground up. B.v combining the know-how of our specialist companies we can offer a dosC'ly integrated programme of equipment. -.vstems and se1Yices to the Airpor~ Auth01ity. Th<• programme includes: specialised lighting systems for taxiing, lakC'-off. apron positioning and runway approach. as well as indoor and ou tdonr terminal lighting: navigationa l aids sueh a:-; ILS. DME and VOR: HF1VII F'! UII F' and mit-rowavp radio tommun ieatilln:-;: computl'r-hased radar for air lraffiv mntrol and airport surface mm·C'ml'nt (ASDEJ: tl'rminal sonorisation and Sl'l'lll'it \' svstt•m:-;. and a rangp of spn·ict's PXll'n(iing from adnmn' stud.\· and P\·aluation of airport rt'quin•mt•nts to ai11H>rt 1·1mstn1t·t ion and l'ommissioning. F'rpm t'quipmPnt d<•sign. supply and installation to tlw supl'n·ision and trnining nf opC'rational and wdrnieal staff.

Philips working in Aviation

More on IFATCA '80 Address of the Observer of the International Labour Office, Mr. A. Gil, at Final Plenary. Mr. President, Members of the Board, Distinguished Del egates, Ladies and Gentlemen, On behalf of the Director-General of the 1.L.O. I thank l.F.A.T. C.A. for having invited us to this Ninetee nth Annual Confe rence. Many of you are well aware of the c lose relationship which has deve lo ped over the years between the ILO an d IFATCA. This relationship, in my opinion , has been of great value to the ILO, and I hope th at IFATCA feels the sa me way about it. The most impressive and tangib le expression of this conti nuing relationship could be seen in the ILO 1\1.eeting of Experts on Problem s concerning Air Traffic Controllers, held in Geneva precisely one year ago. Prior to that Meeting, IFATCA, its Member Associations and ATC authorities from about 40 countries had supplied the ILO with material on the worki ng conditions prevailing in the va rious nation al and international ATC systems. The Meeting itself gathered about 80 participants, representing governments and controllers from all over the world and seve ral international organisations. It adopted a report and a set of 52 agreed conclusions, embody ing recommendations for national and international action. These texts have bee n communicated to ~he governments of all State membe rs of the ILO, and to the national and international organisations concerned. Many of you must be aski ng yourselves to what use should these co nc lusi ons be put? That depends on the conditions of your particular countries, and on the relevance you attach to the ~onclusions in the light of these conditions. Th ey rep rese nt the first attempt of drawing up international recomme ndations for the working conditions of air traffic controllers. It is therefo re important that they should not remain mere ink on paper. Having discussed the significance of these conclusions with several of the delegates here, I believe that although in some countries air traffic controllers enjoy cond itions of work which go beyond some of th M . ' . eeting s recommen dations, in many oth h . e t ers t e. implementation of these recommendations woul d lead 0 a r~al. improvement in the ai r traffic controllers' lot. This 1s my first .. courtesy th visit to Canada and the United States. By 01 to observ e lbe ~overnments of these countries I have been ab le . a e1t very b · 11 to thank the a· t . ne Y. seve ral major ATC facilities. I wis h ir raff1c control! h questions, and th A ers w o patiently answered all my e TC autho ·r acq uire a valuable f" n ies which have enabled me to 1rst-hand im . press1on of the nature of AT C in North America and th I wish IFATCA e problems facing it. every success in its future efforts.

lions. In this drive we constantly encounter t he lack of understanding of politicians and adm inistrat ions. From po li ticians because they have little or no knowledge of aviation and from administrations because they can not obtain the required funds to invest in the necessary equipm ent and manpower. With respect to the working cond itions, training and status of the air traffic controller, the Internatio nal Labour Office Meeting of Experts which was held at Geneva last year established a number of fu ndamental principles which admi nistrations are encou raged to adopt for the sake of safety of aviation. Of equal concern to the profession is the interference into the safe conduct of flights by cr iminals who fo r various reasons hijack aircraft and thus endanger life and property not only of t he ai rcraft concerned but of ot her flights in its vic inity. IFATCA condemns such criminal acts and has adopted a policy by which a hij acked aircraft is considered to be in an emergency and calls upon governments and international organizat ions to proscribe hijacking and consider t he hijacker as an international criminal. IFATCA's mem bership is growing at a steady rate and t he concerns and prob lems of the Profession are becoming, at last, a matter of discussion in political circ les around the world. The Federation wi ll continue to strive towards the achievement of its goal of maximum possible aviation safety, the recognition of th e scope and responsibility of the air t raffic controllers' profession, and the greatest poss ible effic iency in internatio n aviation. •

Show 'em that you belong to the IFATCA family TIES PINS

12SFR. 3SFR.

IFATCA Hand-out to the Press The follow ing is the p H H . H ress Release given by the President · am ensch~er at a Press Conference on the 7th May, 1980: It becomes increas ingly apparent that as one looks around th e world that th e safet . th Y an d e tt·1c1ency of ai r navigation is less an what the travelling public is entitled to. Th rough input of 1 ·t b th . s mem ers the Federat ion has dete rmined ree maior . geographical areas of concern. These are Africa SIoukth fAmenca. and the Middle East. In all these there exist~ ac o proper A ir Traff C ' 1c ontro l equipme nt navigational aids, shortage of s kil led co ntroll ers and adequate tr~ini ng. . In o ur effort to elim·inat e t h ese potentially hazardous co ndi·s cont ·inuously cooperating · · tio ns the Federation 1 with International bodies such as the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the Internation al Federation of Air Line Pi lots Associat ions ( IFALPA) and the respective national admin istra-


Where to get IFATCA pins and ties? The IFATCA Secretariat, 6 La nglands Park, AYR KA? 4RJ Ayrshire, Scotland, United Kin gdom


Legal Liability of the Controller by E. McCluskey

Part 3 (final) The Place of Court Proceedings In all systems of law proceedings under the criminal law or the penal code can be instituted only by the State. A controller involved in a " criminal " case would therefore be tried acco rding to the law of the State where he was working at the time of the incident. If an accident clearly occurred over the territory of that State, the law of the State is always applicable. If the accident occurred over the territory or nati onal waters of another State then the three major legal systems may differ in their appli~ation of law as we shall see below. An incident over international waters must come under International Law and as such law does not provide for a "crime " of negligence by a person, no proceed ing s under criminal law or the penal cod~ ~ re valid. Under civi l law, proceedings are started by the iniured party or by his survivors. As we saw ea rlier, lawyers tend to advise their c lients to attack a party likely to be able to pay the d amages sought. If prima facie evidence exists that the controller may have been at fau lt the case wou ld be taken against the employer, in most cases the State. T he case would be held un~er the law of the State where the controller was working but wh ich law would be applied and how, would depend again on the pl ace of the incident. However, if the prima facie case is against the a irline or agai nst insurers or constructors, the court case could be brought practically anywhere though normally in a State where there wo uld be certai n jurisdic tion over the defendant. If the d efend ant in this latter case decid es to defend himself by citing the controll er as joint tort feasor (and thi s would pro~a~ly in cl ud e his employer also) the question arises as to w hat iun sdiction the cou rt could have over a foreign cont roller. Firstly no action can be brought against his emp loyer if his employer is the State unde r th e ru les of d iplomatic immunity. The court in this case 'can have jurisdiction ove r the controll er only if he can be s umm oned before the court. This is possible only if he is prese nt in the country conce rned, he volu ntari ly submits to the jurisdiction, o r the court assumes juri sdi cti on under the law conce rning aviati on and particularly carri age by ai r under international treaty giving jurisdiction. A summons served outside the normal j urisdic tion must always be served in the way the least unfavourable to the foreigner c on cerned . There is no known extradition agreement which permi ts arrest and ext radition fo r criminal negligence and answe ring a su mmons to a c ivi l hea ri ng is usually a vo luntary dec ision. That the court can assume jurisdiction in certain cases conce rning aviation is again a proof of the uniq ue position of the cont ro ller.

Which Law should be applied? In a criminal case w he re the acc ident clearly occurred over the te rritory or the territoria l waters of the State concerned there is no proble m. The law of the State is applied. As we saw, if the incident occu rred over international waters there is no question of cri minal proceedings. If the judge enforces his own State's law, the re mu st be a case of miscarriage of j ustice. If

the incident occ urs over the territory or the territoria l waters of another State, the law of the other State must be applied. If no "crim e" can exist in the other State then it cannot exist for a tria l in the home State. If there is no "crime " in the State where the proceedings would take pl ace, the criminal law or penal code of the other State is inapplicable. However, the stud ies carried out by IFATCA Standing Commi ttee VII show numerous cases of anomal ies throughout the world. There are border disputes and there are differing clai ms as to what are territorial waters and what are inte rnational waters. Unfortunately t hese anomalies almost without except ion are to be found where there could normally be a transfer of jurisdiction between the ATC services of one State and those of another. We already cited a hypotheti cal case in an earlier artic le. There is a claim, unrecognised by neighbourring States , by Indonesia to part of the High Seas as te rrito rial waters. If an inc ident were to occur over such waters, the judge in Singapore would rule that the case came unde r Internat ional Law wh ich has become pa rt of Singapore Law whe reas the judge in Ind onesia given the same case would judge immed iately on the law of Indonesia. If the incident occurred w ith in a three mile limit of Indonesia, however. the judge in Singapore would also apply Indonesian law as he sees it. Here of course we see the probl em which could arise if one of the two States in a given inci dent considered that the controller was responsible and t hat the case comes under criminal law, wh ile in the adjacent State the controller is also considered equally at faul t and the case does not come under the criminal law or the penal code. One controller might be imprisoned or fined and the othe r equally " guilty " not proceeded against at all. And if we suppose that both States wo uld apply criminal law, the judge in the first State would simply apply the law as he knows it, whereas the judge in the other State would have to prove the fo reign law as a qu estion of fact like any other question of evidence by calling expert w itnesses. It is because of these types of co mplicated d ifference in application of law to the same facts that IFATCA seeks to have International Law applied in the question of the "crime " of negligence for all controllers. or, if this course is unacceptable. to introduce the Anglo-Saxon method of " mens rea " by proof everywhere, with imprisonment possible only in cases of a proven deliberate act. If an incident occurs outside the State territory. the problem is eq ually complicated in civil proceedings. We saw already that in the Roman Law States the likelihood of a c ivil case against a contro ller is rare. In his own State, however, the controller under the Soci alist system of law could be called upon to make good the loss incurred by the emp loyer, in most cases the State itself. This is also true of the controller under some Anglo-Saxon systems. If however, the case is broug ht elsep here we have seen that the contro ller's home State cannot be sued and therefore any award which might have been made against the employer might be made against the contro ller himself, if he has come under the jurisdic tion of the court. As again there could be very d ifferent outcomes according to where the case is held. IFATCA is seeking standardisation by insisting that the employer shou ld


be vicariously liable and that the controller should be protected. So if the limit had been awarded, the employer should not take a case against the controller.

country has already a very reduced limit of liability the judge is unlikely to apply to a foreigner a much larger liability than that provided for under the limitations in his own State.

Procedures when involved with Foreign Law

Can a Foreign Judgement be applied?

It is at this stage that we must take a brief look at Comparative Law or, as it is sometimes known, Private International Law. In general anyone except enemy aliens can bring a civil case before a court. By the same rules anyone may be sued provided they can come under the jurisdiction of the court. Normally foreign government departments cannot be sued but they may submit voluntarily by waiver of immunity. A foreign State may also move for proceedings to be stayed on the grounds that its employee is a party to the action and its property could be the subject matter of the action. This cannot apply if there is already international agreement to the contrary. However, international agreements do exist to apply foreign judgements. The most important one applies to Austria, France, Belgium, United Kingdom, India, Pakistan, Federal Republic of Germany (including West Berlin), Australia and Norway. Judgements in any of these States would be applied in the other subject to the conditions of the reciprocal agreements. As a general rule tort committed abroad is not actionable unless the act would have been actionable as a tort if committed in the country where the case is heard. Thus if the judge must "stop short at the door of the administration" in his own country he cannot proceed further when the case involves a foreign administration nor can a judge refer the matter to an administrative judge if there are no administrative judges. This would apply in the first example to a Roman Law judge in any case and in the latter example to an Anglo-Saxon Law judge treating a case from a Roman Law State. Also it is a general rule that a case cannot be brought if it could not have been brought in the other State. So a judge under a Socialist system cannot apply the law of prejudice to the enterprise or failure to know the rules concerning the national airline of his country. Generally a tort is committed where the fault takes place even though the damage is suffered elsewhere which means that the judge must interpret also which law would have been applied had the case come before a court where the tort happene~. This, as we saw in the hypothetical case of Indonesia and Singapore, must be taken with the proviso that the judge is free not to recognise political claims which have not been inter~ationally recognised. If both States apply international conventions o~er their own territory and have no differences the judge must still rule using the yardstick of the law as applied in the other State. As the law of the other State is itself a question of fact and must be proved by expert witnesses there is a question as t 0 h 0 ' can be an expert witness. Usually he is a lawyer with .w practical experience of the law of his country but sometimes they ~an be consuls or diplomatic representatives without legal experience. Whereas IFATCA cannot question such expert evidence, it is necessary to provide the possibility in such "foreign" cases of the provision of expert ATC witnesses from the State concerned and this provision should not be at the controller's expense. Also the "foreign" State concerned should make ATC ~xpert witnesses readily available. These ideas must also be included in an international agreement. Unless the foreign law is proved different it is presumed to ?e. the. same. The onus of proof rests on the 'party pleading that it is different. If the foreign courts are not agreed, under the Anglo-Saxon systems the judge may consider himself as if he we~e the foreign Court of Appeal, thus presuming the decision which would have had to be made if the case had been heard in the foreign country. It is. also a principle that the civil court will not apply rules of foreign law which are either penal or confiscatory. Nor will foreign law be applied if it is contrary to public policy, so if a


In some countries the judgement of a foreign court can be applied. Thus if an airline had been sued and had named a foreign controller as joint tortfeasor and the court decides to award partial damages against the controller, in some AngloSaxon countries he could be forced by his own courts to pay. A foreign judgement in such States can justify a plea of res judicata (the case has already been judged). The foreign judgement can create an obligation which can be sued on or provide a valid defence. If the plaintiff was not satisfied with what he received in the foreign court, he may sue again. However if hi<s action failed in the foreign court there is a defence of res judicata. If the damages awarded in the foreign court were already paid there can be no case. However, in the latter case, an action can be brought against another person liable under the same circumstances. Thus if an award had been made against a radar controller or a case had been lost, the plaintiff might reopen the case this time trying to prove that the tort had been committed by the planning controller. The foreign judgement in these cases is upheld if it was judgement in personam i.e. the defendant was personally present or accepted the jurisdiction voluntarily. The foreign judgement must also have been final so no case at appeal can be upheld. The judgement can be upheld even if there were an error in fact or even in law, including the law of the country upholding the judgement. In addition to the list of countries mentioned above which have reciprocal enforcement, the United Kingdom also has reciprocal agreements with Canada, New Zealand and. certain protectorates. Jurisdiction of the foreign cou~s must. satisfy the law of the country upholding the judgement in that 1t conforms to the conditions of all international convention~ whi~h shoul~ have been taken into account. Internally in the United Kingdom Judgements are recognised b tween Scotland with its Roman .Law system and England W~h Wales, and Northern Ireland with their Anglo-Saxon syste Generally speaking ~oun~ri~s whic~ uphold foreign judgement:'~~ this nature ignore time limits set in the foreign State conce d . .t . rne by any form of Statu t e of L1m1 at1on unless the right to bring a case at all has already been extinguished. The time limit is the time after which a case cannot be brought. The controller is very unlikely ever to be involved in th· 18 type of situation, since firstly he can only be involved beca · h' · · use someone else cites 1m as Joint tortfeasor in order to try to share the award of damages. Unless there is an reciprocal agreement with the other country he cannot be forced to attend th proceedings and if he does not attend he can deny the f . e • • • • th . ore1gn JUd~e~~nt, st1I 1 retaining. e. right to plead res judicata if the plaintiffs case already failed in the foreign court. As the pi · . . d" a1n111f would be faced by a res JU 1cata plea from the other defendant also, the .case could ~ot. be re-op~ned. The controller might however be involved aga1~ 1f the plaintiff now attacks someone else such as the controllers employer. Here again the controller · pea I d res JU · d'1cat ~ in · h'is own case. If subsequently dammay again ages are awarded against the employer it would be doubtful whether the employer could then turn in law against the controller. . This argument is of course hypothetical by the nature of things because no known case exists involving an aircraft incident where the procedure was applied. The procedure does nevertheless exist and so had to be mentioned. The non-standard methods from State to State, however, suggest that in any international agre~ment t.h~ should be protected from any effect of foreign dec1s1ons. An international standard is required for the controller. It is required urgently as a means to increasing air safety by reducing stress and worry about a field which is of necessity relatively unknown to the controller as it is also to the average citizen. Other fields of International Law have

need of standardisation but the field of controller's legal liability is probably the least standard of all at the present time. Working in an international environment the controller cannot be the civil servants; working as a controller he is not the equal of his fellow controllers abroad. His profession is unique. His legal status deserves also to be unique.

Conclusion This series of articles now comes to an end. When the series started the hope was expressed that it would stimulate interest in legal subjects among controllers. At that time IFATCA's Legat Committee considered of only two controllers. Now it has representatives from several associations and is represented on four continents. Interest is steadily growing in its work and it is to be hoped that this trend will continue. We underlined that the subject International Law was not an easy one to cover and that by summarising vast fields there was no guarantee that conclusions could always be exactly correct. For those who now reread the articles it should also be emphasised that from the time at which the articles were written the law has been continually evolving so those who do intend to do further· study must keep updating. We expressed the hope that the series would not be found dull. It is to be hoped that this aim was achieved. From correspondence and discussions some articles were found contentious. The author accepts full responsibility for this since often a contentious subject stimulates at least a reaction. Ge de Boer in his introduction to the series gave some of the reasons why we were embarking on this field. At the end of the series it is up to you, the reader, to decide whether it is worthwhile. We hope it has aided in the struggle for rights of the controller. Perhaps the case is best summed up "But in every case the rule is universal for the cases to which it applies, and this means that all persons whose cases conform to the rule are treated equally. The equality before the law which most modern States boast goes further than this. It not only applies its rules impartially, but in framing its rules it generally treats certain fundamental rights and duties as pertaining to all human beings, irrespective of rank, age, sex, race and even citizenship. In this respect it differs materially from the laws of many archaic States, and even of some more recent civilisations. Under such laws cases of homicide, for example, are distinguished according as slayer or slain is high caste or low caste, noble, free or stave, man or woman, of the same or different kindred, citizen or alien. Equality before the law as a modern understands it, means not merely that the penalties attached to a case of homicide, whatever they may be, will be impartially enforced, but that the penalties will be the same whoever and whatever the stain may be. It means equal protection of life and limb for everyone under the law, and equal penalties on everyone violating them. Protection of person and property may be said to be generally regarded as the equal right of all in modern law, though there may as a fact be some relations in which it is still inadequately enforced. On the other hand, the law also recognises special relations with special obligations. It could not in fact recognise the general rights of property without maintaining the special rights of the owner of a particular property, or the general sanctity of contracts without enforcing the particular rights and duties of the parties to a particular contract. It may also confer special rights or impose special duties on certain classes such as employer or landlords or trade unions. But in general all special rights and duties are subordinate to the common obligations. - Thus it is in the spirit of modern law to hold certain fundamentals of right and duty equally applicable to all human beings, while special obligations are developed by their application to the varying relations of men and particular requirements of the common good. In this manner does law interpret equality. - Sufficient reply was given by Aristotles that while equity is undoubtedly the rectification of those shortcomings of law which proceed from its abstract character, it is the rectification for which the law-giver himself, had he 'BEEN THERE PRESENT', and considered the circum-

stances of the case for himself, would have provided" (Elements of Social Justice - L. T. Hobhouse). Let us then show the lawmakers what we need for we at least have "BEEN THERE PRESENT". For further study: - Winfield on Tort; Stevens: Law of Torts; Gifford; Sweet & Maxwell: Conditions of Employment and Service of Air Traffic Controllers; I.LO.: Droit Aerien Suisse; Office central federal de l'air: Commonwealth and Colonial Law; Sir Kenneth Roberts-Wray; Stevens: Notes on the English Law and You; E. McCluskey; On Watch l.P.C.S.: Air Traffic Controller's Legal Liabilities; Translated from "Control"; Angela Bessis B. A.; Controller Feb. 1975: Conflict of Laws; Graveson; Sweet & Maxwell: Private International Law; Cheshire; Sweet & Maxwell: Comparative Law - A theoretical Framework; Kamba; British Institute of International and Comparative Law Quarterly Vol 23 Part 3: Politica Aerea lberoamiricana; Araujo; University of Miami: Report of the Committee on Administrative Tribunals and Enquiries; Kilmuir; HMSO: Administrative Law; Wade; O.U.P.: The New France; Ardagh; Pelican: Government and the Governed; Crossman; Chatto & Windus: Conflict of Laws; Briggs; Sweet & Maxwell. •

McDonnell Douglas News McDonnell Douglas Corporation earnings of $199,103,025 or · $5.06 per share fully diluted on sales of $5,278,548 in 1979 were announced by James S. McDonnell, Chairman. The previous year McDonnell Douglas earned $161,106,272 or $4.14 per share on sales of $4, 130,280,065. The 1979 earnings amounted to 3.77 cents for each dollar of sale's. The year's sales included 40 per cent commercial and 60 per cent Government business. Employment at the end of 1979 was 82,736 compared with 70,547 a year earlier. The 1979 figure includes 2678 employees of Microdata Corporation, a firm that produces small business computer system's and related equipment and was acquired by McDonnell Douglas during the year. Mr. McDonnell said the 1979 sales increase was caused primarily by a sharp increase in numbers of commercial aircraft delivered to customers. In the fourth quarter of 1979 the F-18A Hornet fighter-attack aircraft successfully underwent an extensive series of aircraft carrier launches and takeoffs, becoming the first modern jet to complete initial sea trial within a year of its first flight. U.S. Government procurement of 1377 Hornets for the Navy and Marine Corps is now planned. Australia and Canada both have made the F-18A one of two finalists in their fighter selection competitions, and the plane is under consideration by Greece, Israel, Spain and Turkey. In November the U.S. Air Force signed a $173 million contract for four KC-10 tanker-cargo aircraft, military versions of the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 tri-jet. This brings to six the number of KC-10s on order, with flight tests scheduled to begin this year, and it is expected that 20 or more will be ordered ultimately. Thirty-six wide-cabin DC-10s were delivered to airlines in 1979, twice the total for the previous year. The number of DC-10 firm orders increased by 34 during 1979; the comparable increase was 43 firm orders in 1978, a record year for the air transport industry. As of December 31 McDonnell Douglas had firm orders for 352 commercial DC-10s and conditional orders and options for 38 others, bringing the overall total to 390 aircraft of which 299 had been delivered. Thirty-nine DC-9s were delivered to customers in 1979, compared with 22 the previous year. Firm orders for 49 DC-9s were received in 1979, compared with 66 a year earlier. The DC-9 Super 80, the longest, quietest and most fuel-efficient member of the McDonnell Douglas twin-jet line, made its first flight in October. By year-end two of the three aircraft to be used in the Super 80 flight test programme had accumulated about 150 hours in the air. Firm orders for the Super 80 exceeded $1,000,000,000 as 1980 began. The plane is scheduled to begin airline service this year


10 YEARS CARGO LUX The All-Cargo Airline of Luxembourg by Oli Jonsson


The first Decade In 1970, cargo charter airlines were viewed with suspicion the word 'charter' being considered a rude wo rd and one which conjured up visions of fly-by-night operators who lasted for a short time and then disappeared from the scene. But the very real need for a re liab le service w hi ch could be offered by an efficient cargo charter airline was evident. And the aims of the fledgling airli ne formed in March that yea r were to meet those needs which coul d not be met by t he scheduled ai rlines. The founders of Ca rgolux were no amateurs in their chosen fields. There were three main groups of shareholders - Loftleidi r Icelandic, now Flugleidir lcelandair, the Icelandic ai rline that pioneered cut-rate fares on the North Atlantic; the Salen Shipping Group, with the world 's largest reefe r fleet and plenty of cargo experience. albeit cargo for sea transportation : pl us Luxai r, Lu xembourg's national ai rline and a group of e nterp rising Luxembourg bus inessmen. Thi s group, representing three different countries and backgrounds pooled t heir ex perience and knowledge and formed Lu xembou rg 's all-cargo a irline - Cargo lu x.

You name it, we fly it"

The airline began by offe ring full ad hoe charters to its customers w ith a variety of destinations spread around the wo rld . Cargos ranged from produce to heavy m~chinery, from elephants to orchids, and the airline adopted and lived up its motto w hi ch still is_ "You name it, we fly it ". A l ready in 1970, the justification for the founding of the airl ine approved the type of was beginning to be proved. The customers . service offered, the staff began to in crease and a second aircraft was added to the fleet. T he forwarders and shippers had accepted this latest entrant into the ai rca rgo transportation market and the airline continued to expand its services to meet their requirements. In 1971 the split charter concept was introduced and innovation was the watchword, to open up new markets, to offer new services and a cost conscious operation.

E. Olarsson

The Growth of Cargolux But why Luxembourg? Its lo cation was of paramount importance, situated right at the hub of a whee l wh ich radi ated out to cover the major cities and t he industrial centres in Europe. The road connections to the major centres were good, and the ai rport itse lf un co ngested by heavy airline traffic, and the Government of Luxembourg maintain s an open sky policy.

How it all started. In the beginn ing there was just one ai rcraft - a Canadair CL 44- D 4 swing tai l freighter, previously operated by shareho lder Loftle idir, and converted from its passenger configuration back to its original format as a freighter with a capacity of 26 tonnes. And t he staff? - The word dedicated has been used as a superlative on too many occasio ns , but t his is one when it is not out of place. With a management and total office staff of four peop le, plus two c rews, there can be no doubts in anyo ne's mind that w it ho ut their sin ce re dedi cation and belief in the airline and th eir co ntinued efforts to ensure s uccess, Cargolux might never have amounted to very much. - The first employee was the Icelandi c born Mr. Einar Olafsso n, to- day's President and Chief Exec uti ve.


The growth of the airline continued at a steady pace, new routes, more aircraft, and then came the first big step. By the end of 1973, the decision was taken to incorporate the Loftl eidir Maintenance Group - based in Luxembourg - into the Cargolux organization. This dec ision had two immediate results - firstly the staff doubled literally overnight on January 1st, 1974, and secondly, a month later, Cargolux signed the contracts for the construction of a new Head Office Building and double bay H angars at Luxembourg's Findel Airport. One year later the building was practically fin ished, the first of the hangar bays was in full operation and the support shops were functioning in their new location. By April that year the move was completed , and Cargo lux began a new activity - that of performing maintenance work f or other airlines as well as taking care of its own fleet. T o-day the Cargolux Maintenance Centre, CMC, with its double bay hanga r and fully eq uipped support shops, ca n handle anythin g from periodi c inspection check s to compl ex avionics in stall ati ons. It operates under approval from the variou s aviati on authorities, such as the FAA, British CAA, Bureau Verital and the Icelandic DCA. The CMC employs 215 pe rsons out of the company's total personnel of 480, where about 107 mai ntain the Cargolux

fleet and the o th er 108 serve othe r airlines. Stocks for spa re-parts are automatically m a inta in ed and restocked through the new Computer System operated by Cargolux. The CMC is administered by th e Ice landic born Mr. Gunnar M. Bjo rgvi nsson, Sr. VicePresident Maintenance a nd Engineering.

into the Company, and that means better service to the customers and better competence for the Company. - Need less to say, the Company has only ONE working language, Eng lish.

All Jet Service The first j et aircraft entered se rvice in late 1973, a rv:cDonnell Douglas Supe r DC 8, and g rad ual ly over the next few years, more were added . By 1977, Ca rgolux was operating three Supe r DC 8 freighters, and two of its five C L44s had been so ld with a third being leased to a new a irline in which Cargolux was itself a shareho ld er, Ae ro Urug uay. If incorpo rating the Loftleidir Maintenance was a big step fo r Cargo lu x, the announce ment in December 1977 that the airl ine had ordered its first Boeing 747-200 freighter. was surely a big leap towards the future. The new aircraft was to be del ivered in ea rly 1979, and thus 1978 was a year of continu ed activity and preparation. Not on ly was the airline flying more carg o than eve r before, th e whole compan y was busy preparin g for the delive ry of th e new a ircraft and th e change it would bring. The chang e was a challenge, one which was met with enthusias m by the staff. Th e airline's activities were diversifying, and the services had become 'reg ul ar' rath er than conventional charter services, alth ough many ad-hoe flights were still operated. One of the proud est moments in Cargolux history came on Feb ruary 1st 1979 when LX-DCV, named "City of Luxembourg", the first Boeing 747 freighte r to be operated by a European allcargo air line, landed in Luxembou rg for the first time. Th e respon se from the ai rline's c lients was gratifying. They s upported the introduction of this 'big bird' into se rvi ce, and justified the co nfidence of the Ca rg o lux management who placed an orde r in Septe mber 1979 fo r a second B 747 freighter which will go into operation thi s a utumn. The B 747 is important to Cargolux, but the ai rline is mo re than a B 747 freighter. It is a truly international company - the airline empl oys a staff of nearly 500 based in Luxembourg , of more than 34 different nationalities, and has offices in 15 different countries aro und th e world. The emp loyees speak ove r 20 different languages, so w ith c ertainty one can say that a language barrier is no prob lem to Cargolux. The top-executives of Cargolux are also of multi- nat ion alities. The Presid en t, Mr. Einar Olafsson, T he Sr. Vice-Preside nt Corporate Planning Mr. Johannes Einarsson and The Sr. VicePres ident Maintenance & Engineering Mr. Gunnar M. Bj orgvinsson, all commented th e same way, that it is of a great val ue and advantage to have so many nationalit ies worki ng for the Co mpany, it brings their local knowledge and expe rience right

G. B j orgvinsson

Cargolux has tru ly changed and progressed during the first decade of existence. Its activities have g radually diversified and now encompass regular services to t he Middle East, Far East an d also to the U.S.A., fu ll charter fl ights, sub-l eas ing services. contract maintenance work, inte rline trucking se rvices to over 30 European cities and various j o int ventu res. The Cargolux fl eet now consists of 2 Boeing 707-331Cs, 1 DC8-53, 3 DC8-63Fs and 1 Boeing 747-200F, all in fu ll operation, and the second Boeing 747-200F to be d elivered this autumn .

No. 1 in Europe, No. 4 in the World L ooking through th e ten years of existence of Cargolux, one can agree that the decision to form the Company i n 1970 was a correct one, the airline was formed at the right t im e, the location, - Luxembourg - was the rig ht place, and Cargolux is now th e fou rth largest all-cargo airline in the worl d, and number one in Europe. Quoti ng Mr. Are ndal , Sr. Vice-President Sales & Marketing , from his Annual Report : " Th ose of us wh o travel frequently in the Far East a re fu lly aware of the importance attached to reaching the 'number one' position in any chosen field - and the resul ting boost in both status and prestige. However having attained this coveted position , one becomes even more aware of the ob ligations and respon sibi lities inherent in being a leader. We were the first European all-cargo airline to introduce a Boeing 747 freig hter on the Middl e and Far East route. We were the f irst European fre ight airline to operate into China and Vietnam. Cargolux pio neered the intermodal concept f rom a main-base


New dimensions i n CARGOLUX freigh t services since the introduction of the Boeing 747, shown here on the ramp of Luxembourg Airport.

Luxembourg, with co-ordinated flight and t rucking schedules. We are proud of our achievements, but also aware of our obligations". The Cargolux fl eet carried ove r 57000 metric tonnes 1979, flew about 472 million ton-kilometres, and left some odd 3 million US dollars profit in the Company's bin. Mr. Einar Olafsson, the President, said, when asked about the company's success: "Our biggest success, besides the company's 3 million doll ars profit last year, was definitely to adopt our new B 747 into ful l service w ith on ly 14 months preparation time and operate it successfully over 4200 flying hours the first year. Training began in October 1977, at which time Cargolux B 747, although incomplete, was beginning to take shape prior to f inal assembly. We began adding capacity to our fleet in order to ensure a smoother transition to the 747 operation when the aircraft was delivered 1st of February 1979. - It's a tribute to ou r staff that we not only achieved such a profitable year w ith our everyday operation, but that they also managed to absorb the considerable workload and to fulfil! the extra demands which prefaced the introduction of the Boeing 747 freighter" . - "Operational problems? - Yes, world-wide night curfews are so metimes affecting our operation considerably, they sure can hit us".

Mr. Gunnar M. Bjorgvinsso n said in his An nual Report: " Introducing new types of aircraft in~o an e~isting maintenance and engineering organization, requires. ad1.ustments within every department. Whether this introduction is for new aircraft, or different types of aircraft, preparation, planning and maintenance support requires a high degree of flexi bility. Fleet planning and future maintenance requirements will di ctate the CMC's direction towards additional expansions. At present, the DC 8 engine retrofit programme appears to be a reality. This wi ll require new maintenance applications to existing aircraft. Additional aircraft wi ll demand a limited degree of furth er expans ion to meet the airline's operational needs. Based on this knowledge, it can be ascertained that in the future the CMC will be supporting the B 747, B 707 and DC 8 at the highest possible standards". Mr. Bjorgvinsson finally said : "We're pround to be able to state that we've reached and are maintaining a fl eet reli ability which is one of the highest in the world, and we'd like to keep it there". Quoting Mr. Johannes Einarsson, The Sr. Vice-President Corporate Planning, from his report w here he says: "Aircraft subleasing is a different concept for Cargolux, enabli ng us to offer aircraft to other ai rlines who, due to seasonal requirements may need extra capacity on a short o r medi um term basis.

J. Einarsson

Cargolux now offers its airline customers an excellent service the subleasing of the aircraft, be it a B 707 or DC 8, maintenance and ground support, 24 hours operational coverage, plus the availability of certain types of portable grou nd equ ipm ent to back up the ope ration. The day-to-day Cargo lux operation is also an asset in that, the regu lar routes operated by the company to the Middle and Far East mean that maintenance s upport can be rapidly moved to our c li ent's relevant ope rating area. During 1978/79 the company was involved in subleasi ng both DC 8 and B 707 aircraft to Bangladesh Biman, Air Algerie, Bab el Mandeb, PIA, Air France. Ai r Afriq ue and UTA. We feel that with our maintenance base capability, o ur expe rienced operational personne l, and the type of eq ui pment that we can offer to other airlines, we can provide the industry with a valuable service, one for which there is an obvious need".

The Future of Cargolux

A Canadair CL-44 of the old days at Katmandu Airport


When asked about the futu re of Cargolux, Mr. Einarsson said: "Our progress and success wasn't made overnight, the technical knowhow and experience of our staff is now paying off. - We are in the process of becoming fully computerized an d automated. In January 1981 we will have a fully automated cargo syste m f rom our new Honeywell Bul l Computer, now bei ng installed and partly in service already. We hold 49 O/o shares in the ca rgo-carri er, Aero Uruguay, whi ch operates as a subsidiary to Cargolux. - We have more expe rienced staff than some of th e biggest airlines. We have pilots with as long as 40 yea rs experience in aviati on and over 31000 flying hours, and we have f leet reli ability amo ng the best in the world - the future of Cargolux sho uld be pretty well taken care of. " â&#x20AC;˘

Automation and Conflict Detection Paper presented by Eurocontrol at IFATCA '80

Introduction This article considers the provision of two different categories of automated conflict detection and resolution facilities: (a) Tactical Designed to alert radar controllers to imminent conflicts i. e. those predicted to occur within the next two minutes or so which require the immediate attention of radar controllers and which, in most cases, also require positive action to maintain separation between the aircraft concerned. (b) Strategic Designed to provide controllers with information on conflicts predicted to occur 20 minutes or more ahead - so as to facilitate orderly traffic planning (level allocation etc.) within an ACC sector, or group of sectors.

The A TC Data Processing System Environment In this paper it is assumed that the automated facilities provided by the system include the following: (a) Radar Tracking Radar tracking is the process of accepting data from one or more radars, associating the data with the existing data for each aircraft to establish a system "track" and using new data to update the previously computed position, track and groundspeed in the horizontal plane or rate of climb/descent in the vertical plane. The display of tracks may be organized so that individual track positions are updated on the display as soon as new data has been received. Alternatively all track positions may be updated together at regular intervals. (b) Flight Plan Processing Here the scope is rather wide but the following characteristics are assumed. The System will know callsign and type (which implies standard performance characteristics) and the route to be flown. It is able, from estimate or departure information and updated meteorological data, to compute ETAs for the various reporting points and can accept manual time or flight level updates from controller input devices. It will ideally have automatic code allocation logic, which does not preclude the retention of codes issued by other ATC units, but will avoid duplication of SSR codes in the area concerned. (c) Correlation between Radar Track and Flight Plan Data The System is able to identify (identify is used here In its broadest sense) radar tracks and carry out correlation between track and flight plan. This will permit flight plan data to be displayed in association with the radar track (callsign, cleared flight level, etc.) and for flight plan ETA's to be updated automatically based on radar positions. This paper is mainly concerned with automated facilities using radar data for conflict detection. From the foregoing it can be seen that for these purposes traffic can be divided into two broad categories: traffic for which only radar data is available and traffic for which both radar and flight plan data is available. In this paper these are referred to as uncorrelated and correlated flights respectively.

What is a Conflict? A conflict is declared when the positions, real or predicted, of two aircraft are such that both horizontal and vertical separation parameters are infringed.

Tactical Conflict Detection Alert and Resolution Usually referred to as Conflict Alert (CA). Tactical conflict detection and alert as it exists, or is planned, consists of programmes capable of taking current radar data, using it to predict trajectories for a given time (the warning time, normally in the order of two minutes), examining those trajectories to detect potential conflicts and generating a warning to the controller, indicating those aircraft for which conflicts have been predicted. Because all current or planned versions of CA are based on the assumption that aircraft will maintain their current heading, speed, rate of climb, etc. . .. , during the period of the track extrapolation it is clear that predictions for greater than a few seconds may be erroneous and give rise to false alarms. The optimum prediction time seems to be of the order of two minutes, this being a compromise between the need for short extrapolation to avoid prediction errors and therefore false alarms and the need to warn the controller in time for him to take action. Because of the short warning time it is also clear that CA must work for the radar controller and that the separation parameters used must be related to, although not necessarily equal, the radar separation minima. Using horizontal and vertical speed factors calculated by the tracking programmes the trajectory of each aircraft is predicted for a given time. This time may be longer than the warning time. Around each trajectory a volume of protected airspace is described. This volume may be constant along the length of the predicted trajectory or it may increase with time to accommodate known errors in the accuracy of the speed vectors. When two such volumes of airspace overlap vertically or horizontally a conflict is declared. Note that the vertical separation parameter must be automatically adjusted to take account of the increased separation required above flight level 290. In order to give good results attention should be paid to the following points: (a) All aircraft to be included in the conflict search must be tracked. (b) The tracking programmes must be capable of calculating reasonably precise horizontal and vertical speed vectors. Standard rates of climb and descent may be used but will give rise to false alarms. (c) All aircraft under the control of the ATC unit concerned must be correlated and the programme must know which working position is responsible for each aircraft. (d) Conflicts must only be displayed if at least one of the conflicting pair is correlated and must be displayed only at the working position(s) responsible for the aircraft concerned. It is clear that CA programmes should be 100 % efficient, that is to say no potential conflict should go unreported, however, the output of a CA programme is linked very closely to the quality of the data with which it has to work. Since in many cases the necessary data is either unreliable or not available the programme must make assumptions and, since all real potential conflicts must be reported, those assumptions must be worst case assumptions and this leads to the great drawback of current CA programmes - a high false alarm rate. False alarms can be reduced in several ways, not all of which will be appropriate to all ATC units. (a) Any improvement to the basic data will tend to reduce false alarms. This may include improvements to the radar or the radar tracking programmes on the technical side and mandatory carriage of transponders with altitude reporting and avoidance of SSA code changes on the operational procedures side.


(b) Additional data may also be of use in reducing false alarms. The programme may make use of the cleared level, for example, to restrict the vertical search area. This data should not, however, be such that inputs are made solely for the benefit of the conflict alert programme which should rather make use of data already available in the system. (c) Lack or temporary loss of mode C data is a prime false alarm generator, it is useful if the programme can make assumptions based on flight plan data or controller inputs to limit the vertical search area. In this case attitude and cleared level would be useful. (d) Obviously (b) and (c) above can apply only to aircraft which are correlated and under the control of the ATC unit in question (in this case ATC unit means any number of operational units using the same computer system and data base). Uncorrelated aircraft present a higher false alarm risk since prediction can be based only on radar data with no flight plan data to limit the search area. It may therefore be convenient to eliminate some aircraft from the conflict search. This may be done on the basis of: (I) excluding aircraft in specified geographical areas; (II) excluding aircraft in specified height bands; (Ill) excluding aircraft squawking specified SSR codes; (IV) excluding aircraft within specified speed ranges. (e) For correlated flights false alarms may be reduced by applying different conflict parameters to aircraft in departure or arrival phases of flight. An important feature of CA is the display of conflicts. This should be effected on the radar display itself using any convenient attention drawing device which is available, e. g.: (a) Flashing data blocks; (b) Using a special, prominent, symbol for aircraft positions; (c) Underlining or boxing the data blocks; (d) Using colour i. e. a special colour or colour reversal for conflicting tracks. In any case the method used will depend on the display facilities available but it must always be clear, eye-catching and unambiguous. In addition to the warning on the radar display it may be useful also to provide a small tabular message, which could contain some or all of the following data elements: (a) Callsign of aircraft for which the control position is responsible. (b) Callsign or SSR code of the conflicting aircraft. (c) Identity of the control position responsible for the conflicting aircraft if it is known and it is not the position at which the display is made. (d} Attitude of each aircraft. (e) Actual level of each aircraft. (f} Cleared level of each aircraft (if known). (g) Actual separation. (h) Predicted minimum separation. C. A. programmes already in service or planned are all based on the same principle: the controller is given the minimum acceptable warning of a potential conflict; it is therefore quite clear that he must continue to detect and resolve possible conflict situations just as he always has, because if he waits for a warning from the system he will eventually find himself in a multi-conflict situation with insufficient time to take action. CA then is designed to act at the very last minute, when it seems likely that the controller has overlooked a potentially dangerous situation. It appears therefore that CA will have no effect on the traditional task of the Radar Controller. As soon as the resolution of conflicts is considered the discussion b~comes ~heo~etical. There are at least three CA programmes in operation, in the United States in both en-route and terminal facilities, and in France in both the civil and military ATC-systems. Conflict resolution, however, seems not yet to be a practical proposition. If the programme can detect that two aircraft are about to conflict it seems reasonable to assume that by the application of a little geometry it could also propose a


method of resolving the conflict. However, while it could probably provide an efficient short term solution it is assumed that the controller, with a more complete knowledge of the aircraft's future intentions, will almost always be able to provide a solution which is also effective in the longer term. As examples the programme might propose a left turn for an aircraft which will shortly require to turn right, or a climb for an aircraft which will shortly request descent. There is also the question of multi-conflicts to consider where a controller might, as part of the solution, change the trajectory of an aircraft not directly concerned in the predicted conflict. Such a programme might also prove to be time consuming in that having proposed a course of action it should then carry out a new conflict search along the proposed trajectory to make sure that it is conflict free.

Strategic Conflict Detection Alert and Resolution: General Whilst CA systems are already in operation, strategic conflict detection is confined to planning documents, experimental centres and scientific research. The object of such a system is to compare flight plan data in order to detect potential conflicts thirty to forty minutes before the event and to propose solutions to the conflicts found.

Simple Flight Plan Data Based Systems: Flight plan processing in most centres has already reached the stage of strip printing, which means that the programmes are aware of all ETA's and all assigned flight levels. It would be a comparatively minor addition to their task to examine the ETA's of all new flight plans in order to detect conflicts (same flight level and less than the required time separation at any reporting point), which is, of course, exactly what the controller does when he receives a new set of strips. In order to propose a solution to a detected conflict the programme would examine alternative levels and propose those at which no conflict would exist. Note that such a system takes no account of climb or descent, which would always be a radar control task. Such a system might be necessary in conjunction with the stripless systems, now being considered by many administrations, to warn the controller of an automatic time update which resulted in less than the required separation between two aircraft at the same level and which he might not otherwise have noticed. It has been suggested that a strategic system could be devised which made use of rough and ready profiles calculated from standard data. It is considered, however, that the inaccuracies involved would be such that the task of the radar controller would in no way be alleviated. Since such a system seems to add little to the efficiency of current systems it is con~idered that effort in this direction would be wasted, although it 1s conceded that as a research tool it could provide valuable information about, for example, display formats and input requirements.

Complex Systems Using Flight Plan, Radar and Accurate Aircraft Performance Data. The most complex form of strategic conflict detection involves

~he use of radar data and the accurate calculation of the trajectory of the aircraft concerned, including climb and descent P~ofiles, examining this trajectory against that of all other known aircraft, and if necessary proposing modifications to keep it clear o! other aircraft. Although it has been demonstrated recently, that aircraft profiles can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy, ~uch a programme would require even more data, some of which ¡~ not currently available in ATC systems and would pose practical problems (for example co-ordination from Approach Control

to Area Control Centre and from Area Centre to Area Centre, when the trajectory crossed a boundary) for which there are currently no solutions available. It is unlikely therefore that such a system would be introduced as a first generation Strategic Conflict Detection and Resolution System. It is important that when considering such advanced systems one should not necessarily see them in the context of present operating methods. Automation has often proved unsatisfactory when applied to current working methods as opposed to being devoted to producing in a more efficient manner the same or an improved end product. As can be seen from the foregoing paragraphs, effective strategic conflict detection and resolution programmes require above all else considerable precise data. For example: _ Aircraft position _ Aircraft speed vectors _ Aircraft load _ Aircraft engine type and model _ Aircraft intention (flight plan) _ Precise wind and temperature data. It is to be hoped that advances in electronics will provide easy access to such data by improved surveillance systems, data links, direct access to meteorological data banks, etc.

CONCLUSIONS Th following conclusions have been drawn b~ IFATCA Standing c:mmittee I from the discussion of the subject:

Tactical Conflict Detection and Resolution The automatic alerting ~f. radar ~o~troller~ to immin~nt potent. tlict situations requiring their 1mmed1ate attention and/or 1al con f ·1· h'ch d bt di · resolution action i~ a ac1 1ty w 1 unh ou de y increase~ overall However it m no way affects t e ra ar controllers normal safety. control tasks an d respons1'b'l't" · radar 111es f or separat'ion maintenance. I It is most important that the false ~ ~rm rate of computer d conflict alerts be kept to a mm1mum - both to avoid genera te . , . ecessary distraction of radar controllers attention and the unn that controllers' confidence · ·1s mam · t ame · d ·m t he validity · to ensu re . f the warnings received. 0 . particularly important in this respect to ensure that the It IS b' d d d' conflict search area for ~ircraft ~lim mg an escen mg only d to the level to which the aircraft has actually been clearexten s I . th' . f At present the computer system can on Y acquire 1s m orma~d. . controllers methodically input all changes to cleared. levels. t1on 11 . task significantly increases controller workload, particularly Thissectors responsible mainly for the control of climbing and nd'ing traffic It is highly undesirable for this additional on desce · workload to be imposed on controllers solely to make automated c 0 nflict Alert facilities operationally acceptable. It is furthermore essential for operational controller acceptance that the automated system detects all conflicts - not only b t een correlated flights (normally under control of the ACC c~n:erned) but also between these and uncorrelated flights (not necessarily under control of the ACC concerned). A number of other factors have to be taken into consideration, particularly regarding the display of Conflict Alert information including the requirement for conflict alert warnings to be displayed only to the sector or sectors controlling the aircraft concerned. Automated tactical conflict detection systems do not as yet have as complete information on the current, or short term future, general air traffic situation as the controller himself. The controller is therefore in the best position to determine the most appropriate conflict resolution action to take at any time. It would be both distracting and potentially confusing, in situations in which immediate action is required, if computer-derived conflict resolution advice were also displayed to the controller.

Strategic Conflict Detection and Resolution Simple Flight Plan Data Based Systems The practical value of any simple systems of this type for traffic management is limited - whether or not they use rough and ready profile information calculated from standard aircraft performance data. They are best suited to provide assistance in the strategic planning of cruising level allocation (using time based separation criteria) for same direction or crossing flights. They are of little practical value for detecting potential conflicts during climb to or descend from cruising level.

Complex Systems Using Flight Plan, Radar and Accurate Aircraft Performance Data Complex systems of this nature designed to provide more practical assistance in strategic traffic management by ACC sectors are still very much in the research stage of development at present. Their objective is to calculate conflict-free climb and descent paths which also allow aircraft to fly optimum fuel-saving profiles. To be effective they will depend on the availability of much more (and more accurate) data than can be currently provided on individual aircraft performance (in addition to precise 3 dimensional position information) to enable the very precise calculation and monitoring of aircraft profiles. The provision of assistance of this nature will call for significant changes to ATC control techniques, sector manning and man/machine communication and data display facilities. These changes will require a great deal of experimental and development work and the close involvement of operational controllers will be essential if the proposed new system is to gain the confidence and acceptance of the controllers who will have the job of operating it.

Controller/Computer Communications As automated conflict detection and resolution facilities and other ATS Data Processing system developments evolve so the controller will be obliged to spend an increasing amount of time in dialogue with the computer. It is therefore important that careful consideration be given at the desigrT stage to input and output requirements and to the development of man/machine interface facilities to ensure that the overall workload of the sector control team is not significantly increased. It is also very important to ensure that reliance on the automated assistance provided does not reach the point at which the sector control team can no longer retain an accurate picture of the present, and short term future, traffic situation and "manual mode" operation expertise: (a) to enable advice received from the computer to be validated, and (b) to enable reversion to "manual mode" operations in the event of computer outage or input/output/display facility failures. •

CONCORDE NEAR MISS A Paris-bound Air France Concorde, which took off from Washington (D.C.), was involved in a near-collision with two U.S. Air Force F-15 jets over the Atlantic Ocean, 80 kilometers (50 miles) off New Jersey coast. This incident occurred when a four-fighter formation, heading for Virginia base, deviated one thousand feet below assigned altitude. Concorde, with 16 passengers and crew of nine, came within three meters of one aircraft, 4.5 meters of other. Air Force accepted blame. citing mistake by its radar controllers in failing to give adequate traffic information to the fighter group.


On the ICAO Scene:

Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems Study Group

Fourth Meeting ed and updated Annexes 2 an~ 11. The procedures currently contained in the PANS-RAC which are to be applied by pilots of aircraft intended to be, or being provided with air traffic service are to be included in Annex 2 while the functions to be performed and the procedures to be applied by air traffic services are to be included in Annex 11. The green page material in the Annex 11 and the PANS-RAC will be included in an Air Traffic Services Planning Manual together with new material and the PANS-RAC will cease to exist. The draft Annexes are at present with .states for comment and, allowing for the normal ICAO review process, could become applicable in 1981.

The Fourth Meeting of the Surface Movament Guidance and Control Systems Study Group was held in Montreal from 7 to 11 January 1980. The following members of the Study Group attended: Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr.

R. Bennett A. Cauty P. Kearvell P. Leigh-Lancaster P. Langumier R. Milward M. Perie

United Kingdom IFATCA IATA Australia France AACC United States Mr. P. Leigh-Lancaster attended as a substitute for Mr. R. Soden who was unable to attend. Captain J.M. R. Boot (IFALPA) was unable to attend due to his starting a B747 conversion course. Mr. K. Wilde, Chief - Aerodromes, Air Routes and Ground Aids Section, who is Secretary of the Study Group, served as Rapporteur for the meeting. He was assisted by Mr. A. Solousov, Technical Officer of the Section. Messrs. C. Bryant and A. lvlyushov, Technical Officers, Operations/Airworthiness Section, Mr. R. Vukovic, Technical Officer, Communications Section and Mr. K. Grainger, Technical Officer, Rules of the Air, Air Traffic Services and Search and Rescue Section were also in attendance.

Approval of Agenda and Opening Remarks Before approving the agenda, progress made since the last meeting was summarized as follows: a) ICAO Circular -

this had been produced and distributed to

States; b) Visual Aids - Amendment 34 to Annex 14 incorporating new specifications for apron marking, apron lighting and docking guidance systems had been adopted by the Council. Further, the Visual Aids Panel was now studying visual aids for tttxiing and would discuss this subject at its next meeting in November 1980; c) Aerodrome Charts - a draft to Annex 4 had been developed which expanded the requirement to produce aerodrome charts and introduce two new charts entitled, Aerodrome Ground Movement Chart and the Aircraft Parking/Docking Chart for conditions where sufficient information could not be shown on the aerodrome chart: <I) RTF Terminology - The study group was informed of the pro-

gress made by the RTF Study Group on phraseologies for ·surface movement and control and on the subsequent action in the Air Navigation Commission. The phraseologies proposed by SMGCS Study Group had been adopted without significant change by the RTF group and additional phraseologies for push-back and engine start had been proposed. It was pointed out that as the surface movement and control procedures were developed it was expected that additional specific phraseologies would be required; and e) Revision of the RAC documents - Information was provided on the revision of the RAC documents in the form of expand-

The Secretary briefly reviewed the current status of the Stud Group's work. Followin~ dev~lopment of the Circular attentio~ was shifted to identifying requirements for new SARPs. A number of subjects were listed and development of draft amendments and/or discussion papers were undertaken for the present meeting of the Group. In the meantime, the Air Navigation Commission had begun the planning . of a world-wide meeting for April 1981 and had included t~e. subject of surface movement guidance and control on the prov1s1onal age.nda. It wa·s expected that the new circular and other work of this Study Group would be presented to that meeting. The Study Group had therefore to reorient its work to prepare documentation for that meeting . Th.IS , • would require defining the ma1or issues to be discussed b meeting and developing positions to be put before th ty a Th T e mee mg. e Group should develop spec1 1c actions to be taken b th world-wide meeting. Y e The Group briefly considered how it might integrate its present work with a working paper for the world-wide meet· s· . . mg. mce that meeting would be reviewing the Circular it wa . "d • s cons1 ere d . !hat discussions at the meeting wou.ld be facilitated if the work1~g paper followed the order of subjects in the Circular. Discussions at this meeting of the Study Group would be 1 ·n d accor ance . with the provisional agenda but future papers would b t t . e s rue ured according to the new Circular. The Agenaa approved by the meeting was as follows: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j)

Requirements for non-visual surveillance systems· Use of aerodrome surveillance radar; ' Monitoring devices; Monitoring of SMGCS aids by the control unit; Crash location system for emergency vehicles· Surface movement separation criteria; ' Stop bars and clearance bars; Taxiway routes; Apron control; Avoidance of collision on the ground;

k) Operation of visual guidance and control aids by control unit· I) Special procedures for helicopters; ' ~) Radio communication frequency for an emergency; ) Rules for surface movement; o) Movement area protection; P) ~ovement area inspection by airport authority; and q) uture work programme.

Requirements for Non-Visual Surveillance Systems Development of requirements for a non-visual surveillance system was one of the more important issues before the Study Group. There was general agreement that such surveillance was required for operations in low visibility conditions and also for large complex airports. Use of ground primary radar served to enhance safety of operations under certain conditions but was also vital at high traffic volumes to increase aerodrome capacity. Primary radar was being used at a number of airports but these radars only provided location information and not identification information. Such systems were considered adequate for low or medium volume operations but would not be satisfactory for high den'sity operations when identification information would be necessary. It was also stressed that radar itself was not sufficient and that it needed to be complemented with other aids and procedures to form a total control system. Although the Study Group agreed that it was timely to introduce aerodrome surveillance radar into ICAO documents, there was a considerable diversion of view's as to how this should best be done. Much of this difficulty stemmed from the fact that at present Annex 11 made no mention at all of either路 radar for air traffic control or of aerodrome surface movement control. One suggestion was that Annex 11, paragraph 3.2 be expanded to mention a surface movement control service and that procedures for surface movement control including use of surveillance radar be included elsewhere in Annex 11. Another suggestion was to expand 3.3.1 2) to include 路surface vehicles. It was agreed that the Secretariat should study these suggestions and develop proposals to be considered by the Study Group. A second consideration was the need to develop technical specifications for aerodrome surveillance radar for Annex 10. An alternative was to develop technical specifications and only include them as guidance material in another document. Before technical specification's could be developed a statement of the ooerational requirements was needed. Mr. Bennett agreed to develop material on this for the Group. This would include both requirements for identification and also the issue of only providing surveillance for the runway environment.

Use of Aerodrome Surveillance Radar

Annex 11, Chapter 7, paragraph 7.3.1 On the third line, after "landing" insert '"surface movement" so that the paragraph will read: "ATS units shall be kept currently informed of the operational status of non-visual navigation aids, and those visual aids essential for approved approach, landing, surface movement and departure procedures, within their area of responsibility."

Monitoring of SMCS Aids by the Control Unit Although many aerodromes have electrical monitoring systems, no reference to these or procedures concerning their use had been developed for PANS-RAC. The meeting had before it proposals developed by Messrs. Bennett and Leigh-Lancaster. There was unanimous agreement that new specifications should be included in the PANS-RAC, Part V and Annex 11 as follows: Amend the PANS-RAC by adding: "6.9 Monitoring procedures 6.9.1 Aerodrome controllers shall make use of the electrical monitoring facilities provided to ascertain whether the lighting is in good order and functioning according to selection. 6.9.2 In the absence of an electrical monitoring system or to supplement such a system, the aerodrome controller shall visually appraise such lighting as can be seen from the aerodrome control and use information from other sources 路such as direct visual inspections or reports from aircraft to maintain an awareness of the lighting state. 6.9.3 On receipt of information indicating a lighting fault, the aerodrome controller shall assess the operational significance, take such action as is warranted to safeguard any affected aircraft or vehicles and initiate action to have the fault rectified." Annex 11 should be amended as follows: Amend Attachment F, paragraph 1, first sentence after "essential" to read "to the departure, approach, landing, and surface movement phases of a flight at a given location.". Add the following new sentence after the sentence ending "needed": "In particular, where indicators serve the dual functions of remote indication and control it is essential that these indicators be located at the ATS working position and integrated within the console design of that po'sition."

The meeting had before it a draft text on the use of aerodrome surveillance radar for inclusion in the PANS-RAC, Part X prepared by Mr. Perie. This material was reviewed and agreed, text is at the Attachment. The material was to be further reviewed by the Secretariat and taken into account in its work when developing material for PANS-RAC on aerodrome surveillance radar.

In paragraph 3 add to the following new principle: "Principle II - an aerodrome control tower requires information on the operational status of the visual and non-visual navigation aids used for surface movement on the aerodrome with which it is concerned."

Monitoring Devices

Add the following to the table on Application of Principles: "At locations where an aerodrome control service is provided: H/surface movement/all such existing aids/TWA/without delay/oral and visual fault alarm路s combined, in some cases, with control functions."

The Group reviewed a working paper prepared by Mr. Bennett on the subject of monitoring devices and discussed the reasons for requiring SARPs. It was pointed out that surface movement guidance and control relies chiefly upon lights for safe and expeditious movement in reduced visibility. In these conditions the ATS unit should be aware of any significant failure or irregularity of the aerodrome lighting system, such information should be timely and unambiguous. During discus'sion of this question it was decided that there was a need to make the following changes: Annex 14, add the following after paragraph 8.3.1: "8.3.2 Recommendation. - Where provision is made for taxiway guidance and control by lighting systems, such systems should be monitored electronically and an immediate indication of any fault of such a nature as to prejudice safety or provision of adequate guidance and control provided to the air traffic service unit."

Amend the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4 as follows: Paragraph Mimic Panels Amend to read: These may be required for aerodromes having complex patterns and are designed to meet individual airport requirements. Mimic panels should depict the geographical layout of the airport and, wherever possible, monitors and switches should be located on the mimic panel section's related to the lighting sections which are actually being monitored and/or switched. Normally mimic panels will be located at the surface movement control position, but switches for stop lights governing access to active runway(s) should be presented at the aerodrome control position, either on transfer from the surface movement control position when active runways vary, or permanently when active runways do not change. 37

Since a mimic panel may incorporate both monitor and switching functions, it should be located as close as possible to the responsible operator and be aligned with the airport layout as seen from his position. It is recognised that free console space within reach of a controller is difficult to obtain, but the space needed for a mimic panel can be greatly reduced by the use of design miniaturisation techniques. In order to obtain the greatest value for the not inconsiderable cost of a mimic panel, it is essential that the local aerodrome control authority be consulted at all stages in the design and installation of the lighting switching system and the associated mimic panel(s). Paragraph Monitor System delete all after " ... good working order". insert the contents of paragraph amended a:s follows: "For elementary lighting equipment systems monitoring need only be done in the control tower. On the other hand, at complex airports the number of monitors needed to convey the exact state of airport lighting would exceed the capacity of an operational mimic panel. In such a case the airport lighting design authority should consult with the appropriate air traffic control authority to determine the minimum scale of monitoring which would be essential for the continuous safe, orderly and expeditious control of air and surface traffic in the vi'sibility conditions under which operations could take place. Generally, a control tower would only be given monitors of, and controls for, sections of airport lighting and their related intensities, with circuit and component monitoring being undertaken by a technical maintenance centre (where established) as part of its overall technical monitoring function." -

Add to paragraph " .... This type of monitoring is not recommended for aerodromes where operations in other than visual meterological conditions take place." Paragraph Insert after " ... minimum number of monitors" "consistent with operational requirements." Add new paragraph 8.3.12 8.3.12 Linked stop bars and taxiway lighting Where an aerodrome is equipped with controllable taxiway centre line lights and linked stop bars, these lights shall be switched to indicate a continuously lighted taxiway path to the clearance limit which shall be designated by a stop bar.

Crash Location System for Emergency Vehicles The Group reviewed a discus路sion paper prepared by Mr. Bennett on the subject of crash location systems for emergency vehicles. It was proposed that Annex 14, Recommendation 9.2.6 should be amended to make the response time objective relative to all conditions under which the airport was open to air traffic rather than the "optimum" visibility condition currently specified. Some members pointed out that many airports could not presently meet the response time in the worst conditions envisaged. Provision of navigation equipment for poor conditions would be extremely costly and it was suggested that in view of the reduced operations that would be taking place in these poor conditions some reduction in the response time could be accepted. Others were of the view that the response of emergency vehicles was part of the SMGC system and that since aircraft had special equipment for operating in low visibility conditions so should equipment on the airport. Although it was suggested that the Study Group should only identify the problem and leave ii to the world-wide meeting to decide the level of security which it wished to provide during low visibility operations, it was finally decided to propose the following additional Recommended Practice for Annex 14 on the subject of response time: "9.2.6.A Recommendation. - When air traffic operations are planned to take place in few vi'sibility conditions, provision should


be made for the navigation of rescue and fire fighting vehicles so as to enable them to achieve the response time specified in 9.2.6 as nearly as possible."

surface Movement Separation Criteria It had been previously agreed that there was a requirement for new separation criteria, both for aircraft and ground vehicles, for operations when visibility conditions were insufficient for pilots or 路surface vehicle operator~ .t~ . avoid collision by visual reference. (This corresponded to v1s1b1hty condition 3 and 4.) The meeting reviewed a discussion paper prepared by Mr. Bennett on the subject and agreed that new specifications should be included in PANS-RAC, Part V. The following paragraph 8.4 presents the concept of the .new specifi~ations that were required although it was recognized that this material might, after study, be incorporated in another. place in the PANS-RAC. Particular attention was given to the figure for the minimum longitudinal separation for operation路s on a taxiway. This figure, it was agreed, should be the minimum to e_nsure the safety of following aircraft from blast effects. In practice ATS would be required to add additional margins to account for local characteristics of surveillance and control aids, etc. As an interim action the figure of 100 m proposed by Mr. Bennett was accepted but it was recognized that this figure would require study before presentation to a world-wide meeting. The criteria for separation at a taxiway intersection was also considered to be incomplete but it was noted that the Visual Aids Panel was undertaking further work on taxiway intersection markings. The following draft amendment to PANS-RAC, Part v, Aerodrome Control Service was agreed: Add a new paragraph 16 entitled "Separation of Aircraft and of Aircraft and Vehicles in the Provision of Aerodrome Control Service". "16.1 When there is a requirement for traffic to move on the manoeuvring area in visibilities which require Aerodrome Control to apply separation between aircraft, and between aircraft and vehicles, the minimum separation shall be as follows: 16.1.1 At the intersection of a taxiway with a runway, conformation with the taxi-holding position marking specified in Annex 14, 5.2.10. 16.1.2 At the intersection of taxiway's, conformation with a clearance bar marking the holding limit defined according to the specifications in Annex 14, 5.3.21. 16.1.3 Longitudinally on a taxiway, as specified for an aerodrome by the appropriate ATS authority. This separation should take into account the characteristics of the aids available for surveillance and control of ground traffic but shall not result in a separation less than 100 m. Note. - Movement of aircraft in these low visibility conditions postulates facility provision appropriate to the operation. ICAO Circular 148-AN/97 provides guidance on surface movement guidance and control components and procedures suited to various levels of visibility, traffic demand and aerodrome complexity."

Stop Bars and Clearance Bars The meeting reviewed the specifications in Annex 14 for stop bars and clearance bars. For both aids it was considered that the specification路s for the locations of the bars needed to be more specific so as to ensure that aircraft holding at the bar would be clear of other traffic. Account would need to be taken of aircraft holding at different types of runways, at taxiway intersections of various angles and along taxiway sections. Concern was also expressed of the need for aircraft holding at a stop or clearance bar to be clear of aircraft that may pass behind them. Thi's issue was not treated in Annex 14 as it was normally left to airport designers to develop safe taxiway configurations. Nevertheless, it was a subject which was worth further consideration.

The Group noted that both the Visual Aids Panel and the Taxiway Characteristics Study Group were involved in studies related to these specifications and it could be expected that amendments covering the above issues would be developed in the near future.

Taxiway Routes The material on taxiway routes was presented by Mr. Milward. The Group reviewed this material and agreed with the principle that standard routes should be arranged between runways and aprons and that details of such routes should be published and shown on taxiway charts. It was recognized that a new section of the PANS-RAC Part V might be required. The Group agreed that the Secretariat should tran¡s1ate the material in the Circular, paragraph 4.1 to the PANS-RAC or Annex 11 as appropriate. Amendment of AIS documents might also be required.

Apron Control The definitions in the Annexes and in the PANS-RAC excluded the apron as an area in which an "air traffic control service" was applicable, although at many aerodromes the ATS unit had a prominent function on the apron. In general it was considered preferable to stay with this convention and omit reference to ATS from any definition of apron control. The material on the apron control was pres~nted by Mr. Cauty. The Group reviewed it and recognized that as a place set aside for the loading, unloading and servicing of aircraft the apron neecfs to accommodate the movement of aircraft, vehicles and pedestrians in close proximity. It was noted that at busy airports a control service was necessary to the safe and efficient functioning of the apron. The need for apron control should be recognized by ICAO as a necessary and usual feature of aerodrome operations and specified in ICAO documents. The Group agreed that the apron control service should be defined and the requirement for apron control included in Annex 14. A Note should also be added indicating that the apron control service may be carried out by an ATS unit, an autonomous unit or a combination of both. The meeting agreed with the following: a) to define apron control as follows: Apron Control Service. A service provided for the control of aircraft, vehicles and activities on the apron.; b) to add to Annex 14, Chapter 9: 9.6 Apron Control "Note. - Apron control services may be provided by an autonomous unit (such as the aerodrome authority or an operating company), by the aerodrome air traffic service unit or by both working together. Guidance on an apron control service is given in (to be developed).

9.6.1 An apron control service shall be provided on an apron to: 1) regulate movement with the objective of preventing collisions

between aircraft and between aircraft and obstacles; 2) regulate entry of aircraft into, and co-ordinate exit of aircraft from, the apron with the aerodrome control unit; 3) ensure safe and expeditious movement of surface vehic!es and appropriate regulation of other activities.

9.6.2 Recommendation. - When the aerodrome control unit does not form part of the apron control service procedures should be established to facilitate the orderly transition of aircraft between the apron control and the aerodrome control. As apron control would be a new conception in ICAO documents (and at some aerodromes), guidance material would be required to expand on what the group intended from this service and assist States in implementing the service. Mr. Milward agreed to develop draft guidance material as he could obtain the experience of several aerodromes by working through AACC.

The material would cover such issues as: 1) the extent of control required for different conditions; 2) means for providing control; and 3) division of responsibility between different parties.

Avoidance of Collision on the Ground A paper presented by Mr. Cauty proposed the formation of a new section in Annex 2 under paragraph 3.2, concerning avoidance of collisions, to cover aerodrome surface operations. This subject divided itself into the control of aircraft and the control of other vehicles on the ground. It was accepted that the material related to control of aircraft should be in Annex 2 but possibly not under paragraph 3.2. The essence of the new procedures were agreed as followed, but the Secretary was asked to study the title and location in the Annex. "Aerodrome surface operations

1. Where the aerodrome has an ATS unit, an aircraft shall not taxi on the manoeuvring area without the permission of that unit and shall comply with any instructions or signals given by that unit. 2. Aircraft shall give way to aircraft which are taking off or landing. 3. Subject to the provisions in 1 and 2, in the case of imminent collision between two aircraft: a) when two aircraft are approaching head on, or approximately so, each shall stop or where practicable alter its course to the right so as to keep well clear; b) when two aircraft are on converging course, the one which has the other on its right shall give way; c) an aircraft which is being overtaken by another aircraft shall have he right-of-way and the overtaking aircraft shall keep well clear of the way of the other aircraft." Mr. Leigh-Lancaster had prepared new specifications for the operation of ground vehicles. It was specifically agreed that for the operation of ground vehicles "clearances" should not be issued as this would result in confusion with clearances as issued to aircraft. The term "authorization" was selected. It was agreed that the following specifications should be used as the basis for a new section in Annex 11: "Vehlcle operations

1. Vehicles shall give way or vacate the portion of the manoeuvring area to be used by a taxiing aircraft or a vehicle towing an aircraft or the portion of the manoeuvring area to be flown over by an air taxiing helicopter. 2. Vehicles towing an aircraft shall give way to taxiing aircraft or an air taxiing helicopter. 3. Vehicles and vehicles towing aircraft shall give way to aircraft which are landing or taking off. 4. Vehicles shall give way to other vehicles as provided by the appropriate airport authority. 5. Notwithstanding the provisions of 1, 2 and 4, vehicles and vehicles towing aircraft when operating on a manoeuvring area shall comply with instructions issued by the appropriate air traffic control unit." "Air traffic control authorization

1. At controlled aerodromes. entry of vehicles or persons to the manoeuvring area shall be subject to authorization by or arrangement with the appropriate air traffic control unit. 2. Notwithstanding the initial authorization by the air traffic control unit for a vehicle or person to enter the manoeuvring area, entry to a runway or runway strip, or change or addition to the scope of the operation authorized shall be subject to a further authorization by the air traffic control unit." "Light signals to ground vehicles

1. Upon observing or receiving any of the signals given in Appendix X. vehicles or persons shall take such action as may


be required by the interpretation of the signal given in that Appendix. 2. The signals of Appendix X shall when used have the meaning indicated therein. They shall be used only for the purpose indicated and no other signals likely to be confused with them shall be used." APPENDIX X Ught signal Steady green Steady red Green flashes Red flashes White flashes Flashing runway or taxiway lights

Meaning Permission to cross landing area or move onto taxiway Stop Increase speed in same direction Move off the landing area or taxiway and watch out for aircraft Vacate manoeuvring area in accordance with local instructions Vacate the runway or taxiway and observe the tower for light signals

The meeting discus·sed the need to develop specifications for the lights to be displayed by ground vehicles. It was agreed that except for the obstacle lights to be displayed on vehicles as currently specified in Annex 14, paragraph 6.1.5 and 6.3.8, any other lights would be in accordance with local aerodrome instructions and need not be covered by an Annex specification. A proposal to develop a more specific specification on the colours of lights to be displayed by different vehicles was considered unlikely to gain international acceptance and as the subject was only a minor aspect of surface movement guidance and control it was agreed not to pursue it further. The meeting did note that Annex 14, paragraph 6.1.5 only required lights to be displayed on vehicles when u·sed during night. It was agreed that this paragraph should also specify lights for use in low visibility conditions and that the Annex should so be amended. In Annex 14, paragraph 6.1.5 after "use at night" insert "or low visibility".

Operation of Visual Guidance and Control Aids by Control Units The increasing ability of aircraft to operate in low visibility conditions and the urgency attached by the Eighth Air Navigation Conference to the need for attention to taxiing guidance and control ·systems should encourage aerodrome authorities to consider the installation of advanced lighting systems. As written, both Annex 14 and PANS-RAC seem to recognize only individually switched stop bars, not directly connected with controllable taxiway centre line lighting systems. The material on the operation of visual guidance and control aids by control unit was presented by Mr. Cauty. The Group reviewed this material and noted that neither Annex 14 nor PANSRAC were worded to indicate that stop bars and controllable taxiway centre line lights might be operated as a linked system as well as individually. It was agreed to amend these documents as follows:

Special procedures for helicopters associated with SMGC were presented by Mr. Cauty and discussed at length. It was recognized by the Group that ICAO documentation, in so far as it was concerned with rules of the air and air traffic services, did not distin~uish between a helicopter and a fixed wing aircraft. Furthermore, it was pointed out that this had led to a number of anomalies in the field of ATS operations, two of which warranted consideration by the SMGCS Study Group for possible SARP action. 1) There is a need to define "air taxiing" for helicopters. in order to distinguish between approach or take-off and taxiing. 2) Helicopter's frequently approach and land on, or take-off from the apron. An apron, by definition, is excluded from the man~euvring area and it was not appropriate to the landing and take-off of aircraft. It was stressed that ICAO regulations did not include the concept of helicopters taking off or landing on the apron. In the light of the above and taking the necessity fo r . into consideration . the safety of operations it was recognized that discussion of taking off and landing on the apron should be excluded. The Group agreed with the following definition of the term "air taxiing" for a helicopter:. . . "Air-taxiing: Operating w1~hm ~ he1g~t band associated with ground effect and at speeds associated with taxiing." There was general agree~ent that the above-mentioned definition should be included m Ann~~ 2. and with the guidance material on heliports. A further spec1f1cat1on would be required . Annex 2 to clarify that the rules of the air did not apply to a he:~ copter that was air-taxii~g, but. the Group did not have time to discuss the specification m detail.

Radio communication Frequency for an Emergency need for a d' The Group had previously noted a possible . . 1screet radiotelephony frequency for communication between emergency vehicle's and an aircraft at th~ scene of an accident. Although it was recognized that such direct communications could b value at some aerodromes, the difficulties of communic;ino~ between pilots and operators of emergency vehicles h . ·b't d · t · aving different languages pro h1 1 e any '" ernationat procedures of th· kind. Without prohibiting such special procedures to be develo~~ ed, the Group agreed that the general international proced ure Sh ould be for the pilot to communicate with any em ergency vehicle through the aerodrome control unit.

Rules for surface Movement New rules for surface movement were pre·sented by Mr. Cauty and Mr. Leigh-Lancaster. These focused on procedur f · I d · es or the control of ground veh1c es an involved Annexes 1, 2, 11 and 14 and PANS-RAC. The proposal for Annex 1 was to requ· h ire t e h. I licensing of aerodrome ve . 1c e operators. The Chief of th P _ sonnel and Training Se~tlon explained to the Group ~ t:~t according to the Convention, Annex 1 only required 1. . 1censes for persons directly concerned with the operating of aircraft It . · t t0 . was therefore inappropna e . propose expansion of Annex 1 to incluae aerodrome vehicle operators. There was h . ·ty· , owever, nothing wrong with spec1 mg that the control of vehicles th aerodrome be regulated and their operators tra'ined 8 . on h.e 'b' · · mce t 1s was the general respons1 1hty of the airport, these specifications were appropriate for Annex 14.. It. was also considered appropriate and useful to develop a training manual for ground vehicle operators.

a) Annex 14, To the Note, after "air traffic services" add "Stop bars may be operated separately, or in conjunction with taxiway centre line lights as part of a taxiing guidance and control system." b) PANS-RAC, Part V - Aerodrome Control Service. Insert a new 6.7A section as follows: - "Taxiing guidance and control lighting system". 6.7.1 "Where an aerodrome is equipped with controllable taxiway centre line lights and stop bars, they shall be switched to indicate a continuously lighted taxiway path to the clearance limit which shall be defined by a stop bar."

Amendment of Annex 11:

The Group noted that the Visual Aids Panel was currently studying this subject and that further proposals for amendment of Annex 14 with res~ect to controllable taxiway centre line lighting might be expected.

Upgrade t~ a Stand.ard and add the following Note: Note. - When 1t 1s essential for vehicles without radio equipment to operate on the manoeuvring area this requirement shall be considered to be satisfied by the provision of a radio equipped

40 L..

Special Procedures for Helicopters

The meeting agreed to the following proposed amendments:

escort vehicle provided that the driver in charge of the escort vehicle has been briefed on the procedures to be followed. It may also be satisfied by operation within the conditions of a prearrar.ged plan established with the aerodrome control unit." Amend Section 3.8 as follows: "3.8.2 When low visibility procedures are in effect, persons and vehicles operating on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome shall be restricted to the essential minimum. 3.8.3 During the period of application of low vfsibility procedures, the prescribed separation between taxiing aircraft shall be applied between vehicles and taxiing aircraft. 3.8.4 Emergency vehicles proceeding to the assistance of an aircraft in distress shall be afforded priority over all other surface movement traffic." Amend paragraph to read: "and between the aerodrome control tower and vehicles operating on the manoeuvring area."

Amendment of PANS-RAC: Amend Part V, paragraph 11.1 to read: "The movement of pedestrians or vehicles on the manoeuvring area shall be subject to permission by the aerodrome control tower. Persons, including drivers of all vehicles, shall be required to obtain authorization from the aerodrome control tower before entry to the manoeuvring area. Notwithstanding an initial authorization by the air traffic control unit for a vehicle or person to enter the manoeuvring area, entry to a runway or runway strip, or change or addition to the scope of the operation authorized shall be subject to a further authorization by the air traffic control unit." Add after except "when the vehicle is only occasionally used on the manoeuvring area and is i) accompanied by a vehicle with the required communications capability or ii) employed in accordance with the pre-arranged plan establi'shed with the aerodrome control tower, subject to traffic being light and communication by a system of visual signals being deemed to be adequate." Add new paragraph 11.4: "11.4 When low visibility operations will be conducted the aerodrome control tower shall maintain a current record of vehicles and personnel cleared on to the manoeuvring area to assist the tower in assuring that the manoeuvring area is safe for operations."

Amendment of Annex 14: Add the following new sub-section to Chapter 8: "8.7 Aerodrome Vehicle Operations Note. - Guidance on aerodrome vehicle operations is contained in Attachment B, Section X. 8.7.1 A ground vehicle shall only be operated on a movement area as authorized by the competent authority and, where applicable, by the aerodrome control unit. 8.7.2 The driver of a ground vehicle on the movement area shall have training appropriate to the task to be performed." Add the following section to Attachment B: "Operators of Ground Vehicles The authorities responsible for the operation of ground vehicles on the movement area should ensure that the operators are properly qualified. This will include knowledge of: a) the geography of the aerodrome; b) aerodrome signs, markings and lights; c) radiotelephone operating procedures; d) terms and phrases used in aerodrome control including the ICAO spelling alphabet; e) rules of air traffic services as they relate to ground operations; f) airport rules and procedures; and g) specialist functions as required, for example, in rescue and fire fighting.

The operator should be able to demonstrate competency in: a) the operation or use of vehicle transmit/receive equipment; b) understanding and complying with air traffic control and local control procedures; c) vehicle navigation on the aerodrome; and d) special skills required for the particular function. In addition, the operator should be the holder of a State driver's licence, a State radio operator's licence and other licences as required for any specialist function."

Movement Area Protection The material on the Movement Area Protection was presented by Mr. Langumier. The Meeting briefly reviewed measures for the prevention of any kind of obstructions on the movement area. It was agreed that no further actions of the Group would be necessary for the Movement Area Protection.

Movement Area Inspection by Airport Authority The Meeting reviewed the material on movement area inspection by Airport Authority which was presented by Mr. Langumier. It was recognized that it was the responsibility of the aerodrome control unit to communicate information on the operational state of the moV'ement area and the equipment of the airfield (visual or non-visual aids). It was pointed out that it was therefore necessary that regular inspections of the movement area be conducted by the Airport Authority and the results of these transmitted to the aerodrome control unit without delay. The Group stressed that the frequency of these inspections would vary according to the complexity of the layout of the aerodrome and to the visibility conditions. It was agreed that the requirement for inspection of the movement area should be clearly stated in Annex 14 and the following amendment was proposed: 2.8.3 Recommendation. - To facilitate compliance with 2.8.1 and 2.8.2, inspections of the movement area should be carried out at least once each day and at least twice each day at aerodromes with runways of code letter A and B. Note. - Guidance on carrying out daily inspections specifically in connection with the provision and maintenance of surface movement guidance and control service and systems is given in Circular 148-AN/97. The Meeting also noted that a requirement to report on the operational status of signs was missing from 2.8.2 g). It was agreed that this could be corrected by amending the paragraph to read "failure or irregular operation of part or all of the aerodrome visual aids." At the end of the meeting the future work programme was â&#x20AC;˘ agreed upon.

HIGH WINDS CAUSED NZ DC-10 CRASH Crash of Air New Zealand DC-10 on sightseeing trip over the Antarctic, in which all 257 people aboard perished, attributed by safety experts to violent turbulence which crew could not control. (Plane is said to have descended to 900 meters (3,000 feet) to allow pa¡ssengers a closer view.) Similar incident occurred in 1966 when 707, torn apart in midair by violent winds, crashed into Mount Fuji near Tokyo. U.S. Antarctic experts had met in Washington (D.C.) in mid-October to discuss increase of Antarctic sightseeing flights and were reported to have expressed serious concerns that lack of adequate facilities could lead to disaster in the hazardous environment. Compasses were reported to be useless in the area. One expert said aircraft had to rely on control tower direction to get around mountains which rise close to 4,000 meters (13,000 feet). Flight was last of season, according to Air New Zealand, with none scheduled for next year. Carrier has flown 14 such flights in last three years. 41


News from the Federation

Carlos Olmos Mendoza, Regional Vice-President for NAM Region, centre, acting as chairman; to his left, IFATCA's President H. H. Henschler at the 2nd Regional Meeting in January 1980, Mexico.

Regional Meeting: North and Central America The North and Central America Regional Meeting that was held in Mexico late in January was rightly described as a miniIFATCA Conference. W.ore than 40 controllers and representatives of other international organisations participated, the success of which reflects the efforts and hard work of the Regional Councillor, Carlos Olmos Mendoza, who chaired the Meeting. Though a North and Central American affair, South American controllers were also invited to attend . The Meeting dealt generally with regional problems of immediate importance particularly in the professional and technical f ields such as training , communications, navaids, etc. Following the discussion the meeting resolved on the parti c ular problems. Regarding the training of controllers in the area, the Meeting called upon all governments in the area as well as the !CAO Regional Office to find the necessary means for the promotion of basic and specialised fields of training . Lack of navigation aids, outside Venezuela, in most parts of Central and South Ame rican Regions make air navigation unsafe and deprives the controlle r from his righ ts to exerci se proper control of all flights. In addition, inefficient maintenance of any existing navigation aids aggravates the situation even further. The confusion that was created from the recent worldwide introdu ction by ICAO of the 5-letter intersection identifiers was one of the many technical problems that was sent for study to the new ly formed Regional T echnical Committee. This Committee is made up of the following members: A . D. Tilroe, Canada; Bernal Mesen Brenes, Costa Rica ; Frederico Bermudez, Mexico; Julio Cesar Oyuela, Honduras ; and Cesar Caracas, Nicaragua. The standardisation of the Spanish RTF phraseology is another ite m on the agenda of the newly-formed committee. The Meeting dealt with such professional matters as medical standards for the controller, his legal liabilities, his work environment and the ILO Meeting of Experts Conclusions on problems concern in g the air t raffic controller. On this latter item. the Meeting agreed to study the whole list of recommendat:ons by the ILO and based upon t hese pursue suitable working conditions for t he c ontrollers in the Regions. The Meeting finally recommended that all Associations in the Region should promote the production of an information document containing all local conditions and distribute such information to all other Associations in t he Region .


(Note: The North and Central American Region has, since the last Conference of IFATCA, increased its membership considerably after PATCO, Nicaragua, Honduras and Guyana have been electei:! as new members of IFATCA.) •

Common European Air Traffic Control? Followi ng the direct elections, the European Parliament ha·s adopted a resolution tabled by Mr. Berkhouwer on behalf of the Liberal and Democratic Group on "the Development of a Coordinated European Air Traffi c Control System". This motion for a resolution has been referred to the recently set up Committee on Transport for further analysis in view of bringing out a report on this subject. The motion as tabled by Mr. Berkhouwer reads as follows: The European Parliament having regard to the preliminary work done by its former committee· on Regional Policy, Regional Planning and Transport, whereas in the United States all air traffic control is dealt with through one centre; whereas in Europe, on the other hand, only a quarter as much air space is available as in the United States in spite of the fact that there are four times as much air traffic and this is still increa's ing; convinced, therefore, that air traffic control on a national basis is a dangerous anachronism; 1. Calls on the Commission and the Council immediately to present proposals and take decisions on the development of an efficient and co-ordinated European Air Traffic Control System ; 2. Expects accordingly, that as a first step the Eurocontrol Air Traffic Control Centres in Karlsruhe and Mastricht will be retained as a model and further developed; 3. Instructs its president to forward this resolution to the Council and Commission." The Director-General for Committees and lnterparliamentary Delegations, M. J-P Parmentier, informed IFATCA that the Rapporteur, Mr. Hoffmann , intend·s to organise in the framework of the preparation of the report a number of meetings with the experts, starting with social conditions of air crew and ground ~.


News from Corporate Members Hollandse Signaalapparaten HOLLANDSE SIGNAAL WINS ORDER FOR UK RADAR NETWORK The UK Civi l Aviation Authority has awarded a multi million pounds sterling contract to Ho ll andse Signaalapparaten B.V. of the Netherlands, fo r the supply of 10 radars for the new nationwide Air Traffic Control network. Signaa l was selected after a five year preparatory study by the CAA foll owed by a stringent technical evaluation of the various proposals lasting 12 months. The procure ment attracted some of the foremost radar manufacturers in the wo rld and the resulting competition has been one of the m ost hard fought and so metimes bitterest in the field for many a year. Signaal's offe r was chosen because it was cost-effective and compliant. The requirements were both exacting and unprecedented in terms of perfo rman ce, reliability and delivery. Signaal will be responsible not only for its own delivery, but also fo r the programme management, co-o rdinating the activities of the various subsystem suppliers. Restructured Air Traffic Control Facilities The UK National Ai r Traffic Services (NATS), a combined civil and m i litary organisation , has over a period of years been forced into rapid expansion by the increasing air traffic load. Rati onali sation has become a pressing need. Renewal and enlarging of the radar network is the first step in a programme that will span many years. This essential and critical first step allowed almost no technical comp romise. The resultant formidable requ irements had to includ e: extended reliability and integrity, consistent with unattended operation, totally independent duplication w ith fail-soft provisions, capacity for diverse applications, totally integrated remote monitoring facilities, using clutte r adapt ive fil te ring techniques. T he radar and sig nal processing equipment for the 6 install ations planned wi ll be comp leted within three years from the date of contract. Hollandse Sig naal has in addition committed to provide offset contracts to MEL of C rawley to the value of 50 O/o of the value of the contract. This will en sure a technological base in England and in country logistics support.

Jeppesen AVST AR - the new electronic flight computer Appreciated by studen ts , private and professiona l pilots. A small, handy inst rument which slips into shi rt pockets. Price: OM 185,AVSTAR is pre-programmed for navigation functions: Altitude/ Speed, W in d, Tim e/ Speed/Distance, Fuel as well as Fuel per Hours. Computes hours and minutes. Multipart problems, weight and balance , rates of climb, point of descent - no problem. Conversio ns, including metri c, are preprogrammed. It automatica lly compensates for temperature and compressibility. Memory and recall. Error-display. Modern computer technique : LCD-d isplay, automatic shut-down , operating more than 1000 hours on two wristwatch type energy cells. Arithmetic capabi lity for day-to-day non-aviation utility.

AVSTAR is approved for FAA-examination. For further details contact Jeppesen & Co. GmbH in Frankfurt, F.R. German y, or your next Jeppesen dea ler. In the UK and Ireland contact our Distributor C.S.E. (Aircraft Services) Ltd. at Oxford Airpo rt Kid lington, Oxford OX5 1 RA ; Tel : (08675) 4321 ext. 233.

Additional Information on AVST AR Capabilities Automatic Shutdown Error Indication Arithmetic Operations: add, subtract, multiply, d ivide. W.emory Conversions: Hours - Minutes - Seconds into decimal vice versa Fahren hei t to Celsius ; Celsi us to Fahrenheit Statute Miles to Nautical Miles; Nautical Miles to Statute Miles Pounds to Kilograms ; Kilog rams to Pounds Feet to Meters ; Meters to Feet Nautical Miles to K il ometers or Knots to Kilometers per Hour : Kilometers to Nautical Miles or Kilometers per Hour to Knots Gallons to Liters ; Liters to Gallons True airspeed : With Indicated T emperature With True Temperature Density Altitude Standard Temperature Altitude, maximum 50 OOO' Speed. maxim um Mach 1 Heading and g round speed Wind direction and wi nd speed Tim e Distance



Speed Fuel per Hour Fuel Altitude/Airspeed mode: Solving True Air Speed Solving Density Altitude Computing Standard Temperature Wind mode: Solving Groundspeed and Heading Solving Wind Direction and Speed Solving Wind Correction Angle Time-speed-d istance mode: Adding and Subtracting Time Solving Time, Speed and Distance Solving Fuel Consumption

Siemens at the ILA 80 At this year's International Airshow held at the Hanover airport from April 24th to May 1st, Siemens exhibited a number of innovations in t he f ield of defence electronics. On display were the new communication system 1020 for small and medium s ized air .t raffic c.ontrol stations. Equipments and systems for airfield lighting completed Siemens' range of exh ibits at the show. A system developed by Siemens specifically for detecting lowflying aircraft and optimizing the control and coord ination of defence facilities is the SILLACS mobile surveillance system (Siemens Low Level Air Defense Co ntrol System). It consists of up to eight pulse doppler radar sets with a range of up to 90 kilometers and extremely high clutter attenuation and of a central station (which can be located at any distance from the sensors) for displaying the overall aircraft situation with Identification

Multi-part problems Weight and balance Rates of climb Point of descent AVSTAR is the only computer that has complete freedom to use any previously computed answers, as inputs into new problems without re-entry of values. Protection is complete erasure of entries when new Nav Mode is pressed, but display remains for next use. All other compute rs require considerable additional steps which will induce errors.

New Aircraft Chronograph THOMMEN The Instru ment Division of REVUE TH OMMEN AG , Waldenburg, Switzerland, at present produces the mo-;t extensive programme of miniature Aircraft Clocks and Aircraft Chronographs. The last members of the series are so-called 2-function ve rsio ns of elapsed time c locks. They differ from the chronographs with t he MIL-designation A-13 A and ABU-11 /A by a unique function of the elapsed ti me knob . Instead of the fixed 3-function sequence of start, sto p and fly-back to zero etc . of the standard chronographs, a push of t he elapsed t ime knob of the new types wi ll cause the co unter to start, a second push will stop it as usual ; a th ird push , however, wi ll start the counter again etc. Only by a sli ght clockwise rotation of the appropriately shaped elapse.d tim e knob , wil l the counter fly back to zero. This operation 1s even poss ibl e while the counter is running, it will restart immediately . Th is c lock is avai lable with elapsed time ranges of 12 and 60 minutes and 12 hours, as well as with different dial finishes and integral lighting.

* 44

Central st ation fo r displayi ng the overall air t raffic p icture in a SILLACS system .

Friend or Foe (plots/tracks) . Th is central station also p rovides fo r selectable, mi ssion-related di splay of t he ai rcraft situation with continuous f light data computation and for c omputer-assisted control of defence fac ili ties. A communication facility switches the speech and data links between t he central station, the sensors and the defence fac iliti es and to subordinate se rvices. A maintenan ce facilitiy perm its immediate and rapid on-site repair, ens uring a very high degree of ava ilabi lity fo r equipment in continuous operation. SILLACS has already been o rdered by a number of countries. The f irst syste ms will be delivered later this year. The co nstant requirement placed on radar anten nas fo r small dimensions, particular ly for low installation height, is best met by the pillbox antenna design. The antenna itself can be mounted on very small vehicles and has a si lh ouette that varies little on

rotation, ensuring that it can operate inconspicuously. The double pillbox version chosen by Siemens is particularly advantageous in avoiding blocking of the aperture by the primary radiator, thus permitting a very high degree of side-lobe attenuation. Integration of the IFF antenna is provided for. The safety and punctuality of air traffic depend to a large extent on the smooth operation of the air traffic control stations. Siemens supplies modular communication equipment for airport control (TWR), approach and departure control (APP) and area control (ACC). At the Airshow Siemens exhibited Communication System 1020, an integrated radiotelephone system for small and medium-sized control stations. System 1020 provides capacity for 10 control workstations optionally equipped with up to 20 local-battery telephone lines, 3 dial lines (PTT or PABX) with internal service channels for ground-to-ground traffic as well as up to 15 radiotelephone channels for ground-to-air traffic. Provision is also made for connecting necessary additional equipment such as clocks. meteorological and intercom systems as well as crash alarm lines and tape recorders for speech logging. The 1020 Communication System is designed for the connection of 15 local-battery and 2 dial telephone lines as well as 4 radiotelephone channels. On show with the central station equipment were two TWA control desks designed for operator convenience.

VHF-UHF Radio Equipment Family The electronics company Rohde & Schwarz. Munich. proposes a new widespread line of radio equipment, designated type series 400, for ground-air and ground-ground communications in the frequency ranges of 100 to 162 MHz (VHF) and 225 to 400 MHz (UHF). Great flexibility permits easy combination of assemblies and systems, the modular and compact design permitting easy adaptation to the different technical and operational requirements of airtraffic control. VHF, UHF as well as combined VHFUHF transmit receive systems can be set up with single-channel or multi-channel units for fixed or mobile (land or sea) use. The receiver units of the new VHF-UHF radio equipment family are suitable for use in VHF-UHF Doppler direction finders of the new generation (PA 007 008 009 family): OF systems thus equipped feature high accuracy together with high-quality reception of the airborne-transmitter information through the communications channel. In addition to the VHF-UHF radio equipment, three types of control unit - to suit different applications - are available for frequency and channel selection (25-kHz spacing), start of internal test. etc. in remote operation.

New Corporate Members of IFATCA Dictaphone Corporation Dictaphone Corporation is a subsidiary of Pitney Bowes Inc., the well-known manufacturer of mailing systems and copiers. Dictaphone originated the dictating machine business early in the century, and closed out the 1970's by greatly improving its position as the leading marketer of dictating products and systems in the office equipment market. Dictaphone's subsidiaries include Dictaphone Company, Limited. in the United Kingdom; Dictaphone Canada, Ltd., Dictaphone International AG, in Switzerland; Data Documents Inc., of the U.S.A .. manufacturer of data processing forms and supplies, and Grayarc Company, Inc .. a mail order supplier of business forms and a variety of office supplies. also based in the U.S.A. Since Pitney Bowes¡ acquisition of Artec International, of Palo Alto. Calif .. in January. 1980. Dictaphone has been the marketer of the text processors manufactured by Artec for Word Processing applications. Dictaphone also manufactures and markets word management computers. communications loggers. and telephone answering systems. Dictaphone is proud to be a part of the International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers Associations. for which its communications loggers are particularly well-suited. Dictaphone is happy to provide assistance and advice wherever and whenever possible in the crucial area of air traffic communications. International headquarters for Dictaphone Corporation is at 120 Old Post Road. Rye, New York, U.S.A. Mr. Gordon F. Moore is Director of Marketing, Special Markets Division. which serves the needs of Air Traffic Controllers.

Baltimore, Maryland is the principal Westinghouse manufacturing facility for Air Traffic Control Systems. Westinghouse as a system contractor provides complete electronic suites of ATC equipments. This includes communications. landing aids, navigation aids. radars. data processing. displays and airport lighting. Complete logistic support is also provided for all systems. Only proven ATC equipments are used. As a subsystem supplier. Westinghouse provides the latest state-of-the-art equipments including but not limited to: ARSR-3 ASR-30


An unmanned. ultra reliable 200-240 nm range LBand enroute radar. A medium range. 120 nm ASA. 200 nm SSA. L-Band radar with all the features of the ARSR-3. The ASR-30 is designed for new ATC Systems or those just adopting automation. A variable range dual frequency pulse compression L-Band ASA. It provides switch selectable 80. 120 or 160 nm range and variable RPM

All of the above are complete modern systems currently in production. Digitizers are built-in as an integral part of the equipment. Other products include. ATCBl-30 A solid state ultra reliable (9 month MTBF) Beacon SSA. Terminal Communication Control System. A proTCCS grammable computer controlled digital switch using time division multiplex and pulse coded modulation techniques. It is optimized for medium and high density airports. For further information. please contact Westinghouse IFATCA representative.

Westinghouse ATC Systems Westinghouse is an international corporation with over 160.000 employees. It is a U.S. based corporation but has 89 manufacturing plants and service centres located in 20 other countries.

Marketing Director A TC Systems Box 1897 MS-853 Baltimore. Maryland 21203 USA Telex 87-828 Telephone 301-765-3439 45

Universal News Members of IA TA since the Reorganization of 1 October 1979 wo-level structure separating its Since 1 October IA~A has a. t with its members being free tariff from its commercial functions.. t' n Conferences. Seventy. . · th Tariff Coordina 10 not to part1c1pate in e t ·n commercial activities six members have elected to take par I only.

IATA Active Members (86) Aer Lingus Aerlinte Eireann Aerocondor Aerolineas Argentinas Aeromexico Air Afrique Air Algeria Air Canada Air France Air Guinee Air India Air Malawi Air Mali Air Malta Air New Zealand Air Niugini Air Tanzania Air Zaire ALIA - The Royal Jordanian Airline Alitalia American Airlines· Ariana Afghan Airlines Austrian Airlines Avianca Braniff International* British Airways British Caledonian Airways British West Indian Airways· Cameroon Airlines Ceskoslovenske Aerolinie CP Air • Cruzeiro do Sul S.A.-Servicos Aereos Cubana Cyprus Airways . DET A _ Linh as Aereas de Mocambique Eastern Airlines· Ecuatoriana Egyptair El Al Israel Airlines Ethiopian Airlines Finnair Oy The Flying Tiger Line .. Garuda Indonesian Airways Ghana Airways Iberia Iceland air Indian Airlines Iran Air Iraqi Airways Japan Air Lines JAT - Jugoslovensk1 Aerotransport Kenya Airways KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Kuwait Airways Corporation Ladeco 46

Lan-Chile Libyan Arab Airlines LOT - Polish Airlines Lufthansa Mexican a Middle East Airlines National Airlines Nigeria Airways Olympic Airways Pakistan International Airlines Philippine Airlines Qantas Sabena SAS - Scandinavian Airlines System Saudi Arabian Airlines Solomon Islands Airways (SOLAIR)* South African Airways Sudan Airways Swissair Syrian Arab Airlines TAAG - Angola Airlines TAP - Air Portugal THY - Turk Hava Yollari Trans-Mediterranean Airways•· Trans World Airlines· Tunis Air United Airlines* UTA - Union de Transports Aeriens Va rig Viasa Zambia Airways

Associate Members (17) Aerolineas Cordillera (AEROCOR) Air Liberia Ansett Airlines of Australia Commercial Airways Douglas Airways Eastern Provincial Airways East-West Airlines IPEC Aviation Kendell Airlines Masling Commuter Services Pty Ltd Mount Cook Airlines Namib Air Ouebecair TALAIR Trans Australia Airlines Trans Brasil VASP-Viacao Aerea Sao Paulo • Members which have decided to take part in commercial activities only • • Members which will take part in Freight Tariff Coordination Conferences only.

* Destination Schiphol for Air Cargo Show Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, major air freight distribution and transport centre in Europe, adopts an additional role from 30 September to 3 October this year as the venue for the 4th Air Cargo Exhibition. Organised again by the British company International Airport Expositions of St. Albans. the exhibition highlights the continual technological developments of ground support equipment and automated cargo systems. new and improved services from air carriers and freight forwarders. computerised storage and documentation. lightweight packaging. containerisation - everything to do with fast distribution of goods by air. regardless of distance (cont'd on page 48)

Membership Benefits



List of Hotels granting discounts to IFATCA members upon production of their valid membership card


AUSTRIA Pa rkhote l . Graz Hotel Maria Th e resia , Inn sbruck Hotel Europa , Innsbruck Hote l Ty rol and Touringh aus. Innsbru ck Holiday Inn . Innsbruck Hote l T ourotel. Linz Hotel Sportklause Niederau-Wi ld sch o nau . Tirol





LUXEMBOURG Holiday Inn, Luxe mbo urg Hotel Empi re. L uxembourg

Amathus Bea ch Hotel. Limasso l Appolonia Hotel. Limas so l Paphos Beach Hotel. Paphos Dionyssos Hotel . Paphos

MEXICO Ho tel l as '-lamacas. Acapu lc o Acapul co Impe r ial

CANADA Seaway Hotels : Montrea l . T o ronto . Ottawa . Halifax. Kingston Hyatt Re g ency : Montreal. Va ncouver. Vancouver Airport H ilto n Canada : The Queen Elizabeth Montreal , Airport Hilton Montreal. T oronto A irport. H a rbo ur Castl e Hi lton Toronto . Qu ebec Hilto n. Vancouver Hilto n Hotel Loews La Cite. Montreal DENMARK Ho tel Merc ur. Copenhagen Hotel Richmond, Copenhagen Hotel Du N o r d Gre e na. Green a ENGLAND The Chu rch ill . L o ndon


NETHERLANDS ANTILLES Holiday B each H ote l , Cu ra cao NEW CALEDONIA Ho te l Le N o uvata. N ou mea Nou mea Hote l. No umea NEW ZEALAND Hotel Chateaux Commodore. Christchurch Co lonia l Inn Mote l. Christchurch Ambassador Trave l Hotel . Wellington Sout h Pacific Motor Inn. L ower Hutt T he City H ote l. Dunedin Angu s Inn Motor H otel. H ast ings B ungalow To urist H o tel . Ro to rua Travelodge Aust ral ia Ltd all Travelodg es and Pa rkroya ls throug h ou t the So uth Pacific PERU Hotel Cril lon . Lima

FIJI Fi ji Mocambo H o te l. N adi Inn Ai r po rt FRANCE Holid ay Inn s : Pa ri s Orly Ai r port. Roissy Airpo rt. Avignon . Lill e Lesquin. Lille Marcq en B aroe ul . Lyon . Strasb ourg HOLLAND H otel Kras napo lsky. Amsterdam Ho tel Ibis . Amsterdam-Ai r po rt IC ELAND Lo ftl eid i r Ho tel. Rey k javik

PORTUGAL Lisboa Penta Hotel. Lis bo n Balaia Penta H ote l. A lbufe1ra . Algarve SEYCHELLES Reef Hote l. Mahe SPAIN Pen ta Club . Ibiza Sun Club Bunga lows . Playa d el In g les & Masp a lo mas SRI LANKA Hote l La nka . Obe roi . Co lombo SWITZERLAND

IRELAND Intern at io nal Airport Hotel . Dub lin KENYA Hotels & L odges of African Tou rs and Hotels Ltd . Sout h Coast H o tel s Two Fi shes & Trade Winds North Coast Hotels Mombasa Beach , Mnarani Hotel. Whi s pering Palms Safar i Lodges Kilaguni . Ngu l ia. Voi. Me ru Mul ika. M o un tain Lodg e . M arsab it. Hunters L odge M il im ani H o tel . Nairobi Gro sve nor H ote l . Nai ro bi Su ns et H o tel. L ake Vi c to ria Tea Ho tel. Kericho M t Elgon Lodg e

Hotel d 'Auteuil . Geneva Hol iday Inn. Zurich-Airport Hol id ay I nn . Zurich -Regen dorf TUNISIA Ho te l Les Ora nge rs. H ammame t TOGO Hotel De la Pai x. Lome U.S.A. In te rn ational 6 Motel. Di sn eyla nd Anahei m Detailed info rma tion as to rate s a nd hotel add r esses a re avai lable at the IFAT CA S e c retaria t a nd will be provided to intere sted m e mbers o n req u est.


Now with over 60 per cent of i ndoor space allocated or reserved for exhibitors representing twe lve co untries in Eu rope. USA, Canada. Singapore and Argentina. th e organise rs publish a l ist of participants i n their " Air Ca rgo 80 News" bulletin. among which are The Boein g Company , KLM . Martinair. Rayth eon International Data Systems, British Caledo n ian Ai rways, Flying Ti gers. Container Transport International (Holl and) BV. Emery Air Freight. Schiphol Airpor t Auth o ri ty. Aero Groundse rvice s BV , Containai r Systems Corp., Aerol i neas Argentinas. SAS. Lockheed-Georg ia

Publications Review

Co .. Northwest Ai r lines Inc., Mul le r Aviation BV. CONFERENCE THE M E : " THE CU STOMER IS THE BUSINESS " While the Air Cargo 80 exhi bition cove rs the physical d istribution and procedures in their e ntirety, includ i ng an outside display and demo nstr ation area. the 10th I nternational Forum fo r Air Cargo hosts its 450-de legate conference at Amsterd am's Okura Hotel f rom 30 September to 3 October. Forum secretary, Philip Columbus of the Society of Automobile Engineers Inc. (sponsors of the event w i th the American In sti tute of Aeronautics and Astronaut ics and th e American Society o f Mechani cal Engineers). info rms th at the details of the confe r e nce programme are now be ing finalised. Organised by KLM and Martinair. the forum comprises five main sessions: " The User: Choosin g Air Carg o T ransportation " -

Chairman .

Lee Soorikian , ITT. " The Supplier: Providing Air Cargo " - Ch airman. Joseph Cheung . Associat ion of Hong Kong Air Fre igh t Agents. "Found. New Airline Pr ofits from Cargo" - Chairman. John C. Emery. Jr .. Emery Air Freight Corporatio n. " Pane l Discussion " - Chairman. Thomas J . Harris. Management Enterprises. And finally. a s umming-up session, the chairm an of which is to be announced. The Forum will be officially opened by HRH Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands on 1 Octobe r.

* ICAO meeting to help resolve Europe's traffic flow problems Efforts to ease air traff ic delays and d isruption s in Western Europe during peak seasona l t r avel. was pressed at a Special ICAO Europea n Regional Air Navigation Meeti ng i n Paris, 3- 13 June. The purpose of thi s meeting. which was requested by a number of European States. was to seek furth er improveme n ts in th e regional planning processes and to o btain broad agree ment on practical . technical and operat iona l me asu r es to improve the air traffic flow management system in Europe. In th e face of serious problems in balancing the capacity of air traffic control facil ities wi th the demands of ai rlines. effo rt s have b een concentrated i n th e European Air Naviga tion Planning Gro u p (EANPG) and in its sub-bodies of ex perts work ing out of the ICAO Regional Office in Paris. All of th ese groups have recommended spec ific m easures to be con sidered by the Specia l M eeting. In anticipation of the June Meeting, the Directors o f Civil Aviation of 16 Eu ro pean States' met informally i n Paris last December under the chairmanship of ICAO Council Presid en t Dr. Assad Kotaite to see k ways and means o f solving the wo rsen i ng ai r traffic flow management prob le ms. They spec ifi cally agreed . among other actions. to exp loi t more fully presen t A TC system c apacity , to speed pla ns to improve facil ities within their own States and to strive for uni form proced u res for the o p eration of a s ingl e . integrated, air tr affi c flow manag eme nt syste m . · A u stri a . Be lgiu m . Denmark , Finl and . France. Fed . Rep . of Germany, Ire l an d . It aly, Luxembourg . Netherlands, Norway. Sp a in . Sweden . Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom .


VFR - Visual Flying in the Federal Republic of Germany Pape r back brochure publ ished by the Federal Administration of Air Navigation Serv ices (BFS). Fr ankfurt Main. on behalf o f the Min ister of Transport. 32 pages, illu stra ted by drawings. charts and Helmut Elsn e r's cart oon s, texts in Eng lis h and German. Avai lable free of charge at your local A IS Office or from the BFS •z - 14. Opernplatz 14. D- 6000 Fra n kfur t M 1. directly. Right 1n ti me for the Summer season th e VFR brochure was fi r st introdu ce d at the 1980 H annover Air Show. In a matt er of days several th o u sands of copies were gone . A n indical ion not o nly that there was a de m and for such a pi ece of information. but also a reaction to l he excellent presenlal ion of malerial related to VFR flyi ng . Outside th e ru les and regulations pertaini ng to VFR flying as applicable 1n the Federal Republic o f German y the bookle t contains the airspace structure , servi ces rendered to VFR flights. informat ion on important flight documents . differences b etw een national and ICAO reg u lations . reg u lations concern ing entry and ex it ol aircraft of the territory of the Feder al Republic of Germany. st at ist ical data and a number of special . explan atory notes. A l so vi su a l approach and r adio navigation charts. FIS sectors and frequencies . and airspace s tructure sketches are presented. Who 1s a fraid of flyi n g VFR in the Federal Republi c of Germ any ?·· is the provocat ive question put right at t he beginning o f this usefu l booklet. At f rrst glance th e VFR pi l o t seems to be faced with a iungle of ru l es and regulations . The VFR broschure provides essenti al guidance to f ind the way through . It is set up in a logical way. Rules are either cited or r eferen ce is given whe re to find th em Owning the VFR brochure you have th e k ey to the Ger man airspace . You 1ust have to read every page car efully. which fortuna tely is not a very dry and t i ring a ff air as Helmut Elsners cartoons will ch eer you up when turning over most of the pages . Besides the texts are written 1n a pleasant and easy readable way . Pilots (main ly those coming from count ries other than German y) through th is brochure hopefu lly will qu1ckliy get fa mi liar with all requirements and s p ecial conditions e xis tin g in th e comp lex Ge rman system . It 1s en couraging to see w h at an administration . often c rit1sized fo r their conservatrve and avaricious attitude as far as the spending o f money fo r publi c r e lat io n s rs concern ed. can ach ieve. Perhaps th e ice is broken now and th e policy is changing into a more favoura bl e one to serve. 1n parti cu lar. g eneral aviat ion pilo ts . re alrz1ng th e importance of ·· the message to get th rough .. Acciden t and incident sta lis ti cs may prove that the b ooklet was a good investment. Worth to b e imitated and to b e fo llowed up through regu l a r and updated editions Of th e informati ve and we ft-re ceived VFR brochure . t ec

Corporate Members of IFATCA AEG-Telefunken, Frankfurt a. M., Germany AMECON Division, Litton Systems, College Park, USA ANSA, Advisory Group Air Navigation Services, Westerngrund, Germany Applied Research & Development, North Troy, USA B & W Elektronik AS, Lystrup, Denmark Cable & Wireless Ltd., London, England CAE Electronics Ltd., Montreal, Quebec, Canada Cardion Electronics. Woodbury, N.Y., USA Computer Sciences Europe SA, Brussels, Belgium Cossor Radar and Electronics Ltd., Harlow, England Dansk lmpulsfysik A. S., Holte, Denmark Datasaab AB, Jarfalla, Sweden Decca Software Sciences Limited, London, England Dictaphone Corporation, USA ELECMA Divisions Electronique de la SNECMA, Suresner, France ElTA Electronics Industries Ltd., Ashod, Israel E-Systems, Montek Division, USA Ferranti Limited, Bracknell, Berks., England Goodwood Data Systems Ltd., Ontario, Canada Ground Aid Group, Esbjerg, Denmark International Aeradio Ltd., Southall, England International Air Carrier Association, Geneva, Switzerland ITT Gilfillan, USA Jean de Backer SA, Zaventem, Belgium Jeppesen & Co. GmbH., Frankfurt, Germany Lockheed Electronics Company, Inc., Plainfield, N. J., U.S.A. The Marconi Radar Systems Ltd., Chelmsford, England M.B.L.E., Brussels, Belgium The Mitre Corporation, Mclean, Virginia, USA N. V. Hollandse Signaalapparaten, Hengelo, Netherlands N. V. Philips Division ELA, Eindhoven, Netherlands Philips Telecommunicatie lndustrie B.V., Hilversum, Netherlands The Plessey Company Limited, Weybridge, Surrey, England Racal Recorders Limited, Southampton, England Raytheon Canada Ltd., Canada Gustav A. Ring A/S, Oslo, Norway Selenia - lndustrie Elettroniche Associate S. p. A., Rome, Italy SEL - Standard Elektrik Lorenz, Stuttgart 70, Germany Societe Artistique Franc;aise, Paris, France Societe d'Etudes & d'Entreprises Electriques. lssy Les Moulineaux, France Sodern, Limeil Brevannes, France Sofreavia, Paris, France Software Sciences Ltd., Farnborough, England Sperry Univac, Sulzbach/Ts., Germany & St. Paul, Minnesota, USA Thomson - CSF, Paris, France Ulmer Aeronautique, Clichy, France VWK - Ryborsch GmbH, Obertshausen 2, Germany Westinghouse Electric Corporation, USA The International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers' Associations would like to invite all corporations, organizations, and institutions interested in and concerned with the maintenance and promotion of safety in air traffic to join their organization as Corporate Members. Corporate Members support the aims of the Federation by supplying the Federation with technical information and by means of an annual subscription. The Federation's international journal "The ControUer" is offered as a platform for the discussion of technical and procedural developments in the field of air traffic control.


l'rl'p.iring flight

NOTANh MET reporl'



(strip p rintt.•r)




Bridi ng dC' ... k wit h


ATC centre



!he old <laysl-Of course no1 - 11·s a r n nl ing olti ce in l hl' 161h centu ry .

No reason.

Automa ted Ai r Traffic Control systems used to be somet hing for big airports a nd resourceful adm inistrations onl y . Only they had the know ledge a nd money to specify a nd buy them and th e skilled staff to operate and keep them ru nning. Not so a ny more. In these days of soaring aircraft operating costs you w ill be surprised to find tha t prices of modern. re liable ATC systems-probably the most efficient tool for reducing fl ying times-are in fact going down. And they are as easy to maintain a s to o pera te. Reaso n : standardization .

Introducing Datasaab's AIRWATCH Automated ATC systems • Datasaab's new series of AIRWATCH systems-based o n man y years' experience from tail o r-made centres-a re designed to suit a ll types of traffic a nci environment. A IRWATCH standardi- zation a lso means nwdularizatio n, a llowing adapta ti o n to specific needs and ensu ring sys te m expansion a t low cost as traffic grows. A I RWATCH ... y ... 1t•m.., r.rnµ,t' I rum a .. inglt• PPJ sy..,l cm tt, l(1rµ,<· u·n t n•' T lwy l t.'alurt• raw . . . yn t hC't1 c or rmx -

t..'d prt><.,t• nt.1t111n n t PSR .1nd 551{ ..,1µ,nJI ~ lrom ''nl' t1r m n n • -. t.ll u1n... .:ind numt•rou" umtrnll l'r tanli t 1l'... 1m l udin~ lu\J l.1ht•I-. • All{ \ \/AT <.. H 1000 1s ._in ,wh1n t•mou ..,, low -to!,l 1

r.1Jar y "Y-..t('m wi th a bu il t-in rlliCh1 -rrnu.•.., . ..,or II,.., <lt•<;1gnl'd tor :-.111.:111 ATC et•ntrcs tl nJ tun · trn l to w t·r-•.

• A IRWATL H 2000 " d<'">;m·d lur ,m,111 and nw· Jium-.... 11.t:d n•ntrt·'- IJu,11 trnnp ull'r". \lpl'rating in pJ r.111 .. 1. rrov1d t• wry hi>:h rl'li.1hili1y . • A JJ{WATCH 3000 "dr,igned l ur medium l o IM)(l'· c;11ed AT( u.•ntrt·~. Sy~tt· 111 J1 t.h itnture i-; i:x t rt' ml'ly ill•xiblc. Outo;;ta nd ing opcralmncll [~-----'-------] ll'a l url'' includt• l n~ nt ,111 . . . . . . . . . . . ~A-~ l}'Pl''- ol tl ight .ind mo~.11C prt:>~l'n · tat ion tn Hn multiple r.1da r sourn_•..;


- j<>in il y ownC'd by th e Sw<·dis h CoVl'rn m cnt and Sa.1b-Sca n1 <1 Al.I

For more informati o n co ntact : Datasab AB. Interact ive Data Systems, S-175 86 Jarfall a. Sweden . Tel. lnt

+ 46 8 362800 •Te lex 17892 da tsaab s

IFATCA The Controller - 3rd Quarter 1980  
IFATCA The Controller - 3rd Quarter 1980